Science.gov

Sample records for aav capsid proteins

  1. Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4, 5, and 11.

    PubMed

    Earley, Lauriel F; Powers, John M; Adachi, Kei; Baumgart, Joshua T; Meyer, Nancy L; Xie, Qing; Chapman, Michael S; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have made great progress in their use for gene therapy; however, fundamental aspects of AAV's capsid assembly remain poorly characterized. In this regard, the discovery of assembly-activating protein (AAP) sheds new light on this crucial part of AAV biology and vector production. Previous studies have shown that AAP is essential for assembly; however, how its mechanistic roles in assembly might differ among AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that biological properties of AAPs and capsid assembly processes are surprisingly distinct among AAV serotypes 1 to 12. In the study, we investigated subcellular localizations and assembly-promoting functions of AAP1 to -12 (i.e., AAPs derived from AAV1 to -12, respectively) and examined the AAP dependence of capsid assembly processes of these 12 serotypes using combinatorial approaches that involved immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, barcode-Seq (i. e., a high-throughput quantitative method using DNA barcodes and a next-generation sequencing technology), and quantitative dot blot assays. This study revealed that AAP1 to -12 are all localized in the nucleus with serotype-specific differential patterns of nucleolar association; AAPs and assembled capsids do not necessarily colocalize; AAPs are promiscuous in promoting capsid assembly of other serotypes, with the exception of AAP4, -5, -11, and -12; assembled AAV5, -8, and -9 capsids are excluded from the nucleolus, in contrast to the nucleolar enrichment of assembled AAV2 capsids; and, surprisingly, AAV4, -5, and -11 capsids are not dependent on AAP for assembly. These observations highlight the serotype-dependent heterogeneity of the capsid assembly process and challenge current notions about the role of AAP and the nucleolus in capsid assembly. Assembly-activating protein (AAP) is a recently discovered adeno-associated virus (AAV) protein that promotes capsid assembly and provides new opportunities

  2. The Assembly-Activating Protein Promotes Stability and Interactions between AAV's Viral Proteins to Nucleate Capsid Assembly.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Anna C; Pacouret, Simon; Cepeda Diaz, Ana Karla; Blake, Jessica; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Vandenberghe, Luk H

    2018-05-08

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a preferred delivery platform for in vivo gene therapy. Natural and engineered variations of the AAV capsid affect a plurality of phenotypes relevant to gene therapy, including vector production and host tropism. Fundamental to these aspects is the mechanism of AAV capsid assembly. Here, the role of the viral co-factor assembly-activating protein (AAP) was evaluated in 12 naturally occurring AAVs and 9 putative ancestral capsid intermediates. The results demonstrate increased capsid protein stability and VP-VP interactions in the presence of AAP. The capsid's dependence on AAP can be partly overcome by strengthening interactions between monomers within the assembly, as illustrated by the transfer of a minimal motif defined by a phenotype-to-phylogeny mapping method. These findings suggest that the emergence of AAP within the Dependovirus genus relaxes structural constraints on AAV assembly in favor of increasing the degrees of freedom for the capsid to evolve. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overcoming preexisting humoral immunity to AAV using capsid decoys.

    PubMed

    Mingozzi, Federico; Anguela, Xavier M; Pavani, Giulia; Chen, Yifeng; Davidson, Robert J; Hui, Daniel J; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Elkouby, Liron; Hinderer, Christian J; Faella, Armida; Howard, Carolann; Tai, Alex; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Zhou, Shangzhen; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Wright, John Fraser; High, Katherine A

    2013-07-17

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivered through the systemic circulation successfully transduce various target tissues in animal models. However, similar attempts in humans have been hampered by the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV, which completely block vector transduction. We show in both mouse and nonhuman primate models that addition of empty capsid to the final vector formulation can, in a dose-dependent manner, adsorb these antibodies, even at high titers, thus overcoming their inhibitory effect. To further enhance the safety of the approach, we mutated the receptor binding site of AAV2 to generate an empty capsid mutant that can adsorb antibodies but cannot enter a target cell. Our work suggests that optimizing the ratio of full/empty capsids in the final formulation of vector, based on a patient's anti-AAV titers, will maximize the efficacy of gene transfer after systemic vector delivery.

  4. Overcoming Preexisting Humoral Immunity to AAV Using Capsid Decoys

    PubMed Central

    Anguela, Xavier M.; Pavani, Giulia; Chen, Yifeng; Davidson, Robert J.; Hui, Daniel J.; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Elkouby, Liron; Hinderer, Christian J.; Faella, Armida; Howard, Carolann; Tai, Alex; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Wright, John Fraser

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivered through the systemic circulation successfully transduce various target tissues in animal models. However, similar attempts in humans have been hampered by the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV, which completely block vector transduction. We show in both mouse and nonhuman primate models that addition of empty capsid to the final vector formulation can, in a dose-dependent manner, adsorb these antibodies, even at high titers, thus overcoming their inhibitory effect. To further enhance the safety of the approach, we mutated the receptor binding site of AAV2 to generate an empty capsid mutant that can adsorb antibodies but cannot enter a target cell. Our work suggests that optimizing the ratio of full/empty capsids in the final formulation of vector, based on a patient's anti-AAV titers, will maximize the efficacy of gene transfer after systemic vector delivery. PMID:23863832

  5. Tyrosine Mutation in AAV9 Capsid Improves Gene Transfer to the Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sabrina V; Silva, Adriana L; Ferreira, Debora; Rabelo, Rafael; Ornellas, Felipe M; Gomes, Karina; Rocco, Patricia R M; Petrs-Silva, Hilda; Morales, Marcelo M

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are being increasingly used as the vector of choice for in vivo gene delivery and gene therapy for many pulmonary diseases. Recently, it was shown that phosphorylation of surface-exposed tyrosine residues from AAV capsid targets the viral particles for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and mutations of these tyrosine residues lead to highly efficient vector transduction in vitro and in vivo in different organs. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary transgene expression efficacy of AAV9 vectors containing point mutations in surface-exposed capsid tyrosine residues. Eighteen C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) a control group (CTRL) animals underwent intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of saline, (2) the wild-type AAV9 group (WT-AAV9, 1010 vg), and (3) the tyrosine-mutant Y731F AAV9 group (M-AAV9, 1010 vg), which received (i.t.) self-complementary AAV9 vectors containing the DNA sequence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). Four weeks after instillation, lung mechanics, morphometry, tissue cellularity, gene expression, inflammatory cytokines, and growth factor expression were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in lung mechanics and morphometry among the experimental groups. However, the number of polymorphonuclear cells was higher in the WT-AAV9 group than in the CTRL and M-AAV9 groups, suggesting that the administration of tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors was better tolerated. Tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors significantly improved transgene delivery to the lung (30%) compared with their wild-type counterparts, without eliciting an inflammatory response. Our results provide the impetus for further studies to exploit the use of AAV9 vectors as a tool for pulmonary gene therapy. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings. PMID:26445723

  7. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes.

    PubMed

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  8. Undetectable Transcription of cap in a Clinical AAV Vector: Implications for Preformed Capsid in Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Bernd; Murphy, Samuel L; Smith, Peter H; Qu, Guang; Liu, Xingge; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Sommer, Jürg M; High, Katherine A; Wright, J. Fraser

    2008-01-01

    In a gene therapy clinical trial for hemophilia B, adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) capsid–specific CD8+ T cells were previously implicated in the elimination of vector-transduced hepatocytes, resulting in loss of human factor IX (hFIX) transgene expression. To test the hypothesis that expression of AAV2 cap DNA impurities in the AAV2-hFIX vector was the source of epitopes presented on transduced cells, transcription of cap was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (Q-RT-PCR) following transduction of target cells with the vector used in the clinical trial. Transcriptional profiling was also performed for residual AmpR, and adenovirus E2A and E4. Although trace amounts of DNA impurities were present in the clinical vector, transcription of these sequences was not detected after transduction of human hepatocytes, nor in mice administered a dose 26-fold above the highest dose administered in the clinical study. Two methods used to minimize encapsidated DNA impurities in the clinical vector were: (i) a vector (cis) production plasmid with a backbone exceeding the packaging limit of AAV; and (ii) a vector purification step that achieved separation of the vector from vector-related impurities (e.g., empty capsids). In conclusion, residual cap expression was undetectable following transduction with AAV2-hFIX clinical vectors. Preformed capsid protein is implicated as the source of epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells that eliminated vector-transduced cells in the clinical study. PMID:18941440

  9. Superior In vivo Transduction of Human Hepatocytes Using Engineered AAV3 Capsid.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Koen; Hoffman, Brad E; Zolotukhin, Irene; Keeler, Geoffrey D; Xiao, Jing W; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; High, Katherine A; Ertl, Hildegund Cj; Rice, Charles M; Srivastava, Arun; de Jong, Ype P; Herzog, Roland W

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are currently being tested in multiple clinical trials for liver-directed gene transfer to treat the bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B and metabolic disorders. The optimal viral capsid for transduction of human hepatocytes has been under active investigation, but results across various models are inconsistent. We tested in vivo transduction in "humanized" mice. Methods to quantitate percent AAV transduced human and murine hepatocytes in chimeric livers were optimized using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with image analysis. Distinct transduction efficiencies were noted following peripheral vein administration of a self-complementary vector expressing a gfp reporter gene. An engineered AAV3 capsid with two amino acid changes, S663V+T492V (AAV3-ST), showed best efficiency for human hepatocytes (~3-times, ~8-times, and ~80-times higher than for AAV9, AAV8, and AAV5, respectively). AAV5, 8, and 9 were more efficient in transducing murine than human hepatocytes. AAV8 yielded the highest transduction rate of murine hepatocytes, which was 19-times higher than that for human hepatocytes. In summary, our data show substantial differences among AAV serotypes in transduction of human and mouse hepatocytes, are the first to report on AAV5 in humanized mice, and support the use of AAV3-based vectors for human liver gene transfer.

  10. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  11. Development and validation of novel AAV2 random libraries displaying peptides of diverse lengths and at diverse capsid positions.

    PubMed

    Naumer, Matthias; Ying, Ying; Michelfelder, Stefan; Reuter, Antje; Trepel, Martin; Müller, Oliver J; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2012-05-01

    Libraries based on the insertion of random peptide ligands into the capsid of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) have been widely used to improve the efficiency and selectivity of the AAV vector system. However, so far only libraries of 7-mer peptide ligands have been inserted at one well-characterized capsid position. Here, we expanded the combinatorial AAV2 display system to a panel of novel AAV libraries, displaying peptides of 5, 7, 12, 19, or 26 amino acids in length at capsid position 588 or displaying 7-mer peptides at position 453, the most prominently exposed region of the viral capsid. Library selections on two unrelated cell types-human coronary artery endothelial cells and rat cardiomyoblasts-revealed the isolation of cell type-characteristic peptides of different lengths mediating strongly improved target-cell transduction, except for the 26-mer peptide ligands. Characterization of vector selectivity by transduction of nontarget cells and comparative gene-transduction analysis using a panel of 44 human tumor cell lines revealed that insertion of different-length peptides allows targeting of distinct cellular receptors for cell entry with similar efficiency, but with different selectivity. The application of such novel AAV2 libraries broadens the spectrum of targetable receptors by capsid-modified AAV vectors and provides the opportunity to choose the best suited targeting ligand for a certain application from a number of different candidates.

  12. Strategies to optimize capsid protein expression and single-stranded DNA formation of adeno-associated virus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Galli, A; Della Latta, V; Bologna, C; Pucciarelli, D; Cipriani, F; Backovic, A; Cervelli, T

    2017-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is a nonpathogenic parvovirus that is a promising tool for gene therapy. We aimed to construct plasmids for optimal expression and assembly of capsid proteins and evaluate adenovirus (Ad) protein effect on AAV single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast expression plasmids have been developed in which the transcription of AAV capsid proteins (VP1,2,3) is driven by the constitutive ADH1 promoter or galactose-inducible promoters. Optimal VP1,2,3 expression was obtained from GAL1/10 bidirectional promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that AAP is expressed in yeast and virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled inside the cell. Finally, the expression of two Ad proteins, E4orf6 and E1b55k, had no effect on AAV ssDNA formation. This study confirms that yeast is able to form AAV VLPs; however, capsid assembly and ssDNA formation are less efficient in yeast than in human cells. Moreover, the expression of Ad proteins did not affect AAV ssDNA formation. New manufacturing strategies for AAV-based gene therapy vectors (rAAV) are needed to reduce costs and time of production. Our study explores the feasibility of yeast as alternative system for rAAV production. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  14. Gene therapy using self-complementary Y733F capsid mutant AAV2/8 restores vision in a model of early onset Leber congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Ku, Cristy A; Chiodo, Vince A; Boye, Sanford L; Goldberg, Andrew F X; Li, Tiansen; Hauswirth, William W; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan

    2011-12-01

    Defects in the photoreceptor-specific gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (Aipl1) are associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a childhood blinding disease with early-onset retinal degeneration and vision loss. Furthermore, Aipl1 defects are characterized at the most severe end of the LCA spectrum. The rapid photoreceptor degeneration and vision loss observed in the LCA patient population are mimicked in a mouse model lacking AIPL1. Using this model, we evaluated if gene replacement therapy using recent advancements in adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) provides advantages in preventing rapid retinal degeneration. Specifically, we demonstrated that the novel self-complementary Y733F capsid mutant AAV2/8 (sc-Y733F-AAV) provided greater preservation of photoreceptors and functional vision in Aipl1 null mice compared with single-stranded AAV2/8. The benefits of sc-Y733F-AAV were evident following viral administration during the active phase of retinal degeneration, where only sc-Y733F-AAV treatment achieved functional vision rescue. This result was likely due to higher and earlier onset of Aipl1 expression. Based on our studies, we conclude that the sc-Y733F-AAV2/8 viral vector, to date, achieves the best rescue for rapid retinal degeneration in Aipl1 null mice. Our results provide important considerations for viral vectors to be used in future gene therapy clinical trials targeting a wider severity spectrum of inherited retinal dystrophies.

  15. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Li; Powell Gene Therapy Center, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL; Genetics Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL

    2008-11-25

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, theirmore » transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by {approx} 68% and {approx} 74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which results from ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy.« less

  16. Single residue AAV capsid mutation improves transduction of photoreceptors in the Abca4-/- mouse and bipolar cells in the rd1 mouse and human retina ex vivo.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Samantha R; Charbel Issa, Peter; Singh, Mandeep S; Lipinski, Daniel M; Barnea-Cramer, Alona O; Walker, Nathan J; Barnard, Alun R; Hankins, Mark W; MacLaren, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Gene therapy using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for the treatment of retinal degenerations has shown safety and efficacy in clinical trials. However, very high levels of vector expression may be necessary for the treatment of conditions such as Stargardt disease where a dual vector approach is potentially needed, or in optogenetic strategies for end-stage degeneration in order to achieve maximal light sensitivity. In this study, we assessed two vectors with single capsid mutations, rAAV2/2(Y444F) and rAAV2/8(Y733F) in their ability to transduce retina in the Abca4 -/- and rd1 mouse models of retinal degeneration. We noted significantly increased photoreceptor transduction using rAAV2/8(Y733F) in the Abca4 -/- mouse, in contrast to previous work where vectors tested in this model have shown low levels of photoreceptor transduction. Bipolar cell transduction was achieved following subretinal delivery of both vectors in the rd1 mouse, and via intravitreal delivery of rAAV2/2(Y444F). The successful use of rAAV2/8(Y733F) to target bipolar cells was further validated on human tissue using an ex vivo culture system of retinal explants. Capsid mutant AAV vectors transduce human retinal cells and may be particularly suited to treat retinal degenerations in which high levels of transgene expression are required.

  17. Mechanostability of Proteins and Virus Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2013-03-01

    Molecular dynamics of proteins within coarse grained models have become a useful tool in studies of large scale systems. The talk will discuss two applications of such modeling. The first is a theoretical survey of proteins' resistance to constant speed stretching as performed for a set of 17134 simple and 318 multidomain proteins. The survey has uncovered new potent force clamps. They involve formation of cysteine slipknots or dragging of a cystine plug through the cystine ring and lead to characteristic forces that are significantly larger than the common shear-based clamp such as observed in titin. The second application involves studies of nanoindentation processes in virus capsids and elucidates their molecular aspects by showing deviations in behavior compared to the continuum shell model. Across the 35 capsids studied, both the collapse force and the elastic stiffness are observed to vary by a factor of 20. The changes in mechanical properties do not correlate simply with virus size or symmetry. There is a strong connection to the mean coordination number < z > , defined as the mean number of interactions to neighboring amino acids. The Young's modulus for thin shell capsids rises roughly quadratically with < z > - 6, where 6 is the minimum coordination for elastic stability in three dimensions. Supported by European Regional Development Fund, through Innovative Economy grant Nanobiom (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08)

  18. Modeling virus capsids and their protein binding -- the search for weak regions within the HIV capsid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, Otto; Benson, Daryn

    2010-10-01

    Viruses remain a threat to the health of humans worldwide with 33 million infected with AIDS. Viruses are ubiquitous infecting animals, plants, and bacteria. Each virus infects in its own unique manner making the problem seem intractable. However, some general physical steps apply to many viruses and the application of basic physical modeling can potentially have great impact. The aim of this theoretical study is to investigate the stability of the HIV viral capsid (protein shell). The structural shell can be compromised by physical probes such as pulsed laser light. But what are the weakest regions of the capsid so that we can begin to understand vulnerabilities of these deadly materials? The atomic structure of HIV capsids is not precisely known and we begin by describing our work to model the capsid structure. Next we describe a course grained model to investigate protein interactions within the capsid.

  19. Efficient mouse airway transduction following recombination between AAV vectors carrying parts of a larger gene.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Christine L; Allen, James M; Miller, A Dusty

    2002-07-01

    The small packaging capacity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors limits the utility of this promising vector system for transfer of large genes. We explored the possibility that larger genes could be reconstituted following homologous recombination between AAV vectors carrying overlapping gene fragments. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene was split between two such AAV vectors (rec vectors) and packaged using AAV2 or AAV6 capsid proteins. Rec vectors having either capsid protein recombined to express AP in cultured cells at about 1-2% of the rate observed for an intact vector. Surprisingly, the AAV6 rec vectors transduced lung cells in mice almost as efficiently as did an intact vector, with 10% of airway epithelial cells, the target for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), being positive. Thus AAV rec vectors may be useful for diseases such as CF that require transfer of large genes.

  20. Characterization of intravitreally delivered capsid mutant AAV2-Cre vector to induce tissue-specific mutations in murine retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Langouet-Astrie, Christophe J; Yang, Zhiyong; Polisetti, Sraavya M; Welsbie, Derek S; Hauswirth, William W; Zack, Donald J; Merbs, Shannath L; Enke, Raymond A

    2016-10-01

    Targeted expression of Cre recombinase in murine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by viral vector is an effective strategy for creating tissue-specific gene knockouts for investigation of genetic contribution to RGC degeneration associated with optic neuropathies. Here we characterize dosage, efficacy and toxicity for sufficient intravitreal delivery of a capsid mutant Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector encoding Cre recombinase. Wild type and Rosa26 (R26) LacZ mice were intravitreally injected with capsid mutant AAV2 viral vectors. Murine eyes were harvested at intervals ranging from 2 weeks to 15 weeks post-injection and were assayed for viral transduction, transgene expression and RGC survival. 10(9) vector genomes (vg) were sufficient for effective in vivo targeting of murine ganglion cell layer (GCL) retinal neurons. Transgene expression was observed as early as 2 weeks post-injection of viral vectors and persisted to 11 weeks. Early expression of Cre had no significant effect on RGC survival, while significant RGC loss was detected beginning 5 weeks post-injection. Early expression of viral Cre recombinase was robust, well-tolerated and predominantly found in GCL neurons suggesting this strategy can be effective in short-term RGC-specific mutation studies in experimental glaucoma models such as optic nerve crush and transection experiments. RGC degeneration with Cre expression for more than 4 weeks suggests that Cre toxicity is a limiting factor for targeted mutation strategies in RGCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 6 (AAV6) Vectors Mediate Efficient Transduction of Airway Epithelial Cells in Mouse Lungs Compared to That of AAV2 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Christine L.; Allen, James M.; Miller, A. Dusty

    2001-01-01

    Although vectors derived from adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) promote gene transfer and expression in many somatic tissues, studies with animal models and cultured cells show that the apical surface of airway epithelia is resistant to transduction by AAV2 vectors. Approaches to increase transduction rates include increasing the amount of vector and perturbing the integrity of the epithelia. In this study, we explored the use of vectors based on AAV6 to increase transduction rates in airways. AAV vectors were made using combinations of rep, cap, and packaged genomes from AAV2 or AAV6. The packaged genomes encoded human placental alkaline phosphatase and contained terminal repeat sequences from AAV2 or AAV6. We found that transduction efficiency was primarily dependent on the source of Cap protein, defined here as the vector pseudotype. The AAV6 and AAV2 pseudotype vectors exhibited different tropisms in tissue-cultured cells, and cell transduction by AAV6 vectors was not inhibited by heparin, nor did they compete for entry in a transduction assay, indicating that AAV6 and AAV2 capsid bind different receptors. In vivo analysis of vectors showed that AAV2 pseudotype vectors gave high transduction rates in alveolar cells but much lower rates in the airway epithelium. In contrast, the AAV6 pseudotype vectors exhibited much more efficient transduction of epithelial cells in large and small airways, showing up to 80% transduction in some airways. These results, combined with our previous results showing lower immunogenicity of AAV6 than of AAV2 vectors, indicate that AAV6 vectors may provide significant advantages over AAV2 for gene therapy of lung diseases like cystic fibrosis. PMID:11413329

  2. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption.

    PubMed

    Ho, Michelle L; Adler, Benjamin A; Torre, Michael L; Silberg, Jonathan J; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-20

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions.

  3. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Michelle L.; Adler, Benjamin A.; Torre, Michael L.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Suh, Junghae

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications, but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions. PMID:23899192

  4. Nanoindentation studies of full and empty viral capsids and the effects of capsid protein mutations on elasticity and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J. P.; Ivanovska, I. L.; Gibbons, M. M.; Klug, W. S.; Knobler, C. M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Schmidt, C. F.

    2006-04-01

    The elastic properties of capsids of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have been examined at pH 4.8 by nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope. Studies have been carried out on WT capsids, both empty and containing the RNA genome, and on full capsids of a salt-stable mutant and empty capsids of the subE mutant. Full capsids resisted indentation more than empty capsids, but all of the capsids were highly elastic. There was an initial reversible linear regime that persisted up to indentations varying between 20% and 30% of the diameter and applied forces of 0.6-1.0 nN; it was followed by a steep drop in force that is associated with irreversible deformation. A single point mutation in the capsid protein increased the capsid stiffness. The experiments are compared with calculations by finite element analysis of the deformation of a homogeneous elastic thick shell. These calculations capture the features of the reversible indentation region and allow Young's moduli and relative strengths to be estimated for the empty capsids. atomic force microscopy | cowpea chlorotic mottle virus | finite element analysis | biomechanics

  5. Nanoindentation studies of full and empty viral capsids and the effects of capsid protein mutations on elasticity and strength

    PubMed Central

    Michel, J. P.; Ivanovska, I. L.; Gibbons, M. M.; Klug, W. S.; Knobler, C. M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Schmidt, C. F.

    2006-01-01

    The elastic properties of capsids of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have been examined at pH 4.8 by nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope. Studies have been carried out on WT capsids, both empty and containing the RNA genome, and on full capsids of a salt-stable mutant and empty capsids of the subE mutant. Full capsids resisted indentation more than empty capsids, but all of the capsids were highly elastic. There was an initial reversible linear regime that persisted up to indentations varying between 20% and 30% of the diameter and applied forces of 0.6–1.0 nN; it was followed by a steep drop in force that is associated with irreversible deformation. A single point mutation in the capsid protein increased the capsid stiffness. The experiments are compared with calculations by finite element analysis of the deformation of a homogeneous elastic thick shell. These calculations capture the features of the reversible indentation region and allow Young's moduli and relative strengths to be estimated for the empty capsids. PMID:16606825

  6. Structure of the Small Outer Capsid Protein, Soc: A Clamp for Stabilizing Capsids of T4-like Phages

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Li; Fokine, Andrei; O'Donnell, Erin

    2010-07-22

    Many viruses need to stabilize their capsid structure against DNA pressure and for survival in hostile environments. The 9-kDa outer capsid protein (Soc) of bacteriophage T4, which stabilizes the virus, attaches to the capsid during the final stage of maturation. There are 870 Soc molecules that act as a 'glue' between neighboring hexameric capsomers, forming a 'cage' that stabilizes the T4 capsid against extremes of pH and temperature. Here we report a 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Soc from the bacteriophage RB69, a close relative of T4. The RB69 crystal structure and a homology model of T4 Soc weremore » fitted into the cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of the T4 capsid. This established the region of Soc that interacts with the major capsid protein and suggested a mechanism, verified by extensive mutational and biochemical studies, for stabilization of the capsid in which the Soc trimers act as clamps between neighboring capsomers. The results demonstrate the factors involved in stabilizing not only the capsids of T4-like bacteriophages but also many other virus capsids.« less

  7. Packaging of Human Chromosome 19-Specific Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Integration Sites in AAV Virions during AAV Wild-Type and Recombinant AAV Vector Production

    PubMed Central

    Hüser, Daniela; Weger, Stefan; Heilbronn, Regine

    2003-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) establishes latency by site-specific integration into a unique locus on human chromosome 19, called AAVS1. During the development of a sensitive real-time PCR assay for site-specific integration, AAV-AAVS1 junctions were reproducibly detected in highly purified AAV wild-type and recombinant AAV vector stocks. A series of controls documented that the junctions were packaged in AAV capsids and were newly generated during a single round of AAV production. Cloned junctions displayed variable AAV sequences fused to AAVS1. These data suggest that packaged junctions represent footprints of AAV integration during productive infection. Apparently, AAV latency established by site-specific integration and the helper virus-dependent, productive AAV cycle are more closely related than previously thought. PMID:12663794

  8. Cellular selectivity of AAV serotypes for gene delivery in neurons and astrocytes by neonatal intracerebroventricular injection

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Sean L.; Leek, Ashley N.; Richman, Evan H.

    2017-01-01

    The non-pathogenic parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is an efficient vector for transgene expression in vivo and shows promise for treatment of brain disorders in clinical trials. Currently, there are more than 100 AAV serotypes identified that differ in the binding capacity of capsid proteins to specific cell surface receptors that can transduce different cell types and brain regions in the CNS. In the current study, multiple AAV serotypes expressing a GFP reporter (AAV1, AAV2/1, AAVDJ, AAV8, AAVDJ8, AAV9, AAVDJ9) were screened for their infectivity in both primary murine astrocyte and neuronal cell cultures. AAV2/1, AAVDJ8 and AAV9 were selected for further investigation of their tropism throughout different brain regions and cell types. Each AAV was administered to P0-neonatal mice via intracerebroventricular injections (ICV). Brains were then systematically analyzed for GFP expression at 3 or 6 weeks post-infection in various regions, including the olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra (SN) and cerebellum. Cell counting data revealed that AAV2/1 infections were more prevalent in the cortical layers but penetrated to the midbrain less than AAVDJ8 and AAV9. Additionally, there were differences in the persistence of viral transgene expression amongst the three serotypes examined in vivo at 3 and 6 weeks post-infection. Because AAV-mediated transgene expression is of interest in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease, we examined the SN with microscopy techniques, such as CLARITY tissue transmutation, to identify AAV serotypes that resulted in optimal transgene expression in either astrocytes or dopaminergic neurons. AAVDJ8 displayed more tropism in astrocytes compared to AAV9 in the SN region. We conclude that ICV injection results in lasting expression of virally encoded transgene when using AAV vectors and that specific AAV serotypes are required to selectively deliver transgenes of interest to different brain

  9. Crystal Structure of the Human Astrovirus Capsid Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Toh, Yukimatsu; Harper, Justin; Dryden, Kelly A.

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a leading cause of viral diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. HAstV is a nonenveloped virus with a T=3 capsid and a positive-sense RNA genome. The capsid protein (CP) of HAstV is synthesized as a 90-kDa precursor (VP90) that can be divided into three linear domains: a conserved N-terminal domain, a hypervariable domain, and an acidic C-terminal domain. Maturation of HAstV requires proteolytic processing of the astrovirus CP both inside and outside the host cell, resulting in the removal of the C-terminal domain and the breakdown of the rest of the CP into three predominantmore » protein species with molecular masses of ~34, 27/29, and 25/26 kDa, respectively. We have now solved the crystal structure of VP90 71–415(amino acids [aa] 71 to 415 of VP90) of human astrovirus serotype 8 at a 2.15-Å resolution. VP90 71–415encompasses the conserved N-terminal domain of VP90 but lacks the hypervariable domain, which forms the capsid surface spikes. The structure of VP90 71–415is comprised of two domains: an S domain, which adopts the typical jelly-roll β-barrel fold, and a P1 domain, which forms a squashed β-barrel consisting of six antiparallel β-strands similar to what was observed in the hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid structure. Fitting of the VP90 71–415structure into the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) maps of HAstV produced an atomic model for a continuous, T=3 icosahedral capsid shell. Our pseudoatomic model of the human HAstV capsid shell provides valuable insights into intermolecular interactions required for capsid assembly and trypsin-mediated proteolytic maturation needed for virus infectivity. Such information has potential applications in the development of a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine as well as small-molecule drugs targeting astrovirus assembly/maturation. IMPORTANCEHuman astrovirus (HAstV) is a leading cause of viral diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. As a nonenveloped virus, HAst

  10. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Lauren M.; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants

  11. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Lauren M; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni; Baker, Timothy S; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-10-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants of the required capsid

  12. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu; Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 ismore » not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.« less

  13. Functional requirements of the yellow fever virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Chinmay G; Jones, Christopher T; Chang, Yu-hsuan; Warrier, Ranjit; Kuhn, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    Although it is known that the flavivirus capsid protein is essential for genome packaging and formation of infectious particles, the minimal requirements of the dimeric capsid protein for virus assembly/disassembly have not been characterized. By use of a trans-packaging system that involved packaging a yellow fever virus (YFV) replicon into pseudo-infectious particles by supplying the YFV structural proteins using a Sindbis virus helper construct, the functional elements within the YFV capsid protein (YFC) were characterized. Various N- and C-terminal truncations, internal deletions, and point mutations of YFC were analyzed for their ability to package the YFV replicon. Consistent with previous reports on the tick-borne encephalitis virus capsid protein, YFC demonstrates remarkable functional flexibility. Nearly 40 residues of YFC could be removed from the N terminus while the ability to package replicon RNA was retained. Additionally, YFC containing a deletion of approximately 27 residues of the C terminus, including a complete deletion of C-terminal helix 4, was functional. Internal deletions encompassing the internal hydrophobic sequence in YFC were, in general, tolerated to a lesser extent. Site-directed mutagenesis of helix 4 residues predicted to be involved in intermonomeric interactions were also analyzed, and although single mutations did not affect packaging, a YFC with the double mutation of leucine 81 and valine 88 was nonfunctional. The effects of mutations in YFC on the viability of YFV infection were also analyzed, and these results were similar to those obtained using the replicon packaging system, thus underscoring the flexibility of YFC with respect to the requirements for its functioning.

  14. Cleavage sites within the poliovirus capsid protein precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, G.R.; Anderson, C.W.; Dorner, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis was performed on radiolabeled poliovirus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. A computer-assisted comparison of the amino acid sequences obtained with that predicted by the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus genome allows assignment of the amino terminus of each capsid protein to a unique position within the virus polyprotein. Sequence analysis of trypsin-digested VP4, which has a blocked amino terminus, demonstrates that VP4 is encoded at or very near to the amino terminus of the polyprotein. The gene order of the capsid proteins is VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1. Cleavage of VP0 to VP4 and VP2 is shown to occurmore » between asparagine and serine, whereas the cleavages that separate VP2/VP3 and VP3/VP1 occur between glutamine and glycine residues. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cleavage of VP0, which occurs during virion morphogenesis, is distinct from the cleavages that separate functional regions of the polyprotein.« less

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Monomodal Grapevine Virus A Capsid Protein.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vinícius S; Mariutti, Ricardo B; Eberle, Raphael J; Ullah, Anwar; Caruso, Icaro P; Arni, Raghuvir K

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine virus A (GVA), a flexible filament of approximately 800 nm in length is composed of capsid subunits that spontaneously assembles around a positive sense genomic RNA. In addition to encapsidation, plant viruses capsid proteins (CPs) participate in other processes throughout infection and GVA CP is involved in cell-to-cell translocation of the virus. A protocol was developed to obtain low-molecular weight GVA-CP that is not prone to aggregation and spontaneous assembly and this was characterized by circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering. These results indicate the suitably of GVA-CP for X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies that should lead to the elucidation of the first three-dimensional structure of a flexible filamentous virus from the Betaflexiviridae family.

  16. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ~8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. PMID:23689062

  17. In silico analysis of surface structure variation of PCV2 capsid resulting from loop mutations of its capsid protein (Cap)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aibing; Zhang, Lijie; Khayat, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have caused substantial economic losses worldwide in the last 20 years. The PCV capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and main antigenic determinant of this virus. In this study, not only were phylogenetic trees reconstructed, but variations of surface structure of the PCV capsid were analysed in the course of evolution. Unique surface patterns of the icosahedral fivefold axes of the PCV2 capsid were identified and characterized, all of which were absent in PCV type 1 (PCV1). Icosahedral fivefold axes, decorated with Loops BC, HI and DE, were distinctly different between PCV2 and PCV1. Loops BC, determining the outermost surface around the fivefold axes of PCV capsids, had limited homology between Caps of PCV1 and PCV2. A conserved tyrosine phosphorylation motif in Loop HI that might be recognized by non-receptor tyrosine kinase(s) in vivo was present only in PCV2. Particularly, the concurrent presence of 60 pairs of the conserved tyrosine and a canonical PXXP motif on the PCV2 capsid surface could be a mechanism for PXXP motif binding to and activation of an SH3-domain-containing tyrosine kinase in host cells. Additionally, a conserved cysteine in Loop DE of the PCV2 Cap was substituted by an arginine in PCV1, indicating potentially distinct assembly mechanisms of the capsid in vitro between PCV1 and PCV2. Therefore, these unique patterns on the PCV2 capsid surface, absent in PCV1 isolates, might be related to cell entry, virus function and pathogenesis. PMID:27902320

  18. In silico analysis of surface structure variation of PCV2 capsid resulting from loop mutations of its capsid protein (Cap).

    PubMed

    Wang, Naidong; Zhan, Yang; Wang, Aibing; Zhang, Lijie; Khayat, Reza; Yang, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Outbreaks of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have caused substantial economic losses worldwide in the last 20 years. The PCV capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and main antigenic determinant of this virus. In this study, not only were phylogenetic trees reconstructed, but variations of surface structure of the PCV capsid were analysed in the course of evolution. Unique surface patterns of the icosahedral fivefold axes of the PCV2 capsid were identified and characterized, all of which were absent in PCV type 1 (PCV1). Icosahedral fivefold axes, decorated with Loops BC, HI and DE, were distinctly different between PCV2 and PCV1. Loops BC, determining the outermost surface around the fivefold axes of PCV capsids, had limited homology between Caps of PCV1 and PCV2. A conserved tyrosine phosphorylation motif in Loop HI that might be recognized by non-receptor tyrosine kinase(s) in vivo was present only in PCV2. Particularly, the concurrent presence of 60 pairs of the conserved tyrosine and a canonical PXXP motif on the PCV2 capsid surface could be a mechanism for PXXP motif binding to and activation of an SH3-domain-containing tyrosine kinase in host cells. Additionally, a conserved cysteine in Loop DE of the PCV2 Cap was substituted by an arginine in PCV1, indicating potentially distinct assembly mechanisms of the capsid in vitro between PCV1 and PCV2. Therefore, these unique patterns on the PCV2 capsid surface, absent in PCV1 isolates, might be related to cell entry, virus function and pathogenesis.

  19. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of a Pore in the Capsid of JC Polyomavirus Reduces Infectivity and Prevents Exposure of the Minor Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian D. S.; Ströh, Luisa J.; Gee, Gretchen V.; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Stehle, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infection of immunocompromised individuals results in the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The viral capsid of JCPyV is composed primarily of the major capsid protein virus protein 1 (VP1), and pentameric arrangement of VP1 monomers results in the formation of a pore at the 5-fold axis of symmetry. While the presence of this pore is conserved among polyomaviruses, its functional role in infection or assembly is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the 5-fold pore in assembly and infection of JCPyV by generating a panel of mutant viruses containing amino acid substitutions of the residues lining this pore. Multicycle growth assays demonstrated that the fitness of all mutants was reduced compared to that of the wild-type virus. Bacterial expression of VP1 pentamers containing substitutions to residues lining the 5-fold pore did not affect pentamer assembly or prevent association with the VP2 minor capsid protein. The X-ray crystal structures of selected pore mutants contained subtle changes to the 5-fold pore, and no other changes to VP1 were observed. Pore mutant pseudoviruses were not deficient in assembly, packaging of the minor capsid proteins, or binding to cells or in transport to the host cell endoplasmic reticulum. Instead, these mutant viruses were unable to expose VP2 upon arrival to the endoplasmic reticulum, a step that is critical for infection. This study demonstrated that the 5-fold pore is an important structural feature of JCPyV and that minor modifications to this structure have significant impacts on infectious entry. IMPORTANCE JCPyV is an important human pathogen that causes a severe neurological disease in immunocompromised individuals. While the high-resolution X-ray structure of the major capsid protein of JCPyV has been solved, the importance of a major structural feature of the capsid, the 5-fold pore, remains poorly understood. This pore is conserved across

  1. Purification of recombinant budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 capsid protein and its ability for in vitro capsid assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. E.; Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant system for the major capsid VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus has been established. The VP1 gene was inserted into a truncated form of the pFlag-1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 protein was purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Fractions containing highly purified VP1 were pooled and found to constitute 3.3% of the original E. coli-expressed VP1 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the VP1 protein was isolated as pentameric capsomeres. Electron microscopy also revealed that capsid-like particles were formed in vitro from purified VP1 capsomeres with the addition of Ca2+ ions and the removal of chelating and reducing agents.

  2. C Terminus of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Major Capsid Protein VP2 Is Involved in Definition of the T Number for Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Castón, José R.; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Maraver, Antonio; Lombardo, Eleuterio; Rodríguez, José F.; Casal, J. Ignacio; Carrascosa, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA virus. The IBDV capsid is formed by two major structural proteins, VP2 and VP3, which assemble to form a T=13 markedly nonspherical capsid. During viral infection, VP2 is initially synthesized as a precursor, called VPX, whose C end is proteolytically processed to the mature form during capsid assembly. We have computed three-dimensional maps of IBDV capsid and virus-like particles built up by VP2 alone by using electron cryomicroscopy and image-processing techniques. The IBDV single-shelled capsid is characterized by the presence of 260 protruding trimers on the outer surface. Five classes of trimers can be distinguished according to their different local environments. When VP2 is expressed alone in insect cells, dodecahedral particles form spontaneously; these may be assembled into larger, fragile icosahedral capsids built up by 12 dodecahedral capsids. Each dodecahedral capsid is an empty T=1 shell composed of 20 trimeric clusters of VP2. Structural comparison between IBDV capsids and capsids consisting of VP2 alone allowed the determination of the major capsid protein locations and the interactions between them. Whereas VP2 forms the outer protruding trimers, VP3 is found as trimers on the inner surface and may be responsible for stabilizing functions. Since elimination of the C-terminal region of VPX is correlated with the assembly of T=1 capsids, this domain might be involved (either alone or in cooperation with VP3) in the induction of different conformations of VP2 during capsid morphogenesis. PMID:11602723

  3. Enterovirus 71 viral capsid protein linear epitopes: Identification and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To characterize the human humoral immune response against enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection and map human epitopes on the viral capsid proteins. Methods A series of 256 peptides spanning the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3) of BJ08 strain (genomic C4) were synthesized. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to detect anti-EV71 IgM and IgG in sera of infected children in acute or recovery phase. The partially overlapped peptides contained 12 amino acids and were coated in the plate as antigen (0.1 μg/μl). Sera from rabbits immunized with inactivated BJ08 virus were also used to screen the peptide panel. Results A total of 10 human anti-EV71 IgM epitopes (vp1-14 in VP1; vp2-6, 21, 40 and 50 in VP2 and vp3-10, 12, 15, 24 and 75 in VP3) were identified in acute phase sera. In contrast, only one anti-EV71 IgG epitope in VP1 (vp1-15) was identified in sera of recovery stage. Four rabbit anti-EV71 IgG epitopes (vp1-14, 31, 54 and 71) were identified and mapped to VP1. Conclusion These data suggested that human IgM epitopes were mainly mapped to VP2 and VP3 with multi-epitope responses occurred at acute infection, while the only IgG epitope located on protein VP1 was activated in recovery phase sera. The dynamic changes of humoral immune response at different stages of infection may have public health significance in evaluation of EV71 vaccine immunogenicity and the clinical application of diagnostic reagents. PMID:22264266

  4. Application of a haematopoetic progenitor cell-targeted adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector established by selection of an AAV random peptide library on a leukaemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    Stiefelhagen, Marius; Sellner, Leopold; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A; Jauch, Anna; Laufs, Stephanie; Wenz, Frederik; Zeller, W Jens; Fruehauf, Stefan; Veldwijk, Marlon R

    2008-01-01

    Background For many promising target cells (e.g.: haematopoeitic progenitors), the susceptibility to standard adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is low. Advancements in vector development now allows the generation of target cell-selected AAV capsid mutants. Methods To determine its suitability, the method was applied on a chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) cell line (K562) to obtain a CML-targeted vector and the resulting vectors tested on leukaemia, non-leukaemia, primary human CML and CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC); standard AAV2 and a random capsid mutant vector served as controls. Results Transduction of CML (BV173, EM3, K562 and Lama84) and AML (HL60 and KG1a) cell lines with the capsid mutants resulted in an up to 36-fold increase in CML transduction efficiency (K562: 2-fold, 60% ± 2% green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ cells; BV173: 9-fold, 37% ± 2% GFP+ cells; Lama84: 36-fold, 29% ± 2% GFP+ cells) compared to controls. For AML (KG1a, HL60) and one CML cell line (EM3), no significant transduction (<1% GFP+ cells) was observed for any vector. Although the capsid mutant clone was established on a cell line, proof-of-principle experiments using primary human cells were performed. For CML (3.2-fold, mutant: 1.75% ± 0.45% GFP+ cells, p = 0.03) and PBPC (3.5-fold, mutant: 4.21% ± 3.40% GFP+ cells) a moderate increase in gene transfer of the capsid mutant compared to control vectors was observed. Conclusion Using an AAV random peptide library on a CML cell line, we were able to generate a capsid mutant, which transduced CML cell lines and primary human haematopoietic progenitor cells with higher efficiency than standard recombinant AAV vectors. PMID:18789140

  5. Intracellular cargo delivery by virus capsid protein-based vehicles: From nano to micro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ding; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Men, Dong; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Cellular delivery is an important concern for the efficiency of medicines and sensors for disease diagnoses and therapy. However, this task is quite challenging. Self-assembly virus capsid proteins might be developed as building blocks for multifunctional cellular delivery vehicles. In this work, we found that SV40 VP1 (Simian virus 40 major capsid protein) could function as a new cell-penetrating protein. The VP1 protein could carry foreign proteins into cells in a pentameric structure. A double color structure, with red QDs (Quantum dots) encapsulated by viral capsids fused with EGFP, was created for imaging cargo delivery and release from viral capsids. The viral capsids encapsulating QDs were further used for cellular delivery of micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs). MPIOs were efficiently delivered into live cells and controlled by a magnetic field. Therefore, our study built virus-based cellular delivery systems for different sizes of cargos: protein molecules, nanoparticles, and micron-sized particles. Much research is being done to investigate methods for efficient and specific cellular delivery of drugs, proteins or genetic material. In this article, the authors describe their approach in using self-assembly virus capsid proteins SV40 VP1 (Simian virus 40 major capsid protein). The cell-penetrating behavior provided excellent cellular delivery and should give a new method for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted Modifications in Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Improves Its Hepatic Gene Transfer Efficiency In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Dwaipayan; Gadkari, Rupali A; Sudha, Govindarajan; Gabriel, Nishanth; Kumar, Yesupatham Sathish; Selot, Ruchita; Samuel, Rekha; Rajalingam, Sumathi; Ramya, V.; Nair, Sukesh C.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Srivastava, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 8 (AAV8) have shown significant promise for liver-directed gene therapy. However, to overcome the vector dose dependent immunotoxicity seen with AAV8 vectors, it is important to develop better AAV8 vectors that provide enhanced gene expression at significantly low vector doses. Since it is known that AAV vectors during intracellular trafficking are targeted for destruction in the cytoplasm by the host–cellular kinase/ubiquitination/proteasomal machinery, we modified specific serine/threonine kinase or ubiquitination targets on the AAV8 capsid to augment its transduction efficiency. Point mutations at specific serine (S)/threonine (T)/lysine (K) residues were introduced in the AAV8 capsid at the positions equivalent to that of the effective AAV2 mutants, generated successfully earlier. Extensive structure analysis was carried out subsequently to evaluate the structural equivalence between the two serotypes. scAAV8 vectors with the wild-type (WT) and each one of the S/T→Alanine (A) or K-Arginine (R) mutant capsids were evaluated for their liver transduction efficiency in C57BL/6 mice in vivo. Two of the AAV8-S→A mutants (S279A and S671A), and a K137R mutant vector, demonstrated significantly higher enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transcript levels (∼9- to 46-fold) in the liver compared to animals that received WT-AAV8 vectors alone. The best performing AAV8 mutant (K137R) vector also had significantly reduced ubiquitination of the viral capsid, reduced activation of markers of innate immune response, and a concomitant two-fold reduction in the levels of neutralizing antibody formation in comparison to WT-AAV8 vectors. Vector biodistribution studies revealed that the K137R mutant had a significantly higher and preferential transduction of the liver (106 vs. 7.7 vector copies/mouse diploid genome) when compared to WT-AAV8 vectors. To further study the utility of the K137R-AAV8

  7. Comparison of Serum rAAV Serotype-Specific Antibodies in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Becker Muscular Dystrophy, Inclusion Body Myositis, or GNE Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Deborah A; Crowe, Kelly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Martin, Paul T

    2017-09-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a commonly used gene therapy vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes in a variety of human diseases, but pre-existing serum antibodies to viral capsid proteins can greatly inhibit rAAV transduction of tissues. Serum was assayed from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), inclusion body myositis (IBM), and GNE myopathy (GNE). These were compared to serum from otherwise normal human subjects to determine the extent of pre-existing serum antibodies to rAAVrh74, rAAV1, rAAV2, rAAV6, rAAV8, and rAAV9. In almost all cases, patients with measurable titers to one rAAV serotype showed titers to all other serotypes tested, with average titers to rAAV2 being highest in all instances. Twenty-six percent of all young normal subjects (<18 years old) had measurable rAAV titers to all serotypes tested, and this percentage increased to almost 50% in adult normal subjects (>18 years old). Fifty percent of all IBM and GNE patients also had antibody titers to all rAAV serotypes, while only 18% of DMD and 0% of BMD patients did. In addition, serum-naïve macaques treated systemically with rAAVrh74 could develop cross-reactive antibodies to all other serotypes tested at 24 weeks post treatment. These data demonstrate that most DMD and BMD patients should be amenable to vascular rAAV-mediated treatment without the concern of treatment blockage by pre-existing serum rAAV antibodies, and that serum antibodies to rAAVrh74 are no more common than those for rAAV6, rAAV8, or rAAV9.

  8. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  9. The smallest capsid protein mediates binding of the essential tegument protein pp150 to stabilize DNA-containing capsids in human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinghong; Yu, Xuekui; Gong, Hao; Jiang, Xiaohong; Abenes, Gerrado; Liu, Hongrong; Shivakoti, Sakar; Britt, William J; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Fenyong; Zhou, Z Hong

    2013-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes birth defects in newborns and life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found in cytomegaloviruses, to stabilize its genome-containing capsid. However, little is known about how pp150 interacts with the underlying capsid. Moreover, the smallest capsid protein (SCP), while dispensable in herpes simplex virus type 1, was shown to play essential, yet undefined, role in HCMV infection. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM), we determine three-dimensional structures of HCMV capsid (no pp150) and virion (with pp150) at sub-nanometer resolution. Comparison of these two structures reveals that each pp150 tegument density is composed of two helix bundles connected by a long central helix. Correlation between the resolved helices and sequence-based secondary structure prediction maps the tegument density to the N-terminal half of pp150. The structures also show that SCP mediates interactions between the capsid and pp150 at the upper helix bundle of pp150. Consistent with this structural observation, ribozyme inhibition of SCP expression in HCMV-infected cells impairs the formation of DNA-containing viral particles and reduces viral yield by 10,000 fold. By cryoEM reconstruction of the resulting "SCP-deficient" viral particles, we further demonstrate that SCP is required for pp150 functionally binding to the capsid. Together, our structural and biochemical results point to a mechanism whereby SCP recruits pp150 to stabilize genome-containing capsid for the production of infectious HCMV virion.

  10. Inhibition of interferon-inducible MxA protein expression by hepatitis B virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Rosmorduc, O; Sirma, H; Soussan, P; Gordien, E; Lebon, P; Horisberger, M; Bréchot, C; Kremsdorf, D

    1999-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B treatment has been significantly improved by interferon (IFN) treatment. However, some studies have suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV) might have a direct effect on the resistance to IFN. Defective particles, generated by spliced HBV RNA and associated with chronic hepatitis B, have been previously characterized; expression of these particles leads to cytoplasmic accumulation of the capsid protein. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these defective genomes in IFN resistance. The global antiviral activity of IFN was studied by virus yield reduction assays, the expression of three IFN-induced antiviral proteins was analysed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy, and the regulation of MxA gene expression was studied by Northern blotting and the luciferase assay, in Huh7 cells transfected with a complete or the defective HBV genome. Results showed that the expression of the defective genome reduces the antiviral activity of IFN and that this modulation involves a selective inhibition of MxA protein induction by the HBV capsid protein. Our results also show the trans-suppressive effect of the HBV capsid on the MxA promoter, which might participate in this phenomenon. In conclusion, this study shows a direct interplay between the IFN-sensitive pathway and the capsid protein and might implicate this defective HBV genome in virus persistence.

  11. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  12. AAV-mediated RLBP1 gene therapy improves the rate of dark adaptation in Rlbp1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Vivian W; Bigelow, Chad E; McGee, Terri L; Gujar, Akshata N; Li, Hui; Hanks, Shawn M; Vrouvlianis, Joanna; Maker, Michael; Leehy, Barrett; Zhang, Yiqin; Aranda, Jorge; Bounoutas, George; Demirs, John T; Yang, Junzheng; Ornberg, Richard; Wang, Yu; Martin, Wendy; Stout, Kelly R; Argentieri, Gregory; Grosenstein, Paul; Diaz, Danielle; Turner, Oliver; Jaffee, Bruce D; Police, Seshidhar R; Dryja, Thaddeus P

    2015-01-01

    Recessive mutations in RLBP1 cause a form of retinitis pigmentosa in which the retina, before its degeneration leads to blindness, abnormally slowly recovers sensitivity after exposure to light. To develop a potential gene therapy for this condition, we tested multiple recombinant adeno-associated vectors (rAAVs) composed of different promoters, capsid serotypes, and genome conformations. We generated rAAVs in which sequences from the promoters of the human RLBP1, RPE65, or BEST1 genes drove the expression of a reporter gene (green fluorescent protein). A promoter derived from the RLBP1 gene mediated expression in the retinal pigment epithelium and Müller cells (the intended target cell types) at qualitatively higher levels than in other retinal cell types in wild-type mice and monkeys. With this promoter upstream of the coding sequence of the human RLBP1 gene, we compared the potencies of vectors with an AAV2 versus an AAV8 capsid in transducing mouse retinas, and we compared vectors with a self-complementary versus a single-stranded genome. The optimal vector (scAAV8-pRLBP1-hRLBP1) had serotype 8 capsid and a self-complementary genome. Subretinal injection of scAAV8-pRLBP1-hRLBP1 in Rlbp1 nullizygous mice improved the rate of dark adaptation based on scotopic (rod-plus-cone) and photopic (cone) electroretinograms (ERGs). The effect was still present after 1 year. PMID:26199951

  13. The Cellular Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 Is Required for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Precursor Processing and Assembly of Capsid Pentamers.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joseph; Asfor, Amin S; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Curry, Stephen; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2018-03-01

    Productive picornavirus infection requires the hijacking of host cell pathways to aid with the different stages of virus entry, synthesis of the viral polyprotein, and viral genome replication. Many picornaviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), assemble capsids via the multimerization of several copies of a single capsid precursor protein into a pentameric subunit which further encapsidates the RNA. Pentamer formation is preceded by co- and posttranslational modification of the capsid precursor (P1-2A) by viral and cellular enzymes and the subsequent rearrangement of P1-2A into a structure amenable to pentamer formation. We have developed a cell-free system to study FMDV pentamer assembly using recombinantly expressed FMDV capsid precursor and 3C protease. Using this assay, we have shown that two structurally different inhibitors of the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) impeded FMDV capsid precursor processing and subsequent pentamer formation. Treatment of FMDV permissive cells with the hsp90 inhibitor prior to infection reduced the endpoint titer by more than 10-fold while not affecting the activity of a subgenomic replicon, indicating that translation and replication of viral RNA were unaffected by the drug. IMPORTANCE FMDV of the Picornaviridae family is a pathogen of huge economic importance to the livestock industry due to its effect on the restriction of livestock movement and necessary control measures required following an outbreak. The study of FMDV capsid assembly, and picornavirus capsid assembly more generally, has tended to be focused upon the formation of capsids from pentameric intermediates or the immediate cotranslational modification of the capsid precursor protein. Here, we describe a system to analyze the early stages of FMDV pentameric capsid intermediate assembly and demonstrate a novel requirement for the cellular chaperone hsp90 in the formation of these pentameric intermediates. We show the added complexity

  14. Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Sik, E-mail: yumshak@naver.com; Seo, Hyun Wook, E-mail: suruk@naver.com; Jung, Guhung, E-mail: drjung@snu.ac.kr

    2015-02-13

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study thatmore » Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. - Highlights: • We examined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH modulate HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates HBV capsid assembly in the presence of Hsp90. • GSH inhibits function of Hsp90 in facilitating HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH induce conformation change of Hsp90.« less

  15. Intrinsically-disordered N-termini in human parechovirus 1 capsid proteins bind encapsidated RNA.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Shabih; Evans, James D; Hazelbaker, Mark; Kao, C Cheng; Vaughan, Robert C; Butcher, Sarah J

    2018-04-11

    Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are picornaviruses with a highly-ordered RNA genome contained within icosahedrally-symmetric capsids. Ordered RNA structures have recently been shown to interact with capsid proteins VP1 and VP3 and facilitate virus assembly in HPeV1. Using an assay that combines reversible cross-linking, RNA affinity purification and peptide mass fingerprinting (RCAP), we mapped the RNA-interacting regions of the capsid proteins from the whole HPeV1 virion in solution. The intrinsically-disordered N-termini of capsid proteins VP1 and VP3, and unexpectedly, VP0, were identified to interact with RNA. Comparing these results to those obtained using recombinantly-expressed VP0 and VP1 confirmed the virion binding regions, and revealed unique RNA binding regions in the isolated VP0 not previously observed in the crystal structure of HPeV1. We used RNA fluorescence anisotropy to confirm the RNA-binding competency of each of the capsid proteins' N-termini. These findings suggests that dynamic interactions between the viral RNA and the capsid proteins modulate virus assembly, and suggest a novel role for VP0.

  16. The Amphipathic Helix of Adenovirus Capsid Protein VI Contributes to Penton Release and Postentry Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ruben; Schellenberger, Pascale; Vasishtan, Daven; Aknin, Cindy; Austin, Sisley; Dacheux, Denis; Rayne, Fabienne; Siebert, Alistair; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Gruenewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear delivery of the adenoviral genome requires that the capsid cross the limiting membrane of the endocytic compartment and traverse the cytosol to reach the nucleus. This endosomal escape is initiated upon internalization and involves a highly coordinated process of partial disassembly of the entering capsid to release the membrane lytic internal capsid protein VI. Using wild-type and protein VI-mutated human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5), we show that capsid stability and membrane rupture are major determinants of entry-related sorting of incoming adenovirus virions. Furthermore, by using electron cryomicroscopy, as well as penton- and protein VI-specific antibodies, we show that the amphipathic helix of protein VI contributes to capsid stability by preventing premature disassembly and deployment of pentons and protein VI. Thus, the helix has a dual function in maintaining the metastable state of the capsid by preventing premature disassembly and mediating efficient membrane lysis to evade lysosomal targeting. Based on these findings and structural data from cryo-electron microscopy, we suggest a refined disassembly mechanism upon entry. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show the intricate connection of adenovirus particle stability and the entry-dependent release of the membrane-lytic capsid protein VI required for endosomal escape. We show that the amphipathic helix of the adenovirus internal protein VI is required to stabilize pentons in the particle while coinciding with penton release upon entry and that release of protein VI mediates membrane lysis, thereby preventing lysosomal sorting. We suggest that this dual functionality of protein VI ensures an optimal disassembly process by balancing the metastable state of the mature adenovirus particle. PMID:25473051

  17. Inner tegument proteins of Herpes Simplex Virus are sufficient for intracellular capsid motility in neurons but not for axonal targeting

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Oliver; Ivanova, Lyudmila; Bialy, Dagmara; Pohlmann, Anja; Binz, Anne; Hegemann, Maike; Viejo-Borbolla, Abel; Rosenhahn, Bodo; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Upon reactivation from latency and during lytic infections in neurons, alphaherpesviruses assemble cytosolic capsids, capsids associated with enveloping membranes, and transport vesicles harboring fully enveloped capsids. It is debated whether capsid envelopment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is completed in the soma prior to axonal targeting or later, and whether the mechanisms are the same in neurons derived from embryos or from adult hosts. We used HSV mutants impaired in capsid envelopment to test whether the inner tegument proteins pUL36 or pUL37 necessary for microtubule-mediated capsid transport were sufficient for axonal capsid targeting in neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice. Such neurons were infected with HSV1-ΔUL20 whose capsids recruited pUL36 and pUL37, with HSV1-ΔUL37 whose capsids associate only with pUL36, or with HSV1-ΔUL36 that assembles capsids lacking both proteins. While capsids of HSV1-ΔUL20 were actively transported along microtubules in epithelial cells and in the somata of neurons, those of HSV1-ΔUL36 and -ΔUL37 could only diffuse in the cytoplasm. Employing a novel image analysis algorithm to quantify capsid targeting to axons, we show that only a few capsids of HSV1-ΔUL20 entered axons, while vesicles transporting gD utilized axonal transport efficiently and independently of pUL36, pUL37, or pUL20. Our data indicate that capsid motility in the somata of neurons mediated by pUL36 and pUL37 does not suffice for targeting capsids to axons, and suggest that capsid envelopment needs to be completed in the soma prior to targeting of herpes simplex virus to the axons, and to spreading from neurons to neighboring cells. PMID:29284065

  18. X-ray crystal structures of native HIV-1 capsid protein reveal conformational variability

    DOE PAGES

    Gres, Anna T.; Kirby, Karen A.; KewalRamani, Vineet N.; ...

    2015-06-04

    The detailed molecular interactions between native HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) hexamers that shield the viral genome and proteins have been elusive. In this paper, we report crystal structures describing interactions between CA monomers related by sixfold symmetry within hexamers (intrahexamer) and threefold and twofold symmetry between neighboring hexamers (interhexamer). The structures describe how CA builds hexagonal lattices, the foundation of mature capsids. Lattice structure depends on an adaptable hydration layer modulating interactions among CA molecules. Disruption of this layer alters interhexamer interfaces, highlighting an inherent structural variability. A CA-targeting antiviral affects capsid stability by binding across CA molecules and subtlymore » altering interhexamer interfaces remote to the ligand-binding site. Finally, inherent structural plasticity, hydration layer rearrangement, and effector binding affect capsid stability and have functional implications for the retroviral life cycle.« less

  19. Efficient Capsid Antigen Presentation From Adeno-Associated Virus Empty Virions In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaolei; Earley, Lauriel Freya; He, Yi; Chen, Xiaojing; Hall, Nikita Elexa; Samulski, Richard Jude; Li, Chengwen

    2018-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been successfully applied in clinical trials for hemophilic patients. Although promising, the clinical results suggest that the capsid-specific CD8+T cell response has a negative effect on therapeutic success. In an in vitro analysis using an engineered AAV virus carrying immune-dominant SIINFEKL peptide in the capsid backbone, we have previously demonstrated that capsid antigen presentation from full (genome containing) AAV capsids requires endosome escape and is proteasome dependent and that no capsid antigen presentation is induced from empty virions. In the present study, we examined capsid antigen presentation from administration of empty virions in animal models. In wild-type mice, similar to AAV full particles, capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty virion infection was dose dependent, and the kinetics studies showed that antigen presentation was detected from 2 to 40 days after AAV empty virion administration. In the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 deficient (TAP-/-) mice, capsid antigen presentation was inhibited from both AAV full and empty virions, but higher inhibition was achieved from AAV full particle administration than that from empty virions. This indicates that the pathway of capsid antigen presentation from AAV transduction is dependent on proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV capsids (mainly for full particles) and that the endosomal pathway may also play a role in antigen presentation from empty particles but not full virions. The capsid antigen presentation efficiency from AAV preparations was positively correlated with the amount of empty virions contaminated with full particles. Collectively, the results indicate that contamination of AAV empty virions induces efficient antigen presentation in vivo and the mechanism of capsid antigen presentation from empty virions involves both endosomal and proteasomal pathways. The elucidation of capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty

  20. Efficient Capsid Antigen Presentation From Adeno-Associated Virus Empty Virions In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xiaolei; Earley, Lauriel Freya; He, Yi; Chen, Xiaojing; Hall, Nikita Elexa; Samulski, Richard Jude; Li, Chengwen

    2018-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been successfully applied in clinical trials for hemophilic patients. Although promising, the clinical results suggest that the capsid-specific CD8+T cell response has a negative effect on therapeutic success. In an in vitro analysis using an engineered AAV virus carrying immune-dominant SIINFEKL peptide in the capsid backbone, we have previously demonstrated that capsid antigen presentation from full (genome containing) AAV capsids requires endosome escape and is proteasome dependent and that no capsid antigen presentation is induced from empty virions. In the present study, we examined capsid antigen presentation from administration of empty virions in animal models. In wild-type mice, similar to AAV full particles, capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty virion infection was dose dependent, and the kinetics studies showed that antigen presentation was detected from 2 to 40 days after AAV empty virion administration. In the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 deficient (TAP−/−) mice, capsid antigen presentation was inhibited from both AAV full and empty virions, but higher inhibition was achieved from AAV full particle administration than that from empty virions. This indicates that the pathway of capsid antigen presentation from AAV transduction is dependent on proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV capsids (mainly for full particles) and that the endosomal pathway may also play a role in antigen presentation from empty particles but not full virions. The capsid antigen presentation efficiency from AAV preparations was positively correlated with the amount of empty virions contaminated with full particles. Collectively, the results indicate that contamination of AAV empty virions induces efficient antigen presentation in vivo and the mechanism of capsid antigen presentation from empty virions involves both endosomal and proteasomal pathways. The elucidation of capsid antigen presentation from AAV

  1. Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Susan C; Taylor, Adam; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh; Fazakerley, John K

    2017-10-20

    Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV. The chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) export adaptor protein mediated CHIKV capsid protein export from the nucleus and a region within the N-terminal part of CHIKV capsid protein was required for active nuclear targeting. In contrast to encephalitic alphaviruses, CHIKV capsid protein did not inhibit host nuclear import; however, mutating the NES of capsid protein (∆NES) blocked host protein access to the nucleus. Interactions between capsid protein and the nucleus warrant further investigation.

  2. Equine Myxovirus Resistance Protein 2 Restricts Lentiviral Replication by Blocking Nuclear Uptake of Capsid Protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuang; Na, Lei; Ren, Huiling; Wang, Yujie; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-05-09

    Human Myxovirus resistance 2 (huMxB) has been shown to be a determinant type I interferon-induced host factor involved in the inhibition of HIV-1 as well as many other primate lentiviruses. This blocking occurs after the reverse transcription of viral RNA and ahead of the integration into the host DNA, which is closely connected to the ability of the protein to bind the viral capsid. To date, Mx2s derived from non-primate animals have shown no capacity for HIV-1 suppression. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine Mx2 (eqMx2) on both the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and HIV-1 and investigated possible mechanisms for its specific function. We demonstrated that IFNα/β upregulates the expression of eqMx2 in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs). Overexpression of eqMx2 significantly suppresses the replication of EIAV, HIV-1, and SIVs, but not that of MLV. Knockdown of eqMx2 transcription weakens the inhibition of EIAV replication by type I interferon. Interestingly, immunofluorescence assays suggest that the subcellular localization of eqMx2 changes following virus infection, from being dispersed in the cytoplasm to being accumulated at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, eqMx2 blocks the nuclear uptake of the proviral genome by binding to the viral capsid. The N-truncated mutant of eqMx2 lost the ability to bind the viral capsid as well as the restriction effect for lentiviruses. These results improve our understanding of the Mx2 protein in non-primate animals. IMPORTANCE Previous research has shown that the antiviral ability of Mx2s is confined to primates, particularly humans. EIAV has been shown to be insensitive to the restriction by human MxB. Here, we described the function of equine Mx2. This protein plays an important role in the suppression of EIAV, HIV-1, and SIVs. The antiviral activity of eqMx2 depends on its subcellular location as well as its capsid binding capacity. Our results showed that following viral infection

  3. Intravenous administration of the adeno-associated virus-PHP.B capsid fails to upregulate transduction efficiency in the marmoset brain.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Konno, Ayumu; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Nitta, Keisuke; Okada, Yukihiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2018-02-05

    Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV9 containing seven amino acid insertions, results in a greater permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) than standard AAV9 in mice, leading to highly efficient and global transduction of the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to examine whether the enhanced BBB penetrance of AAV-PHP.B observed in mice also occurs in non-human primates. Thus, a young adult (age, 1.6 years) and an old adult (age, 7.2 years) marmoset received an intravenous injection of AAV-PHP.B expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the constitutive CBh promoter (a hybrid of cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter). Age-matched control marmosets were treated with standard AAV9-capsid vectors. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the viral injection. Based on the results, only limited transduction of neurons (0-2%) and astrocytes (0.1-2.5%) was observed in both AAV-PHP.B- and AAV9-treated marmosets. One noticeable difference between AAV-PHP.B and AAV9 was the marked transduction of the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons. Indeed, the soma and axons in the projection from the spinal cord to the nucleus cuneatus in the medulla oblongata were strongly labeled with EGFP by AAV-PHP.B. Thus, except for the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons, the AAV-PHP.B transduction efficiency in the CNS of marmosets was comparable to that of AAV9 vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  5. Identification of amino acid sequences in the polyomavirus capsid proteins that serve as nuclear localization signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. Jr; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The molecular mechanism participating in the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in mammalian cells is poorly understood. Recently, the nuclear localization signal sequences (NLS) of many nuclear proteins have been identified, and most have been found to be composed of a highly basic amino acid stretch. A genetic "subtractive" and a biochemical "additive" approach were used in our studies to identify the NLS's of the polyomavirus structural capsid proteins. An NLS was identified at the N-terminus (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) of the major capsid protein VP1 and at the C-terminus (Glu307 -Glu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Glu-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Arg-Leu318) of the VP2/VP3 minor capsid proteins.

  6. Coat as a Dagger: The Use of Capsid Proteins to Perforate Membranes during Non-Enveloped DNA Viruses Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bilkova, Eva; Forstova, Jitka; Abrahamyan, Levon

    2014-01-01

    To get access to the replication site, small non-enveloped DNA viruses have to cross the cell membrane using a limited number of capsid proteins, which also protect the viral genome in the extracellular environment. Most of DNA viruses have to reach the nucleus to replicate. The capsid proteins involved in transmembrane penetration are exposed or released during endosomal trafficking of the virus. Subsequently, the conserved domains of capsid proteins interact with cellular membranes and ensure their efficient permeabilization. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the role of capsid proteins of small non-enveloped DNA viruses in intracellular membrane perturbation in the early stages of infection. PMID:25055856

  7. In vivo encapsulation of nucleic acids using an engineered nonviral protein capsid.

    PubMed

    Lilavivat, Seth; Sardar, Debosmita; Jana, Subrata; Thomas, Geoffrey C; Woycechowsky, Kenneth J

    2012-08-15

    In Nature, protein capsids function as molecular containers for a wide variety of molecular cargoes. Such containers have great potential for applications in nanotechnology, which often require encapsulation of non-native guest molecules. Charge complementarity represents a potentially powerful strategy for engineering novel encapsulation systems. In an effort to explore the generality of this approach, we engineered a nonviral, 60-subunit capsid, lumazine synthase from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS), to act as a container for nucleic acid. Four mutations were introduced per subunit to increase the positive charge at the inner surface of the capsid. Characterization of the mutant (AaLS-pos) revealed that the positive charges lead to the uptake of cellular RNA during production and assembly of the capsid in vivo. Surprisingly, AaLS-pos capsids were found to be enriched with RNA molecules approximately 200-350 bases in length, suggesting that this simple charge complementarity approach to RNA encapsulation leads to both high affinity and a degree of selectivity. The ability to control loading of RNA by tuning the charge at the inner surface of a protein capsid could illuminate aspects of genome recognition by viruses and pave the way for the development of improved RNA delivery systems.

  8. Bacteriophage T4 capsid packaging and unpackaging of DNA and proteins.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Julienne M; Black, Lindsay W

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 has proven itself readily amenable to phage-based DNA and protein packaging, expression, and display systems due to its physical resiliency and genomic flexibility. As a large dsDNA phage with dispensable internal proteins and dispensable outer capsid proteins it can be adapted to package both DNA and proteins of interest within the capsid and to display peptides and proteins externally on the capsid. A single 170 kb linear DNA, or single or multiple copies of shorter linear DNAs, of any sequence can be packaged by the large terminase subunit in vitro into protein-containing proheads and give full or partially full capsids. The prohead receptacles for DNA packaging can also display peptides or full-length proteins from capsid display proteins HOC and SOC. Our laboratory has also developed a protein expression, packaging, and processing (PEPP) system which we have found to have advantages over mammalian and bacterial cell systems, including high yield, increased stability, and simplified downstream processing. Proteins that we have produced by the phage PEPP platform include human HIV-1 protease, micrococcal endonuclease from Staphylococcus aureus, restriction endonuclease EcoRI, luciferase, human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the 99 amino acid C-terminus of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Difficult to produce proteins that are toxic in mammalian protein expression systems are easily produced, packaged, and processed with the PEPP platform. APP is one example of such a highly refractory protein that has been produced successfully. The methods below describe the procedures for in vitro packaging of proheads with DNA and for producing recombinant T4 phage that carry a gene of interest in the phage genome and produce and internally package the corresponding protein of interest.

  9. Water dynamics during the association of hiv capsid proteins studied by all-atom simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiyin; Hagan, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA-C) plays an important role in the assembly of the mature capsid. We have used molecular dynamics simulations combined with enhanced sampling methods to study the association of two CA-C proteins in atomistic detail. In this talk we will discuss the dynamics of water during the association process. In particular, we will show that that water in the interfacial region does not undergo a liquid-vapor transition (de-wetting) during association of wild type CA-C. However, mutation of some hydrophilic residues does lead to a dewetting transition. We discuss the relationship between the arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues and dewetting during protein association. For the HIV capsid protein, the arrangement of hydrophilic residues contributes to maintaining weak interactions, which are crucial for successful assembly.

  10. The HSV-1 tegument protein pUL46 associates with cellular membranes and viral capsids

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael A.; Bucks, Michelle A.; O'Regan, Kevin J.

    2008-07-05

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the addition of tegument proteins into nascent herpesvirus particles are poorly understood. To better understand the tegumentation process of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) virions, we initiated studies that showed the tegument protein pUL46 (VP11/12) has a similar cellular localization to the membrane-associated tegument protein VP22. Using membrane flotation analysis we found that pUL46 associates with membranes in both the presence and absence of other HSV-1 proteins. However, when purified virions were stripped of their envelope, the majority of pUL46 was found to associate with the capsid fraction. This strong affinity of pUL46 formore » capsids was confirmed by an in vitro capsid pull-down assay in which purified pUL46-GST was able to interact specifically with capsids purified from the nuclear fraction of HSV-1 infected cells. These results suggest that pUL46 displays a dynamic interaction between cellular membranes and capsids.« less

  11. In Silico Studies of Medicinal Compounds Against Hepatitis C Capsid Protein from North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Shilu; Faheem, Muhammad; Archunan, Govindaraju; Ilyas, Muhammad; Begum, Nargis; Jahangir, Syed; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Qahtani, Mohammad Al; Mathew, Shiny

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Over one million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. As capsid core protein is the key element in spreading HCV; hence, it is considered to be the superlative target of antiviral compounds. Novel drug inhibitors of HCV are in need to complement or replace the current treatments such as pegylated interferon’s and ribavirin as they are partially booming and beset with various side effects. Our study was conducted to predict 3D structure of capsid core protein of HCV from northern part of India. Core, the capsid protein of HCV, handles the assembly and packaging of HCV RNA genome and is the least variable of all the ten HCV proteins among the six HCV genotypes. Therefore, we screened four phytochemicals inhibitors that are known to disrupt the interactions of core and other HCV proteins such as (a) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (b) ladanein, (c) naringenin, and (d) silybin extracted from medicinal plants; targeted against active site of residues of HCV-genotype 3 (G3) (Q68867) and its subtypes 3b (Q68861) and 3g (Q68865) from north India. To study the inhibitory activity of the recruited flavonoids, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR). Furthermore, docking interaction suggests that EGCG showed a maximum number of hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions with all the three modeled capsid proteins with high interaction energy followed by naringenin and silybin. Thus, our results strongly correlate the inhibitory activity of the selected bioflavonoid. Finally, the dynamic predicted capsid protein molecule of HCV virion provides a general avenue to target structure-based antiviral compounds that support the hypothesis that the screened inhibitors for viral capsid might constitute new class of potent agents but further confirmation is necessary using in vitro and in vivo

  12. Porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein induces cell death in PK15 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, Rupali; Dardari, Rkia, E-mail: rdardari@ucalgary.ca; Chaiyakul, Mark

    Studies have shown that Porcine circovirus (PCV)-2 induces apoptosis in PK15 cells. Here we report that cell death is induced in PCV2b-infected PK15 cells that express Capsid (Cap) protein and this effect is enhanced in interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-treated cells. We further show that transient PCV2a and 2b-Cap protein expression induces cell death in PK15 cells at rate similar to PCV2 infection, regardless of Cap protein localization. These data suggest that Cap protein may have the capacity to trigger different signaling pathways involved in cell death. Although further investigation is needed to gain deeper insights into the nature of the pathwaysmore » involved in Cap-induced cell death, this study provides evidence that PCV2-induced cell death in kidney epithelial PK15 cells can be mapped to the Cap protein and establishes the need for future research regarding the role of Cap-induced cell death in PCV2 pathogenesis. - Highlights: • IFN-γ enhances PCV2 replication that leads to cell death in PK15 cells. • IFN-γ enhances nuclear localization of the PCV2 Capsid protein. • Transient PCV2a and 2b-Capsid protein expression induces cell death. • Cell death is not dictated by specific Capsid protein sub-localization.« less

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument proteins VP1/2 and UL37 are associated with intranuclear capsids

    SciTech Connect

    Bucks, Michelle A.; O'Regan, Kevin J.; Murphy, Michael A.

    2007-05-10

    The assembly of the tegument of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a complex process that involves a number of events at various sites within virus-infected cells. Our studies focused on determining whether tegument proteins, VP1/2 and UL37, are added to capsids located within the nucleus. Capsids were isolated from the nuclear fraction of HSV-1-infected cells and purified by rate-zonal centrifugation to separate B capsids (containing the scaffold proteins and no viral DNA) and C capsids (containing DNA and no scaffold proteins). Western blot analyses of these capsids indicated that VP1/2 associated primarily with C capsids and UL37 associatedmore » with B and C capsids. The results demonstrate that at least two of the tegument proteins of HSV-1 are associated with capsids isolated from the nuclear fraction, and these capsid-tegument protein interactions may represent initial events of the tegumentation process.« less

  14. Poliovirus-associated protein kinase: Destabilization of the virus capsid and stimulation of the phosphorylation reaction by Zn sup 2+

    SciTech Connect

    Ratka, M.; Lackmann, M.; Ueckermann, C.

    1989-09-01

    The previously described poliovirus-associated protein kinase activity phosphorylates viral proteins VP0 and VP2 as well as exogenous proteins in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. In this paper, the effect of Zn{sup 2+} on the phosphorylation reaction and the stability of the poliovirus capsid has been studied in detail and compared to that of Mg{sup 2+}. In the presence of Zn{sup 2+}, phosphorylation of capsid proteins VP2 and VP4 is significantly higher while phosphorylation of VP0 and exogenous phosphate acceptor proteins is not detected. The results indicate the activation of more than one virus-associated protein kinase by Zn{sup 2+}. The ion-dependentmore » behavior of the enzyme activities is observed independently of whether the virus was obtained from HeLa or green monkey kidney cells. The poliovirus capsid is destabilized by Zn{sup 2+}. This alteration of the poliovirus capsid structure is a prerequisite for effective phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins. The increased level of phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins results in further destabilization of the viral capsid. As a result of the conformational changes, poliovirus-associated protein kinase activities dissociate from the virus particle. The authors suggest that the destabilizing effect of phosphorylation on the viral capsid plays a role in uncoating of poliovirus.« less

  15. Cold argon-oxygen plasma species oxidize and disintegrate capsid protein of feline calicivirus

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Sunil K.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Armien, Anibal; Youssef, Mohammed M.; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2018-01-01

    Possible mechanisms that lead to inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV) by cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) generated in 99% argon-1% O2 admixture were studied. We evaluated the impact of CAP exposure on the FCV viral capsid protein and RNA employing several cultural, molecular, proteomic and morphologic characteristics techniques. In the case of long exposure (2 min) to CAP, the reactive species of CAP strongly oxidized the major domains of the viral capsid protein (VP1) leading to disintegration of a majority of viral capsids. In the case of short exposure (15 s), some of the virus particles retained their capsid structure undamaged but failed to infect the host cells in vitro. In the latter virus particles, CAP exposure led to the oxidation of specific amino acids located in functional peptide residues in the P2 subdomain of the protrusion (P) domain, the dimeric interface region of VP1 dimers, and the movable hinge region linking the S and P domains. These regions of the capsid are known to play an essential role in the attachment and entry of the virus to the host cell. These observations suggest that the oxidative effect of CAP species inactivates the virus by hindering virus attachment and entry into the host cell. Furthermore, we found that the oxidative impact of plasma species led to oxidation and damage of viral RNA once it becomes unpacked due to capsid destruction. The latter effect most likely plays a secondary role in virus inactivation since the intact FCV genome is infectious even after damage to the capsid. PMID:29566061

  16. Topography of the Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Vesicular Trafficking of Infectious Entry.

    PubMed

    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Keiffer, Timothy R; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Guion, Lucile G M; Müller, Martin; Sapp, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. During entry, the HPV capsid undergoes numerous conformational changes that result in endosomal uptake and subsequent trafficking of the L2 protein in complex with the viral DNA to the trans-Golgi network. To facilitate this transport, the L2 protein harbors a number of putative motifs that, if capable of direct interaction, would interact with cytosolic host cell factors. These data imply that a portion of L2 becomes cytosolic during infection. Using a low concentration of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane of infected cells, we mapped the topography of the L2 protein during infection. We observed that epitopes within amino acid residues 64 to 81 and 163 to 170 and a C-terminal tag of HPV16 L2 are exposed on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, whereas an epitope within residues 20 to 38, which are upstream of a putative transmembrane region, is luminal. Corroborating these findings, we also found that L2 protein is sensitive to trypsin digestion during infection. These data demonstrate that the majority of the L2 protein becomes accessible on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes in order to interact with cytosolic factors to facilitate vesicular trafficking. In order to complete infectious entry, nonenveloped viruses have to pass cellular membranes. This is often achieved through the viral capsid protein associating with or integrating into intracellular membrane. Here, we determine the topography of HPV L2 protein in the endocytic vesicular compartment, suggesting that L2 becomes a transmembrane protein with a short luminal portion and with the majority facing the cytosolic side for interaction with host cell transport factors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Internal Proteins of the Procapsid and Mature Capsids of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mapped by Bubblegram Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weimin; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Aksyuk, Anastasia; Winkler, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a huge assembly, ∼1,250 Å in diameter, and is composed of thousands of protein subunits with a combined mass of ∼200 MDa, housing a 100-MDa genome. First, a procapsid is formed through coassembly of the surface shell with an inner scaffolding shell; then the procapsid matures via a major structural transformation, triggered by limited proteolysis of the scaffolding proteins. Three mature capsids are found in the nuclei of infected cells. A capsids are empty, B capsids retain a shrunken scaffolding shell, and C capsids—which develop into infectious virions—are filled with DNA and ostensibly have expelled the scaffolding shell. The possible presence of other internal proteins in C capsids has been moot as, in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), they would be camouflaged by the surrounding DNA. We have used bubblegram imaging to map internal proteins in all four capsids, aided by the discovery that the scaffolding protein is exceptionally prone to radiation-induced bubbling. We confirmed that this protein forms thick-walled inner shells in the procapsid and the B capsid. C capsids generate two classes of bubbles: one occupies positions beneath the vertices of the icosahedral surface shell, and the other is distributed throughout its interior. A likely candidate is the viral protease. A subpopulation of C capsids bubbles particularly profusely and may represent particles in which expulsion of scaffold and DNA packaging are incomplete. Based on the procapsid structure, we propose that the axial channels of hexameric capsomers afford the pathway via which the scaffolding protein is expelled. IMPORTANCE In addition to DNA, capsids of tailed bacteriophages and their distant relatives, herpesviruses, contain internal proteins. These proteins are often essential for infectivity but are difficult to locate within the virion. A novel adaptation of cryo-EM based on detecting gas bubbles generated by radiation

  18. Production of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins by the TEV protease.

    PubMed

    Puckette, Michael; Smith, Justin D; Gabbert, Lindsay; Schutta, Christopher; Barrera, José; Clark, Benjamin A; Neilan, John G; Rasmussen, Max

    2018-06-10

    Protective immunity to viral pathogens often includes production of neutralizing antibodies to virus capsid proteins. Many viruses produce capsid proteins by expressing a precursor polyprotein and related protease from a single open reading frame. The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) expresses a 3C protease (3Cpro) that cleaves a P1 polyprotein intermediate into individual capsid proteins, but the FMDV 3Cpro also degrades many host cell proteins and reduces the viability of host cells, including subunit vaccine production cells. To overcome the limitations of using the a wild-type 3Cpro in FMDV subunit vaccine expression systems, we altered the protease restriction sequences within a FMDV P1 polyprotein to enable production of FMDV capsid proteins by the Tobacco Etch Virus NIa protease (TEVpro). Separate TEVpro and modified FMDV P1 proteins were produced from a single open reading frame by an intervening FMDV 2A sequence. The modified FMDV P1 polyprotein was successfully processed by the TEVpro in both mammalian and bacterial cells. More broadly, this method of polyprotein production and processing may be adapted to other recombinant expression systems, especially plant-based expression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Drosophila Nora virus capsid proteins differ from those of other picorna-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Jens-Ola; Habayeb, Mazen S; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Kieselbach, Thomas; Wingsle, Gunnar; Hultmark, Dan

    2011-09-01

    The recently discovered Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster is a single-stranded RNA virus. Its published genomic sequence encodes a typical picorna-like cassette of replicative enzymes, but no capsid proteins similar to those in other picorna-like viruses. We have now done additional sequencing at the termini of the viral genome, extending it by 455 nucleotides at the 5' end, but no more coding sequence was found. The completeness of the final 12,333-nucleotide sequence was verified by the production of infectious virus from the cloned genome. To identify the capsid proteins, we purified Nora virus particles and analyzed their proteins by mass spectrometry. Our results show that the capsid is built from three major proteins, VP4A, B and C, encoded in the fourth open reading frame of the viral genome. The viral particles also contain traces of a protein from the third open reading frame, VP3. VP4A and B are not closely related to other picorna-like virus capsid proteins in sequence, but may form similar jelly roll folds. VP4C differs from the others and is predicted to have an essentially α-helical conformation. In a related virus, identified from EST database sequences from Nasonia parasitoid wasps, VP4C is encoded in a separate open reading frame, separated from VP4A and B by a frame-shift. This opens a possibility that VP4C is produced in non-equimolar quantities. Altogether, our results suggest that the Nora virus capsid has a different protein organization compared to the order Picornavirales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Nakayama, Emi E; Kono, Ken; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac) are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm). Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh) monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239) is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5). As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  1. General Model for Retroviral Capsid Pattern Recognition by TRIM5 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Christensen, Devin E; Bhattacharya, Akash; Dawidziak, Daria M; Roganowicz, Marcin D; Wan, Yueping; Pumroy, Ruth A; Demeler, Borries; Ivanov, Dmitri N; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Sundquist, Wesley I; Pornillos, Owen

    2018-02-15

    Restriction factors are intrinsic cellular defense proteins that have evolved to block microbial infections. Retroviruses such as HIV-1 are restricted by TRIM5 proteins, which recognize the viral capsid shell that surrounds, organizes, and protects the viral genome. TRIM5α uses a SPRY domain to bind capsids with low intrinsic affinity ( K D of >1 mM) and therefore requires higher-order assembly into a hexagonal lattice to generate sufficient avidity for productive capsid recognition. TRIMCyp, on the other hand, binds HIV-1 capsids through a cyclophilin A domain, which has a well-defined binding site and higher affinity ( K D of ∼10 μM) for isolated capsid subunits. Therefore, it has been argued that TRIMCyp proteins have dispensed with the need for higher-order assembly to function as antiviral factors. Here, we show that, consistent with its high degree of sequence similarity with TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp B-box 2 domain shares the same ability to self-associate and facilitate assembly of a TRIMCyp hexagonal lattice that can wrap about the HIV-1 capsid. We also show that under stringent experimental conditions, TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1 is indeed dependent on higher-order assembly. Both forms of TRIM5 therefore use the same mechanism of avidity-driven capsid pattern recognition. IMPORTANCE Rhesus macaques and owl monkeys are highly resistant to HIV-1 infection due to the activity of TRIM5 restriction factors. The rhesus macaque TRIM5α protein blocks HIV-1 through a mechanism that requires self-assembly of a hexagonal TRIM5α lattice around the invading viral core. Lattice assembly amplifies very weak interactions between the TRIM5α SPRY domain and the HIV-1 capsid. Assembly also promotes dimerization of the TRIM5α RING E3 ligase domain, resulting in synthesis of polyubiquitin chains that mediate downstream steps of restriction. In contrast to rhesus TRIM5α, the owl monkey TRIM5 homolog, TRIMCyp, binds isolated HIV-1 CA subunits much more tightly

  2. Oral Vaccination with a DNA Vaccine Encoding Capsid Protein of Duck Tembusu Virus Induces Protection Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haoyue; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Liu, Yunya; Zhang, Ling; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jing, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), a new member of the Flavivirus genus, has caused great economical loss in the poultry industry in China. Since the outbreak and spread of DTMUV is hard to control in a clinical setting, an efficient and low-cost oral delivery DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-C) based on the capsid protein of DTMUV was developed and evaluated in this study. The antigen capsid protein was expressed from the DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-C), both in vitro and in vivo. The humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo were observed after oral immunization with the SL7207 (pVAX1-C) DNA vaccine. High titers of the specific antibody against the capsid protein and the neutralizing antibody against the DTMUV virus were both detected after inoculation. The ducks were efficiently protected from lethal DTMUV exposure by the SL7207 (pVAX1-C) vaccine in this experiment. Taken together, we demonstrated that the capsid protein of DTMUV possesses a strong immunogenicity against the DTMUV infection. Moreover, an oral delivery of the DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-C) utilizing Salmonella SL7207 was an efficient way to protect the ducks against DTMUV infection and provides an economic and fast vaccine delivery strategy for a large scale clinical use. PMID:29642401

  3. Antibody recognition of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein epitopes after vaccination, infection, and disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) codes for the 233-amino-acid capsid protein (CP). Baculovirus-based vaccines that express only ORF2 are protective against clinical disease following experimental challenge or natural infection. The goal of this study was to identify re...

  4. Effects of Point Mutations in the Major Capsid Protein of Beet Western Yellows Virus on Capsid Formation, Virus Accumulation, and Aphid Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Brault, V.; Bergdoll, M.; Mutterer, J.; Prasad, V.; Pfeffer, S.; Erdinger, M.; Richards, K. E.; Ziegler-Graff, V.

    2003-01-01

    Point mutations were introduced into the major capsid protein (P3) of cloned infectious cDNA of the polerovirus beet western yellows virus (BWYV) by manipulation of cloned infectious cDNA. Seven mutations targeted sites on the S domain predicted to lie on the capsid surface. An eighth mutation eliminated two arginine residues in the R domain, which is thought to extend into the capsid interior. The effects of the mutations on virus capsid formation, virus accumulation in protoplasts and plants, and aphid transmission were tested. All of the mutants replicated in protoplasts. The S-domain mutant W166R failed to protect viral RNA from RNase attack, suggesting that this particular mutation interfered with stable capsid formation. The R-domain mutant R7A/R8A protected ∼90% of the viral RNA strand from RNase, suggesting that lower positive-charge density in the mutant capsid interior interfered with stable packaging of the complete strand into virions. Neither of these mutants systemically infected plants. The six remaining mutants properly packaged viral RNA and could invade Nicotiana clevelandii systemically following agroinfection. Mutant Q121E/N122D was poorly transmitted by aphids, implicating one or both targeted residues in virus-vector interactions. Successful transmission of mutant D172N was accompanied either by reversion to the wild type or by appearance of a second-site mutation, N137D. This finding indicates that D172 is also important for transmission but that the D172N transmission defect can be compensated for by a “reverse” substitution at another site. The results have been used to evaluate possible structural models for the BWYV capsid. PMID:12584348

  5. Phase 1 Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using a Translational Optimized AAV Vector

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Dawn E; McPhee, Scott WJ; Li, Chengwen; Gray, Steven J; Samulski, Jade J; Camp, Angelique S; Li, Juan; Wang, Bing; Monahan, Paul E; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Grieger, Joshua C; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Xiao, Xiao; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and widespread gene transfer is required for successful treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we performed the first clinical trial using a chimeric adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variant (designated AAV2.5) derived from a rational design strategy. AAV2.5 was generated from the AAV2 capsid with five mutations from AAV1. The novel chimeric vector combines the improved muscle transduction capacity of AAV1 with reduced antigenic crossreactivity against both parental serotypes, while keeping the AAV2 receptor binding. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase I clinical study in DMD boys, AAV2.5 vector was injected into the bicep muscle in one arm, with saline control in the contralateral arm. A subset of patients received AAV empty capsid instead of saline in an effort to distinguish an immune response to vector versus minidystrophin transgene. Recombinant AAV genomes were detected in all patients with up to 2.56 vector copies per diploid genome. There was no cellular immune response to AAV2.5 capsid. This trial established that rationally designed AAV2.5 vector was safe and well tolerated, lays the foundation of customizing AAV vectors that best suit the clinical objective (e.g., limb infusion gene delivery) and should usher in the next generation of viral delivery systems for human gene transfer. PMID:22068425

  6. Structural Insights into the Assembly of the Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Rep68 Protein on the Integration Site AAVS1*

    PubMed Central

    Musayev, Faik N.; Zarate-Perez, Francisco; Bishop, Clayton; Burgner, John W.; Escalante, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the only eukaryotic virus with the property of establishing latency by integrating site-specifically into the human genome. The integration site known as AAVS1 is located in chromosome 19 and contains multiple GCTC repeats that are recognized by the AAV non-structural Rep proteins. These proteins are multifunctional, with an N-terminal origin-binding domain (OBD) and a helicase domain joined together by a short linker. As a first step to understand the process of site-specific integration, we proceeded to characterize the recognition and assembly of Rep68 onto the AAVS1 site. We first determined the x-ray structure of AAV-2 Rep68 OBD in complex with the AAVS1 DNA site. Specificity is achieved through the interaction of a glycine-rich loop that binds the major groove and an α-helix that interacts with a downstream minor groove on the same face of the DNA. Although the structure shows a complex with three OBD molecules bound to the AAVS1 site, we show by using analytical centrifugation and electron microscopy that the full-length Rep68 forms a heptameric complex. Moreover, we determined that a minimum of two direct repeats is required to form a stable complex and to melt DNA. Finally, we show that although the individual domains bind DNA poorly, complex assembly requires oligomerization and cooperation between its OBD, helicase, and the linker domains. PMID:26370092

  7. The VP7 Outer Capsid Protein of Rotavirus Induces Polyclonal B-Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    The early response to a homologous rotavirus infection in mice includes a T-cell-independent increase in the number of activated B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches. The mechanism of this activation has not been previously determined. Since rotavirus has a repetitively arranged triple-layered capsid and repetitively arranged antigens can induce activation of B cells, one or more of the capsid proteins could be responsible for the initial activation of B cells during infection. To address this question, we assessed the ability of rotavirus and virus-like particles to induce B-cell activation in vivo and in vitro. Using infectious rotavirus, inactivated rotavirus, noninfectious but replication-competent virus, and virus-like particles, we determined that neither infectivity nor RNA was necessary for B-cell activation but the presence of the rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7, was sufficient for murine B-cell activation. Preincubation of the virus with neutralizing VP7 antibodies inhibited B-cell activation. Polymyxin B treatment and boiling of the virus preparation were performed, which ruled out possible lipopolysaccharide contamination as the source of activation and confirmed that the structural conformation of VP7 is important for B-cell activation. These findings indicate that the structure and conformation of the outer capsid protein, VP7, initiate intestinal B-cell activation during rotavirus infection. PMID:15194774

  8. Genetic modification of adeno-associated viral vector type 2 capsid enhances gene transfer efficiency in polarized human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    White, April F; Mazur, Marina; Sorscher, Eric J; Zinn, Kurt R; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2008-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease characterized by defects in the expression of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Gene therapy offers better hope for the treatment of CF. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are capable of stable expression with low immunogenicity. Despite their potential in CF gene therapy, gene transfer efficiency by AAV is limited because of pathophysiological barriers in these patients. Although a few AAV serotypes have shown better transduction compared with the AAV2-based vectors, gene transfer efficiency in human airway epithelium has still not reached therapeutic levels. To engineer better AAV vectors for enhanced gene delivery in human airway epithelium, we developed and characterized mutant AAV vectors by genetic capsid modification, modeling the well-characterized AAV2 serotype. We genetically incorporated putative high-affinity peptide ligands to human airway epithelium on the GH loop region of AAV2 capsid protein. Six independent mutant AAV were constructed, containing peptide ligands previously reported to bind with high affinity for known and unknown receptors on human airway epithelial cells. The vectors were tested on nonairway cells and nonpolarized and polarized human airway epithelial cells for enhanced infectivity. One of the mutant vectors, with the peptide sequence THALWHT, not only showed the highest transduction in undifferentiated human airway epithelial cells but also indicated significant transduction in polarized cells. Interestingly, this modified vector was also able to infect cells independently of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptor. Incorporation of this ligand on other AAV serotypes, which have shown improved gene transfer efficiency in the human airway epithelium, may enhance the application of AAV vectors in CF gene therapy.

  9. Dynamics and asymmetry in the dimer of the norovirus major capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Tubiana, Thibault; Boulard, Yves; Bressanelli, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans and livestock worldwide, despite being physically among the simplest animal viruses. The icosahedral capsid encasing the norovirus RNA genome is made of 90 dimers of a single ca 60-kDa polypeptide chain, VP1, arranged with T = 3 icosahedral symmetry. Here we study the conformational dynamics of this main building block of the norovirus capsid. We use molecular modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the VP1 dimer for two genogroups with 50% sequence identity. We focus on the two points of flexibility in VP1 known from the crystal structure of the genogroup I (GI, human) capsid and from subsequent cryo-electron microscopy work on the GII capsid (also human). First, with a homology model of the GIII (bovine) VP1 dimer subjected to simulated annealing then classical molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the N-terminal arm conformation seen in the GI crystal structure is also favored in GIII VP1 but depends on the protonation state of critical residues. Second, simulations of the GI dimer show that the VP1 spike domain will not keep the position found in the GII electron microscopy work. Our main finding is a consistent propensity of the VP1 dimer to assume prominently asymmetric conformations. In order to probe this result, we obtain new SAXS data on GI VP1 dimers. These data are not interpretable as a population of symmetric dimers, but readily modeled by a highly asymmetric dimer. We go on to discuss possible implications of spontaneously asymmetric conformations in the successive steps of norovirus capsid assembly. Our work brings new lights on the surprising conformational range encoded in the norovirus major capsid protein.

  10. The flavivirus capsid protein: Structure, function and perspectives towards drug design.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Edson R A; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; de Alencastro, Ricardo B; Horta, Bruno A C

    2017-01-02

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue and zika viruses, are etiologic agents transmitted to humans mainly by arthropods and are of great epidemiological interest. The flavivirus capsid protein is a structural element required for the viral nucleocapsid assembly that presents the classical function of sheltering the viral genome. After decades of research, many reports have shown its different functionalities and influence over cell normal functioning. The subcellular distribution of this protein, which involves accumulation around lipid droplets and nuclear localization, also corroborates with its multi-functional characteristic. As flavivirus diseases are still in need of global control and in view of the possible key functionalities that the capsid protein promotes over flavivirus biology, novel considerations arise towards anti-flavivirus drug research. This review covers the main aspects concerning structural and functional features of the flavivirus C protein, ultimately, highlighting prospects in drug discovery based on this viral target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction. PMID:29342872

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    PubMed

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  14. Examining Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Minor Capsid Proteins | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is a recently discovered member of the viral family Polyomaviridae. It is a skin-dwelling polyomavirus species that appears to cause a rare but highly lethal form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Despite MCC being uncommon, chronic MCV infection of human skin is widespread, and most infected people have no known symptoms. The surface of polyomavirus virions is made up of pentameric knobs of the major capsid protein VP1. VP1 enables attachment of the virus to the cell surface, permitting infectious entry and delivery of the viral genome to host cells. The VP1 protein of previously studied polyomaviruses, such as simian virus 40 and murine polyomavirus, associates with two minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, which are considered to play important roles during the infectious entry process.

  15. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids.

    PubMed

    Schlicksup, Christopher John; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Francis, Samson; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Turner, William W; VanNieuwenhze, Michael; Zlotnick, Adam

    2018-01-29

    Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks. To achieve high resolution reconstruction (<4 Å), we introduced a disulfide crosslink that rescued particle symmetry. We deduced that HAP-TAMRA caused quasi-sixfold vertices to become flatter and fivefold more angular. This transition led to asymmetric faceting. That a disordered crosslink could rescue symmetry implies that capsids have tensegrity properties. Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. © 2017, Schlicksup et al.

  16. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids

    PubMed Central

    Schlicksup, Christopher John; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Francis, Samson; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Turner, William W; VanNieuwenhze, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks. To achieve high resolution reconstruction (<4 Å), we introduced a disulfide crosslink that rescued particle symmetry. We deduced that HAP-TAMRA caused quasi-sixfold vertices to become flatter and fivefold more angular. This transition led to asymmetric faceting. That a disordered crosslink could rescue symmetry implies that capsids have tensegrity properties. Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. PMID:29377794

  17. Hepatitis virus protein X-Phenylalanine Hydroxylase fusion proteins identified in PKU mice treated with AAV-WPRE vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilizing the Pahenu2 mouse model for phenylketonuria (PKU), we developed an improved expression vector containing the Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus post-transcriptional regulatory element inserted into a rAAV-mPAH construct (rAAV-mPAH-WPRE) for treatment of PKU. Following portal vein delivery of these ...

  18. Expression and immunological analysis of capsid protein precursor of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Wu, Jing-yan; Shang, You-jun; Ying, Shuang-hui; Zheng, Hai-xue; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2010-06-01

    VP1, a capsid protein of swine vesicular disease virus, was cloned from the SVDV HK/70 strain and inserted into retroviral vector pBABE puro, and expressed in PK15 cells by an retroviral expression system. The ability of the VP1 protein to induce an immune response was then evaluated in guinea pigs. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that the VP1 protein can be recognized by SVDV positive serum, Furthermore, anti-SVDV specific antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation were elicited and increased by VP1 protein after vaccination. These results encourage further work towards the development of a vaccine against SVDV infection.

  19. Synergistic inhibition of PARP-1 and NF-κB signaling downregulates immune response against recombinant AAV2 vectors during hepatic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Hareendran, Sangeetha; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Jayandharan, Giridhara R

    2016-01-01

    Host immune response remains a key obstacle to widespread application of adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene therapy. Thus, targeted inhibition of the signaling pathways that trigger such immune responses will be beneficial. Previous studies have reported that DNA damage response proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) negatively affect the integration of AAV in the host genome. However, the role of PARP-1 in regulating AAV transduction and the immune response against these vectors has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that repression of PARP-1 improves the transduction of single-stranded AAV vectors both in vitro (∼174%) and in vivo (two- to 3.4-fold). Inhibition of PARP-1, also significantly downregulated the expression of several proinflammatory and cytokine markers such as TLRs, ILs, NF-κB subunit proteins associated with the host innate response against self-complementary AAV2 vectors. The suppression of the inflammatory response targeted against these vectors was more effective upon combined inhibition of PARP-1 and NF-κB signaling. This strategy also effectively attenuated the AAV capsid-specific cytotoxic T-cell response, with minimal effect on vector transduction, as demonstrated in normal C57BL/6 and hemophilia B mice. These data suggest that targeting specific host cellular proteins could be useful to attenuate the immune barriers to AAV-mediated gene therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Small But Increasingly Mighty: Latest Advances in AAV Vector Research, Design, and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Dirk; Büning, Hildegard

    2017-11-01

    Recombinant gene delivery vectors derived from naturally occurring or genetically engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have taken center stage in human gene therapy, fueled by rapidly accumulating and highly encouraging clinical data. Nonetheless, it has also become evident that the current generation of AAV vectors will require improvements in transduction potency, antibody evasion, and cell specificity in order to realize their full potential and to widen applicability in larger patient cohorts. Fortunately, in the recent past, the field has seen a flurry of exciting new developments that enhance our understanding of AAV vector biology, including virus-host interactions, and/or that expand our arsenal of technologies for AAV capsid design and evolution. This review highlights a collection of latest advances in these areas, which, in the authors' opinion, hold particular promise to propel the AAV vector field forward in the near future, especially when applied in combination. These include fundamental novel insights into the AAV life cycle, from an unexpected role of autophagy and interactions with other viruses to the (re-)discovery of a universal AAV receptor and the function of AAV-AAP for capsid assembly. Concurrently, recent successes in the rational design of next-generation synthetic AAV capsids are pointed out, exemplified by the structure-guided derivation of AAV mutants displaying robust in vivo immune evasion. Finally, a variety of new and innovative strategies for high-throughput generation and screening of AAV capsid libraries are briefly reviewed, including Cre recombinase-based selection, ancestral AAV capsid reconstruction, and DNA barcoding of AAV genomes. All of these examples showcase the present momentum in the AAV field and, together with work by many other academic or industrial entities, raise substantial optimism that the remaining hurdles for human gene therapy with AAV vectors will (soon) be overcome.

  1. Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam; Liu, Xiang; Zaid, Ali; Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Hall, Roy A; Merits, Andres; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-02-21

    Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design. IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen capable of causing explosive epidemics of incapacitating joint pain

  2. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro-Dystrophin Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    minidystrophin gene (a gift from Dr Jeffrey Chamberlain at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA) and the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation...full-length micro-dystrophin protein. Dys-2 is a short peptide in the wild-type full-length dystrophin. It can be recognized by the Dys-2...muscle. In one approach, a muscle homing peptide is inserted on the surface of the capsid to facilitate the entry of AAV into muscle cells. In the

  3. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-3-based vectors transduce haematopoietic cells not susceptible to transduction with AAV-2-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Handa, A; Muramatsu, S; Qiu, J; Mizukami, H; Brown, K E

    2000-08-01

    Although adeno-associated virus (AAV)-2 has a broad tissue-host range and can transduce a wide variety of tissue types, some cells, such as erythro-megakaryoblastoid cells, are non-permissive and appear to lack the AAV-2 receptor. However, limited studies have been reported with the related dependovirus AAV-3. We have previously cloned this virus, characterized its genome and produced an infectious clone. In this study, the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted into AAV-2- and AAV-3-based plasmids and recombinant viruses were produced. These viruses were then used to transduce haematopoietic cells and the transduction efficiencies were compared. In contrast to recombinant (r) AAV-2, rAAV-3 successfully transduced erythroid and megakaryoblastoid cells, although rAAV-2 was superior in transduction of lymphocyte-derived cell lines. Recently, it was reported that heparan sulphate can act as a receptor of AAV-2. The infectivity of rAAV-2 and rAAV-3 was tested with mutant cell lines of Chinese hamster ovary cells that were defective for heparin or heparan sulphate expression on the cell surface. There was no correlation between the ability of rAAV-2 or rAAV-3 to infect cells and the cell surface expression of heparan sulphate and, although heparin blocked both rAAV-2 and rAAV-3 transduction, the ID(50) of rAAV-3 was higher than that of rAAV-2. In addition, virus-binding overlay assays indicated that AAV-2 and AAV-3 bound different membrane proteins. These results suggest not only that there are different cellular receptors for AAV-2 and AAV-3, but that rAAV-3 vectors may be preferred for transduction of some haematopoietic cell types.

  4. Antibody Competition Reveals Surface Location of HPV L2 Minor Capsid Protein Residues 17-36.

    PubMed

    Bywaters, Stephanie M; Brendle, Sarah A; Tossi, Kerstin P; Biryukov, Jennifer; Meyers, Craig; Christensen, Neil D

    2017-11-10

    The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion. Adding to the difficulties in localizing L2, studies have suggested that L2 epitopes are not well exposed on the surface of the mature capsid prior to cellular engagement. Using a series of competition assays between previously mapped anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (H16.V5, H16.U4 and H16.7E) and novel anti-L2 mAbs, we probed the capsid surface for the location of an L2 epitope (aa17-36). The previously characterized L1 epitopes together with our competition data is consistent with a proposed L2 epitope within the canyons of pentavalent capsomers.

  5. Antibody Competition Reveals Surface Location of HPV L2 Minor Capsid Protein Residues 17–36

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, Stephanie M.; Brendle, Sarah A.; Tossi, Kerstin P.; Biryukov, Jennifer; Meyers, Craig; Christensen, Neil D.

    2017-01-01

    The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion. Adding to the difficulties in localizing L2, studies have suggested that L2 epitopes are not well exposed on the surface of the mature capsid prior to cellular engagement. Using a series of competition assays between previously mapped anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (H16.V5, H16.U4 and H16.7E) and novel anti-L2 mAbs, we probed the capsid surface for the location of an L2 epitope (aa17–36). The previously characterized L1 epitopes together with our competition data is consistent with a proposed L2 epitope within the canyons of pentavalent capsomers. PMID:29125554

  6. pH shift assembly of adenoviral serotype 5 capsid protein nanosystems for enhanced delivery of nanoparticles, proteins and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vidhya R; Upadhyay, Arun K; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-11-28

    Empty adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) capsids devoid of viral genome were developed as a novel delivery system for nanoparticles, proteins, and nucleic acids. Ad5 capsids of 110 nm diameter undergo an increase in particle size to 1637 nm in 1mM acetic acid at pH4.0 and then shrink to 60 nm, following pH reversal to 7.4. These pH shifts induced reversible changes in capsid zeta potential and secondary structure and irreversible changes in tertiary structure of capsid proteins. Using pH shift dependent changes in capsid size and structure, 20 nm fluorescent nanoparticles, FITC-BSA, and Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugated siRNA were encapsulated with high efficiency in Ad5 capsids, as confirmed by electron microscopy and/or flow cytometry. HEK cell uptake with capsid delivery system was 7.8-, 7.4-, and 2.9-fold greater for nanoparticles, FITC-BSA, and Alexa-siRNA, respectively, when compared to plain solutes. Physical mixtures of capsids and fluorescent solutes exhibited less capsid associated fluorescence intensity and cell uptake. Further, unlike physical mixture, pH shift assembled Ad5 capsids protected siRNA from RNase degradation. Ad5 capsids before and after pH shift exhibited endolysosomal escape. Thus, empty Ad5 capsids can encapsulate a variety of solutes based on pH shift assembly, resulting in enhanced cellular delivery. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Fenja; Rother, Franziska; Rudolph, Kathrin; Prank, Ute; Binz, Anne; Hügel, Stefanie; Hartmann, Enno; Bader, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses which depend on many nuclear functions, and therefore on host transport factors to ensure specific nuclear import of viral and host components. While some import cargoes bind directly to certain transport factors, most recruit importin β1 via importin α. We identified importin α1 in a small targeted siRNA screen to be important for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) gene expression. Production of infectious virions was delayed in the absence of importin α1, but not in cells lacking importin α3 or importin α4. While nuclear targeting of the incoming capsids, of the HSV-1 transcription activator VP16, and of the viral genomes were not affected, the nuclear import of the HSV-1 proteins ICP4 and ICP0, required for efficient viral transcription, and of ICP8 and pUL42, necessary for DNA replication, were reduced. Furthermore, quantitative electron microscopy showed that fibroblasts lacking importin α1 contained overall fewer nuclear capsids, but an increased proportion of mature nuclear capsids indicating that capsid formation and capsid egress into the cytoplasm were impaired. In neurons, importin α1 was also not required for nuclear targeting of incoming capsids, but for nuclear import of ICP4 and for the formation of nuclear capsid assembly compartments. Our data suggest that importin α1 is specifically required for the nuclear localization of several important HSV1 proteins, capsid assembly, and capsid egress into the cytoplasm, and may become rate limiting in situ upon infection at low multiplicity or in terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. PMID:29304174

  8. Bacteriophage P23-77 Capsid Protein Structures Reveal the Archetype of an Ancient Branch from a Major Virus Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Ilona; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Pawlowski, Alice; Mäntynen, Sari; Harlos, Karl; Bamford, Jaana K.H.; Stuart, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has proved difficult to classify viruses unless they are closely related since their rapid evolution hinders detection of remote evolutionary relationships in their genetic sequences. However, structure varies more slowly than sequence, allowing deeper evolutionary relationships to be detected. Bacteriophage P23-77 is an example of a newly identified viral lineage, with members inhabiting extreme environments. We have solved multiple crystal structures of the major capsid proteins VP16 and VP17 of bacteriophage P23-77. They fit the 14 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the entire virus exquisitely well, allowing us to propose a model for both the capsid architecture and viral assembly, quite different from previously published models. The structures of the capsid proteins and their mode of association to form the viral capsid suggest that the P23-77-like and adeno-PRD1 lineages of viruses share an extremely ancient common ancestor. PMID:23623731

  9. Non-encapsidation Activities of the Capsid Proteins of Positive-strand RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Peng; Kao, C. Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Viral capsid proteins (CPs) are characterized by their role in forming protective shells around viral genomes. However, CPs have additional and important roles in the virus infection cycles and in the cellular response to infection. These activities involve CP binding to RNAs in both sequence-specific and nonspecific manners as well as association with other proteins. This review focuses on CPs of both plant and animal-infecting viruses with positive-strand RNA genomes. We summarize the structural features of CPs and describe their modulatory roles in viral translation, RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, and host defense responses. PMID:24074574

  10. Phosphorylation of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The structural proteins of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus, the first known nonmammalian polyomavirus, were analyzed by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The major capsid protein VP1 was found to be composed of at least five distinct species having isoelectric points ranging from pH 6.45 to 5.85. By analogy with the murine polyomavirus, these species apparently result from different modifications of an initial translation product. Primary chicken embryo cells were infected in the presence of 32Pi to determine whether the virus structural proteins were modified by phosphorylation. SDS-PAGE of the purified virus structural proteins demonstrated that VP1 (along with both minor capsid proteins) was phosphorylated. Two-dimensional analysis of the radiolabeled virus showed phosphorylation of only the two most acidic isoelectric species of VP1, indicating that this posttranslational modification contributes to VP1 species heterogeneity. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP1 revealed that phosphoserine is the only phosphoamino acid present in the VP1 protein.

  11. Structures of the major capsid proteins of the human Karolinska Institutet and Washington University polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Neu, Ursula; Wang, Jianbo; Macejak, Dennis; Garcea, Robert L; Stehle, Thilo

    2011-07-01

    The Karolinska Institutet and Washington University polyomaviruses (KIPyV and WUPyV, respectively) are recently discovered human viruses that infect the respiratory tract. Although they have not yet been linked to disease, they are prevalent in populations worldwide, with initial infection occurring in early childhood. Polyomavirus capsids consist of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1), which determines antigenicity and receptor specificity. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 proteins are distant in evolution from VP1 proteins of known structure such as simian virus 40 or murine polyomavirus. We present here the crystal structures of unassembled recombinant WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 pentamers at resolutions of 2.9 and 2.55 Å, respectively. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 core structures fold into the same β-sandwich that is a hallmark of all polyomavirus VP1 proteins crystallized to date. However, differences in sequence translate into profoundly different surface loop structures in KIPyV and WUPyV VP1 proteins. Such loop structures have not been observed for other polyomaviruses, and they provide initial clues about the possible interactions of these viruses with cell surface receptors.

  12. Improved dual AAV vectors with reduced expression of truncated proteins are safe and effective in the retina of a mouse model of Stargardt disease

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Ivana; Toriello, Elisabetta; de Simone, Sonia; Colella, Pasqualina; Iodice, Carolina; Polishchuk, Elena V.; Sommella, Andrea; Colecchi, Linda; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Giunti, Massimo; Bacci, Maria L.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Auricchio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. We have shown that dual adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors effectively transfer ABCA4 to the retina of Abca4−/− mice. However, they express both lower levels of transgene compared with a single AAV and truncated proteins. To increase productive dual AAV concatemerization, which would overcome these limitations, we have explored the use of either various regions of homology or heterologous inverted terminal repeats (ITR). In addition, we tested the ability of various degradation signals to decrease the expression of truncated proteins. We found the highest levels of transgene expression using regions of homology based on either alkaline phosphatase or the F1 phage (AK). The use of heterologous ITR does not decrease the levels of truncated proteins relative to full-length ABCA4 and impairs AAV vector production. Conversely, the inclusion of the CL1 degradation signal results in the selective degradation of truncated proteins from the 5′-half without affecting full-length protein production. Therefore, we developed dual AAV hybrid ABCA4 vectors including homologous ITR2, the photoreceptor-specific G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 promoter, the AK region of homology and the CL1 degradation signal. We show that upon subretinal administration these vectors are both safe in pigs and effective in Abca4−/− mice. Our data support the use of improved dual AAV vectors for gene therapy of STGD1. PMID:26420842

  13. Improved dual AAV vectors with reduced expression of truncated proteins are safe and effective in the retina of a mouse model of Stargardt disease.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Ivana; Toriello, Elisabetta; de Simone, Sonia; Colella, Pasqualina; Iodice, Carolina; Polishchuk, Elena V; Sommella, Andrea; Colecchi, Linda; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Giunti, Massimo; Bacci, Maria L; Polishchuk, Roman S; Auricchio, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. We have shown that dual adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors effectively transfer ABCA4 to the retina of Abca4-/- mice. However, they express both lower levels of transgene compared with a single AAV and truncated proteins. To increase productive dual AAV concatemerization, which would overcome these limitations, we have explored the use of either various regions of homology or heterologous inverted terminal repeats (ITR). In addition, we tested the ability of various degradation signals to decrease the expression of truncated proteins. We found the highest levels of transgene expression using regions of homology based on either alkaline phosphatase or the F1 phage (AK). The use of heterologous ITR does not decrease the levels of truncated proteins relative to full-length ABCA4 and impairs AAV vector production. Conversely, the inclusion of the CL1 degradation signal results in the selective degradation of truncated proteins from the 5'-half without affecting full-length protein production. Therefore, we developed dual AAV hybrid ABCA4 vectors including homologous ITR2, the photoreceptor-specific G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 promoter, the AK region of homology and the CL1 degradation signal. We show that upon subretinal administration these vectors are both safe in pigs and effective in Abca4-/- mice. Our data support the use of improved dual AAV vectors for gene therapy of STGD1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies against Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Types 2, 5, and 6 in Cystic Fibrosis and Normal Populations: Implications for Gene Therapy using AAV Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Christine L.; Miller, A. Dusty; McNamara, Sharon; Emerson, Julia; Gibson, Ronald L.; Ramsey, Bonnie; Aitken, Moira L.

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising candidates for gene therapy directed to the lungs, in particular for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). In animal models of lung gene transfer, neutralizing antibodies in serum made in response to vector exposure have been associated with a partial to complete block to repeat transduction by vectors with the same capsid type, thus transduction by AAV vectors might be inefficient in humans previously exposed to the same AAV type. AAV type 2 (AAV2) has been used in clinical trials of lung gene transfer, but AAV5 and AAV6 have been shown to mediate more efficient transduction in rodent lungs and in cultured human airway epithelia compared to that of AAV2. Here we have measured neutralizing antibodies against AAV type 2, 5, and 6 vectors in serum from children and adults with CF, and from normal adults. About 30% of adults were seropositive for AAV2, 20–30% were seropositive for AAV6, and 10–20% were seropositive for AAV5. CF children were seropositive for AAV types 2, 5, or 6 at rates of 4–15%. All individuals seropositive for AAV6 were also seropositive for AAV2, and the AAV6 titer was low compared to the AAV2 titer. AAV5-positive sera were lower both in titers and rates than those seen for AAV6. The results indicate that AAV type 2, 5 or 6 exposure is low in CF and control populations and even lower in CF children. PMID:16610931

  15. West Nile Virus-Induced Neuroinflammation: Glial Infection and Capsid Protein-Mediated Neurovirulence▿

    PubMed Central

    van Marle, Guido; Antony, Joseph; Ostermann, Heather; Dunham, Christopher; Hunt, Tracey; Halliday, William; Maingat, Ferdinand; Urbanowski, Matt D.; Hobman, Tom; Peeling, James; Power, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection causes neurological disease at all levels of the neural axis, accompanied by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss, although the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Given the substantial activation of neuroinflammatory pathways observed in WNV infection, we hypothesized that WNV-mediated neuroinflammation and cell death occurred through WNV infection of both glia and neurons, which was driven in part by WNV capsid protein expression. Analysis of autopsied neural tissues from humans with WNV encephalomyelitis (WNVE) revealed WNV infection of both neurons and glia. Upregulation of proinflammatory genes, CXCL10, interleukin-1β, and indolamine-2′,3′-deoxygenase with concurrent suppression of the protective astrocyte-specific endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor gene, OASIS (for old astrocyte specifically induced substance), was evident in WNVE patients compared to non-WNVE controls. These findings were supported by increased ex vivo expression of these proinflammatory genes in glia infected by WNV-NY99. WNV infection caused endoplasmic reticulum stress gene induction and apoptosis in neurons but did not affect glial viability. WNV-infected astrocytic cells secreted cytotoxic factors, which caused neuronal apoptosis. The expression of the WNV-NY99 capsid protein in neurons and glia by a Sindbis virus-derived vector (SINrep5-WNVc) caused neuronal death and the release of neurotoxic factors by infected astrocytes, coupled with proinflammatory gene induction and suppression of OASIS. Striatal implantation of SINrep5-WNVC induced neuroinflammation in rats, together with the induction of CXCL10 and diminished OASIS expression, compared to controls. Moreover, magnetic resonance neuroimaging showed edema and tissue injury in the vicinity of the SINrep5-WNVc implantation site compared to controls, which was complemented by neurobehavioral abnormalities in the SINrep5-WNVc-implanted animals. These studies underscore the important

  16. Polyvalent Display of Heme on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Protein through Coordination to Hexahistidine Tags

    PubMed Central

    Prasuhn, Duane E.; Kuzelka, Jane; Strable, Erica; Udit, Andrew K.; Cho, So-Hye; Lander, Gabriel C.; Quispe, Joel D.; Diers, James R.; Bocian, David F.; Potter, Clint; Carragher, Bridget; Finn, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The addition of a hexahistidine tag to the N terminus of the hepatitis B capsid protein gives rise to a self-assembled particle with 80 sites of high local density of histidine side chains. Iron protoporphyrin IX has been found to bind tightly at each of these sites, making a polyvalent system of well-defined spacing between metalloporphyrin complexes. The spectroscopic and redox properties of the resulting particle are consistent with the presence of 80 site-isolated bis(histidine)-bound heme centers, comprising a polyvalent b-type cytochrome mimic. PMID:18482703

  17. AAV9-mediated engineering of autotransplanted kidney of non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Tomasoni, S; Trionfini, P; Azzollini, N; Zentilin, L; Giacca, M; Aiello, S; Longaretti, L; Cozzi, E; Baldan, N; Remuzzi, G; Benigni, A

    2017-05-01

    Ex vivo gene transfer to the graft before transplantation is an attractive option for circumventing systemic side effects of chronic antirejection therapy. Gene delivery of the immunomodulatory protein cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4-Ig) prevented chronic kidney rejection in a rat model of allotransplantation without the need for systemic immunosuppression. Here we generated adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) and AAV9 vectors encoding for LEA29Y, an optimized version of CTLA4-Ig. Both LEA29Y vectors were equally efficient for reducing T-cell proliferation in vitro. Serotype 9 was chosen for in vivo experiments owing to a lower frequency of preformed antibodies against the AAV9 capsid in 16 non-human primate tested sera. AAV9-LEA29Y was able to transduce the kidney of non-human primates in an autotransplantation model. Expression of LEA29Y mRNA by renal cells translated into the production of the corresponding protein, which was confined to the graft but not detected in serum. Results in non-human primates represent a step forward in maintaining the portability of this strategy into clinics.

  18. Orthogonal labeling of M13 minor capsid proteins with DNA to self-assemble end-to-end multiphage structures.

    PubMed

    Hess, Gaelen T; Guimaraes, Carla P; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L; Belcher, Angela M

    2013-09-20

    M13 bacteriophage has been used as a scaffold to organize materials for various applications. Building more complex multiphage devices requires precise control of interactions between the M13 capsid proteins. Toward this end, we engineered a loop structure onto the pIII capsid protein of M13 bacteriophage to enable sortase-mediated labeling reactions for C-terminal display. Combining this with N-terminal sortase-mediated labeling, we thus created a phage scaffold that can be labeled orthogonally on three capsid proteins: the body and both ends. We show that covalent attachment of different DNA oligonucleotides at the ends of the new phage structure enables formation of multiphage particles oriented in a specific order. These have potential as nanoscale scaffolds for multi-material devices.

  19. Hepatitis E virus capsid protein assembles in 4M urea in the presence of salts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Pan, Huirong; Wei, Minxi; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Nan; Gu, Ying; Du, Hailian; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-03-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein has been demonstrated to be able to assemble into particles in vitro. However, this process and the mechanism of protein-protein interactions during particle assembly remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the assembly mechanism of HEV structural protein subunits, the capsid protein p239 (aa368-606), using analytical ultracentrifugation. It was the first to observe that the p239 can form particles in 4M urea as a result of supplementation with salt, including ammonium sulfate [(NH₄)₂SO₄], sodium sulfate (Na₂SO₄), sodium chloride (NaCl), and ammonium chloride (NH₄Cl). Interestingly, it is the ionic strength that determines the efficiency of promoting particle assembly. The assembly rate was affected by temperature and salt concentration. When (NH₄)₂SO₄ was used, assembling intermediates of p239 with sedimentation coefficient values of approximately 5 S, which were mostly dodecamers, were identified for the first time. A highly conserved 28-aa region (aa368-395) of p239 was found to be critical for particle assembly, and the hydrophobic residues Leu³⁷², Leu³⁷⁵, and Leu³⁹⁵ of p239 was found to be critical for particle assembly, which was revealed by site-directed mutagenesis. This study provides new insights into the assembly mechanism of native HEV, and contributes a valuable basis for further investigations of protein assembly by hydrophobic interactions under denaturing conditions. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  20. Dynamic Virus-Dependent Subnuclear Localization of the Capsid Protein from a Geminivirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Tan, Huang; Wu, Mengshi; Jimenez-Gongora, Tamara; Tan, Li; Lozano-Duran, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular parasites with a nucleic acid genome and a proteinaceous capsid. Viral capsids are formed of at least one virus-encoded capsid protein (CP), which is often multifunctional, playing additional non-structural roles during the infection cycle. In animal viruses, there are examples of differential localization of CPs associated to the progression of the infection and/or enabled by other viral proteins; these changes in the distribution of CPs may ultimately regulate the involvement of these proteins in different viral functions. In this work, we analyze the subcellular localization of a GFP- or RFP-fused CP from the plant virus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Fam. Geminiviridae) in the presence or absence of the virus upon transient expression in the host plants Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato. Our findings show that, in agreement with previous reports, when the CP is expressed alone it localizes mainly in the nucleolus and weakly in the nucleoplasm. Interestingly, the presence of the virus causes the sequential re-localization of the CP outside of the nucleolus and into discrete nuclear foci and, eventually, into an uneven distribution in the nucleoplasm. Expression of the viral replication-associated protein, Rep, is sufficient to exclude the CP from the nucleolus, but the localization of the CP in the characteristic patterns induced by the virus cannot be recapitulated by co-expression with any individual viral protein. Our results demonstrate that the subcellular distribution of the CP is a dynamic process, temporally regulated throughout the progression of the infection. The regulation of the localization of the CP is determined by the presence of other viral components or changes in the cellular environment induced by the virus, and is likely to contribute to the multifunctionality of this protein. Bearing in mind these observations, we suggest that viral proteins should be studied in the context of the infection and considering

  1. Different architectures in the assembly of infectious bursal disease virus capsid proteins expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Castón, J R; Castro, M; Carrascosa, J L; Rodriguez, J F; Casal, J I

    2000-12-20

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsid is formed by the processing of a large polyprotein and subsequent assembly of VPX/VP2 and VP3. To learn more about the processing of the polyprotein and factors affecting the correct assembly of the viral capsid in vitro, different constructs were made using two baculovirus transfer vectors, pFastBac and pAcYM1. Surprisingly, the expression of the capsid proteins gave rise to different types of particles in each system, as observed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. FastBac expression led to the production of only rigid tubular structures, similar to those described as type I in viral infection. Western blot analysis revealed that these rigid tubules are formed exclusively by VPX. These tubules revealed a hexagonal arrangement of units that are trimer clustered, similar to those observed in IBDV virions. In contrast, pAcYM1 expression led to the assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs), flexible tubules, and intermediate assembly products formed by icosahedral caps elongated in tubes, suggesting an aberrant morphogenesis. Processing of VPX to VP2 seems to be a crucial requirement for the proper morphogenesis and assembly of IBDV particles. After immunoelectron microscopy, VPX/VP2 was detected on the surface of tubules and VLPs. We also demonstrated that VP3 is found only on the inner surfaces of VLPs and caps of the tubular structures. In summary, assembly of VLPs requires the internal scaffolding of VP3, which seems to induce the closing of the tubular architecture into VLPs and, thereafter, the subsequent processing of VPX to VP2. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Viral chimeras decrypt the role of enterovirus capsid proteins in viral tropism, acid sensitivity and optimal growth temperature

    PubMed Central

    Royston, Léna; Essaidi-Laziosi, Manel; Piuz, Isabelle; Geiser, Johan; Huang, Song; Kaiser, Laurent; Garcin, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarities, enteric and respiratory enteroviruses (EVs) have highly heterogeneous biophysical properties and cause a vast diversity of human pathologies. In vitro differences include acid sensitivity, optimal growth temperature and tissue tropism, which reflect a preferential in vivo replication in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and are thus key determinants of EV virulence. To investigate the underlying cause of these differences, we generated chimeras at the capsid-level between EV-D68 (a respiratory EV) and EV-D94 (an enteric EV). Although some chimeras were nonfunctional, EV-D94 with both the capsid and 2A protease or the capsid only of EV-D68 were both viable. Using this latter construct, we performed several functional assays, which indicated that capsid proteins determine acid sensitivity and tropism in cell lines and in respiratory, intestinal and neural tissues. Additionally, capsid genes were shown to also participate in determining the optimal growth temperature, since EV-D94 temperature adaptation relied on single mutations in VP1, while constructs with EV-D68 capsid could not adapt to higher temperatures. Finally, we demonstrate that EV-D68 maintains residual binding-capacity after acid-treatment despite a loss of infectivity. In contrast, non-structural rather than capsid proteins modulate the innate immune response in tissues. These unique biophysical insights expose another layer in the phenotypic diversity of one of world’s most prevalent pathogens and could aid target selection for vaccine or antiviral development. PMID:29630666

  3. A Bacteriophage Capsid Protein Is an Inhibitor of a Conserved Transcription Terminator of Various Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gairika; Reddy, Jayavardhana; Sambhare, Susmit; Sen, Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    Rho is a hexameric molecular motor that functions as a conserved transcription terminator in the majority of bacterial species and is a potential drug target. Psu is a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein that inhibits Escherichia coli Rho by obstructing its ATPase and translocase activities. In this study, we explored the anti-Rho activity of Psu for Rho proteins from different pathogens. Sequence alignment and homology modeling of Rho proteins from pathogenic bacteria revealed the conserved nature of the Psu-interacting regions in all these proteins. We chose Rho proteins from various pathogens, including Mycobacterium smegmatis , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Xanthomonas campestris , Xanthomonas oryzae , Corynebacterium glutamicum , Vibrio cholerae , Salmonella enterica , and Pseudomonas syringae The purified recombinant Rho proteins of these organisms showed variable rates of ATP hydrolysis on poly(rC) as the substrate and were capable of releasing RNA from the E. coli transcription elongation complexes. Psu was capable of inhibiting these two functions of all these Rho proteins. In vivo pulldown assays revealed direct binding of Psu with many of these Rho proteins. In vivo expression of psu induced killing of M. smegmatis , M. bovis , X. campestris , and E. coli expressing S. enterica Rho indicating Psu-induced inhibition of Rho proteins of these strains under physiological conditions. We propose that the "universal" inhibitory function of the Psu protein against the Rho proteins from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria could be useful for designing peptides with antimicrobial functions and that these peptides could contribute to synergistic antibiotic treatment of the pathogens by compromising the Rho functions. IMPORTANCE Bacteriophage-derived protein factors modulating different bacterial processes could be converted into unique antimicrobial agents. Bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu is an inhibitor of the E. coli transcription

  4. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Three Novel Linear Neutralizing B-Cell Epitopes in the Capsid Protein of Swine Hepatitis E Virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyang; Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Li, Huixia; Du, Taofeng; Nan, Yuchen; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2018-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes liver disease in humans and is thought to be a zoonotic infection, with domestic animals, including swine and rabbits, being a reservoir. One of the proteins encoded by the virus is the capsid protein. This is likely the major immune-dominant protein and a target for vaccination. Four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), three novel, 1E4, 2C7, and 2G9, and one previously characterized, 1B5, were evaluated for binding to the capsid protein from genotype 4 swine HEV. The results indicated that 625 DFCP 628 , 458 PSRPF 462 , and 407 EPTV 410 peptides on the capsid protein comprised minimal amino acid sequence motifs recognized by 1E4, 2C7, and 2G9, respectively. The data suggested that 2C7 and 2G9 epitopes were partially exposed on the surface of the capsid protein. Truncated genotype 4 swine HEV capsid protein (sp239, amino acids 368 to 606) can exist in multimeric forms. Preincubation of swine HEV with 2C7, 2G9, or 1B5 before addition to HepG2 cells partially blocked sp239 cell binding and inhibited swine HEV infection. The study indicated that 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 partially blocked swine HEV infection of rabbits better than 1E4 or normal mouse IgG. The cross-reactivity of antibodies suggested that capsid epitopes recognized by 2C7 and 2G9 are common to HEV strains infecting most host species. Collectively, MAbs 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 were shown to recognize three novel linear neutralizing B-cell epitopes of genotype 4 HEV capsid protein. These results enhance understanding of HEV capsid protein structure to guide vaccine and antiviral design. IMPORTANCE Genotype 3 and 4 HEVs are zoonotic viruses. Here, genotype 4 HEV was studied due to its prevalence in human populations and pig herds in China. To improve HEV disease diagnosis and prevention, a better understanding of the antigenic structure and neutralizing epitopes of HEV capsid protein are needed. In this study, the locations of three novel linear B-cell recognition epitopes within genotype 4

  6. Polymers for Improving the In Vivo Transduction Efficiency of AAV2 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Moulay, Gilles; Boutin, Sylvie; Masurier, Carole; Scherman, Daniel; Kichler, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Background Adeno-associated virus has attracted great attention as vehicle for body-wide gene delivery. However, for the successful treatment of a disease such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy infusion of very large amounts of vectors is required. This not only raises questions about the technical feasibility of the large scale production but also about the overall safety of the approach. One way to overcome these problems would be to find strategies able to increase the in vivo efficiency. Methodology Here, we investigated whether polymers can act as adjuvants to increase the in vivo efficiency of AAV2. Our strategy consisted in the pre-injection of polymers before intravenous administration of mice with AAV2 encoding a murine secreted alkaline phosphatase (mSeAP). The transgene expression, vector biodistribution and tissue transduction were studied by quantification of the mSeAP protein and real time PCR. The injection of polyinosinic acid and polylysine resulted in an increase of plasmatic mSeAP of 2- and 12-fold, respectively. Interestingly, polyinosinic acid pre-injection significantly reduced the neutralizing antibody titer raised against AAV2. Conclusions Our results show that the pre-injection of polymers can improve the overall transduction efficiency of systemically administered AAV2 and reduce the humoral response against the capsid proteins. PMID:21203395

  7. Mapping and Engineering Functional Domains of the Assembly Activating Protein of Adeno-Associated Viruses.

    PubMed

    Tse, Longping V; Moller-Tank, Sven; Meganck, Rita M; Asokan, Aravind

    2018-04-25

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) encode a unique assembly activating protein (AAP) within their genome that is essential for capsid assembly. Studies to date have focused on establishing the role of AAP as a chaperone that mediates stability, nucleolar transport, and assembly of AAV capsid proteins. Here, we map structure-function correlates of AAP using secondary structure analysis followed by deletion and substitutional mutagenesis of specific domains, namely, the hydrophobic N-terminal domain (HR), conserved core (CC), proline-rich region (PRR), threonine/serine rich region (T/S) and basic region (BR). First, we establish that the centrally located PRR and T/S regions are flexible linker domains that can either be deleted completely or replaced by heterologous functional domains that enable ancillary functions such as fluorescent imaging or increased AAP stability. We also demonstrate that the C-terminal BR domains can be substituted with heterologous nuclear or nucleolar localization sequences that display varying ability to support AAV capsid assembly. Further, by replacing the BR domain with immunoglobulin (IgG) Fc domains, we assessed AAP complexation with AAV capsid subunits and demonstrate that the hydrophobic region (HR) and the conserved core (CC) in the AAP N-terminus are the sole determinants for viral protein (VP) recognition. However, VP recognition alone is not sufficient for capsid assembly. Our study sheds light on the modular structure-function correlates of AAP and provides multiple approaches to engineer AAP that might prove useful towards understanding and controlling AAV capsid assembly. Importance: Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) encode a unique assembly activating protein (AAP) within their genome that is essential for capsid assembly. Understanding how AAP acts as a chaperone for viral assembly could help improve efficiency and potentially control this process. Our studies reveal that AAP has a modular architecture, with each module playing a

  8. Identification of Immunogenic Hot Spots within Plum Pox Potyvirus Capsid Protein for Efficient Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fernández, M. Rosario; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Roncal, Fernando; Domínguez, Elvira; García, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    PEPSCAN analysis has been used to characterize the immunogenic regions of the capsid protein (CP) in virions of plum pox potyvirus (PPV). In addition to the well-known highly immunogenic N- and C-terminal domains of CP, regions within the core domain of the protein have also shown high immunogenicity. Moreover, the N terminus of CP is not homogeneously immunogenic, alternatively showing regions frequently recognized by antibodies and others that are not recognized at all. These results have helped us to design efficient antigen presentation vectors based on PPV. As predicted by PEPSCAN analysis, a small displacement of the insertion site in a previously constructed vector, PPV-γ, turned the derived chimeras into efficient immunogens. Vectors expressing foreign peptides at different positions within a highly immunogenic region (amino acids 43 to 52) in the N-terminal domain of CP were the most effective at inducing specific antibody responses against the foreign sequence. PMID:12438590

  9. The Polerovirus Minor Capsid Protein Determines Vector Specificity and Intestinal Tropism in the Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Véronique; Périgon, Sophie; Reinbold, Catherine; Erdinger, Monique; Scheidecker, Danièle; Herrbach, Etienne; Richards, Ken; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2005-01-01

    Aphid transmission of poleroviruses is highly specific, but the viral determinants governing this specificity are unknown. We used a gene exchange strategy between two poleroviruses with different vectors, Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), to analyze the role of the major and minor capsid proteins in vector specificity. Virus recombinants obtained by exchanging the sequence of the readthrough domain (RTD) between the two viruses replicated in plant protoplasts and in whole plants. The hybrid readthrough protein of chimeric viruses was incorporated into virions. Aphid transmission experiments using infected plants or purified virions revealed that vector specificity is driven by the nature of the RTD. BWYV and CABYV have specific intestinal sites in the vectors for endocytosis: the midgut for BWYV and both midgut and hindgut for CABYV. Localization of hybrid virions in aphids by transmission electron microscopy revealed that gut tropism is also determined by the viral origin of the RTD. PMID:16014930

  10. Cre-dependent selection yields AAV variants for widespread gene transfer to the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Deverman, Benjamin E.; Pravdo, Piers L.; Simpson, Bryan P.; Kumar, Sripriya Ravindra; Chan, Ken Y.; Banerjee, Abhik; Wu, Wei-Li; Yang, Bin; Huber, Nina; Pasca, Sergiu P.; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are commonly used vehicles for in vivo gene transfer1-6. However, the tropism repertoire of naturally occurring AAVs is limited, prompting a search for novel AAV capsids with desired characteristics7-13. Here we describe a capsid selection method, called Cre-recombination-based AAV targeted evolution (CREATE), that enables the development of AAV capsids that more efficiently transduce defined Cre-expressing cell populations in vivo. We use CREATE to generate AAV variants that efficiently and widely transduce the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS) after intravenous injection. One variant, AAV-PHP.B, transfers genes throughout the CNS with an efficiency that is at least 40-fold greater than that of the current standard, AAV914-17, and transduces the majority of astrocytes and neurons across multiple CNS regions. In vitro, it transduces human neurons and astrocytes more efficiently than does AAV9, demonstrating the potential of CREATE to produce customized AAV vectors for biomedical applications. PMID:26829320

  11. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat; Ng, Mah-Lee, E-mail: micngml@nus.edu.sg

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiencymore » of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.« less

  12. RNA packaging of MRFV virus-like particles: The interplay between RNA pools and capsid coat protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be produced through self-assembly of capsid protein (CP) into particles with discrete shapes and sizes and containing different types of RNA molecules. The general principle that governs particle assembly and RNA packaging is determined by unique interactions between ...

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 Maturation via Small-Molecule Targeting of the Amino-Terminal Domain in the Viral Capsid Protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weifeng; Zhou, Jing; Halambage, Upul D; Jurado, Kellie A; Jamin, Augusta V; Wang, Yujie; Engelman, Alan N; Aiken, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein is an attractive therapeutic target, owing to its multifunctionality in virus replication and the high fitness cost of amino acid substitutions in capsids to HIV-1 infectivity. To date, small-molecule inhibitors have been identified that inhibit HIV-1 capsid assembly and/or impair its function in target cells. Here, we describe the mechanism of action of the previously reported capsid-targeting HIV-1 inhibitor, Boehringer-Ingelheim compound 1 (C1). We show that C1 acts during HIV-1 maturation to prevent assembly of a mature viral capsid. However, unlike the maturation inhibitor bevirimat, C1 did not significantly affect the kinetics or fidelity of Gag processing. HIV-1 particles produced in the presence of C1 contained unstable capsids that lacked associated electron density and exhibited impairments in early postentry stages of infection, most notably reverse transcription. C1 inhibited assembly of recombinant HIV-1 CA in vitro and induced aberrant cross-links in mutant HIV-1 particles capable of spontaneous intersubunit disulfide bonds at the interhexamer interface in the capsid lattice. Resistance to C1 was conferred by a single amino acid substitution within the compound-binding site in the N-terminal domain of the CA protein. Our results demonstrate that the binding site for C1 represents a new pharmacological vulnerability in the capsid assembly stage of the HIV-1 life cycle. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 capsid protein is an attractive but unexploited target for clinical drug development. Prior studies have identified HIV-1 capsid-targeting compounds that display different mechanisms of action, which in part reflects the requirement for capsid function at both the efferent and afferent phases of viral replication. Here, we show that one such compound, compound 1, interferes with assembly of the conical viral capsid during virion maturation and results in perturbations at a specific protein-protein

  14. Kinetics of the association of dengue virus capsid protein with the granular component of nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Ashish Kumar; Cecilia, D

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replicates in the cytoplasm but translocation of the capsid protein (C) to the nucleoli of infected cells has been shown to facilitate virus multiplication for DENV-2. This study demonstrates that the nucleolar localization of C occurs with all four serotypes of DENV. The interaction of C with the nucleolus was found to be dynamic with a mobile fraction of 66% by FRAP. That the C shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm was suggested by FLIP and translation inhibition experiments. Colocalization with B23 indicated that DENV C targeted the granular component (GC) of the nucleolus. Presence of DENV C in the nucleolus affected the recovery kinetics of B23 in infected and transfected cells. Sub-nucleolar localization of DENV C of all serotypes to the GC, its mobility in and out of the nucleolus and its affect on the dynamics of B23 is being shown for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuum Theory of Retroviral Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Bruinsma, R. F.; Gelbart, W. M.

    2006-02-01

    We present a self-assembly phase diagram for the shape of retroviral capsids, based on continuum elasticity theory. The spontaneous curvature of the capsid proteins drives a weakly first-order transition from spherical to spherocylindrical shapes. The conical capsid shape which characterizes the HIV-1 retrovirus is never stable under unconstrained energy minimization. Only under conditions of fixed volume and/or fixed spanning length can the conical shape be a minimum energy structure. Our results indicate that, unlike the capsids of small viruses, retrovirus capsids are not uniquely determined by the molecular structure of the constituent proteins but depend in an essential way on physical constraints present during assembly.

  16. Common and Distinct Capsid and Surface Protein Requirements for Secretion of Complete and Genome-free Hepatitis B Virions.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xiaojun; Luckenbaugh, Laurie; Liu, Kuancheng; Bruss, Volker; Sureau, Camille; Hu, Jianming

    2018-05-09

    During the morphogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV), an enveloped virus, two types of virions are secreted: (1) a minor population of complete virions containing a mature nucleocapsid with the characteristic, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome and (2) a major population containing an empty capsid with no DNA or RNA (empty virions). Secretion of both types of virions requires interactions between the HBV capsid or core protein (HBc) and the viral surface or envelope proteins. We have studied the requirements from both HBc and envelope proteins for empty virion secretion, in comparison with those for secretion of complete virions. Substitutions within the N-terminal domain of HBc that block secretion of DNA-containing virions reduced but did not prevent secretion of empty virions. The HBc C-terminal domain was not essential for empty virion secretion. Among the three viral envelope proteins, the smallest, S, alone was sufficient for empty virion secretion at a basal level. The largest protein, L, essential for complete virion secretion, was not required for, but could stimulate empty virion secretion. Also, substitutions in L that eliminate secretion of complete virions reduced but did not eliminate empty virion secretion. S mutations that block secretion of the hepatitis D virus (HDV), an HBV satellite, did not block secretion of either empty or complete HBV virions. Together, these results indicate that both common and distinct signals on empty capsids vs. mature nucleocapsids interact with the S and L proteins during the formation of complete vs. empty virions. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of severe liver diseases including cirrhosis and cancer. In addition to the complete infectious virion particle, which contains an outer envelope layer and an interior capsid that, in turn, encloses a DNA genome, HBV infected cells also secrete non-infectious, incomplete viral particles in large excess over the complete virions. In

  17. The Rubella virus capsid is an anti-apoptotic protein that attenuates the pore-forming ability of Bax.

    PubMed

    Ilkow, Carolina S; Goping, Ing Swie; Hobman, Tom C

    2011-02-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism by which virus-infected cells are eliminated from the host. Accordingly, many viruses have evolved strategies to prevent or delay apoptosis in order to provide a window of opportunity in which virus replication, assembly and egress can take place. Interfering with apoptosis may also be important for establishment and/or maintenance of persistent infections. Whereas large DNA viruses have the luxury of encoding accessory proteins whose primary function is to undermine programmed cell death pathways, it is generally thought that most RNA viruses do not encode these types of proteins. Here we report that the multifunctional capsid protein of Rubella virus is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. The main mechanism of action was specific for Bax as capsid bound Bax and prevented Bax-induced apoptosis but did not bind Bak nor inhibit Bak-induced apoptosis. Intriguingly, interaction with capsid protein resulted in activation of Bax in the absence of apoptotic stimuli, however, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and concomitant activation of caspase 3 did not occur. Accordingly, we propose that binding of capsid to Bax induces the formation of hetero-oligomers that are incompetent for pore formation. Importantly, data from reverse genetic studies are consistent with a scenario in which the anti-apoptotic activity of capsid protein is important for virus replication. If so, this would be among the first demonstrations showing that blocking apoptosis is important for replication of an RNA virus. Finally, it is tempting to speculate that other slowly replicating RNA viruses employ similar mechanisms to avoid killing infected cells.

  18. Adeno-associated virus capsid antigen presentation is dependent on endosomal escape

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengwen; He, Yi; Nicolson, Sarah; Hirsch, Matt; Weinberg, Marc S.; Zhang, Ping; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R. Jude

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are attractive for gene delivery-based therapeutics, but data from recent clinical trials have indicated that AAV capsids induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that eliminates transduced cells. In this study, we used traditional pharmacological agents and AAV mutants to elucidate the pathway of capsid cross-presentation in AAV-permissive cells. Endosomal acidification inhibitors blocked AAV2 antigen presentation by over 90%, while proteasome inhibitors completely abrogated antigen presentation. Using mutant viruses that are defective for nuclear entry, we observed a 90% decrease in capsid antigen presentation. Different antigen presentation efficiencies were achieved by selectively mutating virion nuclear localization signals. Low antigen presentation was demonstrated with basic region 1 (BR1) mutants, despite relatively high transduction efficiency, whereas there was no difference in antigen presentation between BR2 and BR3 mutants defective for transduction, as compared with wild-type AAV2. These results suggest that effective AAV2 capsid antigen presentation is dependent on AAV virion escape from the endosome/lysosome for antigen degradation by proteasomes, but is independent of nuclear uncoating. These results should facilitate the design of effective strategies to evade capsid-specific CTL-mediated elimination of AAV-transduced target cells in future clinical trials. PMID:23454772

  19. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1-17 and 18-36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNAmore » binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.« less

  20. In vitro binding of anthrax protective antigen on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface through Hoc-capsid interactions: A strategy for efficient display of large full-length proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shivachandra, Sathish B.; Rao, Mangala; Janosi, Laszlo

    2006-02-05

    An in vitro binding system is described to display large full-length proteins on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface at high density. The phage T4 icosahedral capsid features 155 copies of a nonessential highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, at the center of each major capsid protein hexon. Gene fusions were engineered to express the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA) from Bacillus anthracis fused to the N-terminus of Hoc and the 130-kDa PA-Hoc protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified PA-Hoc was assembled in vitro on hoc {sup -} phage particles. Binding was specific, stable, and of high affinity. Thismore » defined in vitro system allowed manipulation of the copy number of displayed PA and imposed no significant limitation on the size of the displayed antigen. In contrast to in vivo display systems, the in vitro approach allows all the capsid binding sites to be occupied by the 130-kDa PA-Hoc fusion protein. The PA-T4 particles were immunogenic in mice in the absence of an adjuvant, eliciting strong PA-specific antibodies and anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing antibodies. The in vitro display on phage T4 offers a novel platform for potential construction of customized vaccines against anthrax and other infectious diseases.« less

  1. Minor Capsid Protein L2 Polytope Induces Broad Protection against Oncogenic and Mucosal Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Spagnoli, Gloria; Bulli, Lorenzo; Balz, Kathrin; Yang, Fan; Odenwald, Caroline; Seitz, Hanna; Mariz, Filipe C; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Müller, Martin

    2018-02-15

    The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralization epitope which provides the basis for the development of a broadly protecting HPV vaccine. A wide range of protection against different HPV types would eliminate one of the major drawbacks of the commercial, L1-based prophylactic vaccines. Previously, we have reported that insertion of the L2 epitope into a scaffold composed of bacterial thioredoxin protein generates a potent antigen inducing comprehensive protection against different animal and human papillomaviruses. We also reported, however, that although protection is broad, some oncogenic HPV types escape the neutralizing antibody response, if L2 epitopes from single HPV types are used as immunogen. We were able to compensate for this by applying a mix of thioredoxin proteins carrying L2 epitopes from HPV16, -31, and -51. As the development of a cost-efficient HPV prophylactic vaccines is one of our objectives, this approach is not feasible as it requires the development of multiple good manufacturing production processes in combination with a complex vaccine formulation. Here, we report the development of a thermostable thioredoxin-based single-peptide vaccine carrying an L2 polytope of up to 11 different HPV types. The L2 polytope antigens have excellent abilities in respect to broadness of protection and robustness of induced immune responses. To further increase immunogenicity, we fused the thioredoxin L2 polytope antigen with a heptamerization domain. In the final vaccine design, we achieve protective responses against all 14 oncogenic HPV types that we have analyzed plus the low-risk HPVs 6 and 11 and a number of cutaneous HPVs. IMPORTANCE Infections by a large number of human papillomaviruses lead to malignant and nonmalignant disease. Current commercial vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively protect against some HPV types but fail to do so for most others. Further, only

  2. Classic Nuclear Localization Signals and a Novel Nuclear Localization Motif Are Required for Nuclear Transport of Porcine Parvovirus Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Maude; Bouchard-Lévesque, Véronique; Fernandes, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins (VPs) is important for genome delivery and precedes assembly in the replication cycle of porcine parvovirus (PPV). Clusters of basic amino acids, corresponding to potential nuclear localization signals (NLS), were found only in the unique region of VP1 (VP1up, for VP1 unique part). Of the five identified basic regions (BR), three were important for nuclear localization of VP1up: BR1 was a classic Pat7 NLS, and the combination of BR4 and BR5 was a classic bipartite NLS. These NLS were essential for viral replication. VP2, the major capsid protein, lacked these NLS and contained no region with more than two basic amino acids in proximity. However, three regions of basic clusters were identified in the folded protein, assembled into a trimeric structure. Mutagenesis experiments showed that only one of these three regions was involved in VP2 transport to the nucleus. This structural NLS, termed the nuclear localization motif (NLM), is located inside the assembled capsid and thus can be used to transport trimers to the nucleus in late steps of infection but not for virions in initial infection steps. The two NLS of VP1up are located in the N-terminal part of the protein, externalized from the capsid during endosomal transit, exposing them for nuclear targeting during early steps of infection. Globally, the determinants of nuclear transport of structural proteins of PPV were different from those of closely related parvoviruses. IMPORTANCE Most DNA viruses use the nucleus for their replication cycle. Thus, structural proteins need to be targeted to this cellular compartment at two distinct steps of the infection: in early steps to deliver viral genomes to the nucleus and in late steps to assemble new viruses. Nuclear targeting of proteins depends on the recognition of a stretch of basic amino acids by cellular transport proteins. This study reports the identification of two classic nuclear localization signals in the minor

  3. Natural antibody responses to the capsid protein in sera of Dengue infected patients from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nadugala, Mahesha N; Jeewandara, Chandima; Malavige, Gathsaurie N; Premaratne, Prasad H; Goonasekara, Charitha L

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the antigenicity of the Capsid (C) protein and the human antibody responses to C protein from the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. Parker hydrophilicity prediction, Emini surface accessibility prediction and Karplus & Schulz flexibility predictions were used to bioinformatically characterize antigenicity. The human antibody response to C protein was assessed by ELISA using immune sera and an array of overlapping DENV2 C peptides. DENV2 C protein peptides P1 (located on C protein at 2-18 a.a), P11 (79-95 a.a) and P12 (86-101 a.a) were recognized by most individuals exposed to infections with only one of the 4 DENV serotypes as well as people exposed to infections with two serotypes. These conserved peptide epitopes are located on the amino (1-40 a.a) and carboxy (70-100 a.a) terminal regions of C protein, which were predicted to be antigenic using different bioinformatic tools. DENV2 C peptide P6 (39-56 a.a) was recognized by all individuals exposed to DENV2 infections, some individuals exposed to DENV4 infections and none of the individuals exposed to DENV1 or 3 infections. Thus, unlike C peptides P1, P11 and P12, which contain epitopes, recognized by DENV serotype cross-reactive antibodies, DENV2 peptide P6 contains an epitope that is preferentially recognized by antibodies in people exposed to this serotype compared to other serotypes. We discuss our results in the context of the known structure of C protein and recent work on the human B-cell response to DENV infection.

  4. Expression and characterization of HPV-16 L1 capsid protein in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Silvia Boschi; de Alencar Muniz Chaves, Agtha; Aires, Karina Araújo; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Garcea, Robert L.; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for the most common human sexually transmitted viral infections. Infection with high-risk HPVs, particularly HPV16, is associated with the development of cervical cancer. The papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein, the basis of the currently marketed vaccines, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs). Here, we describe the expression, purification and characterization of recombinant HPV16 L1 produced by a methylotrophic yeast. A codon-optimized HPV16 L1 gene was cloned into a non-integrative expression vector under the regulation of a methanol-inducible promoter and used to transform competent Pichia pastoris cells. Purification of L1 protein from yeast extracts was performed using heparin–sepharose chromatography, followed by a disassembly/reassembly step. VLPs could be assembled from the purified L1 protein, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. The display of conformational epitopes on the VLPs surface was confirmed by hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition assays and by immuno-electron microscopy. This study has implications for the development of an alternative platform for the production of a papillomavirus vaccine that could be provided by public health programs, especially in resource-poor areas, where there is a great demand for low-cost vaccines. PMID:19756360

  5. siRNAs encapsulated in recombinant capsid protein derived from Dengue serotype 2 virus inhibits the four serotypes of the virus and proliferation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A S Manoj; Reddy, G E C Vidyadhar; Rajmane, Yogesh; Nair, Soumya; Pai Kamath, Sangita; Sreejesh, Greeshma; Basha, Khalander; Chile, Shailaja; Ray, Kriti; Nelly, Vivant; Khadpe, Nilesh; Kasturi, Ravishankar; Ramana, Venkata

    2015-01-10

    siRNA delivery potential of the Dengue virus capsid protein in cultured cells was recently reported, but target knockdown potential in the context of specific diseases has not been explored. In this study we have evaluated the utility of the protein as an siRNA carrier for anti Dengue viral and anti cancer applications using cell culture systems. We show that target specific siRNAs delivered using the capsid protein inhibit infection by the four serotypes of Dengue virus and proliferation of two cancer cell lines. Our data confirm the potential of the capsid for anti Dengue viral and anti cancer RNAi applications. In addition, we have optimized a fermentation strategy to improve the yield of Escherichia coli expressed D2C protein since the reported yields of E. coli expressed flaviviral capsid proteins are low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of a nuclear localization sequence in the polyomavirus capsid protein VP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been identified in the C-terminal (Glu307-Glu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Gln-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Arg-Leu318) amino acid sequence of the polyomavirus minor capsid protein VP2. The importance of this amino acid sequence for nuclear transport of newly synthesized VP2 was demonstrated by a genetic "subtractive" study using the constructs pSG5VP2 (expressing full-length VP2) and pSG5 delta 3VP2 (expressing truncated VP2, lacking amino acids Glu307-Leu318). These constructs were transfected into COS-7 cells, and the intracellular localization of the VP2 protein was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the full-length VP2 was localized in the nucleus, while the truncated VP2 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and not transported to the nucleus. A biochemical "additive" approach was also used to determine whether this sequence could target nonnuclear proteins to the nucleus. A synthetic peptide identical to VP2 amino acids Glu307-Leu318 was cross-linked to the nonnuclear proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) or immunoglobulin G (IgG). The conjugates were then labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and microinjected into the cytoplasm of NIH 3T6 cells. Both conjugates localized in the nucleus of the microinjected cells, whereas unconjugated BSA and IgG remained in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these genetic subtractive and biochemical additive approaches have identified the C-terminal sequence of polyoma-virus VP2 (containing amino acids Glu307-Leu318) as the NLS of this protein.

  7. Analysis of rubella virus capsid protein-mediated enhancement of replicon replication and mutant rescue.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Matthews, Jason D; Frey, Teryl K

    2006-04-01

    The rubella virus capsid protein (C) has been shown to complement a lethal deletion (termed deltaNotI) in P150 replicase protein. To investigate this phenomenon, we generated two lines of Vero cells that stably expressed either C (C-Vero cells) or C lacking the eight N-terminal residues (Cdelta8-Vero cells), a construct previously shown to be unable to complement DeltaNotI. In C-Vero cells but not Vero or Cdelta8-Vero cells, replication of a wild-type (wt) replicon expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) was enhanced, and replication of a replicon with deltaNotI (RUBrep/GFP-deltaNotI) was rescued. Surprisingly, replicons with deleterious mutations in the 5' and 3' cis-acting elements were also rescued in C-Vero cells. Interestingly, the Cdelta8 construct localized to the nucleus while the C construct localized in the cytoplasm, explaining the lack of enhancement and rescue in Cdelta8-Vero cells since rubella virus replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Enhancement and rescue in C-Vero cells were at a basic step in the replication cycle, resulting in a substantial increase in the accumulation of replicon-specific RNAs. There was no difference in translation of the nonstructural proteins in C-Vero and Vero cells transfected with the wt and mutant replicons, demonstrating that enhancement and rescue were not due to an increase in the efficiency of translation of the transfected replicon transcripts. In replicon-transfected C-Vero cells, C and the P150 replicase protein associated by coimmunoprecipitation, suggesting that C might play a role in RNA replication, which could explain the enhancement and rescue phenomena. A unifying model that accounts for enhancement of wt replicon replication and rescue of diverse mutations by the rubella virus C protein is proposed.

  8. Structural basis for the development of avian virus capsids that display influenza virus proteins and induce protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Elena; Mata, Carlos P; Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Nieto, Amelia; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R

    2015-03-01

    Bioengineering of viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) is a well-established approach in the development of new and improved vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. We report here that the capsid of a major avian pathogen, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), can accommodate heterologous proteins to induce protective immunity. The structural units of the ~70-nm-diameter T=13 IBDV capsid are trimers of VP2, which is made as a precursor (pVP2). The pVP2 C-terminal domain has an amphipathic α helix that controls VP2 polymorphism. In the absence of the VP3 scaffolding protein, 466-residue pVP2 intermediates bearing this α helix assemble into genuine VLPs only when expressed with an N-terminal His6 tag (the HT-VP2-466 protein). HT-VP2-466 capsids are optimal for protein insertion, as they are large enough (cargo space, ~78,000 nm(3)) and are assembled from a single protein. We explored HT-VP2-466-based chimeric capsids initially using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The VLP assembly yield was efficient when we coexpressed EGFP-HT-VP2-466 and HT-VP2-466 from two recombinant baculoviruses. The native EGFP structure (~240 copies/virion) was successfully inserted in a functional form, as VLPs were fluorescent, and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy showed that the EGFP molecules incorporated at the inner capsid surface. Immunization of mice with purified EGFP-VLPs elicited anti-EGFP antibodies. We also inserted hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M2) protein epitopes derived from the mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 influenza virus and engineered several HA- and M2-derived chimeric capsids. Mice immunized with VLPs containing the HA stalk, an M2 fragment, or both antigens developed full protection against viral challenge. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multimeric protein cages that mimic the infectious virus capsid and are potential candidates as nonliving vaccines that induce long-lasting protection. Chimeric VLPs can display or include foreign

  9. Highly specific salt bridges govern bacteriophage P22 icosahedral capsid assembly: identification of the site in coat protein responsible for interaction with scaffolding protein.

    PubMed

    Cortines, Juliana R; Motwani, Tina; Vyas, Aashay A; Teschke, Carolyn M

    2014-05-01

    Icosahedral virus assembly requires a series of concerted and highly specific protein-protein interactions to produce a proper capsid. In bacteriophage P22, only coat protein (gp5) and scaffolding protein (gp8) are needed to assemble a procapsid-like particle, both in vivo and in vitro. In scaffolding protein's coat binding domain, residue R293 is required for procapsid assembly, while residue K296 is important but not essential. Here, we investigate the interaction of scaffolding protein with acidic residues in the N-arm of coat protein, since this interaction has been shown to be electrostatic. Through site-directed mutagenesis of genes 5 and 8, we show that changing coat protein N-arm residue 14 from aspartic acid to alanine causes a lethal phenotype. Coat protein residue D14 is shown by cross-linking to interact with scaffolding protein residue R293 and, thus, is intimately involved in proper procapsid assembly. To a lesser extent, coat protein N-arm residue E18 is also implicated in the interaction with scaffolding protein and is involved in capsid size determination, since a cysteine mutation at this site generated petite capsids. The final acidic residue in the N-arm that was tested, E15, is shown to only weakly interact with scaffolding protein's coat binding domain. This work supports growing evidence that surface charge density may be the driving force of virus capsid protein interactions. Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and is a model for icosahedral viral capsid assembly. In this system, coat protein interacts with an internal scaffolding protein, triggering the assembly of an intermediate called a procapsid. Previously, we determined that there is a single amino acid in scaffolding protein required for P22 procapsid assembly, although others modulate affinity. Here, we identify partners in coat protein. We show experimentally that relatively weak interactions between coat and scaffolding proteins are capable of driving

  10. Simulations of HIV Capsid Protein Dimerization Reveal the Effect of Chemistry and Topography on the Mechanism of Hydrophobic Protein Association

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Naiyin; Hagan, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the hydrophobic protein surfaces in aqueous solution sit near a drying transition. The tendency for these surfaces to expel water from their vicinity leads to self-assembly of macromolecular complexes. In this article, we show with a realistic model for a biologically pertinent system how this phenomenon appears at the molecular level. We focus on the association of the C-terminal domain (CA-C) of the human immunodeficiency virus capsid protein. By combining all-atom simulations with specialized sampling techniques, we measure the water density distribution during the approach of two CA-C proteins as a function of separation and amino acid sequence in the interfacial region. The simulations demonstrate that CA-C protein-protein interactions sit at the edge of a dewetting transition and that this mesoscopic manifestation of the underlying liquid-vapor phase transition can be readily manipulated by biology or protein engineering to significantly affect association behavior. Although the wild-type protein remains wet until contact, we identify a set of in silico mutations, in which three hydrophilic amino acids are replaced with nonpolar residues, that leads to dewetting before association. The existence of dewetting depends on the size and relative locations of substituted residues separated by nanometer length scales, indicating long-range cooperativity and a sensitivity to surface topography. These observations identify important details that are missing from descriptions of protein association based on buried hydrophobic surface area. PMID:22995509

  11. Coinfection with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing poliovirus P1 and P3 proteins results in polyprotein processing and formation of empty capsid structures.

    PubMed

    Ansardi, D C; Porter, D C; Morrow, C D

    1991-04-01

    The assembly process of poliovirus occurs via an ordered proteolytic processing of the capsid precursor protein, P1, by the virus-encoded proteinase 3CD. To further delineate this process, we have isolated a recombinant vaccinia virus which expresses, upon infection, the poliovirus P1 capsid precursor polyprotein with an authentic carboxy terminus. Coinfection of HeLa cells with the P1-expressing vaccinia virus and with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which expresses the poliovirus proteinase 3CD resulted in the correct processing of P1 to yield the three individual capsid proteins VP0, VP3, and VP1. When extracts from coinfected cells were fractionated on sucrose density gradients, the VP0, VP3, and VP1 capsid proteins were immunoprecipitated with type 1 poliovirus antisera from fractions corresponding to a sedimentation consistent for poliovirus 75S procapsids. Examination of these fractions by electron microscopy revealed structures which lacked electron-dense cores and which corresponded in size and shape to those expected for poliovirus empty capsids. We conclude that the expression of the two poliovirus proteins P1 and 3CD in coinfected cells is sufficient for the correct processing of the capsid precursor to VP0, VP3, and VP1 as well as for the assembly of poliovirus empty capsid-like structures.

  12. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the major capsid protein gene of megalocytiviruses isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Chao, S Y; Ku, C C; Wen, C M; Shih, H H

    2009-06-01

    Viruses belonging to the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae are one of the major agents causing mass mortalities in marine and freshwater fish in Asian countries. Outbreaks of iridovirus disease have been reported among various fish species in Taiwan. However, the genotypes of these iridoviruses have not yet been determined. In this study, seven megalocytivirus isolates from four fish species: king grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), barramundi perch, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), silver sea bream, Rhabdosargus sarba (Forsskal), and common ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus (Forsskal), cultured in three different regions of Taiwan were collected. The full open reading frame encoding the viral major capsid protein gene was amplified using PCR. The PCR products of approximately 1581 bp were cloned and the nucleotide sequences were phylogenetically analysed. Results showed that all seven PCR products contained a unique open reading frame with 1362 nucleotides and encoded a structural protein with 453 amino acids. Even though the nucleotide sequences were not identical, these seven megalocytiviruses were classified into one cluster and showed very high homology with red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) with more than 97% identity. Thus, the seven iridovirus strains isolated from cultured marine fish in Taiwan were closer to the RSIV genotype than the infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus genotype.

  13. Understanding dengue virus capsid protein disordered N-Terminus and pep14-23-based inhibition.

    PubMed

    Faustino, André F; Guerra, Gabriela M; Huber, Roland G; Hollmann, Axel; Domingues, Marco M; Barbosa, Glauce M; Enguita, Francisco J; Bond, Peter J; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Da Poian, Andrea T; Almeida, Fabio C L; Santos, Nuno C; Martins, Ivo C

    2015-02-20

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection affects millions of people and is becoming a major global disease for which there is no specific available treatment. pep14-23 is a recently designed peptide, based on a conserved segment of DENV capsid (C) protein. It inhibits the interaction of DENV C with host intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), which is crucial for viral replication. Combining bioinformatics and biophysics, here, we analyzed pep14-23 structure and ability to bind different phospholipids, relating that information with the full-length DENV C. We show that pep14-23 acquires α-helical conformation upon binding to negatively charged phospholipid membranes, displaying an asymmetric charge distribution structural arrangement. Structure prediction for the N-terminal segment reveals four viable homodimer orientations that alternatively shield or expose the DENV C hydrophobic pocket. Taken together, these findings suggest a new biological role for the disordered N-terminal region, which may function as an autoinhibitory domain mediating DENV C interaction with its biological targets. The results fit with our current understanding of DENV C and pep14-23 structure and function, paving the way for similar approaches to understanding disordered proteins and improved peptidomimetics drug development strategies against DENV and similar Flavivirus infections.

  14. Hepatitis A Virus Capsid Protein VP1 Has a Heterogeneous C Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Judith; Richards, Oliver C.; Swiderek, Kristine M.; Davis, Michael T.; Rusnak, Felicia; Harmon, Shirley A.; Jia, Xi-Yu; Summers, Donald F.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    1999-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) encodes a single polyprotein which is posttranslationally processed into the functional structural and nonstructural proteins. Only one protease, viral protease 3C, has been implicated in the nine protein scissions. Processing of the capsid protein precursor region generates a unique intermediate, PX (VP1-2A), which accumulates in infected cells and is assumed to serve as precursor to VP1 found in virions, although the details of this reaction have not been determined. Coexpression in transfected cells of a variety of P1 precursor proteins with viral protease 3C demonstrated efficient production of PX, as well as VP0 and VP3; however, no mature VP1 protein was detected. To identify the C-terminal amino acid residue of HAV VP1, we performed peptide sequence analysis by protease-catalyzed [18O]H2O incorporation followed by liquid chromatography ion-trap microspray tandem mass spectrometry of HAV VP1 isolated from purified virions. Two different cell culture-adapted isolates of HAV, strains HM175pE and HM175p35, were used for these analyses. VP1 preparations from both virus isolates contained heterogeneous C termini. The predominant C-terminal amino acid in both virus preparations was VP1-Ser274, which is located N terminal to a methionine residue in VP1-2A. In addition, the analysis of HM175pE recovered smaller amounts of amino acids VP1-Glu273 and VP1-Thr272. In the case of HM175p35, which contains valine at amino acid position VP1-273, VP1-Thr272 was found in addition to VP1-Ser274. The data suggest that HAV 3C is not the protease responsible for generation of the VP1 C terminus. We propose the involvement of host cell protease(s) in the production of HAV VP1. PMID:10364353

  15. Observations on the expression of human papillomavirus major capsid protein in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chang-Yi; Fu, Bing-Bing; Li, Zhi-Ying; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Li, Jia-Hua; Tang, Gui-Cheng; Xiao, Shuo-Shuang

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the nature of the inclusion bodies that have been found in HeLa cells (cervical cancer immortal cell line) by electron microscope and to determine whether the major capsid protein (L1) of human papillomavirus (HPV) can be expressed in HPV-positive uterine cervix cancer cells. HPV L1 protein expression in HeLa cells was detected with anti-HPV L1 multivalent mice monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal anti-HPV L1 antibody by ELISA, light microscope immunohistochemistry, electron microscope immunocytochemistry and Western blotting assays. Reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the transcription of L1 mRNA in HeLa cells. The immortalized human keratinocyte HeCat was used as the negative control. HPV L1 proteins reacted positively in the lysate of HeLa cells by ELISA assays. HRP labeled light microscope immunohistochemistry assay showed that there was a strong HPV L1 positive reaction in HeLa cells. Under the electron microscope, irregular shaped inclusion bodies, assembled by many small and uniform granules, had been observed in the cytoplasm of some HeLa cells. These granules could be labeled by the colloidal gold carried by HPV L1 antibody. The Western blotting assay showed that there was a L1 reaction strap at 80-85 kDa in the HeLa cell lysates, hence demonstrating the existence of HPV18 L1 in HeLa cells. RT-PCR assay showed that the L1 mRNA was transcribed in HeLa cells. The inclusion bodies found in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells are composed of HPV18 L1 protein. Since HeLa cell line is a type of cervical cancer cells, this implies that HeLa cells have the ability to express HPV L1 proteins.

  16. Sustained AAV9-mediated expression of a non-self protein in the CNS of non-human primates after immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramsingh, Arlene I.; Gray, Steven J.; Reilly, Andrew; Koday, Michael; Bratt, Debbie; Koday, Merika Treants; Murnane, Robert; Hu, Yuhui; Messer, Anne

    2018-01-01

    A critical issue in transgene delivery studies is immune reactivity to the transgene- encoded protein and its impact on sustained gene expression. Here, we test the hypothesis that immunomodulation by rapamycin can decrease immune reactivity after intrathecal AAV9 delivery of a transgene (GFP) in non-human primates, resulting in sustained GFP expression in the CNS. We show that rapamycin treatment clearly reduced the overall immunogenicity of the AAV9/GFP vector by lowering GFP- and AAV9-specific antibody responses, and decreasing T cell responses including cytokine and cytolytic effector responses. Spinal cord GFP protein expression was sustained for twelve weeks, with no toxicity. Immune correlates of robust transgene expression include negligible GFP-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, absence of GFP-specific IFN-γ producing T cells, and absence of GFP-specific cytotoxic T cells, which support the hypothesis that decreased T cell reactivity results in sustained transgene expression. These data strongly support the use of modest doses of rapamycin to modulate immune responses for intrathecal gene therapies, and potentially a much wider range of viral vector-based therapeutics. PMID:29874260

  17. Creating an arsenal of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery stealth vehicles.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Kennon; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2018-05-01

    The Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery system is ushering in a new and exciting era in the United States; following the first approved gene therapy (Glybera) in Europe, the FDA has approved a second therapy, Luxturna [1]. However, challenges to this system remain. In viral gene therapy, the surface of the capsid is an important determinant of tissue tropism, impacts gene transfer efficiency, and is targeted by the human immune system. Preexisting immunity is a significant challenge to this approach, and the ability to visualize areas of antibody binding ("footprints") can inform efforts to improve the efficacy of viral vectors. Atomic resolution, smaller proteins, and asymmetric structures are the goals to attain in cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction (cryo-EM) as of late. The versatility of the technique and the ability to vitrify a wide range of heterogeneous molecules in solution allow structural biologists to characterize a variety of protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions at lower resolution. Cryo-EM has served as an important means to study key surface areas of the AAV gene delivery vehicle-specifically, those involved with binding neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) [2-4]. This method offers a unique opportunity for visualizing antibody binding "hotspots" on the surface of these and other viral vectors. When combined with mutagenesis, one can eliminate these hotspots to create viral vectors with the ability to avoid preexisting host immune recognition during gene delivery and genetic defect correction in disease treatment. Here, we discuss the use of structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution to create "stealth" AAV vectors with modified surface amino acid sequences that allow NAb avoidance while maintaining natural capsid functions or gaining desired novel tropisms.

  18. Induction of Immune Tolerance to Foreign Protein via Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Gene Transfer in Mid-Gestation Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Marcus G.; Riley, John S.; Andrews, Abigail; Tyminski, Alec; Limberis, Maria; Pogoriler, Jennifer E.; Partridge, Emily; Olive, Aliza; Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan W.; Peranteau, William H.

    2017-01-01

    A major limitation to adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy is the generation of host immune responses to viral vector antigens and the transgene product. The ability to induce immune tolerance to foreign protein has the potential to overcome this host immunity. Acquisition and maintenance of tolerance to viral vector antigens and transgene products may also permit repeat administration thereby enhancing therapeutic efficacy. In utero gene transfer (IUGT) takes advantage of the immunologic immaturity of the fetus to induce immune tolerance to foreign antigens. In this large animal study, in utero administration of AAV6.2, AAV8 and AAV9 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to ~60 day fetal sheep (term: ~150 days) was performed. Transgene expression and postnatal immune tolerance to GFP and viral antigens were assessed. We demonstrate 1) hepatic expression of GFP 1 month following in utero administration of AAV6.2.GFP and AAV8.GFP, 2) in utero recipients of either AAV6.2.GFP or AAV8.GFP fail to mount an anti-GFP antibody response following postnatal GFP challenge and lack inflammatory cellular infiltrates at the intramuscular site of immunization, 3) a serotype specific anti-AAV neutralizing antibody response is elicited following postnatal challenge of in utero recipients of AAV6.2 or AAV8 with the corresponding AAV serotype, and 4) durable hepatic GFP expression was observed up to 6 months after birth in recipients of AAV8.GFP but expression was lost between 1 and 6 months of age in recipients of AAV6.2.GFP. The current study demonstrates, in a preclinical large animal model, the potential of IUGT to achieve host immune tolerance to the viral vector transgene product but also suggests that a single exposure to the vector capsid proteins at the time of IUGT is inadequate to induce tolerance to viral vector antigens. PMID:28141818

  19. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Identification of the gene encoding the major capsid protein of fish lymphocystis disease virus.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Darai, G

    1993-10-01

    The gene encoding the major capsid protein (MCP) of fish lymphocystis disease virus (flounder isolate; FLCDV-f) has been identified by PCR using oligonucleotide primers corresponding to different regions of the MCP of Tipula iridescent virus (TIV), iridescent virus 22 (IV22) and Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). DNA fragments of 0.4 kbp, 0.5 kbp and 0.27 kbp in size were amplified using oligonucleotide primers corresponding to amino acids (aa) 146 to 153 (primer 1) and 274 to 268 (primer 6), or aa 146 to 153 (primer 1) and 313 to 304 (primer 8), or aa 304 to 312 (primer 7) and 385 to 381 (primer 9) of the MCP of TIV, respectively. The PCR products were used as hybridization probes for screening the gene library of FLCDV-f. The MCP gene of FLCDV-f(1377 bp; 459 aa; 51.4K) was identified within the DNA sequence of the EcoRI FLCDV-f DNA fragment C (11.2 kbp; 0.611 to 0.718 map units). A high degree of aa sequence identity/similarity was detected between the MCP of FLCDV-f and TIV (50.3%/33.8%), IV22 (49.1%/34.2%). CIV (53%/29.5%) and African swine fever virus (16%/38.1%).

  1. Localization of the herpes simplex virus type 1 major capsid protein VP5 to the cell nucleus requires the abundant scaffolding protein VP22a.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, P; Addison, C; Cross, A M; Kennard, J; Preston, V G; Rixon, F J

    1994-05-01

    The intracellular distributions of three herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid proteins, VP23, VP5 and VP22a, were examined using vaccinia virus and plasmid expression systems. During infection of cells with HSV-1 wild-type virus, all three proteins were predominantly located in the nucleus, which is the site of capsid assembly. However, when expressed in the absence of any other HSV-1 proteins, although VP22a was found exclusively in the nucleus as expected, VP5 and VP23 were distributed throughout the cell. Thus nuclear localization is not an intrinsic property of these proteins but must be mediated by one or more HSV-1-induced proteins. Co-expression experiments demonstrated that VP5 was efficiently transported to the nucleus in the presence of VP22a, but the distribution of VP23 was unaffected by the presence of either or both of the other two proteins.

  2. Distinct functions of capsid protein in assembly and movement of tobacco etch potyvirus in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, V V; Haldeman, R; Robertson, N L; Dougherty, W G; Carrington, J C

    1994-01-01

    Tobacco etch potyvirus engineered to express the reporter protein beta-glucuronidase (TEV-GUS) was used for direct observation and quantitation of virus translocation in plants. Four TEV-GUS mutants were generated containing capsid proteins (CPs) with single amino acid substitutions (R154D and D198R), a double substitution (DR), or a deletion of part of the N-terminal domain (delta N). Each modified virus replicated as well as the parental virus in protoplasts, but was defective in cell-to-cell movement through inoculated leaves. The R154D, D198R and DR mutants were restricted essentially to single, initially infected cells. The delta N variant exhibited slow cell-to-cell movement in inoculated leaves, but was unable to move systemically due to a lack of entry into or replication in vascular-associated cells. Both cell-to-cell and systemic movement defects of each mutant were rescued in transgenic plants expressing wild-type TEV CP. Cell-to-cell movement, but not systemic movement, of the DR mutant was rescued partially in transgenic plants expressing TEV CP lacking the C-terminal domain, and in plants expressing CP from the heterologous potyvirus, potato virus Y. Despite comparable levels of accumulation of parental virus and each mutant in symptomatic tissue of TEV CP-expressing transgenic plants, virions were detected only in parental virus- and delta N mutant-infected plants, as revealed using three independent assays. These data suggest that the potyvirus CP possesses distinct, separable activities required for virion assembly, cell-to-cell movement and long-distance transport. Images PMID:7511101

  3. Segmental isotopic labeling of HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies for solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sebanti; Tycko, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies of noncrystalline HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies by our laboratory and by Polenova and coworkers (Protein Sci 19:716-730, 2010; J Mol Biol 426:1109-1127, 2014; J Biol Chem 291:13098-13112, 2016; J Am Chem Soc 138:8538-8546, 2016; J Am Chem Soc 138:12029-12032, 2016; J Am Chem Soc 134:6455-6466, 2012; J Am Chem Soc 132:1976-1987, 2010; J Am Chem Soc 135:17793-17803, 2013; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:14617-14622, 2015; J Am Chem Soc 138:14066-14075, 2016) have established the capability of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements to provide site-specific structural and dynamical information that is not available from other types of measurements. Nonetheless, the relatively high molecular weight of HIV-1 CA leads to congestion of solid state NMR spectra of fully isotopically labeled assemblies that has been an impediment to further progress. Here we describe an efficient protocol for production of segmentally labeled HIV-1 CA samples in which either the N-terminal domain (NTD) or the C-terminal domain (CTD) is uniformly 15 N, 13 C-labeled. Segmental labeling is achieved by trans-splicing, using the DnaE split intein. Comparisons of two-dimensional solid state NMR spectra of fully labeled and segmentally labeled tubular CA assemblies show substantial improvements in spectral resolution. The molecular structure of HIV-1 assemblies is not significantly perturbed by the single Ser-to-Cys substitution that we introduce between NTD and CTD segments, as required for trans-splicing.

  4. The C Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus UL25 Protein Is Required for Release of Viral Genomes from Capsids Bound to Nuclear Pores

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Jamie B.; Daniel, Gina R.; Falck-Pedersen, Erik; Huet, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a truncation mutant of pUL25. Live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the mutant was not impaired in penetration of the host cell or in trafficking of the capsid to the nuclear membrane. However, expression of viral proteins was absent or significantly delayed in cells infected with the pUL25 mutant virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed capsids accumulated at nuclear pores that retained the viral genome for at least 4 h postinfection. In addition, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of virion capsids did not detect any obvious differences in the location or structural organization for the pUL25 or pUL36 proteins on the pUL25 mutant capsids. Further, in contrast to wild-type virus, the antiviral response mediated by the viral DNA-sensing cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) was severely compromised for the pUL25 mutant. These results demonstrate that the pUL25 capsid protein has a critical role in releasing viral DNA from NPC-bound capsids. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. Early steps in infection include release of the capsid into the cytoplasm, docking of the capsid at a nuclear pore, and release of the viral genome into the

  5. [Clinical significance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in high-risk HPV positive women].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajian; Tian, Qifang; Zhang, Su; Lyu, Liping; Dong, Jie; Lyu, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    To explore the clinical significance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in high-risk HPV positive women. From November 2012 to June 2013, 386 high-risk HPV positive (detected by hybrid capture II) cases were enrolled as eligible women from Huzhou Maternity & Child Care Hospital and Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. All eligible women underwent liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep) followed by colposcopy. Biopsies were taken if indicated. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected for HPV L1 capsid protein detection by immunocytochemistry. Expression of HPV L1 capsid protein in groups with different histological diagnosis were compared, and the role of HPV L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in cervical lesions screening was accessed. Total 386 enrolled eligible women were finally diagnosed histologically as follwed: 162 normal cervix, 94 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 128 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 2 squamous cervical cancer (SCC). The positive expression rate of HPV L1 in HSIL+ (HSIL or worse) group was significantly lower than that in LSIL- (LSIL or better) group (19.2% vs 66.4%, P=0.000). While identifying HSIL+ in HPV positive cases and compared with cytology, HPV L1 detection resulted in significant higher sensitivity (80.77% vs 50.77%, P=0.000) and negative predictive value (NPV; 87.18% vs 76.47%, P=0.004), significant lower specificity (66.41% vs 81.25%, P=0.000), and comparable positive predictive value (PPV; 54.97% vs 57.89%, P=0.619). To identify HSIL+ in HPV-positive/cytology-negative women, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of HPV L1 detection were 87.50%, 61.54%, 41.18%, and 94.12% respectively, while 80.00%, 86.36%, 80.00% and 86.36% respectively in HPV-positive/atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) women. HPV L1 capsid detection in cervical exfoliated cells have a role in cervical lesions

  6. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulatingmore » the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.« less

  7. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pHmore » 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.« less

  8. Creating an arsenal of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery stealth vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2018-01-01

    The Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery system is ushering in a new and exciting era in the United States; following the first approved gene therapy (Glybera) in Europe, the FDA has approved a second therapy, Luxturna [1]. However, challenges to this system remain. In viral gene therapy, the surface of the capsid is an important determinant of tissue tropism, impacts gene transfer efficiency, and is targeted by the human immune system. Preexisting immunity is a significant challenge to this approach, and the ability to visualize areas of antibody binding (“footprints”) can inform efforts to improve the efficacy of viral vectors. Atomic resolution, smaller proteins, and asymmetric structures are the goals to attain in cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction (cryo-EM) as of late. The versatility of the technique and the ability to vitrify a wide range of heterogeneous molecules in solution allow structural biologists to characterize a variety of protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions at lower resolution. Cryo-EM has served as an important means to study key surface areas of the AAV gene delivery vehicle—specifically, those involved with binding neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) [2–4]. This method offers a unique opportunity for visualizing antibody binding “hotspots” on the surface of these and other viral vectors. When combined with mutagenesis, one can eliminate these hotspots to create viral vectors with the ability to avoid preexisting host immune recognition during gene delivery and genetic defect correction in disease treatment. Here, we discuss the use of structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution to create “stealth” AAV vectors with modified surface amino acid sequences that allow NAb avoidance while maintaining natural capsid functions or gaining desired novel tropisms. PMID:29723270

  9. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  10. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges. PMID:8764013

  11. Plectin-1 Targeted AAV Vector for the Molecular Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Deng, Defeng; Thomas, Stephanie; Wu, Michael T.; Logsdon, Craig D.; French, Brent A.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly malignant disease that is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Gene therapy using AAV vectors to selectively deliver genes to PDAC cells is an attractive treatment option for pancreatic cancer. However, most AAV serotypes display a broad spectrum of tissue tropism and none of the existing serotypes specifically target PDAC cells. This study tests the hypothesis that AAV2 can be genetically re-engineered to specifically target PDAC cells by modifying the capsid surface to display a peptide that has previously been shown to bind plectin-1. Toward this end, a Plectin-1 Targeting Peptide (PTP) was inserted into the loop IV region of the AAV2 capsid, and the resulting capsid (AAV-PTP) was used in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, AAV-PTP was found to target all five human PDAC cell lines tested (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, HPAC, MPanc-96, and BxPC-3) preferentially over two non-neoplastic human pancreatic cell lines (human pancreatic ductal epithelial and human pancreatic stellate cells). In vivo, mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts were generated using the PANC-1 cell line. Once tumors reached a size of ∼1–2 mm in diameter, the mice were injected intravenously with luciferase reporter vectors packaged in the either AAV-PTP or wild type AAV2 capsids. Luciferase expression was then monitored by bioluminescence imaging on days 3, 7, and 14 after vector injection. The results indicate that the AAV-PTP capsid displays a 37-fold preference for PANC-1 tumor xenographs over liver and other tissues; whereas the wild type AAV2 capsid displays a complementary preference for liver over tumors and other tissues. Together, these results establish proof-of-principle for the ability of PTP-modified AAV capsids to selectively target gene delivery to PDAC cells in vivo, which opens promising new avenues for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23616947

  12. Tomato is a highly effective vehicle for expression and oral immunization with Norwalk virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuren; Buehner, Norene A; Hutson, Anne M; Estes, Mary K; Mason, Hugh S

    2006-07-01

    Norwalk virus (NV) is an important agent of epidemic gastroenteritis, and an oral subunit vaccine shows potential for protection. Recombinant Norwalk virus (rNV) capsid protein expressed in plants assembles virus-like particles (VLPs) that are orally immunogenic in mice and humans. In this article we examine rNV expression in tomato and potato using a plant-optimized gene, and test the immunogenicity of dried tomato fruit and potato tuber fed to mice. The synthetic gene increased rNV expression fourfold in tomato and potato plants, which assembled VLP. Four doses of 0.4 g freeze-dried tomato fruit containing 64 microg rNV (40 microg VLPs) induced NV-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA in > or = 80% of mice, while doses of 0.8 g elicited systemic and mucosal antibody responses in all mice. Feedings of 1 g freeze-dried potato tuber containing 120 microg rNV (90 microg VLPs) were required to produce 100% responsiveness. Oxidation of phenolic compounds upon rehydration of dried tuber caused significant VLP instability, thus decreasing immunogenicity. Air-dried tomato fruit stimulated stronger immune responses than freeze-dried fruit of the same mass, perhaps by limiting the destruction of plant cell matrix and membrane systems that occurs with freeze-drying. Thus, rNV in dried transgenic tomato fruit was a more potent immunogen than that in dried potato tubers, based on the total VLPs ingested. These findings support the use of stabilized, dried tomato fruit for oral delivery of subunit vaccines.

  13. Genome Sequence, Structural Proteins, and Capsid Organization of the Cyanophage Syn5: A “Horned” Bacteriophage of Marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H.; Weigele, Peter R.; Chang, Juan; Pedulla, Marisa L.; Ford, Michael E.; Houtz, Jennifer M.; Jiang, Wen; Chiu, Wah; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.; King, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus spp and marine Prochlorococcus spp are numerically dominant photoautotrophs in the open oceans and contributors to the global carbon cycle. Syn5 is a short-tailed cyanophage isolated from the Sargasso Sea on Synechococcus strain WH8109. Syn5 has been grown in WH8109 to high titer in the laboratory and purified and concentrated retaining infectivity. Genome sequencing and annotation of Syn5 revealed that the linear genome is 46,214bp with a 237bp terminal direct repeat. Sixty-one open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Based on genomic organization and sequence similarity to known protein sequences within GenBank, Syn5 shares features with T7-like phages. The presence of a putative integrase suggests access to a temperate life-cycle. Assignment of eleven ORFs to structural proteins found within the phage virion was confirmed by mass-spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Eight of these identified structural proteins exhibited amino acid sequence similarity to enteric phage proteins. The remaining three virion proteins did not resemble any known phage sequences in GenBank as of August 2006. Cryoelectron micrographs of purified Syn5 virions revealed that the capsid has a single “horn”, a novel fibrous structure protruding from the opposing end of the capsid from the tail of the virion. The tail appendage displayed an apparent three-fold rather than six-fold symmetry. An 18Å-resolution icosahedral reconstruction of the capsid revealed a T=7 lattice, but with an unusual pattern of surface knobs. This phage/host system should allow detailed investigation of the physiology and biochemistry of phage propagation in marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:17383677

  14. A sequence of basic residues in the porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein is crucial for its co-expression and co-localization with the replication protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Van Renne, Nicolaas; Liu, Changming; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes two major proteins: the replication protein (Rep) and the capsid protein (Cap). Cap displays a conserved stretch of basic residues situated on the inside of the capsid, whose role is so far unknown. We used a reverse-genetics approach to investigate its function and found that mutations in these amino acids hindered Cap mRNA translation and hampered Cap/Rep co-localization, yielding unfit viruses. Intriguingly, co-transfection with a WT PCV2 of a different genotype partially rescued mutant Cap expression, showing the importance of this basic pattern for efficient translation of Cap mRNA into protein. Our results show that Cap and Rep are expressed independently of each other, and that this amino acid sequence of Cap is vital for virus propagation. This study provides a method for studying unfit PCV2 virions and offers new insights into the intracellular modus vivendi of PCV2.

  15. Sequence analysis of malacoherpesvirus proteins: Pan-herpesvirus capsid module and replication enzymes with an ancient connection to "Megavirales".

    PubMed

    Mushegian, Arcady; Karin, Eli Levy; Pupko, Tal

    2018-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales includes animal viruses with large double-strand DNA genomes replicating in the nucleus. The main capsid protein in the best-studied family Herpesviridae contains a domain with HK97-like fold related to bacteriophage head proteins, and several virion maturation factors are also homologous between phages and herpesviruses. The origin of herpesvirus DNA replication proteins is less well understood. While analyzing the genomes of herpesviruses in the family Malacohepresviridae, we identified nearly 30 families of proteins conserved in other herpesviruses, including several phage-related domains in morphogenetic proteins. Herpesvirus DNA replication factors have complex evolutionary history: some are related to cellular proteins, but others are closer to homologs from large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the core replication machinery of herpesviruses may have been recruited from the same pool as in the case of other large DNA viruses of eukaryotes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Characterization of a protein kinase activity associated with purified capsids of the granulosis virus infecting Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Consigli, R A

    1985-06-01

    A cyclic-nucleotide independent protein kinase activity has been demonstrated in highly purified preparations of the granulosis virus infecting the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. A divalent cation was required for activity. Manganese was the preferred cation and a pH of 8.0 resulted in optimal incorporation of 32P radiolabel into acid-precipitable protein. Although both ATP and GTP could serve as phosphate donors, ATP was utilized more efficiently by the enzyme. The kinase activity was localized to purified capsids; and the basic, internal core protein, VP12, was found to be the predominant viral acceptor. Histones and protamine sulfate could also serve as acceptors for the capsid-associated kinase activity. Using acid hydrolysis and phosphoamino acid analysis of phosphorylated nucleocapsid protein and nuclear magnetic resonance of phosphorylated VP12, it was determined that the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of phosphate to both serine and arginine residues of acceptor proteins. We believe this kinase activity may play a significant role in the viral replication cycle.

  17. Expression of Norwalk virus capsid protein in transgenic tobacco and potato and its oral immunogenicity in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, H S; Ball, J M; Shi, J J; Jiang, X; Estes, M K; Arntzen, C J

    1996-01-01

    Alternatives to cell culture systems for production of recombinant proteins could make very safe vaccines at a lower cost. We have used genetically engineered plants for expression of candidate vaccine antigens with the goal of using the edible plant organs for economical delivery of oral vaccines. Transgenic tobacco and potato plants were created that express the capsid protein of Norwalk virus, a calicivirus that causes epidemic acute gastroenteritis in humans. The capsid protein could be extracted from tobacco leaves in the form of 38-nm Norwalk virus-like particles. Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particle (rNV) was previously recovered when the same gene was expressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. The capsid protein expressed in tobacco leaves and potato tubers cosedimented in sucrose gradients with insect cell-derived rNV and appeared identical to insect cell-derived rNV on immunoblots of SDS/polyacrylamide gels. The plant-expressed rNV was orally immunogenic in mice. Extracts of tobacco leaf expressing rNV were given to CD1 mice by gavage, and the treated mice developed both serum IgG and secretory IgA specific for rNV. Furthermore, when potato tubers expressing rNV were fed directly to mice, they developed serum IgG specific for rNV. These results indicate the potential usefulness of plants for production and delivery of edible vaccines. This is an appropriate technology for developing countries where vaccines are urgently needed. Images IMG Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643575

  18. Next-generation AAV vectors for clinical use: an ever-accelerating race.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Jonas; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    During the past five decades, it has become evident that Adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents one of the most potent, most versatile, and thus most auspicious platforms available for gene delivery into cells, animals and, ultimately, humans. Particularly attractive is the ease with which the viral capsid-the major determinant of virus-host interaction including cell specificity and antibody recognition-can be modified and optimized at will. This has motivated countless researchers to develop high-throughput technologies in which genetically engineered AAV capsid libraries are subjected to a vastly hastened emulation of natural evolution, with the aim to enrich novel synthetic AAV capsids displaying superior features for clinical application. While the power and potential of these forward genetics approaches is undisputed, they are also inherently challenging as success depends on a combination of library quality, fidelity, and complexity. Here, we will describe and discuss two original, very exciting strategies that have emerged over the last three years and that promise to alleviate at least some of these concerns, namely, (i) a reverse genetics approach termed "ancestral AAV sequence reconstruction," and (ii) AAV genome barcoding as a technology that can advance both, forward and reverse genetics stratagems. Notably, despite the conceptual differences of these two technologies, they pursue the same goal which is tailored acceleration of AAV evolution and thus winning the race for the next-generation AAV vectors for clinical use.

  19. Tyrosine-mutant AAV8 delivery of human MERTK provides long-term retinal preservation in RCS rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen-Tao; Dinculescu, Astra; Li, Qiuhong; Boye, Sanford L; Li, Jie; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Pang, Jijing; Chiodo, Vince A; Matthes, Michael T; Yasumura, Douglas; Liu, Li; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Zhang, Kang; Vollrath, Douglas; LaVail, Matthew M; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-04-06

    The absence of Mertk in RCS rats results in defective RPE phagocytosis, accumulation of outer segment (OS) debris in the subretinal space, and subsequent death of photoreceptors. Previous research utilizing Mertk gene replacement therapy in RCS rats provided proof of concept for treatment of this form of recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the beneficial effects on retinal function were transient. In the present study, we evaluated whether delivery of a MERTK transgene using a tyrosine-mutant AAV8 capsid could lead to more robust and longer-term therapeutic outcomes than previously reported. An AAV8 Y733F vector expressing a human MERTK cDNA driven by a RPE-selective promoter was administrated subretinally at postnatal day 2. Functional and morphological analyses were performed at 4 months and 8 months post-treatment. Retinal vasculature and Müller cell activation were analyzed by quantifying acellular capillaries and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. Electroretinographic responses from treated eyes were more than one-third of wild-type levels and OS were well preserved in the injection area even at 8 months. Rescue of RPE phagocytosis, prevention of retinal vasculature degeneration, and inhibition of Müller cell activation were demonstrated in the treated eyes for at least 8 months. This research describes a longer and much more robust functional and morphological rescue than previous studies. We also demonstrate for the first time that an AAV8 mutant capsid serotype vector has a substantial therapeutic potential for RPE-specific gene delivery. These results suggest that tyrosine-mutant AAV8 vectors hold promise for the treatment of individuals with MERTK-associated RP.

  20. Tyrosine-Mutant AAV8 Delivery of Human MERTK Provides Long-Term Retinal Preservation in RCS Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen-Tao; Dinculescu, Astra; Li, Qiuhong; Boye, Sanford L.; Li, Jie; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.; Pang, Jijing; Chiodo, Vince A.; Matthes, Michael T.; Yasumura, Douglas; Liu, Li; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Zhang, Kang; Vollrath, Douglas; LaVail, Matthew M.; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The absence of Mertk in RCS rats results in defective RPE phagocytosis, accumulation of outer segment (OS) debris in the subretinal space, and subsequent death of photoreceptors. Previous research utilizing Mertk gene replacement therapy in RCS rats provided proof of concept for treatment of this form of recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the beneficial effects on retinal function were transient. In the present study, we evaluated whether delivery of a MERTK transgene using a tyrosine-mutant AAV8 capsid could lead to more robust and longer-term therapeutic outcomes than previously reported. Methods. An AAV8 Y733F vector expressing a human MERTK cDNA driven by a RPE-selective promoter was administrated subretinally at postnatal day 2. Functional and morphological analyses were performed at 4 months and 8 months post-treatment. Retinal vasculature and Müller cell activation were analyzed by quantifying acellular capillaries and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. Results. Electroretinographic responses from treated eyes were more than one-third of wild-type levels and OS were well preserved in the injection area even at 8 months. Rescue of RPE phagocytosis, prevention of retinal vasculature degeneration, and inhibition of Müller cell activation were demonstrated in the treated eyes for at least 8 months. Conclusions. This research describes a longer and much more robust functional and morphological rescue than previous studies. We also demonstrate for the first time that an AAV8 mutant capsid serotype vector has a substantial therapeutic potential for RPE-specific gene delivery. These results suggest that tyrosine-mutant AAV8 vectors hold promise for the treatment of individuals with MERTK-associated RP. PMID:22408006

  1. Systemic delivery of shRNA by AAV9 provides highly efficient knockdown of ubiquitously expressed GFP in mouse heart, but not liver.

    PubMed

    Piras, Bryan A; O'Connor, Daniel M; French, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    AAV9 is a powerful gene delivery vehicle capable of providing long-term gene expression in a variety of cell types, particularly cardiomyocytes. The use of AAV-delivery for RNA interference is an intense area of research, but a comprehensive analysis of knockdown in cardiac and liver tissues after systemic delivery of AAV9 has yet to be reported. We sought to address this question by using AAV9 to deliver a short-hairpin RNA targeting the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic mice that constitutively overexpress GFP in all tissues. The expression cassette was initially tested in vitro and we demonstrated a 61% reduction in mRNA and a 90% reduction in GFP protein in dual-transfected 293 cells. Next, the expression cassette was packaged as single-stranded genomes in AAV9 capsids to test cardiac GFP knockdown with several doses ranging from 1.8×10(10) to 1.8×10(11) viral genomes per mouse and a dose-dependent response was obtained. We then analyzed GFP expression in both heart and liver after delivery of 4.4×10(11) viral genomes per mouse. We found that while cardiac knockdown was highly efficient, with a 77% reduction in GFP mRNA and a 71% reduction in protein versus control-treated mice, there was no change in liver expression. This was despite a 4.5-fold greater number of viral genomes in the liver than in the heart. This study demonstrates that single-stranded AAV9 vectors expressing shRNA can be used to achieve highly efficient cardiac-selective knockdown of GFP expression that is sustained for at least 7 weeks after the systemic injection of 8 day old mice, with no change in liver expression and no evidence of liver damage despite high viral genome presence in the liver.

  2. Conserved Tryptophan Motifs in the Large Tegument Protein pUL36 Are Required for Efficient Secondary Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Lyudmila; Buch, Anna; Döhner, Katinka; Pohlmann, Anja; Binz, Anne; Prank, Ute; Sandbaumhüter, Malte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) replicates in the skin and mucous membranes, and initiates lytic or latent infections in sensory neurons. Assembly of progeny virions depends on the essential large tegument protein pUL36 of 3,164 amino acid residues that links the capsids to the tegument proteins pUL37 and VP16. Of the 32 tryptophans of HSV-1-pUL36, the tryptophan-acidic motifs 1766WD1767 and 1862WE1863 are conserved in all HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates. Here, we characterized the role of these motifs in the HSV life cycle since the rare tryptophans often have unique roles in protein function due to their large hydrophobic surface. The infectivity of the mutants HSV-1(17+)Lox-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA and HSV-1(17+)Lox-CheVP26-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA, in which the capsid has been tagged with the fluorescent protein Cherry, was significantly reduced. Quantitative electron microscopy shows that there were a larger number of cytosolic capsids and fewer enveloped virions compared to their respective parental strains, indicating a severe impairment in secondary capsid envelopment. The capsids of the mutant viruses accumulated in the perinuclear region around the microtubule-organizing center and were not dispersed to the cell periphery but still acquired the inner tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37. Furthermore, cytoplasmic capsids colocalized with tegument protein VP16 and, to some extent, with tegument protein VP22 but not with the envelope glycoprotein gD. These results indicate that the unique conserved tryptophan-acidic motifs in the central region of pUL36 are required for efficient targeting of progeny capsids to the membranes of secondary capsid envelopment and for efficient virion assembly. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus infections give rise to severe animal and human diseases, especially in young, immunocompromised, and elderly individuals. The structural hallmark of herpesvirus virions is the tegument, which contains evolutionarily conserved proteins that are essential for several

  3. Maturation of the Hepatitis A Virus Capsid Protein VP1 Is Not Dependent on Processing by the 3Cpro Proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Annette; Bénichou, Danièle; Chao, Shih-Fong; Cohen, Lisette M.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    1999-01-01

    Most details of the processing of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein are known. Unique among members of the family Picornaviridae, the primary cleavage of the HAV polyprotein is mediated by 3Cpro, the only proteinase known to be encoded by the virus, at the 2A/2B junction. All other cleavages of the polyprotein have been considered to be due to 3Cpro, although the precise location and mechanism responsible for the VP1/2A cleavage have been controversial. Here we present data that argue strongly against the involvement of the HAV 3Cpro proteinase in the maturation of VP1 from its VP1-2A precursor. Using a heterologous expression system based on recombinant vaccinia viruses directing the expression of full-length or truncated capsid protein precursors, we show that the C terminus of the mature VP1 capsid protein is located near residue 764 of the polyprotein. However, a proteolytically active HAV 3Cpro that was capable of directing both VP0/VP3 and VP3/VP1 cleavages in vaccinia virus-infected cells failed to process the VP1-2A precursor. Using site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious molecular clone of HAV, we modified potential VP1/2A cleavage sites that fit known 3Cpro recognition criteria and found that a substitution that ablates the presumed 3Cpro dipeptide recognition sequence at Glu764-Ser765 abolished neither infectivity nor normal VP1 maturation. Altered electrophoretic mobility of VP1 from a viable mutant virus with an Arg764 substitution indicated that this residue is present in VP1 and that the VP1/2A cleavage occurs downstream of this residue. These data indicate that maturation of the HAV VP1 capsid protein is not dependent on 3Cpro processing and may thus be uniquely dependent on a cellular proteinase. PMID:10400711

  4. Design and construction of functional AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Gray, John T; Zolotukhin, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Using the basic principles of molecular biology and laboratory techniques presented in this chapter, researchers should be able to create a wide variety of AAV vectors for both clinical and basic research applications. Basic vector design concepts are covered for both protein coding gene expression and small non-coding RNA gene expression cassettes. AAV plasmid vector backbones (available via AddGene) are described, along with critical sequence details for a variety of modular expression components that can be inserted as needed for specific applications. Protocols are provided for assembling the various DNA components into AAV vector plasmids in Escherichia coli, as well as for transferring these vector sequences into baculovirus genomes for large-scale production of AAV in the insect cell production system.

  5. Efficient CRISPR-rAAV engineering of endogenous genes to study protein function by allele-specific RNAi.

    PubMed

    Kaulich, Manuel; Lee, Yeon J; Lönn, Peter; Springer, Aaron D; Meade, Bryan R; Dowdy, Steven F

    2015-04-20

    Gene knockout strategies, RNAi and rescue experiments are all employed to study mammalian gene function. However, the disadvantages of these approaches include: loss of function adaptation, reduced viability and gene overexpression that rarely matches endogenous levels. Here, we developed an endogenous gene knockdown/rescue strategy that combines RNAi selectivity with a highly efficient CRISPR directed recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) mediated gene targeting approach to introduce allele-specific mutations plus an allele-selective siRNA Sensitive (siSN) site that allows for studying gene mutations while maintaining endogenous expression and regulation of the gene of interest. CRISPR/Cas9 plus rAAV targeted gene-replacement and introduction of allele-specific RNAi sensitivity mutations in the CDK2 and CDK1 genes resulted in a >85% site-specific recombination of Neo-resistant clones versus ∼8% for rAAV alone. RNAi knockdown of wild type (WT) Cdk2 with siWT in heterozygotic knockin cells resulted in the mutant Cdk2 phenotype cell cycle arrest, whereas allele specific knockdown of mutant CDK2 with siSN resulted in a wild type phenotype. Together, these observations demonstrate the ability of CRISPR plus rAAV to efficiently recombine a genomic locus and tag it with a selective siRNA sequence that allows for allele-selective phenotypic assays of the gene of interest while it remains expressed and regulated under endogenous control mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Intracellular localization of adeno-associated viral proteins expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí E; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    Production of vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAVv) in insect cells represents a feasible option for large-scale applications. However, transducing particles yields obtained in this system are low compared with total capsid yields, suggesting the presence of genome encapsidation bottlenecks. Three components are required for AAVv production: viral capsid proteins (VP), the recombinant AAV genome, and Rep proteins for AAV genome replication and encapsidation. Little is known about the interaction between the three components in insect cells, which have intracellular conditions different to those in mammalian cells. In this work, the localization of AAV proteins in insect cells was assessed for the first time with the purpose of finding potential limiting factors. Unassembled VP were located either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Their transport into the nucleus was dependent on protein concentration. Empty capsids were located in defined subnuclear compartments. Rep proteins expressed individually were efficiently translocated into the nucleus. Their intranuclear distribution was not uniform and differed from VP distribution. While Rep52 distribution and expression levels were not affected by AAV genomes or VP, Rep78 distribution and stability changed during coexpression. Expression of all AAV components modified capsid intranuclear distribution, and assembled VP were found in vesicles located in the nuclear periphery. Such vesicles were related to baculovirus infection, highlighting its role in AAVv production in insect cells. The results obtained in this work suggest that the intracellular distribution of AAV proteins allows their interaction and does not limit vector production in insect cells. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  7. Identification of a novel bovine enterovirus possessing highly divergent amino acid sequences in capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Otomaru, Konosuke; Aoki, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Mai; Naoi, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Sano, Kaori; Okazaki-Terashima, Sachiko; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Nagai, Makoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2017-01-17

    Bovine enterovirus (BEV) belongs to the species Enterovirus E or F, genus Enterovirus and family Picornaviridae. Although numerous studies have identified BEVs in the feces of cattle with diarrhea, the pathogenicity of BEVs remains unclear. Previously, we reported the detection of novel kobu-like virus in calf feces, by metagenomics analysis. In the present study, we identified a novel BEV in diarrheal feces collected for that survey. Complete genome sequences were determined by deep sequencing in feces. Secondary RNA structure analysis of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), phylogenetic tree construction and pairwise identity analysis were conducted. The complete genome sequences of BEV were genetically distant from other EVs and the VP1 coding region contained novel and unique amino acid sequences. We named this strain as BEV AN12/Bos taurus/JPN/2014 (referred to as BEV-AN12). According to genome analysis, the genome length of this virus is 7414 nucleotides excluding the poly (A) tail and its genome consists of a 5'UTR, open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein, and 3'UTR. The results of secondary RNA structure analysis showed that in the 5'UTR, BEV-AN12 had an additional clover leaf structure and small stem loop structure, similarly to other BEVs. In pairwise identity analysis, BEV-AN12 showed high amino acid (aa) identities to Enterovirus F in the polyprotein, P2 and P3 regions (aa identity ≥82.4%). Therefore, BEV-AN12 is closely related to Enterovirus F. However, aa sequences in the capsid protein regions, particularly the VP1 encoding region, showed significantly low aa identity to other viruses in genus Enterovirus (VP1 aa identity ≤58.6%). In addition, BEV-AN12 branched separately from Enterovirus E and F in phylogenetic trees based on the aa sequences of P1 and VP1, although it clustered with Enterovirus F in trees based on sequences in the P2 and P3 genome region. We identified novel BEV possessing highly divergent aa sequences in the VP1 coding

  8. An isolate of Potato Virus X capsid protein from N. benthamiana: Insights from homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Neda; Sefidbakht, Yahya

    2018-05-17

    Since Potato Virus X (PVX) is easily transmitted mechanically between their hosts, its control is difficult. We have previously reported new isolate of this virus (PVX-Iran, GenBank Accession number FJ461343). However, the molecular basis of resistance breaking activity and its relation to capsid protein structure are still not well-understood. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, Western blot and RT-PCR molecular examinations were performed on the inoculated plants Nicotiana benthamiana. The pathological symptoms were related to the PVX isolate. The capsid protein (CP) structure were modeled based on homology and subjected to three independent 80 ns molecular dynamics minimization (GROMACS, OPLS force field) in the SPC water box. The RMSD, RMSF, SASA, and electrostatic properties were retrieved from the trajectories. Flexibility and hydrophilic nature of the N-terminal residues (1-34) of solvated CP could be observed in conformational changes upon minimization. The obtained structure was then docked with NbPCIP1 using ClusPro 2.0. The strong binding affinity of these two proteins (≈-16.0 Kcal mol -1 ) represents the formation of inclusion body and hence appearance of the symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Physical-Chemical Properties of Calicivirus Capsid Protein Adsorption to Fomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeler, David; Matysiak, Silvina

    2013-03-01

    Any inanimate object with an exposed surface bears the possibility of hosting a virus and may therefore be labeled a fomite. This research hopes to distinguish which chemical-physical differences in fomite surface and virus capsid protein characteristics cause variations in virus adsorption through an alignment of in silico molecular dynamics simulations with in vitro measurements. The impact of surface chemistry on the adsorption of the human norovirus (HNV)-surrogate calicivirus capsid protein 2MS2 has been simulated for monomer and trimer structures and is reported in terms of protein-self assembled monolayer (SAM) binding free energy. The coarse-grained MARTINI forcefield was used to maximize spatial and temporal resolution while minimizing computational load. Future work will investigate the FCVF5 and SMSVS4 calicivirus trimers and will extend beyond hydrophobic and hydrophilic SAM surface chemistry to charged SAM surfaces in varying ionic concentrations. These results will be confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance experiments conducted by Dr. Wigginton at the University of Michigan. This should provide a novel method for predicting the transferability of viruses that cannot be studied in vitro such as dangerous foodborne and nosocomially-acquired viruses like HNV.

  10. Identification of a cytoplasmic interaction partner of the large regulatory proteins Rep78/Rep68 of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Stefan; Hammer, Eva; Goetz, Anne

    2007-05-25

    Through yeast two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation studies, we have identified a novel cellular AAV-2 Rep78/Rep68 interaction partner located predominantly in the cytoplasm. In public databases, it has been assigned as KCTD5, because of a region of high similarity to the cytoplasmic tetramerization domain of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas Rep/KCTD5 interaction relied on the region surrounding the Rep nuclear localization signal, nuclear accumulation of Rep was not required. Wildtype Rep78/Rep68 proteins induced the translocation of large portions of KCTD5 into the nucleus pointing to functional interactions both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In line with an anticipated functional interference inmore » the cytoplasm, KCTD5 overexpression completely abrogated Rep68-mediated posttranscriptional activation of a HIV-LTR driven luciferase reporter gene. Our study expands the panel of already identified nuclear Rep interaction partners to a cytoplasmic protein, which raises the awareness that important steps in the AAV life cycle may be regulated in this compartment.« less

  11. Smectic viral capsids and the aneurysm instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmavaram, S.; Rudnick, J.; Lawrence, C. M.; Bruinsma, R. F.

    2018-05-01

    The capsids of certain Archaea-infecting viruses undergo large shape changes, while maintaining their integrity against rupture by osmotic pressure. We propose that these capsids are in a smectic liquid crystalline state, with the capsid proteins assembling along spirals. We show that smectic capsids are intrinsically stabilized against the formation of localized bulges with non-zero Gauss curvature while still allowing for large-scale cooperative shape transformation that involves global changes in the Gauss curvature.

  12. Structure of the Three N-Terminal Immunoglobulin Domains of the Highly Immunogenic Outer Capsid Protein from a T4-Like Bacteriophage

    SciTech Connect

    Fokine, Andrei; Islam, Mohammad Z.; Zhang, Zhihong

    2011-09-16

    The head of bacteriophage T4 is decorated with 155 copies of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc). One Hoc molecule binds near the center of each hexameric capsomer. Hoc is dispensable for capsid assembly and has been used to display pathogenic antigens on the surface of T4. Here we report the crystal structure of a protein containing the first three of four domains of Hoc from bacteriophage RB49, a close relative of T4. The structure shows an approximately linear arrangement of the protein domains. Each of these domains has an immunoglobulin-like fold, frequently found in cell attachment molecules. Inmore » addition, we report biochemical data suggesting that Hoc can bind to Escherichia coli, supporting the hypothesis that Hoc could attach the phage capsids to bacterial surfaces and perhaps also to other organisms. The capacity for such reversible adhesion probably provides survival advantages to the bacteriophage.« less

  13. Direct and Retrograde Transduction of Nigral Neurons with AAV6, 8, and 9 and Intraneuronal Persistence of Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Aebischer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotypes 6, 8, and 9 were characterized as tools for gene delivery to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra for future gene therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease. While vectors of all three serotypes transduced nigral dopaminergic neurons with equal efficiency when directly injected to the substantia nigra, AAV6 was clearly superior to AAV8 and AAV9 for retrograde transduction of nigral neurons after striatal delivery. For sequential transduction of nigral dopaminergic neurons, the combination of AAV9 with AAV6 proved to be more powerful than AAV8 with AAV6 or repeated AAV6 administration. Surprisingly, single-stranded viral genomes persisted in nigral dopaminergic neurons within cell bodies and axon terminals in the striatum, and intact assembled AAV capsid was enriched in nuclei of nigral neurons, 4 weeks after virus injections to the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)–induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra reduced the number of viral genomes in the striatum, in line with viral genome persistence in axon terminals. However, 6-OHDA–induced axonal degeneration did not induce any transsynaptic spread of AAV infection in the striatum. Therefore, the potential presence of viral particles in axons may not represent an important safety issue for AAV gene therapy applications in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23600720

  14. Bacterial surface-displayed GII.4 human norovirus capsid proteins bound to surface of Romaine lettuce through HBGA-like molecules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of HuNoVs. In this study, we used an ice nucleation protein (INP) mediated surface display system to present the protruding domain of GII.4 HuNoV capsid protein (G...

  15. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-04

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro , and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo , purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro . Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein.

  16. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro, and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo, purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro. Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein. PMID:26019527

  17. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the major capsid protein P2 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrescia, Nicola G. A.; Kivelä, Hanna M.; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2005-08-01

    The viral capsid protein P2 of bacteriophage PM2 has been crystallized. Preliminary X-ray analysis demonstrates the position and orientation of the two trimers in the asymmetric unit. PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the detailed molecular architecture of the virus, for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. Structural analysis of PM2 has been initiated and virus-derived P2 has been crystallized by sitting-nanodrop vapour diffusion. Crystals of P2 have been obtainedmore » in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with two trimers in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 171.1, b = 78.7, c = 130.1 Å. The crystals diffract to 4 Å resolution at the ESRF BM14 beamline (Grenoble, France) and the orientation of the non-crystallographic threefold axes, the spatial relationship between the two trimers and the packing of the trimers within the unit cell have been determined. The trimers form tightly packed layers consistent with the crystal morphology, possibly recapitulating aspects of the arrangement of subunits in the virus.« less

  18. Selective autophagy limits cauliflower mosaic virus infection by NBR1-mediated targeting of viral capsid protein and particles

    PubMed Central

    Hafrén, Anders; Macia, Jean-Luc; Love, Andrew J.; Milner, Joel J.; Drucker, Martin; Hofius, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy plays a paramount role in mammalian antiviral immunity including direct targeting of viruses and their individual components, and many viruses have evolved measures to antagonize or even exploit autophagy mechanisms for the benefit of infection. In plants, however, the functions of autophagy in host immunity and viral pathogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified both anti- and proviral roles of autophagy in the compatible interaction of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a double-stranded DNA pararetrovirus, with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that the autophagy cargo receptor NEIGHBOR OF BRCA1 (NBR1) targets nonassembled and virus particle-forming capsid proteins to mediate their autophagy-dependent degradation, thereby restricting the establishment of CaMV infection. Intriguingly, the CaMV-induced virus factory inclusions seem to protect against autophagic destruction by sequestering capsid proteins and coordinating particle assembly and storage. In addition, we found that virus-triggered autophagy prevents extensive senescence and tissue death of infected plants in a largely NBR1-independent manner. This survival function significantly extends the timespan of virus production, thereby increasing the chances for virus particle acquisition by aphid vectors and CaMV transmission. Together, our results provide evidence for the integration of selective autophagy into plant immunity against viruses and reveal potential viral strategies to evade and adapt autophagic processes for successful pathogenesis. PMID:28223514

  19. Effects of immunosuppression on circulating adeno-associated virus capsid-specific T cells in humans.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Elizabeth M; Li, Hua; Yin, Xiangfan; Liu, Qin; Wu, Te-Lang; Podsakoff, Gregory M; High, Katherine A; Levine, Matthew H; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2013-04-01

    In humans adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer is followed by expansion of AAV capsid-specific T cells, evidence of cell damage, and loss of transgene product expression, implicating immunological rejection of vector-transduced cells, which may be prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. We undertook this study to assess the effect of immunosuppression (IS) used for organ transplantation on immune responses to AAV capsid antigens. Recipients of liver or kidney transplants were tested before and 4 weeks after induction of IS in comparison with matched samples from healthy human adults and an additional cohort with comorbid conditions similar to those of the transplant patients. Our data show that transplant patients and comorbid control subjects have markedly higher frequencies of circulating AAV capsid-specific T cells compared with healthy adults. On average, IS resulted in a reduction of AAV-specific CD4⁺ T cells, whereas numbers of circulating CD8⁺ effector and central memory T cells tended to increase. Independent of the type of transplant or the IS regimens, the trend of AAV capsid-specific T cell responses after drug treatment varied; in some patients responses were unaffected whereas others showed decreases or even pronounced increases, casting doubt on the usefulness of prophylactic IS for AAV vector recipients.

  20. Effects of Immunosuppression on Circulating Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid-Specific T cells in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Parzych, Elizabeth M.; Li, Hua; Yin, Xiangfan; Liu, Qin; Wu, Te-Lang; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; High, Katherine A.; Levine, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In humans adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer is followed by expansion of AAV capsid-specific T cells, evidence of cell damage, and loss of transgene product expression, implicating immunological rejection of vector-transduced cells, which may be prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. We undertook this study to assess the effect of immunosuppression (IS) used for organ transplantation on immune responses to AAV capsid antigens. Recipients of liver or kidney transplants were tested before and 4 weeks after induction of IS in comparison with matched samples from healthy human adults and an additional cohort with comorbid conditions similar to those of the transplant patients. Our data show that transplant patients and comorbid control subjects have markedly higher frequencies of circulating AAV capsid-specific T cells compared with healthy adults. On average, IS resulted in a reduction of AAV-specific CD4+ T cells, whereas numbers of circulating CD8+ effector and central memory T cells tended to increase. Independent of the type of transplant or the IS regimens, the trend of AAV capsid-specific T cell responses after drug treatment varied; in some patients responses were unaffected whereas others showed decreases or even pronounced increases, casting doubt on the usefulness of prophylactic IS for AAV vector recipients. PMID:23461589

  1. Context-Dependent Cleavage of the Capsid Protein by the West Nile Virus Protease Modulates the Efficiency of Virus Assembly.

    PubMed

    VanBlargan, Laura A; Davis, Kaitlin A; Dowd, Kimberly A; Akey, David L; Smith, Janet L; Pierson, Theodore C

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms that define the specificity of flavivirus RNA encapsulation are poorly understood. Virions composed of the structural proteins of one flavivirus and the genomic RNA of a heterologous strain can be assembled and have been developed as live attenuated vaccine candidates for several flaviviruses. In this study, we discovered that not all combinations of flavivirus components are possible. While a West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic RNA could readily be packaged by structural proteins of the DENV2 strain 16681, production of infectious virions with DENV2 strain New Guinea C (NGC) structural proteins was not possible, despite the very high amino acid identity between these viruses. Mutagenesis studies identified a single residue (position 101) of the DENV capsid (C) protein as the determinant for heterologous virus production. C101 is located at the P1' position of the NS2B/3 protease cleavage site at the carboxy terminus of the C protein. WNV NS2B/3 cleavage of the DENV structural polyprotein was possible when a threonine (Thr101 in strain 16681) but not a serine (Ser101 in strain NGC) occupied the P1' position, a finding not predicted by in vitro protease specificity studies. Critically, both serine and threonine were tolerated at the P1' position of WNV capsid. More extensive mutagenesis revealed the importance of flanking residues within the polyprotein in defining the cleavage specificity of the WNV protease. A more detailed understanding of the context dependence of viral protease specificity may aid the development of new protease inhibitors and provide insight into associated patterns of drug resistance. West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific antiflavivirus therapeutics are available for treatment of infection. Proteolytic processing of the flavivirus polyprotein is an essential step in the replication cycle and is an attractive

  2. Context-Dependent Cleavage of the Capsid Protein by the West Nile Virus Protease Modulates the Efficiency of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    VanBlargan, Laura A.; Davis, Kaitlin A.; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Akey, David L.; Smith, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The molecular mechanisms that define the specificity of flavivirus RNA encapsulation are poorly understood. Virions composed of the structural proteins of one flavivirus and the genomic RNA of a heterologous strain can be assembled and have been developed as live attenuated vaccine candidates for several flaviviruses. In this study, we discovered that not all combinations of flavivirus components are possible. While a West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic RNA could readily be packaged by structural proteins of the DENV2 strain 16681, production of infectious virions with DENV2 strain New Guinea C (NGC) structural proteins was not possible, despite the very high amino acid identity between these viruses. Mutagenesis studies identified a single residue (position 101) of the DENV capsid (C) protein as the determinant for heterologous virus production. C101 is located at the P1′ position of the NS2B/3 protease cleavage site at the carboxy terminus of the C protein. WNV NS2B/3 cleavage of the DENV structural polyprotein was possible when a threonine (Thr101 in strain 16681) but not a serine (Ser101 in strain NGC) occupied the P1′ position, a finding not predicted by in vitro protease specificity studies. Critically, both serine and threonine were tolerated at the P1′ position of WNV capsid. More extensive mutagenesis revealed the importance of flanking residues within the polyprotein in defining the cleavage specificity of the WNV protease. A more detailed understanding of the context dependence of viral protease specificity may aid the development of new protease inhibitors and provide insight into associated patterns of drug resistance. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific antiflavivirus therapeutics are available for treatment of infection. Proteolytic processing of the flavivirus polyprotein is an essential step in the replication

  3. Perspective on Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Modification for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nance, Michael E; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a X-linked, progressive childhood myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, one of the largest genes in the genome. It is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and dysfunction leading to cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a highly promising gene therapy vector. AAV gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented clinical success for treating several inherited diseases. However, AAV gene therapy for DMD remains a significant challenge. Hurdles for AAV-mediated DMD gene therapy include the difficulty to package the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in an AAV vector, the necessity for whole-body gene delivery, the immune response to dystrophin and AAV capsid, and the species-specific barriers to translate from animal models to human patients. Capsid engineering aims at improving viral vector properties by rational design and/or forced evolution. In this review, we discuss how to use the state-of-the-art AAV capsid engineering technologies to overcome hurdles in AAV-based DMD gene therapy.

  4. The impact of viral RNA on the association free energies of capsid protein assembly: bacteriophage MS2 as a case study.

    PubMed

    ElSawy, Karim M

    2017-02-01

    A large number of single-stranded RNA viruses assemble their capsid and their genomic material simultaneously. The RNA viral genome plays multiple roles in this process that are currently only partly understood. In this work, we investigated the thermodynamic basis of the role of viral RNA on the assembly of capsid proteins. The viral capsid of bacteriophage MS2 was considered as a case study. The MS2 virus capsid is composed of 60 AB and 30 CC protein dimers. We investigated the effect of RNA stem loop (the translational repressor TR) binding to the capsid dimers on the dimer-dimer relative association free energies. We found that TR binding results in destabilization of AB self-association compared with AB and CC association. This indicates that the association of the AB and CC dimers is the most likely assembly pathway for the MS2 virus, which explains the experimental observation of alternating patterns of AB and CC dimers in dominant assembly intermediates of the MS2 virus. The presence of viral RNA, therefore, dramatically channels virus assembly to a limited number of pathways, thereby enhancing the efficiency of virus self-assembly process. Interestingly, Thr59Ser and Thr45Ala mutations of the dimers, in the absence of RNA stem loops, lead to stabilization of AB self-association compared with the AB and CC associations, thereby channelling virus assembly towards a fivefold (AB) 5 pentamer intermediate, providing a testable hypothesis of our thermodynamic arguments.

  5. Retargeting of adenovirus vectors through genetic fusion of a single-chain or single-domain antibody to capsid protein IX.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Kathy L; Lanthier, Robert M; Smith, Adam C; Christou, Carin; Risco Quiroz, Milagros; Powell, Karen L; O'Meara, Ryan W; Kothary, Rashmi; Lorimer, Ian A; Parks, Robin J

    2010-10-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are the most commonly used system for gene therapy applications, due in part to their ability to infect a wide array of cell types and tissues. However, many therapies would benefit from the ability to target the Ad vector only to specific cells, such as tumor cells for cancer gene therapy. In this study, we investigated the utility of capsid protein IX (pIX) as a platform for the presentation of single-chain variable-fragment antibodies (scFv) and single-domain antibodies (sdAb) for virus retargeting. We show that scFv can be displayed on the capsid through genetic fusion to native pIX but that these molecules fail to retarget the virus, due to improper folding of the scFv. Redirecting expression of the fusion protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in correct folding of the scFv and allows it to recognize its epitope; however, ER-targeted pIX-scFv was incorporated into the Ad capsid at a very low level which was not sufficient to retarget virus infection. In contrast, a pIX-sdAb construct was efficiently incorporated into the Ad capsid and enhanced virus infection of cells expressing the targeted receptor. Taken together, our data indicate that pIX is an effective platform for presentation of large targeting polypeptides on the surface of the virus capsid, but the nature of the ligand can significantly affect its association with virions.

  6. High-Throughput Dissection of AAV-Host Interactions: The Fast and the Curious.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Grimm, Dirk

    2018-05-18

    Over fifty years after its initial description, Adeno-associated virus (AAV) remains a most exciting but also most elusive study object in basic or applied virology. On the one hand, its simple structure not only facilitates investigations into virus biology, but combined with the availability of numerous natural AAV variants with distinct infection efficiency and specificity also makes AAV a preferred substrate for engineering of gene delivery vectors. On the other hand, it is striking to witness a recent flurry of reports that highlight and partially close persistent gaps in our understanding of AAV virus and vector biology. This is all the more perplexing considering that recombinant AAVs have already been used in >160 clinical trials and recently been commercialized as gene therapeutics. Here, we discuss a reason for these advances in AAV research, namely, the advent and application of powerful high-throughput technology for dissection of AAV-host interactions and optimization of AAV gene therapy vectors. As relevant examples, we focus on the discovery of (i) a "new" cellular AAV receptor, AAVR, (ii) host restriction factors for AAV entry, and (iii) AAV capsid determinants that mediate trafficking through the blood-brain barrier. While (i)/(ii) are prototypes of extra- or intracellular AAV host factors that were identified via high-throughput screenings, (iii) exemplifies the power of molecular evolution to investigate the virus itself. In the future, we anticipate that these and other key technologies will continue to accelerate the dissection of AAV biology and will yield a wealth of new designer viruses for clinical use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Tabulation as a high-resolution alternative to coarse-graining protein interactions: Initial application to virus capsid subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiriti, Justin; Zuckerman, Daniel M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional coarse-graining based on a reduced number of interaction sites often entails a significant sacrifice of chemical accuracy. As an alternative, we present a method for simulating large systems composed of interacting macromolecules using an energy tabulation strategy previously devised for small rigid molecules or molecular fragments [S. Lettieri and D. M. Zuckerman, J. Comput. Chem. 33, 268-275 (2012); J. Spiriti and D. M. Zuckerman, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 5161-5177 (2014)]. We treat proteins as rigid and construct distance and orientation-dependent tables of the interaction energy between them. Arbitrarily detailed interactions may be incorporated into the tables, but as a proof-of-principle, we tabulate a simple α-carbon Gō-like model for interactions between dimeric subunits of the hepatitis B viral capsid. This model is significantly more structurally realistic than previous models used in capsid assembly studies. We are able to increase the speed of Monte Carlo simulations by a factor of up to 6700 compared to simulations without tables, with only minimal further loss in accuracy. To obtain further enhancement of sampling, we combine tabulation with the weighted ensemble (WE) method, in which multiple parallel simulations are occasionally replicated or pruned in order to sample targeted regions of a reaction coordinate space. In the initial study reported here, WE is able to yield pathways of the final ˜25% of the assembly process.

  8. The C Terminus of the Large Tegument Protein pUL36 Contains Multiple Capsid Binding Sites That Function Differently during Assembly and Cell Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schipke, Julia; Pohlmann, Anja; Diestel, Randi; Binz, Anne; Rudolph, Kathrin; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Bauerfeind, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The largest tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), pUL36, is a multivalent cross-linker between the viral capsids and the tegument and associated membrane proteins during assembly that upon subsequent cell entry releases the incoming capsids from the outer tegument and viral envelope. Here we show that pUL36 was recruited to cytosolic progeny capsids that later colocalized with membrane proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and the trans-Golgi network. During cell entry, pUL36 dissociated from viral membrane proteins but remained associated with cytosolic capsids until arrival at the nucleus. HSV1 UL36 mutants lacking C-terminal portions of increasing size expressed truncated pUL36 but could not form plaques. Cytosolic capsids of mutants lacking the C-terminal 735 of the 3,164 amino acid residues accumulated in the cytosol but did not recruit pUL36 or associate with membranes. In contrast, pUL36 lacking only the 167 C-terminal residues bound to cytosolic capsids and subsequently colocalized with viral and host membrane proteins. Progeny virions fused with neighboring cells, but incoming capsids did not retain pUL36, nor could they target the nucleus or initiate HSV1 gene expression. Our data suggest that residues 2430 to 2893 of HSV1 pUL36, containing one binding site for the capsid protein pUL25, are sufficient to recruit pUL36 onto cytosolic capsids during assembly for secondary envelopment, whereas the 167 residues of the very C terminus with the second pUL25 binding site are crucial to maintain pUL36 on incoming capsids during cell entry. Capsids lacking pUL36 are targeted neither to membranes for virus assembly nor to nuclear pores for genome uncoating. PMID:22258258

  9. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinitymore » for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.« less

  10. Recognition of the different structural forms of the capsid protein determines the outcome following infection with porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Trible, Benjamin R; Suddith, Andrew W; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Cino-Ozuna, Ada G; Hesse, Richard A; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2012-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (CP) is the only protein necessary for the formation of the virion capsid, and recombinant CP spontaneously forms virus-like particles (VLPs). Located within a single CP subunit is an immunodominant epitope consisting of residues 169 to 180 [CP(169-180)], which is exposed on the surface of the subunit, but, in the structural context of the VLP, the epitope is buried and inaccessible to antibody. High levels of anti-CP(169-180) activity are associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the immune response to monomer CP in the development of PCVAD. The approach was to immunize pigs with CP monomer, followed by challenge with PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). To maintain the CP immunogen as a stable monomer, CP(43-233) was fused to ubiquitin (Ub-CP). Size exclusion chromatography showed that Ub-CP was present as a single 33-kDa protein. Pigs immunized with Ub-CP developed a strong antibody response to PCV2, including antibodies against CP(169-180). However, only low levels of virus neutralizing activity were detected, and viremia levels were similar to those of nonimmunized pigs. As a positive control, immunization with baculovirus-expressed CP (Bac-CP) resulted in high levels of virus neutralizing activity, small amounts of anti-CP(169-180) activity, and the absence of viremia in pigs following virus challenge. The data support the role of CP(169-180) as an immunological decoy and illustrate the importance of the structural form of the CP immunogen in determining the outcome following infection.

  11. Structures of Adenovirus Incomplete Particles Clarify Capsid Architecture and Show Maturation Changes of Packaging Protein L1 52/55k

    PubMed Central

    Condezo, Gabriela N.; Marabini, Roberto; Ayora, Silvia; Carazo, José M.; Alba, Raúl; Chillón, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus is one of the most complex icosahedral, nonenveloped viruses. Even after its structure was solved at near-atomic resolution by both cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, the location of minor coat proteins is still a subject of debate. The elaborated capsid architecture is the product of a correspondingly complex assembly process, about which many aspects remain unknown. Genome encapsidation involves the concerted action of five virus proteins, and proteolytic processing by the virus protease is needed to prime the virion for sequential uncoating. Protein L1 52/55k is required for packaging, and multiple cleavages by the maturation protease facilitate its release from the nascent virion. Light-density particles are routinely produced in adenovirus infections and are thought to represent assembly intermediates. Here, we present the molecular and structural characterization of two different types of human adenovirus light particles produced by a mutant with delayed packaging. We show that these particles lack core polypeptide V but do not lack the density corresponding to this protein in the X-ray structure, thereby adding support to the adenovirus cryo-electron microscopy model. The two types of light particles present different degrees of proteolytic processing. Their structures provide the first glimpse of the organization of L1 52/55k protein inside the capsid shell and of how this organization changes upon partial maturation. Immature, full-length L1 52/55k is poised beneath the vertices to engage the virus genome. Upon proteolytic processing, L1 52/55k disengages from the capsid shell, facilitating genome release during uncoating. IMPORTANCE Adenoviruses have been extensively characterized as experimental systems in molecular biology, as human pathogens, and as therapeutic vectors. However, a clear picture of many aspects of their basic biology is still lacking. Two of these aspects are the location of minor coat proteins in

  12. A Physical Interaction between Viral Replicase and Capsid Protein Is Required for Genome-Packaging Specificity in an RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Genome packaging is functionally coupled to replication in RNA viruses pathogenic to humans (Poliovirus), insects (Flock house virus [FHV]), and plants (Brome mosaic virus [BMV]). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have observed previously that in FHV and BMV, unlike ectopically expressed capsid protein (CP), packaging specificity results from RNA encapsidation by CP that has been translated from mRNA produced from replicating genomic RNA. Consequently, we hypothesize that a physical interaction with replicase increases the CP specificity for packaging viral RNAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the molecular interaction between replicase protein and CP using a FHV-Nicotiana benthamiana system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation in conjunction with fluorescent cellular protein markers and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FHV replicase (protein A) and CP physically interact at the mitochondrial site of replication and that this interaction requires the N-proximal region from either amino acids 1 to 31 or amino acids 32 to 50 of the CP. In contrast to the mitochondrial localization of CP derived from FHV replication, ectopic expression displayed a characteristic punctate pattern on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This pattern was altered to relocalize the CP throughout the cytoplasm when the C-proximal hydrophobic domain was deleted. Analysis of the packaging phenotypes of the CP mutants defective either in protein A-CP interactions or ER localization suggested that synchronization between protein A-CP interaction and its subcellular localization is imperative to confer packaging specificity. PMID:22438552

  13. A physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein is required for genome-packaging specificity in an RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Rao, A L N

    2012-06-01

    Genome packaging is functionally coupled to replication in RNA viruses pathogenic to humans (Poliovirus), insects (Flock house virus [FHV]), and plants (Brome mosaic virus [BMV]). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have observed previously that in FHV and BMV, unlike ectopically expressed capsid protein (CP), packaging specificity results from RNA encapsidation by CP that has been translated from mRNA produced from replicating genomic RNA. Consequently, we hypothesize that a physical interaction with replicase increases the CP specificity for packaging viral RNAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the molecular interaction between replicase protein and CP using a FHV-Nicotiana benthamiana system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation in conjunction with fluorescent cellular protein markers and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FHV replicase (protein A) and CP physically interact at the mitochondrial site of replication and that this interaction requires the N-proximal region from either amino acids 1 to 31 or amino acids 32 to 50 of the CP. In contrast to the mitochondrial localization of CP derived from FHV replication, ectopic expression displayed a characteristic punctate pattern on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This pattern was altered to relocalize the CP throughout the cytoplasm when the C-proximal hydrophobic domain was deleted. Analysis of the packaging phenotypes of the CP mutants defective either in protein A-CP interactions or ER localization suggested that synchronization between protein A-CP interaction and its subcellular localization is imperative to confer packaging specificity.

  14. Mapping the B cell epitopes within the major capsid protein L1 of human papillomavirus type 16.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Li, Ning; Zhou, Jingming; Chen, Yumei; Jiang, Min; Qi, Yanhua; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Yankai; Liu, Dongmin; Zhao, Jianguo; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Gaiping

    2018-06-26

    Persistent infection with human papillomavirus type16 (HPV16) has much association with the development of cervical cancer. L1 is the major capsid protein of HPV, it has been well investigated as a potential vaccine candidate. However, B cell epitopes present on L1 have not been well characterized. To identify the potential B-cell antigenic epitopes within HPV16 L1 protein, sixteen serial overlapping truncations (H1-H16) covering the whole region were expressed in E. coli and used in mice immunization. The mice antisera were tested in ELISA binding, IFA and HI assays. Finally, four fragments (H2, H4, H11, H12) were found to contain B cell epitopes of HPV16 L1 protein in ELISA and IFA assays, three fragments (H2, H3, H9) might contain neutralizing epitopes of HPV16 L1 protein in HI assay. Among them, H11 and H12 fragments contain B cell epitopes have never been reported before, and H3 was found as hemagglutination inhibition epitope for the first time. This work provides new insights to B cell epitopes on HPV16 L1 protein. Several new epitopes were identified and may provide some guidance for HPV16 subunit vaccine design. The results of this study might open new perspectives on the antibody-antigen reaction and have important implications for the development of epitopes-based protective HPV16 vaccines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    PubMed

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-02-22

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness.

  16. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  17. Adeno-associated virus rep protein synthesis during productive infection

    SciTech Connect

    Redemann, B.E.; Mendelson, E.; Carter, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep proteins mediate viral DNA replication and can regulate expression from AAV genes. The authors studied the kinetics of synthesis of the four Rep proteins, Rep78, Rep68, Rep52, and Rep40, during infection of human 293 or KB cells with AAV and helper adenovirus by in vivo labeling with (/sup 35/S)methionine, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Rep78 and Rep52 were readily detected concomitantly with detection of viral monomer duplex DNA replicating about 10 to 12 h after infection, and Rep68 and Rep40 were detected 2 h later. Rep78 and Rep52 were more abundant than Rep68 and Rep40 owing tomore » a higher synthesis rate throughout the infectious cycle. In some experiments, very low levels of Rep78 could be detected as early as 4 h after infection. The synthesis rates of Rep proteins were maximal between 14 and 24 h and then decreased later after infection. Isotopic pulse-chase experiments showed that each of the Rep proteins was synthesized independently and was stable for at least 15 h. A slower-migrating, modified form of Rep78 was identified late after infection. AAV capsid protein synthesis was detected at 10 to 12 h after infection and also exhibited synthesis kinetics similar to those of the Rep proteins. AAV DNA replication showed at least two clearly defined stages. Bulk duplex replicating DNA accumulation began around 10 to 12 h and reached a maximum level at about 20 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis was maximal. Progeny single-stranded DNA accumulation began about 12 to 13 h, but most of this DNA accumulated after 24 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis had decreased.« less

  18. Widespread transduction of astrocytes and neurons in the mouse central nervous system after systemic delivery of a self-complementary AAV-PHP.B vector.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Melvin Y; de Vin, Filip; Duqué, Sandra I; Fripont, Shelly; Castaldo, Stephanie A; Bouhuijzen-Wenger, Jessica; Holt, Matthew G

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) was considered the AAV serotype most effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transducing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), following systemic injection. However, a newly engineered capsid, AAV-PHP.B, is reported to cross the BBB at even higher efficiency. We investigated how much we could boost CNS transgene expression by using AAV-PHP.B carrying a self-complementary (sc) genome. To allow comparison, 6 weeks old C57BL/6 mice received intravenous injections of scAAV2/9-GFP or scAAV2/PHP.B-GFP at equivalent doses. Three weeks postinjection, transgene expression was assessed in brain and spinal cord. We consistently observed more widespread CNS transduction and higher levels of transgene expression when using the scAAV2/PHP.B-GFP vector. In particular, we observed an unprecedented level of astrocyte transduction in the cortex, when using a ubiquitous CBA promoter. In comparison, neuronal transduction was much lower than previously reported. However, strong neuronal expression (including spinal motor neurons) was observed when the human synapsin promoter was used. These findings constitute the first reported use of an AAV-PHP.B capsid, encapsulating a scAAV genome, for gene transfer in adult mice. Our results underscore the potential of this AAV construct as a platform for safer and more efficacious gene therapy vectors for the CNS.

  19. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of tropism and effectiveness of new primate-derived hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes in the mouse and primate retina.

    PubMed

    Charbel Issa, Peter; De Silva, Samantha R; Lipinski, Daniel M; Singh, Mandeep S; Mouravlev, Alexandre; You, Qisheng; Barnard, Alun R; Hankins, Mark W; During, Matthew J; Maclaren, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have been shown to be safe in the treatment of retinal degenerations in clinical trials. Thus, improving the efficiency of viral gene delivery has become increasingly important to increase the success of clinical trials. In this study, structural domains of different rAAV serotypes isolated from primate brain were combined to create novel hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes, rAAV2/rec2 and rAAV2/rec3. The efficacy of these novel serotypes were assessed in wild type mice and in two models of retinal degeneration (the Abca4(-/-) mouse which is a model for Stargardt disease and in the Pde6b(rd1/rd1) mouse) in vivo, in primate tissue ex-vivo, and in the human-derived SH-SY5Y cell line, using an identical AAV2 expression cassette. We show that these novel hybrid serotypes can transduce retinal tissue in mice and primates efficiently, although no more than AAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 serotypes. Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4(-/-) mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. Shuffling of AAV capsid domains may have clinical applications for patients who develop T-cell immune responses following AAV gene therapy, as specific peptide antigen sequences could be substituted using this technique prior to vector re-treatments.

  1. Formation of AAV Single Stranded DNA Genome from a Circular Plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  2. Formation of AAV single stranded DNA genome from a circular plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3(+) clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway.

  3. Intracellular Distribution of Capsid-Associated pUL77 of Human Cytomegalovirus and Interactions with Packaging Proteins and pUL93.

    PubMed

    Köppen-Rung, Pánja; Dittmer, Alexandra; Bogner, Elke

    2016-07-01

    DNA packaging into procapsids is a common multistep process during viral maturation in herpesviruses. In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the proteins involved in this process are terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL89, which are responsible for site-specific cleavage and insertion of the DNA into the procapsid via portal protein pUL104. However, additional viral proteins are required for the DNA packaging process. We have shown previously that the plasmid that encodes capsid-associated pUL77 encodes another potential player during capsid maturation. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that pUL77 is stably expressed during HCMV infection. Time course analysis demonstrated that pUL77 is expressed in the early late part of the infectious cycle. The sequence of pUL77 was analyzed to find nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), revealing monopartite NLSm at the N terminus and bipartite NLSb in the middle of pUL77. The potential NLSs were inserted into plasmid pHM829, which encodes a chimeric protein with β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein. In contrast to pUL56, neither NLSm nor NLSb was sufficient for nuclear import. Furthermore, we investigated by coimmunoprecipitation whether packaging proteins, as well as pUL93, the homologue protein of herpes simplex virus 1 pUL17, are interaction partners of pUL77. The interactions between pUL77 and packaging proteins, as well as pUL93, were verified. We showed that the capsid-associated pUL77 is another potential player during capsid maturation of HCMV. Protein UL77 (pUL77) is a conserved core protein of HCMV. This study demonstrates for the first time that pUL77 has early-late expression kinetics during the infectious cycle and an intrinsic potential for nuclear translocation. According to its proposed functions in stabilization of the capsid and anchoring of the encapsidated DNA during packaging, interaction with further DNA packaging proteins is required. We identified physical interactions with terminase subunits pUL56 and p

  4. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection. PMID:20646322

  5. Expressing Transgenes That Exceed the Packaging Capacity of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Riyad, Jalish Mahmud; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) are being explored as gene delivery vehicles for the treatment of various inherited and acquired disorders. rAAVs are attractive vectors for several reasons: wild-type AAVs are nonpathogenic, and rAAVs can trigger long-term transgene expression even in the absence of genome integration—at least in postmitotic tissues. Moreover, rAAVs have a low immunogenic profile, and the various AAV serotypes and variants display broad but distinct tropisms. One limitation of rAAVs is that their genome-packaging capacity is only ∼5 kb. For most applications this is not of major concern because the median human protein size is 375 amino acids. Excluding the ITRs, for a protein of typical length, this allows the incorporation of ∼3.5 kb of DNA for the promoter, polyadenylation sequence, and other regulatory elements into a single AAV vector. Nonetheless, for certain diseases the packaging limit of AAV does not allow the delivery of a full-length therapeutic protein by a single AAV vector. Hence, approaches to overcome this limitation have become an important area of research for AAV gene therapy. Among the most promising approaches to overcome the limitation imposed by the packaging capacity of AAV is the use of dual-vector approaches, whereby a transgene is split across two separate AAV vectors. Coinfection of a cell with these two rAAVs will then—through a variety of mechanisms—result in the transcription of an assembled mRNA that could not be encoded by a single AAV vector because of the DNA packaging limits of AAV. The main purpose of this review is to assess the current literature with respect to dual-AAV-vector design, to highlight the effectiveness of the different methodologies and to briefly discuss future areas of research to improve the efficiency of dual-AAV-vector transduction. PMID:26757051

  6. Bioprocessing of plant-derived virus-like particles of Norwalk virus capsid protein under current Good Manufacture Practice regulations

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Huafang; Chen, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success in expressing a variety of subunit vaccine proteins in plants and the recent stride in improving vaccine accumulation levels by transient expression systems, there is still no plant-derived vaccine that has been licensed for human use. The lack of commercial success of plant-made vaccines lies in several technical and regulatory barriers that remain to be overcome. These challenges include the lack of scalable downstream processing procedures, the uncertainty of regulatory compliance of production processes, and the lack of demonstration of plant-derived products that meet the required standards of regulatory agencies in identity, purity, potency and safety. In this study, we addressed these remaining challenges and successfully demonstrate the ability of using plants to produce a pharmaceutical grade Norwalk virus (NV) vaccine under current Good Manufacture Practice (cGMP) guidelines at multiple gram scales. Our results demonstrate that an efficient and scalable extraction and purification scheme can established for processing virus-like particles (VLP) of NV capsid protein (NVCP). We successfully operated the upstream and downstream NVCP production processes under cGMP regulations. Furthermore, plant-derived NVCP VLP demonstrates the identity, purity, potency and safety that meet the preset release specifications. This material is being tested in a Phase I human clinical trial. This research provides the first report of producing a plant-derived vaccine at scale under cGMP regulations in an academic setting and an important step for plant-produced vaccines to become a commercial reality. PMID:22134876

  7. A Membrane-Destabilizing Peptide in Capsid Protein L2 Is Required for Egress of Papillomavirus Genomes from Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kämper, Nadine; Day, Patricia M.; Nowak, Thorsten; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Florin, Luise; Bolscher, Jan; Hilbig, Lydia; Schiller, John T.; Sapp, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are internalized via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the mechanism by which viral genomes pass endosomal membranes has not been elucidated. In this report we show that the minor capsid protein L2 is required for egress of viral genomes from endosomes but not for initial uptake and uncoating and that a 23-amino-acid peptide at the C terminus of L2 is necessary for this function. Pseudogenomes encapsidated by L1 and L2 lacking this peptide accumulated in vesicular compartments similar to that observed with L1-only viral particles, and these mutant pseudoviruses were noninfectious. This L2 peptide displayed strong membrane-disrupting activity, induced cytolysis of bacteria and eukaryotic cells in a pH-dependent manner, and permeabilized cells after exogenous addition. Fusions between green fluorescent protein and the L2 peptide integrated into cellular membranes like the wild type but not like C-terminal mutants of L2. Our data indicate that the L2 C terminus facilitates escape of viral genomes from the endocytic compartment and that this feature is conserved among papillomaviruses. Furthermore, the characteristic of this peptide differs from the classical virus-encoded membrane-penetrating peptides. PMID:16378978

  8. Functional and Structural Characterization of Novel Type of Linker Connecting Capsid and Nucleocapsid Protein Domains in Murine Leukemia Virus.

    PubMed

    Doležal, Michal; Hadravová, Romana; Kožíšek, Milan; Bednárová, Lucie; Langerová, Hana; Ruml, Tomáš; Rumlová, Michaela

    2016-09-23

    The assembly of immature retroviral particles is initiated in the cytoplasm by the binding of the structural polyprotein precursor Gag with viral genomic RNA. The protein interactions necessary for assembly are mediated predominantly by the capsid (CA) and nucleocapsid (NC) domains, which have conserved structures. In contrast, the structural arrangement of the CA-NC connecting region differs between retroviral species. In HIV-1 and Rous sarcoma virus, this region forms a rod-like structure that separates the CA and NC domains, whereas in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, this region is densely packed, thus holding the CA and NC domains in close proximity. Interestingly, the sequence connecting the CA and NC domains in gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), is unique. The sequence is called a charged assembly helix (CAH) due to a high number of positively and negatively charged residues. Although both computational and deletion analyses suggested that the MLV CAH forms a helical conformation, no structural or biochemical data supporting this hypothesis have been published. Using an in vitro assembly assay, alanine scanning mutagenesis, and biophysical techniques (circular dichroism, NMR, microcalorimetry, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay), we have characterized the structure and function of the MLV CAH. We provide experimental evidence that the MLV CAH belongs to a group of charged, E(R/K)-rich, single α-helices. This is the first single α-helix motif identified in viral proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Using cryoEM Reconstruction and Phase Extension to Determine Crystal Structure of Bacteriophage $${\\Phi}$$6 Major Capsid Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Daniel; Plevka, Pavel; Boura, Evzen

    2013-11-29

    Bacteriophagemore » $${\\Phi}$$6 is a double-stranded RNA virus that has been extensively studied as a model organism. In this paper we describe structure determination of $${\\Phi}$$6 major capsid protein P1. The protein crystallized in base centered orthorhombic space group C2221. Matthews’s coefficient indicated that the crystals contain from four to seven P1 subunits in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The self-rotation function had shown presence of fivefold axes of non-crystallographic symmetry in the crystals. Thus, electron density map corresponding to a P1 pentamer was excised from a previously determined cryoEM reconstruction of the $${\\Phi}$$6 procapsid at 7 Å resolution and used as a model for molecular replacement. The phases for reflections at higher than 7 Å resolution were obtained by phase extension employing the fivefold non-crystallographic symmetry present in the crystal. Lastly, the averaged 3.6 Å-resolution electron density map was of sufficient quality to allow model building.« less

  10. Yellow fever virus capsid protein is a potent suppressor of RNA silencing that binds double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Wiley, Michael R; Badawi, Atif; Adelman, Zach N; Myles, Kevin M

    2016-11-29

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV), profoundly affect human health. The successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. Similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's RNA silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. Although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has been found to encode suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanisms by which flaviviruses antagonize antiviral small RNA pathways in disease vectors are unknown. Here we describe a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) encoded by the prototype flavivirus, YFV. We show that the YFV capsid (YFC) protein inhibits RNA silencing in the mosquito Aedes aegypti by interfering with Dicer. This VSR activity appears to be broadly conserved in the C proteins of other medically important flaviviruses, including that of ZIKV. These results suggest that a molecular "arms race" between vector and pathogen underlies the continued existence of flaviviruses in nature.

  11. Major Variations in HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Morphologies Involve Minor Variations in Molecular Structures of Structurally Ordered Protein Segments*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun-Xia; Bayro, Marvin J.; Tycko, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies with three different morphologies, namely wild-type CA (WT-CA) tubes with 35–60 nm diameters, planar sheets formed by the Arg18-Leu mutant (R18L-CA), and R18L-CA spheres with 20–100 nm diameters. The experiments are intended to elucidate molecular structural variations that underlie these variations in CA assembly morphology. We find that multidimensional solid state NMR spectra of 15N,13C-labeled CA assemblies are remarkably similar for the three morphologies, with only small differences in 15N and 13C chemical shifts, no significant differences in NMR line widths, and few differences in the number of detectable NMR cross-peaks. Thus, the pronounced differences in morphology do not involve major differences in the conformations and identities of structurally ordered protein segments. Instead, morphological variations are attributable to variations in conformational distributions within disordered segments, which do not contribute to the solid state NMR spectra. Variations in solid state NMR signals from certain amino acid side chains are also observed, suggesting differences in the intermolecular dimerization interface between curved and planar CA lattices, as well as possible differences in intramolecular helix-helix packing. PMID:27129282

  12. Identification of binding domains in the herpes simplex virus type 1 small capsid protein pUL35 (VP26).

    PubMed

    Apcarian, Arin; Cunningham, Anthony L; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2010-11-01

    In this study, fragments of the small capsid protein pUL35 (VP26) from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were generated to identify binding domains for a number of known ligands. Analysis of the binding of dynein light chain subunits, DYNLT1 and DYNLT3, as well the HSV-1 structural proteins pUL19 (VP5) and pUL37 was then undertaken using the LexA yeast two-hybrid assay. The N-terminal half of pUL35, in particular residues 30-43, was identified as a common region for the binding of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. Additional distinct regions in the C terminus of pUL35 also contribute to the binding of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. In contrast, only the C-terminal half of pUL35 was found to mediate the binding of pUL19 and pUL37 through distinct regions. The relevance of this information to the role of pUL35 in viral transport and assembly is discussed.

  13. Diversity of environmental single-stranded DNA phages revealed by PCR amplification of the partial major capsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Max; Kailasan, Shweta; Cohen, Allison; Roux, Simon; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Shevenell, Amelia; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Breitbart, Mya

    2014-01-01

    The small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bacteriophages of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were traditionally perceived as narrowly targeted, niche-specific viruses infecting obligate parasitic bacteria, such as Chlamydia. The advent of metagenomics revealed gokushoviruses to be widespread in global environmental samples. This study expands knowledge of gokushovirus diversity in the environment by developing a degenerate PCR assay to amplify a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of gokushoviruses. Over 500 amplicons were sequenced from 10 environmental samples (sediments, sewage, seawater and freshwater), revealing the ubiquity and high diversity of this understudied phage group. Residue-level conservation data generated from multiple alignments was combined with a predicted 3D structure, revealing a tendency for structurally internal residues to be more highly conserved than surface-presenting protein–protein or viral–host interaction domains. Aggregating this data set into a phylogenetic framework, many gokushovirus MCP clades contained samples from multiple environments, although distinct clades dominated the different samples. Antarctic sediment samples contained the most diverse gokushovirus communities, whereas freshwater springs from Florida were the least diverse. Whether the observed diversity is being driven by environmental factors or host-binding interactions remains an open question. The high environmental diversity of this previously overlooked ssDNA viral group necessitates further research elucidating their natural hosts and exploring their ecological roles. PMID:24694711

  14. Differential effects of two MRI contrast agents on the integrity and distribution of rAAV2 and rAAV5 in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Osting, Sue; Bennett, Antonette; Power, Shelby; Wackett, Jordan; Hurley, Samuel A; Alexander, Andrew L; Agbandje-Mckena, Mavis; Burger, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a method to optimize intracerebral targeting and for tracking infusate distribution in gene therapy trials for nervous system disorders. We thus investigated possible effects of two MRI contrast agents, gadoteridol (Gd) and galbumin (Gab), on the distribution and levels of transgene expression in the rat striatum and their effect on integrity and stability of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) particles. MRI studies showed that contrast agent distribution did not predict rAAV distribution. However, green fluorescent protein (GFP) immunoreactivity revealed an increase in distribution of rAAV5-GFP, but not rAAV2-GFP, in the presence of Gd when compared with viral vector injected alone. In contrast, Gab increased the distribution of rAAV2-GFP not rAAV5-GFP. These observations pointed to a direct effect of infused contrast agent on the rAAV particles. Negative-stain electron microscopy (EM), DNAase treatment, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to monitor rAAV2 and rAAV5 particle integrity and stability following contrast agent incubation. EMs of rAAV2-GFP and rAAV5-GFP particles pretreated with Gd appear morphologically similar to the untreated sample; however, Gab treatment resulted in surface morphology changes and aggregation. A compromise of particle integrity was suggested by sensitivity of the packaged genome to DNAase treatment following Gab incubation but not Gd for both vectors. However, neither agent significantly affected particle stability when analyzed by DSC. An increase in Tm was observed for AAV2 in lactated Ringer’s buffer. These results thus highlight potential interactions between MRI contrast agents and AAV that might affect vector distribution and stability, as well as the stabilizing effect of lactated Ringer’s solution on AAV2. PMID:26015943

  15. Utilization of phage display to identify antigenic regions in the PCV2 capsid protein for the evaluation of serological responses in mice and pigs.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcus Rebouças; Assao, Viviane Sisdelli; Santos, Fabiana de Almeida Araújo; Salgado, Rafael Locatelli; Carneiro, Ana Paula; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Lobato, Zelia Inês Portela; Ueira-Veira, Carlos; Goulart, Luíz Ricardo; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo

    2018-07-01

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is associated with a series of swine diseases. There is a great interest in improving our understanding of the immunology of PCV2, especially the properties of the viral capsid protein Cap-PCV2 and how they relate to the immunogenicity of the virus and the subsequent development of vaccines. Phage display screening has been widely used to study binding affinities for target proteins. The aim of this study was to use phage display screening to identify antigenic peptides in the PCV2 capsid protein. After the selection of peptides, five of them presented similarity to sequences found in cap-PCV2, and four peptides were synthesized and used for immunization in mice: 51-CTFGYTIKRTVT-62 (PS14), 127-CDNFVTKATALTY-138 (PS34), 164-CKPVLDSTIDY-173 (PC12), and 79-CFLPPGGGSNT-88 (PF1). Inoculation with the PC12 peptide led to the highest production of antibodies. Furthermore, we used the PC12 peptide as an antigen to examine the humoral response of swine serum by ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was 88.9% and 92.85%, respectively. Altogether, characterization of immunogenic epitopes in the capsid protein of PCV2 may contribute to the improvement of vaccines and diagnostics.

  16. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  17. Molecular Architecture of the Retroviral Capsid.

    PubMed

    Perilla, Juan R; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2016-05-01

    Retroviral capsid cores are proteinaceous containers that self-assemble to encase the viral genome and a handful of proteins that promote infection. Their function is to protect and aid in the delivery of viral genes to the nucleus of the host, and, in many cases, infection pathways are influenced by capsid-cellular interactions. From a mathematical perspective, capsid cores are polyhedral cages and, as such, follow well-defined geometric rules. However, marked morphological differences in shapes exist, depending on virus type. Given the specific roles of capsid in the viral life cycle, the availability of detailed molecular structures, particularly at assembly interfaces, opens novel avenues for targeted drug development against these pathogens. Here, we summarize recent advances in the structure and understanding of retroviral capsid, with particular emphasis on assemblies and the capsid cores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary and structural analyses of alpha-papillomavirus capsid proteins yields novel insights into L2 structure and interaction with L1

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Panda, Debasis; Rose, Suzanne; Jensen, Ty; Hughes, Willie A; Tso, For Yue; Angeletti, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    Background PVs (PV) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been identified as the primary etiological agent for cervical cancer and their potential for malignant transformation in mucosal tissue has a large impact on public health. The PV family Papillomaviridae is organized into multiple genus based on sequential parsimony, host range, tissue tropism, and histology. We focused this analysis on the late gene products, major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins from the family Papillomaviridae genus Alpha-papillomavirus. Alpha-PVs preferentially infect oral and anogenital mucosa of humans and primates with varied risk of oncogenic transformation. Development of evolutionary associations between PVs will likely provide novel information to assist in clarifying the currently elusive relationship between PV and its microenvironment (i.e., the single infected cell) and macro environment (i.e., the skin tissue). We attempt to identify the regions of the major capsid proteins as well as minor capsid proteins of alpha-papillomavirus that have been evolutionarily conserved, and define regions that are under constant selective pressure with respect to the entire family of viruses. Results This analysis shows the loops of L1 are in fact the most variable regions among the alpha-PVs. We also identify regions of L2, involved in interaction with L1, as evolutionarily conserved among the members of alpha- PVs. Finally, a predicted three-dimensional model was generated to further elucidate probable aspects of the L1 and L2 interaction. PMID:19087355

  19. Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker.

    PubMed

    Hilfrich, Ralf; Hariri, Jalil

    2008-04-01

    To proof the prognostic relevance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection on colposcopically-guided punch biopsies in combination with p16. Sections of colposcopically-guided punch biopsies from 191 consecutive cases with at least 5 years of follow-up were stained with HPV L1 capsid protein antibodies (Cytoactiv screening antibody) and a monoclonal anti-p16 antibody. Fifty sections were derived from a benign group, 91 from low-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 1]) lesions and 50 from high-grade (CIN 2 and 3) lesions. Overall only 16.1% of the 87 L1-negative, p16-positive CIN lesions showed remission of the lesion compared to 72.4% of the double positive cases. None of the L1/p16 double negative CIN lesions progressed. HPV L1 capsid protein detection with Cytoactiv screening antibody seems to be a promising new tool to predict the behavior of HPV-associated (p16-positive) early dysplastic lesions.

  20. Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Anusha; Strauss, Mike; Gold, Sarah; Wenham, Hannah; Jackson, Terry; Chou, James J; Rowlands, David J; Stonehouse, Nicola J; Hogle, James M; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2014-08-01

    Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family.

  1. Protruding Domain of Capsid Protein Is Necessary and Sufficient To Determine Murine Norovirus Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Strong, David W.; Thackray, Larissa B.; Smith, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of epidemic, nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the lack of a tractable model system and the inability to grow HuNoVs in cell culture, factors required for the norovirus (NoV) life cycle and pathogenesis in the host remain largely unknown. The discovery of murine norovirus (MNV) and the development of reverse-genetics systems for this virus provide an opportunity to study these aspects of NoV infection in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies identified a single amino acid at residue 296 in the protruding (P) domain of the capsid protein that is responsible for determining the virulence of the MNV clone MNV1.CW1 in 12956/SvEv background STAT1-deficient (STAT1−/−) mice. In this report, we identified and characterized another determinant of lethality in the P domain that is necessary and sufficient to determine the replication and pathogenesis of the MNV clones MNV1.CW3 and CR6.STL1 in C57BL/6 background STAT1−/− mice. Furthermore, we describe how the role of residue 296 in MNV virulence differs between STAT1−/− mouse strains. We also describe potential interactions between subdomains of the P domain, as well as between other virus elements, which facilitate recovery of MNV using a reverse-genetics system. PMID:22258242

  2. Phylogenetic Distribution of the Capsid Assembly Protein Gene (g20) of Cyanophages in Paddy Floodwaters in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ruiyong; Liu, Junjie; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Xiaobing; Wang, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the high diversity of cyanophages in marine and freshwater environments, but little is currently known about the diversity of cyanophages in paddy fields, particularly in Northeast (NE) China. To elucidate the genetic diversity of cyanophages in paddy floodwaters in NE China, viral capsid assembly protein gene (g20) sequences from five floodwater samples were amplified with the primers CPS1 and CPS8. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied to distinguish different g20 clones. In total, 54 clones differing in g20 nucleotide sequences were obtained in this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the distribution of g20 sequences in this study was different from that in Japanese paddy fields, and all the sequences were grouped into Clusters α, β, γ and ε. Within Clusters α and β, three new small clusters (PFW-VII∼-IX) were identified. UniFrac analysis of g20 clone assemblages demonstrated that the community compositions of cyanophage varied among marine, lake and paddy field environments. In paddy floodwater, community compositions of cyanophage were also different between NE China and Japan. PMID:24533125

  3. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal {beta}-hexamer structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wispelaere, Melissanne de; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan

    2011-10-10

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids {sup 28}QPVIV{sup 32}, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a {beta}-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the {beta}-hexamer structure by mutating {sup 28}QPVIV{sup 32} to {sup 28}AAAAA{sup 32} had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNasemore » and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having {beta}-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.« less

  4. Absolute Quantification of Norovirus Capsid Protein in Food, Water, and Soil Using Synthetic Peptides with Electrospray and MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences. PMID:25603302

  5. Application of the major capsid protein as a marker of the phylogenetic diversity of Emiliania huxleyi viruses.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Janet M; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Gobena, Daniel; Wilson, William H; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2011-05-01

    Studies of the Phycodnaviridae have traditionally relied on the DNA polymerase (pol) gene as a biomarker. However, recent investigations have suggested that the major capsid protein (MCP) gene may be a reliable phylogenetic biomarker. We used MCP gene amplicons gathered across the North Atlantic to assess the diversity of Emiliania huxleyi-infecting Phycodnaviridae. Nucleotide sequences were examined across >6000 km of open ocean, with comparisons between concentrates of the virus-size fraction of seawater and of lysates generated by exposing host strains to these same virus concentrates. Analyses revealed that many sequences were only sampled once, while several were over-represented. Analyses also revealed nucleotide sequences distinct from previous coastal isolates. Examination of lysed cultures revealed a new richness in phylogeny, as MCP sequences previously unrepresented within the existing collection of E. huxleyi viruses (EhV) were associated with viruses lysing cultures. Sequences were compared with previously described EhV MCP sequences from the North Sea and a Norwegian Fjord, as well as from the Gulf of Maine. Principal component analysis indicates that location-specific distinctions exist despite the presence of sequences common across these environments. Overall, this investigation provides new sequence data and an assessment on the use of the MCP gene. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective delivery of large genes to the retina by dual AAV vectors

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Ivana; Colella, Pasqualina; Sommella, Andrea; Iodice, Carolina; Cesi, Giulia; de Simone, Sonia; Marrocco, Elena; Rossi, Settimio; Giunti, Massimo; Palfi, Arpad; Farrar, Gwyneth J; Polishchuk, Roman; Auricchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. However, AAV's limited cargo capacity prevents its application to therapies of inherited retinal diseases due to mutations of genes over 5 kb, like Stargardt's disease (STGD) and Usher syndrome type IB (USH1B). Previous methods based on ‘forced’ packaging of large genes into AAV capsids may not be easily translated to the clinic due to the generation of genomes of heterogeneous size which raise safety concerns. Taking advantage of AAV's ability to concatemerize, we generated dual AAV vectors which reconstitute a large gene by either splicing (trans-splicing), homologous recombination (overlapping), or a combination of the two (hybrid). We found that dual trans-splicing and hybrid vectors transduce efficiently mouse and pig photoreceptors to levels that, albeit lower than those achieved with a single AAV, resulted in significant improvement of the retinal phenotype of mouse models of STGD and USH1B. Thus, dual AAV trans-splicing or hybrid vectors are an attractive strategy for gene therapy of retinal diseases that require delivery of large genes. PMID:24150896

  7. Engineered AAVs for efficient noninvasive gene delivery to the central and peripheral nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ken Y; Jang, Min J; Yoo, Bryan B; Greenbaum, Alon; Ravi, Namita; Wu, Wei-Li; Sánchez-Guardado, Luis; Lois, Carlos; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Deverman, Benjamin E; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are commonly used for in vivo gene transfer. Nevertheless, AAVs that provide efficient transduction across specific organs or cell populations are needed. Here, we describe AAV-PHP.eB and AAV-PHP.S, capsids that efficiently transduce the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively. In the adult mouse, intravenous administration of 1×1011 vector genomes (vg) of AAV-PHP.eB transduced 69% of cortical and 55% of striatal neurons, while 1×1012 vg AAV-PHP.S transduced 82% of dorsal root ganglion neurons, as well as cardiac and enteric neurons. The efficiency of these vectors facilitates robust co-transduction and stochastic, multicolor labeling for individual cell morphology studies. To support such efforts, we provide methods for labeling a tunable fraction of cells without compromising color diversity. Furthermore, when used with cell type-specific promoters, these AAVs provide targeted gene expression across the nervous system and enable efficient and versatile gene manipulation throughout the nervous system of transgenic and non-transgenic animals. PMID:28671695

  8. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50) values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  9. A nuclear fraction of turnip crinkle virus capsid protein is important for elicitation of the host resistance response.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Hwan; Qu, Feng; Morris, T Jack

    2015-12-02

    The N-terminal 25 amino acids (AAs) of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) capsid protein (CP) are recognized by the resistance protein HRT to trigger a hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance to TCV infection. This same region of TCV CP also contains a motif that interacts with the transcription factor TIP, as well as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, it is not yet known whether nuclear localization of TCV CP is needed for the induction of HRT-mediated HR and resistance. Here we present new evidence suggesting a tight correlation between nuclear inclusions formed by CP and the manifestation of HR. We show that a fraction of TCV CP localized to cell nuclei to form discrete inclusion-like structures, and a mutated CP (R6A) known to abolish HR failed to form nuclear inclusions. Notably, TIP-CP interaction augments the inclusion-forming activity of CP by tethering inclusions to the nuclear membrane. This TIP-mediated augmentation is also critical for HR resistance, as another CP mutant (R8A) known to elicit a less restrictive HR, though still self-associated into nuclear inclusions, failed to direct inclusions to the nuclear membrane due to its inability to interact with TIP. Finally, exclusion of CP from cell nuclei abolished induction of HR. Together, these results uncovered a strong correlation between nuclear localization and nuclear inclusion formation by TCV CP and induction of HR, and suggest that CP nuclear inclusions could be the key trigger of the HRT-dependent, yet TIP-reinforced, resistance to TCV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of serum antibodies to hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs in Italy using a recombinant swine HEV capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Orrù, Ginevra; Liciardi, Manuel; Ostanello, Fabio; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2014-06-16

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in both humans and animals, particularly pigs, worldwide. Several evidences, including human infection following consumption of raw contaminated meat, suggest a zoonotic transmission of HEV. In Italy, large circulation of genotype 3 HEV has been reported in swine, and recent studies have confirmed the involvement of this genotype in autochthonous human cases. In this study 111 sera collected from healthy pigs in two Italian regions were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies. For specific HEV antibody detection in swine, we developed ELISA and Western blotting methods, using a truncated capsid (ORF2) protein lacking the first 111 amino acids of a swine HEV genotype 3 strain. The ORF2-based ELISA revealed anti-HEV antibodies in 104 out of 111 pigs compared with 102 detected with a commercial ELISA kit. A lower number of sera reacted with the recombinant ORF2 protein in a Western blotting format (81/111). Using a Latent class analysis (LCA), the estimated sensitivities for ELISA-ORF2 and ELISA-kit tests were 0.961 and 0.936, respectively, whereas specificities were 0.599 and 0.475. The estimated sensitivity of Western blotting was 0.775, and the specificity was 0.944. The overall results confirm the high prevalence of HEV seropositive healthy pigs in Italy. Through comparisons with a commercial ELISA test, the swine genotype 3 HEV antigen produced in this study was proven suitable to detect anti-HEV antibodies in pig sera by both ELISA and Western Blotting.

  11. Herpesvirus capsid assembly and DNA packaging

    PubMed Central

    Heming, Jason D.; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome. The capsid shell of HSV-1 is built from four structural proteins: a major capsid protein, VP5, which forms the capsomers (hexons and pentons), the triplex consisting of VP19C and VP23 found between the capsomers, and VP26 which binds to VP5 on hexons but not pentons. In addition, the dodecameric pUL6 portal complex occupies one of the 12 capsid vertices, and the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC), a heterotrimer complex of pUL17, pUL25 and pUL36 binds specifically to the triplexes adjacent to each penton. The capsid is assembled in the nucleus where the viral genome is packaged into newly assembled closed capsid shells. Cleavage and packaging of replicated, concatemeric viral DNA requires the seven viral proteins encoded by the UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32, and UL33 genes. Considerable advances have been made in understanding the structure of the herpesvirus capsid and the function of several of the DNA packaging proteins by applying biochemical, genetic, and structural techniques. This review is a summary of recent advances with respect to the structure of the HSV-1 virion capsid and what is known about the function of the seven packaging proteins and their interactions with each other and with the capsid shell. PMID:28528442

  12. Time-resolved spectroscopy of self-assembly of CCMV protein capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jelyn; Aronzon, Dina; Manoharan, V. N.

    2008-10-01

    In order to gain a deeper understanding of the process a virus undergoes to assemble; the purpose of this study to time resolve the self-assembly of a virus. Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle virus (CCMV), an icosahedral type virus, can assemble without its genetic code (RNA) depending on its chemical and physical surroundings. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of colloidal gold particles is known to display a shift when the gold interacts with the proteins of a virus. Surface plasmon resonance is the free electron oscillation occurring at the surface of the gold particle resulting in a characteristic peak location at maximal absorbance and peak width. The shift results from the change in the refractive index of the particles as induced by the presence of the proteins. We hope to detect this shift through total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM). The accomplishments of this research are the completion of the TIR setup and the purification of the virus and its proteins.

  13. Recombinant expression of Garlic virus C (GARV-C) capsid protein in insect cells and its potential for the production of specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Alves-Júnior, Miguel; Menezes Marraccini, Fernanda; Melo Filho, Péricles de Albuquerque; Nepomuceno Dusi, André; Pio-Ribeiro, Gilvan; Morais Ribeiro, Bergmann

    2008-01-01

    Garlic cultivars in Brazil are infected by a complex of viruses and for some virus species, such as the allexivirus, purification of the virions is sometimes cumbersume. To overcome this problem, recombinant expression of viral proteins in heterologous systems is an alternative method for producing antibodies. The capsid gene from Garlic virus C (GarV-C), an Allexivirus, was inserted into the genome of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) generating the recombinant virus vSynGarV-C. The recombinant protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western-blot of extracts from recombinant virus infected insect cells, where a protein band of approximately 32KDa was observed only in extracts from recombinant infected cells. This protein corresponded to the predicted size of the capsid protein of the GarV-C. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against this protein, shown to be specific for the GarV-C protein in western-blot and dot-Elisa, however with a low titer.

  14. Quantification of AAV particle titers by infrared fluorescence scanning of coomassie-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E; Linden, R Michael; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two-for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons-a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity.

  15. New Potent Membrane-Targeting Antibacterial Peptides from Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Susana A.; Freire, João M.; Pérez-Peinado, Clara; Domingues, Marco M.; Gaspar, Diana; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Andreu, David; Henriques, Sónia T.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.; Veiga, Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria urges the development of new antibacterial agents. With a broad spectrum activity, antimicrobial peptides have been considered potential antibacterial drug leads. Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we test the efficacy and mechanism of action of the most promising peptides among those previously identified against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Two cell-penetrating peptides, vCPP 0769 and vCPP 2319, have high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being thus multifunctional. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was studied in detail. Both peptides act on both Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa, with bacterial cell death occurring within minutes. Also, these peptides cause bacterial membrane permeabilization and damage of the bacterial envelope of P. aeruginosa cells. Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with strong antibacterial properties. PMID:28522994

  16. Characterization of Mus musculus Papillomavirus 1 Infection In Situ Reveals an Unusual Pattern of Late Gene Expression and Capsid Protein Localization

    PubMed Central

    Handisurya, Alessandra; Day, Patricia M.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Buck, Christopher B.; Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Lowy, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Full-length genomic DNA of the recently identified laboratory mouse papillomavirus 1 (MusPV1) was synthesized in vitro and was used to establish and characterize a mouse model of papillomavirus pathobiology. MusPV1 DNA, whether naked or encapsidated by MusPV1 or human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) capsids, efficiently induced the outgrowth of papillomas as early as 3 weeks after application to abraded skin on the muzzles and tails of athymic NCr nude mice. High concentrations of virions were extracted from homogenized papillomatous tissues and were serially passaged for >10 generations. Neutralization by L1 antisera confirmed that infectious transmission was capsid mediated. Unexpectedly, the skin of the murine back was much less susceptible to virion-induced papillomas than the muzzle or tail. Although reporter pseudovirions readily transduced the skin of the back, infection with native MusPV1 resulted in less viral genome amplification and gene expression on the back, including reduced expression of the L1 protein and very low expression of the L2 protein, results that imply skin region-specific control of postentry aspects of the viral life cycle. Unexpectedly, L1 protein on the back was predominantly cytoplasmic, while on the tail the abundant L1 was cytoplasmic in the lower epithelial layers and nuclear in the upper layers. Nuclear localization of L1 occurred only in cells that coexpressed the minor capsid protein, L2. The pattern of L1 protein staining in the infected epithelium suggests that L1 expression occurs earlier in the MusPV1 life cycle than in the life cycle of high-risk HPV and that virion assembly is regulated by a previously undescribed mechanism. PMID:24067981

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Revealed Splenic Targeting of Canine Parvovirus Capsid Protein VP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yufei; Wang, Haiming; Yan, Dan; Wei, Yanquan; Cao, Yuhua; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Deng, Zongwu; Dai, Jianwu; Liu, Xiangtao; Luo, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Shiqi; Guo, Huichen

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious infectious virus, whose infectious mechanism remains unclear because of acute gastroenteritis and the lack of an efficient tool to visualize the virus in real time during virology research. In this study, we developed an iron oxide nanoparticle supported by graphene quantum dots (GQD), namely, FeGQD. In this composite material, GQD acts as a stabilizer; thus, vacancies are retained on the surface for further physical adsorption of the CPV VP2 protein. The FeGQD@VP2 nanocomposite product showed largely enhanced colloidal stability in comparison with bare FeGQD, as well as negligible toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The composite displayed high uptake into transferrin receptor (TfR) positive cells, which are distinguishable from FeGQD or TfR negative cells. In addition, the composite developed a significant accumulation in spleen rather than in liver, where bare FeGQD or most iron oxide nanoparticles gather. As these evident targeting abilities of FeGQD@VP2 strongly suggested, the biological activity of CPV VP2 was retained in our study, and its biological functions might correspond to CPV when the rare splenic targeting ability is considered. This approach can be applied to numerous other biomedical studies that require a simple yet efficient approach to track proteins in vivo while retaining biological function and may facilitate virus-related research.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Revealed Splenic Targeting of Canine Parvovirus Capsid Protein VP2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yufei; Wang, Haiming; Yan, Dan; Wei, Yanquan; Cao, Yuhua; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Deng, Zongwu; Dai, Jianwu; Liu, Xiangtao; Luo, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Shiqi; Guo, Huichen

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious infectious virus, whose infectious mechanism remains unclear because of acute gastroenteritis and the lack of an efficient tool to visualize the virus in real time during virology research. In this study, we developed an iron oxide nanoparticle supported by graphene quantum dots (GQD), namely, FeGQD. In this composite material, GQD acts as a stabilizer; thus, vacancies are retained on the surface for further physical adsorption of the CPV VP2 protein. The FeGQD@VP2 nanocomposite product showed largely enhanced colloidal stability in comparison with bare FeGQD, as well as negligible toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The composite displayed high uptake into transferrin receptor (TfR) positive cells, which are distinguishable from FeGQD or TfR negative cells. In addition, the composite developed a significant accumulation in spleen rather than in liver, where bare FeGQD or most iron oxide nanoparticles gather. As these evident targeting abilities of FeGQD@VP2 strongly suggested, the biological activity of CPV VP2 was retained in our study, and its biological functions might correspond to CPV when the rare splenic targeting ability is considered. This approach can be applied to numerous other biomedical studies that require a simple yet efficient approach to track proteins in vivo while retaining biological function and may facilitate virus-related research. PMID:26996514

  19. A novel fusion protein domain III-capsid from dengue-2, in a highly aggregated form, induces a functional immune response and protection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, Iris, E-mail: iris.valdes@cigb.edu.c; Bernardo, Lidice; Gil, Lazaro

    Based on the immunogenicity of domain III from the Envelope protein of dengue virus as well as the proven protective capacity of the capsid antigen, we have designed a novel domain III-capsid chimeric protein with the goal of obtaining a molecule potentially able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). After expression of the recombinant gene in Escherichia coli, the domain III moiety retained its antigenicity as evaluated with anti-dengue sera. In order to explore alternatives for modulating the immunogenicity of the protein, it was mixed with oligodeoxynucleotides in order to obtain particulated aggregates and then immunologically evaluated inmore » mice in comparison with non-aggregated controls. Although the humoral immune response induced by both forms of the protein was equivalent, the aggregated variant resulted in a much stronger CMI as measured by in vitro IFN-gamma secretion and protection experiments, mediated by CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells. The present work provides additional evidence in support for a crucial role of CMI in protection against dengue virus and describes a novel vaccine candidate against the disease based on a recombinant protein that can stimulate both arms of the acquired immune system.« less

  20. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  1. Assembly of the Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid: Preformed Triplexes Bind to the Nascent Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Juliet V.; Newcomb, William W.; Thomsen, Darrell R.; Homa, Fred L.; Brown, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a T=16 icosahedral shell that forms in the nuclei of infected cells. Capsid assembly also occurs in vitro in reaction mixtures created from insect cell extracts containing recombinant baculovirus-expressed HSV-1 capsid proteins. During capsid formation, the major capsid protein, VP5, and the scaffolding protein, pre-VP22a, condense to form structures that are extended into procapsids by addition of the triplex proteins, VP19C and VP23. We investigated whether triplex proteins bind to the major capsid-scaffold protein complexes as separate polypeptides or as preformed triplexes. Assembly products from reactions lacking one triplex protein were immunoprecipitated and examined for the presence of the other. The results showed that neither triplex protein bound unless both were present, suggesting that interaction between VP19C and VP23 is required before either protein can participate in the assembly process. Sucrose density gradient analysis was employed to determine the sedimentation coefficients of VP19C, VP23, and VP19C-VP23 complexes. The results showed that the two proteins formed a complex with a sedimentation coefficient of 7.2S, a value that is consistent with formation of a VP19C-VP232 heterotrimer. Furthermore, VP23 was observed to have a sedimentation coefficient of 4.9S, suggesting that this protein exists as a dimer in solution. Deletion analysis of VP19C revealed two domains that may be required for attachment of the triplex to major capsid-scaffold protein complexes; none of the deletions disrupted interaction of VP19C with VP23. We propose that preformed triplexes (VP19C-VP232 heterotrimers) interact with major capsid-scaffold protein complexes during assembly of the HSV-1 capsid. PMID:9557680

  2. Electrostatic repulsion, compensatory mutations, and long-range non-additive effects at the dimerization interface of the HIV capsid protein.

    PubMed

    del Alamo, Marta; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2005-01-28

    In previous studies, thermodynamic dissection of the dimerization interface in CA-C, the C-terminal domain of the capsid protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, revealed that individual mutation to alanine of Ser178, Glu180, Glu187 or Gln192 led to significant increases in dimerization affinity. Four related aspects derived from this observation have been now addressed, and the results can be summarized as follows: (i) thermodynamic analyses indicate the presence of an intersubunit electrostatic repulsion between both Glu180 residues. (ii) The mutation Glu180 to Ala was detected in nearly all type 2 human immunodeficiency virus variants, and in several simian immunodeficiency viruses analyzed. However, this mutation was strictly co-variant with mutations Ser178Asp in a neighboring residue, and Glu187Gln. Thermodynamic analysis of multiple mutants showed that Ser178Asp compensated, alone or together with Glu187Gln, the increase in affinity caused by the mutation Glu180Ala, and restored a lower dimerization affinity. (iii) The increase in the affinity constant caused by the multiple mutation to Ala of Ser178, Glu180, Glu187 and Gln192 was more than one order of magnitude lower than predicted if additivity were present, despite the fact that the 178/180 pair and the two other residues were located more than 10A apart. (iv) Mutations in CA-C that caused non-additive increases in dimerization affinity also caused a non-additive increase in the capacity of the isolated CA-C domain to inhibit the assembly of capsid-like HIV-1 particles in kinetic assays. In summary, the study of a protein-protein interface involved in the building of a viral capsid has revealed unusual features, including intersubunit electrostatic repulsions, co-variant, compensatory mutations that may evolutionarily preserve a low association constant, and long-range, large magnitude non-additive effects on association.

  3. Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Peter; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2014-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.

  4. Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. Material and Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Results: Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p < 0.05), but was not significantly different between HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J B; Larsen, A; Bratbak, G; Sandaa, R-A

    2008-05-01

    Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this

  6. Structure of N-linked oligosaccharides attached to chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein reveals unusual class of complex N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Cristina; Molinaro, Antonio; Piacente, Francesco; Gurnon, James R.; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Garozzo, Domenico; Tonetti, Michela G.; Van Etten, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The major capsid protein Vp54 from the prototype chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) contains four Asn-linked glycans. The structure of the four N-linked oligosaccharides and the type of substitution at each glycosylation site was determined by chemical, spectroscopic, and spectrometric analyses. Vp54 glycosylation is unusual in many ways, including: (i) unlike most viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery to glycosylate its major capsid protein; (ii) the glycans are attached to the protein by a β-glucose linkage; (iii) the Asn-linked glycans are not located in a typical N-X-(T/S) consensus site; and (iv) the process probably occurs in the cytoplasm. The four glycoforms share a common core structure, and the differences are related to the nonstoichiometric presence of two monosaccharides. The most abundant glycoform consists of nine neutral monosaccharide residues, organized in a highly branched fashion. Among the most distinctive features of the glycoforms are (i) a dimethylated rhamnose as the capping residue of the main chain, (ii) a hyperbranched fucose unit, and (iii) two rhamnose residues with opposite absolute configurations. These glycoforms differ from what has been reported so far in the three domains of life. Considering that chloroviruses and other members of the family Phycodnaviridae may have a long evolutionary history, we suggest that the chlorovirus glycosylation pathway is ancient, possibly existing before the development of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi pathway, and involves still unexplored mechanisms. PMID:23918378

  7. Structural insights into the stabilization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein by the cyclophilin-binding domain and implications on the virus cycle.

    PubMed

    Cortines, Juliana R; Lima, Luís Mauricio T R; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Millen, Thiago de A; Gaspar, Luciane Pinto; Lanman, Jason K; Prevelige, Peter E; Silva, Jerson L

    2015-05-01

    During infection, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) interacts with the cellular host factor cyclophilin A (CypA) through residues 85-93 of the N-terminal domain of HIV-1's capsid protein (CA). The role of the CA:CypA interaction is still unclear. Previous studies showed that a CypA-binding loop mutant, Δ87-97, has increased ability to assemble in vitro. We used this mutant to infer whether the CypA-binding region has an overall effect on CA stability, as measured by pressure and chemical perturbation. We built a SAXS-based envelope model for the dimer of both WT and Δ87-97. A new conformational arrangement of the dimers is described, showing the structural plasticity that CA can adopt. In protein folding studies, the deletion of the loop drastically reduces CA stability, as assayed by high hydrostatic pressure and urea. We hypothesize that the deletion promotes a rearrangement of helix 4, which may enhance the heterotypic interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains of CA dimers. In addition, we propose that the cyclophilin-binding loop may modulate capsid assembly during infection, either in the cytoplasm or near the nucleus by binding to the nuclear protein Nup385. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus Membrane Proteins gE/gI and US9 Act Cooperatively To Promote Transport of Capsids and Glycoproteins from Neuron Cell Bodies into Initial Axon Segments

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Paul W.; Howard, Tiffani L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other alphaherpesviruses must move from sites of latency in ganglia to peripheral epithelial cells. How HSV navigates in neuronal axons is not well understood. Two HSV membrane proteins, gE/gI and US9, are key to understanding the processes by which viral glycoproteins, unenveloped capsids, and enveloped virions are transported toward axon tips. Whether gE/gI and US9 function to promote the loading of viral proteins onto microtubule motors in neuron cell bodies or to tether viral proteins onto microtubule motors within axons is not clear. One impediment to understanding how HSV gE/gI and US9 function in axonal transport relates to observations that gE−, gI−, or US9− mutants are not absolutely blocked in axonal transport. Mutants are significantly reduced in numbers of capsids and glycoproteins in distal axons, but there are less extensive effects in proximal axons. We constructed HSV recombinants lacking both gE and US9 that transported no detectable capsids and glycoproteins to distal axons and failed to spread from axon tips to adjacent cells. Live-cell imaging of a gE−/US9− double mutant that expressed fluorescent capsids and gB demonstrated >90% diminished capsids and gB in medial axons and no evidence for decreased rates of transport, stalling, or increased retrograde transport. Instead, capsids, gB, and enveloped virions failed to enter proximal axons. We concluded that gE/gI and US9 function in neuron cell bodies, in a cooperative fashion, to promote the loading of HSV capsids and vesicles containing glycoproteins and enveloped virions onto microtubule motors or their transport into proximal axons. PMID:23077321

  9. An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos

    2009-04-14

    Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm of pressure during genome packaging. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsidmore » structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. Here we present a procapsid X-ray structure at 3.65 {angstrom} resolution, termed prohead II, of the lambda-like bacteriophage HK97, the mature capsid structure of which was previously solved to 3.44 {angstrom}. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrate that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and -sheet regions. We also identified subunit interactions at each three-fold axis of the capsid that are maintained throughout maturation. The interactions sustain capsid integrity during subunit refolding and provide a fixed hinge from which subunits undergo rotational and translational motions during maturation. Previously published calorimetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90 kJ mol{sup -1} of energy. We propose that the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an

  10. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge.

    PubMed

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-06-17

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of the Mouse Polyomavirus Capsid Proteins with Importins Is Required for Efficient Import of Viral DNA into the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Irina; Prilepskaja, Terezie; Abrahamyan, Levon; Forstová, Jitka; Huérfano, Sandra

    2018-03-31

    The mechanism used by mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) overcomes the crowded cytosol to reach the nucleus has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the involvement of importin α/β1 mediated transport in the delivery of MPyV genomes into the nucleus. Interactions of the virus with importin β1 were studied by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay. For infectivity and nucleus delivery assays, the virus and its capsid proteins mutated in the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were prepared and produced. We found that at early times post infection, virions bound importin β1 in a time dependent manner with a peak of interactions at 6 h post infection. Mutation analysis revealed that only when the NLSs of both VP1 and VP2/3 were disrupted, virus did not bind efficiently to importin β1 and its infectivity remarkably decreased (by 80%). Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins was improved when VP1 and VP2 were co-expressed. VP1 and VP2 were effectively delivered into the nucleus, even when one of the NLS, either VP1 or VP2, was disrupted. Altogether, our results showed that MPyV virions can use VP1 and/or VP2/VP3 NLSs in concert or individually to bind importins to deliver their genomes into the cell nucleus.

  12. Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus vectors expressing Norwalk virus capsid protein in the presence or absence of VP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y; Samal, Siba K

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Vectors Expressing Norwalk Virus Capsid Protein in the Presence or Absence of VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y.; Samal, Siba K.

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirs-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans. PMID:26099695

  14. A novel tetravalent formulation combining the four aggregated domain III-capsid proteins from dengue viruses induces a functional immune response in mice and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Suzarte, Edith; Gil, Lázaro; Valdés, Iris; Marcos, Ernesto; Lazo, Laura; Izquierdo, Alienys; García, Angélica; López, Lázaro; Álvarez, Maylin; Pérez, Yusleydis; Castro, Jorge; Romero, Yaremis; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-08-01

    Our group developed a subunit vaccine candidate against dengue virus based on two different viral regions: the domain III of the envelope protein and the capsid protein. The novel chimeric protein from dengue-2 virus [domain III-capsid (DIIIC-2)], when presented as aggregated incorporating oligodeoxynucleotides, induced anti-viral and neutralizing antibodies, a cellular immune response and conferred significant protection to mice and monkeys. The remaining constructs were already obtained and properly characterized. Based on this evidence, this work was aimed at assessing the immune response in mice of the chimeric proteins DIIIC of each serotype, as monovalent and tetravalent formulations. Here, we demonstrated the immunogenicity of each protein in terms of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, without antigen competition on the mixture forming the formulation tetra DIIIC. Accordingly, significant protection was afforded as measured by the limited viral load in the mouse encephalitis model. The assessment of the tetravalent formulation in non-human primates was also conducted. In this animal model, it was demonstrated that the formulation induced neutralizing antibodies and memory cell-mediated immune response with IFN-γ-secreting and cytotoxic capacity, regardless the route of immunization used. Taken together, we can assert that the tetravalent formulation of DIIIC proteins constitutes a promising vaccine candidate against dengue virus, and propose it for further efficacy experiments in monkeys or in the dengue human infection model, as it has been recently proposed. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Determination of prestress and elastic properties of virus capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Ankush

    2018-03-01

    Virus capsids are protein shells that protect the virus genome, and determination of their mechanical properties has been a topic of interest because of their potential use in nanotechnology and therapeutics. It has been demonstrated that stresses exist in virus capsids, even in their equilibrium state, due to their construction. These stresses, termed "prestresses" in this study, closely affect the capsid's mechanical behavior. Three methods—shape-based metric, atomic force microscope indentation, and molecular dynamics—have been proposed to determine the capsid elastic properties without fully accounting for prestresses. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the three methods used for mechanical characterization of virus capsids and numerically investigate how prestresses affect the capsid's mechanical properties. We consolidate all the results and propose that by using these techniques collectively, it is possible to accurately determine both the mechanical properties and prestresses in capsids.

  16. Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Contains Glycosylated Capsid Proteins, a Cellular Chromatin Protein, and Host-Derived Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Pietilä, Maija K.; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Forterre, Patrick; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Schouten, Stefan; Bamford, Dennis H.; Prangishvili, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geothermal and hypersaline environments are rich in virus-like particles, among which spindle-shaped morphotypes dominate. Currently, viruses with spindle- or lemon-shaped virions are exclusive to Archaea and belong to two distinct viral families. The larger of the two families, the Fuselloviridae, comprises tail-less, spindle-shaped viruses, which infect hosts from phylogenetically distant archaeal lineages. Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) is the best known member of the family and was one of the first hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses to be isolated. SSV1 is an attractive model for understanding virus-host interactions in Archaea; however, the constituents and architecture of SSV1 particles remain only partially characterized. Here, we have conducted an extensive biochemical characterization of highly purified SSV1 virions and identified four virus-encoded structural proteins, VP1 to VP4, as well as one DNA-binding protein of cellular origin. The virion proteins VP1, VP3, and VP4 undergo posttranslational modification by glycosylation, seemingly at multiple sites. VP1 is also proteolytically processed. In addition to the viral DNA-binding protein VP2, we show that viral particles contain the Sulfolobus solfataricus chromatin protein Sso7d. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that SSV1 virions contain glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids, resolving a long-standing debate on the presence of lipids within SSV1 virions. A comparison of the contents of lipids isolated from the virus and its host cell suggests that GDGTs are acquired by the virus in a selective manner from the host cytoplasmic membrane, likely during progeny egress. IMPORTANCE Although spindle-shaped viruses represent one of the most prominent viral groups in Archaea, structural data on their virion constituents and architecture still are scarce. The comprehensive biochemical characterization of the hyperthermophilic virus SSV1 presented here brings novel and

  17. [Inverse PCR amplification of the complete major capsid protein gene of lymphocystis disease virus isolated from Rachycentron canadum and the phylogenetic analysis of the virus].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao-Zhe; Shi, Cun-Bin; Li, Ning-Qiu; Pan, Hou-Jun; Chang, Ou-Qin; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2007-09-01

    The major capsid protein of lymphocystis disease virus isolated from Rachycentron canadum (LCDV-rc) was amplified and analysed. The 457bp DNA core fragment was amplified with the degenerate primers designed according to the conserved sequences of MCP gene of iridoviruses, then the flaking sequences adjacent to the core region were amplified by inverse PCR, and the complete sequence was obtained by combining all of them. The open reading frame of the gene is 1380bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 459 aa with molecular weight 51.12 kD and pI 6.87. Constructing the phylogenetic tree for comparing the MCP amino acid of iridoviruses, the results indicated that LCDV-rc is most homologous to the other Lymphocystis viruses and all of them constitute a branch. Accordingly LCDV-rc is identified as Lymphocystivirus.

  18. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the T = 4 particle of hepatitis B capsid protein with an N-terminal extension

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Wen Siang; McNae, Iain W.; Ho, Kok Lian

    2007-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus capsids have significant potential as carriers for immunogenic peptides. The crystal structure of the T = 4 particle of hepatitis B core protein containing an N-terminal extension reveals that the fusion peptide is exposed on the exterior of the particle. Hepatitis B core (HBc) particles have been extensively exploited as carriers for foreign immunological epitopes in the development of multicomponent vaccines and diagnostic reagents. Crystals of the T = 4 HBc particle were grown in PEG 20 000, ammonium sulfate and various types of alcohols. A temperature jump from 277 or 283 to 290 K was foundmore » to enhance crystal growth. A crystal grown using MPD as a cryoprotectant diffracted X-rays to 7.7 Å resolution and data were collected to 99.6% completeness at 8.9 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 352.3, b = 465.5, c = 645.0 Å. The electron-density map reveals a protrusion that is consistent with the N-terminus extending out from the surface of the capsid. The structure presented here supports the idea that N-terminal insertions can be exploited in the development of diagnostic reagents, multicomponent vaccines and delivery vehicles into mammalian cells.« less

  19. Analysis of SAT Type Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Proteins and the Identification of Putative Amino Acid Residues Affecting Virus Stability

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Francois F.; Blignaut, Belinda; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces. PMID:23717387

  20. Functional exchangeability of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of capsid protein between PCV1 and PCV2 in vitro: Implications for the role of NLS in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is believed to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). It is supposed that capsid protein of PCV may contribute to replication control via interaction between Cap and Rep in the nucleoplasm. In this study, we described the construction and in vitro characterization of NLS-exchanged PCV DNA clones based on a PMWS-associated PCV2b isolate from China to determine the role of ORF2 NLS in PCV replication. Results The PCV1, PCV2, PCV2-NLS1 and PCV1-NLS2 DNA clone were generated by ligating a copy of respective genome in tandem with a partial duplication. The PCV2-NLS1 and PCV1-NLS2 DNA clone contained a chimeric genome in which the ORF2 NLS was exchanged. The four DNA clones were all confirmed to be infectious in vitro when transfected into PK-15 cells, as PCV capsid protein were expressed in approximately 10-20% of the transfected cells. The in vitro growth characteristics of the DNA clones were then determined and compared. All the recovered progeny viruses gave rise to increasing infectious titers during passages and were genetically stable by genomic sequencing. The chimeric PCV1-NLS2 and PCV2-NLS1 viruses had the final titers of about 104.2 and 103.8 TCID50/ml, which were significantly lower than that of PCV1 and PCV2 (105.6 and 105.0 TCID50/ml, respectively). When the ORF2 NLS exchanged, the mutant PCV2 (PCV2-NLS1) still replicated less efficiently and showed lower infectious titer than did PCV1 mutant (PCV1-NLS2), which was consistent with the distinction between wild type PCV1 and PCV2. Conclusions Recovery of the chimeiric PCV1-NLS2 and PCV2-NLS1 progeny viruses indicate that the nuclear localization signal sequence of capsid protein are functionally exchangeable between PCV1 and PCV2 with respect to the role of nuclear importing and propagation. The findings also reveal that ORF2 NLS play an accessory role in the replication of PCV. However, we found that ORF2 NLS was not

  1. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N., E-mail: arao@ucr.edu

    2014-09-15

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase.more » Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER.« less

  2. Cyclophilins facilitate dissociation of the human papillomavirus type 16 capsid protein L1 from the L2/DNA complex following virus entry.

    PubMed

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Williams, Carlyn; Kim, Seong Man; Garcea, Robert L; Sapp, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are composed of the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, that encapsidate a chromatinized, circular double-stranded DNA genome. At the outset of infection, the interaction of HPV type 16 (HPV16) (pseudo)virions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans triggers a conformational change in L2 that is facilitated by the host cell chaperone cyclophilin B (CyPB). This conformational change results in exposure of the L2 N terminus, which is required for infectious internalization. Following internalization, L2 facilitates egress of the viral genome from acidified endosomes, and the L2/DNA complex accumulates at PML nuclear bodies. We recently described a mutant virus that bypasses the requirement for cell surface CyPB but remains sensitive to cyclosporine for infection, indicating an additional role for CyP following endocytic uptake of virions. We now report that the L1 protein dissociates from the L2/DNA complex following infectious internalization. Inhibition and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CyPs blocked dissociation of L1 from the L2/DNA complex. In vitro, purified CyPs facilitated the dissociation of L1 pentamers from recombinant HPV11 L1/L2 complexes in a pH-dependent manner. Furthermore, CyPs released L1 capsomeres from partially disassembled HPV16 pseudovirions at slightly acidic pH. Taken together, these data suggest that CyPs mediate the dissociation of HPV L1 and L2 capsid proteins following acidification of endocytic vesicles.

  3. Cyclophilins Facilitate Dissociation of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Capsid Protein L1 from the L2/DNA Complex following Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Williams, Carlyn; Kim, Seong Man; Garcea, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are composed of the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, that encapsidate a chromatinized, circular double-stranded DNA genome. At the outset of infection, the interaction of HPV type 16 (HPV16) (pseudo)virions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans triggers a conformational change in L2 that is facilitated by the host cell chaperone cyclophilin B (CyPB). This conformational change results in exposure of the L2 N terminus, which is required for infectious internalization. Following internalization, L2 facilitates egress of the viral genome from acidified endosomes, and the L2/DNA complex accumulates at PML nuclear bodies. We recently described a mutant virus that bypasses the requirement for cell surface CyPB but remains sensitive to cyclosporine for infection, indicating an additional role for CyP following endocytic uptake of virions. We now report that the L1 protein dissociates from the L2/DNA complex following infectious internalization. Inhibition and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CyPs blocked dissociation of L1 from the L2/DNA complex. In vitro, purified CyPs facilitated the dissociation of L1 pentamers from recombinant HPV11 L1/L2 complexes in a pH-dependent manner. Furthermore, CyPs released L1 capsomeres from partially disassembled HPV16 pseudovirions at slightly acidic pH. Taken together, these data suggest that CyPs mediate the dissociation of HPV L1 and L2 capsid proteins following acidification of endocytic vesicles. PMID:22761365

  4. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: implications for replication and genome packaging.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A L N

    2014-09-01

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein-protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A pan-HPV vaccine based on bacteriophage PP7 VLPs displaying broadly cross-neutralizing epitopes from the HPV minor capsid protein, L2.

    PubMed

    Tumban, Ebenezer; Peabody, Julianne; Peabody, David S; Chackerian, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines that are based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of the major capsid protein L1 largely elicit HPV type-specific antibody responses. In contrast, immunization with the HPV minor capsid protein L2 elicits antibodies that are broadly cross-neutralizing, suggesting that a vaccine targeting L2 could provide more comprehensive protection against infection by diverse HPV types. However, L2-based immunogens typically elicit much lower neutralizing antibody titers than L1 VLPs. We previously showed that a conserved broadly neutralizing epitope near the N-terminus of L2 is highly immunogenic when displayed on the surface of VLPs derived from the bacteriophage PP7. Here, we report the development of a panel of PP7 VLP-based vaccines targeting L2 that protect mice from infection with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic HPV types that infect the genital tract and skin. L2 peptides from eight different HPV types were displayed on the surface of PP7 bacteriophage VLPs. These recombinant L2 VLPs, both individually and in combination, elicited high-titer anti-L2 IgG serum antibodies. Immunized mice were protected from high dose infection with HPV pseudovirus (PsV) encapsidating a luciferase reporter. Mice immunized with 16L2 PP7 VLPs or 18L2 PP7 VLPs were nearly completely protected from both PsV16 and PsV18 challenge. Mice immunized with the mixture of eight L2 VLPs were strongly protected from genital challenge with PsVs representing eight diverse HPV types and cutaneous challenge with HPV5 PsV. VLP-display of a cross-neutralizing HPV L2 epitope is an effective approach for inducing high-titer protective neutralizing antibodies and is capable of offering protection from a spectrum of HPVs associated with cervical cancer as well as genital and cutaneous warts.

  6. Self-assembly of hexahistidine-tagged tobacco etch virus capsid protein into microfilaments that induce IgG2-specific response against a soluble porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus chimeric protein.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Cabrera, Carlos Alberto; Vallejo-Cardona, Alba Adriana; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara Elisa; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel

    2016-11-29

    Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP). Although both versions were expressed in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, only His-TEV-CP self-assembled into micrometric flexuous filamentous VLPs. In addition, the His-tag enabled high yields and facilitated purification of TEV VLPs. These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. His-TEV CP was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and assembled into VLPs, some of them reaching 2-μm length. TEV VLPs administered along with PRRSV chimeric protein changed the IgG2/IgG1 ratio against the chimeric protein, suggesting that TEV CP can modulate the immune response against a soluble antigen.

  7. AAV-CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Depletion of VEGFR2 Blocks Angiogenesis In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenyi; Duan, Yajian; Ma, Gaoen; Zhou, Guohong; Park-Windhol, Cindy; D'Amore, Patricia A; Lei, Hetian

    2017-12-01

    Pathologic angiogenesis is a component of many diseases, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferation diabetic retinopathy, as well as tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to examine whether the system of adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 can be used to deplete expression of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in human vascular endothelial cells in vitro and thus suppress its downstream signaling events. The dual AAV system of CRISPR/Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (AAV-SpGuide and -SpCas9) was adapted to edit genomic VEGFR2 in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). In this system, the endothelial-specific promoter for intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2) was cloned into the dual AAV vectors of SpGuide and SpCas9 for driving expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and SpCas9, respectively. These two AAV vectors were applied to production of recombinant AAV serotype 5 (rAAV5), which were used to infect HRECs for depletion of VEGFR2. Protein expression was determined by Western blot; and cell proliferation, migration, as well as tube formation were examined. AAV5 effectively infected vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells; the ICAM2 promoter drove expression of GFP and SpCas9 in HRECs, but not in RPE cells. The results showed that the rAAV5-CRISPR/Cas9 depleted VEGFR2 by 80% and completely blocked VEGF-induced activation of Akt, and proliferation, migration as well as tube formation of HRECs. AAV-CRISRP/Cas9-mediated depletion of VEGFR2 is a potential therapeutic strategy for pathologic angiogenesis.

  8. Tyrosine triple mutated AAV2-BDNF gene therapy in a rat model of transient IOP elevation

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Maika; Kameya, Shuhei; Fujimoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Kenji; Takahashi, Hisatomo; Igarashi, Toru; Miyake, Noriko; Iijima, Osamu; Hirai, Yukihiko; Shimada, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the neuroprotective effects of exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which provides protection to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rodents, in a model of transient intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation using a mutant (triple Y-F) self-complementary adeno-associated virus type 2 vector encoding BDNF (tm-scAAV2-BDNF). Methods The tm-scAAV2-BDNF or control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP; tm-scAAV2-GFP) was intravitreally administered to rats, which were then divided into four groups: control, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury only, I/R injury with tm-scAAV2-GFP, and tm-scAAV2-BDNF. I/R injury was then induced by transiently increasing IOP, after which the rats were euthanized to measure the inner retinal thickness and cell counts in the RGC layer. Results Intravitreous injection of tm-scAAV2-BDNF resulted in high levels of BDNF expression in the neural retina. Histological analysis showed that the inner retinal thickness and cell numbers in the RGC layer were preserved after transient IOP elevation in eyes treated with tm-scAAV2-BDNF but not in the other I/R groups. Significantly reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining after I/R injury in the rats that received tm-scAAV2-BDNF indicated reduced retinal stress, and electroretinogram (ERG) analysis confirmed preservation of retinal function in the tm-scAAV2-BDNF group. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of neuroprotective gene therapy using tm-scAAV2-BDNF to protect the inner retina from transiently high intraocular pressure. An in vivo gene therapeutic approach to the clinical management of retinal diseases in conditions such as glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, hypertensive retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy thus appears feasible. PMID:27440998

  9. Production of rotavirus-like particles in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit by expression of capsid proteins VP2 and VP6 and immunological studies.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Sergio; Esquivel Guadarrama, Fernando; Olivera Flores, Teresa De Jesús; Arias, Nancy; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Mason, Hugh; Mor, Tsafrir; Richter, Liz; Arntzen, Charles J; Gómez Lim, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    A number of different antigens have been successfully expressed in transgenic plants, and some are currently being evaluated as orally delivered vaccines. Here we report the successful expression of rotavirus capsid proteins VP2 and VP6 in fruits of transgenic tomato plants. By western blot analysis, using specific antibodies, we determined that the VP2 and VP6 produced in plants have molecular weights similar to those found in native rotavirus. The plant-synthesized VP6 protein retained the capacity to form trimers. We were able to recover rotavirus virus-like particles from tomato fruit (i.e., tomatoes) by centrifugation on a sucrose cushion and to visualize them by electron microscopy. This result indicated that VP2/VP6 can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in plant cells, even though only a small proportion of VP2/VP6 assembled into VLPs. To investigate immunogenicity, adult mice were immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) three times with a protein extract from a transgenic tomatoes in adjuvant. We found that the transgenic tomato extract induced detectable levels of anti-rotavirus antibodies in serum; however, we did not determine the contribution of either the free rotavirus proteins or the VLPs to the induction of the antibody response. These results suggest the potential of plant-based rotavirus VLPs for the development of a vaccine against rotavirus infection.

  10. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter.

    PubMed

    Mariz, F C; Coimbra, E C; Jesus, A L S; Nascimento, L M; Torres, F A G; Freitas, A C

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

  11. Identification of the cleavage sites of the RNA2-encoded polyproteins for two members of the genus Torradovirus by N-terminal sequencing of the virion capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, I; Silva Junior, D M; Nigg, J C; Zamora-Macorra, E J; Falk, B W

    2016-11-01

    Torradoviruses, family Secoviridae, are emergent bipartite RNA plant viruses. RNA1 is ca. 7kb and has one open reading frame (ORF) encoding for the protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). RNA2 is ca. 5kb and has two ORFs. RNA2-ORF1 encodes for a putative protein with unknown function(s). RNA2-ORF2 encodes for a putative movement protein and three capsid proteins. Little is known about the replication and polyprotein processing strategies of torradoviruses. Here, the cleavage sites in the RNA2-ORF2-encoded polyproteins of two torradoviruses, Tomato marchitez virus isolate M (ToMarV-M) and tomato chocolate spot virus, were determined by N-terminal sequencing, revealing that the amino acid (aa) at the -1 position of the cleavage sites is a glutamine. Multiple aa sequence comparison confirmed that this glutamine is conserved among other torradoviruses. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of conserved aas in the ToMarV-M RdRp and protease prevented substantial accumulation of viral coat proteins or RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Preparation and activity detection of chicken egg yolk IgY antibody against human papillomavirus 16 type L1 main capsid protein].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Ming-juan; Qiang, Lei; Su, Bao-shan; Wang, Yi-li; Si, Lü-sheng

    2008-03-01

    To prepare highly specific chicken egg yolk IgY antibody against human papillomavirus 16 type L1 main capsid protein (HPV16L1) for detection of HPV16L1. Purified HPV16L1 protein was used to immunize the hens, from which the eggs were collected since one week after the first immunization. The egg yolk was separated and the IgY antibody purified by PEG-6000 method. The bioactivity of the antibody was tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the HPV16L1 in the CHO cells transfected with the recombinant pcDNA-EGFP-HPV16L1 plasmid (containing EGFP-HPV16L1 fusion gene) for assessing the specific affinity of IgY to HPV16L1. After 3 immunizations of the hens, the titer of the purified IgY antibody against HPV16L1 from the egg yolk reached 1:10240. The IgY bound specifically to the EGFP-HPV16L1 protein expressed in the transfected CHO cells. High titer IgY can be prepared by immunization of the hens with HPV16L1 protein, and the prepared IgY can be used for HPV16L1 detection at the cellular level.

  13. Mechanisms of Size Control and Polymorphism in Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Elrad, Oren M.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the assembly dynamics of icosahedral capsids from subunits that interconvert between different conformations (or quasi-equivalent states). The simulations identify mechanisms by which subunits form empty capsids with only one morphology, but adaptively assemble into different icosahedral morphologies around nanoparticle cargoes with varying sizes, as seen in recent experiments with brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid proteins. Adaptive cargo encapsidation requires moderate cargo-subunit interaction strengths; stronger interactions frustrate assembly by stabilizing intermediates with incommensurate curvature. We compare simulation results to experiments with cowpea chlorotic mottle virus empty capsids and BMV capsids assembled on functionalized nanoparticles, and suggest new cargo encapsidation experiments. Finally, we find that both empty and templated capsids maintain the precise spatial ordering of subunit conformations seen in the crystal structure even if interactions that preserve this arrangement are favored by as little as the thermal energy, consistent with experimental observations that different subunit conformations are highly similar. PMID:18950240

  14. Amino Acids in the Capsid Protein of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus That Are Crucial for Systemic Infection, Particle Formation, and Insect Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Noris, E.; Vaira, A. M.; Caciagli, P.; Masenga, V.; Gronenborn, B.; Accotto, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission in monopartite geminiviruses. We studied two defective genomic DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Sic and SicRcv. Sic, cloned from a field-infected tomato, was not infectious, whereas SicRcv, which spontaneously originated from Sic, was infectious but not whitefly transmissible. A single amino acid change in the CP was found to be responsible for restoring infectivity. When the amino acid sequences of the CPs of Sic and SicRcv were compared with that of a closely related wild-type virus (TYLCV-Sar), differences were found in the following positions: 129 (P in Sic and SicRcv, Q in Sar), 134 (Q in Sic and Sar, H in SicRcv) and 152 (E in Sic and SicRcv, D in Sar). We constructed TYLCV-Sar variants containing the eight possible amino acid combinations in those three positions and tested them for infectivity and transmissibility. QQD, QQE, QHD, and QHE had a wild-type phenotype, whereas PHD and PHE were infectious but nontransmissible. PQD and PQE mutants were not infectious; however, they replicated and accumulated CP, but not virions, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs. The Q129P replacement is a nonconservative change, which may drastically alter the secondary structure of the CP and affect its ability to form the capsid. The additional Q134H change, however, appeared to compensate for the structural modification. Sequence comparisons among whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in terms of the CP region studied showed that combinations other than QQD are present in several cases, but never with a P129. PMID:9811744

  15. Virucidal efficacy of glutaraldehyde against enteroviruses is related to the location of lysine residues in exposed structures of the VP1 capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Martine; Archimbaud, Christine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Gourgand, Jeanne-Marie; Charbonné, Françoise; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2004-03-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GTA) is a potent virucidal disinfectant whose exact mode of action against enteroviruses is not understood. Earlier reports showed that GTA reacts preferentially with the VP1 capsid protein of echovirus 25 and poliovirus 1 and that GTA has affinity for exposed lysine residues on proteins. To investigate further the inactivation of enteroviruses by GTA, seven strains were selected on the basis of differences in their overall number and the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequences of the VP1 polypeptide. Inactivation kinetics experiments were performed with 0.10% GTA. The viruses grouped into three clusters and exhibited significantly different levels of sensitivity to GTA. The results were analyzed in the light of current knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of enteroviruses and the viral life cycle. The differences observed in sensitivity to GTA were related to the number of lysine residues and their locations in the VP1 protein. The overall findings suggest that the BC and DE loops, which cluster at the fivefold axis of symmetry and are the most exposed on the outer surface of the virions, are primary reactive sites for GTA.

  16. Virucidal Efficacy of Glutaraldehyde against Enteroviruses Is Related to the Location of Lysine Residues in Exposed Structures of the VP1 Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chambon, Martine; Archimbaud, Christine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Gourgand, Jeanne-Marie; Charbonné, Françoise; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GTA) is a potent virucidal disinfectant whose exact mode of action against enteroviruses is not understood. Earlier reports showed that GTA reacts preferentially with the VP1 capsid protein of echovirus 25 and poliovirus 1 and that GTA has affinity for exposed lysine residues on proteins. To investigate further the inactivation of enteroviruses by GTA, seven strains were selected on the basis of differences in their overall number and the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequences of the VP1 polypeptide. Inactivation kinetics experiments were performed with 0.10% GTA. The viruses grouped into three clusters and exhibited significantly different levels of sensitivity to GTA. The results were analyzed in the light of current knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of enteroviruses and the viral life cycle. The differences observed in sensitivity to GTA were related to the number of lysine residues and their locations in the VP1 protein. The overall findings suggest that the BC and DE loops, which cluster at the fivefold axis of symmetry and are the most exposed on the outer surface of the virions, are primary reactive sites for GTA. PMID:15006797

  17. Cell Cycle-Dependent Expression of Adeno-Associated Virus 2 (AAV2) Rep in Coinfections with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Gives Rise to a Mosaic of Cells Replicating either AAV2 or HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Franzoso, Francesca D.; Seyffert, Michael; Vogel, Rebecca; Yakimovich, Artur; de Andrade Pereira, Bruna; Meier, Anita F.; Sutter, Sereina O.; Tobler, Kurt; Vogt, Bernd; Greber, Urs F.; Büning, Hildegard; Ackermann, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    -controlled windows for HSV-1 replication. High Rep protein levels in S/G2 phase support AAV2 replication and inhibit HSV-1 replication. Conversely, low Rep protein levels in G1 phase permit HSV-1 replication but are insufficient for AAV2 replication. This allows both viruses to productively replicate in distinct sets of dividing cells. PMID:28515305

  18. The Neurotropic Properties of AAV-PHP.B Are Limited to C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Hordeaux, Juliette; Wang, Qiang; Katz, Nathan; Buza, Elizabeth L; Bell, Peter; Wilson, James M

    2018-03-07

    Improved delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the CNS will greatly enhance their clinical utility. Selection of AAV9 variants in a mouse model led to the isolation of a capsid called PHP.B, which resulted in remarkable transduction of the CNS following intravenous infusion. However, we now show here that this enhanced CNS tropism is restricted to the model in which it was selected, i.e., a Cre transgenic mouse in a C57BL/6J background, and was not found in nonhuman primates or the other commonly used mouse strain BALB/cJ. We also report the potential for serious acute toxicity in NHP after systemic administration of high dose of AAV. Copyright © 2018 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of canine parvovirus capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli and application as virus-like particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Guo, Hui-Chen; Wei, Yan-Quan; Dong, Hu; Han, Shi-Chong; Ao, Da; Sun, De-Hui; Wang, Hai-Ming; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Canine parvovirus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus (CPV). Current commercial vaccines are mainly attenuated and inactivated; as such, problems concerning safety may occur. To resolve this problem, researchers developed virus-like particles (VLPs) as biological nanoparticles resembling natural virions and showing high bio-safety. This property allows the use of VLPs for vaccine development and mechanism studies of viral infections. Tissue-specific drug delivery also employs VLPs as biological nanomaterials. Therefore, VLPs derived from CPV have a great potential in medicine and diagnostics. In this study, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) fusion motif was utilized to express a whole, naturalVP2 protein of CPV in Escherichia coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the CPV VP2 protein has self-assembled into VLPs. The VLPs had a size and shape that resembled the authentic virus capsid. However, the self-assembly efficiency of VLPs can be affected by different pH levels and ionic strengths. The mice vaccinated subcutaneously with CPV VLPs and CPV-specific immune responses were compared with those immunized with the natural virus. This result showed that VLPs can effectively induce anti-CPV specific antibody and lymphocyte proliferation as a whole virus. This result further suggested that the antigen epitope of CPV was correctly present on VLPs, thereby showing the potential application of a VLP-based CPV vaccine.

  20. In vivo particle polymorphism results from deletion of a N-terminal peptide molecular switch in brome mosaic virus capsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Shauni L; Speir, Jeffrey A; Rao, A.L.N.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between brome mosaic virus (BMV) coat protein (CP) and viral RNA is a carefully orchestrated process resulting in the formation of homogeneous population of infectious virions with T=3 symmetry. Expression in vivo of either wild type or mutant BMV CP through homologous replication never results in the assembly of aberrant particles. In this study, we report that deletion of amino acid residues 41–47 from the N-proximal region of BMV CP resulted in the assembly of polymorphic virions in vivo. Purified virions from symptomatic leaves remain non-infectious and Northern blot analysis of virion RNA displayed packaging defects. Biochemical of variant CP by circular dichroism and MALDI-TOF, respectively, revealed that the engineered deletion affected the protein structure and capsid dynamics. Most significantly, CP subunits dissociated from polymorphic virions are incompetent for in vitro reassembly. Based on these observations, we propose a chaperon mediated mechanism for the assembly of variant CP in vivo and also hypothesize that 41KAIKAIA47 N-proximal peptide functions as a molecular switch in regulating T= 3 virion symmetry. PMID:17449079

  1. Crystal Structure of the Full-Length Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Capsid Protein Shows an N-Terminal β-Hairpin in the Absence of N-Terminal Proline

    PubMed Central

    Folio, Christelle; Sierra, Natalia; Dujardin, Marie; Alvarez, Guzman

    2017-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats and wild felines. Its capsid protein (CA) drives the assembly of the viral particle, which is a critical step in the viral replication cycle. Here, the first atomic structure of full-length FIV CA to 1.67 Å resolution is determined. The crystallized protein exhibits an original tetrameric assembly, composed of dimers which are stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bridge induced by the crystallogenesis conditions. The FIV CA displays a standard α-helical CA topology with two domains, separated by a linker shorter than other retroviral CAs. The β-hairpin motif at its amino terminal end, which interacts with nucleotides in HIV-1, is unusually long in FIV CA. Interestingly, this functional β-motif is formed in this construct in the absence of the conserved N-terminal proline. The FIV CA exhibits a cis Arg–Pro bond in the CypA-binding loop, which is absent in known structures of lentiviral CAs. This structure represents the first tri-dimensional structure of a functional, full-length FIV CA. PMID:29120364

  2. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Philipp; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) derived capsid-like particles (CLPs) to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission. PMID:26352137

  3. Synthetic approaches to construct viral capsid-like spherical nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kazunori

    2018-06-06

    This feature article describes recent progress in synthetic strategies to construct viral capsid-like spherical nanomaterials using the self-assembly of peptides and/or proteins. By mimicking the self-assembly of spherical viral capsids and clathrin, trigonal peptide conjugates bearing β-sheet-forming peptides, glutathiones, or coiled-coil-forming peptides were developed to construct viral capsid-like particles. β-Annulus peptides from tomato bushy stunt virus self-assembled into viral capsid-like nanocapsules with a size of 30-50 nm, which could encapsulate various guest molecules and be decorated with different molecules on their surface. Rationally designed fusion proteins bearing symmetric assembling units afforded precise viral capsid-like polyhedral assemblies. These synthetic approaches to construct artificial viruses could become useful guidelines to develop novel drug carriers, vaccine platforms, nanotemplates and nanoreactors.

  4. Screening of binding proteins that interact with Chinese sacbrood virus VP3 capsid protein in Apis cerana larvae cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Fei, Dongliang; Wei, Dong; Yu, Xiaolei; Yue, Jinjin; Li, Ming; Sun, Li; Jiang, Lili; Li, Yijing; Diao, Qingyun; Ma, Mingxiao

    2018-03-15

    Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) causes larval death and apiary collapse of Apis cerana. VP3 is a capsid protein of CSBV but its function is poorly understood. To determine the function of VP3 and screen for novel binding proteins that interact with VP3, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Galectin (GAL) is a protein involved in immune regulation and host-pathogen interactions. The yeast two-hybrid screen implicated GAL as a major VP3-binding candidate. The assays showed that the VP3 interacted with GAL. Identification of these cellular targets and clarifying their contributions to the host-pathogen interaction may be useful for the development of novel therapeutic and prevention strategies against CSBV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of additive and subtractive approaches to examine the nuclear localization sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been identified in the N-terminal (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) amino acid sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1. The importance of this amino acid sequence for nuclear transport of VP1 protein was demonstrated by a genetic "subtractive" study using the constructs pSG5VP1 (full-length VP1) and pSG5 delta 5'VP1 (truncated VP1, lacking amino acids Ala1-Cys11). These constructs were used to transfect COS-7 cells, and expression and intracellular localization of the VP1 protein was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the full-length VP1 was expressed and localized in the nucleus, while the truncated VP1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and not transported to the nucleus. These findings were substantiated by an "additive" approach using FITC-labeled conjugates of synthetic peptides homologous to the NLS of VP1 cross-linked to bovine serum albumin or immunoglobulin G. Both conjugates localized in the nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm of 3T6 cells. The importance of individual amino acids found in the basic sequence (Lys3-Arg-Lys5) of the NLS was also investigated. This was accomplished by synthesizing three additional peptides in which lysine-3 was substituted with threonine, arginine-4 was substituted with threonine, or lysine-5 was substituted with threonine. It was found that lysine-3 was crucial for nuclear transport, since substitution of this amino acid with threonine prevented nuclear localization of the microinjected, FITC-labeled conjugate.

  6. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-particles potentiate gene transduction of AAV vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have emerged as safe and efficient therapeutic platform for numerous diseases. Excessive empty particles were generated as impurities during AAV vector production, but their effects on clinical outcome of AAV gene therapy are unclear. Here,...

  7. Membrane-mediated interaction between retroviral capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

    2012-02-01

    A retrovirus is an RNA virus that is replicated through a unique strategy of reverse transcription. Unlike regular enveloped viruses which are assembled inside the host cells, the assembly of retroviral capsids happens right on the cell membrane. During the assembly process, the partially formed capsids deform the membrane, giving rise to an elastic energy. When two such partial capsids approach each other, this elastic energy changes. Or in other words, the two partial capsids interact with each other via the membrane. This membrane mediated interaction between partial capsids plays an important role in the kinetics of the assembly process. In this work, this membrane mediated interaction is calculated both analytically and numerically. It is worth noting that the diferential equation determining the membrane shape in general nonlinear and cannot be solved analytically,except in the linear region of small deformations. And it is exactly the nonlinear regime that is important for the assembly kinetics of retroviruses as it provides a large energy barrier. The theory developed here is applicable to more generic cases of membrane mediated interactions between two membrane-embedded proteins.

  8. Oral vaccination through voluntary consumption of the convict grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus with yeast producing the capsid protein of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seo Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Han, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Deok-Chan; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Kang, Bo Kyu; Han, Sang Yoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Nervous necrosis viruses (NNV) cause serious economic losses in marine fish cultivation. The red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) is the most common species of NNV worldwide. There have been many efforts to develop prophylactic NNV vaccines, and various types of vaccine candidate have been suggested. However, most were designed as injectable vaccines, which are not suitable for large-scale vaccination and cause too much stress to the fish. Oral vaccination through voluntary feeding is an ideal way to provide protective immunity to fish. In the present study, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing RGNNV capsid protein was used as oral vaccine. The recombinant yeast was prepared in freeze-dried form after disruption. Convict groupers were divided into three groups, control, and oral and parenteral vaccination groups, each consisting of 700 fishes. The control group received no treatment, the parenteral group received one intraperitoneal injection of RGNNV virus-like particles, and the oral vaccination group consumed feed containing the lysed recombinant yeast; voluntary intake was allowed four times at one-week intervals. Both vaccination groups produced serum RGNNV neutralizing antibody titers of >10 3 (log 2, 9.96), sustained for at least 95days post-immunization. In addition, in response to challenge with RGNNV both groups suffered significantly reduced mortality and had reduced brain RGNNV titers. These results indicate that recombinant yeast-based oral fish vaccines have great potential for large-scale vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L; Gregg, Jacob L; Hart, Lucas M; Winton, James R; Emmenegger, Eveline J; Hershberger, Paul K

    2016-07-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. High Diversity of Myocyanophage in Various Aquatic Environments Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of Major Capsid Protein Gene With a New Set of Primers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Briggs, Brandon R; Li, Gaoyuan; Xie, Wei; Dong, Hailiang

    2018-01-01

    Myocyanophages, a group of viruses infecting cyanobacteria, are abundant and play important roles in elemental cycling. Here we investigated the particle-associated viral communities retained on 0.2 μm filters and in sediment samples (representing ancient cyanophage communities) from four ocean and three lake locations, using high-throughput sequencing and a newly designed primer pair targeting a gene fragment (∼145-bp in length) encoding the cyanophage gp23 major capsid protein (MCP). Diverse viral communities were detected in all samples. The fragments of 142-, 145-, and 148-bp in length were most abundant in the amplicons, and most sequences (>92%) belonged to cyanophages. Additionally, different sequencing depths resulted in different diversity estimates of the viral community. Operational taxonomic units obtained from deep sequencing of the MCP gene covered the majority of those obtained from shallow sequencing, suggesting that deep sequencing exhibited a more complete picture of cyanophage community than shallow sequencing. Our results also revealed a wide geographic distribution of marine myocyanophages, i.e., higher dissimilarities of the myocyanophage communities corresponded with the larger distances between the sampling sites. Collectively, this study suggests that the newly designed primer pair can be effectively used to study the community and diversity of myocyanophage from different environments, and the high-throughput sequencing represents a good method to understand viral diversity.

  11. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  12. A comparison of PCR assays for beak and feather disease virus and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of replicase associated protein and capsid genes.

    PubMed

    Das, Shubhagata; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2016-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) threatens a wide range of endangered psittacine birds worldwide. In this study, we assessed a novel PCR assay and genetic screening method using high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis for BFDV targeting the capsid (Cap) gene (HRM-Cap) alongside conventional PCR detection as well as a PCR method that targets a much smaller fragment of the virus genome in the replicase initiator protein (Rep) gene (HRM-Rep). Limits of detection, sensitivity, specificity and discriminatory power for differentiating BFDV sequences were compared. HRM-Cap had a high positive predictive value and could readily differentiate between a reference genotype and 17 other diverse BFDV genomes with more discriminatory power (genotype confidence percentage) than HRM-Rep. Melt curve profiles generated by HRM-Cap correlated with unique DNA sequence profiles for each individual test genome. The limit of detection of HRM-Cap was lower (2×10 -5 ng/reaction or 48 viral copies) than that for both HRM-Rep and conventional BFDV PCR which had similar sensitivity (2×10 -6 ng or 13 viral copies/reaction). However, when used in a diagnostic setting with 348 clinical samples there was strong agreement between HRM-Cap and conventional PCR (kappa=0.87, P<0.01, 98% specificity) and HRM-Cap demonstrated higher specificity (99.9%) than HRM-Rep (80.3%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Diversity of Myocyanophage in Various Aquatic Environments Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of Major Capsid Protein Gene With a New Set of Primers

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Briggs, Brandon R.; Li, Gaoyuan; Xie, Wei; Dong, Hailiang

    2018-01-01

    Myocyanophages, a group of viruses infecting cyanobacteria, are abundant and play important roles in elemental cycling. Here we investigated the particle-associated viral communities retained on 0.2 μm filters and in sediment samples (representing ancient cyanophage communities) from four ocean and three lake locations, using high-throughput sequencing and a newly designed primer pair targeting a gene fragment (∼145-bp in length) encoding the cyanophage gp23 major capsid protein (MCP). Diverse viral communities were detected in all samples. The fragments of 142-, 145-, and 148-bp in length were most abundant in the amplicons, and most sequences (>92%) belonged to cyanophages. Additionally, different sequencing depths resulted in different diversity estimates of the viral community. Operational taxonomic units obtained from deep sequencing of the MCP gene covered the majority of those obtained from shallow sequencing, suggesting that deep sequencing exhibited a more complete picture of cyanophage community than shallow sequencing. Our results also revealed a wide geographic distribution of marine myocyanophages, i.e., higher dissimilarities of the myocyanophage communities corresponded with the larger distances between the sampling sites. Collectively, this study suggests that the newly designed primer pair can be effectively used to study the community and diversity of myocyanophage from different environments, and the high-throughput sequencing represents a good method to understand viral diversity.

  14. Deciphering the kinetic mechanism of spontaneous self-assembly of icosahedral capsids.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung D; Reddy, Vijay S; Brooks, Charles L

    2007-02-01

    Self-assembly of viral proteins into icosahedral capsids is an interesting yet poorly understood phenomenon of which elucidation may aid the exploration of beneficial applications of capsids in materials science and medicine. Using molecular dynamics simulations of coarse-grained models for capsid proteins, we show that the competition between the formation of full capsids and nonidealized structures is strongly dependent upon the protein concentration and temperature, occurring kinetically as a cascade of elementary reactions in which free monomers are added to the growing oligomers on a downhill free-energy landscape. However, the insertion of the final subunits is the rate-limiting, energetically unfavorable step in viral capsid assembly. A phase diagram has been constructed to show the regions where capsids or nonidealized structures are stable at each concentration and temperature. We anticipate that our findings will provide guidance in identifying suitable conditions required for in vitro viral capsid assembly experiments.

  15. Packaging of the virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein of herpes simplex virus: two forms of the Vhs polypeptide are associated with intranuclear B and C capsids, but only one is associated with enveloped virions.

    PubMed

    Read, G Sullivan; Patterson, Mary

    2007-02-01

    The virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein (UL41) is a minor component of herpes simplex virus virions which, following penetration, accelerates turnover of host and viral mRNAs. Infected cells contain 58-kDa and 59.5-kDa forms of Vhs, which differ in the extent of phosphorylation, yet only a 58-kDa polypeptide is incorporated into virions. In pulse-chase experiments, the primary Vhs translation product comigrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the 58-kDa virion polypeptide, and could be chased to 59.5 kDa. While both 59.5-kDa and 58-kDa forms were found in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, the 59.5-kDa form was significantly enriched in the nucleus. Both forms were associated with intranuclear B and C capsids, yet only the 58-kDa polypeptide was found in enveloped cytoplasmic virions. A 58-kDa form, but not the 59.5-kDa form, was found in L particles, noninfectious particles that contain an envelope and tegument but no capsid. The data suggest that virions contain two populations of Vhs that are packaged by different pathways. In the first pathway, the primary translation product is processed to 59.5 kDa, is transported to the nucleus, binds intranuclear capsids, and is converted to 58 kDa at some stage prior to final envelopment. The second pathway does not involve the 59.5-kDa form or interactions between Vhs and capsids. Instead, the primary translation product is phosphorylated to the 58-kDa virion form and packaged through interactions with other tegument proteins in the cytoplasm or viral envelope proteins at the site of final envelopment.

  16. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kasey L.; Dayton, Robert D.; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats. PMID:27867348

  17. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Deverman, Benjamin E; Klein, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats.

  18. Viral Capsid DNA Aptamer Conjugates as Multivalent Cell Targeting Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Gary J.; Hsiao, Sonny C.; Carrico, Zachary M.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers offer significant potential as convenient and evolvable targeting groups for drug delivery. To attach them to the surface of a genome-free viral capsid carrier, an efficient oxidative coupling strategy has been developed. The method involves the periodate-mediated reaction of phenylene diamine substituted oligonucleotides with aniline groups installed on the outer surface of the capsid shells. Up to 60 DNA strands can be attached to each viral capsid with no apparent loss of base-pairing capabilities or protein stability. The ability of the capsids to bind specific cellular targets was demonstrated through the attachment of a 41-nucleotide sequence that targets a tyrosine kinase receptor on Jurkat T cells. After the installation of a fluorescent dye on the capsid interior, capsids bearing the cell-targeting sequence showed significant levels of binding to the cells relative to control samples. Colocalization experiments using confocal microscopy indicated that the capsids were endocytosed and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. These observations suggest that aptamer-labeled capsids could be used for the targeted drug delivery of acid-labile prodrugs that would be preferentially released upon lysosomal acidification. PMID:19603808

  19. Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus RNA and Capsid Protein in Lymphoid Tissues of Convalescent Pigs Does Not Indicate Existence of a Carrier State.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, C; Pacheco, J M; Smoliga, G R; Bishop, E; Pauszek, S J; Hartwig, E J; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2016-04-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to establish and maintain persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with any of five FMDV strains within serotypes A, O and Asia-1. Furthermore, there was no isolation of live virus from tissue samples harvested at 28-100 days post-infection from convalescent pigs recovered from clinical or subclinical FMD. Despite lack of detection of infectious FMDV, there was a high prevalence of FMDV RNA detection in lymph nodes draining lesion sites harvested at 35 days post-infection, with the most frequent detection recorded in popliteal lymph nodes (positive detection in 88% of samples obtained from non-vaccinated pigs). Likewise, at 35 dpi, FMDV capsid antigen was localized within follicles of draining lymph nodes, but without concurrent detection of FMDV non-structural protein. There was a marked decline in the detection of FMDV RNA and antigen in tissue samples by 60 dpi, and no antigen or viral RNA could be detected in samples obtained at 100 dpi. The data presented herein provide the most extensive investigation of FMDV persistence in pigs. The overall conclusion is that domestic pigs are unlikely to be competent long-term carriers of infectious FMDV; however, transient persistence of FMDV protein and RNA in lymphoid tissues is common following clinical or subclinical infection. © Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Uncoupling cis-Acting RNA Elements from Coding Sequences Revealed a Requirement of the N-Terminal Region of Dengue Virus Capsid Protein in Virus Particle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Samsa, Marcelo M.; Mondotte, Juan A.; Caramelo, Julio J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanism of flavivirus genome encapsidation. Here, functional elements of the dengue virus (DENV) capsid (C) protein were investigated. Study of the N-terminal region of DENV C has been limited by the presence of overlapping cis-acting RNA elements within the protein-coding region. To dissociate these two functions, we used a recombinant DENV RNA with a duplication of essential RNA structures outside the C coding sequence. By the use of this system, the highly conserved amino acids FNML, which are encoded in the RNA cyclization sequence 5′CS, were found to be dispensable for C function. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal 18 amino acids of C impaired DENV particle formation. Two clusters of basic residues (R5-K6-K7-R9 and K17-R18-R20-R22) were identified as important. A systematic mutational analysis indicated that a high density of positive charges, rather than particular residues at specific positions, was necessary. Furthermore, a differential requirement of N-terminal sequences of C for viral particle assembly was observed in mosquito and human cells. While no viral particles were observed in human cells with a virus lacking the first 18 residues of C, DENV propagation was detected in mosquito cells, although to a level about 50-fold less than that observed for a wild-type (WT) virus. We conclude that basic residues at the N terminus of C are necessary for efficient particle formation in mosquito cells but that they are crucial for propagation in human cells. This is the first report demonstrating that the N terminus of C plays a role in DENV particle formation. In addition, our results suggest that this function of C is differentially modulated in different host cells. PMID:22072762

  1. A sensitive assay using a native protein substrate for screening HIV-1 maturation inhibitors targeting the protease cleavage site between the matrix and capsid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Cheng, Nancy; Hull-Ryde, Emily; Potempa, Marc; Schiffer, Celia A; Janzen, William; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2013-07-23

    The matrix/capsid processing site in the HIV-1 Gag precursor is likely the most sensitive target to inhibit HIV-1 replication. We have previously shown that modest incomplete processing at the site leads to a complete loss of virion infectivity. In the study presented here, a sensitive assay based on fluorescence polarization that can monitor cleavage at the MA/CA site in the context of the folded protein substrate is described. The substrate, an MA/CA fusion protein, was labeled with the fluorescein-based FlAsH (fluorescein arsenical hairpin) reagent that binds to a tetracysteine motif (CCGPCC) that was introduced within the N-terminal domain of CA. By limiting the size of CA and increasing the size of MA (with an N-terminal GST fusion), we were able to measure significant differences in polarization values as a function of HIV-1 protease cleavage. The sensitivity of the assay was tested in the presence of increasing amounts of an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, which resulted in a gradual decrease in the fluorescence polarization values demonstrating that the assay is sensitive in discerning changes in protease processing. The high-throughput screening assay validation in 384-well plates showed that the assay is reproducible and robust with an average Z' value of 0.79 and average coefficient of variation values of <3%. The robustness and reproducibility of the assay were further validated using the LOPAC(1280) compound library, demonstrating that the assay provides a sensitive high-throughput screening platform that can be used with large compound libraries for identifying novel maturation inhibitors targeting the MA/CA site of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein.

  2. Selection and identification of single-domain antibody fragment against capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from C. bactrianus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shunli; Shang, Youjun; Yin, Shuanghui; Tian, Hong; Chen, Yan; Sun, Shiqi; Jin, Ye; Liu, Xiangtao

    2014-07-15

    Single-domain variable heavy chain (VHH) antibody fragments are derived from heavy-chain antibodies of Camelids. Their comparatively small size, solubility, high affinity and specificity to the targets antigen make them suitable for many biotechnological applications. In this study, a VHH library was constructed from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine immunized C. bactrianus and three VHH fragments specific to the capsid protein of PCV2 (PCV2 Cap) were selected and characterized. The selected VHH clones (VHH-c1/c3/c4) were stably expressed as soluble protein in E. coli, and were specific to PCV2 Cap except VHH-c3 which shows binding activity with both PCV1 and PCV2 Cap by ELISA. All the VHH-cs show high association rate constant and dissociation rate constant, which was 1.84 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1), 9.00 × 10(-3)s(-1) for VHH-c1, 5.49 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1), 9.91 × 10(-3)s(-1) and 1.46 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1), 1.18 × 10(-3)s(-1) for VHH-c3 and VHH-c4 assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Additionally, the selected three VHH-cs can bind to different epitopes of PCV2 Cap that was determined by additive ELISA. Our study confirmed that VHHs with high affinity and specificity to PCV2 Cap can be selected from an immune VHH library, and have the potential application for effective and fast diagnostic development of PCV2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling global changes induced by local perturbations to the HIV-1 capsid.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Shana; Lezon, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 capsid is a conical protein shell made up of hexamers and pentamers of the capsid protein. The capsid houses the viral genome and replication machinery, and its opening, or uncoating, within the host cell marks a critical step in the HIV-1 lifecycle. Binding of host factors such as TRIM5α and cyclophilin A (CypA) can alter the capsid's stability, accelerating or delaying the onset of uncoating and disrupting infectivity. We employ coarse-grained computational modeling to investigate the effects of point mutations and host factor binding on HIV-1 capsid stability. We find that the largest fluctuations occur in the low-curvature regions of the capsid, and that its structural dynamics are affected by perturbations at the inter-hexamer interfaces and near the CypA binding loop, suggesting roles for these features in capsid stability. Our models show that linking capsid proteins across hexamers attenuates vibration in the low-curvature regions of the capsid, but that linking within hexamers does not. These results indicate a possible mechanism through which CypA binding alters capsid stability and highlight the utility of coarse-grained network modeling for understanding capsid mechanics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical properties of the HIV-1 capsid from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perilla, Juan R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of ~1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Although the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical-physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, including its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid. The simulations reveal critical details about the capsid with implications to biological function.

  5. Physical properties of the HIV-1 capsid from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Perilla, Juan R.; Schulten, Klaus

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of B 1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Though the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical–physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, includingmore » its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid. Furthermore, the simulations reveal critical details about the capsid with implications to biological function.« less

  6. Physical properties of the HIV-1 capsid from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Perilla, Juan R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2017-07-19

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of B 1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Though the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical–physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, includingmore » its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid. Furthermore, the simulations reveal critical details about the capsid with implications to biological function.« less

  7. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.

    2014-10-28

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10{sup 6} all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000)more » can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.« less

  8. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Nomoto, A.; Okazaki, S.

    2014-10-01

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 106 all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  9. States of phage T3/T7 capsids: buoyant density centrifugation and cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T; Demeler, Borries; Jiang, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Mature double-stranded DNA bacteriophages have capsids with symmetrical shells that typically resist disruption, as they must to survive in the wild. However, flexibility and associated dynamism assist function. We describe biochemistry-oriented procedures used to find previously obscure flexibility for capsids of the related phages, T3 and T7. The primary procedures are hydration-based buoyant density ultracentrifugation and purified particle-based cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We review the buoyant density centrifugation in detail. The mature, stable T3/T7 capsid is a shell flexibility-derived conversion product of an initially assembled procapsid (capsid I). During DNA packaging, capsid I expands and loses a scaffolding protein to form capsid II. The following are observations made with capsid II. (1) The in vivo DNA packaging of wild type T3 generates capsid II that has a slight (1.4%), cryo-EM-detected hyper-expansion relative to the mature phage capsid. (2) DNA packaging in some altered conditions generates more extensive hyper-expansion of capsid II, initially detected by hydration-based preparative buoyant density centrifugation in Nycodenz density gradients. (3) Capsid contraction sometimes occurs, e.g., during quantized leakage of DNA from mature T3 capsids without a tail.

  10. Substitutions at residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein serve as the minimal determinant of attenuation for canine parvovirus vaccine strain 9985-46.

    PubMed

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Morimasa; Takahashi, Takuo; Kainuma, Risa; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Oshima, Sho; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells. Using an infectious molecular clone system, we constructed isogenic CPVs of the parental virulent 9985 strain carrying single or double mutations. We observed that only a single amino acid substitution in VP2, G300V or T389N, attenuated the virulent parental virus. Combinations of these mutations further attenuated CPV to a level comparable to that of 9985-46. Strains with G300V/T389N substitutions did not induce clinical symptoms in experimentally infected pups, and their ability to infect canine cells was highly restricted. We found that another G300V/V562L double mutation decreased affinity of the virus for canine cells, although its pathogenicity to dogs was maintained. These results indicate that mutation of residue 300, which plays a critical role in host tropism, is not sufficient for viral attenuation in vivo, and that attenuation of 9985-46 strain is defined by at least two mutations in residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein. This finding is relevant for quality control of the vaccine and provides insight into the rational design of second-generation live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  11. Involvement of the Major Capsid Protein and Two Early-Expressed Phage Genes in the Activity of the Lactococcal Abortive Infection Mechanism AbiT

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Simon J.; Tremblay, Denise M.; Moisan, Maxim; Villion, Manuela; Magadán, Alfonso H.; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The dairy industry uses the mesophilic, Gram-positive, lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Lactococcus lactis to produce an array of fermented milk products. Milk fermentation processes are susceptible to contamination by virulent phages, but a plethora of phage control strategies are available. One of the most efficient is to use LAB strains carrying phage resistance systems such as abortive infection (Abi) mechanisms. Yet, the mode of action of most Abi systems remains poorly documented. Here, we shed further light on the antiviral activity of the lactococcal AbiT system. Twenty-eight AbiT-resistant phage mutants derived from the wild-type AbiT-sensitive lactococcal phages p2, bIL170, and P008 were isolated and characterized. Comparative genomic analyses identified three different genes that were mutated in these virulent AbiT-insensitive phage derivatives: e14 (bIL170 [e14bIL170]), orf41 (P008 [orf41P008]), and orf6 (p2 [orf6p2] and P008 [orf6P008]). The genes e14bIL170 and orf41P008 are part of the early-expressed genomic region, but bioinformatic analyses did not identify their putative function. orf6 is found in the phage morphogenesis module. Antibodies were raised against purified recombinant ORF6, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that it is the major capsid protein (MCP). Coexpression in L. lactis of ORF6p2 and ORF5p2, a protease, led to the formation of procapsids. To our knowledge, AbiT is the first Abi system involving distinct phage genes. PMID:22820334

  12. Inclusion of an Arg-Gly-Asp receptor-recognition motif into the capsid protein of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus enables culture of the virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Miao, Qiuhong; Tan, Yonggui; Guo, Huimin; Liu, Teng; Wang, Binbin; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Liu, Guangqing

    2017-05-26

    The fact that rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), an important member of the Caliciviridae family, cannot be propagated in vitro has greatly impeded the progress of investigations into the mechanisms of pathogenesis, translation, and replication of this and related viruses. In this study, we have successfully bypassed this obstacle by constructing a mutant RHDV (mRHDV) by using a reverse genetics technique. By changing two amino acids (S305R,N307D), we produced a specific receptor-recognition motif (Arg-Gly-Asp; called RGD) on the surface of the RHDV capsid protein. mRHDV was recognized by the intrinsic membrane receptor (integrin) of the RK-13 cells, which then gained entry and proliferated as well as imparted apparent cytopathic effects. After 20 passages, the titers of RHDV reached 1 × 10 4.3 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 )/ml at 72 h. Furthermore, mRHDV-infected rabbits showed typical rabbit plague symptoms and died within 48-72 h. After immunization with inactivated mRHDV, the rabbits survived wild-type RHDV infection, indicating that mRHDV could be a candidate virus strain for producing a vaccine against RHDV infection. In summary, this study offers a novel strategy for overcoming the challenges of proliferating RHDV in vitro Because virus uptake via specific membrane receptors, several of which specifically bind to the RGD peptide motif, is a common feature of host cells, we believe that this the strategy could also be applied to other RNA viruses that currently lack suitable cell lines for propagation such as hepatitis E virus and norovirus. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Molecular Evolution and Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein VP1 of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses: Implications for Antigenic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuli; Sheng, Zizhang; Huang, Bing; Qi, Lihong; Li, Yufeng; Yu, Kexiang; Liu, Cunxia; Qin, Zhuoming; Wang, Dan; Song, Minxun; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, is the major cause of outbreaks with high mortality rates in young ducklings. It has three distinctive serotypes and among them, serotypes 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) were recognized in China. To investigate evolutionary and antigenic properties of the major capsid protein VP1 of these two serotypes, a primary target of neutralizing antibodies, we determined the VP1 coding sequences of 19 DHAV-1 (spanning 2000-2012) and 11 DHAV-3 isolates (spanning 2008-2014) associated with disease outbreaks. By bioinformatics analysis of VP1 sequences of these isolates and other DHAV strains reported previously, we demonstrated that DHAV-1 viruses evolved into two genetic lineages, while DHAV-3 viruses exhibited three distinct lineages. The rate of nucleotide substitution for DHAV-1 VP1 genes was estimated to be 5.57 x 10-4 per site per year, which was about one-third times slower than that for DHAV-3 VP1 genes. The population dynamics analysis showed an upward trend for infection of DHAV-1 viruses over time with little change observed for DHAV-3 viruses. Antigenic study of representative DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains covering all observed major lineages revealed no detectable changes in viral neutralization properties within the serotype, despite the lack of cross-neutralization between serotypes 1 and 3 strains. Structural analysis identified VP1 mutations in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viruses that underpin the observed antigenic phenotypes. Results of our experiments described here shall give novel insights into evolution and antigenicity of duck picornaviruses. PMID:26173145

  14. Allosteric Control of Icosahedral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Guillermo R.

    2017-01-01

    During the lifecycle of a virus, viral proteins and other components self-assemble to form an ordered protein shell called a capsid. This assembly process is subject to multiple competing constraints, including the need to form a thermostable shell while avoiding kinetic traps. It has been proposed that viral assembly satisfies these constraints through allosteric regulation, including the interconversion of capsid proteins among conformations with different propensities for assembly. In this article we use computational and theoretical modeling to explore how such allostery affects the assembly of icosahedral shells. We simulate assembly under a wide range of protein concentrations, protein binding affinities, and two different mechanisms of allosteric control. We find that, above a threshold strength of allosteric control, assembly becomes robust over a broad range of subunit binding affinities and concentrations, allowing the formation of highly thermostable capsids. Our results suggest that allostery can significantly shift the range of protein binding affinities that lead to successful assembly, and thus should be accounted for in models that are used to estimate interaction parameters from experimental data. PMID:27117092

  15. Dual AAV Vectors for Stargardt Disease.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1), due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene, is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. Attempts at developing gene therapy approaches for treatment of STGD1 are currently ongoing. Among all the vectors available for gene therapy of inherited retinal diseases, those based on adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are the most promising given the efficacy shown in various animal models and their excellent safety profile in humans, as confirmed in many ongoing clinical trials. However, one of the main obstacles for the use of AAV is their limited effective packaging capacity of about 5 kb. Taking advantage of the AAV genome's ability to concatemerize , others and we have recently developed dual AAV vectors to overcome this limit. We tested dual AAV vectors for ABCA4 delivery, and found that they transduce efficiently both mouse and pig photoreceptors , and rescue the Abca4-/- mouse retinal phenotype, indicating their potential for gene therapy of STGD1. This chapter details how we designed dual AAV vectors for the delivery of the ABCA4 gene and describes the techniques that can be explored to evaluate dual AAV transduction efficiency in vitro and in the retina, and their efficacy in the mouse model of STGD1.

  16. Direct comparison of administration routes for AAV8-mediated ocular gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Miyake, Koichi; Asakawa, Nagisa; Miyake, Noriko; Shimada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that direct subretinal (SR) injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 8 (AAV8) into photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly efficient model of gene delivery. The current study compared transduction efficiency and expression patterns associated with various routes of vector administration. The efficacy of intravitreal (VT), SR and subconjunctival (SC) injections for delivery of AAV8-derived vectors, i.e. those expressing luciferase (Luc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) - AAV8/Luc and AAV8/GFP, respectively - were compared in an animal (mouse) model (n = 8 mice/group). Transduction efficiency and expression patterns were examined at post-injection weeks 1 and 2, and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 via in vivo imaging. One year after AAV injection, AAV8/Luc-treated mice exhibited stable and sustained high expression of vector in the VT and SR groups, but not in the SC group (VT:SR:SC = 3,218:2,923:115; 1 × 10(5 )photons/s). Histological analysis showed that GFP expression was observed in the inner retina of VT group mice, and in photoreceptor cells and RPE of SR group mice, whereas no GFP expression was noted in the SC group. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed adverse effects following SR delivery. Results suggest that both SR and VT injections of AAV8 vectors are useful routes for administering ocular gene therapy, and stress the importance of selecting an appropriate administration route, i.e. one that targets specific cells, for treating ocular disorders.

  17. Analysis of capsid portal protein and terminase functional domains: interaction sites required for DNA packaging in bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Rao, V B; Black, L W

    1999-06-04

    Bacteriophage DNA packaging results from an ATP-driven translocation of concatemeric DNA into the prohead by the phage terminase complexed with the portal vertex dodecamer of the prohead. Functional domains of the bacteriophage T4 terminase and portal gene 20 product (gp20) were determined by mutant analysis and sequence localization within the structural genes. Interaction regions of the portal vertex and large terminase subunit (gp17) were determined by genetic (terminase-portal intergenic suppressor mutations), biochemical (column retention of gp17 and inhibition of in vitro DNA packaging by gp20 peptides), and immunological (co-immunoprecipitation of polymerized gp20 peptide and gp17) studies. The specificity of the interaction was tested by means of a phage T4 HOC (highly antigenicoutercapsid protein) display system in which wild-type, cs20, and scrambled portal peptide sequences were displayed on the HOC protein of phage T4. Binding affinities of these recombinant phages as determined by the retention of these phages by a His-tag immobilized gp17 column, and by co-immunoprecipitation with purified terminase supported the specific nature of the portal protein and terminase interaction sites. In further support of specificity, a gp20 peptide corresponding to a portion of the identified site inhibited packaging whereas the scrambled sequence peptide did not block DNA packaging in vitro. The portal interaction site is localized to 28 residues in the central portion of the linear sequence of gp20 (524 residues). As judged by two pairs of intergenic portal-terminase suppressor mutations, two separate regions of the terminase large subunit gp17 (central and COOH-terminal) interact through hydrophobic contacts at the portal site. Although the terminase apparently interacts with this gp20 portal peptide, polyclonal antibody against the portal peptide appears unable to access it in the native structure, suggesting intimate association of gp20 and gp17 possibly

  18. Development of Intrathecal AAV9 Gene Therapy for Giant Axonal Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel M; Armao, Diane; Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Sahana; Gray, Steven J

    2018-06-15

    An NIH-sponsored phase I clinical trial is underway to test a potential treatment for giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) using viral-mediated GAN gene replacement (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02362438). This trial marks the first instance of intrathecal (IT) adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer in humans. GAN is a rare pediatric neurodegenerative disorder caused by autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes the gigaxonin protein. Gigaxonin is involved in the regulation, turnover, and degradation of intermediate filaments (IFs). The pathologic signature of GAN is giant axonal swellings filled with disorganized accumulations of IFs. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of the AAV vector carrying a normal copy of the human GAN transgene (AAV9/JeT-GAN) currently employed in the clinical trial. Treatment with AAV/JeT-GAN restored the normal configuration of IFs in patient fibroblasts within days in cell culture and by 4 weeks in GAN KO mice. IT delivery of AAV9/JeT-GAN in aged GAN KO mice preserved sciatic nerve ultrastructure, reduced neuronal IF accumulations and attenuated rotarod dysfunction. This strategy conferred sustained wild-type gigaxonin expression across the PNS and CNS for at least 1 year in mice. These results support the clinical evaluation of AAV9/JeT-GAN for potential therapeutic outcomes and treatment for GAN patients.

  19. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O,A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutral...

  20. Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest that Factors Other Than the Capsid Protein Play a Role in the Epidemic Potential of GII.2 Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Kentaro; Lepore, Cara J; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A; Parra, Gabriel I

    2017-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. For over two decades, a single genotype (GII.4) has been responsible for most norovirus-associated cases. However, during the winter of 2014 to 2015, the GII.4 strains were displaced by a rarely detected genotype (GII.17) in several countries of the Asian continent. Moreover, during the winter of 2016 to 2017, the GII.2 strain reemerged as predominant in different countries worldwide. This reemerging GII.2 strain is a recombinant virus that presents a GII.P16 polymerase genotype. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary dynamics of GII.2 to determine the mechanism of this sudden emergence in the human population. The phylogenetic analyses indicated strong linear evolution of the VP1-encoding sequence, albeit with minor changes in the amino acid sequence over time. Without major genetic differences among the strains, a clustering based on the polymerase genotype was observed in the tree. This association did not affect the substitution rate of the VP1. Phylogenetic analyses of the polymerase region showed that reemerging GII.P16-GII.2 strains diverged into a new cluster, with a small number of amino acid substitutions detected on the surface of the associated polymerase. Thus, besides recombination or antigenic shift, point mutations in nonstructural proteins could also lead to novel properties with epidemic potential in different norovirus genotypes. IMPORTANCE Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral available to treat norovirus disease. Multiple norovirus strains infect humans, but a single genotype (GII.4) has been regarded as the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Its persistence and predominance have been explained by the continuous replacement of variants that present new antigenic properties on their capsid protein, thus evading the herd immunity acquired to the previous variants

  1. Packaging of Polyelectrolytes in Viral Capsids: The Interplay Between Polymer Length and Capsid Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Charles

    2008-03-01

    Each particle of the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) has a very small ``parts list,'' consisting of two components: a molecule of single-stranded RNA and a 190-residue protein that makes up the 28-nm diameter icosahedral capsid. When purified viral RNA and capsid protein are mixed in solution at an appropriate pH and ionic strength, infectious wild-type viruses form spontaneously. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are formed when the protein self assembles around other anionic polymers such as poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS). Under different pH and ionic strength conditions the capsid protein can assemble by itself into empty capsids, multishell structures, tubes and sheets. To explore the effect on virion size of the competition between the preferred curvature of the protein and the size of the packaged cargo we have examined the formation of VLPs around PSS polymers with molecular weights ranging from 400 kDa to 3.4 MDa. Two distinct sizes are observed -- 22 nm for the lower molecular weights, jumping to 27 nm at 2 MDa. While under given conditions the size of PSS in solution is directly determined by its molecular weight, the self-complementarity of RNA makes its solution structure dependent on the nucleotide sequence as well. We have therefore employed Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy to examine the sizes of viral and non-viral RNAs of identical lengths. A model for the assembly that includes both the self-interactions of the polyelectrolyte and the capsid proteins and the interactions between them provides insight into the experimental results.

  2. Identical Strength of the T Cell Responses against E2, nsP1 and Capsid CHIKV Proteins in Recovered and Chronic Patients after the Epidemics of 2005-2006 in La Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Pellé, Olivier; Samri, Assia; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Gasque, Philippe; Autran, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the immunity developed by patients infected by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we studied the intensity and specificity of CHIKV-specific T cells mediated responses in chronic and recovered patients at 12 to 24 months post-infection. T cells were challenged in vitro against CHIKV synthetic peptides covering the length of three viral proteins, capsid, E2 and nsP1 proteins as well as all inactivated virus particles. Cytokine production was assessed by ELISPOT and intracellular labeling. T cells producing IFN-γ were detected against CHIKV in 85% patient’s cells either by direct ELISPOT assay (69% of patients) or after expansion of memory T cells allowing the detection of both CD4 and CD8 specific-T cells in 16% additional cases. The IFN-γ response was mainly engaged in response to nsP1 or E2 (52% and 46% cases, respectively) but in only 27% cases against the capsid. The anti-E2 response represented half the magnitude of the total CHIKV IFN-γ production and was mainly directed against the C-terminal half part of the protein. Almost all patients had conserved a T cell specific response against CHIKV with a clear hierarchy of T cell responses (CD8 > CD4) engaged against E2 > nsP1 > capsid. More importantly, the intensity of responses was not significantly different between recovered and chronic patients. These findings constitute key elements to a better understanding of patient T cell immunoreactivity against CHIKV and argue against a possible defect of T cell immunoresponse in the chronicity post-CHIKV infection. PMID:24376836

  3. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    PubMed

    Mannige, Ranjan V; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-03-04

    For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies. This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h)) are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc.) that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus. Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table) provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  4. The ANCA Vasculitis Questionnaire (AAV-PRO©)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA); Wegener Granulomatosis (WG); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV); Vasculitis

  5. Crystal structure of an antiviral ankyrin targeting the HIV-1 capsid and molecular modeling of the ankyrin-capsid complex.

    PubMed

    Praditwongwan, Warachai; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Saoin, Somphot; Wisitponchai, Tanchanok; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Nangola, Sawitree; Hong, Saw See; Minard, Philippe; Boulanger, Pierre; Chen, Chun-Jung; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2014-08-01

    Ankyrins are cellular repeat proteins, which can be genetically modified to randomize amino-acid residues located at defined positions in each repeat unit, and thus create a potential binding surface adaptable to macromolecular ligands. From a phage-display library of artificial ankyrins, we have isolated Ank(GAG)1D4, a trimodular ankyrin which binds to the HIV-1 capsid protein N-terminal domain (NTD(CA)) and has an antiviral effect at the late steps of the virus life cycle. In this study, the determinants of the Ank(GAG)1D4-NTD(CA) interaction were analyzed using peptide scanning in competition ELISA, capsid mutagenesis, ankyrin crystallography and molecular modeling. We determined the Ank(GAG)1D4 structure at 2.2 Å resolution, and used the crystal structure in molecular docking with a homology model of HIV-1 capsid. Our results indicated that NTD(CA) alpha-helices H1 and H7 could mediate the formation of the capsid-Ank(GAG)1D4 binary complex, but the interaction involving H7 was predicted to be more stable than with H1. Arginine-18 (R18) in H1, and R132 and R143 in H7 were found to be the key players of the Ank(GAG)1D4-NTD(CA) interaction. This was confirmed by R-to-A mutagenesis of NTD(CA), and by sequence analysis of trimodular ankyrins negative for capsid binding. In Ank(GAG)1D4, major interactors common to H1 and H7 were found to be S45, Y56, R89, K122 and K123. Collectively, our ankyrin-capsid binding analysis implied a significant degree of flexibility within the NTD(CA) domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein, and provided some clues for the design of new antivirals targeting the capsid protein and viral assembly.

  6. Crystal structure of an antiviral ankyrin targeting the HIV-1 capsid and molecular modeling of the ankyrin-capsid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praditwongwan, Warachai; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Saoin, Somphot; Wisitponchai, Tanchanok; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Nangola, Sawitree; Hong, Saw See; Minard, Philippe; Boulanger, Pierre; Chen, Chun-Jung; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2014-08-01

    Ankyrins are cellular repeat proteins, which can be genetically modified to randomize amino-acid residues located at defined positions in each repeat unit, and thus create a potential binding surface adaptable to macromolecular ligands. From a phage-display library of artificial ankyrins, we have isolated AnkGAG1D4, a trimodular ankyrin which binds to the HIV-1 capsid protein N-terminal domain (NTDCA) and has an antiviral effect at the late steps of the virus life cycle. In this study, the determinants of the AnkGAG1D4-NTDCA interaction were analyzed using peptide scanning in competition ELISA, capsid mutagenesis, ankyrin crystallography and molecular modeling. We determined the AnkGAG1D4 structure at 2.2 Å resolution, and used the crystal structure in molecular docking with a homology model of HIV-1 capsid. Our results indicated that NTDCA alpha-helices H1 and H7 could mediate the formation of the capsid-AnkGAG1D4 binary complex, but the interaction involving H7 was predicted to be more stable than with H1. Arginine-18 (R18) in H1, and R132 and R143 in H7 were found to be the key players of the AnkGAG1D4-NTDCA interaction. This was confirmed by R-to-A mutagenesis of NTDCA, and by sequence analysis of trimodular ankyrins negative for capsid binding. In AnkGAG1D4, major interactors common to H1 and H7 were found to be S45, Y56, R89, K122 and K123. Collectively, our ankyrin-capsid binding analysis implied a significant degree of flexibility within the NTDCA domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein, and provided some clues for the design of new antivirals targeting the capsid protein and viral assembly.

  7. Interaction of the host protein NbDnaJ with Potato virus X minus-strand stem-loop 1 RNA and capsid protein affects viral replication and movement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Cho, Won Kyong; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-01-06

    Plant viruses must interact with host cellular components to replicate and move from cell to cell. In the case of Potato virus X (PVX), it carries stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA essential for viral replication and movement. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis northwestern blot analysis, we previously identified several host proteins that bind to SL1 RNA. Of those, we further characterized a DnaJ-like protein from Nicotiana benthamiana named NbDnaJ. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that NbDnaJ binds only to SL1 minus-strand RNA, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) indicated that NbDnaJ interacts with PVX capsid protein (CP). Using a series of deletion mutants, the C-terminal region of NbDnaJ was found to be essential for the interaction with PVX CP. The expression of NbDnaJ significantly changed upon infection with different plant viruses such as PVX, Tobacco mosaic virus, and Cucumber mosaic virus, but varied depending on the viral species. In transient experiments, both PVX replication and movement were inhibited in plants that over-expressed NbDnaJ but accelerated in plants in which NbDnaJ was silenced. In summary, we suggest that the newly identified NbDnaJ plays a role in PVX replication and movement by interacting with SL1(-) RNA and PVX CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A commercial PCV2a-based vaccine is effective in protection from experimental challenge of PCV2 mutant with two amino acids elongation in capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jun; Fu, Yu-Jie; Huang, Li-Ping; Wang, Yi-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2015-07-17

    Current commercial PCV2 vaccines are almost based on PCV2a and have been shown to be effective in reducing PCV2a and PCV2b viremia and PCV2-associated lesions and diseases. The recent emergence of novel mutant PCV2 (mPCV2) strains and linkage of mPCV2 with cases of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in pig herds have raised concerns over emergence of vaccine-escape mutants and reduced efficacy of PCV2a-based vaccines. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of a commercial PCV2a-based vaccine developed by our laboratory to protect conventional pigs against experimental challenge with mPCV2 at 9 weeks of age. Twenty 4-week-old pigs free of PCV2 infection were randomly divided into four treatment groups with 5 pigs each. Two groups were unvaccinated as positive and negative controls. Another two groups were vaccinated with the commercial PCV2a-based vaccine (PCV2-LG strain, China) at 4 weeks of age and identical booster immunization was conducted 3 weeks post primary immunization. At 9 weeks of age, all pigs except the negative control were challenged with a mutant PCV2b/YJ (mPCV2b/YJ) with two amino acids elongation in capsid protein. The experiment was terminated 28 days after challenge. Under the conditions of this study, vaccinated pigs were protected against PCV2 viremia and lesions whereas unvaccinated pigs were not. Moreover, mPCV2b/YJ infection was demonstrated in positive control and almost all had macroscopic or microscopic lesions consistent with PCVAD while negative control did not develop PCVAD. This study indicates that mPCV2b/YJ infection alone can trigger PCVAD development and that the commercial vaccine (PCV2-LG) is still effective in protecting conventional pigs against the emerging mPCV2b/YJ strain in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. An experimental and computational evolution-based method to study a mode of co-evolution of overlapping open reading frames in the AAV2 viral genome.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yasuhiro; Neeley, Shane; Adachi, Kei; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) in viral genomes undergo co-evolution; however, how individual amino acids coded by overlapping ORFs are structurally, functionally, and co-evolutionarily constrained remains difficult to address by conventional homologous sequence alignment approaches. We report here a new experimental and computational evolution-based methodology to address this question and report its preliminary application to elucidating a mode of co-evolution of the frame-shifted overlapping ORFs in the adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 viral genome. These ORFs encode both capsid VP protein and non-structural assembly-activating protein (AAP). To show proof of principle of the new method, we focused on the evolutionarily conserved QVKEVTQ and KSKRSRR motifs, a pair of overlapping heptapeptides in VP and AAP, respectively. In the new method, we first identified a large number of capsid-forming VP3 mutants and functionally competent AAP mutants of these motifs from mutant libraries by experimental directed evolution under no co-evolutionary constraints. We used Illumina sequencing to obtain a large dataset and then statistically assessed the viability of VP and AAP heptapeptide mutants. The obtained heptapeptide information was then integrated into an evolutionary algorithm, with which VP and AAP were co-evolved from random or native nucleotide sequences in silico. As a result, we demonstrate that these two heptapeptide motifs could exhibit high degeneracy if coded by separate nucleotide sequences, and elucidate how overlap-evoked co-evolutionary constraints play a role in making the VP and AAP heptapeptide sequences into the present shape. Specifically, we demonstrate that two valine (V) residues and β-strand propensity in QVKEVTQ are structurally important, the strongly negative and hydrophilic nature of KSKRSRR is functionally important, and overlap-evoked co-evolution imposes strong constraints on serine (S) residues in KSKRSRR, despite high

  10. Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Heather M.; Feng, Kurtis H.; Lee, Donald W.; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. IMPORTANCE Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in

  11. Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Heather M; Feng, Kurtis H; Lee, Donald W; Allison, Andrew B; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan; Parrish, Colin R

    2017-01-15

    Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in infection or transduction

  12. Selection of Single-Chain Antibodies against the VP8* Subunit of Rotavirus VP4 Outer Capsid Protein and Their Expression in Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Monedero, Vicente; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Viana, Rosa; Buesa, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2004-01-01

    Single-chain antibodies (scFv) recognizing the VP8* fraction of rotavirus outer capsid and blocking rotavirus infection in vitro were isolated by phage display. Vectors for the extracellular expression in Lactobacillus casei of one of the scFv were constructed. L. casei was able to secrete active scFv to the growth medium, showing the potential of probiotic bacteria to be engineered to express molecules suitable for in vivo antirotavirus therapies. PMID:15528568

  13. Successful transduction of liver in hemophilia by AAV-Factor IX and limitations imposed by the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Manno, Catherine S; Pierce, Glenn F; Arruda, Valder R; Glader, Bertil; Ragni, Margaret; Rasko, John J; Rasko, John; Ozelo, Margareth C; Hoots, Keith; Blatt, Philip; Konkle, Barbara; Dake, Michael; Kaye, Robin; Razavi, Mahmood; Zajko, Albert; Zehnder, James; Rustagi, Pradip K; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Chew, Amy; Leonard, Debra; Wright, J Fraser; Lessard, Ruth R; Sommer, Jürg M; Tigges, Michael; Sabatino, Denise; Luk, Alvin; Jiang, Haiyan; Mingozzi, Federico; Couto, Linda; Ertl, Hildegund C; High, Katherine A; Kay, Mark A

    2006-03-01

    We have previously shown that a single portal vein infusion of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) expressing canine Factor IX (F.IX) resulted in long-term expression of therapeutic levels of F.IX in dogs with severe hemophilia B. We carried out a phase 1/2 dose-escalation clinical study to extend this approach to humans with severe hemophilia B. rAAV-2 vector expressing human F.IX was infused through the hepatic artery into seven subjects. The data show that: (i) vector infusion at doses up to 2 x 10(12) vg/kg was not associated with acute or long-lasting toxicity; (ii) therapeutic levels of F.IX were achieved at the highest dose tested; (iii) duration of expression at therapeutic levels was limited to a period of approximately 8 weeks; (iv) a gradual decline in F.IX was accompanied by a transient asymptomatic elevation of liver transaminases that resolved without treatment. Further studies suggested that destruction of transduced hepatocytes by cell-mediated immunity targeting antigens of the AAV capsid caused both the decline in F.IX and the transient transaminitis. We conclude that rAAV-2 vectors can transduce human hepatocytes in vivo to result in therapeutically relevant levels of F.IX, but that future studies in humans may require immunomodulation to achieve long-term expression.

  14. A slender tract of glycine residues is required for translocation of the VP2 protein N-terminal domain through the parvovirus MVM capsid channel to initiate infection.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Milagros; Pérez, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Grueso, Esther; Almendral, José M; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2013-10-01

    Viruses constitute paradigms to study conformational dynamics in biomacromolecular assemblies. Infection by the parvovirus MVM (minute virus of mice) requires a conformational rearrangement that involves the intracellular externalization through capsid channels of the 2Nt (N-terminal region of VP2). We have investigated the role in this process of conserved glycine residues in an extended glycine-rich tract located immediately after 2Nt. Based on the virus structure, residues with hydrophobic side chains of increasing volume were substituted for glycine residues 31 or 33. Mutations had no effect on capsid assembly or stability, but inhibited virus infectivity. All mutations, except those to alanine residues which had minor effects, impaired 2Nt externalization in nuclear maturing virions and in purified virions, to an extent that correlated with the side chain size. Different biochemical and biophysical analyses were consistent with this result. Importantly, all of the tested glycine residue replacements impaired the capacity of the virion to initiate infection, at ratios correlating with their restrictive effects on 2Nt externalization. Thus small residues within the evolutionarily conserved glycine-rich tract facilitate 2Nt externalization through the capsid channel, as required by this virus to initiate cell entry. The results demonstrate the exquisite dependence on geometric constraints of a biologically relevant translocation event in a biomolecular complex.

  15. Modular adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors used for cellular virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Sven; Baumann, Tobias; Wagner, Hanna J.; Morath, Volker; Kaufmann, Beate; Fischer, Adrian; Bergmann, Stefan; Schindler, Patrick; Arndt, Katja M.; Müller, Kristian M.

    2014-01-01

    The pre-clinical and clinical development of viral vehicles for gene transfer increased in recent years, and a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) drug took center stage upon approval in the European Union. However, lack of standardization, inefficient purification methods and complicated retargeting limit general usability. We address these obstacles by fusing rAAV-2 capsids with two modular targeting molecules (DARPin or Affibody) specific for a cancer cell-surface marker (EGFR) while simultaneously including an affinity tag (His-tag) in a surface-exposed loop. Equipping these particles with genes coding for prodrug converting enzymes (thymidine kinase or cytosine deaminase) we demonstrate tumor marker specific transduction and prodrug-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells. Coding terminal and loop modifications in one gene enabled specific and scalable purification. Our genetic parts for viral production adhere to a standardized cloning strategy facilitating rapid prototyping of virus directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT). PMID:24457557

  16. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and modeling of multicomponent nanosystems templated by self-assembled virus capsids. The design principles, synthesis, analysis, and future directions for these capsid-based materials are presented. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the literature on the application of virus capsids in constructing nanomaterials. The uses of capsids in three main areas are considered: (1) as templates for inorganic materials or nanoparticles; (2) as vehicles for biological applications like medical imaging and treatment; and (3) as scaffolds for catalytic materials. In light of this introduction, an overview of the material in this dissertation is described. Chapters 2-4 all describe integrated nanosystems templated by bacteriophage MS2, a spherical icosahedral virus capsid. MS2 possesses an interior and exterior surface that can be modified orthogonally using bioconjugation chemistry to create multivalent, multicomponent constructs with precise localization of components attached to the capsid proteins. Chapter 2 describes the use of MS2 to synthesize a photocatalytic construct by modifying the internal surface with sensitizing chromophores and the external surface with a photocatalytic porphyrin. The chromophores absorbed energy that the porphyrin could not, and transferred it to the porphyrin via FRET through the protein shell. The porphyrin was then able to utilize the energy to carry out photocatalysis at new wavelengths. In Chapter 3, porphyrins were installed on the interior surface of MS2 and DNA aptamers specific for Jurkat leukemia T cells on the exterior surface. The dual-modified capsids were able to bind to Jurkat cells, and upon illumination the porphyrins generated singlet oxygen to kill them selectively over non-targeted cells. Chapter 4 explores integrating MS2 with DNA origami in order to arrange the capsids at larger length scales. Capsids modified with fluorescent dyes inside and single-stranded DNA outside were able to

  17. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  18. AAV vector-mediated secretion of chondroitinase provides a sensitive tracer for axonal arborisations.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Nuno; Muir, Elizabeth M; Andrews, Melissa R; Ward, Anneliese; Michelmore, Nicholas; Dasgupta, Debayan; Verhaagen, Joost; Moloney, Elizabeth B; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H

    2014-04-30

    As part of a project to express chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in neurons of the central nervous system, we have inserted a modified ChABC gene into an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector and injected it into the vibrissal motor cortex in adult rats to determine the extent and distribution of expression of the enzyme. A similar vector for expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into the same location. For each vector, two versions with minor differences were used, giving similar results. After 4 weeks, the brains were stained to show GFP and products of chondroitinase digestion. Chondroitinase was widely expressed, and the AAV-ChABC and AAV-GFP vectors gave similar expression patterns in many respects, consistent with the known projections from the directly transduced neurons in vibrissal motor cortex and adjacent cingulate cortex. In addition, diffusion of vector to deeper neuronal populations led to labelling of remote projection fields which was much more extensive with AAV-ChABC than with AAV-GFP. The most notable of these populations are inferred to be neurons of cortical layer 6, projecting widely in the thalamus, and neurons of the anterior pole of the hippocampus, projecting through most of the hippocampus. We conclude that, whereas GFP does not label the thinnest axonal branches of some neuronal types, chondroitinase is efficiently secreted from these arborisations and enables their extent to be sensitively visualised. After 12 weeks, chondroitinase expression was undiminished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Delivery to Adipose Tissue Using Transcriptionally Targeted rAAV8 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig-Schmidt, Silke; Geiger, Matthias; Luippold, Gerd; Birk, Gerald; Mennerich, Detlev; Neubauer, Heike; Grimm, Dirk; Wolfrum, Christian; Kreuz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities fostered intensive research in the field of adipose tissue biology. To further unravel molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue function, genetic tools enabling functional studies in vitro and in vivo are essential. While the use of transgenic animals is well established, attempts using viral and non-viral vectors to genetically modify adipocytes in vivo are rare. Therefore, we here characterized recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors regarding their potency as gene transfer vehicles for adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that a single dose of systemically applied rAAV8-CMV-eGFP can give rise to remarkable transgene expression in murine adipose tissues. Upon transcriptional targeting of the rAAV8 vector to adipocytes using a 2.2 kb fragment of the murine adiponectin (mAP2.2) promoter, eGFP expression was significantly decreased in off-target tissues while efficient transduction was maintained in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. Moreover, rAAV8-mAP2.2-mediated expression of perilipin A – a lipid-droplet-associated protein – resulted in significant changes in metabolic parameters only three weeks post vector administration. Taken together, our findings indicate that rAAV vector technology is applicable as a flexible tool to genetically modify adipocytes for functional proof-of-concept studies and the assessment of putative therapeutic targets in vivo. PMID:25551639

  20. The chaperone dynein LL1 mediates cytoplasmic transport of empty and mature hepatitis B virus capsids.

    PubMed

    Osseman, Quentin; Gallucci, Lara; Au, Shelly; Cazenave, Christian; Berdance, Elodie; Blondot, Marie-Lise; Cassany, Aurélia; Bégu, Dominique; Ragues, Jessica; Aknin, Cindy; Sominskaya, Irina; Dishlers, Andris; Rabe, Birgit; Anderson, Fenja; Panté, Nelly; Kann, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a DNA genome but replicates within the nucleus by reverse transcription of an RNA pregenome, which is converted to DNA in cytoplasmic capsids. Capsids in this compartment are correlated with inflammation and epitopes of the capsid protein core (Cp) are a major target for T cell-mediated immune responses. We investigated the mechanism of cytoplasmic capsid transport, which is important for infection but also for cytosolic capsid removal. We used virion-derived capsids containing mature rcDNA (matC) and empty capsids (empC). RNA-containing capsids (rnaC) were used as a control. The investigations comprised pull-down assays for identification of cellular interaction partners, immune fluorescence microscopy for their colocalization and electron microscopy after microinjection to determine their biological significance. matC and empC underwent active transport through the cytoplasm towards the nucleus, while rnaC was poorly transported. We identified the dynein light chain LL1 as a functional interaction partner linking capsids to the dynein motor complex and showed that there is no compensatory transport pathway. Using capsid and dynein LL1 mutants we characterized the required domains on the capsid and LL1. This is the first investigation on the detailed molecular mechanism of how matC pass the cytoplasm upon infection and how empC can be actively removed from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Considering that hepatocytes with cytoplasmic capsids are better recognized by the T cells, we hypothesize that targeting capsid DynLL1-interaction will not only block HBV infection but also stimulate elimination of infected cells. In this study, we identified the molecular details of HBV translocation through the cytoplasm. Our evidence offers a new drug target which could not only inhibit infection but also stimulate immune clearance of HBV infected cells. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B

  1. Establishment of an AAV Reverse Infection-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Dong, Zheyue; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xue, Jinglun; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jinzhong

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of a convenient high-throughput gene transduction approach is critical for biological screening. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are broadly used in gene therapy studies, yet their applications in in vitro high-throughput gene transduction are limited. Principal Findings We established an AAV reverse infection (RI)-based method in which cells were transduced by quantified recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) pre-coated onto 96-well plates. The number of pre-coated rAAV particles and number of cells loaded per well, as well as the temperature stability of the rAAVs on the plates, were evaluated. As the first application of this method, six serotypes or hybrid serotypes of rAAVs (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5/5, AAV8, AAV25 m, AAV28 m) were compared for their transduction efficiencies using various cell lines, including BHK21, HEK293, BEAS-2BS, HeLaS3, Huh7, Hepa1-6, and A549. AAV2 and AAV1 displayed high transduction efficiency; thus, they were deemed to be suitable candidate vectors for the RI-based array. We next evaluated the impact of sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment on rAAV vector-mediated reporter gene expression and found it was significantly enhanced, suggesting that our system reflected the biological response of target cells to specific treatments. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a novel method for establishing a highly efficient gene transduction array that may be developed into a platform for cell biological assays. PMID:20976058

  2. Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Marielle; Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc

    2014-04-15

    The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond tomore » capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.« less

  3. Pathology Associated with AAV Mediated Expression of Beta Amyloid or C100 in Adult Mouse Hippocampus and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Eleanor S.; Muhling, Jill; Martins, Ralph N.; Wijaya, Linda K.; Ehlert, Erich M.; Harvey, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is a primary feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but the exact molecular mechanisms by which Aβ exerts its toxic actions are not yet entirely clear. We documented pathological changes 3 and 6 months after localised injection of recombinant, bi-cistronic adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2) expressing human Aβ40-GFP, Aβ42-GFP, C100-GFP or C100V717F-GFP into the hippocampus and cerebellum of 8 week old male mice. Injection of all rAAV2 vectors resulted in wide-spread transduction within the hippocampus and cerebellum, as shown by expression of transgene mRNA and GFP protein. Despite the lack of accumulation of Aβ protein after injection with AAV vectors, injection of rAAV2-Aβ42-GFP and rAAV2- C100V717F-GFP into the hippocampus resulted in significantly increased microgliosis and altered permeability of the blood brain barrier, the latter revealed by high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) around the injection site and the presence of IgG positive cells. In comparison, injection of rAAV2-Aβ40-GFP and rAAV2-C100-GFP into the hippocampus resulted in substantially less neuropathology. Injection of rAAV2 vectors into the cerebellum resulted in similar types of pathological changes, but to a lesser degree. The use of viral vectors to express different types of Aβ and C100 is a powerful technique with which to examine the direct in vivo consequences of Aβ expression in different regions of the mature nervous system and will allow experimentation and analysis of pathological AD-like changes in a broader range of species other than mouse. PMID:23516609

  4. A recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qi; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiang-Min; Yu, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Huan-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Pseudorabies (PR), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. The gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. In this study, a recombinant PRV, which could co-express protein precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of PPV, was constructed using PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/LacZ(+) mutant as the vector. After homologous recombination and plaque purification, recombinant virus PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/P1-2A-VP2 was acquired and identified. Immunogenicity, safety of the recombinant PRV and its protection against PRV were confirmed in a mouse model by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test. The results show that the recombinant PRV is a candidate vaccine strain to develop a novel trivalent vaccine against PRV, FMDV and PPV in swine.

  5. Efficient CNS targeting in adult mice by intrathecal infusion of single-stranded AAV9-GFP for gene therapy of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Bey, K; Ciron, C; Dubreil, L; Deniaud, J; Ledevin, M; Cristini, J; Blouin, V; Aubourg, P; Colle, M-A

    2017-05-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy constitutes a powerful tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. While AAVs are generally administered systemically to newborns in preclinical studies of neurological disorders, in adults the maturity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) must be considered when selecting the route of administration. Delivery of AAVs into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represents an attractive approach to target the central nervous system (CNS) and bypass the BBB. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intra-CSF delivery of a single-stranded (ss) AAV9-CAG-GFP vector in adult mice via intracisternal (iCist) or intralumbar (it-Lumb) administration. It-Lumb ssAAV9 delivery resulted in greater diffusion throughout the entire spinal cord and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression mainly in the cerebellum, cortex and olfactory bulb. By contrast, iCist delivery led to strong GFP expression throughout the entire brain. Comparison of the transduction efficiency of ssAAV9-CAG-GFP versus ssAAV9-SYN1-GFP following it-Lumb administration revealed widespread and specific GFP expression in neurons and motoneurons of the spinal cord and brain when the neuron-specific synapsin 1 (SYN1) promoter was used. Our findings demonstrate that it-Lumb ssAAV9 delivery is a safe and highly efficient means of targeting the CNS in adult mice.

  6. Identification of Factors Promoting HBV Capsid Self-Assembly by Assembly-Promoting Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Rath, Soumya Lipsa; Liu, Huihui; Okazaki, Susumu; Shinoda, Wataru

    2018-02-26

    Around 270 million individuals currently live with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) are a family of antivirals that target the HBV capsid protein and induce aberrant self-assembly. The capsids formed resemble the native capsid structure but are unable to propagate the virus progeny because of a lack of RNA/DNA. Under normal conditions, self-assembly is initiated by the viral genome. The mode of action of HAPs, however, remains largely unknown. In this work, using molecular dynamics simulations, we attempted to understand the action of HAP by comparing the dynamics of capsid proteins with and without HAPs. We found that the inhibitor is more stable in higher oligomers. It retains its stability in the hexamer throughout 1 μs of simulation. Our results also show that the inhibitor might help in stabilizing the C-terminus, the HBc 149-183 arginine-rich domain of the capsid protein. The C-termini of dimers interact with each other, assisted by the HAP inhibitor. During capsid assembly, the termini are supposed to directly interact with the viral genome, thereby suggesting that the viral genome might work in a similar way to stabilize the capsid protein. Our results may help in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of HBV capsid self-assembly, which should be crucial for exploring new drug targets and structure-based drug design.

  7. Species-Specific and Cross-Reactive IgG1 Antibody Binding to Viral Capsid Protein 1 (VP1) Antigens of Human Rhinovirus Species A, B and C

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Jua; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Stone, Shane R.; Thomas, Wayne R.; Hales, Belinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are associated with upper and lower respiratory illnesses, including severe infections causing hospitalization in both children and adults. Although the clinical significance of HRV infections is now well established, no detailed investigation of the immune response against HRV has been performed. The purpose of this study was to assess the IgG1 antibody response to the three known HRV species, HRV-A, -B and -C in healthy subjects. Methods Recombinant polypeptides of viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) from two genotypes of HRV-A, -B and -C were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and purified by affinity and then size exclusion chromatography. The presence of secondary structures similar to the natural antigens was verified by circular dichroism analysis. Total and species-specific IgG1 measurements were quantitated by immunoassays and immunoabsorption using sera from 63 healthy adults. Results Most adult sera reacted with the HRV VP1 antigens, at high titres. As expected, strong cross-reactivity between HRV genotypes of the same species was found. A high degree of cross-reactivity between different HRV species was also evident, particularly between HRV-A and HRV-C. Immunoabsorption studies revealed HRV-C specific titres were markedly and significantly lower than the HRV-A and HRV-B specific titres (P<0.0001). A truncated construct of HRV-C VP1 showed greater specificity in detecting anti-HRV-C antibodies. Conclusions High titres of IgG1 antibody were bound by the VP1 capsid proteins of HRV-A, -B and -C, but for the majority of people, a large proportion of the antibody to HRV-C was cross-reactive, especially to HRV-A. The improved specificity found for the truncated HRV-C VP1 indicates species-specific and cross-reactive regions could be defined. PMID:23950960

  8. Human Bocavirus Type-1 Capsid Facilitates the Transduction of Ferret Airways by Adeno-Associated Virus Genomes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ziying; Feng, Zehua; Sun, Xingshen; Zhang, Yulong; Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Jensen-Cody, Chandler; Liang, Bo; Park, Soo-Yeun; Qiu, Jianming; Engelhardt, John F

    2017-08-01

    Human bocavirus type-1 (HBoV1) has a high tropism for the apical membrane of human airway epithelia. The packaging of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) genome into HBoV1 capsid produces a chimeric vector (rAAV2/HBoV1) that also efficiently transduces human airway epithelia. As such, this vector is attractive for use in gene therapies to treat lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. However, preclinical development of rAAV2/HBoV1 vectors has been hindered by the fact that humans are the only known host for HBoV1 infection. This study reports that rAAV2/HBoV1 vector is capable of efficiently transducing the lungs of both newborn (3- to 7-day-old) and juvenile (29-day-old) ferrets, predominantly in the distal airways. Analyses of in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models of the ferret proximal airway demonstrate that infection of this particular region is less effective than it is in humans. Studies of vector binding and endocytosis in polarized ferret proximal airway epithelial cultures revealed that a lack of effective vector endocytosis is the main cause of inefficient transduction in vitro. While transgene expression declined proportionally with growth of the ferrets following infection at 7 days of age, reinfection of ferrets with rAAV2/HBoV1 at 29 days gave rise to approximately 5-fold higher levels of transduction than observed in naive infected 29-day-old animals. The findings presented here lay the foundation for clinical development of HBoV1 capsid-based vectors for lung gene therapy in cystic fibrosis using ferret models.

  9. Role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiber, Antonio; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    We examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids. The charges on the protein subunits that make the viral capsid mutually interact and are expected to yield electrostatic repulsion acting against the assembly of capsids. Thus, attractive protein-protein interactions of nonelectrostatic origin must act to enable the capsid formation. We investigate whether the interplay of repulsive electrostatic and attractive interactions between the protein subunits can result in the formation of spherical viral capsids of a preferred radius. For this to be the case, we find that the attractive interactions must depend on the angle between the neighboring protein subunits (i.e., on the mean curvature of the viral capsid) so that a particular angle(s) is (are) preferred energywise. Our results for the electrostatic contributions to energetics of viral capsids nicely correlate with recent experimental determinations of the energetics of protein-protein contacts in the hepatitis B virus [P. Ceres A. Zlotnick, Biochemistry 41, 11525 (2002)].

  10. Copackaged AAV9 Vectors Promote Simultaneous Immune Tolerance and Phenotypic Correction of Pompe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Phillip A.; Todd, Adrian G.; Clément, Nathalie; Falk, Darin J.; Nayak, Sushrusha; Herzog, Roland W.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Pompe disease is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by lysosomal accumulation of glycogen from a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Replacement of the missing enzyme is available by repeated protein infusions; however, efficacy is limited by immune response and inability to restore enzymatic function in the central nervous system. An alternative therapeutic option is adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy, which results in widespread gene transfer and prolonged transgene expression. Both enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and gene therapy can elicit anti-GAA immune reactions that dampen their effectiveness and pose life-threatening risks to patient safety. To modulate the immune responses related to gene therapy, we show that a human codon-optimized GAA (coGAA) driven by a liver-specific promoter (LSP) using AAV9 is capable of promoting immune tolerance in a Gaa−/− mouse model. Copackaging AAV9-LSP-coGAA with the tissue-restricted desmin promoter (AAV9-DES-coGAA) demonstrates the necessary cell autonomous expression in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, peripheral nerve, and the spinal cord. Simultaneous high-level expression in liver led to the expansion of GAA-specific regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and induction of immune tolerance. Transfer of Tregs into naïve recipients prevented pathogenic allergic reactions after repeated ERT challenges. Copackaged AAV9 also attenuated preexisting humoral and cellular immune responses, which enhanced the biochemical correction. Our data present a therapeutic design in which simultaneous administration of two copackaged AAV constructs may provide therapeutic benefit and resolve immune reactions in the treatment of multisystem disorders. PMID:26603344

  11. Reversal of blindness in animal models of leber congenital amaurosis using optimized AAV2-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Bennicelli, Jeannette; Wright, John Fraser; Komaromy, Andras; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Hui, Daniel; Chung, Daniel; Rex, Tonia S; Wei, Zhangyong; Qu, Guang; Zhou, Shangzhen; Zeiss, Caroline; Arruda, Valder R; Acland, Gregory M; Dell'Osso, Lou F; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M; Bennett, Jean

    2008-03-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an optimized adeno-associated virus (AAV; AAV2.RPE65) in animal models of the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Protein expression was optimized by addition of a modified Kozak sequence at the translational start site of hRPE65. Modifications in AAV production and delivery included use of a long stuffer sequence to prevent reverse packaging from the AAV inverted-terminal repeats, and co-injection with a surfactant. The latter allows consistent and predictable delivery of a given dose of vector. We observed improved electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual acuity in Rpe65 mutant mice. This has not been reported previously using AAV2 vectors. Subretinal delivery of 8.25 x 10(10) vector genomes in affected dogs was well tolerated both locally and systemically, and treated animals showed improved visual behavior and pupillary responses, and reduced nystagmus within 2 weeks of injection. ERG responses confirmed the reversal of visual deficit. Immunohistochemistry confirmed transduction of retinal pigment epithelium cells and there was minimal toxicity to the retina as judged by histopathologic analysis. The data demonstrate that AAV2.RPE65 delivers the RPE65 transgene efficiently and quickly to the appropriate target cells in vivo in animal models. This vector holds great promise for treatment of LCA due to RPE65 mutations.

  12. Reversal of Blindness in Animal Models of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Using Optimized AAV2-mediated Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bennicelli, Jeannette; Wright, John Fraser; Komaromy, Andras; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Hui, Daniel; Chung, Daniel; Rex, Tonia S; Wei, Zhangyong; Qu, Guang; Zhou, Shangzhen; Zeiss, Caroline; Arruda, Valder R; Acland, Gregory M; Dell’Osso, Lou F; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M; Bennett, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an optimized adeno-associated virus (AAV; AAV2.RPE65) in animal models of the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Protein expression was optimized by addition of a modified Kozak sequence at the translational start site of hRPE65. Modifications in AAV production and delivery included use of a long stuffer sequence to prevent reverse packaging from the AAV inverted-terminal repeats, and co-injection with a surfactant. The latter allows consistent and predictable delivery of a given dose of vector. We observed improved electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual acuity in Rpe65 mutant mice. This has not been reported previously using AAV2 vectors. Subretinal delivery of 8.25 × 1010 vector genomes in affected dogs was well tolerated both locally and systemically, and treated animals showed improved visual behavior and pupillary responses, and reduced nystagmus within 2 weeks of injection. ERG responses confirmed the reversal of visual deficit. Immunohistochemistry confirmed transduction of retinal pigment epithelium cells and there was minimal toxicity to the retina as judged by histopathologic analysis. The data demonstrate that AAV2.RPE65 delivers the RPE65 transgene efficiently and quickly to the appropriate target cells in vivo in animal models. This vector holds great promise for treatment of LCA due to RPE65 mutations. PMID:18209734

  13. Intraspinal AAV Injections Immediately Rostral to a Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury Site Efficiently Transduces Neurons in Spinal Cord and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klaw, Michelle C; Xu, Chen; Tom, Veronica J

    2013-01-01

    In the vast majority of studies utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV) in central nervous system applications, including those published with spinal cord injury (SCI) models, AAV has been administered at the level of the cell body of neurons targeted for genetic modification, resulting in transduction of neurons in the vicinity of the injection site. However, as SCI interrupts many axon tracts, it may be more beneficial to transduce a diverse pool of supraspinal neurons. We determined if descending axons severed by SCI are capable of retrogradely transporting AAV to remotely transduce a variety of brain regions. Different AAV serotypes encoding the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected into gray and white matter immediately rostral to a spinal transection site. This resulted in the transduction of thousands of neurons within the spinal cord and in multiple regions within the brainstem that project to spinal cord. In addition, we established that different serotypes had disparate regional specificity and that AAV5 transduced the most brain and spinal cord neurons. This is the first demonstration that retrograde transport of AAV by axons severed by SCI is an effective means to transduce a collection of supraspinal neurons. Thus, we identify a novel, minimally invasive means to transduce a variety of neuronal populations within both the spinal cord and the brain following SCI. This paradigm to broadly distribute viral vectors has the potential to be an important component of a combinatorial strategy to promote functional axonal regeneration. PMID:23881451

  14. The Role of Capsid Maturation on Adenovirus Priming for Sequential Uncoating*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; Ortega-Esteban, Alvaro; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Winkler, Dennis C.; Menéndez, Margarita; Steven, Alasdair C.; Flint, S. Jane; de Pablo, Pedro J.; San Martín, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus assembly concludes with proteolytic processing of several capsid and core proteins. Immature virions containing precursor proteins lack infectivity because they cannot properly uncoat, becoming trapped in early endosomes. Structural studies have shown that precursors increase the network of interactions maintaining virion integrity. Using different biophysical techniques to analyze capsid disruption in vitro, we show that immature virions are more stable than the mature ones under a variety of stress conditions and that maturation primes adenovirus for highly cooperative DNA release. Cryoelectron tomography reveals that under mildly acidic conditions mimicking the early endosome, mature virions release pentons and peripheral core contents. At higher stress levels, both mature and immature capsids crack open. The virus core is completely released from cracked capsids in mature virions, but it remains connected to shell fragments in the immature particle. The extra stability of immature adenovirus does not equate with greater rigidity, because in nanoindentation assays immature virions exhibit greater elasticity than the mature particles. Our results have implications for the role of proteolytic maturation in adenovirus assembly and uncoating. Precursor proteins favor assembly by establishing stable interactions with the appropriate curvature and preventing premature ejection of contents by tightly sealing the capsid vertices. Upon maturation, core organization is looser, particularly at the periphery, and interactions preserving capsid curvature are weakened. The capsid becomes brittle, and pentons are more easily released. Based on these results, we hypothesize that changes in core compaction during maturation may increase capsid internal pressure to trigger proper uncoating of adenovirus. PMID:22791715

  15. Type-specific and cross-reactive antibodies and T cell responses in norovirus VLP immunized mice are targeted both to conserved and variable domains of capsid VP1 protein.

    PubMed

    Malm, Maria; Tamminen, Kirsi; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2016-10-01

    Norovirus (NoV)-specific antibodies, which block binding of the virus-like particles (VLPs) to the cell receptors are conformation dependent and directed towards the most exposed domain of the NoV capsid VP1 protein, the P2 domain. Limited data are available on the antibodies directed to other domains of the VP1, and even less on the NoV VP1-specific T cell epitopes. In here, BALB/c mice were immunized with six VLPs derived from NoV GII.4-1999, GII.4-2009 (New Orleans), GII.4-2012 (Sydney), GII.12, GI.1, and G1.3. Serum immunoglobulin G binding antibodies, histo-blood group antigen blocking antibodies and T cell responses using type-specific and heterologous NoV VLPs, P-dimers and 76 overlapping synthetic peptides, spanning the entire 539 amino acid sequence of GII.4 VP1, were determined. The results showed that at least half of the total antibody content is directed towards conserved S domain of the VP1. Only a small fraction (<1%) of the VP1 binding antibodies were blocking/neutralizing. With the use of matrix peptide pools and individual peptides, seven CD4 + and CD8 + T cell restricted epitopes were mapped, two located in S domain, four in P2 domain and one in P1 domain of NoV VP1. The epitopes were GII.4 strain-specific but also common GII.4 genotype-specific T cell epitopes were identified. More importantly, the results suggest a 9-amino acids long sequence ( 318 PAPLGTPDF 326 ) in P2 domain of VP1 as a universal NoV genogroup II-specific CD8 + T cell epitope. Distribution of the T cell epitopes alongside the capsid VP1 indicates the need of the complete protein for high immunogenicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes Are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Eric A.; Goodman, David A.; Gorchels, Madeline E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses infecting the Archaea harbor a tremendous amount of genetic diversity. This is especially true for the spindle-shaped viruses of the family Fuselloviridae, where >90% of the viral genes do not have detectable homologs in public databases. This significantly limits our ability to elucidate the role of viral proteins in the infection cycle. To address this, we have developed genetic techniques to study the well-characterized fusellovirus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus in volcanic hot springs at 80°C and pH 3. Here, we present a new comparative genome analysis and a thorough genetic analysis of SSV1 using both specific and random mutagenesis and thereby generate mutations in all open reading frames. We demonstrate that almost half of the SSV1 genes are not essential for infectivity, and the requirement for a particular gene correlates well with its degree of conservation within the Fuselloviridae. The major capsid gene vp1 is essential for SSV1 infectivity. However, the universally conserved minor capsid gene vp3 could be deleted without a loss in infectivity and results in virions with abnormal morphology. IMPORTANCE Most of the putative genes in the spindle-shaped archaeal hyperthermophile fuselloviruses have no sequences that are clearly similar to characterized genes. In order to determine which of these SSV genes are important for function, we disrupted all of the putative genes in the prototypical fusellovirus, SSV1. Surprisingly, about half of the genes could be disrupted without destroying virus function. Even deletions of one of the known structural protein genes that is present in all known fuselloviruses, vp3, allows the production of infectious viruses. However, viruses lacking vp3 have abnormal shapes, indicating that the vp3 gene is important for virus structure. Identification of essential genes will allow focused research on minimal SSV genomes and further understanding of the structure

  17. A quasi-atomic model of human adenovirus type 5 capsid

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, Céline M S; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Conway, James F; Zubieta, Chloé; Cusack, Stephen; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Schoehn, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Adenoviruses infect a wide range of vertebrates including humans. Their icosahedral capsids are composed of three major proteins: the trimeric hexon forms the facets and the penton, a noncovalent complex of the pentameric penton base and trimeric fibre proteins, is located at the 12 capsid vertices. Several proteins (IIIa, VI, VIII and IX) stabilise the capsid. We have obtained a 10 Å resolution map of the human adenovirus 5 by image analysis from cryo-electron micrographs (cryoEMs). This map, in combination with the X-ray structures of the penton base and hexon, was used to build a quasi-atomic model of the arrangement of the two major capsid components and to analyse the hexon–hexon and hexon–penton interactions. The secondary proteins, notably VIII, were located by comparing cryoEM maps of native and pIX deletion mutant virions. Minor proteins IX and IIIa are located on the outside of the capsid, whereas protein VIII is organised with a T=2 lattice on the inner face of the capsid. The capsid organisation is compared with the known X-ray structure of bacteriophage PRD1. PMID:15861131

  18. Computational mechanics of viral capsids.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Perotti, Luigi E; Klug, William S

    2015-01-01

    Viral capsids undergo significant mechanical deformations during their assembly, maturation, and infective life-span. In order to characterize the mechanics of viral capsids, their response to applied external forces is analyzed in several experimental studies using, for instance, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) indentation experiments. In recent years, a broader approach to study the mechanics of viral capsids has leveraged the theoretical tools proper of continuum mechanics. Even though the theory of continuum elasticity is most commonly used to study deformable bodies at larger macroscopic length scales, it has been shown that this very rich theoretical field can still offer useful insights into the mechanics of viral structures at the nanometer scale. Here we show the construction of viral capsid continuum mechanics models starting from different forms of experimental data. We will discuss the kinematics assumptions, the issue of the reference configuration, the material constitutive laws, and the numerical discretization necessary to construct a complete Finite Element capsid mechanical model. Some examples in the second part of the chapter will show the predictive capabilities of the constructed models and underline useful practical aspects related to efficiency and accuracy. We conclude each example by collecting several key findings discovered by simulating AFM indentation experiments using the constructed numerical models.

  19. Fast normal mode computations of capsid dynamics inspired by resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2018-07-01

    Increasingly more and larger structural complexes are being determined experimentally. The sizes of these systems pose a formidable computational challenge to the study of their vibrational dynamics by normal mode analysis. To overcome this challenge, this work presents a novel resonance-inspired approach. Tests on large shell structures of protein capsids demonstrate that there is a strong resonance between the vibrations of a whole capsid and those of individual capsomeres. We then show how this resonance can be taken advantage of to significantly speed up normal mode computations.

  20. Structure-function Analysis of Receptor-binding in Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6 (AAV-6)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qing; Lerch, Thomas F.; Meyer, Nancy L.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystal structures of the AAV-6 capsid at 3 Å reveal a subunit fold homologous to other parvoviruses with greatest differences in two external loops. The electrostatic potential suggests that receptor-attachment is mediated by four residues: Arg576, Lys493, Lys459 and Lys531, defining a positively charged region curving up from the valley between adjacent spikes. It overlaps only partially with the receptor-binding site of AAV-2, and the residues endowing the electrostatic character are not homologous. Mutational substitution of each residue decreases heparin affinity, particularly Lys531 and Lys459. Neither is conserved among heparin-binding serotypes, indicating that diverse modes of receptor attachment have been selected in different serotypes. Surface topology and charge are also distinct at the shoulder of the spike, where linear epitopes for AAV-2’s neutralizing monoclonal antibody A20 come together. Evolutionarily, selection of changed side-chain charge may have offered a conservative means to evade immune neutralization while preserving other essential functionality. PMID:21917284

  1. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  2. Cytomegalovirus Basic Phosphoprotein (pUL32) Binds to Capsids In Vitro through Its Amino One-Third

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Michael K.; Gibson, Wade

    2001-01-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) basic phosphoprotein (BPP) is a component of the tegument. It remains with the nucleocapsid fraction under conditions that remove most other tegument proteins from the virion, suggesting a direct and perhaps tight interaction with the capsid. As a step toward localizing this protein within the molecular structure of the virion and understanding its function during infection, we have investigated the BPP-capsid interaction. In this report we present evidence that the BPP interacts selectively, through its amino one-third, with CMV capsids. Radiolabeled simian CMV (SCMV) BPP, synthesized in vitro, bound to SCMV B-capsids, and C-capsids to a lesser extent, following incubation with either isolated capsids or lysates of infected cells. Human CMV (HCMV) BPP (pUL32) also bound to SCMV capsids, and SCMV BPP likewise bound to HCMV capsids, indicating that the sequence(s) involved is conserved between the two proteins. Analysis of SCMV BPP truncation mutants localized the capsid-binding region to the amino one-third of the molecule—the portion of BPP showing the greatest sequence conservation between the SCMV and HCMV homologs. This general approach may have utility in studying the interactions of other proteins with conformation-dependent binding sites. PMID:11435566

  3. The Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulates Parvovirus Nuclear Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Riolobos, Laura; Domínguez, Carlos; Kann, Michael; Almendral, José M.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether the mammalian cell cycle could impact the assembly of viruses maturing in the nucleus. We addressed this question using MVM, a reference member of the icosahedral ssDNA nuclear parvoviruses, which requires cell proliferation to infect by mechanisms partly understood. Constitutively expressed MVM capsid subunits (VPs) accumulated in the cytoplasm of mouse and human fibroblasts synchronized at G0, G1, and G1/S transition. Upon arrest release, VPs translocated to the nucleus as cells entered S phase, at efficiencies relying on cell origin and arrest method, and immediately assembled into capsids. In synchronously infected cells, the consecutive virus life cycle steps (gene expression, proteins nuclear translocation, capsid assembly, genome replication and encapsidation) proceeded tightly coupled to cell cycle progression from G0/G1 through S into G2 phase. However, a DNA synthesis stress caused by thymidine irreversibly disrupted virus life cycle, as VPs became increasingly retained in the cytoplasm hours post-stress, forming empty capsids in mouse fibroblasts, thereby impairing encapsidation of the nuclear viral DNA replicative intermediates. Synchronously infected cells subjected to density-arrest signals while traversing early S phase also blocked VPs transport, resulting in a similar misplaced cytoplasmic capsid assembly in mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, thymidine and density arrest signals deregulating virus assembly neither perturbed nuclear translocation of the NS1 protein nor viral genome replication occurring under S/G2 cycle arrest. An underlying mechanism of cell cycle control was identified in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated VPs trimeric assembly intermediates, which accessed a non-conserved route distinct from the importin α2/β1 and transportin pathways. The exquisite cell cycle-dependence of parvovirus nuclear capsid assembly conforms a novel paradigm of time and functional coupling between cellular and virus life

  4. Highly efficient strategy for the heterologous expression and purification of soluble Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid protein and in vitro pH-dependent assembly of virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Valle, Armando; García-Salcedo, Yardena M; Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining pure and soluble viral capsid proteins (CPs) has been a major challenge in the fields of science and technology in recent decades. In many cases, the CPs can self-assemble in the absence of a viral genome, resulting in non-infectious, empty virus-like particles (VLPs) which can be safely handled. The use of VLPs has found great potential in biotechnology and health purposes. In addition, VLPs are a good model system to study protein-protein interactions at the molecular level. In this work, an optimized strategy for the heterologous expression of the Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) CP based in Escherichia coli is described. The method is efficient, inexpensive and it consistently produces higher yields and greater purity levels than those reported so far. Additionally, one of the main advantages of this method is the prevention of the formation of inclusion bodies, thus allowing to directly obtain high amounts of the CP in a soluble and functionally active state with the capacity to readily form VLPs in vitro. The CCMV CP self-assembly pH dependence was also investigated, providing guidelines to easily modulate the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Product-Related Impurities in Clinical-Grade Recombinant AAV Vectors: Characterization and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors expressing therapeutic genes continue to demonstrate great promise for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases and together with other gene transfer vectors represent an emerging new therapeutic paradigm comparable in potential impact on human health to that achieved by recombinant proteins and vaccines. A challenge for the current pipeline of AAV-based investigational products as they advance through clinical development is the identification, characterization and lot-to-lot control of the process- and product-related impurities present in even highly purified preparations. Especially challenging are AAV vector product-related impurities that closely resemble the vector itself and are, in some cases, without clear precedent in established biotherapeutic products. The determination of acceptable levels of these impurities in vectors prepared for human clinical product development, with the goal of new product licensure, requires careful risk and feasibility assessment. This review focuses primarily on the AAV product-related impurities that have been described in vectors prepared for clinical development. PMID:28548061

  6. The complete genomic sequence of egg drop syndrome virus strain AAV-2.

    PubMed

    Jin, Q; Zeng, L; Yang, F; Li, M; Hou, Y

    1999-12-01

    In the search for the genome of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV-76) Chinese strain AAV-2, part of restriction endonuclease physical map is analyzed, the complete genomic library is organized. On basis of this, the complete genome nucleotide sequences (32 838 bp in length, including terminal structures) are determined. The data analysis shows: compared with the other Adenoviruses, strain AAV-2 has more disparity on genomic structure and the distribution of open reading frame (ORF). There are no clear E1, E3 and E4 regions in AAV-2 genome. Two segments located at both ends of genome (1.1 kb and 8.3 kb in length respectively) have no homology with the other adenovirus genomes. In addition, strain AAV-2 genome lacks ORFs encoding ElA, pV and pIX, which are common ORFs encoding early, lately proteins in Adenovirus. This reveals differences between EDSA-76, the sole standard strain of group III Avian Adenoviruses, and the other Avian Adenoviruses for the first time. It will help the search for Avian Adenovirus and will also help the search of all Adenoviruses.

  7. A phase1 study of stereotactic gene delivery of AAV2-NGF for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Michael S; Baumann, Tiffany L; Bakay, Roy A E; Ostrove, Jeffrey M; Siffert, Joao; Fleisher, Adam S; Herzog, Christopher D; Barba, David; Pay, Mary; Salmon, David P; Chu, Yaping; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Bishop, Kathie; Keator, David; Potkin, Steven; Bartus, Raymond T

    2014-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophic-factor protein with the potential to restore function and to protect degenerating cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but safe and effective delivery has proved unsuccessful. Gene transfer, combined with stereotactic surgery, offers a potential means to solve the long-standing delivery obstacles. An open-label clinical trial evaluated the safety and tolerability, and initial efficacy of three ascending doses of the genetically engineered gene-therapy vector adeno-associated virus serotype 2 delivering NGF (AAV2-NGF [CERE-110]). Ten subjects with AD received bilateral AAV2-NGF stereotactically into the nucleus basalis of Meynert. AAV2-NGF was safe and well-tolerated for 2 years. Positron emission tomographic imaging and neuropsychological testing showed no evidence of accelerated decline. Brain autopsy tissue confirmed long-term, targeted, gene-mediated NGF expression and bioactivity. This trial provides important evidence that bilateral stereotactic administration of AAV2-NGF to the nucleus basalis of Meynert is feasible, well-tolerated, and able to produce long-term, biologically active NGF expression, supporting the initiation of an ongoing multicenter, double-blind, sham-surgery-controlled trial. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interrogating viral capsid assembly with ion mobility-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetrecht, Charlotte; Barbu, Ioana M.; Shoemaker, Glen K.; van Duijn, Esther; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2011-02-01

    Most proteins fulfil their function as part of large protein complexes. Surprisingly, little is known about the pathways and regulation of protein assembly. Several viral coat proteins can spontaneously assemble into capsids in vitro with morphologies identical to the native virion and thus resemble ideal model systems for studying protein complex formation. Even for these systems, the mechanism for self-assembly is still poorly understood, although it is generally thought that smaller oligomeric structures form key intermediates. This assembly nucleus and larger viral assembly intermediates are typically low abundant and difficult to monitor. Here, we characterised small oligomers of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and norovirus under equilibrium conditions using native ion mobility mass spectrometry. This data in conjunction with computational modelling enabled us to elucidate structural features of these oligomers. Instead of more globular shapes, the intermediates exhibit sheet-like structures suggesting that they are assembly competent. We propose pathways for the formation of both capsids.

  9. Restoration of visual response in aged dystrophic RCS rats using AAV-mediated channelopsin-2 gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Yawo, Hiromu; Ishizuka, Toru; Isago, Hitomi; Narikawa, Satoko; Kügler, Sebastian; Tamai, Makoto

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether the channelopsin-2 (Chop2) gene would restore visual responses in 10-month-old dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (aged RCS; rdy/rdy) rats, the authors transferred the Chop2 gene into the retinal cells of aged RCS rats using the adenoassociated virus (AAV) vector. The N-terminal fragment (residues 1-315) of Chop2 was fused to a fluorescent protein, Venus, in frame at the end of the Chop2 coding fragment. The viral vector construct (AAV-Chop2V) for the expression of the Chop2V in the retina was made by subcloning into an adenoassociated virus vector, including the CAG promoter. To evaluate the expression profile of Chop2V in the retina, the rats were killed and the eyes were removed and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline. Retinal wholemount specimens and cryosections were made. Under anesthetized conditions, electrodes for the recording of visually evoked potentials (VEPs) were implanted onto the visual cortex in aged-RCS (rdy/rdy) rats. AAV-Chop2V vectors were then injected into the vitreous cavity of the left eyes. As a control, AAV-Venus vectors were applied to the right eyes. VEPs were evoked by the flash of a blue, white, or red light-emitting diode (LED) and were recorded from the visual cortex of the rats at various time points after the AAV vector injection. Chop2V fluorescence was predominantly observed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Some fluorescence was observed in the inner nuclear layer and the inner plexiform layer neurites. A tendency of recovery was observed in the VEPs of aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats after the AAV-Chop2V injection but not after the AAV-Venus injection. The visual response of AAV-Chop2V-injected aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats was less sensitive to the blue LED flash than that of nondystrophic RCS (+/+) rats. The AAV-Chop2V-injected aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats were insensitive to the red LED flash, which evoked a robust VEP in the RCS (+/+) rats. The visual response of aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats

  10. Distribution of AAV8 particles in cell lysates and culture media changes with time and is dependent on the recombinant vector

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Bryan A; Drury, Jason E; Morton, Christopher L; Spence, Yunyu; Lockey, Timothy D; Nathwani, Amit C; Davidoff, Andrew M; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    With clinical trials ongoing, efficient clinical production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to treat large numbers of patients remains a challenge. We compared distribution of AAV8 packaged with Factor VIII (FVIII) in cell culture media and lysates on days 3, 5, 6, and 7 post-transfection and found increasing viral production through day 6, with the proportion of viral particles in the media increasing from 76% at day 3 to 94% by day 7. Compared to FVIII, AAV8 packaged with Factor IX and Protective Protein/Cathepsin A vectors demonstrated a greater shift from lysate towards media from day 3 to 6, implying that particle distribution is dependent on recombinant vector. Larger-scale productions showed that the ratio of full-to-empty AAV particles is similar in media and lysate, and that AAV harvested on day 6 post-transfection provides equivalent function in mice compared to AAV harvested on day 3. This demonstrates that AAV8 production can be optimized by prolonging the duration of culture post-transfection, and simplified by allowing harvest of media only, with disposal of cells that contain 10% or less of total vector yield. Additionally, the difference in particle distribution with different expression cassettes implies a recombinant vector-dependent processing mechanism which should be taken into account during process development. PMID:27069949

  11. Concomitant Intravenous Nitroglycerin With Intracoronary Delivery of AAV1.SERCA2a Enhances Gene Transfer in Porcine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Karakikes, Ioannis; Hadri, Lahouaria; Rapti, Kleopatra; Ladage, Dennis; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Tilemann, Lisa; Yi, Geng-Hua; Morel, Charlotte; Gwathmey, Judith K; Zsebo, Krisztina; Weber, Thomas; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-01-01

    SERCA2a gene therapy improves contractile and energetic function of failing hearts and has been shown to be associated with benefits in clinical outcomes, symptoms, functional status, biomarkers, and cardiac structure in a phase 2 clinical trial. In an effort to enhance the efficiency and homogeneity of gene uptake in cardiac tissue, we examined the effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) in a porcine model following AAV1.SERCA2a gene delivery. Three groups of Göttingen minipigs were assessed: (i) group A: control intracoronary (IC) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); (ii) group B: a single bolus IC injection of NTG (50 µg) immediately before administration of intravenous (IV) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); and (iii) group C: continuous IV NTG (1 µg/kg/minute) during the 10 minutes of AAV1.SERCA2a infusion (n = 6). We found that simultaneous IV infusion of NTG and AAV1.SERCA2a resulted in increased viral transduction efficiency, both in terms of messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as SERCA2a protein levels in the whole left ventricle (LV) compared to control animals. On the other hand, IC NTG pretreatment did not result in enhanced gene transfer efficiency, mRNA or protein levels when compared to control animals. Importantly, the transgene expression was restricted to the heart tissue. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that IV infusion of NTG significantly improves cardiac gene transfer efficiency in porcine hearts. PMID:22215018

  12. Assaying the Stability and Inactivation of AAV Serotype 1 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Douglas B.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2017-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a commonplace tool for gene delivery ranging from cell culture to human gene therapy. One feature that makes AAV a desirable vector is its stability, in regard to both the duration of transgene expression and retention of infectivity as a viral particle. This study examined the stability of AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors under different conditions. First, transducibility after storage at 4°C decreased 20% over 7 weeks. Over 10 freeze–thaw cycles, the resulting transduction efficiency became variable at 60–120% of a single thaw. Using small stainless steel slugs to mimic a biosafety cabinet or metal lab bench surface, it was found that an AAV1 vector can be reconstituted after 6 days of storage at room temperature. The stability of AAV is a desired feature, but effective decontamination procedures must be available for safety and experimental integrity. Multiple disinfectants commonly used in the laboratory for ability to inactivate an AAV1 vector were tested, and it was found that autoclaving, 0.25% peracetic acid, iodine, or 10% Clorox bleach completely prevented AAV-mediated transgene expression. These data suggest that peracetic acid should be used for inactivating AAV1 vectors on metal-based surfaces or instruments in order to avoid inadvertent transgene expression in human cells or cross-contamination of instruments. PMID:28192678

  13. Viral genome structures, charge, and sequences are optimal for capsid assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Michael

    2014-03-01

    For many viruses, the spontaneous assembly of a capsid shell around the nu-cleic acid (NA) genome is an essential step in the viral life cycle. Capsid formation is a multicomponent, out-of-equilibrium assembly process for which kinetic effects and thermodynamic constraints compete to determine the outcome. Understand-ing how viral components drive highly efficient assembly under these constraints could promote biomedical efforts to block viral propagation, and would elucidate the factors controlling assembly in a wide range of systems containing proteins and polyelectrolytes. This talk will describe coarse-grained models of capsid proteins and NAs with which we investigate the dynamics and thermodynamics of virus assembly. In con-trast to recent theoretical models, we find that capsids spontaneously `overcharge' that is, the NA length which is kinetically and thermodynamically optimal possess-es a negative charge greater than the positive charge of the capsid. When applied to specific virus capsids, the calculated optimal NA lengths closely correspond to the natural viral genome lengths. These results suggest that the features included in this model (i.e. electrostatics, excluded volume, and NA tertiary structure) play key roles in determining assembly thermodynamics and consequently exert selec-tive pressure on viral evolution. I will then discuss mechanisms by which se-quence-specific interactions between NAs and capsid proteins promote selective encapsidation of the viral genome. This work was supported by NIH R01GM108021 and the Brandeis MRSEC NSF-MRSEC-0820492.

  14. Host-regulated Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly in a Mammalian Cell-free System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuancheng; Hu, Jianming

    2018-04-20

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and represents a major cause of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The HBV capsid is composed of multiple copies of a single viral protein, the capsid or core protein (HBc), plays multiple roles in the viral life cycle, and has emerged recently as a major target for developing antiviral therapies against HBV infection. Although several systems have been developed to study HBV capsid assembly, including heterologous overexpression systems like bacteria and insect cells, in vitro assembly using purified protein, and mammalian cell culture systems, the requirement for non-physiological concentrations of HBc and salts and the difficulty in manipulating host regulators of assembly presents major limitations for detailed studies on capsid assembly under physiologically relevant conditions. We have recently developed a mammalian cell-free system based on the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), in which HBc is expressed at physiological concentrations and assembles into capsids under near-physiological conditions. This system has already revealed HBc assembly requirements that are not anticipated based on previous assembly systems. Furthermore, capsid assembly in this system is regulated by endogenous host factors that can be readily manipulated. Here we present a detailed protocol for this cell-free capsid assembly system, including an illustration on how to manipulate host factors that regulate assembly.

  15. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Truncated CPSF6 Forms Higher-Order Complexes That Bind and Disrupt HIV-1 Capsid.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jiying; Zhong, Zhou; Fischer, Douglas K; Harris, Gemma; Watkins, Simon C; Ambrose, Zandrea; Zhang, Peijun

    2018-07-01

    Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6 (CPSF6) is a human protein that binds HIV-1 capsid and mediates nuclear transport and integration targeting of HIV-1 preintegration complexes. Truncation of the protein at its C-terminal nuclear-targeting arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain produces a protein, CPSF6-358, that potently inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the capsid and inhibiting nuclear entry. To understand the molecular mechanism behind this restriction, the interaction between CPSF6-358 and HIV-1 capsid was characterized using in vitro and in vivo assays. Purified CPSF6-358 protein formed oligomers and bound in vitro -assembled wild-type (WT) capsid protein (CA) tubes, but not CA tubes containing a mutation in the putative binding site of CPSF6. Intriguingly, binding of CPSF6-358 oligomers to WT CA tubes physically disrupted the tubular assemblies into small fragments. Furthermore, fixed- and live-cell imaging showed that stably expressed CPSF6-358 forms cytoplasmic puncta upon WT HIV-1 infection and leads to capsid permeabilization. These events did not occur when the HIV-1 capsid contained a mutation known to prevent CPSF6 binding, nor did they occur in the presence of a small-molecule inhibitor of capsid binding to CPSF6-358. Together, our in vitro biochemical and transmission electron microscopy data and in vivo intracellular imaging results provide the first direct evidence for an oligomeric nature of CPSF6-358 and suggest a plausible mechanism for restriction of HIV-1 infection by CPSF6-358. IMPORTANCE After entry into cells, the HIV-1 capsid, which contains the viral genome, interacts with numerous host cell factors to facilitate crucial events required for replication, including uncoating. One such host cell factor, called CPSF6, is predominantly located in the cell nucleus and interacts with HIV-1 capsid. The interaction between CA and CPSF6 is critical during HIV-1 replication in vivo Truncation of CPSF6 leads to its localization to the

  17. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid.

    PubMed

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan; Agirre, Jon; Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S; Costabel, Marcelo D; Marti, Gerardo A; Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Guérin, Diego M A; Rey, Felix A

    2013-06-01

    The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  18. Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes Are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Eric A; Goodman, David A; Gorchels, Madeline E; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Viruses infecting the Archaea harbor a tremendous amount of genetic diversity. This is especially true for the spindle-shaped viruses of the family Fuselloviridae , where >90% of the viral genes do not have detectable homologs in public databases. This significantly limits our ability to elucidate the role of viral proteins in the infection cycle. To address this, we have developed genetic techniques to study the well-characterized fusellovirus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus in volcanic hot springs at 80°C and pH 3. Here, we present a new comparative genome analysis and a thorough genetic analysis of SSV1 using both specific and random mutagenesis and thereby generate mutations in all open reading frames. We demonstrate that almost half of the SSV1 genes are not essential for infectivity, and the requirement for a particular gene correlates well with its degree of conservation within the Fuselloviridae The major capsid gene vp1 is essential for SSV1 infectivity. However, the universally conserved minor capsid gene vp3 could be deleted without a loss in infectivity and results in virions with abnormal morphology. IMPORTANCE Most of the putative genes in the spindle-shaped archaeal hyperthermophile fuselloviruses have no sequences that are clearly similar to characterized genes. In order to determine which of these SSV genes are important for function, we disrupted all of the putative genes in the prototypical fusellovirus, SSV1. Surprisingly, about half of the genes could be disrupted without destroying virus function. Even deletions of one of the known structural protein genes that is present in all known fuselloviruses, vp3 , allows the production of infectious viruses. However, viruses lacking vp3 have abnormal shapes, indicating that the vp3 gene is important for virus structure. Identification of essential genes will allow focused research on minimal SSV genomes and further understanding of the structure of

  19. Subpial Adeno-associated Virus 9 (AAV9) Vector Delivery in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Takahiro; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Navarro, Michael; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Marsala, Silvia; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Lukacova, Nada; Bimbova, Katarina; Marsala, Martin

    2017-07-13

    The successful development of a subpial adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) vector delivery technique in adult rats and pigs has been reported on previously. Using subpially-placed polyethylene catheters (PE-10 or PE-5) for AAV9 delivery, potent transgene expression through the spinal parenchyma (white and gray matter) in subpially-injected spinal segments has been demonstrated. Because of the wide range of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a strong desire for the development of a potent central nervous system (CNS)-targeted vector delivery technique in adult mice. Accordingly, the present study describes the development of a spinal subpial vector delivery device and technique to permit safe and effective spinal AAV9 delivery in adult C57BL/6J mice. In spinally immobilized and anesthetized mice, the pia mater (cervical 1 and lumbar 1-2 spinal segmental level) was incised with a sharp 34 G needle using an XYZ manipulator. A second XYZ manipulator was then used to advance a blunt 36G needle into the lumbar and/or cervical subpial space. The AAV9 vector (3-5 µL; 1.2 x 10 13 genome copies (gc)) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was then injected subpially. After injections, neurological function (motor and sensory) was assessed periodically, and animals were perfusion-fixed 14 days after AAV9 delivery with 4% paraformaldehyde. Analysis of horizontal or transverse spinal cord sections showed transgene expression throughout the entire spinal cord, in both gray and white matter. In addition, intense retrogradely-mediated GFP expression was seen in the descending motor axons and neurons in the motor cortex, nucleus ruber, and formatio reticularis. No neurological dysfunction was noted in any animals. These data show that the subpial vector delivery technique can successfully be used in adult mice, without causing procedure-related spinal cord injury, and is associated with highly potent transgene expression throughout the spinal neuraxis.

  20. All-atom molecular dynamics of virus capsids as drug targets

    DOE PAGES

    Perilla, Juan R.; Hadden, Jodi A.; Goh, Boon Chong; ...

    2016-04-29

    Virus capsids are protein shells that package the viral genome. Although their morphology and biological functions can vary markedly, capsids often play critical roles in regulating viral infection pathways. A detailed knowledge of virus capsids, including their dynamic structure, interactions with cellular factors, and the specific roles that they play in the replication cycle, is imperative for the development of antiviral therapeutics. The following Perspective introduces an emerging area of computational biology that focuses on the dynamics of virus capsids and capsid–protein assemblies, with particular emphasis on the effects of small-molecule drug binding on capsid structure, stability, and allosteric pathways.more » When performed at chemical detail, molecular dynamics simulations can reveal subtle changes in virus capsids induced by drug molecules a fraction of their size. Finally, the current challenges of performing all-atom capsid–drug simulations are discussed, along with an outlook on the applicability of virus capsid simulations to reveal novel drug targets.« less

  1. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  2. All-atom molecular dynamics of virus capsids as drug targets

    SciTech Connect

    Perilla, Juan R.; Hadden, Jodi A.; Goh, Boon Chong

    Virus capsids are protein shells that package the viral genome. Although their morphology and biological functions can vary markedly, capsids often play critical roles in regulating viral infection pathways. A detailed knowledge of virus capsids, including their dynamic structure, interactions with cellular factors, and the specific roles that they play in the replication cycle, is imperative for the development of antiviral therapeutics. The following Perspective introduces an emerging area of computational biology that focuses on the dynamics of virus capsids and capsid–protein assemblies, with particular emphasis on the effects of small-molecule drug binding on capsid structure, stability, and allosteric pathways.more » When performed at chemical detail, molecular dynamics simulations can reveal subtle changes in virus capsids induced by drug molecules a fraction of their size. Finally, the current challenges of performing all-atom capsid–drug simulations are discussed, along with an outlook on the applicability of virus capsid simulations to reveal novel drug targets.« less

  3. Detection of phosphorylated forms of moloney murine leukemia virus major capsid protein p30 by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, K.; Luftig, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors detected phosphorylation of the major Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) capsid polypeptide, p30, by using /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled virions. This was observed both on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels directly or on one-dimensional gels of viral lysates that had been immunoprecipitated with monospecific goat anti-p30 serum. The phosphorylation event had been difficult to detect because pp12 the major virion phosphoprotein incorporates almost all of the /sup 32/P label added to infected cells. When immunoprecipitates from M-MuLV lysates labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/ were compared with those labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine, it was calculated that the degree of phosphorylation at themore » p30 domain of Pr65/sup gag/ was only 0.22 to 0.54% relative to phosphorylation at the p12 domain. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the /sup 32/P-labeled p30 immunoprecipitates showed that there were three phosphorylated p30 forms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 5.7, 5.8, and 6.0. These forms were generally more acidic than the (/sup 35/S) methionine-labeled p30 forms, which had pIs of 6.0, 6.1, 6.3 (the major constituent with > 80% of the label), and 6.6. The predominant phosphoamino acid of the major phosphorylated p30 form (pI 5.8) was phosphoserine. Further, tryptic peptide analysis of this p30 form showed that only one peptide was predominantly phosphorylated. Based on a comparison of specific labeling of p30 tryptic peptides with (/sup 14/C)sesrine, (/sup 35/S)methionine, and /sup 32/P/sub i/, we tentatively assigned the phosphorylation site to a 2.4-kilodalton NH/sub 2/-terminal peptide containing triple tandem serines spanning the region from amino acids 4 to 24.« less

  4. An alphavirus temperature-sensitive capsid mutant reveals stages of nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yan, E-mail: yzheng15@students.kgi.edu; Kielian, Margaret, E-mail: margaret.kielian@einstein.yu.edu

    2015-10-15

    Alphaviruses have a nucleocapsid core composed of the RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral lattice of capsid protein. An insertion after position 186 in the capsid protein produced a strongly temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. Even when the structural proteins were synthesized at the permissive temperature (28 °C), subsequent incubation of the cells at the non-permissive temperature (37 °C) dramatically decreased mutant capsid protein stability and particle assembly. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids in mutant-infected cells cultured at the permissive temperature, but these nucleocapsids were not stable to sucrose gradient separation. In contrast, nucleocapsids isolated from mutant virus particlesmore » had similar stability to that of wildtype virus. Our data support a model in which cytoplasmic nucleocapsids go through a maturation step during packaging into virus particles. The insertion site lies in the interface between capsid proteins in the assembled nucleocapsid, suggesting the region where such a stabilizing transition occurs. - Highlights: • We characterize an alphavirus capsid insertion mutation. • These capsid mutants are highly temperature sensitive for growth. • The insertion affects nucleocapsid stability. • Results suggest that the nucleocapsid is stabilized during virus budding.« less

  5. Human Foamy Virus Capsid Formation Requires an Interaction Domain in the N Terminus of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Tobaly-Tapiero, Joelle; Bittoun, Patricia; Giron, Marie-Lou; Neves, Manuel; Koken, Marcel; Saïb, Ali; de Thé, Hugues

    2001-01-01

    Retroviral Gag expression is sufficient for capsid assembly, which occurs through interaction between distinct Gag domains. Human foamy virus (HFV) capsids assemble within the cytoplasm, although their budding, which mainly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, requires the presence of homologous Env. Yet little is known about the molecular basis of HFV Gag precursor assembly. Using fusions between HFV Gag and a nuclear reporter protein, we have identified a strong interaction domain in the N terminus of HFV Gag which is predicted to contain a conserved coiled-coil motif. Deletion within this region in an HFV provirus abolishes viral production through inhibition of capsid assembly. PMID:11287585

  6. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2012-03-29

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer.

  7. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M.; Flake, Alan W.; Mingozzi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX–encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer. PMID:22271447

  8. Viral DNA sequences of genes encoding the ATPase and the major capsid protein of tropical iridovirus isolates which are pathogenic to fishes in Japan, South China Sea and Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Sudthongkong, C; Miyata, M; Miyazaki, T

    2002-11-01

    Tropical iridovirus infection causes severe epizootic resulting in mass mortalities and large economic losses in freshwater ornamental fishes cultured in Southeast Asian countries, in wild fish seedlings captured in South China Sea, and in marine fishes farmed in Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. All of tropical iridovirus-infected fishes histopathologically showed the systemic formation of inclusion body-bearing cells and necrosis of virus-infected splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. We designed primer sets for the ATPase gene and the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and sequenced the PCR products derived from 5 iridovirus isolates from sea bass in South China Sea, red sea bream in Japan, brown-spotted grouper with a grouper sleepy disease in Thailand, dwarf gourami from Malaysia and African lampeye from Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The ATPase gene and the MCP gene of these 5 viral isolates were highly homologous (> 95.8%, > 94.9% identity, respectively) and the deduced amino acid sequences of the ATPase and the MCP were also highly identical (> 98.1%, > 97.2% identity, respectively). Based on the high homology, these 5 isolates of tropical iridovirus from various fishes in geographically different regions were determined to have a single origin and to be native to Southeast Asian regions. However, these sequences were far different from those of members of the genera Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus and Iridovirus in the Family Iridoviridae. We propose a new genus "Tropivirus" for tropical iridovirus in the Family Iridoviridae.

  9. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    PubMed

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Capsid Protein as a New Carrier for Construction of Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Harboring Foreign Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Gedvilaite, Alma; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Lasickiene, Rita; Timinskas, Albertas; Vaitiekaite, Ausra; Ziogiene, Danguole; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) viral protein 1 (VP1) was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes. PMID:26230706

  11. Nonlinear finite-element analysis of nanoindentation of viral capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Melissa M.; Klug, William S.

    2007-03-01

    Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) nanoindentation experiments measuring mechanical response of the protein shells of viruses have provided a quantitative description of their strength and elasticity. To better understand and interpret these measurements, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, this paper adopts a course-grained modeling approach within the framework of three-dimensional nonlinear continuum elasticity. Homogeneous, isotropic, elastic, thick-shell models are proposed for two capsids: the spherical cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), and the ellipsocylindrical bacteriophage ϕ29 . As analyzed by the finite-element method, these models enable parametric characterization of the effects of AFM tip geometry, capsid dimensions, and capsid constitutive descriptions. The generally nonlinear force response of capsids to indentation is shown to be insensitive to constitutive particulars, and greatly influenced by geometric and kinematic details. Nonlinear stiffening and softening of the force response is dependent on the AFM tip dimensions and shell thickness. Fits of the models capture the roughly linear behavior observed in experimental measurements and result in estimates of Young’s moduli of ≈280-360MPa for CCMV and ≈4.5GPa for ϕ29 .

  12. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Mahairas, Gregory G; Shaw, Carolyn E; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of transmission and

  13. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahairas, Gregory G.; Shaw, Carolyn E.; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M.; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. IMPORTANCE HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of

  14. The diverse functions of the hepatitis B core/capsid protein (HBc) in the viral life cycle: Implications for the development of HBc-targeting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Diab, Ahmed; Foca, Adrien; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David; Andrisani, Ourania

    2018-01-01

    Virally encoded proteins have evolved to perform multiple functions, and the core protein (HBc) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a perfect example. While HBc is the structural component of the viral nucleocapsid, additional novel functions for the nucleus-localized HBc have recently been described. These results extend for HBc, beyond its structural role, a regulatory function in the viral life cycle and potentially a role in pathogenesis. In this article, we review the diverse roles of HBc in HBV replication and pathogenesis, emphasizing how the unique structure of this protein is key to its various functions. We focus in particular on recent advances in understanding the significance of HBc phosphorylations, its interaction with host proteins and the role of HBc in regulating the transcription of host genes. We also briefly allude to the emerging niche for new direct-acting antivirals targeting HBc, known as Core (protein) Allosteric Modulators (CAMs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. AAV Vectorization of DSB-mediated Gene Editing Technologies.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rachel J; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Recent work both at the bench and the bedside demonstrate zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), CRISPR/Cas9, and other programmable site-specific endonuclease technologies are being successfully utilized within and alongside AAV vectors to induce therapeutically relevant levels of directed gene editing within the human chromosome. Studies from past decades acknowledge that AAV vector genomes are enhanced substrates for homology-directed repair in the presence or absence of targeted DNA damage within the host genome. Additionally, AAV vectors are currently the most efficient format for in vivo gene delivery with no vector related complications in >100 clinical trials for diverse diseases. At the same time, advancements in the design of custom-engineered site-specific endonucleases and the utilization of elucidated endonuclease formats have resulted in efficient and facile genetic engineering for basic science and for clinical therapies. AAV vectors and gene editing technologies are an obvious marriage, using AAV for the delivery of repair substrate and/or a gene encoding a designer endonuclease; however, while efficient delivery and enhanced gene targeting by vector genomes are advantageous, other attributes of AAV vectors are less desirable for gene editing technologies. This review summarizes the various roles that AAV vectors play in gene editing technologies and provides insight into its trending applications for the treatment of genetic diseases.

  16. Prolonged expression of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody to the female rhesus macaque lower genital tract by AAV gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.

  17. Widespread spinal cord transduction by intrathecal injection of rAAV delivers efficacious RNAi therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Bin; Qiu, Linghua; Yang, Chunxing; Kramer, Joshua; Su, Qin; Guo, Yansu; Brown, Robert H; Gao, Guangping; Xu, Zuoshang

    2014-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. No treatment can significantly slow or arrest the disease progression. Mutations in the SOD1 gene cause a subset of familial ALS by a gain of toxicity. In principle, these cases could be treated with RNAi that destroys the mutant mRNA, thereby abolishing the toxic protein. However, no system is available to efficiently deliver the RNAi therapy. Recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV) is a promising vehicle due to its long-lasting gene expression and low toxicity. However, ALS afflicts broad areas of the central nervous system (CNS). A lack of practical means to spread rAAV broadly has hindered its application in treatment of ALS. To overcome this barrier, we injected several rAAV serotypes into the cerebrospinal fluid. We found that some rAAV serotypes such as rAAVrh10 and rAAV9 transduced cells throughout the length of the spinal cord following a single intrathecal injection and in the broad forebrain following a single injection into the third ventricle. Furthermore, a single intrathecal injection of rAAVrh10 robustly transduced motor neurons throughout the spinal cord in a non-human primate. These results suggested a therapeutic potential of this vector for ALS. To test this, we injected a rAAVrh10 vector that expressed an artificial miRNA targeting SOD1 into the SOD1G93A mice. This treatment knocked down the mutant SOD1 expression and slowed the disease progression. Our results demonstrate the potential of rAAVs for delivering gene therapy to treat ALS and other diseases that afflict broad areas of the CNS.

  18. Structural basis of HIV-1 capsid recognition by PF74 and CPSF6

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Akash; Alam, Steven L.; Fricke, Thomas; ...

    2014-12-17

    Upon infection of susceptible cells by HIV-1, the conical capsid formed by ~250 hexamers and 12 pentamers of the CA protein is delivered to the cytoplasm. In this study, the capsid shields the RNA genome and proteins required for reverse transcription. In addition, the surface of the capsid mediates numerous host–virus interactions, which either promote infection or enable viral restriction by innate immune responses. In the intact capsid, there is an intermolecular interface between the N-terminal domain (NTD) of one subunit and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the adjacent subunit within the same hexameric ring. The NTD–CTD interface is criticalmore » for capsid assembly, both as an architectural element of the CA hexamer and pentamer and as a mechanistic element for generating lattice curvature. Here we report biochemical experiments showing that PF-3450074 (PF74), a drug that inhibits HIV-1 infection, as well as host proteins cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6) and nucleoporin 153 kDa (NUP153), bind to the CA hexamer with at least 10-fold higher affinities compared with nonassembled CA or isolated CA domains. The crystal structure of PF74 in complex with the CA hexamer reveals that PF74 binds in a preformed pocket encompassing the NTD–CTD interface, suggesting that the principal inhibitory target of PF74 is the assembled capsid. Likewise, CPSF6 binds in the same pocket. Given that the NTD–CTD interface is a specific molecular signature of assembled hexamers in the capsid, binding of NUP153 at this site suggests that key features of capsid architecture remain intact upon delivery of the preintegration complex to the nucleus.« less

  19. Humoral Immune Response After Intravitreal But Not After Subretinal AAV8 in Primates and Patients.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Felix F; Peters, Tobias; Wilhelm, Barbara; Biel, Martin; Ueffing, Marius; Wissinger, Bernd; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Klein, Reinhild; Michalakis, Stylianos; Fischer, M Dominik

    2018-04-01

    To study longitudinal changes of anti-drug antibody (ADA) titers to recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) capsid epitopes in nonhuman primates (NHP) and patients. Three groups of six NHP each received subretinal injections (high dose: 1 × 1012 vector genomes [vg], low dose: 1 × 1011 vg, or vehicle only). Four additional animals received intravitreal injections of the high dose (1 × 1012 vg). Three patients received 1 × 1010 vg as subretinal injections. ELISA quantified ADA levels at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days after surgery in NHP and at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery in patients. Two out of 22 animals lacked ADA titers at baseline and developed low ADA titers toward the end of the study. Titers in the low-dose group stayed constant, while two of six animals from the high-dose group developed titers that rose beyond the range of the assay. All animals from the intravitreal control group showed a rise in ADA titer by day 7 that peaked at day 28. Preliminary data from the clinical trial (NCT02610582) show no humoral immune response in patients following subretinal delivery of 1 × 1010 vg. No significant induction of ADA occurred in NHP when mimicking the clinical scenario of subretinal delivery with a clinical-grade rAAV8 and concomitant immunosuppression. Likewise, clinical data showed no humoral immune response in patients. In contrast, intravitreal delivery was associated with a substantial humoral immune response. Subretinal delivery might be superior to an intravitreal application regarding immunologic aspects.

  20. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical propertie