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Sample records for aav vector expressing

  1. Nephron segment-specific gene expression using AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Asico, Laureano D; Cuevas, Santiago; Ma, Xiaobo; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines; Konkalmatt, Prasad R

    2018-02-26

    AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde infusion into the kidney via the ureter. We constructed AAV vectors carrying eGFP under the control of: kidney-specific cadherin (KSPC) gene promoter for expression in the entire nephron; Na + /glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) gene promoter for expression in the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule; sodium, potassium, 2 chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) gene promoter for expression in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH); E-cadherin (ECAD) gene promoter for expression in the collecting duct (CD); and cytomegalovirus (CMV) early promoter that provides expression in most of the mammalian cells, as control. We tested the specificity of the promoter constructs in vitro for cell type-specific expression in mouse kidney cells in primary culture, followed by retrograde infusion of the AAV vectors via the ureter in the mouse. Our data show that AAV9 vector, in combination with the segment-specific promoters administered by retrograde infusion via the ureter, provides renal nephron segment-specific gene expression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ribosomal DNA Integrating rAAV-rDNA Vectors Allow for Stable Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lisowski, Leszek; Lau, Ashley; Wang, Zhongya; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feijie; Grompe, Markus; Kay, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Although recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are proving to be efficacious in clinical trials, the episomal character of the delivered transgene restricts their effectiveness to use in quiescent tissues, and may not provide lifelong expression. In contrast, integrating vectors enhance the risk of insertional mutagenesis. In an attempt to overcome both of these limitations, we created new rAAV-rDNA vectors, with an expression cassette flanked by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences capable of homologous recombination into genomic rDNA. We show that after in vivo delivery the rAAV-rDNA vectors integrated into the genomic rDNA locus 8–13 times more frequently than control vectors, providing an estimate that 23–39% of the integrations were specific to the rDNA locus. Moreover, a rAAV-rDNA vector containing a human factor IX (hFIX) expression cassette resulted in sustained therapeutic levels of serum hFIX even after repeated manipulations to induce liver regeneration. Because of the relative safety of integration in the rDNA locus, these vectors expand the usage of rAAV for therapeutics requiring long-term gene transfer into dividing cells. PMID:22990671

  3. A 5′ Noncoding Exon Containing Engineered Intron Enhances Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV Vectors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiamiao; Williams, James A.; Luke, Jeremy; Zhang, Feijie; Chu, Kirk; Kay, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) expression system in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within a universal 5′ UTR noncoding exon. Like minicircle DNA plasmids (devoid of bacterial backbone sequences), MIP plasmids overcome transcriptional silencing of the transgene. However, in addition MIP plasmids increase transgene expression by 2 and often >10 times higher than minicircle vectors in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of the MIP intronic sequences in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector system. Recombinant AAV vectors containing an intron with a bacterial replication origin and bacterial selectable marker increased transgene expression by 40 to 100 times in vivo when compared with conventional AAV vectors. Therefore, inclusion of this noncoding exon/intron sequence upstream of the coding region can substantially enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in vivo. PMID:27903072

  4. The recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV2)-mediated apolipoprotein B mRNA-specific hammerhead ribozyme: a self-complementary AAV2 vector improves the gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shumei; Sun, Shihua; Teng, Ba-Bie

    2004-01-01

    Background In humans, overproduction of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is positively associated with premature coronary artery diseases. To reduce the levels of apoB mRNA, we have designed an apoB mRNA-specific hammerhead ribozyme targeted at nucleotide sequences GUA6679 (RB15) mediated by adenovirus, which efficiently cleaves and decreases apoB mRNA by 80% in mouse liver and attenuates the hyperlipidemic condition. In the current study, we used an adeno-associated virus vector, serotype 2 (AAV2) and a self-complementary AAV2 vector (scAAV2) to demonstrate the effect of long-term tissue-specific gene expression of RB15 on the regulation apoB mRNA in vivo. Methods We constructed a hammerhead ribozyme RB15 driven by a liver-specific transthyretin (TTR) promoter using an AAV2 vector (rAAV2-TTR-RB15). HepG2 cells and hyperlipidemic mice deficient in both the low density lipoprotein receptor and the apoB mRNA editing enzyme genes (LDLR-/-Apobec1-/-; LDb) were transduced with rAAV2-TTR-RB15 and a control vector rAAV-TTR-RB15-mutant (inactive ribozyme). The effects of ribozyme RB15 on apoB metabolism and atherosclerosis development were determined in LDb mice at 5-month after transduction. A self-complementary AAV2 vector expressing ribozyme RB15 (scAAV2-TTR-RB15) was also engineered and used to transduce HepG2 cells. Studies were designed to compare the gene expression efficiency between rAAV2-TTR-RB15 and scAAV2-TTR-RB15. Results The effect of ribozyme RB15 RNA on reducing apoB mRNA levels in HepG2 cells was observed only on day-7 after rAAV2-TTR-RB15 transduction. And, at 5-month after rAAV2-TTR-RB15 treatment, the apoB mRNA levels in LDb mice were significantly decreased by 43%, compared to LDb mice treated with control vector rAAV2-TTR-RB15-mutant. Moreover, both the rAAV2-TTR-RB15 viral DNA and ribozyme RB15 RNA were still detectable in mice livers at 5-month after treatment. However, this rAAV2-TTR-RB15 vector mediated a prolonged but low level of ribozyme RB15 gene

  5. Design and construction of functional AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Gray, John T; Zolotukhin, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Using the basic principles of molecular biology and laboratory techniques presented in this chapter, researchers should be able to create a wide variety of AAV vectors for both clinical and basic research applications. Basic vector design concepts are covered for both protein coding gene expression and small non-coding RNA gene expression cassettes. AAV plasmid vector backbones (available via AddGene) are described, along with critical sequence details for a variety of modular expression components that can be inserted as needed for specific applications. Protocols are provided for assembling the various DNA components into AAV vector plasmids in Escherichia coli, as well as for transferring these vector sequences into baculovirus genomes for large-scale production of AAV in the insect cell production system.

  6. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Li; Powell Gene Therapy Center, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL; Genetics Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL

    2008-11-25

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, theirmore » transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by {approx} 68% and {approx} 74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which results from ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy.« less

  7. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-3-based vectors transduce haematopoietic cells not susceptible to transduction with AAV-2-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Handa, A; Muramatsu, S; Qiu, J; Mizukami, H; Brown, K E

    2000-08-01

    Although adeno-associated virus (AAV)-2 has a broad tissue-host range and can transduce a wide variety of tissue types, some cells, such as erythro-megakaryoblastoid cells, are non-permissive and appear to lack the AAV-2 receptor. However, limited studies have been reported with the related dependovirus AAV-3. We have previously cloned this virus, characterized its genome and produced an infectious clone. In this study, the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted into AAV-2- and AAV-3-based plasmids and recombinant viruses were produced. These viruses were then used to transduce haematopoietic cells and the transduction efficiencies were compared. In contrast to recombinant (r) AAV-2, rAAV-3 successfully transduced erythroid and megakaryoblastoid cells, although rAAV-2 was superior in transduction of lymphocyte-derived cell lines. Recently, it was reported that heparan sulphate can act as a receptor of AAV-2. The infectivity of rAAV-2 and rAAV-3 was tested with mutant cell lines of Chinese hamster ovary cells that were defective for heparin or heparan sulphate expression on the cell surface. There was no correlation between the ability of rAAV-2 or rAAV-3 to infect cells and the cell surface expression of heparan sulphate and, although heparin blocked both rAAV-2 and rAAV-3 transduction, the ID(50) of rAAV-3 was higher than that of rAAV-2. In addition, virus-binding overlay assays indicated that AAV-2 and AAV-3 bound different membrane proteins. These results suggest not only that there are different cellular receptors for AAV-2 and AAV-3, but that rAAV-3 vectors may be preferred for transduction of some haematopoietic cell types.

  8. [Construction of rAAV2-GPIIb/IIIa vector and test of its expression and function in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Peng, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Fang-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Bin

    2006-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the possibility of rAAV2 vector-mediating gene therapy for Glanzmann' s thrombasthenia. The rAAV2-GPIIb/IIIa vector was constructed. The GPIIb/IIIa gene expression in mammal cell were examined by different methods, such as: detection of mRNA expression in BHK-21 cells after 24 hours of infection (MOI = 1 x 10(5) v.g/cell) was performed by RT-PCR; the relation between MOI and quantity of GPII6/IIIa gene expression was detected by FACS after 48 hours of infection; GPIIb/IIIa protein expression in BHK-21 cells after 48 hours of infection (MOI = 10(5) v x g/cell) was assayed by Western blot, GPIIb/IIIa protein expression on cell surface was detected by immunofluorescence, and the biological function of expressing product was determined by PAC-1 conjunct experiments. The results showed that GPIIb/IIIa gene expression in mRNA level could be detected in BHK-21 cells after 24 hours of infection at MOI = 1 x 10(5) v x g/cell and the GPIIb/IIIa gene expression in protein level could be detected in BHK-21 cells after 48 hours of infection at MOI = 1 x 10(5) v x g/cell. In certain range, quantity of GPIIb/IIIa gene expression increased with MOI, but overdose of MOI decreased quantity of GPIIb/IIIa gene expression. Activated product of GPIIb/IIIa gene expression could combined with PAC-I, and possesed normal biological function. In conclusion, rAAV2 vactor can effectively mediate GPIIb and GPIIIa gene expressing in mammal cells, and the products of these genes exhibit biological function. This result may provide a basis for application of rAAV2 vector in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia gene therapy in furture.

  9. Assaying the Stability and Inactivation of AAV Serotype 1 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Douglas B.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2017-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a commonplace tool for gene delivery ranging from cell culture to human gene therapy. One feature that makes AAV a desirable vector is its stability, in regard to both the duration of transgene expression and retention of infectivity as a viral particle. This study examined the stability of AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors under different conditions. First, transducibility after storage at 4°C decreased 20% over 7 weeks. Over 10 freeze–thaw cycles, the resulting transduction efficiency became variable at 60–120% of a single thaw. Using small stainless steel slugs to mimic a biosafety cabinet or metal lab bench surface, it was found that an AAV1 vector can be reconstituted after 6 days of storage at room temperature. The stability of AAV is a desired feature, but effective decontamination procedures must be available for safety and experimental integrity. Multiple disinfectants commonly used in the laboratory for ability to inactivate an AAV1 vector were tested, and it was found that autoclaving, 0.25% peracetic acid, iodine, or 10% Clorox bleach completely prevented AAV-mediated transgene expression. These data suggest that peracetic acid should be used for inactivating AAV1 vectors on metal-based surfaces or instruments in order to avoid inadvertent transgene expression in human cells or cross-contamination of instruments. PMID:28192678

  10. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 6 (AAV6) Vectors Mediate Efficient Transduction of Airway Epithelial Cells in Mouse Lungs Compared to That of AAV2 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Christine L.; Allen, James M.; Miller, A. Dusty

    2001-01-01

    Although vectors derived from adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) promote gene transfer and expression in many somatic tissues, studies with animal models and cultured cells show that the apical surface of airway epithelia is resistant to transduction by AAV2 vectors. Approaches to increase transduction rates include increasing the amount of vector and perturbing the integrity of the epithelia. In this study, we explored the use of vectors based on AAV6 to increase transduction rates in airways. AAV vectors were made using combinations of rep, cap, and packaged genomes from AAV2 or AAV6. The packaged genomes encoded human placental alkaline phosphatase and contained terminal repeat sequences from AAV2 or AAV6. We found that transduction efficiency was primarily dependent on the source of Cap protein, defined here as the vector pseudotype. The AAV6 and AAV2 pseudotype vectors exhibited different tropisms in tissue-cultured cells, and cell transduction by AAV6 vectors was not inhibited by heparin, nor did they compete for entry in a transduction assay, indicating that AAV6 and AAV2 capsid bind different receptors. In vivo analysis of vectors showed that AAV2 pseudotype vectors gave high transduction rates in alveolar cells but much lower rates in the airway epithelium. In contrast, the AAV6 pseudotype vectors exhibited much more efficient transduction of epithelial cells in large and small airways, showing up to 80% transduction in some airways. These results, combined with our previous results showing lower immunogenicity of AAV6 than of AAV2 vectors, indicate that AAV6 vectors may provide significant advantages over AAV2 for gene therapy of lung diseases like cystic fibrosis. PMID:11413329

  11. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  12. Efficient mouse airway transduction following recombination between AAV vectors carrying parts of a larger gene.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Christine L; Allen, James M; Miller, A Dusty

    2002-07-01

    The small packaging capacity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors limits the utility of this promising vector system for transfer of large genes. We explored the possibility that larger genes could be reconstituted following homologous recombination between AAV vectors carrying overlapping gene fragments. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene was split between two such AAV vectors (rec vectors) and packaged using AAV2 or AAV6 capsid proteins. Rec vectors having either capsid protein recombined to express AP in cultured cells at about 1-2% of the rate observed for an intact vector. Surprisingly, the AAV6 rec vectors transduced lung cells in mice almost as efficiently as did an intact vector, with 10% of airway epithelial cells, the target for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), being positive. Thus AAV rec vectors may be useful for diseases such as CF that require transfer of large genes.

  13. Improved dual AAV vectors with reduced expression of truncated proteins are safe and effective in the retina of a mouse model of Stargardt disease

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Ivana; Toriello, Elisabetta; de Simone, Sonia; Colella, Pasqualina; Iodice, Carolina; Polishchuk, Elena V.; Sommella, Andrea; Colecchi, Linda; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Giunti, Massimo; Bacci, Maria L.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Auricchio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. We have shown that dual adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors effectively transfer ABCA4 to the retina of Abca4−/− mice. However, they express both lower levels of transgene compared with a single AAV and truncated proteins. To increase productive dual AAV concatemerization, which would overcome these limitations, we have explored the use of either various regions of homology or heterologous inverted terminal repeats (ITR). In addition, we tested the ability of various degradation signals to decrease the expression of truncated proteins. We found the highest levels of transgene expression using regions of homology based on either alkaline phosphatase or the F1 phage (AK). The use of heterologous ITR does not decrease the levels of truncated proteins relative to full-length ABCA4 and impairs AAV vector production. Conversely, the inclusion of the CL1 degradation signal results in the selective degradation of truncated proteins from the 5′-half without affecting full-length protein production. Therefore, we developed dual AAV hybrid ABCA4 vectors including homologous ITR2, the photoreceptor-specific G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 promoter, the AK region of homology and the CL1 degradation signal. We show that upon subretinal administration these vectors are both safe in pigs and effective in Abca4−/− mice. Our data support the use of improved dual AAV vectors for gene therapy of STGD1. PMID:26420842

  14. Improved dual AAV vectors with reduced expression of truncated proteins are safe and effective in the retina of a mouse model of Stargardt disease.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Ivana; Toriello, Elisabetta; de Simone, Sonia; Colella, Pasqualina; Iodice, Carolina; Polishchuk, Elena V; Sommella, Andrea; Colecchi, Linda; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Giunti, Massimo; Bacci, Maria L; Polishchuk, Roman S; Auricchio, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. We have shown that dual adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors effectively transfer ABCA4 to the retina of Abca4-/- mice. However, they express both lower levels of transgene compared with a single AAV and truncated proteins. To increase productive dual AAV concatemerization, which would overcome these limitations, we have explored the use of either various regions of homology or heterologous inverted terminal repeats (ITR). In addition, we tested the ability of various degradation signals to decrease the expression of truncated proteins. We found the highest levels of transgene expression using regions of homology based on either alkaline phosphatase or the F1 phage (AK). The use of heterologous ITR does not decrease the levels of truncated proteins relative to full-length ABCA4 and impairs AAV vector production. Conversely, the inclusion of the CL1 degradation signal results in the selective degradation of truncated proteins from the 5'-half without affecting full-length protein production. Therefore, we developed dual AAV hybrid ABCA4 vectors including homologous ITR2, the photoreceptor-specific G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 promoter, the AK region of homology and the CL1 degradation signal. We show that upon subretinal administration these vectors are both safe in pigs and effective in Abca4-/- mice. Our data support the use of improved dual AAV vectors for gene therapy of STGD1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Dual AAV Vectors for Stargardt Disease.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1), due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene, is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. Attempts at developing gene therapy approaches for treatment of STGD1 are currently ongoing. Among all the vectors available for gene therapy of inherited retinal diseases, those based on adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are the most promising given the efficacy shown in various animal models and their excellent safety profile in humans, as confirmed in many ongoing clinical trials. However, one of the main obstacles for the use of AAV is their limited effective packaging capacity of about 5 kb. Taking advantage of the AAV genome's ability to concatemerize , others and we have recently developed dual AAV vectors to overcome this limit. We tested dual AAV vectors for ABCA4 delivery, and found that they transduce efficiently both mouse and pig photoreceptors , and rescue the Abca4-/- mouse retinal phenotype, indicating their potential for gene therapy of STGD1. This chapter details how we designed dual AAV vectors for the delivery of the ABCA4 gene and describes the techniques that can be explored to evaluate dual AAV transduction efficiency in vitro and in the retina, and their efficacy in the mouse model of STGD1.

  16. Packaging of Human Chromosome 19-Specific Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Integration Sites in AAV Virions during AAV Wild-Type and Recombinant AAV Vector Production

    PubMed Central

    Hüser, Daniela; Weger, Stefan; Heilbronn, Regine

    2003-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) establishes latency by site-specific integration into a unique locus on human chromosome 19, called AAVS1. During the development of a sensitive real-time PCR assay for site-specific integration, AAV-AAVS1 junctions were reproducibly detected in highly purified AAV wild-type and recombinant AAV vector stocks. A series of controls documented that the junctions were packaged in AAV capsids and were newly generated during a single round of AAV production. Cloned junctions displayed variable AAV sequences fused to AAVS1. These data suggest that packaged junctions represent footprints of AAV integration during productive infection. Apparently, AAV latency established by site-specific integration and the helper virus-dependent, productive AAV cycle are more closely related than previously thought. PMID:12663794

  17. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-particles potentiate gene transduction of AAV vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have emerged as safe and efficient therapeutic platform for numerous diseases. Excessive empty particles were generated as impurities during AAV vector production, but their effects on clinical outcome of AAV gene therapy are unclear. Here,...

  18. Naturally enveloped AAV vectors for shielding neutralizing antibodies and robust gene delivery in vivo

    PubMed Central

    György, Bence; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Crommentuijn, Matheus HW; Mu, Dakai; Maguire, Casey A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently adeno-associated virus (AAV) became the first clinically approved gene therapy product in the western world. To develop AAV for future clinical application in a widespread patient base, particularly in therapies which require intravenous (i.v.) administration of vector, the virus must be able to evade pre-existing antibodies to the wild type virus. Here we demonstrate that in mice, AAV vectors associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs) can evade human anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies. We observed different antibody evasion and gene transfer abilities with populations of EVs isolated by different centrifugal forces. EV-associated AAV vector (ev-AAV) was up to 136-fold more resistant over a range of neutralizing antibody concentrations relative to standard AAV vector in vitro. Importantly in mice, at a concentration of passively transferred human antibodies which decreased i.v. administered standard AAV transduction of brain by 80%, transduction of ev-AAV transduction was not reduced and was 4,000-fold higher. Finally, we show that expressing a brain targeting peptide on the EV surface allowed significant enhancement of transduction compared to untargeted ev-AAV. Using ev-AAV represents an effective, clinically relevant approach to evade human neutralizing anti-AAV antibodies after systemic administration of vector. PMID:24917028

  19. Preclinical Potency and Biodistribution Studies of an AAV 5 Vector Expressing Human Interferon-β (ART-I02) for Local Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aalbers, Caroline J.; Bevaart, Lisette; Loiler, Scott; de Cortie, Karin; Wright, J. Fraser; Mingozzi, Federico; Tak, Paul P.; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proof of concept for local gene therapy for the treatment of arthritis with immunomodulatory cytokine interferon beta (IFN-β) has shown promising results in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For the treatment of RA patients, we engineered a recombinant adeno-associated serotype 5 vector (rAAV5) encoding human (h)IFN-β under control of a nuclear factor κB promoter (ART-I02). Methods The potency of ART-I02 in vitro as well as biodistribution in vivo in arthritic animals was evaluated to characterize the vector prior to clinical application. ART-I02 expression and bioactivity after transduction was evaluated in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from different species. Biodistribution of the vector after local injection was assessed in a rat adjuvant arthritis model through qPCR analysis of vector DNA. In vivo imaging was used to investigate transgene expression and kinetics in a mouse collagen induced arthritis model. Results Transduction of RA FLS in vitro with ART-I02 resulted in high expression levels of bioactive hIFN-β. Transduction of FLS from rhesus monkeys, rodents and rabbits with ART-I02 showed high transgene expression, and hIFN-β proved bioactive in FLS from rhesus monkeys. Transgene expression and bioactivity in RA FLS were unaltered in the presence of methotrexate. In vivo, vector biodistribution analysis in rats after intra-articular injection of ART-I02 demonstrated that the majority of vector DNA remained in the joint (>93%). In vivo imaging in mice confirmed local expression of rAAV5 in the knee joint region and demonstrated rapid detectable and sustained expression up until 7 weeks. Conclusions These data show that hIFN-β produced by RA FLS transduced with ART-I02 is bioactive and that intra-articular delivery of rAAV5 drives expression of a therapeutic transgene in the joint, with only limited biodistribution of vector DNA to other tissues, supporting progress towards a phase 1 clinical trial for the local treatment of

  20. Preclinical Potency and Biodistribution Studies of an AAV 5 Vector Expressing Human Interferon-β (ART-I02) for Local Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, Caroline J; Bevaart, Lisette; Loiler, Scott; de Cortie, Karin; Wright, J Fraser; Mingozzi, Federico; Tak, Paul P; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J

    2015-01-01

    Proof of concept for local gene therapy for the treatment of arthritis with immunomodulatory cytokine interferon beta (IFN-β) has shown promising results in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For the treatment of RA patients, we engineered a recombinant adeno-associated serotype 5 vector (rAAV5) encoding human (h)IFN-β under control of a nuclear factor κB promoter (ART-I02). The potency of ART-I02 in vitro as well as biodistribution in vivo in arthritic animals was evaluated to characterize the vector prior to clinical application. ART-I02 expression and bioactivity after transduction was evaluated in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from different species. Biodistribution of the vector after local injection was assessed in a rat adjuvant arthritis model through qPCR analysis of vector DNA. In vivo imaging was used to investigate transgene expression and kinetics in a mouse collagen induced arthritis model. Transduction of RA FLS in vitro with ART-I02 resulted in high expression levels of bioactive hIFN-β. Transduction of FLS from rhesus monkeys, rodents and rabbits with ART-I02 showed high transgene expression, and hIFN-β proved bioactive in FLS from rhesus monkeys. Transgene expression and bioactivity in RA FLS were unaltered in the presence of methotrexate. In vivo, vector biodistribution analysis in rats after intra-articular injection of ART-I02 demonstrated that the majority of vector DNA remained in the joint (>93%). In vivo imaging in mice confirmed local expression of rAAV5 in the knee joint region and demonstrated rapid detectable and sustained expression up until 7 weeks. These data show that hIFN-β produced by RA FLS transduced with ART-I02 is bioactive and that intra-articular delivery of rAAV5 drives expression of a therapeutic transgene in the joint, with only limited biodistribution of vector DNA to other tissues, supporting progress towards a phase 1 clinical trial for the local treatment of arthritis in patients with RA.

  1. Application of Mutated miR-206 Target Sites Enables Skeletal Muscle-specific Silencing of Transgene Expression of Cardiotropic AAV9 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Anja; Schön, Christian; Größl, Tobias; Pinkert, Sandra; Stein, Elisabeth A; Kurreck, Jens; Vetter, Roland; Fechner, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of completely complementary microRNA (miR) target sites (miRTS) into a transgene has been shown to be a valuable approach to specifically repress transgene expression in non-targeted tissues. miR-122TS have been successfully used to silence transgene expression in the liver following systemic application of cardiotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9 vectors. For miR-206–mediated skeletal muscle-specific silencing of miR-206TS–bearing AAV9 vectors, however, we found this approach failed due to the expression of another member (miR-1) of the same miR family in heart tissue, the intended target. We introduced single-nucleotide substitutions into the miR-206TS and searched for those which prevented miR-1–mediated cardiac repression. Several mutated miR-206TS (m206TS), in particular m206TS-3G, were resistant to miR-1, but remained fully sensitive to miR-206. All these variants had mismatches in the seed region of the miR/m206TS duplex in common. Furthermore, we found that some m206TS, containing mismatches within the seed region or within the 3′ portion of the miR-206, even enhanced the miR-206– mediated transgene repression. In vivo expression of m206TS-3G– and miR-122TS–containing transgene of systemically applied AAV9 vectors was strongly repressed in both skeletal muscle and the liver but remained high in the heart. Thus, site-directed mutagenesis of miRTS provides a new strategy to differentiate transgene de-targeting of related miRs. PMID:23439498

  2. Assessing the potential for AAV vector genotoxicity in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hojun; Malani, Nirav; Hamilton, Shari R.; Schlachterman, Alexander; Bussadori, Giulio; Edmonson, Shyrie E.; Shah, Rachel; Arruda, Valder R.; Mingozzi, Federico; Fraser Wright, J.; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2011-01-01

    Gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has great potential for treating human disease. Recently, questions have arisen about the safety of AAV vectors, specifically, whether integration of vector DNA in transduced cell genomes promotes tumor formation. This study addresses these questions with high-dose liver-directed AAV-mediated gene transfer in the adult mouse as a model (80 AAV-injected mice and 52 controls). After 18 months of follow-up, AAV-injected mice did not show a significantly higher rate of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with controls. Tumors in mice treated with AAV vectors did not have significantly different amounts of vector DNA compared with adjacent normal tissue. A novel high-throughput method for identifying AAV vector integration sites was developed and used to clone 1029 integrants. Integration patterns in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were similar to each other, showing preferences for active genes, cytosine-phosphate-guanosine islands, and guanosine/cysteine-rich regions. Gene expression data showed that genes near integration sites did not show significant changes in expression patterns compared with genes more distal to integration sites. No integration events were identified as causing increased oncogene expression. Thus, we did not find evidence that AAV vectors cause insertional activation of oncogenes and subsequent tumor formation. PMID:21106988

  3. Molecular design for recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector production.

    PubMed

    Aponte-Ubillus, Juan Jose; Barajas, Daniel; Peltier, Joseph; Bardliving, Cameron; Shamlou, Parviz; Gold, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are increasingly popular tools for gene therapy applications. Their non-pathogenic status, low inflammatory potential, availability of viral serotypes with different tissue tropisms, and prospective long-lasting gene expression are important attributes that make rAAVs safe and efficient therapeutic options. Over the last three decades, several groups have engineered recombinant AAV-producing platforms, yielding high titers of transducing vector particles. Current specific productivity yields from different platforms range from 10 3 to 10 5 vector genomes (vg) per cell, and there is an ongoing effort to improve vector yields in order to satisfy high product demands required for clinical trials and future commercialization.Crucial aspects of vector production include the molecular design of the rAAV-producing host cell line along with the design of AAV genes, promoters, and regulatory elements. Appropriately, configuring and balancing the expression of these elements not only contributes toward high productivity, it also improves process robustness and product quality. In this mini-review, the rational design of rAAV-producing expression systems is discussed, with special attention to molecular strategies that contribute to high-yielding, biomanufacturing-amenable rAAV production processes. Details on molecular optimization from four rAAV expression systems are covered: adenovirus, herpesvirus, and baculovirus complementation systems, as well as a recently explored yeast expression system.

  4. AAV Vectorization of DSB-mediated Gene Editing Technologies.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rachel J; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Recent work both at the bench and the bedside demonstrate zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), CRISPR/Cas9, and other programmable site-specific endonuclease technologies are being successfully utilized within and alongside AAV vectors to induce therapeutically relevant levels of directed gene editing within the human chromosome. Studies from past decades acknowledge that AAV vector genomes are enhanced substrates for homology-directed repair in the presence or absence of targeted DNA damage within the host genome. Additionally, AAV vectors are currently the most efficient format for in vivo gene delivery with no vector related complications in >100 clinical trials for diverse diseases. At the same time, advancements in the design of custom-engineered site-specific endonucleases and the utilization of elucidated endonuclease formats have resulted in efficient and facile genetic engineering for basic science and for clinical therapies. AAV vectors and gene editing technologies are an obvious marriage, using AAV for the delivery of repair substrate and/or a gene encoding a designer endonuclease; however, while efficient delivery and enhanced gene targeting by vector genomes are advantageous, other attributes of AAV vectors are less desirable for gene editing technologies. This review summarizes the various roles that AAV vectors play in gene editing technologies and provides insight into its trending applications for the treatment of genetic diseases.

  5. AAV vector-mediated secretion of chondroitinase provides a sensitive tracer for axonal arborisations.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Nuno; Muir, Elizabeth M; Andrews, Melissa R; Ward, Anneliese; Michelmore, Nicholas; Dasgupta, Debayan; Verhaagen, Joost; Moloney, Elizabeth B; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H

    2014-04-30

    As part of a project to express chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in neurons of the central nervous system, we have inserted a modified ChABC gene into an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector and injected it into the vibrissal motor cortex in adult rats to determine the extent and distribution of expression of the enzyme. A similar vector for expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into the same location. For each vector, two versions with minor differences were used, giving similar results. After 4 weeks, the brains were stained to show GFP and products of chondroitinase digestion. Chondroitinase was widely expressed, and the AAV-ChABC and AAV-GFP vectors gave similar expression patterns in many respects, consistent with the known projections from the directly transduced neurons in vibrissal motor cortex and adjacent cingulate cortex. In addition, diffusion of vector to deeper neuronal populations led to labelling of remote projection fields which was much more extensive with AAV-ChABC than with AAV-GFP. The most notable of these populations are inferred to be neurons of cortical layer 6, projecting widely in the thalamus, and neurons of the anterior pole of the hippocampus, projecting through most of the hippocampus. We conclude that, whereas GFP does not label the thinnest axonal branches of some neuronal types, chondroitinase is efficiently secreted from these arborisations and enables their extent to be sensitively visualised. After 12 weeks, chondroitinase expression was undiminished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Glymphatic fluid transport controls paravascular clearance of AAV vectors from the brain

    PubMed Central

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Crowther, Andrew; Reardon, Rebecca A.; Song, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport. In the current study, we demonstrate that glymphatic transport profoundly affects various aspects of AAV gene transfer in the CNS. Altered localization of AQP4 in aged mouse brains correlated with significantly increased retention of AAV vectors in the parenchyma and reduced systemic leakage following ventricular administration. We observed a similar increase in AAV retention and transgene expression upon i.c.v. administration in AQP4–/– mice. Consistent with this observation, fluorophore-labeled AAV vectors showed markedly reduced flux from the ventricles of AQP4–/– mice compared with WT mice. These results were further corroborated by reduced AAV clearance from the AQP4-null brain, as demonstrated by reduced transgene expression and vector genome accumulation in systemic organs. We postulate that deregulation of glymphatic transport in aged and diseased brains could markedly affect the parenchymal spread, clearance, and gene transfer efficiency of AAV vectors. Assessment of biomarkers that report the kinetics of CSF flux in prospective gene therapy patients might inform variable treatment outcomes and guide future clinical trial design. PMID:27699236

  7. Gene Delivery to Adipose Tissue Using Transcriptionally Targeted rAAV8 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig-Schmidt, Silke; Geiger, Matthias; Luippold, Gerd; Birk, Gerald; Mennerich, Detlev; Neubauer, Heike; Grimm, Dirk; Wolfrum, Christian; Kreuz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities fostered intensive research in the field of adipose tissue biology. To further unravel molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue function, genetic tools enabling functional studies in vitro and in vivo are essential. While the use of transgenic animals is well established, attempts using viral and non-viral vectors to genetically modify adipocytes in vivo are rare. Therefore, we here characterized recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors regarding their potency as gene transfer vehicles for adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that a single dose of systemically applied rAAV8-CMV-eGFP can give rise to remarkable transgene expression in murine adipose tissues. Upon transcriptional targeting of the rAAV8 vector to adipocytes using a 2.2 kb fragment of the murine adiponectin (mAP2.2) promoter, eGFP expression was significantly decreased in off-target tissues while efficient transduction was maintained in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. Moreover, rAAV8-mAP2.2-mediated expression of perilipin A – a lipid-droplet-associated protein – resulted in significant changes in metabolic parameters only three weeks post vector administration. Taken together, our findings indicate that rAAV vector technology is applicable as a flexible tool to genetically modify adipocytes for functional proof-of-concept studies and the assessment of putative therapeutic targets in vivo. PMID:25551639

  8. Hepatitis virus protein X-Phenylalanine Hydroxylase fusion proteins identified in PKU mice treated with AAV-WPRE vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilizing the Pahenu2 mouse model for phenylketonuria (PKU), we developed an improved expression vector containing the Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus post-transcriptional regulatory element inserted into a rAAV-mPAH construct (rAAV-mPAH-WPRE) for treatment of PKU. Following portal vein delivery of these ...

  9. Undetectable Transcription of cap in a Clinical AAV Vector: Implications for Preformed Capsid in Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Bernd; Murphy, Samuel L; Smith, Peter H; Qu, Guang; Liu, Xingge; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Sommer, Jürg M; High, Katherine A; Wright, J. Fraser

    2008-01-01

    In a gene therapy clinical trial for hemophilia B, adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) capsid–specific CD8+ T cells were previously implicated in the elimination of vector-transduced hepatocytes, resulting in loss of human factor IX (hFIX) transgene expression. To test the hypothesis that expression of AAV2 cap DNA impurities in the AAV2-hFIX vector was the source of epitopes presented on transduced cells, transcription of cap was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (Q-RT-PCR) following transduction of target cells with the vector used in the clinical trial. Transcriptional profiling was also performed for residual AmpR, and adenovirus E2A and E4. Although trace amounts of DNA impurities were present in the clinical vector, transcription of these sequences was not detected after transduction of human hepatocytes, nor in mice administered a dose 26-fold above the highest dose administered in the clinical study. Two methods used to minimize encapsidated DNA impurities in the clinical vector were: (i) a vector (cis) production plasmid with a backbone exceeding the packaging limit of AAV; and (ii) a vector purification step that achieved separation of the vector from vector-related impurities (e.g., empty capsids). In conclusion, residual cap expression was undetectable following transduction with AAV2-hFIX clinical vectors. Preformed capsid protein is implicated as the source of epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells that eliminated vector-transduced cells in the clinical study. PMID:18941440

  10. Plectin-1 Targeted AAV Vector for the Molecular Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Deng, Defeng; Thomas, Stephanie; Wu, Michael T.; Logsdon, Craig D.; French, Brent A.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly malignant disease that is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Gene therapy using AAV vectors to selectively deliver genes to PDAC cells is an attractive treatment option for pancreatic cancer. However, most AAV serotypes display a broad spectrum of tissue tropism and none of the existing serotypes specifically target PDAC cells. This study tests the hypothesis that AAV2 can be genetically re-engineered to specifically target PDAC cells by modifying the capsid surface to display a peptide that has previously been shown to bind plectin-1. Toward this end, a Plectin-1 Targeting Peptide (PTP) was inserted into the loop IV region of the AAV2 capsid, and the resulting capsid (AAV-PTP) was used in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, AAV-PTP was found to target all five human PDAC cell lines tested (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, HPAC, MPanc-96, and BxPC-3) preferentially over two non-neoplastic human pancreatic cell lines (human pancreatic ductal epithelial and human pancreatic stellate cells). In vivo, mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts were generated using the PANC-1 cell line. Once tumors reached a size of ∼1–2 mm in diameter, the mice were injected intravenously with luciferase reporter vectors packaged in the either AAV-PTP or wild type AAV2 capsids. Luciferase expression was then monitored by bioluminescence imaging on days 3, 7, and 14 after vector injection. The results indicate that the AAV-PTP capsid displays a 37-fold preference for PANC-1 tumor xenographs over liver and other tissues; whereas the wild type AAV2 capsid displays a complementary preference for liver over tumors and other tissues. Together, these results establish proof-of-principle for the ability of PTP-modified AAV capsids to selectively target gene delivery to PDAC cells in vivo, which opens promising new avenues for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23616947

  11. Product-Related Impurities in Clinical-Grade Recombinant AAV Vectors: Characterization and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors expressing therapeutic genes continue to demonstrate great promise for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases and together with other gene transfer vectors represent an emerging new therapeutic paradigm comparable in potential impact on human health to that achieved by recombinant proteins and vaccines. A challenge for the current pipeline of AAV-based investigational products as they advance through clinical development is the identification, characterization and lot-to-lot control of the process- and product-related impurities present in even highly purified preparations. Especially challenging are AAV vector product-related impurities that closely resemble the vector itself and are, in some cases, without clear precedent in established biotherapeutic products. The determination of acceptable levels of these impurities in vectors prepared for human clinical product development, with the goal of new product licensure, requires careful risk and feasibility assessment. This review focuses primarily on the AAV product-related impurities that have been described in vectors prepared for clinical development. PMID:28548061

  12. [Construction of a general AAV vector regulated by minimal and artificial hypoxic-responsive element].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiao-wei; Sun, Li-jun; Hao, Yue-wen; Yang, Guang-xiao; Wang, Quan-ying

    2011-03-01

    To synthesize the minimal and artificial HRE, and to insert it into the anterior extremity of CMV promoter of a AAV plasmid, and then to construct the AAV regulated by hypoxic-responsive element which was introduced into 293 cell by method of Ca3(PO4)2 using three plasmids. Thus obtaining the adenoassociated virus vector regulated by hypoxic-responsive element was possibly used for gene therapy in ischemia angiocardiopathy and cerebrovascular disease. Artificially synthesize the 36 bp nucleotide sequences of four connection in series HIF-binding sites A/GCGTG(4×HBS)and a 35 bp nucleotide sequences spacing inserted into anterior extremity of CMV promoter TATA Box, then amplified by PCR. The cDNA fragment was confirmed to be right by DNA sequencing. Molecular biology routine method was used to construct a AAV vector regulated by minimal hypoxic-responsive element after the normal CMV promoter in AAV vector was replaced by the CMV promoter included minimal hypoxic-responsive element. Then, NT4-6His-PR39 fusogenic peptide was inserted into MCS of the plasmid, the recombinant AAV vector was obtained by three plasmid co-transfection in 293 cells, in which we can also investigate the expression of 6×His using immunochemistry in hypoxia environment. Artificial HRE was inserted into anterior extremity of CMV promoter and there was a correct spacing between the HRE and the TATA-box. The DNA sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion results indicated that the AAV regulated by hypoxic-responsive element was successfully constructed. Compared to the control group, the expressions of 6×His was significantly increased in the experimental groups in hypoxia environment, which confirmed that the AAV effectually regulated by the minimal HRE was inserted into anterior extremity of CMV promoter. The HRE is inserted into anterior extremity of CMV promoter to lack incision enzyme recognition site by PCR. And eukaryotic expression vector regulated by hypoxic-responsive is constructed

  13. Phase 1 Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using a Translational Optimized AAV Vector

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Dawn E; McPhee, Scott WJ; Li, Chengwen; Gray, Steven J; Samulski, Jade J; Camp, Angelique S; Li, Juan; Wang, Bing; Monahan, Paul E; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Grieger, Joshua C; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Xiao, Xiao; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and widespread gene transfer is required for successful treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we performed the first clinical trial using a chimeric adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variant (designated AAV2.5) derived from a rational design strategy. AAV2.5 was generated from the AAV2 capsid with five mutations from AAV1. The novel chimeric vector combines the improved muscle transduction capacity of AAV1 with reduced antigenic crossreactivity against both parental serotypes, while keeping the AAV2 receptor binding. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase I clinical study in DMD boys, AAV2.5 vector was injected into the bicep muscle in one arm, with saline control in the contralateral arm. A subset of patients received AAV empty capsid instead of saline in an effort to distinguish an immune response to vector versus minidystrophin transgene. Recombinant AAV genomes were detected in all patients with up to 2.56 vector copies per diploid genome. There was no cellular immune response to AAV2.5 capsid. This trial established that rationally designed AAV2.5 vector was safe and well tolerated, lays the foundation of customizing AAV vectors that best suit the clinical objective (e.g., limb infusion gene delivery) and should usher in the next generation of viral delivery systems for human gene transfer. PMID:22068425

  14. Intramuscular injection of AAV8 in mice and macaques is associated with substantial hepatic targeting and transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Peng, Hui; Ohlstein, Jason; Medina-Jaszek, C Angelica; Ahonkhai, Omua; Mentzinger, Anne; Grant, Rebecca L; Roy, Soumitra; Chen, Shu-Jen; Bell, Peter; Tretiakova, Anna P; Wilson, James M

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular (IM) administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has entered the early stages of clinical development with some success, including the first approved gene therapy product in the West called Glybera. In preparation for broader clinical development of IM AAV vector gene therapy, we conducted detailed pre-clinical studies in mice and macaques evaluating aspects of delivery that could affect performance. We found that following IM administration of AAV8 vectors in mice, a portion of the vector reached the liver and hepatic gene expression contributed significantly to total expression of secreted transgenes. The contribution from liver could be controlled by altering injection volume and by the use of traditional (promoter) and non-traditional (tissue-specific microRNA target sites) expression control elements. Hepatic distribution of vector following IM injection was also noted in rhesus macaques. These pre-clinical data on AAV delivery should inform safe and efficient development of future AAV products.

  15. Subpial Adeno-associated Virus 9 (AAV9) Vector Delivery in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Takahiro; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Navarro, Michael; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Marsala, Silvia; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Lukacova, Nada; Bimbova, Katarina; Marsala, Martin

    2017-07-13

    The successful development of a subpial adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) vector delivery technique in adult rats and pigs has been reported on previously. Using subpially-placed polyethylene catheters (PE-10 or PE-5) for AAV9 delivery, potent transgene expression through the spinal parenchyma (white and gray matter) in subpially-injected spinal segments has been demonstrated. Because of the wide range of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a strong desire for the development of a potent central nervous system (CNS)-targeted vector delivery technique in adult mice. Accordingly, the present study describes the development of a spinal subpial vector delivery device and technique to permit safe and effective spinal AAV9 delivery in adult C57BL/6J mice. In spinally immobilized and anesthetized mice, the pia mater (cervical 1 and lumbar 1-2 spinal segmental level) was incised with a sharp 34 G needle using an XYZ manipulator. A second XYZ manipulator was then used to advance a blunt 36G needle into the lumbar and/or cervical subpial space. The AAV9 vector (3-5 µL; 1.2 x 10 13 genome copies (gc)) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was then injected subpially. After injections, neurological function (motor and sensory) was assessed periodically, and animals were perfusion-fixed 14 days after AAV9 delivery with 4% paraformaldehyde. Analysis of horizontal or transverse spinal cord sections showed transgene expression throughout the entire spinal cord, in both gray and white matter. In addition, intense retrogradely-mediated GFP expression was seen in the descending motor axons and neurons in the motor cortex, nucleus ruber, and formatio reticularis. No neurological dysfunction was noted in any animals. These data show that the subpial vector delivery technique can successfully be used in adult mice, without causing procedure-related spinal cord injury, and is associated with highly potent transgene expression throughout the spinal neuraxis.

  16. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies against Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Types 2, 5, and 6 in Cystic Fibrosis and Normal Populations: Implications for Gene Therapy using AAV Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Christine L.; Miller, A. Dusty; McNamara, Sharon; Emerson, Julia; Gibson, Ronald L.; Ramsey, Bonnie; Aitken, Moira L.

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising candidates for gene therapy directed to the lungs, in particular for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). In animal models of lung gene transfer, neutralizing antibodies in serum made in response to vector exposure have been associated with a partial to complete block to repeat transduction by vectors with the same capsid type, thus transduction by AAV vectors might be inefficient in humans previously exposed to the same AAV type. AAV type 2 (AAV2) has been used in clinical trials of lung gene transfer, but AAV5 and AAV6 have been shown to mediate more efficient transduction in rodent lungs and in cultured human airway epithelia compared to that of AAV2. Here we have measured neutralizing antibodies against AAV type 2, 5, and 6 vectors in serum from children and adults with CF, and from normal adults. About 30% of adults were seropositive for AAV2, 20–30% were seropositive for AAV6, and 10–20% were seropositive for AAV5. CF children were seropositive for AAV types 2, 5, or 6 at rates of 4–15%. All individuals seropositive for AAV6 were also seropositive for AAV2, and the AAV6 titer was low compared to the AAV2 titer. AAV5-positive sera were lower both in titers and rates than those seen for AAV6. The results indicate that AAV type 2, 5 or 6 exposure is low in CF and control populations and even lower in CF children. PMID:16610931

  17. Intraperitoneal AAV9-shRNA inhibits target expression in neonatal skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    PubMed

    Mayra, Azat; Tomimitsu, Hiroyuki; Kubodera, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Piao, Wenying; Sunaga, Fumiko; Hirai, Yukihiko; Shimada, Takashi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2011-02-11

    Systemic injections of AAV vectors generally transduce to the liver more effectively than to cardiac and skeletal muscles. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing AAV9 (shRNA-AAV9) can also reduce target gene expression in the liver, but not enough in cardiac or skeletal muscles. Higher doses of shRNA-AAV9 required for inhibiting target genes in cardiac and skeletal muscles often results in shRNA-related toxicity including microRNA oversaturation that can induce fetal liver failure. In this study, we injected high-dose shRNA-AAV9 to neonates and efficiently silenced genes in cardiac and skeletal muscles without inducing liver toxicity. This is because AAV is most likely diluted or degraded in the liver than in cardiac or skeletal muscle during cell division after birth. We report that this systemically injected shRNA-AAV method does not induce any major side effects, such as liver dysfunction, and the dose of shRNA-AAV is sufficient for gene silencing in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues. This novel method may be useful for generating gene knockdown in skeletal and cardiac mouse tissues, thus providing mouse models useful for analyzing diseases caused by loss-of-function of target genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Widespread transduction of astrocytes and neurons in the mouse central nervous system after systemic delivery of a self-complementary AAV-PHP.B vector.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Melvin Y; de Vin, Filip; Duqué, Sandra I; Fripont, Shelly; Castaldo, Stephanie A; Bouhuijzen-Wenger, Jessica; Holt, Matthew G

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) was considered the AAV serotype most effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transducing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), following systemic injection. However, a newly engineered capsid, AAV-PHP.B, is reported to cross the BBB at even higher efficiency. We investigated how much we could boost CNS transgene expression by using AAV-PHP.B carrying a self-complementary (sc) genome. To allow comparison, 6 weeks old C57BL/6 mice received intravenous injections of scAAV2/9-GFP or scAAV2/PHP.B-GFP at equivalent doses. Three weeks postinjection, transgene expression was assessed in brain and spinal cord. We consistently observed more widespread CNS transduction and higher levels of transgene expression when using the scAAV2/PHP.B-GFP vector. In particular, we observed an unprecedented level of astrocyte transduction in the cortex, when using a ubiquitous CBA promoter. In comparison, neuronal transduction was much lower than previously reported. However, strong neuronal expression (including spinal motor neurons) was observed when the human synapsin promoter was used. These findings constitute the first reported use of an AAV-PHP.B capsid, encapsulating a scAAV genome, for gene transfer in adult mice. Our results underscore the potential of this AAV construct as a platform for safer and more efficacious gene therapy vectors for the CNS.

  19. Small But Increasingly Mighty: Latest Advances in AAV Vector Research, Design, and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Dirk; Büning, Hildegard

    2017-11-01

    Recombinant gene delivery vectors derived from naturally occurring or genetically engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have taken center stage in human gene therapy, fueled by rapidly accumulating and highly encouraging clinical data. Nonetheless, it has also become evident that the current generation of AAV vectors will require improvements in transduction potency, antibody evasion, and cell specificity in order to realize their full potential and to widen applicability in larger patient cohorts. Fortunately, in the recent past, the field has seen a flurry of exciting new developments that enhance our understanding of AAV vector biology, including virus-host interactions, and/or that expand our arsenal of technologies for AAV capsid design and evolution. This review highlights a collection of latest advances in these areas, which, in the authors' opinion, hold particular promise to propel the AAV vector field forward in the near future, especially when applied in combination. These include fundamental novel insights into the AAV life cycle, from an unexpected role of autophagy and interactions with other viruses to the (re-)discovery of a universal AAV receptor and the function of AAV-AAP for capsid assembly. Concurrently, recent successes in the rational design of next-generation synthetic AAV capsids are pointed out, exemplified by the structure-guided derivation of AAV mutants displaying robust in vivo immune evasion. Finally, a variety of new and innovative strategies for high-throughput generation and screening of AAV capsid libraries are briefly reviewed, including Cre recombinase-based selection, ancestral AAV capsid reconstruction, and DNA barcoding of AAV genomes. All of these examples showcase the present momentum in the AAV field and, together with work by many other academic or industrial entities, raise substantial optimism that the remaining hurdles for human gene therapy with AAV vectors will (soon) be overcome.

  20. Polymers for Improving the In Vivo Transduction Efficiency of AAV2 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Moulay, Gilles; Boutin, Sylvie; Masurier, Carole; Scherman, Daniel; Kichler, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Background Adeno-associated virus has attracted great attention as vehicle for body-wide gene delivery. However, for the successful treatment of a disease such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy infusion of very large amounts of vectors is required. This not only raises questions about the technical feasibility of the large scale production but also about the overall safety of the approach. One way to overcome these problems would be to find strategies able to increase the in vivo efficiency. Methodology Here, we investigated whether polymers can act as adjuvants to increase the in vivo efficiency of AAV2. Our strategy consisted in the pre-injection of polymers before intravenous administration of mice with AAV2 encoding a murine secreted alkaline phosphatase (mSeAP). The transgene expression, vector biodistribution and tissue transduction were studied by quantification of the mSeAP protein and real time PCR. The injection of polyinosinic acid and polylysine resulted in an increase of plasmatic mSeAP of 2- and 12-fold, respectively. Interestingly, polyinosinic acid pre-injection significantly reduced the neutralizing antibody titer raised against AAV2. Conclusions Our results show that the pre-injection of polymers can improve the overall transduction efficiency of systemically administered AAV2 and reduce the humoral response against the capsid proteins. PMID:21203395

  1. Optimized AAV rh.10 Vectors That Partially Evade Neutralizing Antibodies during Hepatic Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Selot, Ruchita; Arumugam, Sathyathithan; Mary, Bertin; Cheemadan, Sabna; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

    2017-01-01

    Of the 12 common serotypes used for gene delivery applications, Adeno-associated virus (AAV)rh.10 serotype has shown sustained hepatic transduction and has the lowest seropositivity in humans. We have evaluated if further modifications to AAVrh.10 at its phosphodegron like regions or predicted immunogenic epitopes could improve its hepatic gene transfer and immune evasion potential. Mutant AAVrh.10 vectors were generated by site directed mutagenesis of the predicted targets. These mutant vectors were first tested for their transduction efficiency in HeLa and HEK293T cells. The optimal vector was further evaluated for their cellular uptake, entry, and intracellular trafficking by quantitative PCR and time-lapse confocal microscopy. To evaluate their potential during hepatic gene therapy, C57BL/6 mice were administered with wild-type or optimal mutant AAVrh.10 and the luciferase transgene expression was documented by serial bioluminescence imaging at 14, 30, 45, and 72 days post-gene transfer. Their hepatic transduction was further verified by a quantitative PCR analysis of AAV copy number in the liver tissue. The optimal AAVrh.10 vector was further evaluated for their immune escape potential, in animals pre-immunized with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Our results demonstrate that a modified AAVrh.10 S671A vector had enhanced cellular entry (3.6 fold), migrate rapidly to the perinuclear region (1 vs. >2 h for wild type vectors) in vitro, which further translates to modest increase in hepatic gene transfer efficiency in vivo. More importantly, the mutant AAVrh.10 vector was able to partially evade neutralizing antibodies (~27–64 fold) in pre-immunized animals. The development of an AAV vector system that can escape the circulating neutralizing antibodies in the host will substantially widen the scope of gene therapy applications in humans. PMID:28769791

  2. AAV viral vector delivery to the brain by shape-conforming MR-guided infusions.

    PubMed

    Bankiewicz, Krystof S; Sudhakar, Vivek; Samaranch, Lluis; San Sebastian, Waldy; Bringas, John; Forsayeth, John

    2016-10-28

    Gene transfer technology offers great promise as a potential therapeutic approach to the brain but has to be viewed as a very complex technology. Success of ongoing clinical gene therapy trials depends on many factors such as selection of the correct genetic and anatomical target in the brain. In addition, selection of the viral vector capable of transfer of therapeutic gene into target cells, along with long-term expression that avoids immunotoxicity has to be established. As with any drug development strategy, delivery of gene therapy has to be consistent and predictable in each study subject. Failed drug and vector delivery will lead to failed clinical trials. In this article, we describe our experience with AAV viral vector delivery system, that allows us to optimize and monitor in real time viral vector administration into affected regions of the brain. In addition to discussing MRI-guided technology for administration of AAV vectors we have developed and now employ in current clinical trials, we also describe ways in which infusion cannula design and stereotactic trajectory may be used to maximize the anatomical coverage by using fluid backflow. This innovative approach enables more precise coverage by fitting the shape of the infusion to the shape of the anatomical target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High density recombinant AAV particles are competent vectors for in vivo transduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have recently achieved clinical successes in human gene therapy. However, the commonly observed heavier particles found in AAV preparations have traditionally been ignored due to its low in vitro infectivity. In this study, we systemically compared t...

  4. Synergistic inhibition of PARP-1 and NF-κB signaling downregulates immune response against recombinant AAV2 vectors during hepatic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Hareendran, Sangeetha; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Jayandharan, Giridhara R

    2016-01-01

    Host immune response remains a key obstacle to widespread application of adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene therapy. Thus, targeted inhibition of the signaling pathways that trigger such immune responses will be beneficial. Previous studies have reported that DNA damage response proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) negatively affect the integration of AAV in the host genome. However, the role of PARP-1 in regulating AAV transduction and the immune response against these vectors has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that repression of PARP-1 improves the transduction of single-stranded AAV vectors both in vitro (∼174%) and in vivo (two- to 3.4-fold). Inhibition of PARP-1, also significantly downregulated the expression of several proinflammatory and cytokine markers such as TLRs, ILs, NF-κB subunit proteins associated with the host innate response against self-complementary AAV2 vectors. The suppression of the inflammatory response targeted against these vectors was more effective upon combined inhibition of PARP-1 and NF-κB signaling. This strategy also effectively attenuated the AAV capsid-specific cytotoxic T-cell response, with minimal effect on vector transduction, as demonstrated in normal C57BL/6 and hemophilia B mice. These data suggest that targeting specific host cellular proteins could be useful to attenuate the immune barriers to AAV-mediated gene therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Pathology Associated with AAV Mediated Expression of Beta Amyloid or C100 in Adult Mouse Hippocampus and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Eleanor S.; Muhling, Jill; Martins, Ralph N.; Wijaya, Linda K.; Ehlert, Erich M.; Harvey, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is a primary feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but the exact molecular mechanisms by which Aβ exerts its toxic actions are not yet entirely clear. We documented pathological changes 3 and 6 months after localised injection of recombinant, bi-cistronic adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2) expressing human Aβ40-GFP, Aβ42-GFP, C100-GFP or C100V717F-GFP into the hippocampus and cerebellum of 8 week old male mice. Injection of all rAAV2 vectors resulted in wide-spread transduction within the hippocampus and cerebellum, as shown by expression of transgene mRNA and GFP protein. Despite the lack of accumulation of Aβ protein after injection with AAV vectors, injection of rAAV2-Aβ42-GFP and rAAV2- C100V717F-GFP into the hippocampus resulted in significantly increased microgliosis and altered permeability of the blood brain barrier, the latter revealed by high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) around the injection site and the presence of IgG positive cells. In comparison, injection of rAAV2-Aβ40-GFP and rAAV2-C100-GFP into the hippocampus resulted in substantially less neuropathology. Injection of rAAV2 vectors into the cerebellum resulted in similar types of pathological changes, but to a lesser degree. The use of viral vectors to express different types of Aβ and C100 is a powerful technique with which to examine the direct in vivo consequences of Aβ expression in different regions of the mature nervous system and will allow experimentation and analysis of pathological AD-like changes in a broader range of species other than mouse. PMID:23516609

  6. Distribution of AAV8 particles in cell lysates and culture media changes with time and is dependent on the recombinant vector

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Bryan A; Drury, Jason E; Morton, Christopher L; Spence, Yunyu; Lockey, Timothy D; Nathwani, Amit C; Davidoff, Andrew M; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    With clinical trials ongoing, efficient clinical production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to treat large numbers of patients remains a challenge. We compared distribution of AAV8 packaged with Factor VIII (FVIII) in cell culture media and lysates on days 3, 5, 6, and 7 post-transfection and found increasing viral production through day 6, with the proportion of viral particles in the media increasing from 76% at day 3 to 94% by day 7. Compared to FVIII, AAV8 packaged with Factor IX and Protective Protein/Cathepsin A vectors demonstrated a greater shift from lysate towards media from day 3 to 6, implying that particle distribution is dependent on recombinant vector. Larger-scale productions showed that the ratio of full-to-empty AAV particles is similar in media and lysate, and that AAV harvested on day 6 post-transfection provides equivalent function in mice compared to AAV harvested on day 3. This demonstrates that AAV8 production can be optimized by prolonging the duration of culture post-transfection, and simplified by allowing harvest of media only, with disposal of cells that contain 10% or less of total vector yield. Additionally, the difference in particle distribution with different expression cassettes implies a recombinant vector-dependent processing mechanism which should be taken into account during process development. PMID:27069949

  7. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2012-03-29

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer.

  8. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M.; Flake, Alan W.; Mingozzi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX–encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer. PMID:22271447

  9. Effective delivery of large genes to the retina by dual AAV vectors

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Ivana; Colella, Pasqualina; Sommella, Andrea; Iodice, Carolina; Cesi, Giulia; de Simone, Sonia; Marrocco, Elena; Rossi, Settimio; Giunti, Massimo; Palfi, Arpad; Farrar, Gwyneth J; Polishchuk, Roman; Auricchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. However, AAV's limited cargo capacity prevents its application to therapies of inherited retinal diseases due to mutations of genes over 5 kb, like Stargardt's disease (STGD) and Usher syndrome type IB (USH1B). Previous methods based on ‘forced’ packaging of large genes into AAV capsids may not be easily translated to the clinic due to the generation of genomes of heterogeneous size which raise safety concerns. Taking advantage of AAV's ability to concatemerize, we generated dual AAV vectors which reconstitute a large gene by either splicing (trans-splicing), homologous recombination (overlapping), or a combination of the two (hybrid). We found that dual trans-splicing and hybrid vectors transduce efficiently mouse and pig photoreceptors to levels that, albeit lower than those achieved with a single AAV, resulted in significant improvement of the retinal phenotype of mouse models of STGD and USH1B. Thus, dual AAV trans-splicing or hybrid vectors are an attractive strategy for gene therapy of retinal diseases that require delivery of large genes. PMID:24150896

  10. A microRNA embedded AAV alpha-synuclein gene silencing vector for dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Khodr, Christina E.; Sapru, Mohan K.; Pedapati, Jyothi; Bohn, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA), an abundantly expressed presynaptic protein, is implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). Since over-expression of human SNCA (hSNCA) leads to death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in human, rodent and fly brain, hSNCA gene silencing may reduce levels of toxic forms of SNCA and ameliorate degeneration of DA neurons in PD. To begin to develop a gene therapy for PD based on hSNCA gene silencing, two AAV gene silencing vectors were designed, and tested for efficiency and specificity of silencing, as well as toxicity in vitro. The same hSNCA silencing sequence (shRNA) was used in both vectors, but in one vector, the shRNA was embedded in a microRNA backbone and driven by a pol II promoter, and in the other the shRNA was not embedded in a microRNA and was driven by a pol III promoter. Both vectors silenced hSNCA to the same extent in 293T cells transfected with hSNCA. In DA PC12 cells, neither vector decreased expression of rat SNCA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) or the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT). However, the mir30 embedded vector was significantly less toxic to both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. Our in vitro data suggest that this miRNA-embedded silencing vector may be ideal for chronic in vivo SNCA gene silencing in DA neurons. PMID:21338582

  11. Cell Cycle-Dependent Expression of Adeno-Associated Virus 2 (AAV2) Rep in Coinfections with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Gives Rise to a Mosaic of Cells Replicating either AAV2 or HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Franzoso, Francesca D.; Seyffert, Michael; Vogel, Rebecca; Yakimovich, Artur; de Andrade Pereira, Bruna; Meier, Anita F.; Sutter, Sereina O.; Tobler, Kurt; Vogt, Bernd; Greber, Urs F.; Büning, Hildegard; Ackermann, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) depends on the simultaneous presence of a helper virus such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for productive replication. At the same time, AAV2 efficiently blocks the replication of HSV-1, which would eventually limit its own replication by diminishing the helper virus reservoir. This discrepancy begs the question of how AAV2 and HSV-1 can coexist in a cell population. Here we show that in coinfected cultures, AAV2 DNA replication takes place almost exclusively in S/G2-phase cells, while HSV-1 DNA replication is restricted to G1 phase. Live microscopy revealed that not only wild-type AAV2 (wtAAV2) replication but also reporter gene expression from both single-stranded and double-stranded (self-complementary) recombinant AAV2 vectors preferentially occurs in S/G2-phase cells, suggesting that the preference for S/G2 phase is independent of the nature of the viral genome. Interestingly, however, a substantial proportion of S/G2-phase cells transduced by the double-stranded but not the single-stranded recombinant AAV2 vectors progressed through mitosis in the absence of the helper virus. We conclude that cell cycle-dependent AAV2 rep expression facilitates cell cycle-dependent AAV2 DNA replication and inhibits HSV-1 DNA replication. This may limit competition for cellular and viral helper factors and, hence, creates a biological niche for either virus to replicate. IMPORTANCE Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) differs from most other viruses, as it requires not only a host cell for replication but also a helper virus such as an adenovirus or a herpesvirus. This situation inevitably leads to competition for cellular resources. AAV2 has been shown to efficiently inhibit the replication of helper viruses. Here we present a new facet of the interaction between AAV2 and one of its helper viruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). We observed that AAV2 rep gene expression is cell cycle dependent and gives rise to distinct time

  12. Ultramicroscopy as a novel tool to unravel the tropism of AAV gene therapy vectors in the brain.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sandro; Bode, Julia; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; von Kalle, Christof; Cartier, Nathalie; Tews, Björn

    2016-06-20

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have advanced to the vanguard of gene therapy. Numerous naturally occurring serotypes have been used to target cells in various tissues. There is a strong need for fast and dynamic methods which efficiently unravel viral tropism in whole organs. Ultramicroscopy (UM) is a novel fluorescence microscopy technique that images optically cleared undissected specimens, achieving good resolutions at high penetration depths while being non-destructive. UM was applied to obtain high-resolution 3D analysis of AAV transduction in adult mouse brains, especially in the hippocampus, a region of interest for Alzheimer's disease therapy. We separately or simultaneously compared transduction efficacies for commonly used serotypes (AAV9 and AAVrh10) using fluorescent reporter expression. We provide a detailed comparative and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles. UM allowed a rapid analysis of marker fluorescence expression in neurons with intact projections deep inside the brain, in defined anatomical structures. Major hippocampal neuronal transduction was observed with both vectors, with slightly better efficacy for AAV9 in UM. Glial response and synaptic marker expression did not change post transduction.We propose UM as a novel valuable complementary tool to efficiently and simultaneously unravel tropism of different viruses in a single non-dissected adult rodent brain.

  13. Lack of Humoral Immune Response to the Tetracycline (Tet) Activator in Rats Injected Intracranially with Tet-off rAAV Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Chang, Qin A.; Virag, Tamas; West, Neva C.; George, David; Castro, Maria G.; Bohn, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to safely control transgene expression from viral vectors is a long-term goal in the gene therapy field. We have previously reported tight regulation of GFP expression in rat brain using a self-regulating tet-off rAAV vector. The immune responses against tet regulatory elements observed by other groups in nonhuman primates after intramuscular injection of tet-on encoding vectors raise concerns about the clinical value of tet-regulated vectors. However, previous studies have not examined immune responses following injection of AAV vectors into brain. Therefore, rat striatum was injected with tet-off rAAV harboring a therapeutic gene for Parkinson's disease, either hAADC or hGDNF. The expression of each gene was tightly controlled by the tet-off regulatory system. Using an ELISA developed with purified GST-tTA protein, no detectable immunogenicity against tTA was observed in sera of rats that received an intrastriatal injection of either vector. In contrast, sera from rats intradermally injected with an adenovirus containing either tTA or rtTA, as positive controls, had readily detectable antibodies. These observations suggest that tet-off rAAV vectors do not elicit an immune response when injected into rat brain and that these may offer safer vectors for Parkinson's disease than vectors with constitutive expression. PMID:20164859

  14. Longevity of rAAV vector and plasmid DNA in blood after intramuscular injection in nonhuman primates: implications for gene doping.

    PubMed

    Ni, W; Le Guiner, C; Gernoux, G; Penaud-Budloo, M; Moullier, P; Snyder, R O

    2011-07-01

    Legitimate uses of gene transfer technology can benefit from sensitive detection methods to determine vector biodistribution in pre-clinical studies and in human clinical trials, and similar methods can detect illegitimate gene transfer to provide sports-governing bodies with the ability to maintain fairness. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect a performance-enhancing transgene (erythropoietin, EPO) and backbone sequences in the presence of endogenous cellular sequences. In addition to developing real-time PCR assays, the steps involved in DNA extraction, storage and transport were investigated. By real-time PCR, the vector transgene is distinguishable from the genomic DNA sequence because of the absence of introns, and the vector backbone can be identified by heterologous gene expression control elements. After performance of the assays was optimized, cynomolgus macaques received a single dose by intramuscular (IM) injection of plasmid DNA, a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 1 (rAAV1) or a rAAV8 vector expressing cynomolgus macaque EPO. Macaques received a high plasmid dose intended to achieve a significant, but not life-threatening, increase in hematocrit. rAAV vectors were used at low doses to achieve a small increase in hematocrit and to determine the limit of sensitivity for detecting rAAV sequences by single-step PCR. DNA extracted from white blood cells (WBCs) was tested to determine whether WBCs can be collaterally transfected by plasmid or transduced by rAAV vectors in this context, and can be used as a surrogate marker for gene doping. We demonstrate that IM injection of a conventional plasmid and rAAV vectors results in the presence of DNA that can be detected at high levels in blood before rapid elimination, and that rAAV genomes can persist for several months in WBCs.

  15. Next-generation AAV vectors for clinical use: an ever-accelerating race.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Jonas; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    During the past five decades, it has become evident that Adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents one of the most potent, most versatile, and thus most auspicious platforms available for gene delivery into cells, animals and, ultimately, humans. Particularly attractive is the ease with which the viral capsid-the major determinant of virus-host interaction including cell specificity and antibody recognition-can be modified and optimized at will. This has motivated countless researchers to develop high-throughput technologies in which genetically engineered AAV capsid libraries are subjected to a vastly hastened emulation of natural evolution, with the aim to enrich novel synthetic AAV capsids displaying superior features for clinical application. While the power and potential of these forward genetics approaches is undisputed, they are also inherently challenging as success depends on a combination of library quality, fidelity, and complexity. Here, we will describe and discuss two original, very exciting strategies that have emerged over the last three years and that promise to alleviate at least some of these concerns, namely, (i) a reverse genetics approach termed "ancestral AAV sequence reconstruction," and (ii) AAV genome barcoding as a technology that can advance both, forward and reverse genetics stratagems. Notably, despite the conceptual differences of these two technologies, they pursue the same goal which is tailored acceleration of AAV evolution and thus winning the race for the next-generation AAV vectors for clinical use.

  16. Convection-enhanced delivery of AAV vector in parkinsonian monkeys; in vivo detection of gene expression and restoration of dopaminergic function using pro-drug approach.

    PubMed

    Bankiewicz, K S; Eberling, J L; Kohutnicka, M; Jagust, W; Pivirotto, P; Bringas, J; Cunningham, J; Budinger, T F; Harvey-White, J

    2000-07-01

    Using an approach that combines gene therapy with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene and a pro-drug (l-dopa), dopamine, the neurotransmitter involved in Parkinson's disease, can be synthesized and regulated. Striatal neurons infected with the AADC gene by an adeno-associated viral vector can convert peripheral l-dopa to dopamine and may therefore provide a buffer for unmetabolized l-dopa. This approach to treating Parkinson's disease may reduce the need for l-dopa/carbidopa, thus providing a better clinical response with fewer side effects. In addition, the imbalance in dopamine production between the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems can be corrected by using AADC gene delivery to the striatum. We have also demonstrated that a fundamental obstacle in the gene therapy approach to the central nervous system, i.e., the ability to deliver viral vectors in sufficient quantities to the whole brain, can be overcome by using convection-enhanced delivery. Finally, this study demonstrates that positron emission tomography and the AADC tracer, 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine, can be used to monitor gene therapy in vivo. Our therapeutic approach has the potential to restore dopamine production, even late in the disease process, at levels that can be maintained during continued nigrostriatal degeneration. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR.

    PubMed

    D'Costa, Susan; Blouin, Veronique; Broucque, Frederic; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; François, Achille; Perez, Irene C; Le Bec, Christine; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O; Ayuso, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs) can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg); however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new "Free-ITR" qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  18. Application of a haematopoetic progenitor cell-targeted adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector established by selection of an AAV random peptide library on a leukaemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    Stiefelhagen, Marius; Sellner, Leopold; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A; Jauch, Anna; Laufs, Stephanie; Wenz, Frederik; Zeller, W Jens; Fruehauf, Stefan; Veldwijk, Marlon R

    2008-01-01

    Background For many promising target cells (e.g.: haematopoeitic progenitors), the susceptibility to standard adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is low. Advancements in vector development now allows the generation of target cell-selected AAV capsid mutants. Methods To determine its suitability, the method was applied on a chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) cell line (K562) to obtain a CML-targeted vector and the resulting vectors tested on leukaemia, non-leukaemia, primary human CML and CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC); standard AAV2 and a random capsid mutant vector served as controls. Results Transduction of CML (BV173, EM3, K562 and Lama84) and AML (HL60 and KG1a) cell lines with the capsid mutants resulted in an up to 36-fold increase in CML transduction efficiency (K562: 2-fold, 60% ± 2% green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ cells; BV173: 9-fold, 37% ± 2% GFP+ cells; Lama84: 36-fold, 29% ± 2% GFP+ cells) compared to controls. For AML (KG1a, HL60) and one CML cell line (EM3), no significant transduction (<1% GFP+ cells) was observed for any vector. Although the capsid mutant clone was established on a cell line, proof-of-principle experiments using primary human cells were performed. For CML (3.2-fold, mutant: 1.75% ± 0.45% GFP+ cells, p = 0.03) and PBPC (3.5-fold, mutant: 4.21% ± 3.40% GFP+ cells) a moderate increase in gene transfer of the capsid mutant compared to control vectors was observed. Conclusion Using an AAV random peptide library on a CML cell line, we were able to generate a capsid mutant, which transduced CML cell lines and primary human haematopoietic progenitor cells with higher efficiency than standard recombinant AAV vectors. PMID:18789140

  19. AAV Gene Therapy for Alcoholism: Inhibition of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme Expression in Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Anamaria C; Li, Chengwen; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A; Samulski, R Jude

    2017-09-01

    Most ethanol is broken down in the liver in two steps by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolize down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals from the Asian population who carry a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects, including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism. The large prevalence of this mutation in the human population strongly suggests that modulation of ALDH2 expression by genetic technologies could result in a similar phenotype. scAAV2 vectors encoding ALDH2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were utilized to validate this hypothesis by silencing ALDH2 gene expression in human cell lines. Human cell lines HEK-293 and HepG2 were transduced with scAAV2/shRNA, showing a reduction in ALDH2 RNA and protein expression with the two viral concentration assayed (1 × 10 4 and 1 × 10 5 vg/cell) at two different time points. In both cell lines, ALDH2 RNA levels were reduced by 90% and protein expression was inhibited by 90% and 52%, respectively, 5 days post infection. Transduced HepG2 VL17A cells (ADH+) exposed to ethanol resulted in a 50% increase in acetaldehyde levels. These results suggest that gene therapy could be a useful tool for the treatment of alcoholism by knocking down ALDH2 expression using shRNA technology delivered by AAV vectors.

  20. Copackaged AAV9 Vectors Promote Simultaneous Immune Tolerance and Phenotypic Correction of Pompe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Phillip A.; Todd, Adrian G.; Clément, Nathalie; Falk, Darin J.; Nayak, Sushrusha; Herzog, Roland W.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Pompe disease is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by lysosomal accumulation of glycogen from a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Replacement of the missing enzyme is available by repeated protein infusions; however, efficacy is limited by immune response and inability to restore enzymatic function in the central nervous system. An alternative therapeutic option is adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy, which results in widespread gene transfer and prolonged transgene expression. Both enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and gene therapy can elicit anti-GAA immune reactions that dampen their effectiveness and pose life-threatening risks to patient safety. To modulate the immune responses related to gene therapy, we show that a human codon-optimized GAA (coGAA) driven by a liver-specific promoter (LSP) using AAV9 is capable of promoting immune tolerance in a Gaa−/− mouse model. Copackaging AAV9-LSP-coGAA with the tissue-restricted desmin promoter (AAV9-DES-coGAA) demonstrates the necessary cell autonomous expression in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, peripheral nerve, and the spinal cord. Simultaneous high-level expression in liver led to the expansion of GAA-specific regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and induction of immune tolerance. Transfer of Tregs into naïve recipients prevented pathogenic allergic reactions after repeated ERT challenges. Copackaged AAV9 also attenuated preexisting humoral and cellular immune responses, which enhanced the biochemical correction. Our data present a therapeutic design in which simultaneous administration of two copackaged AAV constructs may provide therapeutic benefit and resolve immune reactions in the treatment of multisystem disorders. PMID:26603344

  1. AAV-Mediated Clarin-1 Expression in the Mouse Retina: Implications for USH3A Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dinculescu, Astra; Stupay, Rachel M; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dyka, Frank M; Min, Seok-Hong; Boye, Sanford L; Chiodo, Vince A; Abrahan, Carolina E; Zhu, Ping; Li, Qiuhong; Strettoi, Enrica; Novelli, Elena; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Wolfrum, Uwe; Smith, W Clay; Hauswirth, William W

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3A) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in clarin-1 (CLRN1) gene, leading to progressive retinal degeneration and sensorineural deafness. Efforts to develop therapies for preventing photoreceptor cell loss are hampered by the lack of a retinal phenotype in the existing USH3 mouse models and by conflicting reports regarding the endogenous retinal localization of clarin-1, a transmembrane protein of unknown function. In this study, we used an AAV-based approach to express CLRN1 in the mouse retina in order to determine the pattern of its subcellular localization in different cell types. We found that all major classes of retinal cells express AAV-delivered CLRN1 driven by the ubiquitous, constitutive small chicken β-actin promoter, which has important implications for the design of future USH3 gene therapy studies. Within photoreceptor cells, AAV-expressed CLRN1 is mainly localized at the inner segment region and outer plexiform layer, similar to the endogenous expression of other usher proteins. Subretinal delivery using a full strength viral titer led to significant loss of retinal function as evidenced by ERG analysis, suggesting that there is a critical limit for CLRN1 expression in photoreceptor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CLRN1 expression is potentially supported by a variety of retinal cells, and the right combination of AAV vector dose, promoter, and delivery method needs to be selected to develop safe therapies for USH3 disorder.

  2. AAV-expressed eCD4-Ig provides durable protection from multiple SHIV challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Matthew R.; Kattenhorn, Lisa M.; Kondur, Hema R.; von Schaewen, Markus; Dorfman, Tatyana; Chiang, Jessica J.; Haworth, Kevin G.; Decker, Julie M.; Alpert, Michael D.; Bailey, Charles C.; Neale, Ernest S.; Fellinger, Christoph H.; Joshi, Vinita R.; Fuchs, Sebastian P.; Martinez-Navio, Jose M.; Quinlan, Brian D.; Yao, Annie Y.; Mouquet, Hugo; Gorman, Jason; Zhang, Baoshan; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Burton, Dennis R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Evans, David T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ploss, Alexander; Cannon, Paula M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)1,2. However even the best bNAbs neutralize 10–50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (IC80 > 5 μg/ml), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection3–6. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean IC50 < 0.05 μg/ml). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46, and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17 to 77 μg/ml of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from multiple infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25707797

  3. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro Dystrophin Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    future experimental therapeutic studies in the canine model such as CRISPR -mediated gene editing, stem cell therapy, dystrophin-independent disease...There is no scientific/budget overlap with the current proposal.) CRISPR /Cas9-based gene editing for the correction of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...lab will perform in vivo gene delivery and functional outcome measurements in mice treated by AAV- CRISPR gene repair vectors and if needed will also

  4. Immune Responses to rAAV6: The Influence of Canine Parvovirus Vaccination and Neonatal Administration of Viral Vector.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Andrea L H; Garikipati, Dilip; Wang, Zejing; Tapscott, Stephen; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors promote long-term gene transfer in many animal species. Significant effort has focused on the evaluation of rAAV delivery and the immune response in both murine and canine models of neuromuscular disease. However, canines provided for research purposes are routinely vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV). rAAV and CPV possess significant homology and are both parvoviruses. Thus, any immune response generated to CPV vaccination has the potential to cross-react with rAAV vectors. In this study, we investigated the immune response to rAAV6 delivery in a cohort of CPV-vaccinated canines and evaluated multiple vaccination regimens in a mouse model of CPV-vaccination. We show that CPV-vaccination stimulates production of neutralizing antibodies with minimal cross-reactivity to rAAV6. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the rAAV6-directed immune response between CPV-vaccinated animals and controls. Moreover, CPV-vaccination did not inhibit rAAV6-mediated transduction. We also evaluated the immune response to early rAAV6-vaccination in neonatal mice. The influence of maternal hormones and cytokines leads to a relatively permissive state in the neonate. We hypothesized that immaturity of the immune system would permit induction of tolerance to rAAV6 when delivered during the neonatal period. Mice were vaccinated with rAAV6 at 1 or 5 days of age, and subsequently challenged with rAAV6 exposure during adulthood via two sequential IM injections, 1 month apart. All vaccinated animals generated a significant neutralizing antibody response to rAAV6-vaccination that was enhanced following IM injection in adulthood. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the immune response raised against rAAV6 is distinct from that which is elicited by the standard parvoviral vaccines and is sufficient to prevent stable tolerization in neonatal mice.

  5. Immune Responses to rAAV6: The Influence of Canine Parvovirus Vaccination and Neonatal Administration of Viral Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Andrea L. H.; Garikipati, Dilip; Wang, Zejing; Tapscott, Stephen; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors promote long-term gene transfer in many animal species. Significant effort has focused on the evaluation of rAAV delivery and the immune response in both murine and canine models of neuromuscular disease. However, canines provided for research purposes are routinely vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV). rAAV and CPV possess significant homology and are both parvoviruses. Thus, any immune response generated to CPV vaccination has the potential to cross-react with rAAV vectors. In this study, we investigated the immune response to rAAV6 delivery in a cohort of CPV-vaccinated canines and evaluated multiple vaccination regimens in a mouse model of CPV-vaccination. We show that CPV-vaccination stimulates production of neutralizing antibodies with minimal cross-reactivity to rAAV6. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the rAAV6-directed immune response between CPV-vaccinated animals and controls. Moreover, CPV-vaccination did not inhibit rAAV6-mediated transduction. We also evaluated the immune response to early rAAV6-vaccination in neonatal mice. The influence of maternal hormones and cytokines leads to a relatively permissive state in the neonate. We hypothesized that immaturity of the immune system would permit induction of tolerance to rAAV6 when delivered during the neonatal period. Mice were vaccinated with rAAV6 at 1 or 5 days of age, and subsequently challenged with rAAV6 exposure during adulthood via two sequential IM injections, 1 month apart. All vaccinated animals generated a significant neutralizing antibody response to rAAV6-vaccination that was enhanced following IM injection in adulthood. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the immune response raised against rAAV6 is distinct from that which is elicited by the standard parvoviral vaccines and is sufficient to prevent stable tolerization in neonatal mice. PMID:22065964

  6. AAV-mediated targeting of gene expression to the peri-infarct region in rat cortical stroke model.

    PubMed

    Mätlik, Kert; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Harvey, Brandon K; Arumäe, Urmas; Airavaara, Mikko

    2014-10-30

    For stroke patients the recovery of cognitive and behavioral functions is often incomplete. Functional recovery is thought to be mediated largely by connectivity rearrangements in the peri-infarct region. A method for manipulating gene expression in this region would be useful for identifying new recovery-enhancing treatments. We have characterized a way of targeting adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the peri-infarct region of cortical ischemic lesion in rats 2days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to show that the altered properties of post-ischemic brain tissue facilitate the spreading of intrastriatally injected nanoparticles toward the infarct. We show that subcortical injection of green fluorescent protein-encoding dsAAV7-GFP resulted in transduction of cells in and around the white matter tract underlying the lesion, and in the cortex proximal to the lesion. A similar result was achieved with dsAAV7 vector encoding the cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), a protein with therapeutic potential. Viral vector-mediated intracerebral gene delivery has been used before in rodent models of ischemic injury. However, the method of targeting gene expression to the peri-infarct region, after the initial phase of ischemic cell death, has not been described before. We demonstrate a straightforward and robust way to target AAV vector-mediated over-expression of genes to the peri-infarct region in a rat stroke model. This method will be useful for studying the action of specific proteins in peri-infarct region during the recovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro-Dystrophin Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    injection. We also showed that systemic delivery of a canine micro-dystrophin AAV vector is safe in young adult affected dogs. These results...In addition, we have performed a comprehensive review on the current status of DMD gene therapy in the canine model. We also contributed another...micro-dystrophin, adeno-associated virus, AAV, muscle, gene therapy, systemic gene delivery, canine model 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  8. Systemic injection of AAV9 carrying a periostin promoter targets gene expression to a myofibroblast-like lineage in mouse hearts after reperfused myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Piras, B A; Tian, Y; Xu, Y; Thomas, N A; O'Connor, D M; French, B A

    2016-05-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been used to direct gene transfer to a variety of tissues, including heart, liver, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney and lung, but it has not previously been shown to effectively target fibroblasts in vivo, including cardiac fibroblasts. We constructed expression cassettes using a modified periostin promoter to drive gene expression in a cardiac myofibroblast-like lineage, with only occasional spillover into cardiomyocyte-like cells. We compared AAV serotypes 6 and 9 and found robust gene expression when the vectors were delivered by systemic injection after myocardial infarction (MI), with little expression in healthy, non-infarcted mice. AAV9 provided expression in a greater number of cells than AAV6, with reporter gene expression visible in the cardiac infarct and border zones from 5 to 62 days post MI, as assessed by luciferase and Cre-activated green fluorescent protein expression. Although common myofibroblast markers were expressed in low abundance, most of the targeted cells expressed myosin IIb, an embryonic form of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain that has previously been associated with myofibroblasts after reperfused MI. This study is the first to demonstrate AAV-mediated expression in a potentially novel myofibroblast-like lineage in mouse hearts post MI and may open new avenues of gene therapy to treat patients surviving MI.

  9. Repeat Transduction in the Mouse Lung by Using Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors with Different Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Christine L.; Rutledge, Elizabeth A.; Allen, James M.; Russell, David W.; Miller, A. Dusty

    2000-01-01

    Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) promote gene transfer and expression in the lung; however, we have found that while gene expression can persist for at least 8 months in mice, it was reduced dramatically in rabbits over a period of 2 months. The efficiency and persistence of AAV2-mediated gene expression in the human lung have yet to be determined, but it seems likely that readministration will be necessary over the lifetime of an individual. Unfortunately, we have found that transduction by a second administration of an AAV2 vector is blocked, presumably due to neutralizing antibodies generated in response to the primary vector exposure. Here, we have explored the use of AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with capsid proteins from AAV serotypes 2, 3, and 6 for readministration in the mouse lung. We found that an AAV6 vector transduced airway epithelial and alveolar cells in the lung at rates that were at least as high as those of AAV2 pseudotype vectors, while transduction rates mediated by AAV3 were much lower. AAV6 pseudotype vector transduction was unaffected by prior administration of an AAV2 or AAV3 vector, and transduction by an AAV2 pseudotype vector was unaffected by prior AAV6 vector administration, showing that cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against AAV2 and AAV6 are not generated in mice. Interestingly, while prior administration of an AAV2 vector completely blocked transduction by a second AAV2 pseudotype vector, prior administration of an AAV6 vector only partially inhibited transduction by a second administration of an AAV6 pseudotype vector. Analysis of sera obtained from mice and humans showed that AAV6 is less immunogenic than AAV2, which helps explain this finding. These results support the development of AAV6 vectors for lung gene therapy both alone and in combination with AAV2 vectors. PMID:10627564

  10. Characterization of intravitreally delivered capsid mutant AAV2-Cre vector to induce tissue-specific mutations in murine retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Langouet-Astrie, Christophe J; Yang, Zhiyong; Polisetti, Sraavya M; Welsbie, Derek S; Hauswirth, William W; Zack, Donald J; Merbs, Shannath L; Enke, Raymond A

    2016-10-01

    Targeted expression of Cre recombinase in murine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by viral vector is an effective strategy for creating tissue-specific gene knockouts for investigation of genetic contribution to RGC degeneration associated with optic neuropathies. Here we characterize dosage, efficacy and toxicity for sufficient intravitreal delivery of a capsid mutant Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector encoding Cre recombinase. Wild type and Rosa26 (R26) LacZ mice were intravitreally injected with capsid mutant AAV2 viral vectors. Murine eyes were harvested at intervals ranging from 2 weeks to 15 weeks post-injection and were assayed for viral transduction, transgene expression and RGC survival. 10(9) vector genomes (vg) were sufficient for effective in vivo targeting of murine ganglion cell layer (GCL) retinal neurons. Transgene expression was observed as early as 2 weeks post-injection of viral vectors and persisted to 11 weeks. Early expression of Cre had no significant effect on RGC survival, while significant RGC loss was detected beginning 5 weeks post-injection. Early expression of viral Cre recombinase was robust, well-tolerated and predominantly found in GCL neurons suggesting this strategy can be effective in short-term RGC-specific mutation studies in experimental glaucoma models such as optic nerve crush and transection experiments. RGC degeneration with Cre expression for more than 4 weeks suggests that Cre toxicity is a limiting factor for targeted mutation strategies in RGCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prolonged expression of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody to the female rhesus macaque lower genital tract by AAV gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.

  12. Prolonged Expression of an Anti-HIV-1 gp120 Minibody to the Female Rhesus Macaque Lower Genital Tract by AAV Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Motal, Ussama M.; Harbison, Carole; Han, Thomas; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J.; Zhu, Quan; Westmoreland, Susan; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women, however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally-related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various GFP-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intra-vaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intra-vaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79 day study period. These data provide proof-of-principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection. PMID:24965083

  13. Establishment of an AAV Reverse Infection-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Dong, Zheyue; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xue, Jinglun; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jinzhong

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of a convenient high-throughput gene transduction approach is critical for biological screening. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are broadly used in gene therapy studies, yet their applications in in vitro high-throughput gene transduction are limited. Principal Findings We established an AAV reverse infection (RI)-based method in which cells were transduced by quantified recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) pre-coated onto 96-well plates. The number of pre-coated rAAV particles and number of cells loaded per well, as well as the temperature stability of the rAAVs on the plates, were evaluated. As the first application of this method, six serotypes or hybrid serotypes of rAAVs (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5/5, AAV8, AAV25 m, AAV28 m) were compared for their transduction efficiencies using various cell lines, including BHK21, HEK293, BEAS-2BS, HeLaS3, Huh7, Hepa1-6, and A549. AAV2 and AAV1 displayed high transduction efficiency; thus, they were deemed to be suitable candidate vectors for the RI-based array. We next evaluated the impact of sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment on rAAV vector-mediated reporter gene expression and found it was significantly enhanced, suggesting that our system reflected the biological response of target cells to specific treatments. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a novel method for establishing a highly efficient gene transduction array that may be developed into a platform for cell biological assays. PMID:20976058

  14. The Skeletal Muscle Environment and Its Role in Immunity and Tolerance to AAV Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Boisgérault, Florence; Mingozzi, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of gene therapy, muscle has been one the most studied tissue targets for the correction of enzyme deficiencies and myopathies. Several preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Exciting progress has been made in the gene delivery technologies, from the identification of novel AAV serotypes to the development of novel vector delivery techniques. In parallel, significant knowledge has been generated on the host immune system and its interaction with both the vector and the transgene at the muscle level. In particular, the role of underlying muscle inflammation, characteristic of several diseases affecting the muscle, has been defined in terms of its potential detrimental impact on gene transfer with AAV vectors. At the same time, feedback immunomodulatory mechanisms peculiar of skeletal muscle involving resident regulatory T cells have been identified, which seem to play an important role in maintaining, at least to some extent, muscle homeostasis during inflammation and regenerative processes. Devising strategies to tip this balance towards unresponsiveness may represent an avenue to improve the safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer with AAV vectors. PMID:26122097

  15. Systemic delivery of shRNA by AAV9 provides highly efficient knockdown of ubiquitously expressed GFP in mouse heart, but not liver.

    PubMed

    Piras, Bryan A; O'Connor, Daniel M; French, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    AAV9 is a powerful gene delivery vehicle capable of providing long-term gene expression in a variety of cell types, particularly cardiomyocytes. The use of AAV-delivery for RNA interference is an intense area of research, but a comprehensive analysis of knockdown in cardiac and liver tissues after systemic delivery of AAV9 has yet to be reported. We sought to address this question by using AAV9 to deliver a short-hairpin RNA targeting the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic mice that constitutively overexpress GFP in all tissues. The expression cassette was initially tested in vitro and we demonstrated a 61% reduction in mRNA and a 90% reduction in GFP protein in dual-transfected 293 cells. Next, the expression cassette was packaged as single-stranded genomes in AAV9 capsids to test cardiac GFP knockdown with several doses ranging from 1.8×10(10) to 1.8×10(11) viral genomes per mouse and a dose-dependent response was obtained. We then analyzed GFP expression in both heart and liver after delivery of 4.4×10(11) viral genomes per mouse. We found that while cardiac knockdown was highly efficient, with a 77% reduction in GFP mRNA and a 71% reduction in protein versus control-treated mice, there was no change in liver expression. This was despite a 4.5-fold greater number of viral genomes in the liver than in the heart. This study demonstrates that single-stranded AAV9 vectors expressing shRNA can be used to achieve highly efficient cardiac-selective knockdown of GFP expression that is sustained for at least 7 weeks after the systemic injection of 8 day old mice, with no change in liver expression and no evidence of liver damage despite high viral genome presence in the liver.

  16. Cellular selectivity of AAV serotypes for gene delivery in neurons and astrocytes by neonatal intracerebroventricular injection

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Sean L.; Leek, Ashley N.; Richman, Evan H.

    2017-01-01

    The non-pathogenic parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is an efficient vector for transgene expression in vivo and shows promise for treatment of brain disorders in clinical trials. Currently, there are more than 100 AAV serotypes identified that differ in the binding capacity of capsid proteins to specific cell surface receptors that can transduce different cell types and brain regions in the CNS. In the current study, multiple AAV serotypes expressing a GFP reporter (AAV1, AAV2/1, AAVDJ, AAV8, AAVDJ8, AAV9, AAVDJ9) were screened for their infectivity in both primary murine astrocyte and neuronal cell cultures. AAV2/1, AAVDJ8 and AAV9 were selected for further investigation of their tropism throughout different brain regions and cell types. Each AAV was administered to P0-neonatal mice via intracerebroventricular injections (ICV). Brains were then systematically analyzed for GFP expression at 3 or 6 weeks post-infection in various regions, including the olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra (SN) and cerebellum. Cell counting data revealed that AAV2/1 infections were more prevalent in the cortical layers but penetrated to the midbrain less than AAVDJ8 and AAV9. Additionally, there were differences in the persistence of viral transgene expression amongst the three serotypes examined in vivo at 3 and 6 weeks post-infection. Because AAV-mediated transgene expression is of interest in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease, we examined the SN with microscopy techniques, such as CLARITY tissue transmutation, to identify AAV serotypes that resulted in optimal transgene expression in either astrocytes or dopaminergic neurons. AAVDJ8 displayed more tropism in astrocytes compared to AAV9 in the SN region. We conclude that ICV injection results in lasting expression of virally encoded transgene when using AAV vectors and that specific AAV serotypes are required to selectively deliver transgenes of interest to different brain

  17. Hybrid Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Utilizing Transposase-Mediated Somatic Integration for Stable Transgene Expression in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Müther, Nadine; Ebel, Melanie; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been shown to be one of the most promising vectors for therapeutic gene delivery because they can induce efficient and long-term transduction in non-dividing cells with negligible side-effects. However, as AAV vectors mostly remain episomal, vector genomes and transgene expression are lost in dividing cells. Therefore, to stably transduce cells, we developed a novel AAV/transposase hybrid-vector. To facilitate SB-mediated transposition from the rAAV genome, we established a system in which one AAV vector contains the transposon with the gene of interest and the second vector delivers the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase SB100X. Human cells were infected with the AAV-transposon vector and the transposase was provided in trans either by transient and stable plasmid transfection or by AAV vector transduction. We found that groups which received the hyperactive transposase SB100X showed significantly increased colony forming numbers indicating enhanced integration efficiencies. Furthermore, we found that transgene copy numbers in transduced cells were dose-dependent and that predominantly SB transposase-mediated transposition contributed to stabilization of the transgene. Based on a plasmid rescue strategy and a linear-amplification mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) protocol we analysed the SB100X-mediated integration profile after transposition from the AAV vector. A total of 1840 integration events were identified which revealed a close to random integration profile. In summary, we show for the first time that AAV vectors can serve as template for SB transposase mediated somatic integration. We developed the first prototype of this hybrid-vector system which with further improvements may be explored for treatment of diseases which originate from rapidly dividing cells. PMID:24116154

  18. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene correction using single AAV vector transduction and enhancement by Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, BL; Hirsch, ML; Porter, SN; Samulski, RJ; Porteus, MH

    2016-01-01

    An emerging strategy for the treatment of monogenic diseases uses genetic engineering to precisely correct the mutation(s) at the genome level. Recent advancements in this technology have demonstrated therapeutic levels of gene correction using a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-induced DNA double-strand break in conjunction with an exogenous DNA donor substrate. This strategy requires efficient nucleic acid delivery and among viral vectors, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has demonstrated clinical success without pathology. However, a major limitation of rAAV is the small DNA packaging capacity and to date, the use of rAAV for ZFN gene delivery has yet to be reported. Theoretically, an ideal situation is to deliver both ZFNs and the repair substrate in a single vector to avoid inefficient gene targeting and unwanted mutagenesis, both complications of a rAAV co-transduction strategy. Therefore, a rAAV format was generated in which a single polypeptide encodes the ZFN monomers connected by a ribosome skipping 2A peptide and furin cleavage sequence. On the basis of this arrangement, a DNA repair substrate of 750 nucleotides was also included in this vector. Efficient polypeptide processing to discrete ZFNs is demonstrated, as well as the ability of this single vector format to stimulate efficient gene targeting in a human cell line and mouse model derived fibroblasts. Additionally, we increased rAAV-mediated gene correction up to sixfold using a combination of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, which act at the level of AAV vector transduction. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the ability to deliver ZFNs and a repair substrate by a single AAV vector and offer insights for the optimization of rAAV-mediated gene correction using drug therapy. PMID:22257934

  19. Detectable reporter gene expression following transduction of adenovirus and adeno-associated virus serotype 2 vectors within full-thickness osteoarthritic and unaffected canine cartilage in vitro and unaffected guinea pig cartilage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Kelly S; Baker, Sarah A; Nuovo, Gerard; Dyce, Jonathan; Bartlett, Jeffrey S; Bertone, Alicia L

    2010-02-01

    This study quantified and compared the transduction efficiencies of adenoviral (Ad), Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified Ad, adeno-associated viral serotype 2 (AAV2), and self-complementary AAV2 (scAAV2) vectors within full-thickness osteoarthritic (OA) and unaffected canine cartilage explants in vitro. Intraarticular administration of Ad and scAAV2 vectors was performed to determine the ability of these vectors to transduce unaffected guinea pig cartilage in vivo. Following explant exposure to vector treatment or control, the onset and surface distribution of reporter gene expression was monitored daily with fluorescent microscopy. At termination, explants were divided: one half was digested for analysis using flow cytometry; the remaining portion was used for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Intact articular joints were collected for real-time RT-PCR and IHC to detect reporter gene expression following injection of selected vectors. Ad vector transduced focal areas along the perimeters of explants; the remaining vectors transduced chondrocytes across 100% of the surface. Greater mean transduction efficiencies were found with both AAV2 vectors as compared to the Ad vector (p < or = 0.026). Ad and Ad-RGD vectors transduced only superficial chondrocytes of OA and unaffected cartilage. Uniform reporter gene expression from AAV2 and scAAV2 was detected in the tangential and transitional zones of OA cartilage, but not deeper zones. AAV2 and scAAV2 vectors achieved partial and full-thickness transduction of unaffected cartilage. In vivo work revealed that scAAV2 vector, but not Ad vector, transduced deeper zones of cartilage and menisci. This study demonstrates that AAV2 and scAAV2 are reliable vectors for use in cartilage in vitro and in vivo. (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Tyrosine Mutation in AAV9 Capsid Improves Gene Transfer to the Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sabrina V; Silva, Adriana L; Ferreira, Debora; Rabelo, Rafael; Ornellas, Felipe M; Gomes, Karina; Rocco, Patricia R M; Petrs-Silva, Hilda; Morales, Marcelo M

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are being increasingly used as the vector of choice for in vivo gene delivery and gene therapy for many pulmonary diseases. Recently, it was shown that phosphorylation of surface-exposed tyrosine residues from AAV capsid targets the viral particles for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and mutations of these tyrosine residues lead to highly efficient vector transduction in vitro and in vivo in different organs. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary transgene expression efficacy of AAV9 vectors containing point mutations in surface-exposed capsid tyrosine residues. Eighteen C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) a control group (CTRL) animals underwent intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of saline, (2) the wild-type AAV9 group (WT-AAV9, 1010 vg), and (3) the tyrosine-mutant Y731F AAV9 group (M-AAV9, 1010 vg), which received (i.t.) self-complementary AAV9 vectors containing the DNA sequence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). Four weeks after instillation, lung mechanics, morphometry, tissue cellularity, gene expression, inflammatory cytokines, and growth factor expression were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in lung mechanics and morphometry among the experimental groups. However, the number of polymorphonuclear cells was higher in the WT-AAV9 group than in the CTRL and M-AAV9 groups, suggesting that the administration of tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors was better tolerated. Tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors significantly improved transgene delivery to the lung (30%) compared with their wild-type counterparts, without eliciting an inflammatory response. Our results provide the impetus for further studies to exploit the use of AAV9 vectors as a tool for pulmonary gene therapy. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effective genetic modification and differentiation of hMSCs upon controlled release of rAAV vectors using alginate/poloxamer composite systems.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, P; Rey-Rico, A; Madry, H; Landin, M; Cucchiarini, M

    2015-12-30

    Viral vectors are common tools in gene therapy to deliver foreign therapeutic sequences in a specific target population via their natural cellular entry mechanisms. Incorporating such vectors in implantable systems may provide strong alternatives to conventional gene transfer procedures. The goal of the present study was to generate different hydrogel structures based on alginate (AlgPH155) and poloxamer PF127 as new systems to encapsulate and release recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors. Inclusion of rAAV in such polymeric capsules revealed an influence of the hydrogel composition and crosslinking temperature upon the vector release profiles, with alginate (AlgPH155) structures showing the fastest release profiles early on while over time vector release was more effective from AlgPH155+PF127 [H] capsules crosslinked at a high temperature (50°C). Systems prepared at room temperature (AlgPH155+PF127 [C]) allowed instead to achieve a more controlled release profile. When tested for their ability to target human mesenchymal stem cells, the different systems led to high transduction efficiencies over time and to gene expression levels in the range of those achieved upon direct vector application, especially when using AlgPH155+PF127 [H]. No detrimental effects were reported on either cell viability or on the potential for chondrogenic differentiation. Inclusion of PF127 in the capsules was also capable of delaying undesirable hypertrophic cell differentiation. These findings are of promising value for the further development of viral vector controlled release strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Superior In vivo Transduction of Human Hepatocytes Using Engineered AAV3 Capsid.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Koen; Hoffman, Brad E; Zolotukhin, Irene; Keeler, Geoffrey D; Xiao, Jing W; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; High, Katherine A; Ertl, Hildegund Cj; Rice, Charles M; Srivastava, Arun; de Jong, Ype P; Herzog, Roland W

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are currently being tested in multiple clinical trials for liver-directed gene transfer to treat the bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B and metabolic disorders. The optimal viral capsid for transduction of human hepatocytes has been under active investigation, but results across various models are inconsistent. We tested in vivo transduction in "humanized" mice. Methods to quantitate percent AAV transduced human and murine hepatocytes in chimeric livers were optimized using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with image analysis. Distinct transduction efficiencies were noted following peripheral vein administration of a self-complementary vector expressing a gfp reporter gene. An engineered AAV3 capsid with two amino acid changes, S663V+T492V (AAV3-ST), showed best efficiency for human hepatocytes (~3-times, ~8-times, and ~80-times higher than for AAV9, AAV8, and AAV5, respectively). AAV5, 8, and 9 were more efficient in transducing murine than human hepatocytes. AAV8 yielded the highest transduction rate of murine hepatocytes, which was 19-times higher than that for human hepatocytes. In summary, our data show substantial differences among AAV serotypes in transduction of human and mouse hepatocytes, are the first to report on AAV5 in humanized mice, and support the use of AAV3-based vectors for human liver gene transfer.

  3. Sustained AAV9-mediated expression of a non-self protein in the CNS of non-human primates after immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramsingh, Arlene I.; Gray, Steven J.; Reilly, Andrew; Koday, Michael; Bratt, Debbie; Koday, Merika Treants; Murnane, Robert; Hu, Yuhui; Messer, Anne

    2018-01-01

    A critical issue in transgene delivery studies is immune reactivity to the transgene- encoded protein and its impact on sustained gene expression. Here, we test the hypothesis that immunomodulation by rapamycin can decrease immune reactivity after intrathecal AAV9 delivery of a transgene (GFP) in non-human primates, resulting in sustained GFP expression in the CNS. We show that rapamycin treatment clearly reduced the overall immunogenicity of the AAV9/GFP vector by lowering GFP- and AAV9-specific antibody responses, and decreasing T cell responses including cytokine and cytolytic effector responses. Spinal cord GFP protein expression was sustained for twelve weeks, with no toxicity. Immune correlates of robust transgene expression include negligible GFP-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, absence of GFP-specific IFN-γ producing T cells, and absence of GFP-specific cytotoxic T cells, which support the hypothesis that decreased T cell reactivity results in sustained transgene expression. These data strongly support the use of modest doses of rapamycin to modulate immune responses for intrathecal gene therapies, and potentially a much wider range of viral vector-based therapeutics. PMID:29874260

  4. Transduction of rat pancreatic islets with pseudotyped adeno-associated virus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Anthony T; Gavrilova, Oksana; Dwyer, Nancy K; Jou, William; Pack, Stephanie; Liu, Eric; Pechhold, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael; McAlister, Victor J; Chiorini, John A; Blanchette-Mackie, E Joan; Harlan, David M; Owens, Roland A

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus, but current immunosuppressive strategies do not consistently provide long-term survival of transplanted islets. We are therefore investigating the use of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as gene therapy vectors to transduce rat islets with immunosuppressive genes prior to transplantation into diabetic mice. Results We compared the transduction efficiency of AAV2 vectors with an AAV2 capsid (AAV2/2) to AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with AAV5 (AAV2/5), AAV8 (AAV2/8) or bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) capsids, or an AAV2 capsid with an insertion of the low density lipoprotein receptor ligand from apolipoprotein E (AAV2apoE), on cultured islets, in the presence of helper adenovirus infection to speed expression of a GFP transgene. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used. The AAV2/5 vector was superior to AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 in rat islets. Flow cytometry indicated AAV2/5-mediated gene expression in approximately 9% of rat islet cells and almost 12% of insulin-positive cells. The AAV2/8 vector had a higher dependence on the helper virus multiplicity of infection than the AAV 2/5 vector. In addition, the BAAV and AAV2apoE vectors were superior to AAV2/2 for transducing rat islets. Rat islets (300 per mouse) transduced with an AAV2/5 vector harboring the immunosuppressive transgene, tgfβ1, retain the ability to correct hyperglycemia when transplanted into immune-deficient diabetic mice. Conclusion AAV2/5 vectors may therefore be useful for pre-treating donor islets prior to transplantation. PMID:19450275

  5. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  6. Differential effects of two MRI contrast agents on the integrity and distribution of rAAV2 and rAAV5 in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Osting, Sue; Bennett, Antonette; Power, Shelby; Wackett, Jordan; Hurley, Samuel A; Alexander, Andrew L; Agbandje-Mckena, Mavis; Burger, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a method to optimize intracerebral targeting and for tracking infusate distribution in gene therapy trials for nervous system disorders. We thus investigated possible effects of two MRI contrast agents, gadoteridol (Gd) and galbumin (Gab), on the distribution and levels of transgene expression in the rat striatum and their effect on integrity and stability of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) particles. MRI studies showed that contrast agent distribution did not predict rAAV distribution. However, green fluorescent protein (GFP) immunoreactivity revealed an increase in distribution of rAAV5-GFP, but not rAAV2-GFP, in the presence of Gd when compared with viral vector injected alone. In contrast, Gab increased the distribution of rAAV2-GFP not rAAV5-GFP. These observations pointed to a direct effect of infused contrast agent on the rAAV particles. Negative-stain electron microscopy (EM), DNAase treatment, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to monitor rAAV2 and rAAV5 particle integrity and stability following contrast agent incubation. EMs of rAAV2-GFP and rAAV5-GFP particles pretreated with Gd appear morphologically similar to the untreated sample; however, Gab treatment resulted in surface morphology changes and aggregation. A compromise of particle integrity was suggested by sensitivity of the packaged genome to DNAase treatment following Gab incubation but not Gd for both vectors. However, neither agent significantly affected particle stability when analyzed by DSC. An increase in Tm was observed for AAV2 in lactated Ringer’s buffer. These results thus highlight potential interactions between MRI contrast agents and AAV that might affect vector distribution and stability, as well as the stabilizing effect of lactated Ringer’s solution on AAV2. PMID:26015943

  7. Impact of age and vector construct on striatal and nigral transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Polinski, Nicole K; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Benskey, Matthew J; Fischer, D Luke; Kemp, Christopher J; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Sandoval, Ivette M; Paumier, Katrina L; Sortwell, Caryl E

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic protein delivery using viral vectors has shown promise in preclinical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) but clinical trial success remains elusive. This may partially be due to a failure to include advanced age as a covariate despite aging being the primary risk factor for PD. We investigated transgene expression following intracerebral injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotypes 2/2 (rAAV2/2), 2/5 (rAAV2/5), 2/9 (rAAV2/9), and lentivirus (LV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in aged versus young adult rats. Both rAAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 yielded lower GFP expression following injection to either the aged substantia nigra or striatum. rAAV2/9-mediated GFP expression was deficient in the aged striatonigral system but displayed identical transgene expression between ages in the nigrostriatal system. Young and aged rats displayed equivalent GFP levels following LV injection to the striatonigral system but LV-delivered GFP was deficient in delivering GFP to the aged nigrostriatal system. Notably, age-related transgene expression deficiencies revealed by protein quantitation were poorly predicted by GFP-immunoreactive cell counts. Further, in situ hybridization for the viral CβA promoter revealed surprisingly limited tropism for astrocytes compared to neurons. Our results demonstrate that aging is a critical covariate to consider when designing gene therapy approaches for PD. PMID:27933309

  8. Intraganglionic AAV6 results in efficient and long-term gene transfer to peripheral sensory nervous system in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongwei; Fischer, Gregory; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Fan, Fan; Light, Alan R; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Sapunar, Damir; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Park, Frank; Hogan, Quinn H

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated safe and reliable gene transfer to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using a direct microinjection procedure to deliver recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. In this study, we proceed to compare the in vivo transduction patterns of self-complementary (sc) AAV6 and AAV8 in the peripheral sensory pathway. A single, direct microinjection of either AAV6 or AAV8 expressing EGFP, at the adjusted titer of 2×10(9) viral particle per DRG, into the lumbar (L) 4 and L5 DRGs of adult rats resulted in efficient EGFP expression (48±20% for AAV6 and 25±4% for AAV8, mean ± SD) selectively in sensory neurons and their axonal projections 3 weeks after injection, which remained stable for up to 3 months. AAV6 efficiently transfers EGFP to all neuronal size groups without differential neurotropism, while AAV8 predominantly targets large-sized neurons. Neurons transduced with AAV6 penetrate into the spinal dorsal horn (DH) and terminate predominantly in superficial DH laminae, as well as in the dorsal columns and deeper laminae III-V. Only few AAV8-transduced afferents were evident in the superficial laminae, and spinal EGFP was mostly present in the deeper dorsal horn (lamina III-V) and dorsal columns, with substantial projections to the ventral horn. AAV6-mediated EGFP-positive nerve fibers were widely observed in the medial plantar skin of ipsilateral hindpaws. No apparent inflammation, tissue damage, or major pain behaviors were observed for either AAV serotype. Taken together, both AAV6 and AAV8 are efficient and safe vectors for transgene delivery to primary sensory neurons, but they exhibit distinct functional features. Intraganglionic delivery of AAV6 is more uniform and efficient compared to AAV8 in gene transfer to peripheral sensory neurons and their axonal processes.

  9. Recombinant Human Parvovirus B19 Vectors: Erythroid Cell-Specific Delivery and Expression of Transduced Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Weigel, Kirsten A.; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Yoder, Mervin C.; Srivastava, Arun

    1998-01-01

    A novel packaging strategy combining the salient features of two human parvoviruses, namely the pathogenic parvovirus B19 and the nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV), was developed to achieve erythroid cell-specific delivery as well as expression of the transduced gene. The development of such a chimeric vector system was accomplished by packaging heterologous DNA sequences cloned within the inverted terminal repeats of AAV and subsequently packaging the DNA inside the capsid structure of B19 virus. Recombinant B19 virus particles were assembled, as evidenced by electron microscopy as well as DNA slot blot analyses. The hybrid vector failed to transduce nonerythroid human cells, such as 293 cells, as expected. However, MB-02 cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line which can be infected by B19 virus following erythroid differentiation with erythropoietin (N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, M. J. Woody, D. A. Morgan, and A. Srivastava, J. Virol. 67:562–566, 1993) but lacks the putative receptor for AAV (S. Ponnazhagan, X.-S. Wang, M. J. Woody, F. Luo, L. Y. Kang, M. L. Nallari, N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, and A. Srivastava, J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111–1122, 1996), were readily transduced by this vector. The hybrid vector was also found to specifically target the erythroid population in primary human bone marrow cells as well as more immature hematopoietic progenitor cells following erythroid differentiation, as evidenced by selective expression of the transduced gene in these target cells. Preincubation with anticapsid antibodies against B19 virus, but not anticapsid antibodies against AAV, inhibited transduction of primary human erythroid cells. The efficiency of transduction of primary human erythroid cells by the recombinant B19 virus vector was significantly higher than that by the recombinant AAV vector. Further development of the AAV-B19 virus hybrid vector system should prove beneficial in gene therapy protocols aimed at the correction of inherited

  10. AAV liver expression of FIX-Padua prevents and eradicates FIX inhibitor without increasing thrombogenicity in hemophilia B dogs and mice.

    PubMed

    Crudele, Julie M; Finn, Jonathan D; Siner, Joshua I; Martin, Nicholas B; Niemeyer, Glenn P; Zhou, Shangzhen; Mingozzi, Federico; Lothrop, Clinton D; Arruda, Valder R

    2015-03-05

    Emerging successful clinical data on gene therapy using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector for hemophilia B (HB) showed that the risk of cellular immune response to vector capsid is clearly dose dependent. To decrease the vector dose, we explored AAV-8 (1-3 × 10(12) vg/kg) encoding a hyperfunctional factor IX (FIX-Padua, arginine 338 to leucine) in FIX inhibitor-prone HB dogs. Two naïve HB dogs showed sustained expression of FIX-Padua with an 8- to 12-fold increased specific activity reaching 25% to 40% activity without antibody formation to FIX. A third dog with preexisting FIX inhibitors exhibited a transient anamnestic response (5 Bethesda units) at 2 weeks after vector delivery following by spontaneous eradication of the antibody to FIX by day 70. In this dog, sustained FIX expression reached ∼200% and 30% of activity and antigen levels, respectively. Immune tolerance was confirmed in all dogs after challenges with plasma-derived FIX concentrate. Shortening of the clotting times and lack of bleeding episodes support the phenotypic correction of the severe phenotype, with no clinical or laboratory evidence of risk of thrombosis. Provocative studies in mice showed that FIX-Padua exhibits similar immunogenicity and thrombogenicity compared with FIX wild type. Collectively, these data support the potential translation of gene-based strategies using FIX-Padua for HB. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165-transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue.

    PubMed

    Moimas, Silvia; Manasseri, Benedetto; Cuccia, Giuseppe; Stagno d'Alcontres, Francesco; Geuna, Stefano; Pattarini, Lucia; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Colonna, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen-glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  12. Effects of AAV-mediated knockdown of nNOS and GPx-1 gene expression in rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Boone, Deborah R; Leek, Jeanna M; Falduto, Michael T; Torres, Karen E O; Sell, Stacy L; Parsley, Margaret A; Cowart, Jeremy C; Uchida, Tatsuo; Micci, Maria-Adelaide; DeWitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S; Hellmich, Helen L

    2017-01-01

    Virally mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down injury-induced genes could improve functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, little is known about the consequences of gene knockdown on downstream cell signaling pathways and how RNAi influences neurodegeneration and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV) siRNA vectors that target two genes with opposing roles in TBI pathogenesis: the allegedly detrimental neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the potentially protective glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). In rat hippocampal progenitor cells, three siRNAs that target different regions of each gene (nNOS, GPx-1) effectively knocked down gene expression. However, in vivo, in our rat model of fluid percussion brain injury, the consequences of AAV-siRNA were variable. One nNOS siRNA vector significantly reduced the number of degenerating hippocampal neurons and showed a tendency to improve working memory. GPx-1 siRNA treatment did not alter TBI-induced neurodegeneration or working memory deficits. Nevertheless, microarray analysis of laser captured, virus-infected neurons showed that knockdown of nNOS or GPx-1 was specific and had broad effects on downstream genes. Since nNOS knockdown only modestly ameliorated TBI-induced working memory deficits, despite widespread genomic changes, manipulating expression levels of single genes may not be sufficient to alter functional outcome after TBI.

  13. rAAV-compatible MiniPromoters for restricted expression in the brain and eye.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Charles N; Korecki, Andrea J; Berry, Garrett E; Hickmott, Jack W; Lam, Siu Ling; Lengyell, Tess C; Bonaguro, Russell J; Borretta, Lisa J; Chopra, Vikramjit; Chou, Alice Y; D'Souza, Cletus A; Kaspieva, Olga; Laprise, Stéphanie; McInerny, Simone C; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Swanson-Newman, Magdalena I; Wong, Kaelan; Yang, George S; Zhou, Michelle; Jones, Steven J M; Holt, Robert A; Asokan, Aravind; Goldowitz, Daniel; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-10

    Small promoters that recapitulate endogenous gene expression patterns are important for basic, preclinical, and now clinical research. Recently, there has been a promising revival of gene therapy for diseases with unmet therapeutic needs. To date, most gene therapies have used viral-based ubiquitous promoters-however, promoters that restrict expression to target cells will minimize off-target side effects, broaden the palette of deliverable therapeutics, and thereby improve safety and efficacy. Here, we take steps towards filling the need for such promoters by developing a high-throughput pipeline that goes from genome-based bioinformatic design to rapid testing in vivo. For much of this work, therapeutically interesting Pleiades MiniPromoters (MiniPs; ~4 kb human DNA regulatory elements), previously tested in knock-in mice, were "cut down" to ~2.5 kb and tested in recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), the virus of choice for gene therapy of the central nervous system. To evaluate our methods, we generated 29 experimental rAAV2/9 viruses carrying 19 different MiniPs, which were injected intravenously into neonatal mice to allow broad unbiased distribution, and characterized in neural tissues by X-gal immunohistochemistry for icre, or immunofluorescent detection of GFP. The data showed that 16 of the 19 (84 %) MiniPs recapitulated the expression pattern of their design source. This included expression of: Ple67 in brain raphe nuclei; Ple155 in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and retinal bipolar ON cells; Ple261 in endothelial cells of brain blood vessels; and Ple264 in retinal Müller glia. Overall, the methodology and MiniPs presented here represent important advances for basic and preclinical research, and may enable a paradigm shift in gene therapy.

  14. Assessment of tropism and effectiveness of new primate-derived hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes in the mouse and primate retina.

    PubMed

    Charbel Issa, Peter; De Silva, Samantha R; Lipinski, Daniel M; Singh, Mandeep S; Mouravlev, Alexandre; You, Qisheng; Barnard, Alun R; Hankins, Mark W; During, Matthew J; Maclaren, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have been shown to be safe in the treatment of retinal degenerations in clinical trials. Thus, improving the efficiency of viral gene delivery has become increasingly important to increase the success of clinical trials. In this study, structural domains of different rAAV serotypes isolated from primate brain were combined to create novel hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes, rAAV2/rec2 and rAAV2/rec3. The efficacy of these novel serotypes were assessed in wild type mice and in two models of retinal degeneration (the Abca4(-/-) mouse which is a model for Stargardt disease and in the Pde6b(rd1/rd1) mouse) in vivo, in primate tissue ex-vivo, and in the human-derived SH-SY5Y cell line, using an identical AAV2 expression cassette. We show that these novel hybrid serotypes can transduce retinal tissue in mice and primates efficiently, although no more than AAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 serotypes. Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4(-/-) mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. Shuffling of AAV capsid domains may have clinical applications for patients who develop T-cell immune responses following AAV gene therapy, as specific peptide antigen sequences could be substituted using this technique prior to vector re-treatments.

  15. Cre-dependent selection yields AAV variants for widespread gene transfer to the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Deverman, Benjamin E.; Pravdo, Piers L.; Simpson, Bryan P.; Kumar, Sripriya Ravindra; Chan, Ken Y.; Banerjee, Abhik; Wu, Wei-Li; Yang, Bin; Huber, Nina; Pasca, Sergiu P.; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are commonly used vehicles for in vivo gene transfer1-6. However, the tropism repertoire of naturally occurring AAVs is limited, prompting a search for novel AAV capsids with desired characteristics7-13. Here we describe a capsid selection method, called Cre-recombination-based AAV targeted evolution (CREATE), that enables the development of AAV capsids that more efficiently transduce defined Cre-expressing cell populations in vivo. We use CREATE to generate AAV variants that efficiently and widely transduce the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS) after intravenous injection. One variant, AAV-PHP.B, transfers genes throughout the CNS with an efficiency that is at least 40-fold greater than that of the current standard, AAV914-17, and transduces the majority of astrocytes and neurons across multiple CNS regions. In vitro, it transduces human neurons and astrocytes more efficiently than does AAV9, demonstrating the potential of CREATE to produce customized AAV vectors for biomedical applications. PMID:26829320

  16. Formation of AAV Single Stranded DNA Genome from a Circular Plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  17. Formation of AAV single stranded DNA genome from a circular plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3(+) clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway.

  18. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kasey L.; Dayton, Robert D.; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats. PMID:27867348

  19. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Deverman, Benjamin E; Klein, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats.

  20. Intra-Arterial Delivery of AAV Vectors to the Mouse Brain After Mannitol Mediated Blood Brain Barrier Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Santillan, Alejandro; Sondhi, Dolan; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Ballon, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutics to neural tissue is greatly hindered by the blood brain barrier (BBB). Direct local delivery via diffusive release from degradable implants or direct intra-cerebral injection can bypass the BBB and obtain high concentrations of the therapeutic in the targeted tissue, however the total volume of tissue that can be treated using these techniques is limited. One treatment modality that can potentially access large volumes of neural tissue in a single treatment is intra-arterial (IA) injection after osmotic blood brain barrier disruption. In this technique, the therapeutic of interest is injected directly into the arteries that feed the target tissue after the blood brain barrier has been disrupted by exposure to a hyperosmolar mannitol solution, permitting the transluminal transport of the therapy. In this work we used contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of IA injections in mice to establish parameters that allow for extensive and reproducible BBB disruption. We found that the volume but not the flow rate of the mannitol injection has a significant effect on the degree of disruption. To determine whether the degree of disruption we observed with this method was sufficient for delivery of nanoscale therapeutics, we performed IA injections of an adeno-associated viral vector containing the CLN2 gene (AAVrh.10CLN2), which is mutated in the lysosomal storage disorder Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL). We demonstrated that IA injection of AAVrh.10CLN2 after BBB disruption can achieve widespread transgene production in the mouse brain after a single administration. Further, we showed that there exists a minimum threshold of BBB disruption necessary to permit the AAV.rh10 vector to pass into the brain parenchyma from the vascular system. These results suggest that IA administration may be used to obtain widespread delivery of nanoscale therapeutics throughout the murine brain after a single

  1. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/more » (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.« less

  2. Unrestricted Hepatocyte Transduction with Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Vectors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fuess, Sally; Storm, Theresa A.; Muramatsu, Shin-ichi; Nara, Yuko; Kay, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors can mediate long-term stable transduction in various target tissues. However, with rAAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) vectors, liver transduction is confined to only a small portion of hepatocytes even after administration of extremely high vector doses. In order to investigate whether rAAV vectors of other serotypes exhibit similar restricted liver transduction, we performed a dose-response study by injecting mice with β-galactosidase-expressing rAAV1 and rAAV8 vectors via the portal vein. The rAAV1 vector showed a blunted dose-response similar to that of rAAV2 at high doses, while the rAAV8 vector dose-response remained unchanged at any dose and ultimately could transduce all the hepatocytes at a dose of 7.2 × 1012 vector genomes/mouse without toxicity. This indicates that all hepatocytes have the ability to process incoming single-stranded vector genomes into duplex DNA. A single tail vein injection of the rAAV8 vector was as efficient as portal vein injection at any dose. In addition, intravascular administration of the rAAV8 vector at a high dose transduced all the skeletal muscles throughout the body, including the diaphragm, the entire cardiac muscle, and substantial numbers of cells in the pancreas, smooth muscles, and brain. Thus, rAAV8 is a robust vector for gene transfer to the liver and provides a promising research tool for delivering genes to various target organs. In addition, the rAAV8 vector may offer a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases affecting nonhepatic tissues, but great caution is required for vector spillover and tight control of tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:15596817

  3. Transgene expression in target-defined neuron populations mediated by retrograde infection with adeno-associated viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Rothermel, Markus; Brunert, Daniela; Zabawa, Christine; Díaz-Quesada, Marta; Wachowiak, Matt

    2013-09-18

    Tools enabling the manipulation of well defined neuronal subpopulations are critical for probing complex neuronal networks. Cre recombinase (Cre) mouse driver lines in combination with the Cre-dependent expression of proteins using viral vectors--in particular, recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs)--have emerged as a widely used platform for achieving transgene expression in specified neural populations. However, the ability of rAAVs to further specify neuronal subsets on the basis of their anatomical connectivity has been reported as limited or inconsistent. Here, we systematically tested a variety of widely used neurotropic rAAVs for their ability to mediate retrograde gene transduction in the mouse brain. We tested pseudotyped rAAVs of several common serotypes (rAAV 2/1, 2/5, and 2/9) as well as constructs both with and without Cre-dependent expression switches. Many of the rAAVs tested--in particular, though not exclusively, Cre-dependent vectors--showed a robust capacity for retrograde infection and transgene expression. Retrograde expression was successful over distances as large as 6 mm and in multiple neuron types, including olfactory projection neurons, neocortical pyramidal cells projecting to distinct targets, and corticofugal and modulatory projection neurons. Retrograde infection using transgenes such as ChR2 allowed for optical control or optically assisted electrophysiological identification of neurons defined genetically as well as by their projection target. These results establish a widely accessible tool for achieving combinatorial specificity and stable, long-term transgene expression to isolate precisely defined neuron populations in the intact animal.

  4. Expressing Transgenes That Exceed the Packaging Capacity of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Riyad, Jalish Mahmud; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) are being explored as gene delivery vehicles for the treatment of various inherited and acquired disorders. rAAVs are attractive vectors for several reasons: wild-type AAVs are nonpathogenic, and rAAVs can trigger long-term transgene expression even in the absence of genome integration—at least in postmitotic tissues. Moreover, rAAVs have a low immunogenic profile, and the various AAV serotypes and variants display broad but distinct tropisms. One limitation of rAAVs is that their genome-packaging capacity is only ∼5 kb. For most applications this is not of major concern because the median human protein size is 375 amino acids. Excluding the ITRs, for a protein of typical length, this allows the incorporation of ∼3.5 kb of DNA for the promoter, polyadenylation sequence, and other regulatory elements into a single AAV vector. Nonetheless, for certain diseases the packaging limit of AAV does not allow the delivery of a full-length therapeutic protein by a single AAV vector. Hence, approaches to overcome this limitation have become an important area of research for AAV gene therapy. Among the most promising approaches to overcome the limitation imposed by the packaging capacity of AAV is the use of dual-vector approaches, whereby a transgene is split across two separate AAV vectors. Coinfection of a cell with these two rAAVs will then—through a variety of mechanisms—result in the transcription of an assembled mRNA that could not be encoded by a single AAV vector because of the DNA packaging limits of AAV. The main purpose of this review is to assess the current literature with respect to dual-AAV-vector design, to highlight the effectiveness of the different methodologies and to briefly discuss future areas of research to improve the efficiency of dual-AAV-vector transduction. PMID:26757051

  5. AAV-CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Depletion of VEGFR2 Blocks Angiogenesis In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenyi; Duan, Yajian; Ma, Gaoen; Zhou, Guohong; Park-Windhol, Cindy; D'Amore, Patricia A; Lei, Hetian

    2017-12-01

    Pathologic angiogenesis is a component of many diseases, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferation diabetic retinopathy, as well as tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to examine whether the system of adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 can be used to deplete expression of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in human vascular endothelial cells in vitro and thus suppress its downstream signaling events. The dual AAV system of CRISPR/Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (AAV-SpGuide and -SpCas9) was adapted to edit genomic VEGFR2 in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). In this system, the endothelial-specific promoter for intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2) was cloned into the dual AAV vectors of SpGuide and SpCas9 for driving expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and SpCas9, respectively. These two AAV vectors were applied to production of recombinant AAV serotype 5 (rAAV5), which were used to infect HRECs for depletion of VEGFR2. Protein expression was determined by Western blot; and cell proliferation, migration, as well as tube formation were examined. AAV5 effectively infected vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells; the ICAM2 promoter drove expression of GFP and SpCas9 in HRECs, but not in RPE cells. The results showed that the rAAV5-CRISPR/Cas9 depleted VEGFR2 by 80% and completely blocked VEGF-induced activation of Akt, and proliferation, migration as well as tube formation of HRECs. AAV-CRISRP/Cas9-mediated depletion of VEGFR2 is a potential therapeutic strategy for pathologic angiogenesis.

  6. Systemic Gene Transfer of a Hexosaminidase Variant Using an scAAV9.47 Vector Corrects GM2 Gangliosidosis in Sandhoff Mice.

    PubMed

    Osmon, Karlaina J L; Woodley, Evan; Thompson, Patrick; Ong, Katalina; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Keimel, John G; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S

    2016-07-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of neurodegenerative diseases caused by β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) enzyme deficiency. There is currently no cure. HexA is composed of two similar, nonidentical subunits, α and β, which must interact with the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), a substrate-specific cofactor, to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. Mutations in either subunit or the activator can result in the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside within neurons throughout the central nervous system. The resulting neuronal cell death induces the primary symptoms of the disease: motor impairment, seizures, and sensory impairments. This study assesses the long-term effects of gene transfer in a Sandhoff (β-subunit knockout) mouse model. The study utilized a modified human β-hexosaminidase α-subunit (μ-subunit) that contains critical sequences from the β-subunit that enables formation of a stable homodimer (HexM) and interaction with GM2AP to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. We investigated a self-complementary adeno-associated viral (scAAV) vector expressing HexM, through intravenous injections of the neonatal mice. We monitored one cohort for 8 weeks and another cohort long-term for survival benefit, behavioral, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Untreated Sandhoff disease (SD) control mice reached a humane endpoint at approximately 15 weeks, whereas treated mice had a median survival age of 40 weeks, an approximate 2.5-fold survival advantage. On behavioral tests, the treated mice outperformed their knockout age-matched controls and perform similarly to the heterozygous controls. Through the enzymatic and GM2 ganglioside analyses, we observed a significant decrease in the GM2 ganglioside level, even though the enzyme levels were not significantly increased. Molecular analyses revealed a global distribution of the vector between brain and spinal cord regions. In conclusion, the neonatal delivery of a novel viral vector expressing the human HexM enzyme is effective in ameliorating the SD

  7. Direct comparison of administration routes for AAV8-mediated ocular gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Miyake, Koichi; Asakawa, Nagisa; Miyake, Noriko; Shimada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that direct subretinal (SR) injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 8 (AAV8) into photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly efficient model of gene delivery. The current study compared transduction efficiency and expression patterns associated with various routes of vector administration. The efficacy of intravitreal (VT), SR and subconjunctival (SC) injections for delivery of AAV8-derived vectors, i.e. those expressing luciferase (Luc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) - AAV8/Luc and AAV8/GFP, respectively - were compared in an animal (mouse) model (n = 8 mice/group). Transduction efficiency and expression patterns were examined at post-injection weeks 1 and 2, and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 via in vivo imaging. One year after AAV injection, AAV8/Luc-treated mice exhibited stable and sustained high expression of vector in the VT and SR groups, but not in the SC group (VT:SR:SC = 3,218:2,923:115; 1 × 10(5 )photons/s). Histological analysis showed that GFP expression was observed in the inner retina of VT group mice, and in photoreceptor cells and RPE of SR group mice, whereas no GFP expression was noted in the SC group. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed adverse effects following SR delivery. Results suggest that both SR and VT injections of AAV8 vectors are useful routes for administering ocular gene therapy, and stress the importance of selecting an appropriate administration route, i.e. one that targets specific cells, for treating ocular disorders.

  8. Systemic Correction of Murine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV by an AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haiqing; Zhang, Quan; Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yang, Chunyu; Thurberg, Beth L; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), which is characterized by the accumulation of a less branched, poorly soluble form of glycogen called polyglucosan (PG) in multiple tissues. This study evaluates the efficacy of gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector in a mouse model of adult form of GSD IV (Gbe1 ys/ys ). An AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vector containing a human GBE expression cassette (AAV-GBE) was intravenously injected into 14-day-old Gbe1 ys/ys mice at a dose of 5 × 10 11 vector genomes per mouse. Mice were euthanized at 3 and 9 months of age. In the AAV-treated mice at 3 months of age, GBE enzyme activity was highly elevated in heart, which is consistent with the high copy number of the viral vector genome detected. GBE activity also increased significantly in skeletal muscles and the brain, but not in the liver. The glycogen content was reduced to wild-type levels in muscles and significantly reduced in the liver and brain. At 9 months of age, though GBE activity was only significantly elevated in the heart, glycogen levels were significantly reduced in the liver, brain, and skeletal muscles of the AAV-treated mice. In addition, the AAV treatment resulted in an overall decrease in plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and creatine kinase, and a significant increase in fasting plasma glucose concentration at 9 months of age. This suggests an alleviation of damage and improvement of function in the liver and muscles by the AAV treatment. This study demonstrated a long-term benefit of a systemic injection of an AAV-GBE vector in Gbe1 ys/ys mice.

  9. A Simple Method to Increase the Transduction Efficiency of Single-Stranded Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenqin; Li, Baozheng; Ling, Chen; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We have recently shown that co-administration of conventional single-stranded adeno-associated virus 2 (ssAAV2) vectors with self-complementary (sc) AAV2-protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) vectors leads to a significant increase in the transduction efficiency of ssAAV2 vectors in human cells in vitro as well as in murine hepatocytes in vivo. In the present study, this strategy has been further optimized by generating a mixed population of ssAAV2-EGFP and scAAV2-PP5 vectors at a 10:1 ratio to achieve enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene expression at approximately 5- to 10-fold higher efficiency, both in vitro and in vivo. This simple coproduction method should be adaptable to any ssAAV serotype vector containing transgene cassettes that are too large to be encapsidated in scAAV vectors. PMID:21219084

  10. Recombinant AAV-directed gene therapy for type I glycogen storage diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chou, JY; Mansfield, BC

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ia and Ib are disorders of impaired glucose homeostasis affecting the liver and kidney. GSD-Ib also affects neutrophils. Current dietary therapies cannot prevent long-term complications. In animal studies, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene therapy can correct or minimize multiple aspects of the disorders, offering hope for human gene therapy. Areas covered A summary of recent progress in rAAV-mediated gene therapy for GSD-I; strategies to improve rAAV-mediated gene delivery, transduction efficiency and immune avoidance; and vector refinements that improve expression. Expert opinion rAAV-mediated gene delivery to the liver can restore glucose homeostasis in preclinical models of GSD-I, but some long-term complications of the liver and kidney remain. Gene therapy for GSD-Ib is less advanced than for GSD-Ia and only transient correction of myeloid dysfunction has been achieved. A question remains whether a single rAAV vector can meet the expression efficiency and tropism required to treat all aspects of GSD-I, or if a multi-prong approach is needed. An understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of rAAV vectors in the context of strategies to achieve efficient transduction of the liver, kidney, and hematopoietic stem cells is required for treating GSD-I. PMID:21504389

  11. Single residue AAV capsid mutation improves transduction of photoreceptors in the Abca4-/- mouse and bipolar cells in the rd1 mouse and human retina ex vivo.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Samantha R; Charbel Issa, Peter; Singh, Mandeep S; Lipinski, Daniel M; Barnea-Cramer, Alona O; Walker, Nathan J; Barnard, Alun R; Hankins, Mark W; MacLaren, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Gene therapy using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for the treatment of retinal degenerations has shown safety and efficacy in clinical trials. However, very high levels of vector expression may be necessary for the treatment of conditions such as Stargardt disease where a dual vector approach is potentially needed, or in optogenetic strategies for end-stage degeneration in order to achieve maximal light sensitivity. In this study, we assessed two vectors with single capsid mutations, rAAV2/2(Y444F) and rAAV2/8(Y733F) in their ability to transduce retina in the Abca4 -/- and rd1 mouse models of retinal degeneration. We noted significantly increased photoreceptor transduction using rAAV2/8(Y733F) in the Abca4 -/- mouse, in contrast to previous work where vectors tested in this model have shown low levels of photoreceptor transduction. Bipolar cell transduction was achieved following subretinal delivery of both vectors in the rd1 mouse, and via intravitreal delivery of rAAV2/2(Y444F). The successful use of rAAV2/8(Y733F) to target bipolar cells was further validated on human tissue using an ex vivo culture system of retinal explants. Capsid mutant AAV vectors transduce human retinal cells and may be particularly suited to treat retinal degenerations in which high levels of transgene expression are required.

  12. Serotype-dependent transduction efficiencies of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in monkey neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Gerits, Annelies; Vancraeyenest, Pascaline; Vreysen, Samme; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Michiels, Annelies; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Moons, Lieve; Debyser, Zeger; Baekelandt, Veerle; Arckens, Lutgarde; Vanduffel, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Viral vector-mediated expression of genes (e.g., coding for opsins and designer receptors) has grown increasingly popular. Cell-type specific expression is achieved by altering viral vector tropism through crosspackaging or by cell-specific promoters driving gene expression. Detailed information about transduction properties of most recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) serotypes in macaque cortex is gradually becoming available. Here, we compare transduction efficiencies and expression patterns of reporter genes in two macaque neocortical areas employing different rAAV serotypes and promoters. A short version of the calmodulin-kinase-II (CaMKIIα0.4) promoter resulted in reporter gene expression in cortical neurons for all tested rAAVs, albeit with different efficiencies for spread: rAAV2/5>>rAAV2/7>rAAV2/8>rAAV2/9>>rAAV2/1 and proportion of transduced cells: rAAV2/1>rAAV2/5>rAAV2/7=rAAV2/9>rAAV2/8. In contrast to rodent studies, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter appeared least efficient in macaque cortex. The human synapsin-1 promoter preceded by the CMV enhancer (enhSyn1) produced homogeneous reporter gene expression across all layers, while two variants of the CaMKIIα promoter resulted in different laminar transduction patterns and cell specificities. Finally, differences in expression patterns were observed when the same viral vector was injected in two neocortical areas. Our results corroborate previous findings that reporter-gene expression patterns and efficiency of rAAV transduction depend on serotype, promoter, cortical layer, and area. PMID:26839901

  13. Tyrosine triple mutated AAV2-BDNF gene therapy in a rat model of transient IOP elevation

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Maika; Kameya, Shuhei; Fujimoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Kenji; Takahashi, Hisatomo; Igarashi, Toru; Miyake, Noriko; Iijima, Osamu; Hirai, Yukihiko; Shimada, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the neuroprotective effects of exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which provides protection to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rodents, in a model of transient intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation using a mutant (triple Y-F) self-complementary adeno-associated virus type 2 vector encoding BDNF (tm-scAAV2-BDNF). Methods The tm-scAAV2-BDNF or control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP; tm-scAAV2-GFP) was intravitreally administered to rats, which were then divided into four groups: control, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury only, I/R injury with tm-scAAV2-GFP, and tm-scAAV2-BDNF. I/R injury was then induced by transiently increasing IOP, after which the rats were euthanized to measure the inner retinal thickness and cell counts in the RGC layer. Results Intravitreous injection of tm-scAAV2-BDNF resulted in high levels of BDNF expression in the neural retina. Histological analysis showed that the inner retinal thickness and cell numbers in the RGC layer were preserved after transient IOP elevation in eyes treated with tm-scAAV2-BDNF but not in the other I/R groups. Significantly reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining after I/R injury in the rats that received tm-scAAV2-BDNF indicated reduced retinal stress, and electroretinogram (ERG) analysis confirmed preservation of retinal function in the tm-scAAV2-BDNF group. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of neuroprotective gene therapy using tm-scAAV2-BDNF to protect the inner retina from transiently high intraocular pressure. An in vivo gene therapeutic approach to the clinical management of retinal diseases in conditions such as glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, hypertensive retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy thus appears feasible. PMID:27440998

  14. AAVPG: A vigilant vector where transgene expression is induced by p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Medrano, Ruan F.V.; Carvalho, Anna Carolina P.V.

    2013-12-15

    Using p53 to drive transgene expression from viral vectors may provide on demand expression in response to physiologic stress, such as hypoxia or DNA damage. Here we introduce AAVPG, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector where a p53-responsive promoter, termed PG, is used to control transgene expression. In vitro assays show that expression from the AAVPG-luc vector was induced specifically in the presence of functional p53 (1038±202 fold increase, p<0.001). The AAVPG-luc vector was an effective biosensor of p53 activation in response to hypoxia (4.48±0.6 fold increase in the presence of 250 µM CoCl{sub 2}, p<0.001) and biomechanical stress (2.53±0.4 foldmore » increase with stretching, p<0.05). In vivo, the vigilant nature of the AAVPG-luc vector was revealed after treatment of tumor-bearing mice with doxorubicin (pre-treatment, 3.4×10{sup 5}±0.43×10{sup 5} photons/s; post-treatment, 6.6×10{sup 5}±2.1×10{sup 5} photons/s, p<0.05). These results indicate that the AAVPG vector is an interesting option for detecting p53 activity both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • AAV vector where transgene expression is controlled by the tumor suppressor p53. • The new vector, AAVPG, shown to function as a biosensor of p53 activity, in vitro and in vivo. • The p53 activity monitored by the AAVPG vector is relevant to cancer and other diseases. • AAVPG reporter gene expression was activated upon DNA damage, hypoxia and mechanical stress.« less

  15. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    PubMed

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-02-22

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness.

  16. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  17. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings. PMID:26445723

  18. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes.

    PubMed

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  19. Therapeutic effect of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated ADNF-9 expression on cochlea of kanamycin-deafened guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxi; Zhu, Zhu; Zhu, Kang; Wei, Junrong; Jing, Yang; Duan, Maoli

    2013-10-01

    rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 could ameliorate the damage to auditory function and repair previous impairment of cochlear hair cell loss induced by kanamycin. To investigate the therapeutic effect of ADNF-9 on cochlear hair cells using the recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 and the kanamycin-deafened guinea pig model. Forty white guinea pigs with normal auricle reflex and normal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were randomly divided into four groups. Kanamycin was administered to the animals in groups A, B, and C to establish the deafened guinea pig model. rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9, vector only, and artificial perilymph were then delivered to the cochlear tissue of animals in groups A, B, and C, respectively, through the round window membrane. Animals in group D did not receive any treatment and acted as normal controls. The hearing thresholds on the surgery side were recorded before and after the transfection treatment. Fourteen days after treatment, cochleae were removed for paraffin slide preparation and cochlear surface preparation. A phase contrast microscope was used to observe the protective effect of ADNF-9 on hair cells. Significant reduction of the ABR threshold was observed after rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 treatment (p < 0.05). After 14 days of treatment, the ABR threshold was also significantly different between the rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9-infected group and the non-infected group. Moreover, phase contrast microscopy showed significantly less hair cell damage or hair cell loss in the group treated with rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 than in the groups treated with vector only or artificial perilymph (p < 0.05).

  20. Transgene Expression in Target-Defined Neuron Populations Mediated by Retrograde Infection with Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Rothermel, Markus; Brunert, Daniela; Zabawa, Christine; Díaz-Quesada, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Tools enabling the manipulation of well defined neuronal subpopulations are critical for probing complex neuronal networks. Cre recombinase (Cre) mouse driver lines in combination with the Cre-dependent expression of proteins using viral vectors—in particular, recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs)—have emerged as a widely used platform for achieving transgene expression in specified neural populations. However, the ability of rAAVs to further specify neuronal subsets on the basis of their anatomical connectivity has been reported as limited or inconsistent. Here, we systematically tested a variety of widely used neurotropic rAAVs for their ability to mediate retrograde gene transduction in the mouse brain. We tested pseudotyped rAAVs of several common serotypes (rAAV 2/1, 2/5, and 2/9) as well as constructs both with and without Cre-dependent expression switches. Many of the rAAVs tested—in particular, though not exclusively, Cre-dependent vectors—showed a robust capacity for retrograde infection and transgene expression. Retrograde expression was successful over distances as large as 6 mm and in multiple neuron types, including olfactory projection neurons, neocortical pyramidal cells projecting to distinct targets, and corticofugal and modulatory projection neurons. Retrograde infection using transgenes such as ChR2 allowed for optical control or optically assisted electrophysiological identification of neurons defined genetically as well as by their projection target. These results establish a widely accessible tool for achieving combinatorial specificity and stable, long-term transgene expression to isolate precisely defined neuron populations in the intact animal. PMID:24048849

  1. Safety and Efficacy of AAV Retrograde Pancreatic Ductal Gene Delivery in Normal and Pancreatic Cancer Mice.

    PubMed

    Quirin, Kayla A; Kwon, Jason J; Alioufi, Arafat; Factora, Tricia; Temm, Constance J; Jacobsen, Max; Sandusky, George E; Shontz, Kim; Chicoine, Louis G; Clark, K Reed; Mendell, Joshua T; Korc, Murray; Kota, Janaiah

    2018-03-16

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery shows promise to transduce the pancreas, but safety/efficacy in a neoplastic context is not well established. To identify an ideal AAV serotype, route, and vector dose and assess safety, we have investigated the use of three AAV serotypes (6, 8, and 9) expressing GFP in a self-complementary (sc) AAV vector under an EF1α promoter (scAAV.GFP) following systemic or retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery. Systemic delivery of scAAV9.GFP transduced the pancreas with high efficiency, but gene expression did not exceed >45% with the highest dose, 5 × 10 12 viral genomes (vg). Intraductal delivery of 1 × 10 11 vg scAAV6.GFP transduced acini, ductal cells, and islet cells with >50%, ∼48%, and >80% efficiency, respectively, and >80% pancreatic transduction was achieved with 5 × 10 11 vg. In a Kras G12D -driven pancreatic cancer mouse model, intraductal delivery of scAAV6.GFP targeted acini, epithelial, and stromal cells and exhibited persistent gene expression 5 months post-delivery. In normal mice, intraductal delivery induced a transient increase in serum amylase/lipase that resolved within a day of infusion with no sustained pancreatic inflammation or fibrosis. Similarly, in PDAC mice, intraductal delivery did not increase pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia progression/fibrosis. Our study demonstrates that scAAV6 targets the pancreas/neoplasm efficiently and safely via retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery.

  2. Engineered AAVs for efficient noninvasive gene delivery to the central and peripheral nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ken Y; Jang, Min J; Yoo, Bryan B; Greenbaum, Alon; Ravi, Namita; Wu, Wei-Li; Sánchez-Guardado, Luis; Lois, Carlos; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Deverman, Benjamin E; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are commonly used for in vivo gene transfer. Nevertheless, AAVs that provide efficient transduction across specific organs or cell populations are needed. Here, we describe AAV-PHP.eB and AAV-PHP.S, capsids that efficiently transduce the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively. In the adult mouse, intravenous administration of 1×1011 vector genomes (vg) of AAV-PHP.eB transduced 69% of cortical and 55% of striatal neurons, while 1×1012 vg AAV-PHP.S transduced 82% of dorsal root ganglion neurons, as well as cardiac and enteric neurons. The efficiency of these vectors facilitates robust co-transduction and stochastic, multicolor labeling for individual cell morphology studies. To support such efforts, we provide methods for labeling a tunable fraction of cells without compromising color diversity. Furthermore, when used with cell type-specific promoters, these AAVs provide targeted gene expression across the nervous system and enable efficient and versatile gene manipulation throughout the nervous system of transgenic and non-transgenic animals. PMID:28671695

  3. Modular adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors used for cellular virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Sven; Baumann, Tobias; Wagner, Hanna J.; Morath, Volker; Kaufmann, Beate; Fischer, Adrian; Bergmann, Stefan; Schindler, Patrick; Arndt, Katja M.; Müller, Kristian M.

    2014-01-01

    The pre-clinical and clinical development of viral vehicles for gene transfer increased in recent years, and a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) drug took center stage upon approval in the European Union. However, lack of standardization, inefficient purification methods and complicated retargeting limit general usability. We address these obstacles by fusing rAAV-2 capsids with two modular targeting molecules (DARPin or Affibody) specific for a cancer cell-surface marker (EGFR) while simultaneously including an affinity tag (His-tag) in a surface-exposed loop. Equipping these particles with genes coding for prodrug converting enzymes (thymidine kinase or cytosine deaminase) we demonstrate tumor marker specific transduction and prodrug-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells. Coding terminal and loop modifications in one gene enabled specific and scalable purification. Our genetic parts for viral production adhere to a standardized cloning strategy facilitating rapid prototyping of virus directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT). PMID:24457557

  4. Intracranial AAV-IFN-β gene therapy eliminates invasive xenograft glioblastoma and improves survival in orthotopic syngeneic murine model.

    PubMed

    GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Neiswender, James; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. First, we show that a single intracranial injection of AAV encoding human IFN-β eliminates invasive human GBM8 tumors and promotes long-term survival. Next, we screened five AAV-IFN-β vectors with different promoters to drive safe expression of mouse IFN-β in the brain in the context of syngeneic GL261 tumors. Two AAV-IFN-β vectors were excluded due to safety concerns, but therapeutic studies with the other three vectors showed extensive tumor cell death, activation of microglia surrounding the tumors, and a 56% increase in median survival of the animals treated with AAV/P2-Int-mIFN-β vector. We also assessed the therapeutic effect of combining AAV-IFN-β therapy with temozolomide (TMZ). As TMZ affects DNA replication, an event that is crucial for second-strand DNA synthesis of single-stranded AAV vectors before active transcription, we tested two TMZ treatment regimens. Treatment with TMZ prior to AAV-IFN-β abrogated any benefit from the latter, while the reverse order of treatment doubled the median survival compared to controls. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of intracranial AAV-IFN-β therapy in a highly migratory GBM model as well as in a syngeneic mouse model and that combination with TMZ is likely to enhance its antitumor potency. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro-Dystrophin Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    minidystrophin gene (a gift from Dr Jeffrey Chamberlain at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA) and the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation...full-length micro-dystrophin protein. Dys-2 is a short peptide in the wild-type full-length dystrophin. It can be recognized by the Dys-2...muscle. In one approach, a muscle homing peptide is inserted on the surface of the capsid to facilitate the entry of AAV into muscle cells. In the

  6. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Effects of AAV.BDNF and AAV.Ntf3 in the Deafened Adult Guinea Pig Ear

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Cameron L.; Wong, Hiu Tung; Swiderski, Donald L.; Shibata, Seiji B.; Pfingst, Bryan E.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear hair cell loss results in secondary regression of peripheral auditory fibers (PAFs) and loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). The performance of cochlear implants (CI) in rehabilitating hearing depends on survival of SGNs. Here we compare the effects of adeno-associated virus vectors with neurotrophin gene inserts, AAV.BDNF and AAV.Ntf3, on guinea pig ears deafened systemically (kanamycin and furosemide) or locally (neomycin). AAV.BDNF or AAV.Ntf3 was delivered to the guinea pig cochlea one week following deafening and ears were assessed morphologically 3 months later. At that time, neurotrophins levels were not significantly elevated in the cochlear fluids, even though in vitro and shorter term in vivo experiments demonstrate robust elevation of neurotrophins with these viral vectors. Nevertheless, animals receiving these vectors exhibited considerable re-growth of PAFs in the basilar membrane area. In systemically deafened animals there was a negative correlation between the presence of differentiated supporting cells and PAFs, suggesting that supporting cells influence the outcome of neurotrophin over-expression aimed at enhancing the cochlear neural substrate. Counts of SGN in Rosenthal's canal indicate that BDNF was more effective than NT-3 in preserving SGNs. The results demonstrate that a transient elevation in neurotrophin levels can sustain the cochlear neural substrate in the long term. PMID:25726967

  8. A Molecular Toolbox for Rapid Generation of Viral Vectors to Up- or Down-Regulate Neuronal Gene Expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, Melanie D.; Milne, Ruth V. J.; Nolan, Matthew F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins, and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV) or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir3.2) and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miRNA). We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miRNA produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miRNA with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience. PMID:21772812

  9. AAV-mediated RLBP1 gene therapy improves the rate of dark adaptation in Rlbp1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Vivian W; Bigelow, Chad E; McGee, Terri L; Gujar, Akshata N; Li, Hui; Hanks, Shawn M; Vrouvlianis, Joanna; Maker, Michael; Leehy, Barrett; Zhang, Yiqin; Aranda, Jorge; Bounoutas, George; Demirs, John T; Yang, Junzheng; Ornberg, Richard; Wang, Yu; Martin, Wendy; Stout, Kelly R; Argentieri, Gregory; Grosenstein, Paul; Diaz, Danielle; Turner, Oliver; Jaffee, Bruce D; Police, Seshidhar R; Dryja, Thaddeus P

    2015-01-01

    Recessive mutations in RLBP1 cause a form of retinitis pigmentosa in which the retina, before its degeneration leads to blindness, abnormally slowly recovers sensitivity after exposure to light. To develop a potential gene therapy for this condition, we tested multiple recombinant adeno-associated vectors (rAAVs) composed of different promoters, capsid serotypes, and genome conformations. We generated rAAVs in which sequences from the promoters of the human RLBP1, RPE65, or BEST1 genes drove the expression of a reporter gene (green fluorescent protein). A promoter derived from the RLBP1 gene mediated expression in the retinal pigment epithelium and Müller cells (the intended target cell types) at qualitatively higher levels than in other retinal cell types in wild-type mice and monkeys. With this promoter upstream of the coding sequence of the human RLBP1 gene, we compared the potencies of vectors with an AAV2 versus an AAV8 capsid in transducing mouse retinas, and we compared vectors with a self-complementary versus a single-stranded genome. The optimal vector (scAAV8-pRLBP1-hRLBP1) had serotype 8 capsid and a self-complementary genome. Subretinal injection of scAAV8-pRLBP1-hRLBP1 in Rlbp1 nullizygous mice improved the rate of dark adaptation based on scotopic (rod-plus-cone) and photopic (cone) electroretinograms (ERGs). The effect was still present after 1 year. PMID:26199951

  10. Induction of Immune Tolerance to Foreign Protein via Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Gene Transfer in Mid-Gestation Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Marcus G.; Riley, John S.; Andrews, Abigail; Tyminski, Alec; Limberis, Maria; Pogoriler, Jennifer E.; Partridge, Emily; Olive, Aliza; Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan W.; Peranteau, William H.

    2017-01-01

    A major limitation to adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy is the generation of host immune responses to viral vector antigens and the transgene product. The ability to induce immune tolerance to foreign protein has the potential to overcome this host immunity. Acquisition and maintenance of tolerance to viral vector antigens and transgene products may also permit repeat administration thereby enhancing therapeutic efficacy. In utero gene transfer (IUGT) takes advantage of the immunologic immaturity of the fetus to induce immune tolerance to foreign antigens. In this large animal study, in utero administration of AAV6.2, AAV8 and AAV9 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to ~60 day fetal sheep (term: ~150 days) was performed. Transgene expression and postnatal immune tolerance to GFP and viral antigens were assessed. We demonstrate 1) hepatic expression of GFP 1 month following in utero administration of AAV6.2.GFP and AAV8.GFP, 2) in utero recipients of either AAV6.2.GFP or AAV8.GFP fail to mount an anti-GFP antibody response following postnatal GFP challenge and lack inflammatory cellular infiltrates at the intramuscular site of immunization, 3) a serotype specific anti-AAV neutralizing antibody response is elicited following postnatal challenge of in utero recipients of AAV6.2 or AAV8 with the corresponding AAV serotype, and 4) durable hepatic GFP expression was observed up to 6 months after birth in recipients of AAV8.GFP but expression was lost between 1 and 6 months of age in recipients of AAV6.2.GFP. The current study demonstrates, in a preclinical large animal model, the potential of IUGT to achieve host immune tolerance to the viral vector transgene product but also suggests that a single exposure to the vector capsid proteins at the time of IUGT is inadequate to induce tolerance to viral vector antigens. PMID:28141818

  11. Caspase Inhibition with XIAP as an Adjunct to AAV Vector Gene-Replacement Therapy: Improving Efficacy and Prolonging the Treatment Window

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jingyu; Jia, Lin; Khan, Naheed; Zheng, Qiong-Duan; Moncrief, Ashley; Hauswirth, William W.; Thompson, Debra A.; Zacks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose AAV-mediated gene therapy in the rd10 mouse, with retinal degeneration caused by mutation in the rod cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase β-subunit (PDEβ) gene, produces significant, but transient, rescue of photoreceptor structure and function. This study evaluates the ability of AAV-mediated delivery of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) to enhance and prolong the efficacy of PDEβ gene-replacement therapy. Methods Rd10 mice were bred and housed in darkness. Two groups of animals were generated: Group 1 received sub-retinal AAV5-XIAP or AAV5-GFP at postnatal age (P) 4 or 21 days; Group 2 received sub-retinal AAV5-XIAP plus AAV5- PDEβ, AAV5-GFP plus AAV5- PDEβ, or AAV- PDEβ alone at age P4 or P21. Animals were maintained for an additional 4 weeks in darkness before being moved to a cyclic-light environment. A subset of animals from Group 1 received a second sub-retinal injection of AAV8-733-PDEβ two weeks after being moved to the light. Histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and electroretinograms were performed at different times after moving to the light. Results Injection of AAV5-XIAP alone at P4 and 21 resulted in significant slowing of light-induced retinal degeneration, as measured by outer nuclear thickness and cell counts, but did not result in improved outer segment structure and rhodopsin localization. In contrast, co-injection of AAV5-XIAP and AAV5-PDEβ resulted in increased levels of rescue and decreased rates of retinal degeneration compared to treatment with AAV5-PDEβ alone. Mice treated with AAV5-XIAP at P4, but not P21, remained responsive to subsequent rescue by AAV8-733-PDEβ when injected two weeks after moving to a light-cycling environment. Conclusions Adjunctive treatment with the anti-apoptotic gene XIAP confers additive protective effect to gene-replacement therapy with AAV5-PDEβ in the rd10 mouse. In addition, AAV5-XIAP, when given early, can increase the age at which gene-replacement therapy

  12. AAV-PHP.B-Mediated Global-Scale Expression in the Mouse Nervous System Enables GBA1 Gene Therapy for Wide Protection from Synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Giuseppe; Giannelli, Serena G; Ordazzo, Gabriele; Bido, Simone; Castoldi, Valerio; Indrigo, Marzia; Cabassi, Tommaso; Cattaneo, Stefano; Luoni, Mirko; Cancellieri, Cinzia; Sessa, Alessandro; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Taverna, Stefano; Leocani, Letizia; Lanciego, José L; Broccoli, Vania

    2017-12-06

    The lack of technology for direct global-scale targeting of the adult mouse nervous system has hindered research on brain processing and dysfunctions. Currently, gene transfer is normally achieved by intraparenchymal viral injections, but these injections target a restricted brain area. Herein, we demonstrated that intravenous delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B viral particles permeated and diffused throughout the neural parenchyma, targeting both the central and the peripheral nervous system in a global pattern. We then established multiple procedures of viral transduction to control gene expression or inactivate gene function exclusively in the adult nervous system and assessed the underlying behavioral effects. Building on these results, we established an effective gene therapy strategy to counteract the widespread accumulation of α-synuclein deposits throughout the forebrain in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Transduction of A53T-SCNA transgenic mice with AAV-PHP.B-GBA1 restored physiological levels of the enzyme, reduced α-synuclein pathology, and produced significant behavioral recovery. Finally, we provided evidence that AAV-PHP.B brain penetration does not lead to evident dysfunctions in blood-brain barrier integrity or permeability. Altogether, the AAV-PHP.B viral platform enables non-invasive, widespread, and long-lasting global neural expression of therapeutic genes, such as GBA1, providing an invaluable approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases with diffuse brain pathology such as synucleinopathies. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reversal of blindness in animal models of leber congenital amaurosis using optimized AAV2-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Bennicelli, Jeannette; Wright, John Fraser; Komaromy, Andras; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Hui, Daniel; Chung, Daniel; Rex, Tonia S; Wei, Zhangyong; Qu, Guang; Zhou, Shangzhen; Zeiss, Caroline; Arruda, Valder R; Acland, Gregory M; Dell'Osso, Lou F; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M; Bennett, Jean

    2008-03-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an optimized adeno-associated virus (AAV; AAV2.RPE65) in animal models of the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Protein expression was optimized by addition of a modified Kozak sequence at the translational start site of hRPE65. Modifications in AAV production and delivery included use of a long stuffer sequence to prevent reverse packaging from the AAV inverted-terminal repeats, and co-injection with a surfactant. The latter allows consistent and predictable delivery of a given dose of vector. We observed improved electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual acuity in Rpe65 mutant mice. This has not been reported previously using AAV2 vectors. Subretinal delivery of 8.25 x 10(10) vector genomes in affected dogs was well tolerated both locally and systemically, and treated animals showed improved visual behavior and pupillary responses, and reduced nystagmus within 2 weeks of injection. ERG responses confirmed the reversal of visual deficit. Immunohistochemistry confirmed transduction of retinal pigment epithelium cells and there was minimal toxicity to the retina as judged by histopathologic analysis. The data demonstrate that AAV2.RPE65 delivers the RPE65 transgene efficiently and quickly to the appropriate target cells in vivo in animal models. This vector holds great promise for treatment of LCA due to RPE65 mutations.

  14. Reversal of Blindness in Animal Models of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Using Optimized AAV2-mediated Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bennicelli, Jeannette; Wright, John Fraser; Komaromy, Andras; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Hui, Daniel; Chung, Daniel; Rex, Tonia S; Wei, Zhangyong; Qu, Guang; Zhou, Shangzhen; Zeiss, Caroline; Arruda, Valder R; Acland, Gregory M; Dell’Osso, Lou F; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M; Bennett, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an optimized adeno-associated virus (AAV; AAV2.RPE65) in animal models of the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Protein expression was optimized by addition of a modified Kozak sequence at the translational start site of hRPE65. Modifications in AAV production and delivery included use of a long stuffer sequence to prevent reverse packaging from the AAV inverted-terminal repeats, and co-injection with a surfactant. The latter allows consistent and predictable delivery of a given dose of vector. We observed improved electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual acuity in Rpe65 mutant mice. This has not been reported previously using AAV2 vectors. Subretinal delivery of 8.25 × 1010 vector genomes in affected dogs was well tolerated both locally and systemically, and treated animals showed improved visual behavior and pupillary responses, and reduced nystagmus within 2 weeks of injection. ERG responses confirmed the reversal of visual deficit. Immunohistochemistry confirmed transduction of retinal pigment epithelium cells and there was minimal toxicity to the retina as judged by histopathologic analysis. The data demonstrate that AAV2.RPE65 delivers the RPE65 transgene efficiently and quickly to the appropriate target cells in vivo in animal models. This vector holds great promise for treatment of LCA due to RPE65 mutations. PMID:18209734

  15. Efficient CNS targeting in adult mice by intrathecal infusion of single-stranded AAV9-GFP for gene therapy of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Bey, K; Ciron, C; Dubreil, L; Deniaud, J; Ledevin, M; Cristini, J; Blouin, V; Aubourg, P; Colle, M-A

    2017-05-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy constitutes a powerful tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. While AAVs are generally administered systemically to newborns in preclinical studies of neurological disorders, in adults the maturity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) must be considered when selecting the route of administration. Delivery of AAVs into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represents an attractive approach to target the central nervous system (CNS) and bypass the BBB. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intra-CSF delivery of a single-stranded (ss) AAV9-CAG-GFP vector in adult mice via intracisternal (iCist) or intralumbar (it-Lumb) administration. It-Lumb ssAAV9 delivery resulted in greater diffusion throughout the entire spinal cord and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression mainly in the cerebellum, cortex and olfactory bulb. By contrast, iCist delivery led to strong GFP expression throughout the entire brain. Comparison of the transduction efficiency of ssAAV9-CAG-GFP versus ssAAV9-SYN1-GFP following it-Lumb administration revealed widespread and specific GFP expression in neurons and motoneurons of the spinal cord and brain when the neuron-specific synapsin 1 (SYN1) promoter was used. Our findings demonstrate that it-Lumb ssAAV9 delivery is a safe and highly efficient means of targeting the CNS in adult mice.

  16. Distribution of AAV-TK following intracranial convection-enhanced delivery into rats.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J; Oiwa, Y; Nagy, D; Podsakoff, G; Colosi, P; Bankiewicz, K S

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are being tested in animal models as viable treatments for glioma and neurodegenerative disease and could potentially be employed to target a variety of central nervous system disorders. The relationship between dose of injected vector and its resulting distribution in brain tissue has not been previously reported nor has the most efficient method of delivery been determined. Here we report that convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of 2.5 x 10(8), 2.5 x 10(9), or 2.5 x 10(10) particles of AAV-thymidine kinase (AAV-TK) into rat brain revealed a clear dose response. In the high-dose group, a volume of 300 mm3 of brain tissue was partially transduced. Results showed that infusion pump and subcutaneous osmotic pumps were both capable of delivering vector via CED and that total particle number was the most important determining factor in obtaining efficient expression. Results further showed differences in histopathology between the delivery groups. While administration of vector using infusion pump had relatively benign effects, the use of osmotic pumps resulted in notable toxicity to the surrounding brain tissue. To determine tissue distribution of vector following intracranial delivery, PCR analysis was performed on tissues from rats that received high doses of AAV-TK. Three weeks following CED, vector could be detected in both hemispheres of the brain, spinal cord, spleen, and kidney.

  17. Restoration of visual response in aged dystrophic RCS rats using AAV-mediated channelopsin-2 gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Yawo, Hiromu; Ishizuka, Toru; Isago, Hitomi; Narikawa, Satoko; Kügler, Sebastian; Tamai, Makoto

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether the channelopsin-2 (Chop2) gene would restore visual responses in 10-month-old dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (aged RCS; rdy/rdy) rats, the authors transferred the Chop2 gene into the retinal cells of aged RCS rats using the adenoassociated virus (AAV) vector. The N-terminal fragment (residues 1-315) of Chop2 was fused to a fluorescent protein, Venus, in frame at the end of the Chop2 coding fragment. The viral vector construct (AAV-Chop2V) for the expression of the Chop2V in the retina was made by subcloning into an adenoassociated virus vector, including the CAG promoter. To evaluate the expression profile of Chop2V in the retina, the rats were killed and the eyes were removed and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline. Retinal wholemount specimens and cryosections were made. Under anesthetized conditions, electrodes for the recording of visually evoked potentials (VEPs) were implanted onto the visual cortex in aged-RCS (rdy/rdy) rats. AAV-Chop2V vectors were then injected into the vitreous cavity of the left eyes. As a control, AAV-Venus vectors were applied to the right eyes. VEPs were evoked by the flash of a blue, white, or red light-emitting diode (LED) and were recorded from the visual cortex of the rats at various time points after the AAV vector injection. Chop2V fluorescence was predominantly observed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Some fluorescence was observed in the inner nuclear layer and the inner plexiform layer neurites. A tendency of recovery was observed in the VEPs of aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats after the AAV-Chop2V injection but not after the AAV-Venus injection. The visual response of AAV-Chop2V-injected aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats was less sensitive to the blue LED flash than that of nondystrophic RCS (+/+) rats. The AAV-Chop2V-injected aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats were insensitive to the red LED flash, which evoked a robust VEP in the RCS (+/+) rats. The visual response of aged RCS (rdy/rdy) rats

  18. Hyaluronic acid synthase-2 gene transfer into the joints of Beagles by use of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Kyostio-Moore, Sirkka; Berthelette, Patricia; Cornell, Cathleen Sookdeo; Nambiar, Bindu; Figueiredo, Monica Dias

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate gene transfer of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors with AAV2 or AAV5 capsid and encoding hyaluronic acid (HA) synthase-2 (HAS2) into joints of healthy dogs. ANIMALS 22 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURES Plasmid expression cassettes encoding canine HAS2 (cHAS2) were assessed in vitro for concentration and molecular size of secreted HA. Thereafter, rAAV2-cHAS2 vectors at 3 concentrations and rAAV5-cHAS2 vectors at 1 concentration were each administered intra-articularly into the left stifle joint of 5 dogs; 2 dogs received PBS solution instead. Synovial fluid HA concentration and serum and synovial fluid titers of neutralizing antibodies against AAV capsids were measured at various points. Dogs were euthanized 28 days after treatment, and cartilage and synovium samples were collected for vector DNA and mRNA quantification and histologic examination. RESULTS Cell transfection with plasmids encoding cHAS2 resulted in an increase in production and secretion of HA in vitro. In vivo, the rAAV5-cHAS2 vector yielded uniform genome transfer and cHAS2 expression in collected synovium and cartilage samples. In contrast, rAAV2-cHAS2 vectors were detected inconsistently in synovium and cartilage samples and failed to produce clear dose-related responses. Histologic examination revealed minimal synovial inflammation in joints injected with rAAV vectors. Neutralizing antibodies against AAV capsids were detected in serum and synovial fluid samples from all vector-treated dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE rAAV5-mediated transfer of the gene for cHAS2 into healthy joints of dogs by intra-articular injection appeared safe and resulted in vector-derived cHAS2 production by synoviocytes and chondrocytes. Whether this treatment may increase HA production by synoviocytes and chondrocytes in osteoarthritic joints remains to be determined.

  19. Development of Intrathecal AAV9 Gene Therapy for Giant Axonal Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel M; Armao, Diane; Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Sahana; Gray, Steven J

    2018-06-15

    An NIH-sponsored phase I clinical trial is underway to test a potential treatment for giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) using viral-mediated GAN gene replacement (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02362438). This trial marks the first instance of intrathecal (IT) adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer in humans. GAN is a rare pediatric neurodegenerative disorder caused by autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes the gigaxonin protein. Gigaxonin is involved in the regulation, turnover, and degradation of intermediate filaments (IFs). The pathologic signature of GAN is giant axonal swellings filled with disorganized accumulations of IFs. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of the AAV vector carrying a normal copy of the human GAN transgene (AAV9/JeT-GAN) currently employed in the clinical trial. Treatment with AAV/JeT-GAN restored the normal configuration of IFs in patient fibroblasts within days in cell culture and by 4 weeks in GAN KO mice. IT delivery of AAV9/JeT-GAN in aged GAN KO mice preserved sciatic nerve ultrastructure, reduced neuronal IF accumulations and attenuated rotarod dysfunction. This strategy conferred sustained wild-type gigaxonin expression across the PNS and CNS for at least 1 year in mice. These results support the clinical evaluation of AAV9/JeT-GAN for potential therapeutic outcomes and treatment for GAN patients.

  20. Intra-Amniotic rAAV-Mediated Microdystrophin Gene Transfer Improves Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy and May Induce Immune Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hayashita-Kinoh, Hiromi; Yugeta, Naoko; Okada, Hironori; Nitahara-Kasahara, Yuko; Chiyo, Tomoko; Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe congenital disease due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. Supplementation of dystrophin using recombinant adenoassociated virus vector has promise as a treatment of DMD, although therapeutic benefit of the truncated dystrophin still remains to be elucidated. Besides, host immune responses against the vector as well as transgene products have been denoted in the clinical gene therapy studies. Here, we transduced dystrophic dogs fetuses to investigate the therapeutic effects of an AAV vector expressing microdystrophin under conditions of immune tolerance. rAAV-CMV-microdystrophin and a rAAV-CAG-luciferase were injected into the amniotic fluid surrounding fetuses. We also reinjected rAAV9-CMV-microdystrophin into the jugular vein of an infant dystrophic dog to induce systemic expression of microdystrophin. Gait and cardiac function significantly improved in the rAAV-microdystrophin-injected dystrophic dog, suggesting that an adequate treatment of rAAV-microdystrophin with immune modulation induces successful long-term transgene expression to analyze improved dystrophic phenotype. PMID:25586688

  1. Preparation of rAAV9 to Overexpress or Knockdown Genes in Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Lin, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Pu, William T.; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the expression or activity of specific genes through the myocardial delivery of genetic materials in murine models permits the investigation of gene functions. Their therapeutic potential in the heart can also be determined. There are limited approaches for in vivo molecular intervention in the mouse heart. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based genome engineering has been utilized as an essential tool for in vivo cardiac gene manipulation. The specific advantages of this technology include high efficiency, high specificity, low genomic integration rate, minimalimmunogenicity, and minimal pathogenicity. Here, a detailed procedure to construct, package, and purify the rAAV9 vectors is described. Subcutaneous injection of rAAV9 into neonatal pups results in robust expression or efficient knockdown of the gene(s) of interest in the mouse heart, but not in the liver and other tissues. Using the cardiac-specific TnnT2 promoter, high expression of GFP gene in the heart was obtained. Additionally, target mRNA was inhibited in the heart when a rAAV9-U6-shRNA was utilized. Working knowledge of rAAV9 technology may be useful for cardiovascular investigations. PMID:28060283

  2. Preparation of rAAV9 to Overexpress or Knockdown Genes in Mouse Hearts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Lin, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Pu, William T; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2016-12-17

    Controlling the expression or activity of specific genes through the myocardial delivery of genetic materials in murine models permits the investigation of gene functions. Their therapeutic potential in the heart can also be determined. There are limited approaches for in vivo molecular intervention in the mouse heart. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based genome engineering has been utilized as an essential tool for in vivo cardiac gene manipulation. The specific advantages of this technology include high efficiency, high specificity, low genomic integration rate, minimal immunogenicity, and minimal pathogenicity. Here, a detailed procedure to construct, package, and purify the rAAV9 vectors is described. Subcutaneous injection of rAAV9 into neonatal pups results in robust expression or efficient knockdown of the gene(s) of interest in the mouse heart, but not in the liver and other tissues. Using the cardiac-specific TnnT2 promoter, high expression of GFP gene in the heart was obtained. Additionally, target mRNA was inhibited in the heart when a rAAV9-U6-shRNA was utilized. Working knowledge of rAAV9 technology may be useful for cardiovascular investigations.

  3. Successful transduction of liver in hemophilia by AAV-Factor IX and limitations imposed by the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Manno, Catherine S; Pierce, Glenn F; Arruda, Valder R; Glader, Bertil; Ragni, Margaret; Rasko, John J; Rasko, John; Ozelo, Margareth C; Hoots, Keith; Blatt, Philip; Konkle, Barbara; Dake, Michael; Kaye, Robin; Razavi, Mahmood; Zajko, Albert; Zehnder, James; Rustagi, Pradip K; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Chew, Amy; Leonard, Debra; Wright, J Fraser; Lessard, Ruth R; Sommer, Jürg M; Tigges, Michael; Sabatino, Denise; Luk, Alvin; Jiang, Haiyan; Mingozzi, Federico; Couto, Linda; Ertl, Hildegund C; High, Katherine A; Kay, Mark A

    2006-03-01

    We have previously shown that a single portal vein infusion of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) expressing canine Factor IX (F.IX) resulted in long-term expression of therapeutic levels of F.IX in dogs with severe hemophilia B. We carried out a phase 1/2 dose-escalation clinical study to extend this approach to humans with severe hemophilia B. rAAV-2 vector expressing human F.IX was infused through the hepatic artery into seven subjects. The data show that: (i) vector infusion at doses up to 2 x 10(12) vg/kg was not associated with acute or long-lasting toxicity; (ii) therapeutic levels of F.IX were achieved at the highest dose tested; (iii) duration of expression at therapeutic levels was limited to a period of approximately 8 weeks; (iv) a gradual decline in F.IX was accompanied by a transient asymptomatic elevation of liver transaminases that resolved without treatment. Further studies suggested that destruction of transduced hepatocytes by cell-mediated immunity targeting antigens of the AAV capsid caused both the decline in F.IX and the transient transaminitis. We conclude that rAAV-2 vectors can transduce human hepatocytes in vivo to result in therapeutically relevant levels of F.IX, but that future studies in humans may require immunomodulation to achieve long-term expression.

  4. Genetic modification of adeno-associated viral vector type 2 capsid enhances gene transfer efficiency in polarized human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    White, April F; Mazur, Marina; Sorscher, Eric J; Zinn, Kurt R; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2008-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease characterized by defects in the expression of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Gene therapy offers better hope for the treatment of CF. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are capable of stable expression with low immunogenicity. Despite their potential in CF gene therapy, gene transfer efficiency by AAV is limited because of pathophysiological barriers in these patients. Although a few AAV serotypes have shown better transduction compared with the AAV2-based vectors, gene transfer efficiency in human airway epithelium has still not reached therapeutic levels. To engineer better AAV vectors for enhanced gene delivery in human airway epithelium, we developed and characterized mutant AAV vectors by genetic capsid modification, modeling the well-characterized AAV2 serotype. We genetically incorporated putative high-affinity peptide ligands to human airway epithelium on the GH loop region of AAV2 capsid protein. Six independent mutant AAV were constructed, containing peptide ligands previously reported to bind with high affinity for known and unknown receptors on human airway epithelial cells. The vectors were tested on nonairway cells and nonpolarized and polarized human airway epithelial cells for enhanced infectivity. One of the mutant vectors, with the peptide sequence THALWHT, not only showed the highest transduction in undifferentiated human airway epithelial cells but also indicated significant transduction in polarized cells. Interestingly, this modified vector was also able to infect cells independently of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptor. Incorporation of this ligand on other AAV serotypes, which have shown improved gene transfer efficiency in the human airway epithelium, may enhance the application of AAV vectors in CF gene therapy.

  5. Efficient production of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector, serotype DJ/8, carrying the GFP gene.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Mizushima, Tomoko; Chijiwa, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Suemizu, Hiroshi

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish an efficient method for the preparation of an adeno-associated viral (AAV), serotype DJ/8, carrying the GFP gene (AAV-DJ/8-GFP). We compared the yields of AAV-DJ/8 vector, which were produced by three different combination methods, consisting of two plasmid DNA transfection methods (lipofectamine and calcium phosphate co-precipitation; CaPi) and two virus DNA purification methods (iodixanol and cesium chloride; CsCl). The results showed that the highest yield of AAV-DJ/8-GFP vector was accomplished with the combination method of lipofectamine transfection and iodixanol purification. The viral protein expression levels and the transduction efficacy in HEK293 and CHO cells were not different among four different combination methods for AAV-DJ/8-GFP vectors. We confirmed that the AAV-DJ/8-GFP vector could transduce to human and murine hepatocyte-derived cell lines. These results show that AAV-DJ/8-GFP, purified by the combination of lipofectamine and iodixanol, produces an efficient yield without altering the characteristics of protein expression and AAV gene transduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal Systemic AAV Induces Tolerance to CNS Gene Therapy in MPS I Dogs and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Lin, Gloria; Choa, Ruth; Gurda, Brittney L; Bagel, Jessica; O'Donnell, Patricia; Sikora, Tracey; Ruane, Therese; Wang, Ping; Tarantal, Alice F; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Wilson, James M

    2015-01-01

    The potential host immune response to a nonself protein poses a fundamental challenge for gene therapies targeting recessive diseases. We demonstrate in both dogs and nonhuman primates that liver-directed gene transfer using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in neonates induces a persistent state of immunological tolerance to the transgene product, substantially improving the efficacy of subsequent vector administration targeting the central nervous system (CNS). We applied this approach to a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a progressive neuropathic lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). MPS I dogs treated systemically in the first week of life with a vector expressing canine IDUA did not develop antibodies against the enzyme and exhibited robust expression in the CNS upon intrathecal AAV delivery at 1 month of age, resulting in complete correction of brain storage lesions. Newborn rhesus monkeys treated systemically with AAV vector expressing human IDUA developed tolerance to the transgene, resulting in high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IDUA expression and no antibody induction after subsequent CNS gene therapy. These findings suggest that inducing tolerance to the transgene product during a critical period in immunological development can improve the efficacy and safety of gene therapy. PMID:26022732

  7. Neonatal Systemic AAV Induces Tolerance to CNS Gene Therapy in MPS I Dogs and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Lin, Gloria; Choa, Ruth; Gurda, Brittney L; Bagel, Jessica; O'Donnell, Patricia; Sikora, Tracey; Ruane, Therese; Wang, Ping; Tarantal, Alice F; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Wilson, James M

    2015-08-01

    The potential host immune response to a nonself protein poses a fundamental challenge for gene therapies targeting recessive diseases. We demonstrate in both dogs and nonhuman primates that liver-directed gene transfer using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in neonates induces a persistent state of immunological tolerance to the transgene product, substantially improving the efficacy of subsequent vector administration targeting the central nervous system (CNS). We applied this approach to a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a progressive neuropathic lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). MPS I dogs treated systemically in the first week of life with a vector expressing canine IDUA did not develop antibodies against the enzyme and exhibited robust expression in the CNS upon intrathecal AAV delivery at 1 month of age, resulting in complete correction of brain storage lesions. Newborn rhesus monkeys treated systemically with AAV vector expressing human IDUA developed tolerance to the transgene, resulting in high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IDUA expression and no antibody induction after subsequent CNS gene therapy. These findings suggest that inducing tolerance to the transgene product during a critical period in immunological development can improve the efficacy and safety of gene therapy.

  8. Induction of immunity to antigens expressed by recombinant adeno-associated virus depends on the route of administration.

    PubMed

    Brockstedt, D G; Podsakoff, G M; Fong, L; Kurtzman, G; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W; Engleman, E G

    1999-07-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a replication-defective parvovirus which is being explored as a vector for gene therapy because of its broad host range, excellent safety profile, and durable transgene expression in infected hosts. rAAV has also been reported by several groups to induce little or no immune response to its encoded transgene products. In this study we examined the immunogenicity of rAAV by studying the immune response of C57BL/6 mice to a single dose of rAAV-encoding ovalbumin (AAV-Ova) administered by a variety of routes. Mice injected with AAV-Ova intraperitoneally (ip), intravenously, or subcutaneously developed potent ovalbumin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as well as anti-ovalbumin antibodies and antibodies to AAV. In contrast, mice injected with AAV-Ova intramuscularly developed a humoral response to the virus and the transgene but minimal ovalbumin-specific CTLs. The induced CTL response after ip administration of AAV-Ova protected mice against a subsequent tumor challenge with an ovalbumin-transfected B16 melanoma cell line. Studies of the mechanism by which AAV-Ova induces CTL confirmed that the virus delivers the transgene product into the classical MHC class I pathway of antigen processing. Mice that previously had been exposed to rAAV vectors failed to develop ovalbumin-specific CTL following administration of AAV-Ova. Analysis of these mice revealed the presence of circulating anti-AAV antibodies that blocked rAAV transduction in vitro and inhibited CTL induction in vivo. These results suggest a possible role for rAAV in the immunotherapy of malignancies and viral infections, although induced antibody responses to AAV may limit its ability to be administered for repeated vaccinations. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Overcoming preexisting humoral immunity to AAV using capsid decoys.

    PubMed

    Mingozzi, Federico; Anguela, Xavier M; Pavani, Giulia; Chen, Yifeng; Davidson, Robert J; Hui, Daniel J; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Elkouby, Liron; Hinderer, Christian J; Faella, Armida; Howard, Carolann; Tai, Alex; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Zhou, Shangzhen; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Wright, John Fraser; High, Katherine A

    2013-07-17

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivered through the systemic circulation successfully transduce various target tissues in animal models. However, similar attempts in humans have been hampered by the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV, which completely block vector transduction. We show in both mouse and nonhuman primate models that addition of empty capsid to the final vector formulation can, in a dose-dependent manner, adsorb these antibodies, even at high titers, thus overcoming their inhibitory effect. To further enhance the safety of the approach, we mutated the receptor binding site of AAV2 to generate an empty capsid mutant that can adsorb antibodies but cannot enter a target cell. Our work suggests that optimizing the ratio of full/empty capsids in the final formulation of vector, based on a patient's anti-AAV titers, will maximize the efficacy of gene transfer after systemic vector delivery.

  10. Overcoming Preexisting Humoral Immunity to AAV Using Capsid Decoys

    PubMed Central

    Anguela, Xavier M.; Pavani, Giulia; Chen, Yifeng; Davidson, Robert J.; Hui, Daniel J.; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Elkouby, Liron; Hinderer, Christian J.; Faella, Armida; Howard, Carolann; Tai, Alex; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Wright, John Fraser

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivered through the systemic circulation successfully transduce various target tissues in animal models. However, similar attempts in humans have been hampered by the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV, which completely block vector transduction. We show in both mouse and nonhuman primate models that addition of empty capsid to the final vector formulation can, in a dose-dependent manner, adsorb these antibodies, even at high titers, thus overcoming their inhibitory effect. To further enhance the safety of the approach, we mutated the receptor binding site of AAV2 to generate an empty capsid mutant that can adsorb antibodies but cannot enter a target cell. Our work suggests that optimizing the ratio of full/empty capsids in the final formulation of vector, based on a patient's anti-AAV titers, will maximize the efficacy of gene transfer after systemic vector delivery. PMID:23863832

  11. In vivo genome editing in animals using AAV-CRISPR system: applications to translational research of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Cia-Hin; Suh, Yousin

    2017-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has shown promising therapeutic efficacy with a good safety profile in a wide range of animal models and human clinical trials. With the advent of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based genome-editing technologies, AAV provides one of the most suitable viral vectors to package, deliver, and express CRISPR components for targeted gene editing. Recent discoveries of smaller Cas9 orthologues have enabled the packaging of Cas9 nuclease and its chimeric guide RNA into a single AAV delivery vehicle for robust in vivo genome editing. Here, we discuss how the combined use of small Cas9 orthologues, tissue-specific minimal promoters, AAV serotypes, and different routes of administration has advanced the development of efficient and precise in vivo genome editing and comprehensively review the various AAV-CRISPR systems that have been effectively used in animals. We then discuss the clinical implications and potential strategies to overcome off-target effects, immunogenicity, and toxicity associated with CRISPR components and AAV delivery vehicles. Finally, we discuss ongoing non-viral-based ex vivo gene therapy clinical trials to underscore the current challenges and future prospects of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery for human therapeutics. PMID:29333255

  12. 75 FR 55808 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of AAV5 Based Therapeutics To Treat Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... Patent 6, 855, 314 entitled ``AAV5 Vector for Transducing Brain Cells and Lung Cells'' [HHS Ref. No. E... sale of AAV5 based therapeutic products to be delivered to the brain, eyes and liver for treatment of... vectors and particles. The specific brain cells that are targeted by AAV5 belong to both non-neuronal...

  13. Comparative biology of rAAV transduction in ferret, pig and human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Luo, M; Guo, C; Yan, Z; Wang, Y; Engelhardt, J F

    2007-11-01

    Differences between rodent and human airway cell biology have made it difficult to translate recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene therapies to the lung for cystic fibrosis (CF). As new ferret and pig models for CF become available, knowledge about host cell/vector interactions in these species will become increasingly important for testing potential gene therapies. To this end, we have compared the transduction biology of three rAAV serotypes (AAV1, 2 and 5) in human, ferret, pig and mouse-polarized airway epithelia. Our results indicate that apical transduction of ferret and pig airway epithelia with these rAAV serotypes closely mirrors that observed in human epithelia (rAAV1>rAAV2 congruent withrAAV5), while transduction of mouse epithelia was significantly different (rAAV1>rAAV5>rAAV2). Similarly, ferret, pig and human epithelia also shared serotype-specific differences in the polarity (apical vs basolateral) and proteasome dependence of rAAV transduction. Despite these parallels, N-linked sialic acid receptors were required for rAAV1 and rAAV5 transduction of human and mouse airway epithelia, but not ferret or pig airway epithelia. Hence, although the airway tropisms of rAAV serotypes 1, 2 and 5 are conserved better among ferret, pig and human as compared to mouse, viral receptors/co-receptors appear to maintain considerable species diversity.

  14. Adeno-associated virus Rep-mediated targeting of integrase-defective retroviral vector DNA circles into human chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shuohao; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is capable of targeted integration in human cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrase-defective retroviral vector (IDRV) enables a circular DNA delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A targeted integration system of IDRV DNA using the AAV integration mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeted IDRV integration ameliorates the safety concerns for retroviral vectors. -- Abstract: Retroviral vectors have been employed in clinical trials for gene therapy owing to their relative large packaging capacity, alterable cell tropism, and chromosomal integration for stable transgene expression. However, uncontrollable integrations of transgenes are likely to cause safety issues, such as insertional mutagenesis. A targeted transgene integration system for retroviral vectors,more » therefore, is a straightforward way to address the insertional mutagenesis issue. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the only known virus capable of targeted integration in human cells. In the presence of AAV Rep proteins, plasmids possessing the p5 integration efficiency element (p5IEE) can be integrated into the AAV integration site (AAVS1) in the human genome. In this report, we describe a system that can target the circular DNA derived from non-integrating retroviral vectors to the AAVS1 site by utilizing the Rep/p5IEE integration mechanism. Our results showed that after G418 selection 30% of collected clones had retroviral DNA targeted at the AAVS1 site.« less

  15. Adeno-associated virus vectors can be efficiently produced without helper virus.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, T; Elliger, S; Elliger, C; Podsakoff, G; Villarreal, L; Kurtzman, G J; Iwaki, Y; Colosi, P

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an efficient method for the production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the absence of helper virus. The adenovirus regions that mediate AAV vector replication were identified and assembled into a helper plasmid. These included the VA, E2A and E4 regions. When this helper plasmid was cotransfected into 293 cells, along with plasmids encoding the AAV vector, and rep and cap genes, AAV vector was produced as efficiently as when using adenovirus infection as a source of help. CMV-driven constructs expressing the E4orf6 and the 72-M(r), E2A proteins were able to functionally replace the E4 and E2A regions, respectively. Therefore the minimum set of genes required to produce AAV helper activity equivalent to that provided by adenovirus infection consists of, or is a subset of, the following genes: the E4orf6 gene, the 72-M(r), E2A protein gene, the VA RNA genes and the E1 region. AAV vector preparations made with adenovirus and by the helper virus-free method were essentially indistinguishable with respect to particle density, particle to infectivity ratio, capsimer ratio and efficiency of muscle transduction in vivo. Only AAV vector preparations made by the helper virus-free method were not reactive with anti-adenovirus sera.

  16. Role of cellular FKBP52 protein in intracellular trafficking of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Weihong; Wu Jianqing; Zhong Li

    2006-09-30

    We have reported that tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of a cellular protein, FKBP52, inhibit the second-strand DNA synthesis of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV), leading to inefficient transgene expression from recombinant AAV vectors. To further explore the role of FKBP52 in AAV-mediated transduction, we established murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) cultures from FKBP52 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HE), and knockout (KO) mice. Conventional AAV vectors failed to transduce WT MEFs efficiently, and the transduction efficiency was not significantly increased in HE or KO MEFs. AAV vectors failed to traffic efficiently to the nucleus in these cells. Treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) increased the transduction efficiency ofmore » conventional AAV vectors by {approx}25-fold in WT MEFs, but only by {approx}4-fold in KO MEFs. The use of self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, which bypass the requirement of viral second-strand DNA synthesis, revealed that HU treatment increased the transduction efficiency {approx}23-fold in WT MEFs, but only {approx}4-fold in KO MEFs, indicating that the lack of HU treatment-mediated increase in KO MEFs was not due to failure of AAV to undergo viral second-strand DNA synthesis. Following HU treatment, {approx}59% of AAV genomes were present in the nuclear fraction from WT MEFs, but only {approx}28% in KO MEFs, indicating that the pathway by which HU treatment mediates nuclear transport of AAV was impaired in KO MEFs. When KO MEFs were stably transfected with an FKBP52 expression plasmid, HU treatment-mediated increase in the transduction efficiency was restored in these cells, which correlated directly with improved intracellular trafficking. Intact AAV particles were also shown to interact with FKBP52 as well as with dynein, a known cellular protein involved in AAV trafficking. These studies suggest that FKBP52, being a cellular chaperone protein, facilitates intracellular trafficking of AAV, which has implications in the optimal use of

  17. AAV9-mediated engineering of autotransplanted kidney of non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Tomasoni, S; Trionfini, P; Azzollini, N; Zentilin, L; Giacca, M; Aiello, S; Longaretti, L; Cozzi, E; Baldan, N; Remuzzi, G; Benigni, A

    2017-05-01

    Ex vivo gene transfer to the graft before transplantation is an attractive option for circumventing systemic side effects of chronic antirejection therapy. Gene delivery of the immunomodulatory protein cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4-Ig) prevented chronic kidney rejection in a rat model of allotransplantation without the need for systemic immunosuppression. Here we generated adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) and AAV9 vectors encoding for LEA29Y, an optimized version of CTLA4-Ig. Both LEA29Y vectors were equally efficient for reducing T-cell proliferation in vitro. Serotype 9 was chosen for in vivo experiments owing to a lower frequency of preformed antibodies against the AAV9 capsid in 16 non-human primate tested sera. AAV9-LEA29Y was able to transduce the kidney of non-human primates in an autotransplantation model. Expression of LEA29Y mRNA by renal cells translated into the production of the corresponding protein, which was confined to the graft but not detected in serum. Results in non-human primates represent a step forward in maintaining the portability of this strategy into clinics.

  18. Widespread spinal cord transduction by intrathecal injection of rAAV delivers efficacious RNAi therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Bin; Qiu, Linghua; Yang, Chunxing; Kramer, Joshua; Su, Qin; Guo, Yansu; Brown, Robert H; Gao, Guangping; Xu, Zuoshang

    2014-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. No treatment can significantly slow or arrest the disease progression. Mutations in the SOD1 gene cause a subset of familial ALS by a gain of toxicity. In principle, these cases could be treated with RNAi that destroys the mutant mRNA, thereby abolishing the toxic protein. However, no system is available to efficiently deliver the RNAi therapy. Recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV) is a promising vehicle due to its long-lasting gene expression and low toxicity. However, ALS afflicts broad areas of the central nervous system (CNS). A lack of practical means to spread rAAV broadly has hindered its application in treatment of ALS. To overcome this barrier, we injected several rAAV serotypes into the cerebrospinal fluid. We found that some rAAV serotypes such as rAAVrh10 and rAAV9 transduced cells throughout the length of the spinal cord following a single intrathecal injection and in the broad forebrain following a single injection into the third ventricle. Furthermore, a single intrathecal injection of rAAVrh10 robustly transduced motor neurons throughout the spinal cord in a non-human primate. These results suggested a therapeutic potential of this vector for ALS. To test this, we injected a rAAVrh10 vector that expressed an artificial miRNA targeting SOD1 into the SOD1G93A mice. This treatment knocked down the mutant SOD1 expression and slowed the disease progression. Our results demonstrate the potential of rAAVs for delivering gene therapy to treat ALS and other diseases that afflict broad areas of the CNS.

  19. Blood-brain barrier shuttle peptides enhance AAV transduction in the brain after systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xintao; He, Ting; Chai, Zheng; Samulski, R Jude; Li, Chengwen

    2018-09-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has been used in preclinical and clinical trials of gene therapy for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. One of the biggest challenges of effectively delivering AAV to the brain is to surmount the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we identified several potential BBB shuttle peptides that significantly enhanced AAV8 transduction in the brain after a systemic administration, the best of which was the THR peptide. The enhancement of AAV8 brain transduction by THR is dose-dependent, and neurons are the primary THR targets. Mechanism studies revealed that THR directly bound to the AAV8 virion, increasing its ability to cross the endothelial cell barrier. Further experiments showed that binding of THR to the AAV virion did not interfere with AAV8 infection biology, and that THR competitively blocked transferrin from binding to AAV8. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that BBB shuttle peptides are able to directly interact with AAV and increase the ability of the AAV vectors to cross the BBB for transduction enhancement in the brain. These results will shed important light on the potential applications of BBB shuttle peptides for enhancing brain transduction with systemic administration of AAV vectors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual AAV therapy ameliorates exercise-induced muscle injury and functional ischemia in murine models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Yue, Yongping; Li, Liang; Hakim, Chady H; Zhang, Keqing; Thomas, Gail D; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-09-15

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) membrane delocalization contributes to the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by promoting functional muscle ischemia and exacerbating muscle injury during exercise. We have previously shown that supra-physiological expression of nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin restores normal blood flow regulation and prevents functional ischemia in transgenic mdx mice, a DMD model. A critical next issue is whether systemic dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy can restore nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin expression and mitigate muscle activity-related functional ischemia and injury. Here, we performed systemic gene transfer in mdx and mdx4cv mice using a pair of dual AAV vectors that expressed a 6 kb nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin gene. Vectors were packaged in tyrosine mutant AAV-9 and co-injected (5 × 10(12) viral genome particles/vector/mouse) via the tail vein to 1-month-old dystrophin-null mice. Four months later, we observed 30-50% mini-dystrophin positive myofibers in limb muscles. Treatment ameliorated histopathology, increased muscle force and protected against eccentric contraction-induced injury. Importantly, dual AAV therapy successfully prevented chronic exercise-induced muscle force drop. Doppler hemodynamic assay further showed that therapy attenuated adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle. Our results suggest that partial transduction can still ameliorate nNOS delocalization-associated functional deficiency. Further evaluation of nNOS binding mini-dystrophin dual AAV vectors is warranted in dystrophic dogs and eventually in human patients.

  1. Optimizing promoters for recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene expression in the peripheral and central nervous system using self-complementary vectors.

    PubMed

    Gray, Steven J; Foti, Stacey B; Schwartz, Joel W; Bachaboina, Lavanya; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Coleman, Jennifer; Ehlers, Michael D; Zylka, Mark J; McCown, Thomas J; Samulski, R Jude

    2011-09-01

    With the increased use of small self-complementary adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the design of compact promoters becomes critical for packaging and expressing larger transgenes under ubiquitous or cell-specific control. In a comparative study of commonly used 800-bp cytomegalovirus (CMV) and chicken β-actin (CBA) promoters, we report significant differences in the patterns of cell-specific gene expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CMV promoter provides high initial neural expression that diminishes over time. The CBA promoter displayed mostly ubiquitous and high neural expression, but substantially lower expression in motor neurons (MNs). We report the creation of a novel hybrid form of the CBA promoter (CBh) that provides robust long-term expression in all cells observed with CMV or CBA, including MNs. To develop a short neuronal promoter to package larger transgenes into AAV vectors, we also found that a 229-bp fragment of the mouse methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) promoter was able to drive neuron-specific expression within the CNS. Thus the 800-bp CBh promoter provides strong, long-term, and ubiquitous CNS expression whereas the MeCP2 promoter allows an extra 570-bp packaging capacity, with low and mostly neuronal expression within the CNS, similar to the MeCP2 transcription factor.

  2. AAV-mediated in vivo functional selection of tissue-protective factors against ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruozi, Giulia; Bortolotti, Francesca; Falcione, Antonella; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Ukovich, Laura; Macedo, Antero; Zentilin, Lorena; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Cappellari, Gianluca Gortan; Baldini, Giovanna; Zweyer, Marina; Barazzoni, Rocco; Graziani, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Functional screening of expression libraries in vivo would offer the possibility of identifying novel biotherapeutics without a priori knowledge of their biochemical function. Here we describe a procedure for the functional selection of tissue-protective factors based on the in vivo delivery of arrayed cDNA libraries from the mouse secretome using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Application of this technique, which we call FunSel, in the context of acute ischaemia, revealed that the peptide ghrelin protects skeletal muscle and heart from ischaemic damage. When delivered to the heart using an AAV9 vector, ghrelin markedly reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function over time. This protective activity associates with the capacity of ghrelin to sustain autophagy and remove dysfunctional mitochondria after myocardial infarction. Our findings describe an innovative tool to identify biological therapeutics and reveal a novel role of ghrelin as an inducer of myoprotective autophagy. PMID:26066847

  3. A phase1 study of stereotactic gene delivery of AAV2-NGF for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Michael S; Baumann, Tiffany L; Bakay, Roy A E; Ostrove, Jeffrey M; Siffert, Joao; Fleisher, Adam S; Herzog, Christopher D; Barba, David; Pay, Mary; Salmon, David P; Chu, Yaping; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Bishop, Kathie; Keator, David; Potkin, Steven; Bartus, Raymond T

    2014-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophic-factor protein with the potential to restore function and to protect degenerating cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but safe and effective delivery has proved unsuccessful. Gene transfer, combined with stereotactic surgery, offers a potential means to solve the long-standing delivery obstacles. An open-label clinical trial evaluated the safety and tolerability, and initial efficacy of three ascending doses of the genetically engineered gene-therapy vector adeno-associated virus serotype 2 delivering NGF (AAV2-NGF [CERE-110]). Ten subjects with AD received bilateral AAV2-NGF stereotactically into the nucleus basalis of Meynert. AAV2-NGF was safe and well-tolerated for 2 years. Positron emission tomographic imaging and neuropsychological testing showed no evidence of accelerated decline. Brain autopsy tissue confirmed long-term, targeted, gene-mediated NGF expression and bioactivity. This trial provides important evidence that bilateral stereotactic administration of AAV2-NGF to the nucleus basalis of Meynert is feasible, well-tolerated, and able to produce long-term, biologically active NGF expression, supporting the initiation of an ongoing multicenter, double-blind, sham-surgery-controlled trial. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient gene transfer into nondividing cells by adeno-associated virus-based vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Podsakoff, G; Wong, K K; Chatterjee, S

    1994-01-01

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are emerging as highly promising for use in human gene therapy by virtue of their characteristics of wide host range, high transduction efficiencies, and lack of cytopathogenicity. To better define the biology of AAV-mediated gene transfer, we tested the ability of an AAV vector to efficiently introduce transgenes into nonproliferating cell populations. Cells were induced into a nonproliferative state by treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitors fluorodeoxyuridine and aphidicolin or by contact inhibition induced by confluence and serum starvation. Cells in logarithmic growth or DNA synthesis arrest were transduced with vCWR:beta gal, an AAV-based vector encoding beta-galactosidase under Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter control. Under each condition tested, vCWR:beta Gal expression in nondividing cells was at least equivalent to that in actively proliferating cells, suggesting that mechanisms for virus attachment, nuclear transport, virion uncoating, and perhaps some limited second-strand synthesis of AAV vectors were present in nondividing cells. Southern hybridization analysis of vector sequences from cells transduced while in DNA synthetic arrest and expanded after release of the block confirmed ultimate integration of the vector genome into cellular chromosomal DNA. These findings may provide the basis for the use of AAV-based vectors for gene transfer into quiescent cell populations such as totipotent hematopoietic stem cells. Images PMID:8057446

  5. Efficient gene transfer into nondividing cells by adeno-associated virus-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, G; Wong, K K; Chatterjee, S

    1994-09-01

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are emerging as highly promising for use in human gene therapy by virtue of their characteristics of wide host range, high transduction efficiencies, and lack of cytopathogenicity. To better define the biology of AAV-mediated gene transfer, we tested the ability of an AAV vector to efficiently introduce transgenes into nonproliferating cell populations. Cells were induced into a nonproliferative state by treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitors fluorodeoxyuridine and aphidicolin or by contact inhibition induced by confluence and serum starvation. Cells in logarithmic growth or DNA synthesis arrest were transduced with vCWR:beta gal, an AAV-based vector encoding beta-galactosidase under Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter control. Under each condition tested, vCWR:beta Gal expression in nondividing cells was at least equivalent to that in actively proliferating cells, suggesting that mechanisms for virus attachment, nuclear transport, virion uncoating, and perhaps some limited second-strand synthesis of AAV vectors were present in nondividing cells. Southern hybridization analysis of vector sequences from cells transduced while in DNA synthetic arrest and expanded after release of the block confirmed ultimate integration of the vector genome into cellular chromosomal DNA. These findings may provide the basis for the use of AAV-based vectors for gene transfer into quiescent cell populations such as totipotent hematopoietic stem cells.

  6. Gene therapy using self-complementary Y733F capsid mutant AAV2/8 restores vision in a model of early onset Leber congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Ku, Cristy A; Chiodo, Vince A; Boye, Sanford L; Goldberg, Andrew F X; Li, Tiansen; Hauswirth, William W; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan

    2011-12-01

    Defects in the photoreceptor-specific gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (Aipl1) are associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a childhood blinding disease with early-onset retinal degeneration and vision loss. Furthermore, Aipl1 defects are characterized at the most severe end of the LCA spectrum. The rapid photoreceptor degeneration and vision loss observed in the LCA patient population are mimicked in a mouse model lacking AIPL1. Using this model, we evaluated if gene replacement therapy using recent advancements in adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) provides advantages in preventing rapid retinal degeneration. Specifically, we demonstrated that the novel self-complementary Y733F capsid mutant AAV2/8 (sc-Y733F-AAV) provided greater preservation of photoreceptors and functional vision in Aipl1 null mice compared with single-stranded AAV2/8. The benefits of sc-Y733F-AAV were evident following viral administration during the active phase of retinal degeneration, where only sc-Y733F-AAV treatment achieved functional vision rescue. This result was likely due to higher and earlier onset of Aipl1 expression. Based on our studies, we conclude that the sc-Y733F-AAV2/8 viral vector, to date, achieves the best rescue for rapid retinal degeneration in Aipl1 null mice. Our results provide important considerations for viral vectors to be used in future gene therapy clinical trials targeting a wider severity spectrum of inherited retinal dystrophies.

  7. Clinical protocol. Gene therapy of Canavan disease: AAV-2 vector for neurosurgical delivery of aspartoacylase gene (ASPA) to the human brain.

    PubMed

    Janson, Christopher; McPhee, Scott; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Haselgrove, John; Testaiuti, Mark; Freese, Andrew; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Shera, David; Hurh, Peter; Rupin, Joan; Saslow, Elizabeth; Goldfarb, Olga; Goldberg, Michael; Larijani, Ghassem; Sharrar, William; Liouterman, Larisa; Camp, Angelique; Kolodny, Edwin; Samulski, Jude; Leone, Paola

    2002-07-20

    This clinical protocol describes virus-based gene transfer for Canavan disease, a childhood leukodystrophy. Canavan disease, also known as Van Bogaert-Bertrand disease, is a monogeneic, autosomal recessive disease in which the gene coding for the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA) is defective. The lack of functional enzyme leads to an increase in the central nervous system of the substrate molecule, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), which impairs normal myelination and results in spongiform degeneration of the brain. No effective treatment currently exists; however, virus-based gene transfer has the potential to arrest or reverse the course of this otherwise fatal condition. This procedure involves neurosurgical administration of approximately 900 billion genomic particles (approximately 10 billion infectious particles) of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the aspartoacylase gene (ASPA) directly to affected regions of the brain in each of 21 patients with Canavan disease. Pre- and post-delivery assessments include a battery of noninvasive biochemical, radiological, and neurological tests. This gene transfer study represents the first clinical use of AAV in the human brain and the first instance of viral gene transfer for a neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Double-stranded RNA innate immune response activation from long-term adeno-associated virus vector transduction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenwei; Earley, Lauriel F; Chai, Zheng; Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Junjiang; He, Ting; Deng, Meng; Hirsch, Matthew L; Ting, Jenny; Samulski, R Jude; Li, Chengwen

    2018-06-21

    Data from clinical trials for hemophilia B using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have demonstrated decreased transgenic coagulation factor IX (hFIX) expression 6-10 weeks after administration of a high vector dose. While it is likely that capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate vector-transduced hepatocytes, thereby resulting in decreased hFIX, this observation is not intuitively consistent with restored hFIX levels following prednisone application. Although the innate immune response is immediately activated following AAV vector infection via TLR pathways, no studies exist regarding the role of the innate immune response at later time points after AAV vector transduction. Herein, activation of the innate immune response in cell lines, primary human hepatocytes, and hepatocytes in a human chimeric mouse model was observed at later time points following AAV vector transduction. Mechanistic analysis demonstrated that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensor MDA5 was necessary for innate immune response activation and that transient knockdown of MDA5, or MAVS, decreased IFN-β expression while increasing transgene production in AAV-transduced cells. These results both highlight the role of the dsRNA-triggered innate immune response in therapeutic transgene expression at later time points following AAV transduction and facilitate the execution of effective strategies to block the dsRNA innate immune response in future clinical trials.

  9. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy Using Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Prevents Cardiomyopathy in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Marco; Descamps, Betty; Caporali, Andrea; Zentilin, Lorena; Floris, Ilaria; Giacca, Mauro; Emanueli, Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a cause of cardiac dysfunction, reduced myocardial perfusion, and ultimately heart failure. Nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts protective effects on the cardiovascular system. This study investigated whether NGF gene transfer can prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice. We worked with mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and with nondiabetic control mice. After having established that diabetes reduces cardiac NGF mRNA expression, we tested NGF gene therapies with adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) for the capacity to protect the diabetic mouse heart. To this aim, after 2 weeks of diabetes, cardiac expression of human NGF or β-Gal (control) genes was induced by either intramyocardial injection of AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) or systemic delivery of AAV serotype 9 (AAV9). Nondiabetic mice were given AAV2–β-Gal or AAV9–β-Gal. We found that the diabetic mice receiving NGF gene transfer via either AAV2 or AAV9 were spared the progressive deterioration of cardiac function and left ventricular chamber dilatation observed in β-Gal–injected diabetic mice. Moreover, they were additionally protected from myocardial microvascular rarefaction, hypoperfusion, increased deposition of interstitial fibrosis, and increased apoptosis of endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, which afflicted the β-Gal–injected diabetic control mice. Our data suggest therapeutic potential of NGF for the prevention of cardiomyopathy in diabetic subjects. PMID:22187379

  10. The upstream enhancer elements of the G6PC promoter are critical for optimal G6PC expression in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mok; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Koeberl, Dwight D; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type-Ia (GSD-Ia) patients deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) manifest impaired glucose homeostasis characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, growth retardation, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidemia. Two efficacious recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotype 2/8 (rAAV8) vectors expressing human G6Pase-α have been independently developed. One is a single-stranded vector containing a 2864-bp of the G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-GPE) and the other is a double-stranded vector containing a shorter 382-bp minimal G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-miGPE). To identify the best construct, a direct comparison of the rAAV8-GPE and the rAAV8-miGPE vectors was initiated to determine the best vector to take forward into clinical trials. We show that the rAAV8-GPE vector directed significantly higher levels of hepatic G6Pase-α expression, achieved greater reduction in hepatic glycogen accumulation, and led to a better toleration of fasting in GSD-Ia mice than the rAAV8-miGPE vector. Our results indicated that additional control elements in the rAAV8-GPE vector outweigh the gains from the double-stranded rAAV8-miGPE transduction efficiency, and that the rAAV8-GPE vector is the current choice for clinical translation in human GSD-Ia. © 2013.

  11. α-Synuclein induced toxicity in brain stem serotonin neurons mediated by an AAV vector driven by the tryptophan hydroxylase promoter.

    PubMed

    Wan, Oi Wan; Shin, Eunju; Mattsson, Bengt; Caudal, Dorian; Svenningsson, Per; Björklund, Anders

    2016-05-23

    We studied the impact of α-synuclein overexpression in brainstem serotonin neurons using a novel vector construct where the expression of human wildtype α-synuclein is driven by the tryptophan hydroxylase promoter, allowing expression of α-synuclein at elevated levels, and with high selectivity, in serotonergic neurons. α-Synuclein induced degenerative changes in axons and dendrites, displaying a distorted appearance, suggesting accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein as a result of impaired axonal transport, accompanied by a 40% loss of terminals, as assessed in the hippocampus. Tissue levels of serotonin and its major metabolite 5-HIAA remained largely unaltered, and the performance of the α-synuclein overexpressing rats in tests of spatial learning (water maze), anxiety related behavior (elevated plus maze) and depressive-like behavior (forced swim test) was not different from control, suggesting that the impact of the developing axonal pathology on serotonin neurotransmission was relatively mild. Overexpression of α-synuclein in the raphe nuclei, combined with overexpression in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, resulted in more pronounced axonal pathology and significant impairment in the elevated plus maze. We conclude that α-synuclein pathology in serotonergic or cholinergic neurons alone is not sufficient to impair non-motor behaviors, but that it is their simultaneous involvement that determines severity of such symptoms.

  12. High-Throughput Dissection of AAV-Host Interactions: The Fast and the Curious.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Grimm, Dirk

    2018-05-18

    Over fifty years after its initial description, Adeno-associated virus (AAV) remains a most exciting but also most elusive study object in basic or applied virology. On the one hand, its simple structure not only facilitates investigations into virus biology, but combined with the availability of numerous natural AAV variants with distinct infection efficiency and specificity also makes AAV a preferred substrate for engineering of gene delivery vectors. On the other hand, it is striking to witness a recent flurry of reports that highlight and partially close persistent gaps in our understanding of AAV virus and vector biology. This is all the more perplexing considering that recombinant AAVs have already been used in >160 clinical trials and recently been commercialized as gene therapeutics. Here, we discuss a reason for these advances in AAV research, namely, the advent and application of powerful high-throughput technology for dissection of AAV-host interactions and optimization of AAV gene therapy vectors. As relevant examples, we focus on the discovery of (i) a "new" cellular AAV receptor, AAVR, (ii) host restriction factors for AAV entry, and (iii) AAV capsid determinants that mediate trafficking through the blood-brain barrier. While (i)/(ii) are prototypes of extra- or intracellular AAV host factors that were identified via high-throughput screenings, (iii) exemplifies the power of molecular evolution to investigate the virus itself. In the future, we anticipate that these and other key technologies will continue to accelerate the dissection of AAV biology and will yield a wealth of new designer viruses for clinical use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Strategies to optimize capsid protein expression and single-stranded DNA formation of adeno-associated virus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Galli, A; Della Latta, V; Bologna, C; Pucciarelli, D; Cipriani, F; Backovic, A; Cervelli, T

    2017-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is a nonpathogenic parvovirus that is a promising tool for gene therapy. We aimed to construct plasmids for optimal expression and assembly of capsid proteins and evaluate adenovirus (Ad) protein effect on AAV single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast expression plasmids have been developed in which the transcription of AAV capsid proteins (VP1,2,3) is driven by the constitutive ADH1 promoter or galactose-inducible promoters. Optimal VP1,2,3 expression was obtained from GAL1/10 bidirectional promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that AAP is expressed in yeast and virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled inside the cell. Finally, the expression of two Ad proteins, E4orf6 and E1b55k, had no effect on AAV ssDNA formation. This study confirms that yeast is able to form AAV VLPs; however, capsid assembly and ssDNA formation are less efficient in yeast than in human cells. Moreover, the expression of Ad proteins did not affect AAV ssDNA formation. New manufacturing strategies for AAV-based gene therapy vectors (rAAV) are needed to reduce costs and time of production. Our study explores the feasibility of yeast as alternative system for rAAV production. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Successful gene therapy in older Rpe65-deficient dogs following subretinal injection of an adeno-associated vector expressing RPE65.

    PubMed

    Annear, Matthew J; Mowat, Freya M; Bartoe, Joshua T; Querubin, Janice; Azam, Selina A; Basche, Mark; Curran, Paul G; Smith, Alexander J; Bainbridge, James W B; Ali, Robin R; Petersen-Jones, Simon M

    2013-10-01

    Young Rpe65-deficient dogs have been used as a model for human RPE65 Leber congenital amaurosis (RPE65-LCA) in proof-of-concept trials of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. However, there are relatively few reports of the outcome of rAAV gene therapy in Rpe65-deficient dogs older than 2 years of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the success of this therapy in older Rpe65-deficient dogs. Thirteen eyes were treated in dogs between 2 and 6 years old. An rAAV2 vector expressing the human RPE65 cDNA driven by the human RPE65 promoter was delivered by subretinal injection. Twelve of the 13 eyes had improved retinal function as assessed by electroretinography, and all showed improvement in vision at low lighting intensities. Histologic examination of five of the eyes was performed but found no correlation between electroretinogram (ERG) rescue and numbers of remaining photoreceptors. We conclude that functional rescue is still possible in older dogs and that the use of older Rpe65-deficient dogs, rather than young Rpe65-deficient dogs that have very little loss of photoreceptors, more accurately models the situation when treating human RPE65-LCA patients.

  15. Intrajugular Vein Delivery of AAV9-RNAi Prevents Neuropathological Changes and Weight Loss in Huntington's Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Brett D; Smith, Catherine A; Clark, Randall L; Walker, Timothy R; McBride, Jodi L

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HTT gene, which encodes a mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT). The mutation confers a toxic gain of function on huntingtin, leading to widespread neurodegeneration and inclusion formation in many brain regions. Although the hallmark symptom of HD is hyperkinesia stemming from striatal degeneration, several other brain regions are affected which cause psychiatric, cognitive, and metabolic symptoms. Additionally, mHTT expression in peripheral tissue is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiac failure, weight loss, and diabetes. We, and others, have demonstrated a prevention of motor symptoms in HD mice following direct striatal injection of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) serotype 1 encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) construct targeting mutant HTT mRNA (mHTT). Here, we expand these efforts and demonstrate that an intrajugular vein injection of AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) expressing a mutant HTT-specific RNAi construct significantly reduced mHTT expression in multiple brain regions and peripheral tissues affected in HD. Correspondingly, this approach prevented atrophy and inclusion formation in key brain regions as well as the severe weight loss germane to HD transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that systemic delivery of AAV9-RNAi may provide more widespread clinical benefit for patients suffering from HD. PMID:24390280

  16. Therapeutic in vivo gene transfer for genetic disease using AAV: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2011-05-01

    In vivo gene replacement for the treatment of inherited disease is one of the most compelling concepts in modern medicine. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been extensively used for this purpose and have shown therapeutic efficacy in a range of animal models. Successful translation to the clinic was initially slow, but long-term expression of donated genes at therapeutic levels has now been achieved in patients with inherited retinal disorders and haemophilia B. Recent exciting results have raised hopes for the treatment of many other diseases. As we discuss here, the prospects and challenges for AAV gene therapy are to a large extent dependent on the target tissue and the specific disease.

  17. Direct and Retrograde Transduction of Nigral Neurons with AAV6, 8, and 9 and Intraneuronal Persistence of Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Aebischer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotypes 6, 8, and 9 were characterized as tools for gene delivery to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra for future gene therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease. While vectors of all three serotypes transduced nigral dopaminergic neurons with equal efficiency when directly injected to the substantia nigra, AAV6 was clearly superior to AAV8 and AAV9 for retrograde transduction of nigral neurons after striatal delivery. For sequential transduction of nigral dopaminergic neurons, the combination of AAV9 with AAV6 proved to be more powerful than AAV8 with AAV6 or repeated AAV6 administration. Surprisingly, single-stranded viral genomes persisted in nigral dopaminergic neurons within cell bodies and axon terminals in the striatum, and intact assembled AAV capsid was enriched in nuclei of nigral neurons, 4 weeks after virus injections to the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)–induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra reduced the number of viral genomes in the striatum, in line with viral genome persistence in axon terminals. However, 6-OHDA–induced axonal degeneration did not induce any transsynaptic spread of AAV infection in the striatum. Therefore, the potential presence of viral particles in axons may not represent an important safety issue for AAV gene therapy applications in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23600720

  18. Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4, 5, and 11.

    PubMed

    Earley, Lauriel F; Powers, John M; Adachi, Kei; Baumgart, Joshua T; Meyer, Nancy L; Xie, Qing; Chapman, Michael S; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have made great progress in their use for gene therapy; however, fundamental aspects of AAV's capsid assembly remain poorly characterized. In this regard, the discovery of assembly-activating protein (AAP) sheds new light on this crucial part of AAV biology and vector production. Previous studies have shown that AAP is essential for assembly; however, how its mechanistic roles in assembly might differ among AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that biological properties of AAPs and capsid assembly processes are surprisingly distinct among AAV serotypes 1 to 12. In the study, we investigated subcellular localizations and assembly-promoting functions of AAP1 to -12 (i.e., AAPs derived from AAV1 to -12, respectively) and examined the AAP dependence of capsid assembly processes of these 12 serotypes using combinatorial approaches that involved immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, barcode-Seq (i. e., a high-throughput quantitative method using DNA barcodes and a next-generation sequencing technology), and quantitative dot blot assays. This study revealed that AAP1 to -12 are all localized in the nucleus with serotype-specific differential patterns of nucleolar association; AAPs and assembled capsids do not necessarily colocalize; AAPs are promiscuous in promoting capsid assembly of other serotypes, with the exception of AAP4, -5, -11, and -12; assembled AAV5, -8, and -9 capsids are excluded from the nucleolus, in contrast to the nucleolar enrichment of assembled AAV2 capsids; and, surprisingly, AAV4, -5, and -11 capsids are not dependent on AAP for assembly. These observations highlight the serotype-dependent heterogeneity of the capsid assembly process and challenge current notions about the role of AAP and the nucleolus in capsid assembly. Assembly-activating protein (AAP) is a recently discovered adeno-associated virus (AAV) protein that promotes capsid assembly and provides new opportunities

  19. Construction of PR39 recombinant AAV under control of the HRE promoter and the effect of recombinant AAV on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    SUN, LIJUN; HAO, YUEWEN; NIE, XIAOWEI; ZHANG, XUEXIN; YANG, GUANGXIAO; WANG, QUANYING

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the PR39 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) controlled by the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease. The minimal HRE was artificially synthesized and the AAV vector controlled by HRE was introduced with NT4-TAT-His-PR39 to investigate the expression of AAV-PR39 in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells (VEC) of human umbilical vein (CRL-1730 cell line) and the angiogenesis-promoting effect in pigs with acute myocardial infraction (AMI). The minimal HRE/CMV was designed and artificially synthesized using the PCR method and cloned with the T vector cloning method. The pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV plasmid was constructed. Using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, HEK-293 cells were co-transfected with three plasmids to produce the recombinant virus. An equal volume of pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyAAAV and enterovirus (EV, blank virus) was transfected into CRL-1730 cell lines, respectively. The immunohistochemical method was used to assay the expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cell lines and the expression of PR39 under hypoxia. Eighteen AMI miniature pigs were randomized into the experimental group (HRE-AAV-PR39 group), control group 1 (physical saline group) and control group 2 (EV group). The area of ischemia was assessed with conventional MRI and myocardium perfusion MRI. Pigs were sacrificed at preset time-points to obtain samples of ischemic myocardium. Morphological and pathological data were collected. According to data in the literature and databases, the minimal HRE was designed and synthesized with the PCR method. A large number of HREs were connected to modified pSSHGAAV (pSSV9int-/XbaI) vector followed by insertion of the NT4-6His-PR39 gene segment and, thus, the recombinant plasmid pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV was successfully constructed. The expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cells under the regulation of HRE was assayed using the

  20. Construction of PR39 recombinant AAV under control of the HRE promoter and the effect of recombinant AAV on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Hao, Yuewen; Nie, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xuexin; Yang, Guangxiao; Wang, Quanying

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the PR39 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) controlled by the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease. The minimal HRE was artificially synthesized and the AAV vector controlled by HRE was introduced with NT4-TAT-His-PR39 to investigate the expression of AAV-PR39 in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells (VEC) of human umbilical vein (CRL-1730 cell line) and the angiogenesis-promoting effect in pigs with acute myocardial infraction (AMI). The minimal HRE/CMV was designed and artificially synthesized using the PCR method and cloned with the T vector cloning method. The pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV plasmid was constructed. Using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, HEK-293 cells were co-transfected with three plasmids to produce the recombinant virus. An equal volume of pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyAAAV and enterovirus (EV, blank virus) was transfected into CRL-1730 cell lines, respectively. The immunohistochemical method was used to assay the expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cell lines and the expression of PR39 under hypoxia. Eighteen AMI miniature pigs were randomized into the experimental group (HRE-AAV-PR39 group), control group 1 (physical saline group) and control group 2 (EV group). The area of ischemia was assessed with conventional MRI and myocardium perfusion MRI. Pigs were sacrificed at preset time-points to obtain samples of ischemic myocardium. Morphological and pathological data were collected. According to data in the literature and databases, the minimal HRE was designed and synthesized with the PCR method. A large number of HREs were connected to modified pSSHGAAV (pSSV9int-/XbaI) vector followed by insertion of the NT4-6His-PR39 gene segment and, thus, the recombinant plasmid pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV was successfully constructed. The expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cells under the regulation of HRE was assayed using the

  1. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein.

    PubMed

    Kessler, P D; Podsakoff, G M; Chen, X; McQuiston, S A; Colosi, P C; Matelis, L A; Kurtzman, G J; Byrne, B J

    1996-11-26

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the beta-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies.

  2. AAV-mediated netrin-1 overexpression increases peri-infarct blood vessel density and improves motor function recovery after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Le, Thang; Chang, Tiffany T J; Habib, Aisha; Wu, Steven; Shen, Fanxia; Young, William L; Su, Hua; Liu, Jialing

    2011-10-01

    Apart from its role in axon guidance, netrin-1 is also known to be pro-angiogenic. The aim of this study is to determine whether adeno-associated viral (AAV) mediated overexpression of netrin-1 improves post-stroke neurovascular structure and recovery of function. AAV-Netrin-1 or AAV-LacZ of 1×10(10) genome copies each was injected medial and posterior to ischemic lesion at one hour following reperfusion using the distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of netrin-1 transgene began as early as one day and increased dramatically about 3 weeks following vector injection. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy suggested that both the endogenous and transduced netrin-1 were expressed in the neurons of the peri-infarct cortex after MCAO. AAV-mediated netrin-1 overexpression significantly increased vascular density in the peri-infarct cortex and promoted the migration of immature neurons into the peri-infarct white matter, but it did not significantly reduce infarct size. Netrin-1 overexpression also enhanced post-stroke locomotor activity, improved exploratory behavior, and reduced ischemia-induced motor asymmetry in forelimb usage. However, it had little effect on post-stroke spatial learning and memory. Our results suggest that AAV mediated netrin-1 overexpression improves peri-infarct vascular density and post stroke motor function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated transduction in the cat brain.

    PubMed

    Vite, Charles H; Passini, Marco A; Haskins, Mark E; Wolfe, John H

    2003-10-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are capable of delivering a therapeutic gene to the mouse brain that can result in long-term and widespread protein production. However, the human infant brain is more than 1000 times larger than the mouse brain, which will make the treatment of global neurometabolic disorders in children more difficult. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three AAV serotypes (1,2, and 5) to transduce cells in the cat brain as a model of a large mammalian brain. The human lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) was used as a reporter gene, because it can be distinguished from feline GUSB by heat stability. The vectors were injected into the cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus, corona radiata, internal capsule, and centrum semiovale of 8-week-old cats. The brains were evaluated for gene expression using in situ hybridization and enzyme histochemistry 10 weeks after surgery. The AAV2 vector was capable of transducing cells in the gray matter, while the AAV1 vector resulted in greater transduction of the gray matter than AAV2 as well as transduction of the white matter. AAV5 did not result in detectable transduction in the cat brain.

  4. AAV-mediated pancreatic overexpression of Igf1 counteracts progression to autoimmune diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Mallol, Cristina; Casana, Estefania; Jimenez, Veronica; Casellas, Alba; Haurigot, Virginia; Jambrina, Claudia; Sacristan, Victor; Morró, Meritxell; Agudo, Judith; Vilà, Laia; Bosch, Fatima

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of β-cells leading to severe insulin deficiency. Although many improvements have been made in recent years, exogenous insulin therapy is still imperfect; new therapeutic approaches, focusing on preserving/expanding β-cell mass and/or blocking the autoimmune process that destroys islets, should be developed. The main objective of this work was to test in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes, the effects of local expression of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a potent mitogenic and pro-survival factor for β-cells with immunomodulatory properties. Transgenic NOD mice overexpressing IGF1 specifically in β-cells (NOD-IGF1) were generated and phenotyped. In addition, miRT-containing, IGF1-encoding adeno-associated viruses (AAV) of serotype 8 (AAV8-IGF1-dmiRT) were produced and administered to 4- or 11-week-old non-transgenic NOD females through intraductal delivery. Several histological, immunological, and metabolic parameters were measured to monitor disease over a period of 28-30 weeks. In transgenic mice, local IGF1 expression led to long-term suppression of diabetes onset and robust protection of β-cell mass from the autoimmune insult. AAV-mediated pancreatic-specific overexpression of IGF1 in adult animals also dramatically reduced diabetes incidence, both when vectors were delivered before pathology onset or once insulitis was established. Transgenic NOD-IGF1 and AAV8-IGF1-dmiRT-treated NOD animals had much less islet infiltration than controls, preserved β-cell mass, and normal insulinemia. Transgenic and AAV-treated islets showed less expression of antigen-presenting molecules, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines important for tissue-specific homing of effector T cells, suggesting IGF1 modulated islet autoimmunity in NOD mice. Local expression of Igf1 by AAV-mediated gene transfer counteracts progression to diabetes in NOD mice. This study suggests a

  5. Rescue of Pompe disease in mice by AAV-mediated liver delivery of secretable acid α-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Puzzo, Francesco; Colella, Pasqualina; Biferi, Maria G.; Bali, Deeksha; Paulk, Nicole K.; Vidal, Patrice; Collaud, Fanny; Simon-Sola, Marcelo; Charles, Severine; Hardet, Romain; Leborgne, Christian; Meliani, Amine; Cohen-Tannoudji, Mathilde; Astord, Stephanie; Gjata, Bernard; Sellier, Pauline; van Wittenberghe, Laetitia; Vignaud, Alban; Boisgerault, Florence; Barkats, Martine; Laforet, Pascal; Kay, Mark A.; Koeberl, Dwight D.; Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Mingozzi, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II or Pompe disease is a severe neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal enzyme, acid α-glucosidase (GAA), which result in pathological accumulation of glycogen throughout the body. Enzyme replacement therapy is available for Pompe disease; however, it has limited efficacy, has high immunogenicity, and fails to correct pathological glycogen accumulation in nervous tissue and skeletal muscle. Using bioinformatics analysis and protein engineering, we developed transgenes encoding GAA that could be expressed and secreted by hepatocytes. Then, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors optimized for hepatic expression to deliver the GAA transgenes to Gaa knockout (Gaa−/−) mice, a model of Pompe disease. Therapeutic gene transfer to the liver rescued glycogen accumulation in muscle and the central nervous system, and ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy as well as muscle and respiratory dysfunction in the Gaa−/− mice; mouse survival was also increased. Secretable GAA showed improved therapeutic efficacy and lower immunogenicity compared to nonengineered GAA. Scale-up to nonhuman primates, and modeling of GAA expression in primary human hepatocytes using hepatotropic AAV vectors, demonstrated the therapeutic potential of AAV vector–mediated liver expression of secretable GAA for treating pathological glycogen accumulation in multiple tissues in Pompe disease. PMID:29187643

  6. Correction of the enzymatic and functional deficits in a model of Pompe disease using adeno-associated virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Fraites, Thomas J; Schleissing, Mary R; Shanely, R Andrew; Walter, Glenn A; Cloutier, Denise A; Zolotukhin, Irene; Pauly, Daniel F; Raben, Nina; Plotz, Paul H; Powers, Scott K; Kessler, Paul D; Byrne, Barry J

    2002-05-01

    Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the absence of acid alpha-1,4 glucosidase (GAA). The pathophysiology of Pompe disease includes generalized myopathy of both cardiac and skeletal muscle. We sought to use recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors to deliver functional GAA genes in vitro and in vivo. Myotubes and fibroblasts from Pompe patients were transduced in vitro with rAAV2-GAA. At 14 days postinfection, GAA activities were at least fourfold higher than in their respective untransduced controls, with a 10-fold increase observed in GAA-deficient myotubes. BALB/c and Gaa(-/-) mice were also treated with rAAV vectors. Persistent expression of vector-derived human GAA was observed in BALB/c mice up to 6 months after treatment. In Gaa(-/-) mice, intramuscular and intramyocardial delivery of rAAV2-Gaa (carrying the mouse Gaa cDNA) resulted in near-normal enzyme activities. Skeletal muscle contractility was partially restored in the soleus muscles of treated Gaa(-/-) mice, indicating the potential for vector-mediated restoration of both enzymatic activity and muscle function. Furthermore, intramuscular treatment with a recombinant AAV serotype 1 vector (rAAV1-Gaa) led to nearly eight times normal enzymatic activity in Gaa(-/-) mice, with concomitant glycogen clearance as assessed in vitro and by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  7. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Paul D.; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Chen, Xiaojuan; McQuiston, Susan A.; Colosi, Peter C.; Matelis, Laura A.; Kurtzman, Gary J.; Byrne, Barry J.

    1996-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the β-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies. PMID:8943064

  8. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:22040468

  9. Humoral immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in normal and dystrophic dogs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-03-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy.

  10. Construction of two vectors for gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dandan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    We report the construction of two filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei expression vectors, pWEF31 and pWEF32. Both vectors possess the hygromycin phosphotransferase B gene expression cassette and the strong promoter and terminator of the cellobiohydrolase 1 gene (cbh1) from T. reesei. The two newly constructed vectors can be efficiently transformed into T. reesei with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The difference between pWEF31 and pWEF32 is that pWEF32 has two longer homologous arms. As a result, pWEF32 easily undergoes homologous recombination. On the other hand, pWEF31 undergoes random recombination. The applicability of both vectors was tested by first generating the expression vectors pWEF31-red and pWEF32-red and then detecting the expression of the DsRed2 gene in T. reesei Rut C30. Additionally, we measured the exo-1,4-β-glucanase activity of the recombinant cells. Our work provides an effective transformation system for homologous and heterologous gene expression and gene knockout in T. reesei. It also provides a method for recombination at a specific chromosomal location. Finally, both vectors will be useful for the large-scale gene expression industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PAX6 MiniPromoters drive restricted expression from rAAV in the adult mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Hickmott, Jack W; Chen, Chih-yu; Arenillas, David J; Korecki, Andrea J; Lam, Siu Ling; Molday, Laurie L; Bonaguro, Russell J; Zhou, Michelle; Chou, Alice Y; Mathelier, Anthony; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Molday, Robert S; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Current gene therapies predominantly use small, strong, and readily available ubiquitous promoters. However, as the field matures, the availability of small, cell-specific promoters would be greatly beneficial. Here we design seven small promoters from the human paired box 6 (PAX6) gene and test them in the adult mouse retina using recombinant adeno-associated virus. We chose the retina due to previous successes in gene therapy for blindness, and the PAX6 gene since it is: well studied; known to be driven by discrete regulatory regions; expressed in therapeutically interesting retinal cell types; and mutated in the vision-loss disorder aniridia, which is in need of improved therapy. At the PAX6 locus, 31 regulatory regions were bioinformatically predicted, and nine regulatory regions were constructed into seven MiniPromoters. Driving Emerald GFP, these MiniPromoters were packaged into recombinant adeno-associated virus, and injected intravitreally into postnatal day 14 mice. Four MiniPromoters drove consistent retinal expression in the adult mouse, driving expression in combinations of cell-types that endogenously express Pax6: ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, and Müller glia. Two PAX6-MiniPromoters drive expression in three of the four cell types that express PAX6 in the adult mouse retina. Combined, they capture all four cell types, making them potential tools for research, and PAX6-gene therapy for aniridia. PMID:27556059

  12. PAX6 MiniPromoters drive restricted expression from rAAV in the adult mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Hickmott, Jack W; Chen, Chih-Yu; Arenillas, David J; Korecki, Andrea J; Lam, Siu Ling; Molday, Laurie L; Bonaguro, Russell J; Zhou, Michelle; Chou, Alice Y; Mathelier, Anthony; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Molday, Robert S; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Current gene therapies predominantly use small, strong, and readily available ubiquitous promoters. However, as the field matures, the availability of small, cell-specific promoters would be greatly beneficial. Here we design seven small promoters from the human paired box 6 (PAX6) gene and test them in the adult mouse retina using recombinant adeno-associated virus. We chose the retina due to previous successes in gene therapy for blindness, and the PAX6 gene since it is: well studied; known to be driven by discrete regulatory regions; expressed in therapeutically interesting retinal cell types; and mutated in the vision-loss disorder aniridia, which is in need of improved therapy. At the PAX6 locus, 31 regulatory regions were bioinformatically predicted, and nine regulatory regions were constructed into seven MiniPromoters. Driving Emerald GFP, these MiniPromoters were packaged into recombinant adeno-associated virus, and injected intravitreally into postnatal day 14 mice. Four MiniPromoters drove consistent retinal expression in the adult mouse, driving expression in combinations of cell-types that endogenously express Pax6: ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, and Müller glia. Two PAX6-MiniPromoters drive expression in three of the four cell types that express PAX6 in the adult mouse retina. Combined, they capture all four cell types, making them potential tools for research, and PAX6-gene therapy for aniridia.

  13. Convection-enhanced delivery of AAV2 in white matter--a novel method for gene delivery to cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Barua, N U; Woolley, M; Bienemann, A S; Johnson, D; Wyatt, M J; Irving, C; Lewis, O; Castrique, E; Gill, S S

    2013-10-30

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is currently under investigation for delivering therapeutic agents to subcortical targets in the brain. Direct delivery of therapies to the cerebral cortex, however, remains a significant challenge. We describe a novel method of targeting adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene therapies to specific cerebral cortical regions by performing high volume, high flow rate infusions into underlying white matter in a large animal (porcine) model. Infusion volumes of up to 700 μl at flow rates as high as 10 μl/min were successfully performed in white matter without adverse neurological sequelae. Co-infusion of AAV2/5-GFP with 0.2% Gadolinium in artificial CSF confirmed transgene expression in the deep layers of cerebral cortex overlying the infused areas of white matter. AAV-mediated gene therapies have been previously targeted to the cerebral cortex by performing intrathalamic CED and exploiting axonal transport. The novel method described in this study facilitates delivery of gene therapies to specific regions of the cerebral cortex without targeting deep brain structures. AAV-mediated gene therapies can be targeted to specific cortical regions by performing CED into underlying white matter. This technique could be applied to the treatment of neurological disorders characterised by cerebral cortical degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted gene knock-in by homology-directed genome editing using Cas9 ribonucleoprotein and AAV donor delivery.

    PubMed

    Gaj, Thomas; Staahl, Brett T; Rodrigues, Gonçalo M C; Limsirichai, Prajit; Ekman, Freja K; Doudna, Jennifer A; Schaffer, David V

    2017-06-20

    Realizing the full potential of genome editing requires the development of efficient and broadly applicable methods for delivering programmable nucleases and donor templates for homology-directed repair (HDR). The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease can be introduced into cells as a purified protein in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA). Such ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) can facilitate the high-fidelity introduction of single-base substitutions via HDR following co-delivery with a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide. However, combining RNPs with transgene-containing donor templates for targeted gene addition has proven challenging, which in turn has limited the capabilities of the RNP-mediated genome editing toolbox. Here, we demonstrate that combining RNP delivery with naturally recombinogenic adeno-associated virus (AAV) donor vectors enables site-specific gene insertion by homology-directed genome editing. Compared to conventional plasmid-based expression vectors and donor templates, we show that combining RNP and AAV donor delivery increases the efficiency of gene addition by up to 12-fold, enabling the creation of lineage reporters that can be used to track the conversion of striatal neurons from human fibroblasts in real time. These results thus illustrate the potential for unifying nuclease protein delivery with AAV donor vectors for homology-directed genome editing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Stent-based delivery of adeno-associated viral vectors with sustained vascular transduction and iNOS-mediated inhibition of in-stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Ilia; Guerrero, David T.; Alferiev, Ivan S.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Minutolo, Nicholas G.; Chorny, Michael; Mas Monteys, Alejandro; Driesbaugh, Kathryn H.; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Levy, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    In-stent restenosis remains an important clinical problem in the era of drug eluting stents. Development of clinical gene therapy protocols for the prevention and treatment of in-stent restenosis is hampered by the lack of adequate local delivery systems. Herein we describe a novel stent-based gene delivery platform capable of providing local arterial gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. This system exploits the natural affinity of protein G (PrG) to bind to the Fc region of mammalian IgG, making PrG a universal adaptor for surface immobilization of vector-capturing antibodies (Ab). Our results: 1) demonstrate the feasibility of reversible immobilization of AAV2 vectors using vector tethering by AAV2-specific Ab appended to the stent surface through covalently attached PrG, 2) show sustained release kinetics of PrG/Ab-immobilized AAV2 vector particles into simulated physiological medium in vitro and site-specific transduction of cultured cells, 3) provide evidence of long-term (12 weeks) arterial expression of luciferase with PrG/Ab-tethered AAV2Luc, and 4) show anti-proliferative activity and anti-restenotic efficacy of stent-immobilized AAV2iNOS in the rat carotid artery model of stent angioplasty. PMID:28832561

  16. Novel Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Delivering the Utrophin Gene Regulator Jazz Counteracts Dystrophic Pathology in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Strimpakos, Georgios; Corbi, Nicoletta; Pisani, Cinzia; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Gabanella, Francesca; Monaco, Lucia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Over-expression of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin represents a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The strategy is based on the ability of utrophin to functionally replace defective dystrophin. We developed the artificial zinc finger transcription factor “Jazz” that up-regulates both the human and mouse utrophin promoter. We observed a significant recovery of muscle strength in dystrophic Jazz-transgenic mdx mice. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of an experimental gene therapy based on the systemic delivery of Jazz gene in mdx mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAV serotype 8 was chosen on the basis of its high affinity for skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific expression of the therapeutic Jazz gene was enhanced by adding the muscle α-actin promoter to the AAV vector (mAAV). Injection of mAAV8-Jazz viral preparations into mdx mice resulted in muscle-specific Jazz expression coupled with up-regulation of the utrophin gene. We show a significant recovery from the dystrophic phenotype in mAAV8-Jazz-treated mdx mice. Histological and physiological analysis revealed a reduction of fiber necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration associated with functional recovery in muscle contractile force. The combination of ZF-ATF technology with the AAV delivery can open a new avenue to obtain a therapeutic strategy for treatment of DMD. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1283–1291, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24469912

  17. Novel adeno-associated viral vector delivering the utrophin gene regulator jazz counteracts dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Strimpakos, Georgios; Corbi, Nicoletta; Pisani, Cinzia; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Gabanella, Francesca; Monaco, Lucia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Over-expression of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin represents a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The strategy is based on the ability of utrophin to functionally replace defective dystrophin. We developed the artificial zinc finger transcription factor "Jazz" that up-regulates both the human and mouse utrophin promoter. We observed a significant recovery of muscle strength in dystrophic Jazz-transgenic mdx mice. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of an experimental gene therapy based on the systemic delivery of Jazz gene in mdx mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAV serotype 8 was chosen on the basis of its high affinity for skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific expression of the therapeutic Jazz gene was enhanced by adding the muscle α-actin promoter to the AAV vector (mAAV). Injection of mAAV8-Jazz viral preparations into mdx mice resulted in muscle-specific Jazz expression coupled with up-regulation of the utrophin gene. We show a significant recovery from the dystrophic phenotype in mAAV8-Jazz-treated mdx mice. Histological and physiological analysis revealed a reduction of fiber necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration associated with functional recovery in muscle contractile force. The combination of ZF-ATF technology with the AAV delivery can open a new avenue to obtain a therapeutic strategy for treatment of DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tyrosine-mutant AAV8 delivery of human MERTK provides long-term retinal preservation in RCS rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen-Tao; Dinculescu, Astra; Li, Qiuhong; Boye, Sanford L; Li, Jie; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Pang, Jijing; Chiodo, Vince A; Matthes, Michael T; Yasumura, Douglas; Liu, Li; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Zhang, Kang; Vollrath, Douglas; LaVail, Matthew M; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-04-06

    The absence of Mertk in RCS rats results in defective RPE phagocytosis, accumulation of outer segment (OS) debris in the subretinal space, and subsequent death of photoreceptors. Previous research utilizing Mertk gene replacement therapy in RCS rats provided proof of concept for treatment of this form of recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the beneficial effects on retinal function were transient. In the present study, we evaluated whether delivery of a MERTK transgene using a tyrosine-mutant AAV8 capsid could lead to more robust and longer-term therapeutic outcomes than previously reported. An AAV8 Y733F vector expressing a human MERTK cDNA driven by a RPE-selective promoter was administrated subretinally at postnatal day 2. Functional and morphological analyses were performed at 4 months and 8 months post-treatment. Retinal vasculature and Müller cell activation were analyzed by quantifying acellular capillaries and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. Electroretinographic responses from treated eyes were more than one-third of wild-type levels and OS were well preserved in the injection area even at 8 months. Rescue of RPE phagocytosis, prevention of retinal vasculature degeneration, and inhibition of Müller cell activation were demonstrated in the treated eyes for at least 8 months. This research describes a longer and much more robust functional and morphological rescue than previous studies. We also demonstrate for the first time that an AAV8 mutant capsid serotype vector has a substantial therapeutic potential for RPE-specific gene delivery. These results suggest that tyrosine-mutant AAV8 vectors hold promise for the treatment of individuals with MERTK-associated RP.

  19. Tyrosine-Mutant AAV8 Delivery of Human MERTK Provides Long-Term Retinal Preservation in RCS Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen-Tao; Dinculescu, Astra; Li, Qiuhong; Boye, Sanford L.; Li, Jie; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.; Pang, Jijing; Chiodo, Vince A.; Matthes, Michael T.; Yasumura, Douglas; Liu, Li; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Zhang, Kang; Vollrath, Douglas; LaVail, Matthew M.; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The absence of Mertk in RCS rats results in defective RPE phagocytosis, accumulation of outer segment (OS) debris in the subretinal space, and subsequent death of photoreceptors. Previous research utilizing Mertk gene replacement therapy in RCS rats provided proof of concept for treatment of this form of recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the beneficial effects on retinal function were transient. In the present study, we evaluated whether delivery of a MERTK transgene using a tyrosine-mutant AAV8 capsid could lead to more robust and longer-term therapeutic outcomes than previously reported. Methods. An AAV8 Y733F vector expressing a human MERTK cDNA driven by a RPE-selective promoter was administrated subretinally at postnatal day 2. Functional and morphological analyses were performed at 4 months and 8 months post-treatment. Retinal vasculature and Müller cell activation were analyzed by quantifying acellular capillaries and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. Results. Electroretinographic responses from treated eyes were more than one-third of wild-type levels and OS were well preserved in the injection area even at 8 months. Rescue of RPE phagocytosis, prevention of retinal vasculature degeneration, and inhibition of Müller cell activation were demonstrated in the treated eyes for at least 8 months. Conclusions. This research describes a longer and much more robust functional and morphological rescue than previous studies. We also demonstrate for the first time that an AAV8 mutant capsid serotype vector has a substantial therapeutic potential for RPE-specific gene delivery. These results suggest that tyrosine-mutant AAV8 vectors hold promise for the treatment of individuals with MERTK-associated RP. PMID:22408006

  20. AAV2 production with optimized N/P ratio and PEI-mediated transfection results in low toxicity and high titer for in vitro and in vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinping; Hartley, Antja-Voy; Yin, Yishi; Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Lah, James J; Ressler, Kerry J

    2013-11-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is one of the most useful viral vectors for gene delivery for both in vivo and in vitro applications. A variety of methods have been established to produce and characterize recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors; however most methods are quite cumbersome and obtaining consistently high titer can be problematic. This protocol describes a triple-plasmid co-transfection approach with 25 kDa linear polyethylenimine (PEI) in 293 T cells for the production of AAV serotype 2. Seventy-two hours post-transfection, supernatant and cells were harvested and purified by a discontinuous iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation, then dialyzed and concentrated with an Amicon 15 100,000 MWCO concentration unit. To optimize the protocol for AAV2 production using PEI, various N/P ratios and DNA amounts were compared. We found that an N/P ratio of 40 coupled with 1.05 μg DNA per ml of media (21 μg DNA/15 cm dish) was found to produce the highest yields for viral replication and assembly measured multiple ways. The infectious units, as determined by serial dilution, were between 1×10(8) and 2×10(9) IU/ml. The genomic titer of the viral stock was determined by qPCR and ranged from 2×10(12) to 6×10(13) VG/ml. These viral vectors showed high expression both in vivo within the brain and in vitro in cell culture. The use of linear 25 kDa polyethylenamine PEI as a transfection reagent is a simple, more cost-effective, and stable means of high-throughput production of high-titer AAV serotype 2. The use of PEI also eliminates the need to change cell medium post-transfection, lowering cost and workload, while producing high-titer, efficacious AAV2 vectors for routine gene transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Promise and problems associated with the use of recombinant AAV for the delivery of anti-HIV antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sebastian P; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to elicit antibodies with potent neutralizing activity against a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates have so far proven unsuccessful. Long-term delivery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with such activity is a creative alternative that circumvents the need for an immune response and has the potential for creating a long-lasting sterilizing barrier against HIV. This approach is made possible by an incredible array of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that have been identified over the last several years. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are ideally suited for long-term delivery for a variety of reasons. The only products made from rAAV are derived from the transgenes that are put into it; as long as those products are not viewed as foreign, expression from muscle tissue may continue for decades. Thus, use of rAAV to achieve long-term delivery of anti-HIV mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against a broad range of HIV-1 isolates is emerging as a promising concept for the prevention or treatment of HIV-1 infection in humans. Experiments in mice and monkeys that have demonstrated protective efficacy against AIDS virus infection have raised hopes for the promise of this approach. However, all published experiments in monkeys have encountered unwanted immune responses to the AAV-delivered antibody, and these immune responses appear to limit the levels of delivered antibody that can be achieved. In this review, we highlight the promise of rAAV-mediated antibody delivery for the prevention or treatment of HIV infection in humans, but we also discuss the obstacles that will need to be understood and solved in order for the promise of this approach to be realized. PMID:28197421

  2. Regulated Expression of Adenoviral Vectors-Based Gene Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Muhammad, A. K. M.; Kroeger, Kurt; Mondkar, Sonali; Liu, Chunyan; Bondale, Niyati; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Regulatable promoter systems allow gene expression to be tightly controlled in vivo. This is highly desirable for the development of safe, efficacious adenoviral vectors that can be used to treat human diseases in the clinic. Ideally, regulatable cassettes should have minimal gene expression in the “OFF” state, and expression should quickly reach therapeutic levels in the “ON” state. In addition, the components of regulatable cassettes should be non-toxic at physiological concentrations and should not be immunogenic, especially when treating chronic illness that requires long-lasting gene expression. In this chapter, we will describe in detail protocols to develop and validate first generation (Ad) and high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors that express therapeutic genes under the control of the TetON regulatable system. Our laboratory has successfully used these protocols to regulate the expression of marker genes, immune stimulatory genes, and toxins for cancer gene therapeutics, i.e., glioma that is a deadly form of brain cancer. We have shown that this third generation TetON regulatable system, incorporating a doxycycline (DOX)-sensitive rtTA2S-M2 inducer and tTSKid silencer, is non-toxic, relatively non-immunogenic, and can tightly regulate reporter transgene expression downstream of a TRE promoter from adenoviral vectors in vitro and also in vivo. PMID:18470649

  3. Identification of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors That Target Neonatal and Adult Mammalian Inner Ear Cell Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yilai; Tao, Yong; Wang, Zhengmin; Tang, Yong; Li, Huawei; Dai, Pu; Gao, Guangping; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear consists of diverse cell types with important functions. Gene mutations in these diverse cell types have been found to underlie different forms of genetic hearing loss. Targeting these mutations for gene therapy development represents a future therapeutic strategy to treat hearing loss. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have become the vector of choice for gene delivery in animal models in vivo. To identify AAV vectors that target inner ear cell subtypes, we systemically screened 12 AAV vectors with different serotypes (AAV1, 2, 5, 6, 6.2, 7, 8, 9, rh.8, rh.10, rh.39, and rh.43) that carry a reporter gene GFP in neonatal and adult mice by microinjection in vivo. We found that most AAVs infect both neonatal and adult inner ear, with different specificities and expression levels. The inner ear cochlear sensory epithelial region, which includes auditory hair cells and supporting cells, is most frequently targeted for gene delivery. Expression of the transgene is sustained, and neonatal inner ear delivery does not adversely affect hearing. Adult inner ear injection of AAV has a similar infection pattern as the younger inner ear, with the exception that outer hair cell death caused by the injection procedure can lead to hearing loss. In the adult, more so than in the neonatal mice, cell types infected and efficiency of infection are correlated with the site of injection. Most infected cells survive in neonatal and adult inner ears. The study adds to the list of AAV vectors that transduce the mammalian inner ear efficiently, providing the tools that are important to study inner ear gene function and for the development of gene therapy to treat hearing loss. PMID:27342665

  4. A universal expression/silencing vector in plants.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Yuval; Mozes-Koch, Rita; Akad, Fuad; Tanne, Edna; Czosnek, Henryk; Sela, Ilan

    2007-12-01

    A universal vector (IL-60 and auxiliary constructs), expressing or silencing genes in every plant tested to date, is described. Plants that have been successfully manipulated by the IL-60 system include hard-to-manipulate species such as wheat (Triticum duram), pepper (Capsicum annuum), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), citrus, and olive (Olea europaea). Expression or silencing develops within a few days in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wheat, and most herbaceous plants and in up to 3 weeks in woody trees. Expression, as tested in tomato, is durable and persists throughout the life span of the plant. The vector is, in fact, a disarmed form of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, which is applied as a double-stranded DNA and replicates as such. However, the disarmed virus does not support rolling-circle replication, and therefore viral progeny single-stranded DNA is not produced. IL-60 does not integrate into the plant's genome, and the construct, including the expressed gene, is not heritable. IL-60 is not transmitted by the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus's natural insect vector. In addition, artificial satellites were constructed that require a helper virus for replication, movement, and expression. With IL-60 as the disarmed helper "virus," transactivation occurs, resulting in an inducible expressing/silencing system. The system's potential is demonstrated by IL-60-derived suppression of a viral-silencing suppressor of Grapevine virus A, resulting in Grapevine virus A-resistant/tolerant plants.

  5. Systemic AAV8-Mediated Gene Therapy Drives Whole-Body Correction of Myotubular Myopathy in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Mack, David L; Poulard, Karine; Goddard, Melissa A; Latournerie, Virginie; Snyder, Jessica M; Grange, Robert W; Elverman, Matthew R; Denard, Jérôme; Veron, Philippe; Buscara, Laurine; Le Bec, Christine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Brezovec, Annie G; Meng, Hui; Yang, Lin; Liu, Fujun; O'Callaghan, Michael; Gopal, Nikhil; Kelly, Valerie E; Smith, Barbara K; Strande, Jennifer L; Mavilio, Fulvio; Beggs, Alan H; Mingozzi, Federico; Lawlor, Michael W; Buj-Bello, Ana; Childers, Martin K

    2017-04-05

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) results from MTM1 gene mutations and myotubularin deficiency. Most XLMTM patients develop severe muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure and death, typically within 2 years of age. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of systemic gene therapy in the p.N155K canine model of XLMTM by performing a dose escalation study. A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) vector expressing canine myotubularin (cMTM1) under the muscle-specific desmin promoter (rAAV8-cMTM1) was administered by simple peripheral venous infusion in XLMTM dogs at 10 weeks of age, when signs of the disease are already present. A comprehensive analysis of survival, limb strength, gait, respiratory function, neurological assessment, histology, vector biodistribution, transgene expression, and immune response was performed over a 9-month study period. Results indicate that systemic gene therapy was well tolerated, prolonged lifespan, and corrected the skeletal musculature throughout the body in a dose-dependent manner, defining an efficacious dose in this large-animal model of the disease. These results support the development of gene therapy clinical trials for XLMTM. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AAV1/2-induced overexpression of A53T-α-synuclein in the substantia nigra results in degeneration of the nigrostriatal system with Lewy-like pathology and motor impairment: a new mouse model for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ip, Chi Wang; Klaus, Laura-Christin; Karikari, Akua A; Visanji, Naomi P; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Lang, Anthony E; Volkmann, Jens; Koprich, James B

    2017-02-01

    α-Synuclein is a protein implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). AAV1/2-driven overexpression of human mutated A53T-α-synuclein in rat and monkey substantia nigra (SN) induces degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons and decreases striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Given certain advantages of the mouse, especially it being amendable to genetic manipulation, translating the AAV1/2-A53T α-synuclein model to mice would be of significant value. AAV1/2-A53T α-synuclein or AAV1/2 empty vector (EV) at a concentration of 5.16 x 10 12 gp/ml were unilaterally injected into the right SN of male adult C57BL/6 mice. Post-mortem examinations included immunohistochemistry to analyze nigral α-synuclein, Ser129 phosphorylated α-synuclein and TH expression, striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) levels by autoradiography and dopamine levels by high performance liquid chromatography. At 10 weeks, in AAV1/2-A53T α-synuclein mice there was a 33% reduction in TH+ dopaminergic nigral neurons (P < 0.001), 29% deficit in striatal DAT binding (P < 0.05), 38% and 33% reductions in dopamine (P < 0.001) and DOPAC (P < 0.01) levels and a 60% increase in dopamine turnover (homovanilic acid/dopamine ratio; P < 0.001). Immunofluorescence showed that the AAV1/2-A53T α-synuclein injected mice had widespread nigral and striatal expression of vector-delivered A53T-α-synuclein. Concurrent staining with human PD SN samples using gold standard histological methodology for Lewy pathology detection by proteinase K digestion and application of specific antibody raised against human Lewy body α-synuclein (LB509) and Ser129 phosphorylated α-synuclein (81A) revealed insoluble α-synuclein aggregates in AAV1/2-A53T α-synuclein mice resembling Lewy-like neurites and bodies. In the cylinder test, we observed significant paw use asymmetry in the AAV1/2-A53T α-synuclein group when compared to EV controls at 5 and 9 weeks post injection (P

  7. Gene Therapy for Osteoarthritis: Pharmacokinetics of Intra-articular scAAV.IL-1Ra Delivery in an Equine Model.

    PubMed

    Watson Levings, Rachael; Broome, Ted A; Smith, Andrew D; Rice, Brett L; Gibbs, Eric P; Myara, D Alex; Hyddmark, E Viktoria; Nasri, Elham; Zarezadeh, Ali; Levings, Padraic P; Lu, Yuan; Dacanay, E Anthony; Foremny, Gregory B; Evans, Christopher H; Morton, Alison J; Winter, Mathew; Dark, Michael J; Nickerson, David M; Colahan, Patrick T; Ghivizzani, Steven Craig

    2018-06-05

    142: Toward the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), we have been investigating self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) for intra-articular delivery of gene products with therapeutic potential. As OA frequently affects weight-bearing joints, we performed pharmacokinetic studies in the equine forelimb to identify parameters of scAAV gene delivery relevant to clinical translation. Using the coding sequence for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) as a secreted therapeutic reporter we first generated an scAAV vector containing an optimized cDNA for equine IL-1Ra. In dosing studies in vivo we identified a putative ceiling dose of 5 x 1012 viral genomes (vg) which elevated the steady-state eqIL-1Ra in synovial fluids >50-fold for over 6 months. No adverse effects of treatment were seen, and eqIL-1Ra in serum and urine remained at background. Using 5 x 1012 vg and GFP as a cytologic marker, we compared the local and systemic distribution of vector and transduced cells in healthy joints and those with late stage, naturally-occurring OA. Strikingly, a substantial increase in transgenic expression was associated with the articular pathologies characteristic of OA, including synovitis, osteophyte formation and damaged cartilage. Nonetheless, in both the healthy and OA environments the vector and transgene expression were effectively contained within the injected joint. 143: We are investigating self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) as a vector for intra-articular gene-delivery of IL-1Ra, and its therapeutic capacity in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). To model gene-transfer on a scale proportional to the human knee, a frequent site of OA incidence, we focused our studies on the joints of the equine forelimb. Using AAV2.5 capsid and equine IL-1Ra as a homologous transgene, we previously identified a functional ceiling dose of ~5 x 1012 viral genomes, which elevated the steady state levels of eqIL-1Ra in synovial fluids by more than 40-fold over

  8. A Tupaia paramyxovirus vector system for targeting and transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Engeland, Christine E; Bossow, Sascha; Hudacek, Andrew W; Hoyler, Birgit; Förster, Judith; Veinalde, Rūta; Jäger, Dirk; Cattaneo, Roberto; Ungerechts, Guy; Springfeld, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    Viruses from the diverse family of Paramyxoviridae include important pathogens and are applied in gene therapy and for cancer treatment. The Tupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV), isolated from the kidney of a tree shrew, does not infect human cells and neutralizing antibodies against other Paramyxoviridae do not cross-react with TPMV. Here, we present a vector system for de novo generation of infectious TPMV that allows for insertion of additional genes as well as targeting using antibody single-chain variable fragments. We show that the recombinant TPMV specifically infect cells expressing the targeted receptor and replicate in human cells. This vector system provides a valuable tool for both basic research and therapeutic applications.

  9. A tetracycline inducible expression vector for Corynebacterium glutamicum allowing tightly regulable gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lausberg, Frank; Chattopadhyay, Ava Rebecca; Heyer, Antonia; Eggeling, Lothar; Freudl, Roland

    2012-09-01

    Here we report on the construction of a tetracycline inducible expression vector that allows a tightly regulable gene expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum which is used in industry for production of small molecules such as amino acids. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter protein we show that this vector, named pCLTON1, is characterized by tight repression under non-induced conditions as compared to a conventional IPTG inducible expression vector, and that it allows gradual GFP synthesis upon gradual increase of anhydrotetracycline addition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vectors expressing chimeric Japanese encephalitis dengue 2 viruses.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Wang, S; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Vectors based on self-replicating RNAs (replicons) of flaviviruses are becoming powerful tool for expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells and development of novel antiviral and anticancer vaccines. We constructed two vectors expressing chimeric viruses consisting of attenuated SA14-14-2 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in which the PrM/M-E genes were replaced fully or partially with those of dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). These vectors, named pJED2 and pJED2-1770 were transfected to BHK-21 cells and produced chimeric viruses JED2V and JED2-1770V, respectively. The chimeric viruses could be passaged in C6/36 but not BHK-21 cells. The chimeric viruses produced in C6/36 cells CPE 4-5 days after infection and RT-PCR, sequencing, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot analysis confirmed the chimeric nature of produced viruses. The immunogenicity of chimeric viruses in mice was proved by detecting DENV-2 E protein-specific serum IgG antibodies with neutralization titer of 10. Successful preparation of infectious clones of chimeric JEV-DENV-2 viruses showed that JEV-based expression vectors are fully functional.

  11. High-Efficiency Promoter-Dependent Transduction by Adeno-Associated Virus Type 6 Vectors in Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    HALBERT, CHRISTINE L.; LAM, SIU-LING; MILLER, A. DUSTY

    2014-01-01

    The transduction efficiency of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in various somatic tissues has been shown to depend heavily on the AAV type from which the vector capsid proteins are derived. Among the AAV types studied, AAV6 efficiently transduces cells of the airway epithelium, making it a good candidate for the treatment of lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Here we have evaluated the effects of various promoter sequences on transduction rates and gene expression levels in the lung. Of the strong viral promoters examined, the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) promoter performed significantly better than a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in the airway epithelium. However, a hybrid promoter consisting of a CMV enhancer, β-actin promoter and splice donor, and a β-globin splice acceptor (CAG promoter) exhibited even higher expression than either of the strong viral promoters alone, showing a 38-fold increase in protein expression over the RSV promoter. In addition, we show that vectors containing either the RSV or CAG promoter expressed well in the nasal and tracheal epithelium. Transduction rates in the 90% range were achieved in many airways with the CAG promoter, showing that with the proper AAV capsid proteins and promoter sequences, highly efficient transduction can be achieved. PMID:17430088

  12. Trafficking of adeno-associated virus vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Steven F; Andrews, Allison M; Lutton, Evan M; Mu, Dakai; Hudry, Eloise; Hyman, Bradley T; Maguire, Casey A; Ramirez, Servio H

    2017-01-01

    Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown. Furthermore, possibilities that AAV9 may transduce brain endothelial cells or affect BBB integrity still require investigation. Using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells as a model of the human BBB, we performed transduction and transendothelial trafficking assays comparing AAV9 to AAV2, a serotype that does not cross the BBB or transduce endothelial cells effectively in vivo. Results of our in vitro studies indicate that AAV9 penetrates brain microvascular endothelial cells barriers more effectively than AAV2, but has reduced transduction efficiency. In addition, our data suggest that (i) AAV9 penetrates endothelial barriers through an active, cell-mediated process, and (ii) AAV9 fails to disrupt indicators of BBB integrity such as transendothelial electrical resistance, tight junction protein expression/localization, and inflammatory activation status. Overall, this report shows how human brain endothelial cells configured in BBB models can be utilized for evaluating transendothelial movement and transduction kinetics of various AAV capsids. Importantly, the use of a human in vitro BBB model can provide import insight into the possible effects that candidate AVV gene therapy vectors may have on the status of BBB integrity. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 192. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Production of recombinant adeno-associated vectors using two bioreactor configurations at different scales

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Alejandro; Kotin, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The conventional methods for producing recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) rely on transient transfection of adherent mammalian cells. To gain acceptance and achieve current good manufacturing process (cGMP) compliance, clinical grade rAAV production process should have the following qualities: simplicity, consistency, cost effectiveness, and scalability. Currently, the only viable method for producing rAAV in large-scale, e.g.≥1016 particles per production run, utilizes Baculovirus Expression Vectors (BEVs) and insect cells suspension cultures. The previously described rAAV production in 40 L culture using a stirred tank bioreactor requires special conditions for implementation and operation not available in all laboratories. Alternatives to producing rAAV in stirred-tank bioreactors are single-use, disposable bioreactors, e.g. Wave™. The disposable bags are purchased pre-sterilized thereby eliminating the need for end-user sterilization and also avoiding cleaning steps between production runs thus facilitating the production process. In this study, rAAV production in stirred tank and Wave™ bioreactors was compared. The working volumes were 10 L and 40 L for the stirred tank bioreactors and 5 L and 20 L for the Wave™ bioreactors. Comparable yields of rAAV, ~2e+13 particles per liter of cell culture were obtained in all volumes and configurations. These results demonstrate that producing rAAV in large scale using BEVs is reproducible, scalable, and independent of the bioreactor configuration. Keywords: adeno-associated vectors; large-scale production; stirred tank bioreactor; wave bioreactor; gene therapy. PMID:17606302

  14. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (rAAV2/6)-mediated gene transfer to nociceptive neurons through different routes of delivery

    PubMed Central

    Towne, Chris; Pertin, Marie; Beggah, Ahmed T; Aebischer, Patrick; Decosterd, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene transfer to nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a promising approach to dissect mechanisms of pain in rodents and is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of persistent pain disorders such as neuropathic pain. A number of studies have demonstrated transduction of DRG neurons using herpes simplex virus, adenovirus and more recently, adeno-associated virus (AAV). Recombinant AAV are currently the gene transfer vehicles of choice for the nervous system and have several advantages over other vectors, including stable and safe gene expression. We have explored the capacity of recombinant AAV serotype 6 (rAAV2/6) to deliver genes to DRG neurons and characterized the transduction of nociceptors through five different routes of administration in mice. Results Direct injection of rAAV2/6 expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into the sciatic nerve resulted in transduction of up to 30% eGFP-positive cells of L4 DRG neurons in a dose dependant manner. More than 90% of transduced cells were small and medium sized neurons (< 700 μm2), predominantly colocalized with markers of nociceptive neurons, and had eGFP-positive central terminal fibers in the superficial lamina of the spinal cord dorsal horn. The efficiency and profile of transduction was independent of mouse genetic background. Intrathecal administration of rAAV2/6 gave the highest level of transduction (≈ 60%) and had a similar size profile and colocalization with nociceptive neurons. Intrathecal administration also transduced DRG neurons at cervical and thoracic levels and resulted in comparable levels of transduction in a mouse model for neuropathic pain. Subcutaneous and intramuscular delivery resulted in low levels of transduction in the L4 DRG. Likewise, delivery via tail vein injection resulted in relatively few eGFP-positive cells within the DRG, however, this transduction was observed at all vertebral levels and corresponded to large non-nociceptive cell

  15. Comparison of Serum rAAV Serotype-Specific Antibodies in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Becker Muscular Dystrophy, Inclusion Body Myositis, or GNE Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Deborah A; Crowe, Kelly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Martin, Paul T

    2017-09-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a commonly used gene therapy vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes in a variety of human diseases, but pre-existing serum antibodies to viral capsid proteins can greatly inhibit rAAV transduction of tissues. Serum was assayed from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), inclusion body myositis (IBM), and GNE myopathy (GNE). These were compared to serum from otherwise normal human subjects to determine the extent of pre-existing serum antibodies to rAAVrh74, rAAV1, rAAV2, rAAV6, rAAV8, and rAAV9. In almost all cases, patients with measurable titers to one rAAV serotype showed titers to all other serotypes tested, with average titers to rAAV2 being highest in all instances. Twenty-six percent of all young normal subjects (<18 years old) had measurable rAAV titers to all serotypes tested, and this percentage increased to almost 50% in adult normal subjects (>18 years old). Fifty percent of all IBM and GNE patients also had antibody titers to all rAAV serotypes, while only 18% of DMD and 0% of BMD patients did. In addition, serum-naïve macaques treated systemically with rAAVrh74 could develop cross-reactive antibodies to all other serotypes tested at 24 weeks post treatment. These data demonstrate that most DMD and BMD patients should be amenable to vascular rAAV-mediated treatment without the concern of treatment blockage by pre-existing serum rAAV antibodies, and that serum antibodies to rAAVrh74 are no more common than those for rAAV6, rAAV8, or rAAV9.

  16. Evaluation of AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Central Nervous System Disease in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

    PubMed Central

    Gurda, Brittney L; De Guilhem De Lataillade, Adrien; Bell, Peter; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ping; Bagel, Jessica; Vite, Charles H; Sikora, Tracey; Hinderer, Christian; Calcedo, Roberto; Yox, Alexander D; Steet, Richard A; Ruane, Therese; O'Donnell, Patricia; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Casal, Margret; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in β-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII. PMID:26447927

  17. Evaluation of AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Central Nervous System Disease in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    PubMed

    Gurda, Brittney L; De Guilhem De Lataillade, Adrien; Bell, Peter; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ping; Bagel, Jessica; Vite, Charles H; Sikora, Tracey; Hinderer, Christian; Calcedo, Roberto; Yox, Alexander D; Steet, Richard A; Ruane, Therese; O'Donnell, Patricia; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Casal, Margret; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in β-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII.

  18. Recent tissue engineering-based advances for effective rAAV-mediated gene transfer in the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Rey-Rico, Ana; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-04-01

    Musculoskeletal tissues are diverse and significantly different in their ability to repair upon injury. Current treatments often fail to reproduce the natural functions of the native tissue, leading to an imperfect healing. Gene therapy might improve the repair of tissues by providing a temporarily and spatially defined expression of the therapeutic gene(s) at the site of the injury. Several gene transfer vehicles have been developed to modify various human cells and tissues from musculoskeletal system among which the non-pathogenic, effective, and relatively safe recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors that have emerged as the preferred gene delivery system to treat human disorders. Adapting tissue engineering platforms to gene transfer approaches mediated by rAAV vectors is an attractive tool to circumvent both the limitations of the current therapeutic options to promote an effective healing of the tissue and the natural obstacles from these clinically adapted vectors to achieve an efficient and durable gene expression of the therapeutic sequences within the lesions.

  19. TMV-Gate vectors: Gateway compatible tobacco mosaic virus based expression vectors for functional analysis of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kagale, Sateesh; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Wigness, Merek; Bender, Tricia; Yang, Wen; Borhan, M. Hossein; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Plant viral expression vectors are advantageous for high-throughput functional characterization studies of genes due to their capability for rapid, high-level transient expression of proteins. We have constructed a series of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based vectors that are compatible with Gateway technology to enable rapid assembly of expression constructs and exploitation of ORFeome collections. In addition to the potential of producing recombinant protein at grams per kilogram FW of leaf tissue, these vectors facilitate either N- or C-terminal fusions to a broad series of epitope tag(s) and fluorescent proteins. We demonstrate the utility of these vectors in affinity purification, immunodetection and subcellular localisation studies. We also apply the vectors to characterize protein-protein interactions and demonstrate their utility in screening plant pathogen effectors. Given its broad utility in defining protein properties, this vector series will serve as a useful resource to expedite gene characterization efforts. PMID:23166857

  20. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies host restriction factors critical for in vivo AAV transduction

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Miguel; Ippodrino, Rudy; Zentilin, Lorena; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Viral vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) hold great promise for in vivo gene transfer; several unknowns, however, still limit the vectors’ broader and more efficient application. Here, we report the results of a high-throughput, whole-genome siRNA screening aimed at identifying cellular factors regulating AAV transduction. We identified 1,483 genes affecting vector efficiency more than 4-fold and up to 50-fold, either negatively or positively. Most of these factors have not previously been associated to AAV infection. The most effective siRNAs were independent from the virus serotype or analyzed cell type and were equally evident for single-stranded and self-complementary AAV vectors. A common characteristic of the most effective siRNAs was the induction of cellular DNA damage and activation of a cell cycle checkpoint. This information can be exploited for the development of more efficient AAV-based gene delivery procedures. Administration of the most effective siRNAs identified by the screening to the liver significantly improved in vivo AAV transduction efficiency. PMID:26305933

  1. AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer to Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongwei; Fischer, Gregory; Hogan, Quinn H

    2016-01-01

    Transferring genetic molecules into the peripheral sensory nervous system to manipulate nociceptive pathophysiology is a powerful approach for experimental modulation of sensory signaling and potentially for translation into therapy for chronic pain. This can be efficiently achieved by the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) in conjunction with nociceptor-specific regulatory transgene cassettes. Among different routes of delivery, direct injection into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) offers the most efficient AAV-mediated gene transfer selectively into the peripheral sensory nervous system. Here, we briefly discuss the advantages and applications of intraganglionic microinjection, and then provide a detailed approach for DRG injection, including a list of the necessary materials and description of a method for performing DRG microinjection experiments. We also discuss our experience with several adeno-associated virus (AAV) options for in vivo transgene expression in DRG neurons.

  2. Development of novel types of plastid transformation vectors and evaluation of factors controlling expression.

    PubMed

    Herz, Stefan; Füssl, Monika; Steiger, Sandra; Koop, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-12-01

    Two new vector types for plastid transformation were developed and uidA reporter gene expression was compared to standard transformation vectors. The first vector type does not contain any plastid promoter, instead it relies on extension of existing plastid operons and was therefore named "operon-extension" vector. When a strongly expressed plastid operon like psbA was extended by the reporter gene with this vector type, the expression level was superior to that of a standard vector under control of the 16S rRNA promoter. Different insertion sites, promoters and 5'-UTRs were analysed for their effect on reporter gene expression with standard and operon-extension vectors. The 5'-UTR of phage 7 gene 10 in combination with a modified N-terminus was found to yield the highest expression levels. Expression levels were also strongly dependent on external factors like plant or leaf age or light intensity. In the second vector type, named "split" plastid transformation vector, modules of the expression cassette were distributed on two separate vectors. Upon co-transformation of plastids with these vectors, the complete expression cassette became inserted into the plastome. This result can be explained by successive co-integration of the split vectors and final loop-out recombination of the duplicated sequences. The split vector concept was validated with different vector pairs.

  3. The baculovirus expression vector system: A commercial manufacturing platform for viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors.

    PubMed

    Felberbaum, Rachael S

    2015-05-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) platform has become an established manufacturing platform for the production of viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors. Nine BEVS-derived products have been approved - four for human use (Cervarix(®), Provenge(®), Glybera(®) and Flublok(®)) and five for veterinary use (Porcilis(®) Pesti, BAYOVAC CSF E2(®), Circumvent(®) PCV, Ingelvac CircoFLEX(®) and Porcilis(®) PCV). The BEVS platform offers many advantages, including manufacturing speed, flexible product design, inherent safety and scalability. This combination of features and product approvals has previously attracted interest from academic researchers, and more recently from industry leaders, to utilize BEVS to develop next generation vaccines, vectors for gene therapy, and other biopharmaceutical complex proteins. In this review, we explore the BEVS platform, detailing how it works, platform features and limitations and important considerations for manufacturing and regulatory approval. To underscore the growth in opportunities for BEVS-derived products, we discuss the latest product developments in the gene therapy and influenza vaccine fields that follow in the wake of the recent product approvals of Glybera(®) and Flublok(®), respectively. We anticipate that the utility of the platform will expand even further as new BEVS-derived products attain licensure. Finally, we touch on some of the areas where new BEVS-derived products are likely to emerge. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [Expression and identification of eukaryotic expression vectors of Brucella melitensis lipoprotein OMP19].

    PubMed

    He, Zuoping; Luo, Peifang; Hu, Feihuan; Weng, Yunceng; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Chengyao

    2016-04-01

    To construct eukaryotic expression vectors carrying Brucella melitensis outer membrane protein 19 (OMP19), express them in transfected Huh7.5.1 and JEG-3 cells, and analyze their role in cell apoptosis. Brucella melitensis lipidated OMP19 (L-OMP19) gene and unlipidated OMP19 (U-OMP19) gene were amplified by PCR and inserted into the vector pZeroBack/blunt. The correct L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 genes verified by XbaI and BamHI double digestion and sequencing were cloned into the lentivirus expression vector pHAGE-CMV-MCS-IZsGreen to construct vectors pHAGE-L-OMP19 and pHAGE-U-OMP19, which were separately transfected into 293FT cells, Huh7.5.1 and JEG-3 cells. L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 in the cells were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence technique. Flow cytometry combined with annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis. The lentiviral vectors pHAGE-L-OMP19 and pHAGE-U-OMP19 were constructed correctly and the recombinant lipoproteins L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 expressed in the above cells were well recognized by the specific antibodies against L-OMP19 in Western blotting and immunofluorescence technique. L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 induced JEG-3 cell death, but did not induce the apoptosis of Huh7.5.1 cells. The eukaryotic expression vectors of L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 have been constructed successfully. Recombinant lipoproteins L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 expressed in cells have a good antigenicity, which could be used as experimental materials for the research on the relationship between host cells and lipoproteins in Brucella infection.

  5. In vivo gene delivery and expression by bacteriophage lambda vectors.

    PubMed

    Lankes, H A; Zanghi, C N; Santos, K; Capella, C; Duke, C M P; Dewhurst, S

    2007-05-01

    Bacteriophage vectors have potential as gene transfer and vaccine delivery vectors because of their low cost, safety and physical stability. However, little is known concerning phage-mediated gene transfer in mammalian hosts. We therefore performed experiments to examine phage-mediated gene transfer in vivo. Mice were inoculated with recombinant lambda phage containing a mammalian expression cassette encoding firefly luciferase (luc). Efficient, dose-dependent in vivo luc expression was detected, which peaked within 24 h of delivery and declined to undetectable levels within a week. Display of an integrin-binding peptide increased cellular internalization of phage in vitro and enhanced phage-mediated gene transfer in vivo. Finally, in vivo depletion of phagocytic cells using clodronate liposomes had only a minor effect on the efficiency of phage-mediated gene transfer. Unmodified lambda phage particles are capable of transducing mammalian cells in vivo, and may be taken up -- at least in part -- by nonphagocytic mechanisms. Surface modifications that enhance phage uptake result in more efficient in vivo gene transfer. These experiments shed light on the mechanisms involved in phage-mediated gene transfer in vivo, and suggest new approaches that may enhance the efficiency of this process.

  6. Novel redox nanomedicine improves gene expression of polyion complex vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Kazuko; Yoshitomi, Toru; Ikeda, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    Gene therapy has generated worldwide attention as a new medical technology. While non-viral gene vectors are promising candidates as gene carriers, they have several issues such as toxicity and low transfection efficiency. We have hypothesized that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects gene expression in polyplex supported gene delivery systems. The effect of ROS on the gene expression of polyplex was evaluated using a nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) as an ROS scavenger. When polyethyleneimine (PEI)/pGL3 or PEI alone was added to the HeLa cells, ROS levels increased significantly. In contrast, when (PEI)/pGL3 or PEI was added with RNP, the ROS levels were suppressed. The luciferase expression was increased by the treatment with RNP in a dose-dependent manner and the cellular uptake of pDNA was also increased. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ROS generation in vivo. In particular, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α caused intracellular ROS generation in HeLa cells and decreased gene expression. RNP treatment suppressed ROS production even in the presence of TNF-α and increased gene expression. This anti-inflammatory property of RNP suggests that it may be used as an effective adjuvant for non-viral gene delivery systems.

  7. Intramammary expression and therapeutic effect of a human lysozyme-expressing vector for treating bovine mastitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huai-Chang; Xue, Fang-Ming; Qian, Ke; Fang, Hao-Xia; Qiu, Hua-Lei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yin, Zhao-Hua

    2006-01-01

    To develop a gene therapy strategy for treating bovine mastitis, a new mammary-specific vector containing human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA and kanamycin resistance gene was constructed for intramammary expression and clinical studies. After one time acupuncture or intracisternal infusion of healthy cows with 400 μg of the p215C3LYZ vector, over 2.0 μg/ml of rhLYZ could be detected by enzymatic assay for about 3 weeks in the milk samples. Western blotting showed that rhLYZ secreted into milk samples from the vector-injected cows had molecular weight similar to that of the natural hLYZ in human colostrums. Twenty days after the primary injection, the quarters were re-injected with the same vector by quarter acupuncture and even higher concentrations of rhLYZ could be detected. Indirect competitive ELISA of milk samples showed that the vector injection did not induce detectable humoral immune response against hLYZ. Clinical studies showed that twice acupuncture of quarters with the p215C3LYZ vector had overt therapeutic effect on clinical and subclinical mastitis previously treated with antibiotics, including disappearance of clinical symptoms and relatively high microbiological cure rates. These data provide a solid rationale for using the vector to develop gene therapy for treating bovine mastitis. PMID:16532537

  8. scAAV-Mediated IL-1Ra gene delivery for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: Test of Efficacy in an Equine Model.

    PubMed

    Watson Levings, Rachael; Smith, Andrew D; Broome, Ted A; Rice, Brett L; Gibbs, Eric P; Myara, D Alex; Hyddmark, Viktoria; Nasri, Elham; Zarezadeh, Ali; Levings, Padraic P; Lu, Yuan; Dacanay, E Anthony; Foremny, Gregory B; Evans, Christopher H; Morton, Alison J; Winter, Mathew; Dark, Michael J; Nickerson, David M; Colahan, Patrick T; Ghivizzani, Steven Craig

    2018-06-05

    We are investigating self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) as a vector for intra-articular gene-delivery of IL-1Ra, and its therapeutic capacity in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). To model gene-transfer on a scale proportional to the human knee, a frequent site of OA incidence, we focused our studies on the joints of the equine forelimb. Using AAV2.5 capsid and equine IL-1Ra as a homologous transgene, we previously identified a functional ceiling dose of ~5 x 1012 viral genomes, which elevated the steady state levels of eqIL-1Ra in synovial fluids by more than 40-fold over endogenous production for at least 6 months. Here, using an osteochondral fragmentation model of early OA, we examined the functional capacity of scAAV.IL-1Ra gene-delivery in equine joints over a period of 12 weeks. In the disease model, transgenic eqIL-1Ra expression was several-fold higher than seen previously in healthy joints, and correlated directly with the severity of joint pathology at the time of treatment. Despite wide variation in expression, the steady-state eqIL-1Ra in synovial fluids exceeded that of IL-1 by > 400-fold in all animals, and a consistent treatment effect was observed. This included a 30-40% reduction in lameness and ~25% improvement in total joint pathology by both MRI and arthroscopic assessments, which included reduced joint effusion and synovitis, and improved repair of the osteochondral lesion. No vector-related increase in eqIL-1Ra levels in blood or urine was noted. Cumulatively our studies in the equine model indicate scAAV.IL-1Ra administration is reasonably safe and capable of sustained therapeutic IL-1Ra production intra-articularly in joints of human scale. This profile supports consideration for human testing in OA.

  9. Transduction of Nonhuman Primate Brain with Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 1: Vector Trafficking and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Forsayeth, John; Mirek, Hanna; Munson, Keith; Bringas, John; Pivirotto, Phil; McBride, Jodi L; Davidson, Beverly L.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We used convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to characterize gene delivery mediated by adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) by tracking expression of hrGFP (humanized green fluorescent protein from Renilla reniformis) into the striatum, basal forebrain, and corona radiata of monkey brain. Four cynomolgus monkeys received single infusions into corona radiata, putamen, and caudate. The other group (n = 4) received infusions into basal forebrain. Thirty days after infusion animals were killed and their brains were processed for immunohisto-chemical evaluation. Volumetric analysis of GFP-positive brain areas was performed. AAV1-hrGFP infusions resulted in approximately 550, 700, and 73 mm3 coverage after infusion into corona radiata, striatum, and basal forebrain, respectively. Aside from targeted regions, other brain structures also showed GFP signal (internal and external globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus), supporting the idea that AAV1 is actively trafficked to regions distal from the infusion site. In addition to neuronal transduction, a significant nonneuronal cell population was transduced by AAV1 vector; for example, oligodendrocytes in corona radiata and astrocytes in the striatum. We observed a strong humoral and cell-mediated response against AAV1-hrGFP in transduced monkeys irrespective of the anatomic location of the infusion, as evidenced by induction of circulating anti-AAV1 and anti-hrGFP antibodies, as well as infiltration of CD4+ lymphocytes and upregulation of MHC-II in regions infused with vector. We conclude that transduction of antigen-presenting cells within the CNS is a likely cause of this response and that caution is warranted when foreign transgenes are used as reporters in gene therapy studies with vectors with broader tropism than AAV2. PMID:19292604

  10. Construction of two Lactococcus lactis expression vectors combining the Gateway and the NIsin Controlled Expression systems.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; Mahony, Jennifer; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) system has been extensively used in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris to produce homologous and heterologous proteins for academic and biotechnological purposes. Although various L. lactis molecular tools have been developed, no expression vectors harboring the popular Gateway recombination system are currently available for this widely used cloning host. In this study, we constructed two expression vectors that combine the NICE and the Gateway recombination systems and we tested their applicability by recombining and over-expressing genes encoding structural proteins of lactococcal phages Tuc2009 and TP901-1. Over-expressed phage proteins were analyzed by immunoblotting and purified by His-tag affinity chromatography with protein productions yielding 2.8-3.7 mg/l of culture. This therefore is the first description of L. lactis NICE expression vectors which integrate the Gateway cloning technology and which are suitable for the production of sufficient amounts of proteins to facilitate subsequent structural and functional analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Construction and expression of a eukaryotic expression vector containing human CR2-Fc fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Chuanfu; Jia, Leili; Song, Hongbin; Xu, Yuanyong

    2014-01-01

    To construct a eukaryotic expression vector containing human complement receptor 2 (CR2)-Fc and express the CR2-Fc fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extracellular domain of human CR2 and IgG1 Fc were respectively amplified, ligated and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector PCI-neo. After verified by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO K1 cells. The ones with stable expression of the fusion protein were obtained by means of G418 selection. The expression of the CR2-Fc fusion protein was detected and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing demonstrated that the recombinant plasmid was valid. SDS-PAGE showed that relative molecular mass (Mr;) of the purified product was consistent with the expected value. Western blotting further proved the single band at the same position. We constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of CR2-Fc/PCI-neo successfully. The obtained fusion protein was active and can be used for the further study of the role in HIV control.

  12. Transient foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells after biolistic delivery of chloroplast vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, H; Vivekananda, J; Nielsen, B L; Ye, G N; Tewari, K K; Sanford, J C

    1990-01-01

    Expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) by suitable vectors in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells, delivered by high-velocity microprojectiles, is reported here. Several chloroplast expression vectors containing bacterial cat genes, placed under the control of either psbA promoter region from pea (pHD series) or rbcL promoter region from maize (pAC series) have been used in this study. In addition, chloroplast expression vectors containing replicon fragments from pea, tobacco, or maize chloroplast DNA have also been tested for efficiency and duration of cat expression in chloroplasts of tobacco cells. Cultured NT1 tobacco cells collected on filter papers were bombarded with tungsten particles coated with pUC118 (negative control), 35S-CAT (nuclear expression vector), pHD312 (repliconless chloroplast expression vector), and pHD407, pACp18, and pACp19 (chloroplast expression vectors with replicon). Sonic extracts of cells bombarded with pUC118 showed no detectable cat activity in the autoradiograms. Nuclear expression of cat reached two-thirds of the maximal 48 hr after bombardment and the maximal at 72 hr. Cells bombarded with chloroplast expression vectors showed a low level of expression until 48 hr of incubation. A dramatic increase in the expression of cat was observed 24 hr after the addition of fresh medium to cultured cells in samples bombarded with pHD407; the repliconless vector pHD312 showed about 50% of this maximal activity. The expression of nuclear cat and the repliconless chloroplast vector decreased after 72 hr, but a high level of chloroplast cat expression was maintained in cells bombarded with pHD407. Organelle-specific expression of cat in appropriate compartments was checked by introducing various plasmid constructions into tobacco protoplasts by electroporation. Although the nuclear expression vector 35S-CAT showed expression of cat, no activity was observed with any chloroplast vectors. Images PMID:2404285

  13. Transient foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells after biolistic delivery of chloroplast vectors.

    PubMed

    Daniell, H; Vivekananda, J; Nielsen, B L; Ye, G N; Tewari, K K; Sanford, J C

    1990-01-01

    Expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) by suitable vectors in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells, delivered by high-velocity microprojectiles, is reported here. Several chloroplast expression vectors containing bacterial cat genes, placed under the control of either psbA promoter region from pea (pHD series) or rbcL promoter region from maize (pAC series) have been used in this study. In addition, chloroplast expression vectors containing replicon fragments from pea, tobacco, or maize chloroplast DNA have also been tested for efficiency and duration of cat expression in chloroplasts of tobacco cells. Cultured NT1 tobacco cells collected on filter papers were bombarded with tungsten particles coated with pUC118 (negative control), 35S-CAT (nuclear expression vector), pHD312 (repliconless chloroplast expression vector), and pHD407, pACp18, and pACp19 (chloroplast expression vectors with replicon). Sonic extracts of cells bombarded with pUC118 showed no detectable cat activity in the autoradiograms. Nuclear expression of cat reached two-thirds of the maximal 48 hr after bombardment and the maximal at 72 hr. Cells bombarded with chloroplast expression vectors showed a low level of expression until 48 hr of incubation. A dramatic increase in the expression of cat was observed 24 hr after the addition of fresh medium to cultured cells in samples bombarded with pHD407; the repliconless vector pHD312 showed about 50% of this maximal activity. The expression of nuclear cat and the repliconless chloroplast vector decreased after 72 hr, but a high level of chloroplast cat expression was maintained in cells bombarded with pHD407. Organelle-specific expression of cat in appropriate compartments was checked by introducing various plasmid constructions into tobacco protoplasts by electroporation. Although the nuclear expression vector 35S-CAT showed expression of cat, no activity was observed with any chloroplast vectors.

  14. Angiogenin in Parkinson Disease Models: Role of Akt Phosphorylation and Evaluation of AAV-Mediated Angiogenin Expression in MPTP Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Steidinger, Trent U.; Slone, Sunny R.; Ding, Huiping; Standaert, David G.; Yacoubian, Talene A.

    2013-01-01

    The angiogenic factor, angiogenin, has been recently linked to both Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson Disease (PD). We have recently shown that endogenous angiogenin levels are dramatically reduced in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of PD and that exogenous angiogenin protects against cell loss in neurotoxin-based cellular models of PD. Here, we extend our studies to examine whether activation of the prosurvival Akt pathway is required for angiogenin's neuroprotective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), as observed in ALS models, and to test the effect of virally-mediated overexpression of angiogenin in an in vivo PD model. Using a dominant negative Akt construct, we demonstrate that inhibition of the Akt pathway does not reduce the protective effect of angiogenin against MPP+ toxicity in the dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line. Furthermore, an ALS-associated mutant of angiogenin, K40I, which fails to induce Akt phosphorylation, was similar to wildtype angiogenin in protection against MPP+. These results confirm previous work showing neuroprotective effects of angiogenin against MPP+, and indicate that Akt is not required for this protective effect. We also investigated whether adeno-associated viral serotype 2 (AAV2)-mediated overexpression of angiogenin protects against dopaminergic neuron loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model. We found that angiogenin overexpression using this approach does not reduce the MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra, nor limit the depletion of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum. Together, these findings extend the evidence for protective effects of angiogenin in vitro, but also suggest that further study of in vivo models is required to translate these effects into meaningful therapies. PMID:23409128

  15. Recombinant adeno-associated virus targets passenger gene expression to cones in primate retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hendrickson, Anita E.; Connor, Thomas B., Jr.; Mauck, Matthew C.; Kinsella, James J.; Hauswirth, William W.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a promising vector for gene therapy of photoreceptor-based diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that rAAV serotypes 2 and 5 can transduce both rod and cone photoreceptors in rodents and dogs, and it can target rods, but not cones in primates. Here we report that using a human cone-specific enhancer and promoter to regulate expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in an rAAV-5 vector successfully targeted expression of the reporter gene to primate cones, and the time course of GFP expression was able to be monitored in a living animal using the RetCam II digital imaging system.

  16. [Ubiquitination of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector and its application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-zhao; Lu, Ying-hui; Diao, Yong; Xu, Rui-an

    2012-09-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has been widely used as vector for gene therapy. However, the effectiveness of gene therapy based on rAAV needs to be further improved. Enhancement of the transduction efficiency is one of the most important fields for rAAV-based gene therapy. Recent results have showed that the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in the trafficking of rAAV vector in cytoplasm, and regulation of its function may significantly improve the transduction efficiency of rAAV vector in various types of cells and tissues.

  17. Rapid construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosomal (BAC) expression vector using designer DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xinqing; Jin, Yingyu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Suh, Joo-Won

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomal (BAC) vectors are increasingly being used in cloning large DNA fragments containing complex biosynthetic pathways to facilitate heterologous production of microbial metabolites for drug development. To express inserted genes using Streptomyces species as the production hosts, an integration expression cassette is required to be inserted into the BAC vector, which includes genetic elements encoding a phage-specific attachment site, an integrase, an origin of transfer, a selection marker and a promoter. Due to the large sizes of DNA inserted into the BAC vectors, it is normally inefficient and time-consuming to assemble these fragments by routine PCR amplifications and restriction-ligations. Here we present a rapid method to insert fragments to construct BAC-based expression vectors. A DNA fragment of about 130 bp was designed, which contains upstream and downstream homologous sequences of both BAC vector and pIB139 plasmid carrying the whole integration expression cassette. In-Fusion cloning was performed using the designer DNA fragment to modify pIB139, followed by λ-RED-mediated recombination to obtain the BAC-based expression vector. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this method by rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector with an insert of about 120 kb that contains the entire gene cluster for biosynthesis of immunosuppressant FK506. The empty BAC-based expression vector constructed in this study can be conveniently used for construction of BAC libraries using either microbial pure culture or environmental DNA, and the selected BAC clones can be directly used for heterologous expression. Alternatively, if a BAC library has already been constructed using a commercial BAC vector, the selected BAC vectors can be manipulated using the method described here to get the BAC-based expression vectors with desired gene clusters for heterologous expression. The rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector facilitates

  18. The AAV-mediated and RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene therapy of DMD and BMD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Wu, Peng; Shi, Zhi-Min; Xu, Yan-Li; Liu, Zhi-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in the dystrophin gene (Dmd) result in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), which afflict many newborn boys. In 2016, Brain and Development published several interesting articles on DMD treatment with antisense oligonucleotide, kinase inhibitor, and prednisolone. Even more strikingly, three articles in the issue 6271 of Science in 2016 provide new insights into gene therapy of DMD and BMD via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). In brief, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors transport guided RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 into mdx mouse model, gRNAs recognize the mutated Dmd exon 23 (having a stop codon), and Cas9 cut the mutated exon 23 off the Dmd gene. These manipulations restored expression of truncated but partially functional dystrophin, improved skeletal and cardiac muscle function, and increased survival of mdx mice significantly. This review concisely summarized the related advancements and discussed their primary implications in the future gene therapy of DMD, including AAV-vector selection, gRNA designing, Cas9 optimization, dystrophin-restoration efficiency, administration routes, and systemic and long-term therapeutic efficacy. Future orientations, including off-target effects, safety concerns, immune responses, precision medicine, and Dmd-editing in the brain (potentially blocked by the blood-brain barrier) were also elucidated briefly. Collectively, the AAV-mediated and RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 system has major superiorities compared with traditional gene therapy, and might contribute to the treatment of DMD and BMD substantially in the near future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the specificity and sensitivity of ferritin as an MRI reporter gene in the mouse brain using lentiviral and adeno-associated viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, G; Rangarajan, J R; Toelen, J; Dresselaers, T; Ibrahimi, A; Krylychkina, O; Vreys, R; Van der Linden, A; Maes, F; Debyser, Z; Himmelreich, U; Baekelandt, V

    2011-06-01

    The development of in vivo imaging protocols to reliably track transplanted cells or to report on gene expression is critical for treatment monitoring in (pre)clinical cell and gene therapy protocols. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of lentiviral vectors (LVs) and adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) to express the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporter gene ferritin in the rodent brain. First, we compared the induction of background MRI contrast for both vector systems in immune-deficient and immune-competent mice. LV injection resulted in hypointense (that is, dark) changes of T(2)/T(2)(*) (spin-spin relaxation time)-weighted MRI contrast at the injection site, which can be partially explained by an inflammatory response against the vector injection. In contrast to LVs, AAV injection resulted in reduced background contrast. Moreover, AAV-mediated ferritin overexpression resulted in significantly enhanced contrast to background on T(2)(*)-weighted MRI. Although sensitivity associated with the ferritin reporter remains modest, AAVs seem to be the most promising vector system for in vivo MRI reporter gene imaging.

  20. Co-overexpression of TGF-β and SOX9 via rAAV gene transfer modulates the metabolic and chondrogenic activities of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ke; Frisch, Janina; Rey-Rico, Ana; Venkatesan, Jagadeesh K; Schmitt, Gertrud; Madry, Henning; Lin, Jianhao; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-02-01

    Articular cartilage has a limited potential for self-healing. Transplantation of genetically modified progenitor cells like bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive strategy to improve the intrinsic repair capacities of damaged articular cartilage. In this study, we examined the potential benefits of co-overexpressing the pleiotropic transformation growth factor beta (TGF-β) with the cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX9 via gene transfer with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors upon the biological activities of human MSCs (hMSCs). Freshly isolated hMSCs were transduced over time with separate rAAV vectors carrying either TGF-β or sox9 in chondrogenically-induced aggregate cultures to evaluate the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and to monitor the effects of rAAV-mediated genetic modification upon the cellular activities (proliferation, matrix synthesis) and chondrogenic differentiation potency compared with control conditions (lacZ treatment, sequential transductions). Significant, prolonged TGF-β/sox9 co-overexpression was achieved in chondrogenically-induced hMSCs upon co-transduction via rAAV for up to 21 days, leading to enhanced proliferative, biosynthetic, and chondrogenic activities relative to control treatments, especially when co-applying the candidate vectors at the highest vector doses tested. Optimal co-administration of TGF-β with sox9 also advantageously reduced hypertrophic differentiation of the cells in the conditions applied here. The present findings demonstrate the possibility of modifying MSCs by combined therapeutic gene transfer as potent future strategies for implantation in clinically relevant animal models of cartilage defects in vivo.

  1. Chondrogenic Differentiation Processes in Human Bone Marrow Aspirates Seeded in Three-Dimensional Woven Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Scaffolds Enhanced by rAAV-Mediated SOX9 Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jagadeesh Kumar; Moutos, Franklin T; Rey-Rico, Ana; Estes, Bradley T; Frisch, Janina; Schmitt, Gertrud; Madry, Henning; Guilak, Farshid; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2018-05-02

    Combining gene therapy approaches with tissue engineering procedures is an active area of translational research for the effective treatment of articular cartilage lesions, especially to target chondrogenic progenitor cells such as those derived from the bone marrow. Here, we evaluated the effect of genetically modifying concentrated human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow to induce chondrogenesis by recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector gene transfer of the sex-determining region Y-type high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) factor upon seeding in three-dimensional (3D) woven poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds that provide mechanical properties mimicking those of native articular cartilage. Prolonged, effective SOX9 expression was reported in the constructs for at least 21 days, the longest time point evaluated, leading to enhanced metabolic and chondrogenic activities relative to the control conditions (reporter lacZ gene transfer or absence of vector treatment) but without affecting the proliferative activities in the samples. The application of the rAAV SOX9 vector also prevented undesirable hypertrophic and terminal differentiation in the seeded concentrates. As bone marrow is readily accessible during surgery, such findings reveal the therapeutic potential of providing rAAV-modified marrow concentrates within 3D woven PCL scaffolds for repair of focal cartilage lesions.

  2. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Construction and expression of the eukaryotic expression vector carrying HSV-1 gC glycoprotein gene].

    PubMed

    Dang, Yin-li; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Li, Pu-yuan; Yu, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Fang-lin; Xu, Zhi-kai; Wu, Xing-an

    2011-05-01

    To stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The eukaryotic expression vector pCI-mCMV-gC-1-IRES-DHFR-L22R was constructed and transfected into CHO-K1 cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The transfected cells were selected by G418 and methotrexate (MTX). The expression of HSV-1 gC was analyzed by Slot blot. HSV-1 gC proteins were purified with His-Ni Sepharose and then detected by Western blot. The eukaryotic expression vector pCI-mCMV-gC-1-IRES-DHFR-L22R was constructed successfully. CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HSV-1 gC proteins were established and confirmed by Western blot. The HSV-1 gC proteins have been expressed successfully and have good bioactivity. The results make it possible for further study and clinical use of HSV-1 gC.

  4. Vectored Intracerebral Immunization with the Anti-Tau Monoclonal Antibody PHF1 Markedly Reduces Tau Pathology in Mutant Tau Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wencheng; Zhao, Lingzhi; Blackman, Brittany; Parmar, Mayur; Wong, Man Ying; Woo, Thomas; Yu, Fangmin; Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Crystal, Ronald G; Paul, Steven M

    2016-12-07

    Passive immunization with anti-tau monoclonal antibodies has been shown by several laboratories to reduce age-dependent tau pathology and neurodegeneration in mutant tau transgenic mice. These studies have used repeated high weekly doses of various tau antibodies administered systemically for several months and have reported reduced tau pathology of ∼40-50% in various brain regions. Here we show that direct intrahippocampal administration of the adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vectored anti-phospho-tau antibody PHF1 to P301S tau transgenic mice results in high and durable antibody expression, primarily in neurons. Hippocampal antibody levels achieved after AAV delivery were ∼50-fold more than those reported following repeated systemic administration. In contrast to systemic passive immunization, we observed markedly reduced (≥80-90%) hippocampal insoluble pathological tau species and neurofibrillary tangles following a single dose of AAV-vectored PHF1 compared with mice treated with an AAV-IgG control vector. Moreover, the hippocampal atrophy observed in untreated P301S mice was fully rescued by treatment with the AAV-vectored PHF1 antibody. Vectored passive immunotherapy with an anti-tau monoclonal antibody may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for treating or preventing such tauopathies as frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or Alzheimer's disease. We have used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector to deliver the genes encoding an anti-phospho-tau monoclonal antibody, PHF1, directly to the brain of mice that develop neurodegeneration due to a tau mutation that causes frontotemporal dementia (FTD). When administered systemically, PHF1 has been shown to modestly reduce tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Since such antibodies do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, we used an AAV vector to deliver antibody directly to the hippocampus and observed much higher antibody levels and a much greater reduction in tau pathology. Using

  5. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus.

  6. Development and validation of novel AAV2 random libraries displaying peptides of diverse lengths and at diverse capsid positions.

    PubMed

    Naumer, Matthias; Ying, Ying; Michelfelder, Stefan; Reuter, Antje; Trepel, Martin; Müller, Oliver J; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2012-05-01

    Libraries based on the insertion of random peptide ligands into the capsid of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) have been widely used to improve the efficiency and selectivity of the AAV vector system. However, so far only libraries of 7-mer peptide ligands have been inserted at one well-characterized capsid position. Here, we expanded the combinatorial AAV2 display system to a panel of novel AAV libraries, displaying peptides of 5, 7, 12, 19, or 26 amino acids in length at capsid position 588 or displaying 7-mer peptides at position 453, the most prominently exposed region of the viral capsid. Library selections on two unrelated cell types-human coronary artery endothelial cells and rat cardiomyoblasts-revealed the isolation of cell type-characteristic peptides of different lengths mediating strongly improved target-cell transduction, except for the 26-mer peptide ligands. Characterization of vector selectivity by transduction of nontarget cells and comparative gene-transduction analysis using a panel of 44 human tumor cell lines revealed that insertion of different-length peptides allows targeting of distinct cellular receptors for cell entry with similar efficiency, but with different selectivity. The application of such novel AAV2 libraries broadens the spectrum of targetable receptors by capsid-modified AAV vectors and provides the opportunity to choose the best suited targeting ligand for a certain application from a number of different candidates.

  7. Integration of adeno-associated virus vectors in CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells after transduction.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, K K; Podsakoff, G; Forman, S J; Chatterjee, S

    1996-07-15

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear promising because of their high transduction frequencies regardless of cell cycle status and ability to integrate into chromosomal DNA. We tested AAV-mediated gene transfer into a panel of human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, using vectors encoding several transgenes under the control of viral and cellular promoters. Gene transfer was evaluated by (1) chromosomal integration of vector sequences and (2) analysis of transgene expression. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of transduced CD34 genomic DNA showed the presence of integrated vector sequences in chromosomal DNA in a portion of transduced cells and showed that integrated vector sequences were replicated along with cellular DNA during mitosis. Transgene expression in transduced CD34 cells in suspension cultures and in myeloid colonies differentiating in vitro from transduced CD34 cells approximated that predicted by the multiplicity of transduction. This was true in CD34 cells from different donors, regardless of the transgene or selective pressure. Comparisons of CD34 cell transduction either before or after cytokine stimulation showed similar gene transfer frequencies. Our findings suggest that AAV transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells is efficient, can lead to stable integration in a population of transduced cells, and may therefore provide the basis for safe and efficient ex vivo gene therapy of the hematopoietic system.

  8. Geminivirus vectors for high-level expression of foreign proteins in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mor, Tsafrir S; Moon, Yong-Sun; Palmer, Kenneth E; Mason, Hugh S

    2003-02-20

    Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) is a monopartite geminivirus that can infect dicotyledonous plants. We have developed a high-level expression system that utilizes elements of the replication machinery of this single-stranded DNA virus. The replication initiator protein (Rep) mediates release and replication of a replicon from a DNA construct ("LSL vector") that contains an expression cassette for a gene of interest flanked by cis-acting elements of the virus. We used tobacco NT1 cells and biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA for evaluation of replication and expression of reporter genes contained within an LSL vector. By codelivery of a GUS reporter-LSL vector and a Rep-supplying vector, we obtained up to 40-fold increase in expression levels compared to delivery of the reporter-LSL vectors alone. High-copy replication of the LSL vector was correlated with enhanced expression of GUS. Rep expression using a whole BeYDV clone, a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter driving either genomic rep or an intron-deleted rep gene, or 35S-rep contained in the LSL vector all achieved efficient replication and enhancement of GUS expression. We anticipate that this system can be adapted for use in transgenic plants or plant cell cultures with appropriately regulated expression of Rep, with the potential to greatly increase yield of recombinant proteins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 430-437, 2003.

  9. Adeno-associated virus type 8 vector–mediated expression of siRNA targeting vascular endothelial growth factor efficiently inhibits neovascularization in a murine choroidal neovascularization model

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Miyake, Noriko; Fujimoto, Chiaki; Yaguchi, Chiemi; Iijima, Osamu; Shimada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility of a gene therapeutic approach to treating choroidal neovascularization (CNV), we generated an adeno-associated virus type 8 vector (AAV2/8) encoding an siRNA targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and determined the AAV2/8 vector’s ability to inhibit angiogenesis. Methods We initially transfected 3T3 cells expressing VEGF with the AAV2/8 plasmid vector psiRNA-VEGF using the H1 promoter and found that VEGF expression was significantly diminished in the transfectants. We next injected 1 μl (3 × 1014 vg/ml) of AAV2/8 vector encoding siRNA targeting VEGF (AAV2/8/SmVEGF-2; n = 12) or control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) (AAV2/8/GFP; n = 14) into the subretinal space in C57BL/6 mice. One week later, CNV was induced by using a diode laser to make four separate choroidal burns around the optic nerve in each eye. After an additional 2 weeks, the eyes were removed for flat mount analysis of the CNV surface area. Results Subretinal delivery of AAV2/8/SmVEGF-2 significantly diminished CNV at the laser lesions, compared to AAV8/GFP (1597.3±2077.2 versus 5039.5±4055.9 µm2; p<0.05). Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that VEGF levels were reduced by approximately half in the AAV2/8/SmVEGF-2 treated eyes. Conclusions These results suggest that siRNA-VEGF can be expressed across the retina and that long-term suppression of CNV is possible through the use of stable AAV2/8-mediated siRNA-VEGF expression. In vivo gene therapy may thus be a feasible approach to the clinical management of CNV in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:24744609

  10. [Construction, identification and expression of three kinds of shuttle plasmids of adenovirus expression vector of hepatitis C virus structure gene].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi-zhan; Hao, Chun-qiu; Feng, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Yong-xing; Li, Jin-ge; Jia, Zhan-sheng; Wang, Ping-zhong

    2003-02-01

    To construct three recombinant shuttle plasmids of adenovirus expression vector which can express hepatitis C virus(HCV) different structure genes(C, C+E1, C+E1+E2) in order to pack adenovirus expression vectors which can express HCV different structure gene effectively. The different HCV structure genes derived from the plasmid pBRTM/HCV1-3011 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were inserted into the backward position of cytomegalovirus(CMV) immediate early promotor element of shuttle plasmid(pAd.CMV-Link.1) of adenovirus expression vector respectively, then the three recombinant plasmids (pAd.HCV-C, pAd.HCV-CE1, pAd.HCV-S) were obtained. The recombinant plasmids were identified by endonuclease, PCR and sequencing. HCV structure genes were expressed transiently with Lipofectamine 2000 coated in HepG2 cells which were confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western-Blot. Insert DNAs of the three recombinant plasmids' were confirmed to be HCV different structure genes by endonuclease, PCR and sequencing. The three recombinant plasmids can express HCV structure gene (C, C+E1, C+E1+E2) transiently in HepG2 cells which were confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western-Blot. The three recombinant shuttle plasmids of adenovirus expression vector can express HCV structure gene(C, C+E1, C+E1+E2) transiently. This should be useful to pack adenovirus expression vector which can express HCV structure genes.

  11. Intracranial AAV-sTRAIL combined with lanatoside C prolongs survival in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of invasive glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Crommentuijn, Matheus H W; Maguire, Casey A; Niers, Johanna M; Vandertop, W Peter; Badr, Christian E; Würdinger, Thomas; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. We designed an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for intracranial delivery of secreted, soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) to GBM tumors in mice and combined it with the TRAIL-sensitizing cardiac glycoside, lanatoside C (lan C). We applied this combined therapy to two different GBM models using human U87 glioma cells and primary patient-derived GBM neural spheres in culture and in orthotopic GBM xenograft models in mice. In U87 cells, conditioned medium from AAV2-sTRAIL expressing cells combined with lan C induced 80% cell death. Similarly, lan C sensitized primary GBM spheres to sTRAIL causing over 90% cell death. In mice bearing intracranial U87 tumors treated with AAVrh.8-sTRAIL, administration of lan C caused a decrease in tumor-associated Fluc signal, while tumor size increased within days of stopping the treatment. Another round of lan C treatment re-sensitized GBM tumor to sTRAIL-induced cell death. AAVrh.8-sTRAIL treatment alone and combined with lanatoside C resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth and longer survival of mice bearing orthotopic invasive GBM brain tumors. In summary, AAV-sTRAIL combined with lanatoside C induced cell death in U87 glioma cells and patient-derived GBM neural spheres in culture and in vivo leading to an increased in overall mice survival. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stable integration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector genomes after transduction of murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Zongchao; Zhong, Li; Maina, Njeri; Hu, Zhongbo; Li, Xiaomiao; Chouthai, Nitin S; Bischof, Daniela; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A; Slayton, William B; Yoder, Mervin C; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-03-01

    We previously reported that among single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV) vectors, serotypes 1 through 5, ssAAV1 is the most efficient in transducing murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but viral second-strand DNA synthesis remains a rate-limiting step. Subsequently, using double-stranded, self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, serotypes 7 through 10, we observed that scAAV7 vectors also transduce murine HSCs efficiently. In the present study, we used scAAV1 and scAAV7 shuttle vectors to transduce HSCs in a murine bone marrow serial transplant model in vivo, which allowed examination of the AAV proviral integration pattern in the mouse genome, as well as recovery and nucleotide sequence analyses of AAV-HSC DNA junction fragments. The proviral genomes were stably integrated, and integration sites were localized to different mouse chromosomes. None of the integration sites was found to be in a transcribed gene, or near a cellular oncogene. None of the animals, monitored for up to 1 year, exhibited pathological abnormalities. Thus, AAV proviral integration-induced risk of oncogenesis was not found in our study, which provides functional confirmation of stable transduction of self-renewing multipotential HSCs by scAAV vectors as well as promise for the use of these vectors in the potential treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system.

  13. Treatment with Trehalose Prevents Behavioral and Neurochemical Deficits Produced in an AAV α-Synuclein Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Koprich, James B; Wang, Ying; Yu, Wen-bo; Xiao, Bao-guo; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein in dopamine (DA) neurons is believed to be of major importance in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Animal models of PD, based on viral-vector-mediated over-expression of α-synuclein, have been developed and show evidence of dopaminergic toxicity, providing us a good tool to investigate potential therapies to interfere with α-synuclein-mediated pathology. An efficient disease-modifying therapeutic molecule should be able to interfere with the neurotoxicity of α-synuclein aggregation. Our study highlighted the ability of an autophagy enhancer, trehalose (at concentrations of 5 and 2% in drinking water), to protect against A53T α-synuclein-mediated DA degeneration in an adeno-associated virus serotype 1/2 (AAV1/2)-based rat model of PD. Behavioral tests and neurochemical analysis demonstrated a significant attenuation in α-synuclein-mediated deficits in motor asymmetry and DA neurodegeneration including impaired DA neuronal survival and DA turnover, as well as α-synuclein accumulation and aggregation in the nigrostriatal system by commencing 5 and 2% trehalose at the same time as delivery of AAV. Trehalose (0.5%) was ineffective on the above behavioral and neurochemical deficits. Further investigation showed that trehalose enhanced autophagy in the striatum by increasing formation of LC3-II. This study supports the concept of using trehalose as a novel therapeutic strategy that might prevent/reverse α-synuclein aggregation for the treatment of PD.

  14. Bone mesenchymal stem cells co-expressing VEGF and BMP-6 genes to combat avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hongxing; Zhong, Zhixiong; Liu, Zhanliang; Li, Liangping; Ling, Zemin; Zou, Xuenong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) genes for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Rat BMSCs were isolated and purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. The purity and characteristics of the BMSCs were detected by cell surface antigens identification using flow cytometry. The experimental groups were administered with one of the following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector constructs: AAV-green fluorescent protein (AAV-GFP), AAV-BMP-6, AAV-VEGF or AAV-VEGF-BMP-6. The expression of VEGF and BMP-6 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA assays. The effects of VEGF and BMP-6 on BMSCs were evaluated by angiogenic and osteogenic assays. The transfected BMSCs were combined with a biomimetic synthetic scaffold poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and they were then subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. After four weeks, the implants were analyzed with histology and subsequent immunostaining to evaluate the effects of BMSCs on blood vessel and bone formation in vivo. In the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group, the expression levels of VEGF and BMP-6 were significantly increased and human umbilical vein endothelial cells tube formation was significantly enhanced compared with other groups. Capillaries and bone formation in the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group was significantly higher compared with the other groups. The results of the present study suggest that BMSCs expressing both VEGF and BMP-6 induce an increase in blood vessels and bone formation, which provides theoretical support for ANFH gene therapy. PMID:29399103

  15. Bone mesenchymal stem cells co-expressing VEGF and BMP-6 genes to combat avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongxing; Zhong, Zhixiong; Liu, Zhanliang; Li, Liangping; Ling, Zemin; Zou, Xuenong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) genes for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Rat BMSCs were isolated and purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. The purity and characteristics of the BMSCs were detected by cell surface antigens identification using flow cytometry. The experimental groups were administered with one of the following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector constructs: AAV-green fluorescent protein (AAV-GFP), AAV-BMP-6, AAV-VEGF or AAV-VEGF-BMP-6. The expression of VEGF and BMP-6 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA assays. The effects of VEGF and BMP-6 on BMSCs were evaluated by angiogenic and osteogenic assays. The transfected BMSCs were combined with a biomimetic synthetic scaffold poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and they were then subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. After four weeks, the implants were analyzed with histology and subsequent immunostaining to evaluate the effects of BMSCs on blood vessel and bone formation in vivo . In the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group, the expression levels of VEGF and BMP-6 were significantly increased and human umbilical vein endothelial cells tube formation was significantly enhanced compared with other groups. Capillaries and bone formation in the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group was significantly higher compared with the other groups. The results of the present study suggest that BMSCs expressing both VEGF and BMP-6 induce an increase in blood vessels and bone formation, which provides theoretical support for ANFH gene therapy.

  16. Remodelling of human osteoarthritic cartilage by FGF-2, alone or combined with Sox9 via rAAV gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Cucchiarini, Magali; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Kohn, Dieter; Madry, Henning

    2009-08-01

    Compensating for the loss of extracellular cartilage matrix, as well as counteracting the alterations of the chondrocyte phenotype in osteoarthritis are of key importance to develop effective therapeutic strategies against this disorder. In the present study, we analysed the benefits of applying a potent gene combination to remodel human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. We employed the promising recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector to deliver the mitogenic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) factor, alone or simultaneously with the transcription factor Sox9 as a key activator of matrix synthesis, to human normal and OA articular chondrocytes. We evaluated the effects of single (FGF-2) or combined (FGF-2/SOX9) transgene expression upon the regenerative activities of chondrocytes in three dimensional cultures in vitro and in cartilage explants in situ. Single overexpression of FGF-2 enhanced the survival and proliferation of both normal and OA chondrocytes, without stimulating the matrix synthetic processes in the increased pools of cells. The mitogenic properties of FGF-2 were maintained when SOX9 was co-overexpressed and concomitant with an increase in the production of proteoglycans and type-II collagen, suggesting that the transcription factor was capable of counterbalancing the effects of FGF-2 on matrix accumulation. Also important, expression of type-X collagen, a marker of hypertrophy strongly decreased following treatment by the candidate vectors. Most remarkably, the levels of activities achieved in co-treated human OA cartilage were similar to or higher than those observed in normal cartilage. The present findings show that combined expression of candidate factors in OA cartilage can re-establish key features of normal cartilage and prevent the pathological shift of metabolic homeostasis. These data provide further motivation to develop coupled gene transfer approaches via rAAV for the treatment of human OA.

  17. Insect cell transformation vectors that support high level expression and promoter assessment in insect cell culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A somatic transformation vector, pDP9, was constructed that provides a simplified means of producing permanently transformed cultured insect cells that support high levels of protein expression of foreign genes. The pDP9 plasmid vector incorporates DNA sequences from the Junonia coenia densovirus th...

  18. The ANCA Vasculitis Questionnaire (AAV-PRO©)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA); Wegener Granulomatosis (WG); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV); Vasculitis

  19. Elucidating the Potential of Plant Rhabdoviruses as Vector Expressions Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus that is transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifons. The virus replicates in both its maize host and its insect vector. To determine whether Drosophila S2 cells support the production of full-length MFSV proteins, we ...

  20. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Alice T; Ball, Bret G; Weber, Erin; Gallaher, Timothy K; Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Anderson, French; Basile, Lena A

    2009-12-30

    Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T-cell lines. Further improvements

  1. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. Methods A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Results Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T

  2. Gene silencing in Escherichia coli using antisense RNAs expressed from doxycycline-inducible vectors.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, N; Tamura, T

    2013-06-01

    Here, we report on the construction of doxycycline (tetracycline analogue)-inducible vectors that express antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli. Using these vectors, the expression of genes of interest can be silenced conditionally. The expression of antisense RNAs from the vectors was more tightly regulated than the previously constructed isopropyl-β-D-galactopyranoside-inducible vectors. Furthermore, expression levels of antisense RNAs were enhanced by combining the doxycycline-inducible promoter with the T7 promoter-T7 RNA polymerase system; the T7 RNA polymerase gene, under control of the doxycycline-inducible promoter, was integrated into the lacZ locus of the genome without leaving any antibiotic marker. These vectors are useful for investigating gene functions or altering cell phenotypes for biotechnological and industrial applications. A gene silencing method using antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli is described, which facilitates the investigation of bacterial gene function. In particular, the method is suitable for comprehensive analyses or phenotypic analyses of genes essential for growth. Here, we describe expansion of vector variations for expressing antisense RNAs, allowing choice of a vector appropriate for the target genes or experimental purpose. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Virus vector-mediated genetic modification of brain tumor stromal cells after intravenous delivery.

    PubMed

    Volak, Adrienn; LeRoy, Stanley G; Natasan, Jeya Shree; Park, David J; Cheah, Pike See; Maus, Andreas; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Hudry, Eloise; Pinkham, Kelsey; Gandhi, Sheetal; Hyman, Bradley T; Mu, Dakai; GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Badr, Christian E; Maguire, Casey A

    2018-05-16

    The malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) is generally incurable. New approaches are desperately needed. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of anti-tumor transgenes is a promising strategy, however direct injection leads to focal transgene spread in tumor and rapid tumor division dilutes out the extra-chromosomal AAV genome, limiting duration of transgene expression. Intravenous (IV) injection gives widespread distribution of AAV in normal brain, however poor transgene expression in tumor, and high expression in non-target cells which may lead to ineffective therapy and high toxicity, respectively. Delivery of transgenes encoding secreted, anti-tumor proteins to tumor stromal cells may provide a more stable and localized reservoir of therapy as they are more differentiated than fast-dividing tumor cells. Reactive astrocytes and tumor-associated macrophage/microglia (TAMs) are stromal cells that comprise a large portion of the tumor mass and are associated with tumorigenesis. In mouse models of GBM, we used IV delivery of exosome-associated AAV vectors driving green fluorescent protein expression by specific promoters (NF-κB-responsive promoter and a truncated glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter), to obtain targeted transduction of TAMs and reactive astrocytes, respectively, while avoiding transgene expression in the periphery. We used our approach to express the potent, yet toxic anti-tumor cytokine, interferon beta, in tumor stroma of a mouse model of GBM, and achieved a modest, yet significant enhancement in survival compared to controls. Noninvasive genetic modification of tumor microenvironment represents a promising approach for therapy against cancers. Additionally, the vectors described here may facilitate basic research in the study of tumor stromal cells in situ.

  4. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Virus-Derived Gene Expression and RNA Interference Vector for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Miller, Marilyn; Carrington, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of the agricultural and wine-making qualities of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is hampered by adherence to traditional varieties, the recalcitrance of this plant to genetic modifications, and public resistance to genetically modified organism (GMO) technologies. To address these challenges, we developed an RNA virus-based vector for the introduction of desired traits into grapevine without heritable modifications to the genome. This vector expresses recombinant proteins in the phloem tissue that is involved in sugar transport throughout the plant, from leaves to roots to berries. Furthermore, the vector provides a powerful RNA interference (RNAi) capability of regulating the expression of endogenous genes via virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) technology. Additional advantages of this vector include superb genetic capacity and stability, as well as the swiftness of technology implementation. The most significant applications of the viral vector include functional genomics of the grapevine and disease control via RNAi-enabled vaccination against pathogens or invertebrate pests. PMID:22438553

  6. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S., E-mail: chapmami@ohsu.edu

    2012-02-05

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites ofmore » AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.« less

  7. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-05-24

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites ofmore » AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.« less

  8. Sleeping Beauty-baculovirus hybrid vectors for long-term gene expression in the eye.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Tytteli Anni Kaarina; Laakkonen, Johanna Päivikki; Alasaarela, Laura; Airenne, Kari Juhani; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    A baculovirus vector is capable of efficiently transducing many nondiving and diving cell types. However, the potential of baculovirus is restricted for many gene delivery applications as a result of the transient gene expression that it mediates. The plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system integrates transgenes into target cell genome efficiently with a genomic integration pattern that is generally considered safer than the integration of many other integrating vectors; yet efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of target tissues in vivo is a major challenge for nonviral gene therapy. In the present study, SB was introduced into baculovirus to obtain novel hybrid vectors that would combine the best features of the two vector systems (i.e. effective gene delivery and efficient integration into the genome), thus circumventing the major limitations of these vectors. We constructed and optimized SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors that bear either SB100x transposase or SB transposon in the forward or reverse orientations with respect to the viral backbone The functionality of the novel hybrid vectors was investigated in cell cultures and in a proof-of-concept study in the mouse eye. The hybrid vectors showed high and sustained transgene expression that remained stable and demonstrated no signs of decline during the 2 months follow-up in vitro. These results were verified in the mouse eye where persistent transgene expression was detected two months after intravitreal injection. Our results confirm that (i) SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors mediate long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo, and (ii) the hybrid vectors are potential new tools for the treatment of ocular diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Recent progress and considerations for AAV gene therapies targeting the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lykken, Erik Allen; Shyng, Charles; Edwards, Reginald James; Rozenberg, Alejandra; Gray, Steven James

    2018-05-18

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, as a class of diseases, have been particularly difficult to treat even when the underlying cause(s), such as genetic alterations, are understood. What treatments do exist are generally not curative and instead seek to improve quality of life for affected individuals. The advent of gene therapy via gene replacement offers the potential for transformative therapies to slow or even stop disease progression for current patients and perhaps minimize or prevent the appearance of symptoms in future patients. This review focuses on adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapies for diseases of the central nervous system. An overview of advances in AAV vector design for therapy is provided, along with a description of current strategies to develop AAV vectors with tailored tropism. Next, progress towards treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is presented at both the pre-clinical and clinical stages, focusing on a few select diseases to highlight broad categories of therapeutic parameters. Special considerations for more challenging cases are then discussed in addition to the immunological aspects of gene therapy. With the promising clinical trial results that have been observed for the latest AAV gene therapies and continued pre-clinical successes, the question is no longer whether a therapy can be developed for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, but rather, how quickly.

  10. Intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a phase 1, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Heier, Jeffrey S; Kherani, Saleema; Desai, Shilpa; Dugel, Pravin; Kaushal, Shalesh; Cheng, Seng H; Delacono, Cheryl; Purvis, Annie; Richards, Susan; Le-Halpere, Annaig; Connelly, John; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Varona, Rafael; Buggage, Ronald; Scaria, Abraham; Campochiaro, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Long-term intraocular injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralising proteins can preserve central vision in many patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. We tested the safety and tolerability of a single intravitreous injection of an AAV2 vector expressing the VEGF-neutralising protein sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This was a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalating study done at four outpatient retina clinics in the USA. Patients were assigned to each cohort in order of enrolment, with the first three patients being assigned to and completing the first cohort before filling positions in the following treatment groups. Patients aged 50 years or older with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and a baseline best-corrected visual acuity score of 20/100 or less in the study eye were enrolled in four dose-ranging cohorts (cohort 1, 2 × 10 8 vector genomes (vg); cohort 2, 2 × 10 9 vg; cohort 3, 6 × 10 9 vg; and cohort 4, 2 × 10 10 vg, n=3 per cohort) and one maximum tolerated dose cohort (cohort 5, 2 × 10 10 vg, n=7) and followed up for 52 weeks. The primary objective of the study was to assess the safety and tolerability of a single intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01, through the measurement of eye-related adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01024998. 19 patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration were enrolled in the study between May 18, 2010, and July 14, 2014. All patients completed the 52-week trial period. Two patients in cohort 4 (2 × 10 10 vg) experienced adverse events that were possibly study-drug related: pyrexia and intraocular inflammation that resolved with a topical steroid. Five of ten patients who received 2 × 10 10 vg had aqueous humour concentrations of sFLT01 that peaked at 32·7-112·0 ng/mL (mean 73·7 ng/mL, SD 30·5) by week 26 with a slight decrease to

  11. Improved Production Efficiency of Virus-Like Particles by the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    PubMed

    López-Vidal, Javier; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Bárcena, Juan; Nuñez, Maria del Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Diego; Dudognon, Benoit; Guijarro, Eva; Escribano, José M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have proven effective in humans and animals. In this regard, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the technologies of choice to generate such highly immunogenic vaccines. The extended use of these vaccines for human and animal populations is constrained because of high production costs, therefore a significant improvement in productivity is crucial to ensure their commercial viability. Here we describe the use of the previously described baculovirus expression cassette, called TB, to model the production of two VLP-forming vaccine antigens in insect cells. Capsid proteins from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap) and from the calicivirus that causes rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHDV VP60) were expressed in insect cells using baculoviruses genetically engineered with the TB expression cassette. Productivity was compared to that obtained using standard counterpart vectors expressing the same proteins under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Our results demonstrate that the use of the TB expression cassette increased the production yields of these vaccine antigens by around 300% with respect to the standard vectors. The recombinant proteins produced by TB-modified vectors were fully functional, forming VLPs identical in size and shape to those generated by the standard baculoviruses, as determined by electron microscopy analysis. The use of the TB expression cassette implies a simple modification of the baculovirus vectors that significantly improves the cost efficiency of VLP-based vaccine production, thereby facilitating the commercial viability and broad application of these vaccines for human and animal health.

  12. [Adeno-associated viral vectors: methods for production and purification for gene therapy applications].

    PubMed

    Mena-Enriquez, Mayra; Flores-Contreras, Lucia; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Viral vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are widely used in gene therapy protocols, because they have characteristics that make them valuable for the treatment of genetic and chronic degenerative diseases. AAV2 serotype had been the best characterized to date. However, the AAV vectors developed from other serotypes is of special interest, since they have organ-specific tropism which increases their potential for transgene delivery to target cells for performing their therapeutic effects. This article summarizes AAV generalities, methods for their production and purification. It also discusses the use of these vectors in vitro, in vivo and their application in gene therapy clinical trials.

  13. Intraspinal AAV Injections Immediately Rostral to a Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury Site Efficiently Transduces Neurons in Spinal Cord and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klaw, Michelle C; Xu, Chen; Tom, Veronica J

    2013-01-01

    In the vast majority of studies utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV) in central nervous system applications, including those published with spinal cord injury (SCI) models, AAV has been administered at the level of the cell body of neurons targeted for genetic modification, resulting in transduction of neurons in the vicinity of the injection site. However, as SCI interrupts many axon tracts, it may be more beneficial to transduce a diverse pool of supraspinal neurons. We determined if descending axons severed by SCI are capable of retrogradely transporting AAV to remotely transduce a variety of brain regions. Different AAV serotypes encoding the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected into gray and white matter immediately rostral to a spinal transection site. This resulted in the transduction of thousands of neurons within the spinal cord and in multiple regions within the brainstem that project to spinal cord. In addition, we established that different serotypes had disparate regional specificity and that AAV5 transduced the most brain and spinal cord neurons. This is the first demonstration that retrograde transport of AAV by axons severed by SCI is an effective means to transduce a collection of supraspinal neurons. Thus, we identify a novel, minimally invasive means to transduce a variety of neuronal populations within both the spinal cord and the brain following SCI. This paradigm to broadly distribute viral vectors has the potential to be an important component of a combinatorial strategy to promote functional axonal regeneration. PMID:23881451

  14. ACE2 Therapy Using Adeno-associated Viral Vector Inhibits Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Kai Y; Chin, Ruth; Cunningham, Sharon C; Habib, Miriam R; Torresi, Joseph; Sharland, Alexandra F; Alexander, Ian E; Angus, Peter W; Herath, Chandana B

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which breaks down profibrotic peptide angiotensin II to antifibrotic peptide angiotensin-(1–7) is a potential therapeutic target in liver fibrosis. We therefore investigated the long-term therapeutic effect of recombinant ACE2 using a liver-specific adeno-associated viral genome 2 serotype 8 vector (rAAV2/8-ACE2) with a liver-specific promoter in three murine models of chronic liver disease, including carbon tetrachloride-induced toxic injury, bile duct ligation-induced cholestatic injury, and methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced steatotic injury. A single injection of rAAV2/8-ACE2 was administered after liver disease has established. Hepatic fibrosis, gene and protein expression, and the mechanisms that rAAV2/8-ACE2 therapy associated reduction in liver fibrosis were analyzed. Compared with control group, rAAV2/8-ACE2 therapy produced rapid and sustained upregulation of hepatic ACE2, resulting in a profound reduction in fibrosis and profibrotic markers in all diseased models. These changes were accompanied by reduction in hepatic angiotensin II levels with concomitant increases in hepatic angiotensin-(1–7) levels, resulting in significant reductions of NADPH oxidase assembly, oxidative stress and ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. Moreover, rAAV2/8-ACE2 therapy normalized increased intrahepatic vascular tone in fibrotic livers. We conclude that rAAV2/8-ACE2 is an effective liver-targeted, long-term therapy for liver fibrosis and its complications without producing unwanted systemic effects. PMID:25997428

  15. Determination of Anti-Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Neutralizing Antibody Titer with an In Vitro Reporter System

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Amine; Leborgne, Christian; Triffault, Sabrina; Jeanson-Leh, Laurence; Veron, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a platform of choice for in vivo gene transfer applications. However, neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to AAV can be found in humans and some animal species as a result of exposure to the wild-type virus, and high-titer NAb develop following AAV vector administration. In some conditions, anti-AAV NAb can block transduction with AAV vectors even when present at low titers, thus requiring prescreening before vector administration. Here we describe an improved in vitro, cell-based assay for the determination of NAb titer in serum or plasma samples. The assay is easy to setup and sensitive and, depending on the purpose, can be validated to support clinical development of gene therapy products based on AAV vectors. PMID:25819687

  16. Induction of humoral responses to BHV-1 glycoprotein D expressed by HSV-1 amplicon vectors

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Andrea Maria; Berois, Mabel Beatriz; Tomé, Lorena Magalí; Epstein, Alberto L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors are versatile and useful tools for transferring genes into cells that are capable of stimulating a specific immune response to their expressed antigens. In this work, two HSV-1-derived amplicon vectors were generated. One of these expressed the full-length glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus 1 while the second expressed the truncated form of gD (gDtr) which lacked the trans-membrane region. After evaluating gD expression in the infected cells, the ability of both vectors to induce a specific gD immune response was tested in BALB/c mice that were intramuscularly immunized. Specific serum antibody responses were detected in mice inoculated with both vectors, and the response against truncated gD was higher than the response against full-length gD. These results reinforce previous findings that HSV-1 amplicon vectors can potentially deliver antigens to animals and highlight the prospective use of these vectors for treating infectious bovine rhinotracheitis disease. PMID:22437537

  17. Exploiting translational coupling for the selection of cells producing toxic recombinant proteins from expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High rates of plasmid instability are associated with the use of some expression vectors in Escherichia coli, resulting in the loss of recombinant protein expression. This is due to sequence alterations in vector promoter elements caused by the background expression of the cloned gene, which leads to the selection of fast-growing, plasmid-containing cells that do not express the target protein. This phenomenon, which is worsened when expressing toxic proteins, results in preparations containing very little or no recombinant protein, or even in clone loss; however, no methods to prevent loss of recombinant protein expression are currently available. We have exploited the phenomenon of translational coupling, a mechanism of prokaryotic gene expression regulation, in order to select cells containing plasmids still able to express recombinant proteins. Here we designed an expression vector in which the cloned gene and selection marker are co-expressed. Our approach allowed for the selection of the recombinant protein-expressing cells and proved effective even for clones encoding toxic proteins.

  18. Adeno-associated Virus as a Mammalian DNA Vector

    PubMed Central

    SALGANIK, MAX; HIRSCH, MATTHEW L.; SAMULSKI, RICHARD JUDE

    2015-01-01

    In the nearly five decades since its accidental discovery, adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as a highly versatile vector system for both research and clinical applications. A broad range of natural serotypes, as well as an increasing number of capsid variants, has combined to produce a repertoire of vectors with different tissue tropisms, immunogenic profiles and transduction efficiencies. The story of AAV is one of continued progress and surprising discoveries in a viral system that, at first glance, is deceptively simple. This apparent simplicity has enabled the advancement of AAV into the clinic, where despite some challenges it has provided hope for patients and a promising new tool for physicians. Although a great deal of work remains to be done, both in studying the basic biology of AAV and in optimizing its clinical application, AAV vectors are currently the safest and most efficient platform for gene transfer in mammalian cells. PMID:26350320

  19. In planta expression of HIV-1 p24 protein using an RNA plant virus-based expression vector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Leung, C; Murdin, L; Rovinski, B; White, K A

    2000-02-01

    Plant viruses show significant potential as expression vectors for the production of foreign proteins (e.g., antigens) in plants. The HIV-1 p24 nucleocapsid protein is an important early marker of HIV infection and has been used as an antigen in the development of HIV vaccines. Toward developing a plant-based expression system for the production of p24, we have investigated the use of a (positive)-strand RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), as an expression vector. The HIV p24 open reading frame (ORF) was introduced into a cloned cDNA copy of the TBSV genome as an in-frame fusion with a 5'-terminal portion of the TBSV coat protein ORF. In vitro-generated RNA transcripts corresponding to the engineered virus vector were infectious when inoculated into plant protoplasts; Northern and Western blot analyses verified the accumulation of a predicted p24-encoding viral subgenomic mRNA and the production of p24 fusion product. Whole-plant infections with the viral vector led to the accumulation of p24 fusion protein in inoculated leaves, which cross-reacted with p24-specific antibodies, thus confirming the maintenance of key antigenic determinants. This study is the first to demonstrate that TBSV can be engineered to express a complete foreign protein of clinical importance. Strategies for optimizing protein yield from this viral vector are discussed.

  20. Regulation of adeno-associated virus gene expression in 293 cells: control of mRNA abundance and translation

    SciTech Connect

    Trempe, J.P.; Carter, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) rep gene on the control of gene expression from the AAV p/sub 40/ promoter in 293 cells in the absence of an adenovirus coinfection. AAV vectors containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene were used to measure the levels of cat expression and steady-state mRNA from p/sub 40/. When the rep gene was present in cis or in trans, cat expression from p/sub 40/ was decreased 3- to 10-fold, but there was a 2- to 10-fold increase in the level of p/sub 40/ mRNA. Conversely, cat expression increased and the p/submore » 40/ mRNA level decreased in the absence of the rep gene. Both wild-type and carboxyl-terminal truncated Rep proteins were capable of eliciting both effects. These data suggest two roles for the pleiotropic AAV rep gene: as a translational inhibitor and as a positive regulator of p/sub 40/ mRNA levels. They also provide additional evidence for a cis-acting negative regulatory region which decreases RNA from the AAV p/sub 5/ promoter in a fashion independent of rep.« less

  1. Cardiac gene transfer of short hairpin RNA directed against phospholamban effectively knocks down gene expression but causes cellular toxicity in canines.

    PubMed

    Bish, Lawrence T; Sleeper, Meg M; Reynolds, Caryn; Gazzara, Jeffrey; Withnall, Elanor; Singletary, Gretchen E; Buchlis, George; Hui, Daniel; High, Katherine A; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2011-08-01

    Derangements in calcium cycling have been described in failing hearts, and preclinical studies have suggested that therapies aimed at correcting this defect can lead to improvements in cardiac function and survival. One strategy to improve calcium cycling would be to inhibit phospholamban (PLB), the negative regulator of SERCA2a that is upregulated in failing hearts. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated cardiac gene transfer of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down expression of PLB. Six dogs were treated with self-complementary AAV serotype 6 (scAAV6) expressing shRNA against PLB. Three control dogs were treated with empty AAV6 capsid, and two control dogs were treated with scAAV6 expressing dominant negative PLB. Vector was delivered via a percutaneously inserted cardiac injection catheter. PLB mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in three of six shRNA dogs between days 16 and 26. The other three shRNA dogs and five control dogs were monitored long-term to assess cardiac safety. PLB mRNA was reduced 16-fold, and PLB protein was reduced 5-fold, with treatment. Serum troponin elevation and depressed cardiac function were observed in the shRNA group only at 4 weeks. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay failed to detect any T cells reactive to AAV6 capsid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, heart, or spleen. Microarray analysis revealed alterations in cardiac expression of several microRNAs with shRNA treatment. AAV6-mediated cardiac gene transfer of shRNA effectively knocks down PLB expression but is associated with severe cardiac toxicity. Toxicity may result from dysregulation of endogenous microRNA pathways.

  2. Cardiac Gene Transfer of Short Hairpin RNA Directed Against Phospholamban Effectively Knocks Down Gene Expression but Causes Cellular Toxicity in Canines

    PubMed Central

    Sleeper, Meg M.; Reynolds, Caryn; Gazzara, Jeffrey; Withnall, Elanor; Singletary, Gretchen E.; Buchlis, George; Hui, Daniel; High, Katherine A.; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Derangements in calcium cycling have been described in failing hearts, and preclinical studies have suggested that therapies aimed at correcting this defect can lead to improvements in cardiac function and survival. One strategy to improve calcium cycling would be to inhibit phospholamban (PLB), the negative regulator of SERCA2a that is upregulated in failing hearts. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated cardiac gene transfer of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down expression of PLB. Six dogs were treated with self-complementary AAV serotype 6 (scAAV6) expressing shRNA against PLB. Three control dogs were treated with empty AAV6 capsid, and two control dogs were treated with scAAV6 expressing dominant negative PLB. Vector was delivered via a percutaneously inserted cardiac injection catheter. PLB mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in three of six shRNA dogs between days 16 and 26. The other three shRNA dogs and five control dogs were monitored long-term to assess cardiac safety. PLB mRNA was reduced 16-fold, and PLB protein was reduced 5-fold, with treatment. Serum troponin elevation and depressed cardiac function were observed in the shRNA group only at 4 weeks. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay failed to detect any T cells reactive to AAV6 capsid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, heart, or spleen. Microarray analysis revealed alterations in cardiac expression of several microRNAs with shRNA treatment. AAV6-mediated cardiac gene transfer of shRNA effectively knocks down PLB expression but is associated with severe cardiac toxicity. Toxicity may result from dysregulation of endogenous microRNA pathways. PMID:21542669

  3. The Assembly-Activating Protein Promotes Stability and Interactions between AAV's Viral Proteins to Nucleate Capsid Assembly.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Anna C; Pacouret, Simon; Cepeda Diaz, Ana Karla; Blake, Jessica; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Vandenberghe, Luk H

    2018-05-08

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a preferred delivery platform for in vivo gene therapy. Natural and engineered variations of the AAV capsid affect a plurality of phenotypes relevant to gene therapy, including vector production and host tropism. Fundamental to these aspects is the mechanism of AAV capsid assembly. Here, the role of the viral co-factor assembly-activating protein (AAP) was evaluated in 12 naturally occurring AAVs and 9 putative ancestral capsid intermediates. The results demonstrate increased capsid protein stability and VP-VP interactions in the presence of AAP. The capsid's dependence on AAP can be partly overcome by strengthening interactions between monomers within the assembly, as illustrated by the transfer of a minimal motif defined by a phenotype-to-phylogeny mapping method. These findings suggest that the emergence of AAP within the Dependovirus genus relaxes structural constraints on AAV assembly in favor of increasing the degrees of freedom for the capsid to evolve. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vectors for co-expression of an unrestricted number of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Scheich, Christoph; Kümmel, Daniel; Soumailakakis, Dimitri; Heinemann, Udo; Büssow, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    A vector system is presented that allows generation of E. coli co-expression clones by a standardized, robust cloning procedure. The number of co-expressed proteins is not limited. Five ‘pQLink’ vectors for expression of His-tag and GST-tag fusion proteins as well as untagged proteins and for cloning by restriction enzymes or Gateway cloning were generated. The vectors allow proteins to be expressed individually; to achieve co-expression, two pQLink plasmids are combined by ligation-independent cloning. pQLink co-expression plasmids can accept an unrestricted number of genes. As an example, the co-expression of a heterotetrameric human transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex from a single plasmid, its isolation and analysis of its stoichiometry are shown. pQLink clones can be used directly for pull-down experiments if the proteins are expressed with different tags. We demonstrate pull-down experiments of human valosin-containing protein (VCP) with fragments of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR). The cloning method avoids PCR or gel isolation of restriction fragments, and a single resistance marker and origin of replication are used, allowing over-expression of rare tRNAs from a second plasmid. It is expected that applications are not restricted to bacteria, but could include co-expression in other hosts such as Bacluovirus/insect cells. PMID:17311810

  5. Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bankiewicz, Krystof; Cunningham, Janet

    Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) using convection enhanced delivery (CED) are provided. The rAAV virions include a nucleic acid sequence encoding a therapeutic polypeptide. The methods can be used for treating CNS disorders such as for treating Parkinson's Disease.

  6. Novel AAV-based rat model of forebrain synucleinopathy shows extensive pathologies and progressive loss of cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Aldrin-Kirk, Patrick; Davidsson, Marcus; Holmqvist, Staffan; Li, Jia-Yi; Björklund, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB) are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable to

  7. Rule-Based Design of Plant Expression Vectors Using GenoCAD.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Plant synthetic biology requires software tools to assist on the design of complex multi-genic expression plasmids. Here a vector design strategy to express genes in plants is formalized and implemented as a grammar in GenoCAD, a Computer-Aided Design software for synthetic biology. It includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories and a set of rules describing how to assemble these parts into large constructs. Rules developed here are organized and divided into three main subsections according to the aim of the final construct: protein localization studies, promoter analysis and protein-protein interaction experiments. The GenoCAD plant grammar guides the user through the design while allowing users to customize vectors according to their needs. Therefore the plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD will help plant biologists take advantage of methods from synthetic biology to design expression vectors supporting their research projects.

  8. Construction of baculovirus expression vector of miRNAs and its expression in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Zou, Quan; Shen, Xing Jia; Yu, Xue Li; Wang, Zhan Bin; Cheng, Xiang Chao

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-protein coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by binding to target transcripts for cleavage or translational repression. The miR-9a is very conservative in animals from flies to humans. Studies indicated that miR-9a is involved in the regulation of neurogenesis in animals. In our study, the baculovirus expression system was used to transcribe a recombinant vector containing miR-9a for further analysis the function ofmiR-9a. The sequence ofpre-miR-9a from silkworm DNA was first cloned into the donor pFastBac. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as reporter gene. The recombinant donor plasmid pFastBac-miR-9a was transformed into E.coli DH10Bac/AcNPV forming Bacmid-9a which was transfected into insect cells with cational lipofectin. The transcription of mature miR-9a was detected by Real-time PCR. The results show the recombinant Bacmid-9a was successfully constructed and effectively transcribed miR-9a in infected Sf21 insect cells.

  9. Development of a domain-specific genetic language to design Chlamydomonas reinhardtii expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mandy L; Okumoto, Sakiko; Adam, Laura; Peccoud, Jean

    2014-01-15

    Expression vectors used in different biotechnology applications are designed with domain-specific rules. For instance, promoters, origins of replication or homologous recombination sites are host-specific. Similarly, chromosomal integration or viral delivery of an expression cassette imposes specific structural constraints. As de novo gene synthesis and synthetic biology methods permeate many biotechnology specialties, the design of application-specific expression vectors becomes the new norm. In this context, it is desirable to formalize vector design strategies applicable in different domains. Using the design of constructs to express genes in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an example, we show that a vector design strategy can be formalized as a domain-specific language. We have developed a graphical editor of context-free grammars usable by biologists without prior exposure to language theory. This environment makes it possible for biologists to iteratively improve their design strategies throughout the course of a project. It is also possible to ensure that vectors designed with early iterations of the language are consistent with the latest iteration of the language. The context-free grammar editor is part of the GenoCAD application. A public instance of GenoCAD is available at http://www.genocad.org. GenoCAD source code is available from SourceForge and licensed under the Apache v2.0 open source license.

  10. Reporter gene expression in fish following cutaneous infection with pantropic retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Paul, T A; Burns, J C; Shike, H; Getchell, R; Bowser, P R; Whitlock, K E; Casey, J W

    2001-06-01

    A central issue in gene delivery systems is choosing promoters that will direct defined and sustainable levels of gene expression. Pantropic retroviral vectors provide a means to insert genes into either somatic or germline cells. In this study, we focused on somatic cell infection by evaluating the activity of 3 promoters inserted by vectors into fish cell lines and fish skin using pantropic retroviruses. In bluegill and zebrafish cell lines, the highest levels of luciferase expression were observed from the 5' murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat of the retroviral vector. The Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and cytomegalovirus early promoter, as internal promoters, generated lower levels of luciferase. Luciferase reporter vectors infected zebrafish skin, as measured by the presence of viral DNA, and expressed luciferase. We infected developing walleye dermal sarcomas with retroviral vectors to provide an environment with enhanced cell proliferation, a condition necessary for integration of the provirus into the host genome. We demonstrated a 4-fold to 7-fold increase in luciferase gene expression in tumor tissue over infections in normal walleye skin.

  11. Optimized Lentiviral Vector Design Improves Titer and Transgene Expression of Vectors Containing the Chicken β-Globin Locus HS4 Insulator Element

    PubMed Central

    Hanawa, Hideki; Yamamoto, Motoko; Zhao, Huifen; Shimada, Takashi; Persons, Derek A

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell gene therapy using retroviral vectors has achieved success in clinical trials. However, safety issues regarding vector insertional mutagenesis have emerged. In two different trials, vector insertion resulted in the transcriptional activation of proto-oncogenes. One strategy for potentially diminishing vector insertional mutagenesis is through the use of self-inactivating lentiviral vectors containing the 1.2-kb insulator element derived from the chicken β-globin locus. However, use of this element can dramatically decrease both vector titer and transgene expression, thereby compromising its practical use. Here, we studied lentiviral vectors containing either the full-length 1.2-kb insulator or the smaller 0.25-kb core element in both orientations in the partially deleted long-terminal repeat. We show that use of the 0.25-kb core insulator rescued vector titer by alleviating a postentry block to reverse transcription associated with the 1.2-kb element. In addition, in an orientation-dependent manner, the 0.25-kb core element significantly increased transgene expression from an internal promoter due to improved transcriptional termination. This element also demonstrated barrier activity, reducing variability of expression due to position effects. As it is known that the 0.25-kb core insulator has enhancer-blocking activity, this particular insulated lentiviral vector design may be useful for clinical application. PMID:19223867

  12. Intracellular localization of adeno-associated viral proteins expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí E; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    Production of vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAVv) in insect cells represents a feasible option for large-scale applications. However, transducing particles yields obtained in this system are low compared with total capsid yields, suggesting the presence of genome encapsidation bottlenecks. Three components are required for AAVv production: viral capsid proteins (VP), the recombinant AAV genome, and Rep proteins for AAV genome replication and encapsidation. Little is known about the interaction between the three components in insect cells, which have intracellular conditions different to those in mammalian cells. In this work, the localization of AAV proteins in insect cells was assessed for the first time with the purpose of finding potential limiting factors. Unassembled VP were located either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Their transport into the nucleus was dependent on protein concentration. Empty capsids were located in defined subnuclear compartments. Rep proteins expressed individually were efficiently translocated into the nucleus. Their intranuclear distribution was not uniform and differed from VP distribution. While Rep52 distribution and expression levels were not affected by AAV genomes or VP, Rep78 distribution and stability changed during coexpression. Expression of all AAV components modified capsid intranuclear distribution, and assembled VP were found in vesicles located in the nuclear periphery. Such vesicles were related to baculovirus infection, highlighting its role in AAVv production in insect cells. The results obtained in this work suggest that the intracellular distribution of AAV proteins allows their interaction and does not limit vector production in insect cells. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  13. Myocardial gene delivery using molecular cardiac surgery with recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, JD; Thesier, DM; Swain, JBD; Katz, MG; Tomasulo, C; Henderson, A; Wang, L; Yarnall, C; Fargnoli, A; Sumaroka, M; Isidro, A; Petrov, M; Holt, D; Nolen-Walston, R; Koch, WJ; Stedman, HH; Rabinowitz, J; Bridges, CR

    2013-01-01

    We use a novel technique that allows for closed recirculation of vector genomes in the cardiac circulation using cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to here as molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD). We demonstrate that this platform technology is highly efficient in isolating the heart from the systemic circulation in vivo. Using MCARD, we compare the relative efficacy of single-stranded (ss) adeno-associated virus (AAV)6, ssAAV9 and self-complimentary (sc)AAV6-encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by the constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter to transduce the ovine myocardium in situ. MCARD allows for the unprecedented delivery of up to 48 green fluorescent protein genome copies per cell globally in the sheep left ventricular (LV) myocardium. We demonstrate that scAAV6-mediated MCARD delivery results in global, cardiac-specific LV gene expression in the ovine heart and provides for considerably more robust and cardiac-specific gene delivery than other available delivery techniques such as intramuscular injection or intracoronary injection; thus, representing a potential, clinically translatable platform for heart failure gene therapy. PMID:21228882

  14. Using rabies virus vaccine strain SRV9 as viral vector to express exogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Li, Ling; Qi, Yinglin; Liang, Meng; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Tu, Changchun; Jin, Ningyi; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-04-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) can cause a fatal neurological disease in human and animals, and vaccines were generally applied for the immunoprophylaxis of rabies. Here, a recombinant viral vector carrying the exogenous gene expression component between phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) genes of RABV was constructed based on the vaccine strain SRV9 used in China. To develop a reverse genetic system, the full-length cDNA plasmids of SRV9 were constructed using the eukaryotic expression vector pCI or pcDNA3.1(+). However, recovery efficiency based on the pcDNA3.1 vector was significantly higher than that of the pCI vector. The exogenous gene expression component PE-PS-BsiWI-PmeI or PS-BsiWI-PmeI-PE was introduced in different locations between the P and M genes of SRV9. When the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was used as a reporter gene, both locations could rescue recombinant RABV (rRABV) expressing eGFP with high efficiency. Characterization of rRABV expressing eGFP in vitro revealed that its growth was similar to that of the parental virus. Animal experiments showed that rRABV expressing eGFP could replicate and express eGFP in the brains of suckling mice. Furthermore, rRABV of SRV9 was nonpathogenic for 3-week-old mice and could be cleared from the central nervous system at 5 days post-inoculation. Our results showed that the recombinant SRV9 virus could be used as a useful viral vector for exogenous gene expression.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Therapy Vector Evolution via Multispecies Interbreeding and Retargeting of Adeno-Associated Viruses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Dirk; Lee, Joyce S.; Wang, Lora; Desai, Tushar; Akache, Bassel; Storm, Theresa A.; Kay, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes differ broadly in transduction efficacies and tissue tropisms and thus hold enormous potential as vectors for human gene therapy. In reality, however, their use in patients is restricted by prevalent anti-AAV immunity or by their inadequate performance in specific targets, exemplified by the AAV type 2 (AAV-2) prototype in the liver. Here, we attempted to merge desirable qualities of multiple natural AAV isolates by an adapted DNA family shuffling technology to create a complex library of hybrid capsids from eight different wild-type viruses. Selection on primary or transformed human hepatocytes yielded pools of hybrids from five of the starting serotypes: 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9. More stringent selection with pooled human antisera (intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG]) then led to the selection of a single type 2/type 8/type 9 chimera, AAV-DJ, distinguished from its closest natural relative (AAV-2) by 60 capsid amino acids. Recombinant AAV-DJ vectors outperformed eight standard AAV serotypes in culture and greatly surpassed AAV-2 in livers of naïve and IVIG-immunized mice. A heparin binding domain in AAV-DJ was found to limit biodistribution to the liver (and a few other tissues) and to affect vector dose response and antibody neutralization. Moreover, we report the first successful in vivo biopanning of AAV capsids by using a new AAV-DJ-derived viral peptide display library. Two peptides enriched after serial passaging in mouse lungs mediated the retargeting of AAV-DJ vectors to distinct alveolar cells. Our study validates DNA family shuffling and viral peptide display as two powerful and compatible approaches to the molecular evolution of novel AAV vectors for human gene therapy applications. PMID:18400866

  16. Improved methods of AAV-mediated gene targeting for human cell lines using ribosome-skipping 2A peptide

    PubMed Central

    Karnan, Sivasundaram; Ota, Akinobu; Konishi, Yuko; Wahiduzzaman, Md; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based targeting vector has been one of the tools commonly used for genome modification in human cell lines. It allows for relatively efficient gene targeting associated with 1–4-log higher ratios of homologous-to-random integration of targeting vectors (H/R ratios) than plasmid-based targeting vectors, without actively introducing DNA double-strand breaks. In this study, we sought to improve the efficiency of AAV-mediated gene targeting by introducing a 2A-based promoter-trap system into targeting constructs. We generated three distinct AAV-based targeting vectors carrying 2A for promoter trapping, each targeting a GFP-based reporter module incorporated into the genome, PIGA exon 6 or PIGA intron 5. The absolute gene targeting efficiencies and H/R ratios attained using these vectors were assessed in multiple human cell lines and compared with those attained using targeting vectors carrying internal ribosome entry site (IRES) for promoter trapping. We found that the use of 2A for promoter trapping increased absolute gene targeting efficiencies by 3.4–28-fold and H/R ratios by 2–5-fold compared to values obtained with IRES. In CRISPR-Cas9-assisted gene targeting using plasmid-based targeting vectors, the use of 2A did not enhance the H/R ratios but did upregulate the absolute gene targeting efficiencies compared to the use of IRES. PMID:26657635

  17. Improved Production Efficiency of Virus-Like Particles by the Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Juan; Nuñez, Maria del Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Diego; Dudognon, Benoit; Guijarro, Eva; Escribano, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have proven effective in humans and animals. In this regard, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the technologies of choice to generate such highly immunogenic vaccines. The extended use of these vaccines for human and animal populations is constrained because of high production costs, therefore a significant improvement in productivity is crucial to ensure their commercial viability. Here we describe the use of the previously described baculovirus expression cassette, called TB, to model the production of two VLP-forming vaccine antigens in insect cells. Capsid proteins from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap) and from the calicivirus that causes rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHDV VP60) were expressed in insect cells using baculoviruses genetically engineered with the TB expression cassette. Productivity was compared to that obtained using standard counterpart vectors expressing the same proteins under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Our results demonstrate that the use of the TB expression cassette increased the production yields of these vaccine antigens by around 300% with respect to the standard vectors. The recombinant proteins produced by TB-modified vectors were fully functional, forming VLPs identical in size and shape to those generated by the standard baculoviruses, as determined by electron microscopy analysis. The use of the TB expression cassette implies a simple modification of the baculovirus vectors that significantly improves the cost efficiency of VLP-based vaccine production, thereby facilitating the commercial viability and broad application of these vaccines for human and animal health. PMID:26458221

  18. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  19. Vector design for liver specific expression of multiple interfering RNAs that target hepatitis B virus transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lindsey L.; Esser, Jonathan M.; Pachuk, Catherine J.; Steel, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a process that can target intracellular RNAs for degradation in a highly sequence specific manner, making it a powerful tool that is being pursued in both research and therapeutic applications. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious public health problem in need of better treatment options, and aspects of its life cycle make it an excellent target for RNAi-based therapeutics. We have designed a vector that expresses interfering RNAs that target HBV transcripts, including both viral RNA replicative intermediates and mRNAs encoding viral proteins. Our vector design incorporates many features of endogenous microRNA (miRNA) gene organization that are proving useful for the development of reagents for RNAi. In particular, our vector contains an RNA pol II driven gene cassette that leads to tissue specific expression and efficient processing of multiple interfering RNAs from a single transcript, without the co-expression of any protein product. This vector shows potent silencing of HBV targets in cell culture models of HBV infection. The vector design will be applicable to silencing of additional cellular or disease-related genes. PMID:18499277

  20. Rescue of bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality in a mouse model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I by AAV9-mediated gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, Giulia; Zentilin, Lorena; Baj, Gabriele; Giraudi, Pablo; Bellarosa, Cristina; Giacca, Mauro; Tiribelli, Claudio; Muro, Andrés F.

    2012-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar type I (CNI) syndrome is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) deficiency. The disease is lethal due to bilirubin-induced neurological damage unless phototherapy is applied from birth. However, treatment becomes less effective during growth, and liver transplantation is required. To investigate the pathophysiology of the disease and therapeutic approaches in mice, we generated a mouse model by introducing a premature stop codon in the UGT1a1 gene, which results in an inactive enzyme. Homozygous mutant mice developed severe jaundice soon after birth and died within 11 d, showing significant cerebellar alterations. To rescue neonatal lethality, newborns were injected with a single dose of adeno-associated viral vector 9 (AAV9) expressing the human UGT1A1. Gene therapy treatment completely rescued all AAV-treated mutant mice, accompanied by lower plasma bilirubin levels and normal brain histology and motor coordination. Our mouse model of CNI reproduces genetic and phenotypic features of the human disease. We have shown, for the first time, the full recovery of the lethal effects of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We believe that, besides gene-addition-based therapies, our mice could represent a very useful model to develop and test novel technologies based on gene correction by homologous recombination.—Bortolussi, G., Zentilin, L., Baj, G., Giraudi, P., Bellarosa, C., Giacca, M., Tiribelli, C., Muro, A. F. Rescue of bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality in a mouse model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I by AAV9-mediated gene transfer. PMID:22094718

  1. Development of an Expression Vector to Overexpress or Downregulate Genes in Curvularia protuberata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengke; Cleckler, Blake; Morsy, Mustafa

    2018-05-05

    Curvularia protuberata , an endophytic fungus in the Ascomycota, provides plants with thermotolerance only when it carries a mycovirus known as Curvularia thermotolerance virus (CThTV), and forms a three-way symbiotic relationship among these organisms. Under heat stress, several genes are expressed differently between virus-free C. protuberata (VF) and C. protuberata carrying CThTV (AN). We developed an expression vector, pM2Z-fun, carrying a zeocin resistance gene driven by the ToxA promoter, to study gene functions in C. protuberata to better understand this three-way symbiosis. Using this new 3.7-kb vector, five genes that are differentially expressed in C. protuberata —including genes involved in the trehalose, melanin, and catalase biosynthesis pathways—were successfully overexpressed or downregulated in VF or AN C. protuberata strains, respectively. The VF overexpression lines showed higher metabolite and enzyme activity than in the control VF strain. Furthermore, downregulation of expression of the same genes in the AN strain resulted in lower metabolite and enzyme activity than in the control AN strain. The newly generated expression vector, pM2Z-fun, has been successfully used to express target genes in C. protuberata and will be useful in further functional expression studies in other Ascomycota fungi.

  2. Targeted systemic gene therapy and molecular imaging of cancer contribution of the vascular-targeted AAVP vector.

    PubMed

    Hajitou, Amin

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy and molecular-genetic imaging have faced a major problem: the lack of an efficient systemic gene delivery vector. Unquestionably, eukaryotic viruses have been the vectors of choice for gene delivery to mammalian cells; however, they have had limited success in systemic gene therapy. This is mainly due to undesired uptake by the liver and reticuloendothelial system, broad tropism for mammalian cells causing toxicity, and their immunogenicity. On the other hand, prokaryotic viruses such as bacteriophage (phage) have no tropism for mammalian cells, but can be engineered to deliver genes to these cells. However, phage-based vectors have inherently been considered poor vectors for mammalian cells. We have reported a new generation of vascular-targeted systemic hybrid prokaryotic-eukaryotic vectors as chimeras between an adeno-associated virus (AAV) and targeted bacteriophage (termed AAV/phage; AAVP). In this hybrid vector, the targeted bacteriophage serves as a shuttle to deliver the AAV transgene cassette inserted in an intergenomic region of the phage DNA genome. As a proof of concept, we assessed the in vivo efficacy of vector in animal models of cancer by displaying on the phage capsid the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD-4C) ligand that binds to alphav integrin receptors specifically expressed on the angiogenic blood vessels of tumors. The ligand-directed vector was able to specifically deliver imaging and therapeutic transgenes to tumors in mice, rats, and dogs while sparing the normal organs. This chapter reviews some gene transfer strategies and the potential of the vascular-targeted AAVP vector for enhancing the effectiveness of existing systemic gene delivery and genetic-imaging technologies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an adenoviral vector with robust expression driven by p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Biotechnology Program, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo; Millennium Institute-Gene Therapy Network, Ministry of Science and Technology

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a new adenoviral vector where transgene expression is driven by p53. We first developed a synthetic promoter, referred to as PGTx{beta}, containing a p53-responsive element, a minimal promoter and the first intron of the rabbit {beta}-globin gene. Initial assays using plasmid-based vectors indicated that expression was tightly controlled by p53 and was 5-fold stronger than the constitutive CMV immediate early promoter/enhancer. The adenoviral vector, AdPG, was also shown to offer p53-responsive expression in prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP (wt p53), DU-145 (temperature sensitive mutant of p53) and PC3 (p53-null, but engineered to express temperature-sensitive p53 mutants). AdPG servedmore » as a sensor of p53 activity in LNCaP cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents. Since p53 can be induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, this new vector could be further developed for use in combination with conventional therapies to bring about cooperation between the genetic and pharmacologic treatment modalities.« less

  4. The Neurotropic Properties of AAV-PHP.B Are Limited to C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Hordeaux, Juliette; Wang, Qiang; Katz, Nathan; Buza, Elizabeth L; Bell, Peter; Wilson, James M

    2018-03-07

    Improved delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the CNS will greatly enhance their clinical utility. Selection of AAV9 variants in a mouse model led to the isolation of a capsid called PHP.B, which resulted in remarkable transduction of the CNS following intravenous infusion. However, we now show here that this enhanced CNS tropism is restricted to the model in which it was selected, i.e., a Cre transgenic mouse in a C57BL/6J background, and was not found in nonhuman primates or the other commonly used mouse strain BALB/cJ. We also report the potential for serious acute toxicity in NHP after systemic administration of high dose of AAV. Copyright © 2018 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A versatile expression vector for the growth and amplification of unmodified phage display polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Winton, Alexander J; Baptiste, Janae L; Allen, Mark A

    2018-09-01

    Proteins and polypeptides represent nature's most complex and versatile polymer. They provide complicated shapes, diverse chemical functionalities, and tightly regulated and controlled sizes. Several disease states are related to the misfolding or overproduction of polypeptides and yet polypeptides are present in several therapeutic molecules. In addition to biological roles; short chain polypeptides have been shown to interact with and drive the bio-inspired synthesis or modification of inorganic materials. This paper outlines the development of a versatile cloning vector which allows for the expression of a short polypeptide by controlling the incorporation of a desired DNA coding insert. As a demonstration of the efficacy of the expression system, a solid binding polypeptide identified from M13 phage display was expressed and purified. The solid binding polypeptide was expressed as a soluble 6xHis-SUMO tagged construct. Expression was performed in E. coli using auto-induction followed by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and ULP1 protease cleavage. Methodology demonstrates the production of greater than 8 mg of purified polypeptide per liter of E. coli culture. Isotopic labeling of the peptide is also demonstrated. The versatility of the designed cloning vector, use of the 6xHis-SUMO solubility partner, bacterial expression in auto-inducing media and the purification methodology make this expressionun vector a readily scalable and user-friendly system for the creation of desired peptide domains. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Drop-out phagemid vector for switching from phage displayed affinity reagents to expression formats.

    PubMed

    Pershad, Kritika; Sullivan, Mark A; Kay, Brian K

    2011-05-15

    Affinity reagents that are generated by phage display are typically subcloned into an expression vector for further biochemical characterization. This insert transfer process is time consuming and laborious especially if many inserts are to be subcloned. To simplify the transfer process, we have constructed a "drop-out" phagemid vector that can be rapidly converted to an expression vector by a simple restriction enzyme digestion with MfeI (to "drop-out" the gene III coding sequence), which generates alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusions of the affinity reagents on religation. Subsequently, restriction digestion with AscI drops out the AP coding region and religation generates affinity reagents with a C-terminal six-histidine tag. To validate the usefulness of this vector, four different human single chain Fragments of variable regions (scFv) were tested, three of which show specific binding to three zebrafish (Danio rerio) proteins, namely suppression of tumorigenicity 13, recoverin, and Ppib and the fourth binds to human Lactoferrin protein. For each of the constructs tested, the gene III and AP drop-out efficiency was between 90% and 100%. This vector is especially useful in speeding up the downstream screening of affinity reagents and bypassing the time-consuming subcloning experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial Expression Recognition using Multiclass Ensemble Least-Square Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawi, Armin; Sya'Rani Machrizzandi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Facial expression is one of behavior characteristics of human-being. The use of biometrics technology system with facial expression characteristics makes it possible to recognize a person’s mood or emotion. The basic components of facial expression analysis system are face detection, face image extraction, facial classification and facial expressions recognition. This paper uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm to extract facial features with expression parameters, i.e., happy, sad, neutral, angry, fear, and disgusted. Then Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (MELS-SVM) is used for the classification process of facial expression. The result of MELS-SVM model obtained from our 185 different expression images of 10 persons showed high accuracy level of 99.998% using RBF kernel.

  8. Development of a GFP expression vector for Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Han, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyue; Gu, Qinsheng; Li, Honglian; Chen, Linlin; Sun, Bingjian; Shi, Yan

    2018-05-24

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV), a bipartite crinivirus, causes chlorotic leaf spots and yellowing symptoms on cucurbit leaves. We previously developed an infectious clone of CCYV. Limited work has been conducted on the construction of a crinivirus green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression vector to date. We constructed a CCYV GFP expression vector using the "add a gene" strategy based on CCYV RNA2 cDNA constrcut. Three resultant clones, pCCYVGFP SGC , pCCYVGFP CGC , and pCCYVGFP CGS, were constructed with different promoters used to initiate GFP and CP expression. At 25 dpi GFP fluorescence was detectable not only in leaf veins but also in the surrounding cells. pCCYVGFP CGC -infected cucumber leaves exhibited cell spread at 25 dpi, whereas pCCYVGFP SGC and pCCYVGFP CGS were mainly found in single cells. Further observation of pCCYVGFP CGC GFP expression at 30 dpi, 40 dpi, and 50 dpi showed phloem-limited localization in the systemic leaves. We developed of a CCYV GFP expression vector that will be useful for further study of CCYV movement in cucurbits.

  9. Design of retrovirus vectors for transfer and expression of the human. beta. -globin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.D.; Bender, M.A.; Harris, E.A.S.

    1988-11-01

    Regulated expression of the human ..beta..-globin gene has been demonstrated in cultured murine erythroleukemia cells and in mice after retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. However, the low titer of recombinant viruses described to date results in relatively inefficient gene transfer, which limits their usefulness for animal studies and for potential gene therapy in humans for diseases involving defective ..beta..-globin genes. The authors found regions that interfered with virus production within intron 2 of the ..beta..-globin gene and on both sides of the gene. The flanking regions could be removed, but intron 2 was required for ..beta..-globin expression. Inclusion of ..beta..-globin introns necessitatesmore » an antisense orientation of the gene within the retrovirus vector. However, they found no effect of the antisense ..beta..-globin transcription on virus production. A region downstream of the ..beta..-globin gene that stimulates expression of the gene in transgenic mice was included in the viruses without detrimental effects on virus titer. Virus titers of over 10/sup 6/ CFU/ml were obtained with the final vector design, which retained the ability to direct regulated expression of human ..beta..-globin in murine erythroleukemia cells. The vector also allowed transfer and expression of the human ..beta..-globin gene in hematopoietic cells (CFU-S cells) in mice.« less

  10. AAV5-Factor VIII Gene Transfer in Severe Hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Savita; Walsh, Liron; Lester, Will; Perry, David; Madan, Bella; Laffan, Michael; Yu, Hua; Vettermann, Christian; Pierce, Glenn F; Wong, Wing Y; Pasi, K John

    2017-12-28

    Patients with hemophilia A rely on exogenous factor VIII to prevent bleeding in joints, soft tissue, and the central nervous system. Although successful gene transfer has been reported in patients with hemophilia B, the large size of the factor VIII coding region has precluded improved outcomes with gene therapy in patients with hemophilia A. We infused a single intravenous dose of a codon-optimized adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector encoding a B-domain-deleted human factor VIII (AAV5-hFVIII-SQ) in nine men with severe hemophilia A. Participants were enrolled sequentially into one of three dose cohorts (low dose [one participant], intermediate dose [one participant], and high dose [seven participants]) and were followed through 52 weeks. Factor VIII activity levels remained at 3 IU or less per deciliter in the recipients of the low or intermediate dose. In the high-dose cohort, the factor VIII activity level was more than 5 IU per deciliter between weeks 2 and 9 after gene transfer in all seven participants, and the level in six participants increased to a normal value (>50 IU per deciliter) that was maintained at 1 year after receipt of the dose. In the high-dose cohort, the median annualized bleeding rate among participants who had previously received prophylactic therapy decreased from 16 events before the study to 1 event after gene transfer, and factor VIII use for participant-reported bleeding ceased in all the participants in this cohort by week 22. The primary adverse event was an elevation in the serum alanine aminotransferase level to 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range or less. Progression of preexisting chronic arthropathy in one participant was the only serious adverse event. No neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII were detected. The infusion of AAV5-hFVIII-SQ was associated with the sustained normalization of factor VIII activity level over a period of 1 year in six of seven participants who received a high dose, with

  11. [Construction of a plant effective expression vector containing the gene of hepatitis B virus surface antigen].

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing-Ying; Jin, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Mei

    2006-11-01

    To construct a plant effective expression vector driven by a fruit specific promoter for the expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), to further improve the expression of exogenous gene in plant, and to prepare for the development of an effective anti-hepatitis vaccine. Tomato fruit-specific promoters' gene 2A12 and E8 were respectively introduced to pBPFOmega7 to form pB2A12 and pBE8. The DNA fragment containing HBsAg-s gene from plasmid YEP-HBs was inserted respectively into pB2A12 and pBE8 to form pB2A12-HBs and pBE8-HBs. The fragment containing "p35S+2A12+Omega+HBsAg-s+Tnos" of the pB2A12-HBs was sub-cloned into plasmid pCAMBIA1301 to yield the reconstructed plant binary expression plasmid pCAM2A12-HBs, and the fragment containing "p35S+E8+Omega+HBsAg-s+Tnos" of the pBE8-HBs was sub-cloned into plasmid pCAMBIA1301 to yield the plasmid pCAME8-HBs. The inserted gene HBsAg and fruit-specific promoters in the reconstructed plant binary expression vectors were confirmed by sequencing. Then, pCAM2A12-HBs and pCAME8-HBs were directly introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Digestion with restriction enzymes proved that all recombinant vectors had the inserts with expected length of the target fragments, and the sequencing results were confirmed correct. In this study, plant expression vector containing HBsAg gene driven by fruit specific promoter and CaMV35s promoter was successfully constructed.

  12. AAV-mediated delivery of the transcription factor XBP1s into the striatum reduces mutant Huntingtin aggregation in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zuleta, Amparo; Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago; Vidal, Rene L.

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contribution of ER stress to HD has not been directly addressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of XBP1s using AAVs decreases Huntingtin aggregation in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a new in vivo model of HD based on the expression of a large fragment of mHtt-RFP. -- Abstract: Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by mutations that expand a polyglutamine region in the amino-terminal domain of Huntingtin (Htt), leading to the accumulation of intracellular inclusions and progressive neurodegeneration. Recent reports indicate the engagement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in human HD post mortem samples and animal models of the disease. Adaptationmore » to ER stress is mediated by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an integrated signal transduction pathway that attenuates protein folding stress by controlling the expression of distinct transcription factors including X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Here we targeted the expression of XBP1 on a novel viral-based model of HD. We delivered an active form of XBP1 locally into the striatum of adult mice using adeno-associated vectors (AAVs) and co-expressed this factor with a large fragment of mutant Htt as a fusion protein with RFP (Htt588{sup Q95}-mRFP) to directly visualize the accumulation of Htt inclusions in the brain. Using this approach, we observed a significant reduction in the accumulation of Htt588{sup Q95}-mRFP intracellular inclusion when XBP1 was co-expressed in the striatum. These results contrast with recent findings indicating a protective effect of XBP1 deficiency in neurodegeneration using knockout mice, and suggest a potential use of gene therapy strategies to manipulate the UPR in the context of HD.« less

  13. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Serotype DJ-Mediated Overexpression of N171-82Q-Mutant Huntingtin in the Striatum of Juvenile Mice Is a New Model for Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Minhee; Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. HD is caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) gene in various areas of the brain including striatum. There are few suitable animal models to study the pathogenesis of HD and validate therapeutic strategies. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors successfully transfer foreign genes to the brain of adult mammalians. In this article, we report a novel mouse model of HD generated by bilateral intrastriatal injection of AAV vector serotype DJ (AAV-DJ) containing N171-82Q mutant HTT (82Q) and N171-18Q wild type HTT (18Q; sham). The AAV-DJ-82Q model displayed motor dysfunctions in pole and rotarod tests beginning 4 weeks after viral infection in juvenile mice (8 weeks after birth). They showed behaviors reflecting neurodegeneration. They also showed increased apoptosis, robust glial activation and upregulated representative inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6), mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and signaling pathways (nuclear factor kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)) in the striatum at 10 weeks after viral infection (14 weeks after birth) via successful transfection of mutant HTT into neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the striatum. However, little evidence of any of these events was found in mice infected with the AAV-DJ-18Q expressing construct. Intrastriatal injection of AAV-DJ-82Q might be useful as a novel in vivo model to investigate the biology of truncated N-terminal fragment (N171) in the striatum and to explore the efficacy of therapeutic strategies for HD. PMID:29946240

  14. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Serotype DJ-Mediated Overexpression of N171-82Q-Mutant Huntingtin in the Striatum of Juvenile Mice Is a New Model for Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Minhee; Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. HD is caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin ( HTT ) gene in various areas of the brain including striatum. There are few suitable animal models to study the pathogenesis of HD and validate therapeutic strategies. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors successfully transfer foreign genes to the brain of adult mammalians. In this article, we report a novel mouse model of HD generated by bilateral intrastriatal injection of AAV vector serotype DJ (AAV-DJ) containing N171-82Q mutant HTT (82Q) and N171-18Q wild type HTT (18Q; sham). The AAV-DJ-82Q model displayed motor dysfunctions in pole and rotarod tests beginning 4 weeks after viral infection in juvenile mice (8 weeks after birth). They showed behaviors reflecting neurodegeneration. They also showed increased apoptosis, robust glial activation and upregulated representative inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6), mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and signaling pathways (nuclear factor kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)) in the striatum at 10 weeks after viral infection (14 weeks after birth) via successful transfection of mutant HTT into neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the striatum. However, little evidence of any of these events was found in mice infected with the AAV-DJ-18Q expressing construct. Intrastriatal injection of AAV-DJ-82Q might be useful as a novel in vivo model to investigate the biology of truncated N-terminal fragment (N171) in the striatum and to explore the efficacy of therapeutic strategies for HD.

  15. Advanced Design of Dumbbell-shaped Genetic Minimal Vectors Improves Non-coding and Coding RNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoou; Yu, Han; Teo, Cui Rong; Tan, Genim Siu Xian; Goh, Sok Chin; Patel, Parasvi; Chua, Yiqiang Kevin; Hameed, Nasirah Banu Sahul; Bertoletti, Antonio; Patzel, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors lacking nontherapeutic genes and bacterial sequences are considered a stable, safe alternative to viral, nonviral, and naked plasmid-based gene-transfer systems. We investigated novel molecular features of dumbbell vectors aiming to reduce vector size and to improve the expression of noncoding or coding RNA. We minimized small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) expressing dumbbell vectors in size down to 130 bp generating the smallest genetic expression vectors reported. This was achieved by using a minimal H1 promoter with integrated transcriptional terminator transcribing the RNA hairpin structure around the dumbbell loop. Such vectors were generated with high conversion yields using a novel protocol. Minimized shRNA-expressing dumbbells showed accelerated kinetics of delivery and transcription leading to enhanced gene silencing in human tissue culture cells. In primary human T cells, minimized miRNA-expressing dumbbells revealed higher stability and triggered stronger target gene suppression as compared with plasmids and miRNA mimics. Dumbbell-driven gene expression was enhanced up to 56- or 160-fold by implementation of an intron and the SV40 enhancer compared with control dumbbells or plasmids. Advanced dumbbell vectors may represent one option to close the gap between durable expression that is achievable with integrating viral vectors and short-term effects triggered by naked RNA.

  16. Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection II: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with heme oxygenase-1 limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Wu, Wen-Jian; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N; Bolli, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts potent cytoprotective effects in response to stress. Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with HO-1 protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury for up to 8 weeks after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of HO-1 gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the HO-1 gene (rAAV/HO-1) that enables long-lasting transgene expression. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ (LacZ group) or rAAV/HO-1 (HO-1 group); 1 year later, they were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). Cardiac HO-1 gene expression was confirmed at 1 month and 1 year after gene transfer by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. In the HO-1 group, infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after gene transfer (11.2 ± 2.1%, n = 12, vs. 44.7 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effects of HO-1 gene therapy at 1 year were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic PC (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (15.0 ± 1.7%, n = 10). There were no appreciable changes in LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction, or LV end-diastolic or end-systolic diameter at 1 year after HO-1 gene transfer as compared to the age-matched controls or with the LacZ group. Histology showed no inflammation in the myocardium 1 year after rAAV/HO-1-mediated gene transfer. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that rAAV-mediated HO-1 gene transfer confers long-term (1 year), possibly permanent, cardioprotection without adverse functional consequences, providing proof of principle for the concept of achieving prophylactic cardioprotection (i.e., "immunization against infarction").

  17. Correction of mutant Fanconi anemia gene by homologous recombination in human hematopoietic cells using adeno-associated virus vector.

    PubMed

    Paiboonsukwong, Kittiphong; Ohbayashi, Fumi; Shiiba, Haruka; Aizawa, Emi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2009-11-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been shown to correct a variety of mutations in human cells by homologous recombination (HR) at high rates, which can overcome insertional mutagenesis and transgene silencing, two of the major hurdles in conventional gene addition therapy of inherited diseases. We examined an ability of AAV vectors to repair a mutation in human hematopoietic cells by HR. We infected a human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (BCL) derived from a normal subject with an AAV, which disrupts the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase1 (HPRT1) locus, to measure the frequency of AAV-mediated HR in BCL cells. We subsequently constructed an AAV vector encoding the normal sequences from the Fanconi anemia group A (FANCA) locus to correct a mutation in the gene in BCL derived from a FANCA patient. Under optimal conditions, approximately 50% of BCL cells were transduced with an AAV serotype 2 (AAV-2) vector. In FANCA BCL cells, up to 0.016% of infected cells were gene-corrected by HR. AAV-mediated restoration of normal genotypic and phenotypic characteristics in FANCA-mutant cells was confirmed at the DNA, protein and functional levels. The results obtained in the present study indicate that AAV vectors may be applicable for gene correction therapy of inherited hematopoietic disorders.

  18. Fusagene vectors: a novel strategy for the expression of multiple genes from a single cistron.

    PubMed

    Gäken, J; Jiang, J; Daniel, K; van Berkel, E; Hughes, C; Kuiper, M; Darling, D; Tavassoli, M; Galea-Lauri, J; Ford, K; Kemeny, M; Russell, S; Farzaneh, F

    2000-12-01

    Transduction of cells with multiple genes, allowing their stable and co-ordinated expression, is difficult with the available methodologies. A method has been developed for expression of multiple gene products, as fusion proteins, from a single cistron. The encoded proteins are post-synthetically cleaved and processed into each of their constituent proteins as individual, biologically active factors. Specifically, linkers encoding cleavage sites for the Golgi expressed endoprotease, furin, have been incorporated between in-frame cDNA sequences encoding different secreted or membrane bound proteins. With this strategy we have developed expression vectors encoding multiple proteins (IL-2 and B7.1, IL-4 and B7.1, IL-4 and IL-2, IL-12 p40 and p35, and IL-12 p40, p35 and IL-2 ). Transduction and analysis of over 100 individual clones, derived from murine and human tumour cell lines, demonstrate the efficient expression and biological activity of each of the encoded proteins. Fusagene vectors enable the co-ordinated expression of multiple gene products from a single, monocistronic, expression cassette.

  19. Stability of Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Transgene Expression in the Brain in the Presence of Systemic Antivector Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    ABORDO-ADESIDA, EVELYN; FOLLENZI, ANTONIA; BARCIA, CARLOS; SCIASCIA, SANDRA; CASTRO, MARIA G.; NALDINI, LUIGI; LOWENSTEIN, PEDRO R.

    2009-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are promising tools for gene therapy in the CNS. It is therefore important to characterize their interactions with the immune system in the CNS. This work characterizes transgene expression and brain inflammation in the presence or absence of immune responses generated after systemic immunization with lentiviral vectors. We characterized transduction with SIN-LV vectors in the CNS. A dose—response curve using SIN-LV-GFP demonstrated detectable transgene expression in the striatum at a dose of 102, and maximum expression at 106, transducing units of lentiviral vector, with minimal increase in inflammatory markers between the lowest and highest dose of vector injected. Our studies demonstrate that injection of a lentiviral vector into the CNS did not cause a measurable inflammatory response. Systemic immunization after CNS injection, with the lentiviral vector expressing the same transgene as a vector injected into the CNS, caused a decrease in transgene expression in the CNS, concomitantly with an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the CNS parenchyma at the injection site. However, peripheral immunization with a lentiviral vector carrying a different transgene did not diminish transgene expression, or cause CNS inflammation. Systemic immunization preceding injection of lentiviral vectors into the CNS determined that preexisting antilentiviral immunity, regardless of the transgene, did not affect transgene expression. Furthermore, we showed that the transgene, but not the virion or vector components, is responsible for providing antigenic epitopes to the activated immune system, on systemic immunization with lentivirus. Low immunogenicity and prolonged transgene expression in the presence of preexisting lentiviral immunity are encouraging data for the future use of lentiviral vectors in CNS gene therapy. In summary, the lentiviral vectors tested induced undetectable activation of innate immune responses, and stimulation of adaptive immune

  20. A simple and robust vector-based shRNA expression system used for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Li, Ying; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xiu-juan; Xie, Pei-wen; Hu, Wei; Li, Dan-dan; Wang, Sheng-qi

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has become a powerful genetic tool for conducting functional studies. Previously, vector-based shRNA-expression strategies capable of inducing RNAi in viable cells have been developed, however, these vector systems have some disadvantages, either because they were error-prone or cost prohibitive. In this report we described the development of a simple, robust shRNA expression system utilizing 1 long oligonucleotide or 2 short oligonucleotides for half the cost of conventional shRNA construction methods and with a >95% cloning success rate. The shRNA loop sequence and stem structure were also compared and carefully selected for better RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, an easier strategy was developed based on isocaudomers which permit rapid combination of the most efficient promoter-shRNA cassettes. Finally, using this method, the conservative target sites for hepatitis B virus (HBV) knockdown were systemically screened and HBV antigen expression shown to be successfully suppressed in the presence of connected multiple shRNAs both in vitro and in vivo. This novel design describes an inexpensive and effective way to clone and express single or multiple shRNAs from the same vector with the capacity for potent and effective silencing of target genes.

  1. Reprint of "versatile and stable vectors for efficient gene expression in Ralstonia eutropha H16".

    PubMed

    Gruber, Steffen; Hagen, Jeremias; Schwab, Helmut; Koefinger, Petra

    2014-12-20

    The Gram-negative β-proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 is primarily known for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production and its ability to grow chemolithoautotrophically by using CO2 and H2 as sole carbon and energy sources. The majority of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression studies conducted so far rely on a small number of suitable expression systems. Particularly the plasmid based expression systems already developed for the use in R. eutropha H16 suffer from high segregational instability and plasmid loss after a short time of fermentation. In order to develop efficient and highly stable plasmid expression vectors for the use in R. eutropha H16, a new plasmid design was created including the RP4 partitioning system, as well as various promoters and origins of replication. The application of minireplicons derived from broad-host-range plasmids RSF1010, pBBR1, RP4 and pSa for the construction of expression vectors and the use of numerous, versatile promoters extend the range of feasible expression levels considerably. In particular, the use of promoters derived from the bacteriophage T5 was described for the first time in this work, characterizing the j5 promoter as the strongest promoter yet to be applied in R. eutropha H16. Moreover, the implementation of the RP4 partition sequence in plasmid design increased plasmid stability significantly and enables fermentations with marginal plasmid loss of recombinant R. eutropha H16 for at least 96h. The utility of the new vector family in R. eutropha H16 is demonstrated by providing expression data with different model proteins and consequently further raises the value of this organism as cell factory for biotechnological applications including protein and metabolite production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Versatile and stable vectors for efficient gene expression in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Steffen; Hagen, Jeremias; Schwab, Helmut; Koefinger, Petra

    2014-09-30

    The Gram-negative β-proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 is primarily known for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production and its ability to grow chemolithoautotrophically by using CO2 and H2 as sole carbon and energy sources. The majority of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression studies conducted so far rely on a small number of suitable expression systems. Particularly the plasmid based expression systems already developed for the use in R. eutropha H16 suffer from high segregational instability and plasmid loss after a short time of fermentation. In order to develop efficient and highly stable plasmid expression vectors for the use in R. eutropha H16, a new plasmid design was created including the RP4 partitioning system, as well as various promoters and origins of replication. The application of minireplicons derived from broad-host-range plasmids RSF1010, pBBR1, RP4 and pSa for the construction of expression vectors and the use of numerous, versatile promoters extend the range of feasible expression levels considerably. In particular, the use of promoters derived from the bacteriophage T5 was described for the first time in this work, characterizing the j5 promoter as the strongest promoter yet to be applied in R. eutropha H16. Moreover, the implementation of the RP4 partition sequence in plasmid design increased plasmid stability significantly and enables fermentations with marginal plasmid loss of recombinant R. eutropha H16 for at least 96 h. The utility of the new vector family in R. eutropha H16 is demonstrated by providing expression data with different model proteins and consequently further raises the value of this organism as cell factory for biotechnological applications including protein and metabolite production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel, broad-range, CTXΦ-derived stable integrative expression vector for functional studies.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Kumari, Reena; Pant, Archana; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Saxena, Shruti; Mehta, Ojasvi; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish

    2014-12-01

    CTXΦ, a filamentous vibriophage encoding cholera toxin, uses a unique strategy for its lysogeny. The single-stranded phage genome forms intramolecular base-pairing interactions between two inversely oriented XerC and XerD binding sites (XBS) and generates a functional phage attachment site, attP(+), for integration. The attP(+) structure is recognized by the host-encoded tyrosine recombinases XerC and XerD (XerCD), which enables irreversible integration of CTXΦ into the chromosome dimer resolution site (dif) of Vibrio cholerae. The dif site and the XerCD recombinases are widely conserved in bacteria. We took advantage of these conserved attributes to develop a broad-host-range integrative expression vector that could irreversibly integrate into the host chromosome using XerCD recombinases without altering the function of any known open reading frame (ORF). In this study, we engineered two different arabinose-inducible expression vectors, pBD62 and pBD66, using XBS of CTXΦ. pBD62 replicates conditionally and integrates efficiently into the dif of the bacterial chromosome by site-specific recombination using host-encoded XerCD recombinases. The expression level of the gene of interest could be controlled through the PBAD promoter by modulating the functions of the vector-encoded transcriptional factor AraC. We validated the irreversible integration of pBD62 into a wide range of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, such as V. cholerae, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gene expression from the PBAD promoter of integrated vectors was confirmed in V. cholerae using the well-studied reporter genes mCherry, eGFP, and lacZ. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Development of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors carrying small interfering RNA (shHec1)-mediated depletion of kinetochore Hec1 protein in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Yang, L; Scudiero, D A; Miller, S A; Yu, Z-X; Stukenberg, P T; Shoemaker, R H; Kotin, R M

    2007-05-01

    Transcript depletion using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology represents a potentially valuable technique for the treatment of cancer. However, delivering therapeutic quantities of siRNA into solid tumors by chemical transfection is not feasible, whereas viral vectors efficiently transduce many human tumor cell lines. Yet producing sufficient quantities of viral vectors that elicit acute and selective cytotoxicity remains a major obstacle for preclinical and clinical trials. Using the invertebrate Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell line, we were able to produce high titer stocks of cytotoxic recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) that express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and that efficiently deplete Hec1 (highly expressed in cancer 1), or Kntc2 (kinetochore-associated protein 2), a kinetochore protein directly involved in kinetochore microtubule interactions, chromosome congression and spindle checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Hec1 protein results in persistent spindle checkpoint activation followed by cell death. Because Hec1 expression and activity are only present in mitotic cells, non-dividing cells were not affected by rAAV treatment. On the basis of the results of screening 56 human tumor cell lines with three different serotype vectors, we used a tumor xenograft model to test the effects in vivo. The effects of the shHec1 vector were evident in sectioned and stained tumors. The experiments with rAAV-shRNA vectors demonstrate the utility of producing vectors in invertebrate cells to obtain sufficient concentrations and quantities for solid tumor therapy. This addresses an important requirement for cancer gene therapy, to produce cytotoxic vectors in sufficient quantities and concentrations to enable quantitative transduction and selective killing of solid tumor cells.

  5. The use of a viral 2A sequence for the simultaneous over-expression of both the vgf gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J.P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The viral 2A sequence has become an attractive alternative to the traditional internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) for simultaneous over-expression of two genes and in combination with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) has been used to manipulate gene expression in vitro. New method To develop a rAAV construct in combination with the viral 2A sequence to allow long-term over-expression of the vgf gene and fluorescent marker gene for tracking of the transfected neurones in vivo. Results Transient transfection of the AAV plasmid containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP into SH-SY5Y cells resulted in eGFP fluorescence comparable to a commercially available reporter construct. This increase in fluorescent cells was accompanied by an increase in VGF mRNA expression. Infusion of the rAAV vector containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP resulted in eGFP fluorescence in the hypothalamus of both mice and Siberian hamsters, 32 weeks post infusion. In situ hybridisation confirmed that the location of VGF mRNA expression in the hypothalamus corresponded to the eGFP pattern of fluorescence. Comparison with old method The viral 2A sequence is much smaller than the traditional IRES and therefore allowed over-expression of the vgf gene with fluorescent tracking without compromising viral capacity. Conclusion The use of the viral 2A sequence in the AAV plasmid allowed the simultaneous expression of both genes in vitro. When used in combination with rAAV it resulted in long-term over-expression of both genes at equivalent locations in the hypothalamus of both Siberian hamsters and mice, without any adverse effects. PMID:26300182

  6. The use of a viral 2A sequence for the simultaneous over-expression of both the vgf gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2015-12-30

    The viral 2A sequence has become an attractive alternative to the traditional internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) for simultaneous over-expression of two genes and in combination with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) has been used to manipulate gene expression in vitro. To develop a rAAV construct in combination with the viral 2A sequence to allow long-term over-expression of the vgf gene and fluorescent marker gene for tracking of the transfected neurones in vivo. Transient transfection of the AAV plasmid containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP into SH-SY5Y cells resulted in eGFP fluorescence comparable to a commercially available reporter construct. This increase in fluorescent cells was accompanied by an increase in VGF mRNA expression. Infusion of the rAAV vector containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP resulted in eGFP fluorescence in the hypothalamus of both mice and Siberian hamsters, 32 weeks post infusion. In situ hybridisation confirmed that the location of VGF mRNA expression in the hypothalamus corresponded to the eGFP pattern of fluorescence. The viral 2A sequence is much smaller than the traditional IRES and therefore allowed over-expression of the vgf gene with fluorescent tracking without compromising viral capacity. The use of the viral 2A sequence in the AAV plasmid allowed the simultaneous expression of both genes in vitro. When used in combination with rAAV it resulted in long-term over-expression of both genes at equivalent locations in the hypothalamus of both Siberian hamsters and mice, without any adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies expression improvement in CHO cells by PiggyBac transposition regarding vectors ratios and design.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Samira; Davami, Fatemeh; Davoudi, Noushin; Nematpour, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maryam; Ebadat, Saeedeh; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Establishing stable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) usually pass through the random integration of vectors to the cell genome, which is sensitive to gene silencing. One approach to overcome this issue is to target a highly transcribed region in the genome. Transposons are useful devices to target active parts of genomes, and PiggyBac (PB) transposon can be considered as a good option. In the present study, three PB transposon donor vectors containing both heavy and light chains were constructed, one contained independent expression cassettes while the others utilized either an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) or 2A element to express mAb. Conventional cell pools were created by transferring donor vectors into the CHO cells, whereas transposon-based cells were generated by transfecting the cells with donor vectors with a companion of a transposase-encoding helper vector, with 1:2.5 helper/donor vectors ratio. To evaluate the influence of helper/donor vectors ratio on expression, the second transposon-based cell pools were generated with 1:5 helper/donor ratio. Expression levels in the transposon-based cells were two to five -folds more than those created by conventional method except for the IRES-mediated ones, in which the observed difference increased more than 100-fold. The results were dependent on both donor vector design and vectors ratios.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies expression improvement in CHO cells by PiggyBac transposition regarding vectors ratios and design

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Samira; Davami, Fatemeh; Davoudi, Noushin; Nematpour, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maryam; Ebadat, Saeedeh; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Barkhordari, Farzaneh

    2017-01-01

    Establishing stable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) usually pass through the random integration of vectors to the cell genome, which is sensitive to gene silencing. One approach to overcome this issue is to target a highly transcribed region in the genome. Transposons are useful devices to target active parts of genomes, and PiggyBac (PB) transposon can be considered as a good option. In the present study, three PB transposon donor vectors containing both heavy and light chains were constructed, one contained independent expression cassettes while the others utilized either an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) or 2A element to express mAb. Conventional cell pools were created by transferring donor vectors into the CHO cells, whereas transposon-based cells were generated by transfecting the cells with donor vectors with a companion of a transposase-encoding helper vector, with 1:2.5 helper/donor vectors ratio. To evaluate the influence of helper/donor vectors ratio on expression, the second transposon-based cell pools were generated with 1:5 helper/donor ratio. Expression levels in the transposon-based cells were two to five -folds more than those created by conventional method except for the IRES-mediated ones, in which the observed difference increased more than 100-fold. The results were dependent on both donor vector design and vectors ratios. PMID:28662065

  9. Virus-Based RNA Silencing Agents and Virus-Derived Expression Vectors as Gene Therapy Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Srividhya; Ahmad, Tauqeer; AbouHaidar, Mounir G; Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2017-01-01

    In consideration of recent developments in understanding the genomics and proteomics of viruses, the use of viral DNA / RNA sequences as well as their gene expression schemes, have found new in-roads towards the prognosis and therapy of diseases. Correspondingly, the sphere of the patenting scenario has expanded significantly. The current review addresses patented inventions concerning the use of virus sequences as gene silencing machineries and inventions concerning the generation and application of viral sequences as expression vectors. Furthermore, this review also discusses the employment of these patents for clinical, agricultural and biotechnological applications. Considering these objectives, the Delphion Research Intellectual Property Network database was searched using keywords such as "gene silencing", "engineered viruses" and "expression vectors" and descriptions of recent patents on the said topics were discussed. Despite several recent advances in the use of viruses as disease therapy vehicles and biotechnological vectors, these developments have yet to be proven effective in practice, in clinical and field trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Long-Term Behavioral Recovery in Parkinsonian Rats by an HSV Vector Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Naegele, Janice R.; O’Malley, Karen L.; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    One therapeutic approach to treating Parkinson’s disease is to convert endogenous striatal cells into levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa)–producing cells. A defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vector expressing human tyrosine hydroxylase was delivered into the partially denervated striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats, used as a model of Parkinson’s disease. Efficient behavioral and biochemical recovery was maintained for 1 year after gene transfer. Biochemical recovery included increases in both striatal tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity and in extracellular dopamine concentrations. Persistence of human tyrosine hydroxylase was revealed by expression of RNA and immunoreactivity. PMID:7669103

  11. EMMA: An Extensible Mammalian Modular Assembly Toolkit for the Rapid Design and Production of Diverse Expression Vectors.

    PubMed

    Martella, Andrea; Matjusaitis, Mantas; Auxillos, Jamie; Pollard, Steven M; Cai, Yizhi

    2017-07-21

    Mammalian plasmid expression vectors are critical reagents underpinning many facets of research across biology, biomedical research, and the biotechnology industry. Traditional cloning methods often require laborious manual design and assembly of plasmids using tailored sequential cloning steps. This process can be protracted, complicated, expensive, and error-prone. New tools and strategies that facilitate the efficient design and production of bespoke vectors would help relieve a current bottleneck for researchers. To address this, we have developed an extensible mammalian modular assembly kit (EMMA). This enables rapid and efficient modular assembly of mammalian expression vectors in a one-tube, one-step golden-gate cloning reaction, using a standardized library of compatible genetic parts. The high modularity, flexibility, and extensibility of EMMA provide a simple method for the production of functionally diverse mammalian expression vectors. We demonstrate the value of this toolkit by constructing and validating a range of representative vectors, such as transient and stable expression vectors (transposon based vectors), targeting vectors, inducible systems, polycistronic expression cassettes, fusion proteins, and fluorescent reporters. The method also supports simple assembly combinatorial libraries and hierarchical assembly for production of larger multigenetic cargos. In summary, EMMA is compatible with automated production, and novel genetic parts can be easily incorporated, providing new opportunities for mammalian synthetic biology.

  12. Creating an arsenal of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery stealth vehicles.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Kennon; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2018-05-01

    The Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery system is ushering in a new and exciting era in the United States; following the first approved gene therapy (Glybera) in Europe, the FDA has approved a second therapy, Luxturna [1]. However, challenges to this system remain. In viral gene therapy, the surface of the capsid is an important determinant of tissue tropism, impacts gene transfer efficiency, and is targeted by the human immune system. Preexisting immunity is a significant challenge to this approach, and the ability to visualize areas of antibody binding ("footprints") can inform efforts to improve the efficacy of viral vectors. Atomic resolution, smaller proteins, and asymmetric structures are the goals to attain in cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction (cryo-EM) as of late. The versatility of the technique and the ability to vitrify a wide range of heterogeneous molecules in solution allow structural biologists to characterize a variety of protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions at lower resolution. Cryo-EM has served as an important means to study key surface areas of the AAV gene delivery vehicle-specifically, those involved with binding neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) [2-4]. This method offers a unique opportunity for visualizing antibody binding "hotspots" on the surface of these and other viral vectors. When combined with mutagenesis, one can eliminate these hotspots to create viral vectors with the ability to avoid preexisting host immune recognition during gene delivery and genetic defect correction in disease treatment. Here, we discuss the use of structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution to create "stealth" AAV vectors with modified surface amino acid sequences that allow NAb avoidance while maintaining natural capsid functions or gaining desired novel tropisms.

  13. Creating an arsenal of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery stealth vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2018-01-01

    The Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery system is ushering in a new and exciting era in the United States; following the first approved gene therapy (Glybera) in Europe, the FDA has approved a second therapy, Luxturna [1]. However, challenges to this system remain. In viral gene therapy, the surface of the capsid is an important determinant of tissue tropism, impacts gene transfer efficiency, and is targeted by the human immune system. Preexisting immunity is a significant challenge to this approach, and the ability to visualize areas of antibody binding (“footprints”) can inform efforts to improve the efficacy of viral vectors. Atomic resolution, smaller proteins, and asymmetric structures are the goals to attain in cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction (cryo-EM) as of late. The versatility of the technique and the ability to vitrify a wide range of heterogeneous molecules in solution allow structural biologists to characterize a variety of protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions at lower resolution. Cryo-EM has served as an important means to study key surface areas of the AAV gene delivery vehicle—specifically, those involved with binding neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) [2–4]. This method offers a unique opportunity for visualizing antibody binding “hotspots” on the surface of these and other viral vectors. When combined with mutagenesis, one can eliminate these hotspots to create viral vectors with the ability to avoid preexisting host immune recognition during gene delivery and genetic defect correction in disease treatment. Here, we discuss the use of structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution to create “stealth” AAV vectors with modified surface amino acid sequences that allow NAb avoidance while maintaining natural capsid functions or gaining desired novel tropisms. PMID:29723270

  14. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  15. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-10-01

    In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Chemosensory genes could be good candidates for genes that contribute to adaptation or plastic

  16. Heterologous viral expression systems in fosmid vectors increase the functional analysis potential of metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Terrón-González, L; Medina, C; Limón-Mortés, M C; Santero, E

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary potential of metagenomic functional analyses to identify activities of interest present in uncultured microorganisms has been limited by reduced gene expression in surrogate hosts. We have developed vectors and specialized E. coli strains as improved metagenomic DNA heterologous expression systems, taking advantage of viral components that prevent transcription termination at metagenomic terminators. One of the systems uses the phage T7 RNA-polymerase to drive metagenomic gene expression, while the other approach uses the lambda phage transcription anti-termination protein N to limit transcription termination. A metagenomic library was constructed and functionally screened to identify genes conferring carbenicillin resistance to E. coli. The use of these enhanced expression systems resulted in a 6-fold increase in the frequency of carbenicillin resistant clones. Subcloning and sequence analysis showed that, besides β-lactamases, efflux pumps are not only able contribute to carbenicillin resistance but may in fact be sufficient by themselves to convey carbenicillin resistance.

  17. Vector Development for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in the Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Pollevick, Guido D.; Vigliocco, Ana M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a good antibody response against the T. cruzi antigen. The expression of the repetitive antigen in Brucella neither altered its growth pattern nor generated a toxic or lethal effect during experimental infection. The application of this strategy for the generation of live recombinant vaccines and the tagging of B. abortus S19 vaccine is discussed. This is the first time that a recombinant protein has been expressed in the periplasm of brucellae. PMID:9673273

  18. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  19. Delivery and evaluation of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in the equine distal extremity for the treatment of laminitis.

    PubMed

    Mason, J B; Gurda, B L; Van Wettere, A; Engiles, J B; Wilson, J M; Richardson, D W

    2017-01-01

    Our long-term aim is to develop a gene therapy approach for the prevention of laminitis in the contralateral foot of horses with major musculoskeletal injuries and non-weightbearing lameness. The goal of this study was to develop a practical method to efficiently deliver therapeutic proteins deep within the equine foot. Randomised in vivo experiment. We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) to deliver marker genes using regional limb perfusion through the palmar digital artery of the horse. Vector serotypes rAAV2/1, 2/8 and 2/9 all successfully transduced equine foot tissues and displayed similar levels and patterns of transduction. The regional distribution of transduction within the foot decreased with decreasing vector dose. The highest transduction values were seen in the sole and coronary regions and the lowest transduction values were detected in the dorsal hoof-wall region. The use of a surfactant-enriched vector diluent increased regional distribution of the vector and improved the transduction in the hoof-wall region. The hoof-wall region of the foot, which exhibited the lowest levels of transduction using saline as the vector diluent, displayed a dramatic increase in transduction when surfactant was included in the vector diluent (9- to 81-fold increase). In transduced tissues, no significant difference was observed between promoters (chicken β-actin vs. cytomegalovirus) for gene expression. All horses tested for vector-neutralising antibodies were positive for serotype-specific neutralising antibodies to rAAV2/5. The current experiments demonstrate that transgenes can be successfully delivered to the equine distal extremity using rAAV vectors and that serotypes 2/8, 2/9 and 2/1 can successfully transduce tissues of the equine foot. When the vector was diluted with surfactant-containing saline, the level of transduction increased dramatically. The increased level of transduction due to the addition of surfactant also improved the

  20. A novel pair of inducible expression vectors for use in Methylobacterium extorquens.

    PubMed

    Chubiz, Lon M; Purswani, Jessica; Carroll, Sean Michael; Marx, Chistopher J

    2013-05-06

    Due to the ever increasing use of diverse microbial taxa in basic research and industrial settings, there is a growing need for genetic tools to alter the physiology of these organisms. In particular, there is a dearth of inducible expression systems available for bacteria outside commonly used γ-proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas species. To this end, we have sought to develop a pair of inducible expression vectors for use in the α-proteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, a model methylotroph. We found that the P(R) promoter from rhizobial phage 16-3 was active in M. extorquens and engineered the promoter to be inducible by either p-isopropyl benzoate (cumate) or anhydrotetracycline. These hybrid promoters, P(R/cmtO) and P(R/tetO), were found to have high levels of expression in M. extorquens with a regulatory range of 10-fold and 30-fold, respectively. Compared to an existing cumate-inducible (10-fold range), high-level expression system for M. extorquens, P(R/cmtO) and P(R/tetO) have 33% of the maximal activity but were able to repress gene expression 3 and 8-fold greater, respectively. Both promoters were observed to exhibit homogeneous, titratable activation dynamics rather than on-off, switch-like behavior. The utility of these promoters was further demonstrated by complementing loss of function of ftfL--essential for growth on methanol--where we show P(R/tetO) is capable of not only fully complementing function but also producing a conditional null phenotype. These promoters have been incorporated into a broad-host-range backbone allowing for potential use in a variety of bacterial hosts. We have developed two novel expression systems for use in M. extorquens. The expression range of these vectors should allow for increased ability to explore cellular physiology in M. extorquens. Further, the P(R/tetO) promoter is capable of producing conditional null phenotypes, previously unattainable in M. extorquens. As both expression systems

  1. Rational plasmid design and bioprocess optimization to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) productivity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Emmerling, Verena V; Pegel, Antje; Milian, Ernest G; Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Kunz, Marion; Wegele, Jessica; Kamen, Amine A; Kochanek, Stefan; Hoerer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Viral vectors used for gene and oncolytic therapy belong to the most promising biological products for future therapeutics. Clinical success of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based therapies raises considerable demand for viral vectors, which cannot be met by current manufacturing strategies. Addressing existing bottlenecks, we improved a plasmid system termed rep/cap split packaging and designed a minimal plasmid encoding adenoviral helper function. Plasmid modifications led to a 12-fold increase in rAAV vector titers compared to the widely used pDG standard system. Evaluation of different production approaches revealed superiority of processes based on anchorage- and serum-dependent HEK293T cells, exhibiting about 15-fold higher specific and volumetric productivity compared to well-established suspension cells cultivated in serum-free medium. As for most other viral vectors, classical stirred-tank bioreactor production is thus still not capable of providing drug product of sufficient amount. We show that manufacturing strategies employing classical surface-providing culture systems can be successfully transferred to the new fully-controlled, single-use bioreactor system Integrity(TM) iCELLis(TM) . In summary, we demonstrate substantial bioprocess optimizations leading to more efficient and scalable production processes suggesting a promising way for flexible large-scale rAAV manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Alpharetroviral Self-inactivating Vectors: Long-term Transgene Expression in Murine Hematopoietic Cells and Low Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Suerth, Julia D; Maetzig, Tobias; Brugman, Martijn H; Heinz, Niels; Appelt, Jens-Uwe; Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Schmidt, Manfred; Grez, Manuel; Modlich, Ute; Baum, Christopher; Schambach, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Comparative integrome analyses have highlighted alpharetroviral vectors with a relatively neutral, and thus favorable, integration spectrum. However, previous studies used alpharetroviral vectors harboring viral coding sequences and intact long-terminal repeats (LTRs). We recently developed self-inactivating (SIN) alpharetroviral vectors with an advanced split-packaging design. In a murine bone marrow (BM) transplantation model we now compared alpharetroviral, gammaretroviral, and lentiviral SIN vectors and showed that all vectors transduced hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to comparable, sustained multilineage transgene expression in primary and secondary transplanted mice. Alpharetroviral integrations were decreased near transcription start sites, CpG islands, and potential cancer genes compared with gammaretroviral, and decreased in genes compared with lentiviral integrations. Analyzing the transcriptome and intragenic integrations in engrafting cells, we observed stronger correlations between in-gene integration targeting and transcriptional activity for gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors than for alpharetroviral vectors. Importantly, the relatively “extragenic” alpharetroviral integration pattern still supported long-term transgene expression upon serial transplantation. Furthermore, sensitive genotoxicity studies revealed a decreased immortalization incidence compared with gammaretroviral and lentiviral SIN vectors. We conclude that alpharetroviral SIN vectors have a favorable integration pattern which lowers the risk of insertional mutagenesis while supporting long-term transgene expression in the progeny of transplanted HSCs. PMID:22334016

  3. The establishment of Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system using a single expression vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiantian; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Chen, Peipei; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, an a-agglutinin-based Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system was successfully established using a single expression vector. Based on the two protein co-expression vector pSP-G1 built by Partow et al., a S. boulardii surface display vector-pSDSb containing all the display elements was constructed. The display results of heterologous proteins were confirmed by successfully displaying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and chicken Eimeria tenella Microneme-2 proteins (EtMic2) on the S. boulardii cell surface. The DNA sequence of AGA1 gene from S. boulardii (SbAGA1) was determined and used as the cell wall anchor partner. This is the first time heterologous proteins have been displayed on the cell surface of S. boulardii. Because S. boulardii is probiotic and eukaryotic, its surface display system would be very valuable, particularly in the development of a live vaccine against various pathogenic organisms especially eukaryotic pathogens such as protistan parasites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gateway Vectors for Efficient Artificial Gene Assembly In Vitro and Expression in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.; MacPherson, Murray; Saka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Construction of synthetic genetic networks requires the assembly of DNA fragments encoding functional biological parts in a defined order. Yet this may become a time-consuming procedure. To address this technical bottleneck, we have created a series of Gateway shuttle vectors and an integration vector, which facilitate the assembly of artificial genes and their expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our method enables the rapid construction of an artificial gene from a promoter and an open reading frame (ORF) cassette by one-step recombination reaction in vitro. Furthermore, the plasmid thus created can readily be introduced into yeast cells to test the assembled gene’s functionality. As flexible regulatory components of a synthetic genetic network, we also created new versions of the tetracycline-regulated transactivators tTA and rtTA by fusing them to the auxin-inducible degron (AID). Using our gene assembly approach, we made yeast expression vectors of these engineered transactivators, AIDtTA and AIDrtTA and then tested their functions in yeast. We showed that these factors can be regulated by doxycycline and degraded rapidly after addition of auxin to the medium. Taken together, the method for combinatorial gene assembly described here is versatile and would be a valuable tool for yeast synthetic biology. PMID:23675537

  5. Concomitant Intravenous Nitroglycerin With Intracoronary Delivery of AAV1.SERCA2a Enhances Gene Transfer in Porcine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Karakikes, Ioannis; Hadri, Lahouaria; Rapti, Kleopatra; Ladage, Dennis; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Tilemann, Lisa; Yi, Geng-Hua; Morel, Charlotte; Gwathmey, Judith K; Zsebo, Krisztina; Weber, Thomas; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-01-01

    SERCA2a gene therapy improves contractile and energetic function of failing hearts and has been shown to be associated with benefits in clinical outcomes, symptoms, functional status, biomarkers, and cardiac structure in a phase 2 clinical trial. In an effort to enhance the efficiency and homogeneity of gene uptake in cardiac tissue, we examined the effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) in a porcine model following AAV1.SERCA2a gene delivery. Three groups of Göttingen minipigs were assessed: (i) group A: control intracoronary (IC) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); (ii) group B: a single bolus IC injection of NTG (50 µg) immediately before administration of intravenous (IV) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); and (iii) group C: continuous IV NTG (1 µg/kg/minute) during the 10 minutes of AAV1.SERCA2a infusion (n = 6). We found that simultaneous IV infusion of NTG and AAV1.SERCA2a resulted in increased viral transduction efficiency, both in terms of messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as SERCA2a protein levels in the whole left ventricle (LV) compared to control animals. On the other hand, IC NTG pretreatment did not result in enhanced gene transfer efficiency, mRNA or protein levels when compared to control animals. Importantly, the transgene expression was restricted to the heart tissue. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that IV infusion of NTG significantly improves cardiac gene transfer efficiency in porcine hearts. PMID:22215018

  6. Biological and immunogenic properties of rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by canine herpesvirus vector.

    PubMed

    Xuan, X; Tuchiya, K; Sato, I; Nishikawa, Y; Onoderaz, Y; Takashima, Y; Yamamoto, A; Katsumata, A; Iwata, A; Ueda, S; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether canine herpesvirus (CHV) could be used as a live vector for the expression of heterologous immunogenes, we constructed a recombinant canine herpesvirus (CHV) expressing glycoprotein (G protein) of rabies virus (RV). The gene of G protein was inserted within the thymidine kinase gene of CHV YP11mu strain under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter. The G protein expressed by the recombinant CHV was processed and transported to the cell surface as in RV infected cells, and showed the same biological activities such as low pH dependent cell fusion and hemadsorption. The antigenic authenticity of the recombinant G protein was confirmed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for G protein. Dogs inoculated intransally with the recombinant CHV produced higher titres of virus neutralizing antibodies against RV than those inoculated with a commercial, inactivated rabies vaccine. These results suggest that the CHV recombinant expressing G protein can be used as a vaccine to control canine rabies and that CHV may be useful as a vector to develop live recombinant against other infectious diseases in dogs.

  7. [Construction and expression of recombinant lentiviral vectors of AKT2,PDK1 and BAD].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Chen, Bo-Jiang; Huang, Na; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-03-01

    To construct human protein kinase B (ATK2), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD) lentiviral expression vector, and to determine their expressions in 293T cells. Total RNA was extracted from lung cancer tissues. The full-length coding regions of human ATK2, BAD and PDK1 cDNA were amplified via RT-PCR using specific primers, subcloned into PGEM-Teasy and then sequenced for confirmation. The full-length coding sequence was cut out with a specific restriction enzyme digest and subclone into pCDF1-MCS2-EF1-copGFP. The plasmids were transfected into 293T cells using the calcium phosphate method. The over expression of AKT2, BAD and PDK1 were detected by Western blot. AKT2, PDK1 and BAD were subcloned into pCDF1-MCS2-EF1-copGFP, with an efficiency of transfection of 100%, 95%, and 90% respectively. The virus titers were 6.7 x 10(6) PFU/mL in the supernatant. After infection, the proteins of AKT2, PDK1 and BAD were detected by Western blot. The lentivial vector pCDF1-MCS2-EF1-copGFP containing AKT2, BAD and PDK1 were successfully constructed and expressed in 293T cells.

  8. Lent-On-Plus Lentiviral vectors for conditional expression in human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Benabdellah, Karim; Muñoz, Pilar; Cobo, Marién; Gutierrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Sánchez-Hernández, Sabina; Garcia-Perez, Angélica; Anderson, Per; Carrillo-Gálvez, Ana Belén; Toscano, Miguel G; Martin, Francisco

    2016-11-17

    Conditional transgene expression in human stem cells has been difficult to achieve due to the low efficiency of existing delivery methods, the strong silencing of the transgenes and the toxicity of the regulators. Most of the existing technologies are based on stem cells clones expressing appropriate levels of tTA or rtTA transactivators (based on the TetR-VP16 chimeras). In the present study, we aim the generation of Tet-On all-in-one lentiviral vectors (LVs) that tightly regulate transgene expression in human stem cells using the original TetR repressor. By using appropriate promoter combinations and shielding the LVs with the Is2 insulator, we have constructed the Lent-On-Plus Tet-On system that achieved efficient transgene regulation in human multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. The generation of inducible stem cell lines with the Lent-ON-Plus LVs did not require selection or cloning, and transgene regulation was maintained after long-term cultured and upon differentiation toward different lineages. To our knowledge, Lent-On-Plus is the first all-in-one vector system that tightly regulates transgene expression in bulk populations of human pluripotent stem cells and its progeny.

  9. Lent-On-Plus Lentiviral vectors for conditional expression in human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Benabdellah, Karim; Muñoz, Pilar; Cobo, Marién; Gutierrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Sánchez-Hernández, Sabina; Garcia-Perez, Angélica; Anderson, Per; Carrillo-Gálvez, Ana Belén; Toscano, Miguel G.; Martin, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Conditional transgene expression in human stem cells has been difficult to achieve due to the low efficiency of existing delivery methods, the strong silencing of the transgenes and the toxicity of the regulators. Most of the existing technologies are based on stem cells clones expressing appropriate levels of tTA or rtTA transactivators (based on the TetR-VP16 chimeras). In the present study, we aim the generation of Tet-On all-in-one lentiviral vectors (LVs) that tightly regulate transgene expression in human stem cells using the original TetR repressor. By using appropriate promoter combinations and shielding the LVs with the Is2 insulator, we have constructed the Lent-On-Plus Tet-On system that achieved efficient transgene regulation in human multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. The generation of inducible stem cell lines with the Lent-ON-Plus LVs did not require selection or cloning, and transgene regulation was maintained after long-term cultured and upon differentiation toward different lineages. To our knowledge, Lent-On-Plus is the first all-in-one vector system that tightly regulates transgene expression in bulk populations of human pluripotent stem cells and its progeny. PMID:27853296

  10. Improved Innate and Adaptive Immunostimulation by Genetically Modified HIV-1 Protein Expressing NYVAC Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Quakkelaar, Esther D.; Redeker, Anke; Haddad, Elias K.; Harari, Alexandre; McCaughey, Stella Mayo; Duhen, Thomas; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Loof, Nikki M.; Ossendorp, Ferry; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Heinen, Paul; Gomez, Carmen E.; Kibler, Karen V.; Koelle, David M.; Sékaly, Rafick P.; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano; Tartaglia, Jim; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Attenuated poxviruses are safe and capable of expressing foreign antigens. Poxviruses are applied in veterinary vaccination and explored as candidate vaccines for humans. However, poxviruses express multiple genes encoding proteins that interfere with components of the innate and adaptive immune response. This manuscript describes two strategies aimed to improve the immunogenicity of the highly attenuated, host-range restricted poxvirus NYVAC: deletion of the viral gene encoding type-I interferon-binding protein and development of attenuated replication-competent NYVAC. We evaluated these newly generated NYVAC mutants, encoding HIV-1 env, gag, pol and nef, for their ability to stimulate HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in vitro from blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected subjects. The new vectors were evaluated and compared to the parental NYVAC vector in dendritic cells (DCs), RNA expression arrays, HIV gag expression and cross-presentation assays in vitro. Deletion of type-I interferon-binding protein enhanced expression of interferon and interferon-induced genes in DCs, and increased maturation of infected DCs. Restoration of replication competence induced activation of pathways involving antigen processing and presentation. Also, replication-competent NYVAC showed increased Gag expression in infected cells, permitting enhanced cross-presentation to HIV-specific CD8 T cells and proliferation of HIV-specific memory CD8 T-cells in vitro. The recombinant NYVAC combining both modifications induced interferon-induced genes and genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as increased Gag expression. This combined replication-competent NYVAC is a promising candidate for the next generation of HIV vaccines. PMID:21347234

  11. Engineering zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus as a non-pathogenic vector for expression of heterologous proteins in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Arazi, T; Slutsky, S G; Shiboleth, Y M; Wang, Y; Rubinstein, M; Barak, S; Yang, J; Gal-On, A

    2001-04-27

    Plant virus vectors provide an attractive biotechnological tool for the transient expression of foreign genes in whole plants. As yet there has been no use of recombinant viruses for the improvement of commercial crops. This is mainly because the viruses used to create vectors usually cause significant yield loss and can be transmitted in the field. A novel attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (AG) was used for the development of an environmentally safe non-pathogenic virus vector. The suitability of AG as an expression vector in plants was tested by analysis of two infectious viral constructs, each containing a distinct gene insertion site. Introduction of a foreign viral coat protein gene into AG genome between the P1 and HC-Pro genes, resulted in no expression in planta. In contrast, the same gene was stably expressed when inserted between NIb and CP genes, suggesting that this site is more suitable for a gene vector. Virus-mediated expression of reporter genes was observed in squash and cucumber leaves, stems, roots and edible fruit. Furthermore, AG stably expressed human interferon-alpha 2, an important human anti-viral drug, without affecting plant development and yield. Interferon biological activity was measured in cucumber and squash fruit. Together, these data corroborate a biotechnological utility of AG as a non-pathogenic vector for the expression of a foreign gene, as a benefit trait, in cucurbits and their edible fruit.

  12. Novel Nonreplicating Vaccinia Virus Vector Enhances Expression of Heterologous Genes and Suppresses Synthesis of Endogenous Viral Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Linda S; Xiao, Wei; Americo, Jeffrey L; Earl, Patricia L; Moss, Bernard

    2017-06-06

    Viruses are used as expression vectors for protein synthesis, immunology research, vaccines, and therapeutics. Advantages of poxvirus vectors include the accommodation of large amounts of heterologous DNA, the presence of a cytoplasmic site of transcription, and high expression levels. On the other hand, competition of approximately 200 viral genes with the target gene for expression and immune recognition may be disadvantageous. We describe a vaccinia virus (VACV) vector that uses an early promoter to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase; has the A23R intermediate transcription factor gene deleted, thereby restricting virus replication to complementing cells; and has a heterologous gene regulated by a T7 promoter. In noncomplementing cells, viral early gene expression and DNA replication occurred normally but synthesis of intermediate and late proteins was prevented. Nevertheless, the progeny viral DNA provided templates for abundant expression of heterologous genes regulated by a T7 promoter. Selective expression of the Escherichia coli lac repressor gene from an intermediate promoter reduced transcription of the heterologous gene specifically in complementing cells, where large amounts might adversely impact VACV replication. Expression of heterologous proteins mediated by the A23R deletion vector equaled that of a replicating VACV, was higher than that of a nonreplicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector used for candidate vaccines in vitro and in vivo , and was similarly immunogenic in mice. Unlike the MVA vector, the A23R deletion vector still expresses numerous early genes that can restrict immunogenicity as demonstrated here by the failure of the prototype vector to induce interferon alpha. By deleting immunomodulatory genes, we anticipate further improvements in the system. IMPORTANCE Vaccines provide an efficient and effective way of preventing infectious diseases. Nevertheless, new and better vaccines are needed. Vaccinia virus, which

  13. New Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Expression Vectors: Improving Genetic Control over Mycobacterial Promoters.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Alex I; Goulart, Cibelly; Rofatto, Henrique K; Oliveira, Sergio C; Leite, Luciana C C; McFadden, Johnjoe

    2016-04-01

    The expression of many antigens, stimulatory molecules, or even metabolic pathways in mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis BCG or M. smegmatis was made possible through the development of shuttle vectors, and several recombinant vaccines have been constructed. However, gene expression in any of these systems relied mostly on the selection of natural promoters expected to provide the required level of expression by trial and error. To establish a systematic selection of promoters with a range of strengths, we generated a library of mutagenized promoters through error-prone PCR of the strong PL5 promoter, originally from mycobacteriophage L5. These promoters were cloned upstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene, and recombinant M. smegmatis bacteria exhibiting a wide range of fluorescence levels were identified. A set of promoters was selected and identified as having high (pJK-F8), intermediate (pJK-B7, pJK-E6, pJK-D6), or low (pJK-C1) promoter strengths in both M. smegmatis and M. bovisBCG. The sequencing of the promoter region demonstrated that it was extensively modified (6 to 11%) in all of the plasmids selected. To test the functionality of the system, two different expression vectors were demonstrated to allow corresponding expression levels of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm29 in BCG. The approach used here can be used to adjust expression levels for synthetic and/or systems biology studies or for vaccine development to maximize the immune response. Copyright © 2016 Kanno et al.

  14. Synergistic cardioprotective effects of rAAV9-CyclinA2 combined with fibrin glue in rats after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen; Chang, Ya-Fei; Zhao, Ai-Chao; Chen, Bang-Dang; Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Ma, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of rAAV9-CyclinA2 combined with fibrin glue (FG) in vivo in rats after myocardial infarction (MI). Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 groups (15 in each group): sham, MI, rAAV9-green fluorescent protein (GFP) + MI, rAAV9-CyclinA2 + MI, FG + MI, and rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI. Packed virus (5 × 10 11 vg/ml) in 150 µl of normal saline or FG was injected into the infarcted myocardium at five locations in rAAV9-GFP + MI, rAAV9-CyclinA2 + MI, and rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI groups. The sham, MI, and FG + MI groups were injected with an equal volume of normal saline or FG at the same sites. Five weeks after injection, echocardiography was performed to evaluate the left ventricular function. The expressions of CyclinA2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and phospho-histone-H3 (H3P), vascular density, and infarct area were assessed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Masson staining. As a result, the combination of rAAV9-CyclinA2 and FG increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening compared with FG or rAAV9-CyclinA2 alone. The expression level of CyclinA2 was significantly higher in the rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI group compared with the rAAV9-CyclinA2 + MI and FG + MI groups (70.1 ± 1.86% vs. 14.74 ± 2.02%, P < 0.01; or vs. 50.13 ± 3.80%; P < 0.01). A higher expression level of PCNA and H3P was found in the rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI group compared with other groups. Comparing with other experiment groups, collagen deposition and the infarct size significantly decreased in rAAV9-CyclinA2 + Fibrin + MI group. The vascular density was much higher in the rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI group compared with the rAAV9-CyclinA2 + MI group. We concluded that fibrin glue combined with rAAV9-CyclinA2 was found to be effective in cardiac remodeling and improving

  15. A Partial E3 Deletion in Replication-Defective Adenoviral Vectors Allows for Stable Expression of Potentially Toxic Transgene Products.

    PubMed

    Haut, Larissa H; Gill, Amanda L; Kurupati, Raj K; Bian, Ang; Li, Yan; Giles-Davis, Wynetta; Xiang, Zhiquan; Zhou, Xiang Yang; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-10-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is used extensively for construction of viral vectors, most commonly with deletion in its E1 and/or E3 genomic regions. Previously, our attempts to insert envelope proteins (Env) of HIV-1 into such vectors based on chimpanzee-derived Ad (AdC) viruses were thwarted. Here, we describe that genetic instability of an E1- and E3-deleted AdC vector of serotype C6 expressing Env of HIV-1 can be overcome by reinsertion of E3 sequences with anti-apoptotic activities. This partial E3 deletion presumably delays premature death of HEK-293 packaging cell lines due to Env-induced cell apoptosis. The same partial E3 deletion also allows for the generation of stable glycoprotein 140 (gp140)- and gp160-expressing Ad vectors based on AdC7, a distinct AdC serotype. Env-expressing AdC vectors containing the partial E3 deletion are genetically stable upon serial cell culture passaging, produce yields comparable to those of other AdC vectors, and induce transgene product-specific antibody responses in mice. A partial E3 deletion thereby allows expansion of the repertoire of transgenes that can be expressed by Ad vectors.

  16. Akt/protein kinase B activation by adenovirus vectors contributes to NFkappaB-dependent CXCL10 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; White, Lindsay R; Clark, Sharon A; Heffner, Daniel J; Winston, Brent W; Tibbles, Lee Anne; Muruve, Daniel A

    2005-12-01

    In gene therapy, the innate immune system is a significant barrier to the effective application of adenovirus (Ad) vectors. In kidney epithelium-derived (REC) cells, serotype 5 Ad vectors induce the expression of the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), a response that is dependent on NFkappaB. Compared to the parental vector AdLuc, transduction with the RGD-deleted vector AdL.PB resulted in reduced CXCL10 activation despite increasing titers, implying that RGD-alpha(V) integrin interactions contribute to adenovirus induction of inflammatory genes. Akt, a downstream effector of integrin signaling, was activated within 10 min of transduction with Ad vectors in a dose-dependent manner. Akt activation was not present following transduction with AdL.PB, confirming the importance of capsid-alpha(V) integrin interactions in Ad vector Akt activation. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase/Akt pathway by Wortmannin or Ly294002 compounds decreased Ad vector induction of CXCL10 mRNA. Similarly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the dominant negative AktAAA decreased CXCL10 mRNA expression compared to the reporter vector AdLacZ alone. The effect of Akt on CXCL10 mRNA expression occurred via NFkappaB-dependent transcriptional activation, since AktAAA overexpression and Ly294002 both inhibited CXCL10 and NFkappaB promoter activation in luciferase reporter experiments. These results show that Akt plays a role in the Ad vector activation of NFkappaB and CXCL10 expression. Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of host immunomodulatory genes by adenovirus vectors will lead to strategies that will improve the efficacy and safety of these agents for clinical use.

  17. Inner Ear Gene Transfection in Neonatal Mice Using Adeno-Associated Viral Vector: A Comparison of Two Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Li; Yin, Shankai; Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Local gene transfection is a promising technique for the prevention and/or correction of inner ear diseases, particularly those resulting from genetic defects. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is an ideal viral vector for inner ear gene transfection because of its safety, stability, long-lasting expression, and its high tropism for many different cell types. Recently, a new generation of AAV vectors with a tyrosine mutation (mut-AAV) has demonstrated significant improvement in transfection efficiency. A method for inner ear gene transfection via the intact round window membrane (RWM) has been developed in our laboratory. This method has not been tested in neonatal mice, an important species for the study of inherited hearing loss. Following a preliminary study to optimize the experimental protocol in order to reduce mortality, the present study investigated inner ear gene transfection in mice at postnatal day 7. We compared transfection efficiency, the safety of the scala tympani injection via RWM puncture, and the trans-RWM diffusion following partial digestion with an enzyme technique. The results revealed that approximately 47% of inner hair cells (IHCs) and 17% of outer hair cells (OHCs) were transfected via the trans-RWM approach. Transfection efficiency via RWM puncture (58% and 19% for IHCs and OHCs, respectively) was slightly higher, but the difference was not significant. PMID:22912830

  18. Design and cloning strategies for constructing shRNA expression vectors

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Glen J; Fanning, Gregory C

    2006-01-01

    Background Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) encoded within an expression vector has proven an effective means of harnessing the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mammalian cells. A survey of the literature revealed that shRNA vector construction can be hindered by high mutation rates and the ensuing sequencing is often problematic. Current options for constructing shRNA vectors include the use of annealed complementary oligonucleotides (74 % of surveyed studies), a PCR approach using hairpin containing primers (22 %) and primer extension of hairpin templates (4 %). Results We considered primer extension the most attractive method in terms of cost. However, in initial experiments we encountered a mutation frequency of 50 % compared to a reported 20 – 40 % for other strategies. By modifying the technique to be an isothermal reaction using the DNA polymerase Phi29, we reduced the error rate to 10 %, making primer extension the most efficient and cost-effective approach tested. We also found that inclusion of a restriction site in the loop could be exploited for confirming construct integrity by automated sequencing, while maintaining intended gene suppression. Conclusion In this study we detail simple improvements for constructing and sequencing shRNA that overcome current limitations. We also compare the advantages of our solutions against proposed alternatives. Our technical modifications will be of tangible benefit to researchers looking for a more efficient and reliable shRNA construction process. PMID:16396676

  19. Immunogenicity of ORFV-based vectors expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in livestock species.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mathias; Joshi, Lok R; Rodrigues, Fernando S; Anziliero, Deniz; Frandoloso, Rafael; Kutish, Gerald F; Rock, Daniel L; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F; Diel, Diego G

    2017-11-01

    The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) encodes several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that modulate host-innate and pro-inflammatory responses and has been proposed as a vaccine delivery vector for use in animal species. Here we describe the construction and characterization of two recombinant ORFV vectors expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G). The RABV-G gene was inserted in the ORFV024 or ORFV121 gene loci, which encode for IMPs that are unique to parapoxviruses and inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The immunogenicity of the resultant recombinant viruses (ORFV ∆024 RABV-G or ORFV ∆121 RABV-G, respectively) was evaluated in pigs and cattle. Immunization of the target species with ORFV ∆024 RABV-G and ORFV ∆121 RABV-G elicited robust neutralizing antibody responses against RABV. Notably, neutralizing antibody titers induced in ORFV ∆121 RABV-G-immunized pigs and cattle were significantly higher than those detected in ORFV ∆024 RABV-G-immunized animals, indicating a higher immunogenicity of ORFV Δ121 -based vectors in these animal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vector platforms for gene therapy of inherited retinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Ivana; Puppo, Agostina; Auricchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Inherited retinopathies (IR) are common untreatable blinding conditions. Most of them are inherited as monogenic disorders, due to mutations in genes expressed in retinal photoreceptors (PR) and in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The retina’s compatibility with gene transfer has made transduction of different retinal cell layers in small and large animal models via viral and non-viral vectors possible. The ongoing identification of novel viruses as well as modifications of existing ones based either on rational design or directed evolution have generated vector variants with improved transduction properties. Dozens of promising proofs of concept have been obtained in IR animal models with both viral and non-viral vectors, and some of them have been relayed to clinical trials. To date, recombinant vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) represent the most promising tool for retinal gene therapy, given their ability to efficiently deliver therapeutic genes to both PR and RPE and their excellent safety and efficacy profiles in humans. However, AAVs’ limited cargo capacity has prevented application of the viral vector to treatments requiring transfer of genes with a coding sequence larger than 5 kb. Vectors with larger capacity, i.e. nanoparticles, adenoviral and lentiviral vectors are being exploited for gene transfer to the retina in animal models and, more recently, in humans. This review focuses on the available platforms for retinal gene therapy to fight inherited blindness, highlights their main strengths and examines the efforts to overcome some of their limitations. PMID:25124745

  1. A novel expression vector for the improved solubility of recombinant scorpion venom in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Tianqing; Ming, Hongyan; Deng, Lili

    Recombinant scorpion anti-excitation peptide (rANEP) has previously been expressed using the pET32a system and purified via affinity chromatography. However, rANEP is expressed in BL21(DE3) cells as an inclusion body, and the affinity tag can not be removed. To overcome this problem, we used a variety of protein, DsbA, MBP, TrxA, intein, and affinity tags in fusion and co-expression to achieve soluble and functional rANEP without any affinity tag. In the pCIT-ANEP expression vector, the highest soluble expression level was approximately 90% of the total cellular proteins in E. coli, and the rANEP was cleaved by the intein protein and subsequently purifiedmore » to obtain rANEP, which had the same activity as the natural ANEP. The purity of rANEP obtained using this method was over 95%, with a quantity of 5.1 mg from of purified rANEP from 1 L of culture. This method could expand the application of the soluble expression of disulfide-rich peptides in E. coli.« less

  2. Vector modifications to eliminate transposase expression following piggyBac-mediated transgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Syandan; Ji, HaYeun; Chen, Jack; Gersbach, Charles A.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-01-01

    Transgene insertion plays an important role in gene therapy and in biological studies. Transposon-based systems that integrate transgenes by transposase-catalyzed “cut-and-paste” mechanism have emerged as an attractive system for transgenesis. Hyperactive piggyBac transposon is particularly promising due to its ability to integrate large transgenes with high efficiency. However, prolonged expression of transposase can become a potential source of genotoxic effects due to uncontrolled transposition of the integrated transgene from one chromosomal locus to another. In this study we propose a vector design to decrease post-transposition expression of transposase and to eliminate the cells that have residual transposase expression. We design a single plasmid construct that combines the transposase and the transpositioning transgene element to share a single polyA sequence for termination. Consequently, the separation of the transposase element from the polyA sequence after transposition leads to its deactivation. We also co-express Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) with the transposase. Therefore, cells having residual transposase expression can be eliminated by the administration of ganciclovir. We demonstrate the utility of this combination transposon system by integrating and expressing a model therapeutic gene, human coagulation Factor IX, in HEK293T cells. PMID:25492703

  3. Modular protein expression by RNA trans-splicing enables flexible expression of antibody formats in mammalian cells from a dual-host phage display vector.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yonglei; Tesar, Devin; Hötzel, Isidro

    2015-10-01

    A recently described dual-host phage display vector that allows expression of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in mammalian cells bypasses the need for subcloning of phage display clone inserts to mammalian vectors for IgG expression in large antibody discovery and optimization campaigns. However, antibody discovery and optimization campaigns usually need different antibody formats for screening, requiring reformatting of the clones in the dual-host phage display vector to an alternative vector. We developed a modular protein expression system mediated by RNA trans-splicing to enable the expression of different antibody formats from the same phage display vector. The heavy-chain region encoded by the phage display vector is directly and precisely fused to different downstream heavy-chain sequences encoded by complementing plasmids simply by joining exons in different pre-mRNAs by trans-splicing. The modular expression system can be used to efficiently express structurally correct IgG and Fab fragments or other antibody formats from the same phage display clone in mammalian cells without clone reformatting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Wild-Type and Vector-Mediated Genomic Integration Profiles of Human Diploid Fibroblasts Analyzed by Third-Generation PacBio DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hüser, Daniela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 integration in HeLa cells has shown that wild-type AAV integrates at numerous genomic sites, including AAVS1 on chromosome 19q13.42. Multiple GAGY/C repeats, resembling consensus AAV Rep-binding sites are preferred, whereas rep-deficient AAV vectors (rAAV) regularly show a random integration profile. This study is the first study to analyze wild-type AAV integration in diploid human fibroblasts. Applying high-throughput third-generation PacBio-based DNA sequencing, integration profiles of wild-type AAV and rAAV are compared side by side. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that both wild-type AAV and rAAV prefer open chromatin regions. Although genomic features of AAV integration largely reproduce previous findings, the pattern of integration hot spots differs from that described in HeLa cells before. DNase-Seq data for human fibroblasts and for HeLa cells reveal variant chromatin accessibility at preferred AAV integration hot spots that correlates with variant hot spot preferences. DNase-Seq patterns of these sites in human tissues, including liver, muscle, heart, brain, skin, and embryonic stem cells further underline variant chromatin accessibility. In summary, AAV integration is dependent on cell-type-specific, variant chromatin accessibility leading to random integration profiles for rAAV, whereas wild-type AAV integration sites cluster near GAGY/C repeats. IMPORTANCE Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is assumed to establish latency by chromosomal integration of its DNA. This is the first genome-wide analysis of wild-type AAV2 integration in diploid human cells and the first to compare wild-type to recombinant AAV vector integration side by side under identical experimental conditions. Major determinants of wild-type AAV integration represent open chromatin regions with accessible consensus AAV Rep-binding sites. The variant chromatin accessibility of different human tissues or cell types will

  5. Magnetically enhanced adeno-associated viral vector delivery for human neural stem cell infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Oh, Ji-Seon; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Park, Kook In; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2011-11-01

    Gene therapy technology is a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular cues that precisely regulate stem cell fates, but developing safe vehicles or mechanisms that are capable of delivering genes to stem cells with high efficiency remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a magnetically guided adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery system for gene delivery to human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Magnetically guided AAV delivery resulted in rapid accumulation of vectors on target cells followed by forced penetration of the vectors across the plasma membrane, ultimately leading to fast and efficient cellular transduction. To combine AAV vectors with the magnetically guided delivery, AAV was genetically modified to display hexa-histidine (6xHis) on the physically exposed loop of the AAV2 capsid (6xHis AAV), which interacted with nickel ions chelated on NTA-biotin conjugated to streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NiStNPs). NiStNP-mediated 6xHis AAV delivery under magnetic fields led to significantly enhanced cellular transduction in a non-permissive cell type (i.e., hNSCs). In addition, this delivery method reduced the viral exposure times required to induce a high level of transduction by as much as to 2-10 min of hNSC infection, thus demonstrating the great potential of magnetically guided AAV delivery for numerous gene therapy and stem cell applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A dual host vector for Fab phage display and expression of native IgG in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Devin; Hötzel, Isidro

    2013-10-01

    A significant bottleneck in antibody discovery by phage display is the transfer of immunoglobulin variable regions from phage clones to vectors that express immunoglobulin G (IgG) in mammalian cells for screening. Here, we describe a novel phagemid vector for Fab phage display that allows expression of native IgG in mammalian cells without sub-cloning. The vector uses an optimized mammalian signal sequence that drives robust expression of Fab fragments fused to an M13 phage coat protein in Escherichia coli and IgG expression in mammalian cells. To allow the expression of Fab fragments fused to a phage coat protein in E.coli and full-length IgG in mammalian cells from the same vector without sub-cloning, the sequence encoding the phage coat protein was embedded in an optimized synthetic intron within the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. This intron is removed from transcripts in mammalian cells by RNA splicing. Using this vector, we constructed a synthetic Fab phage display library with diversity in the heavy chain only and selected for clones binding different antigens. Co-transfection of mammalian cells with DNA from individual phage clones and a plasmid expressing the invariant light chain resulted in the expression of native IgG that was used to assay affinity, ligand blocking activity and specificity.

  7. Lentivirus Vectors Incorporating the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Enhancer and Matrix Attachment Regions Provide Position-Independent Expression in B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lutzko, Carolyn; Senadheera, Dinithi; Skelton, Dianne; Petersen, Denise; Kohn, Donald B.

    2003-01-01

    In the present studies we developed lentivirus vectors with regulated, consistent transgene expression in B lymphocytes by incorporating the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (Eμ) with and without associated matrix attachment regions (EμMAR) into lentivirus vectors. Incorporation of these fragments upstream of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) or cytomegalovirus promoters resulted in a two- to threefold increase in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) in B-lymphoid but not T-lymphoid, myeloid, fibroblast, or carcinoma cell lines. A 1-log increase in EGFP expression was observed in B-lymphoid cells (but not myeloid cells) differentiated from human CD34+ progenitors in vitro transduced with Eμ- and EμMAR-containing lentivectors. Lastly, we evaluated the expression from the EμMAR element in mice 2 to 24 weeks posttransplant with transduced hematopoietic stem cells. In mice receiving vectors with the Eμ and EμMAR elements upstream of the PGK promoter, there was a 2- to 10-fold increase in EGFP expression in B cells (but not other cell types). Evaluation of the coefficient of variation of expression among different cell types demonstrated that consistent, position-independent transgene expression was observed exclusively in B cells transduced with the EμMAR-containing vector and not other cells types or vectors. Proviral genomes with the EμMAR element had increased chromatin accessibility, which likely contributed to the position independence of expression in B lymphocytes. In summary, incorporation of the EμMAR element in lentivirus vectors resulted in enhanced, position-independent expression in primary B lymphocytes. These vectors provide a useful tool for the study of B-lymphocyte biology and the development of gene therapy for disorders affecting B lymphocytes, such as immune deficiencies. PMID:12805432

  8. GenoCAD Plant Grammar to Design Plant Expression Vectors for Promoter Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in prediction tools for discovery of new promoters and their cis-elements, there is a need to improve plant expression methodologies in order to facilitate a high-throughput functional validation of these promoters in planta. The promoter-reporter analysis is an indispensible approach for characterization of plant promoters. It requires the design of complex plant expression vectors, which can be challenging. Here, we describe the use of a plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD that will allow the users to quickly design constructs for promoter analysis experiments but also for other in planta functional studies. The GenoCAD plant grammar includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories to facilitate their use and management and a set of rules that guides the process of assembling these biological parts into large constructs.

  9. Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Construction and functional identification of eukaryotic expression vector carrying Sprague-Dawley rat MSX-2 gene].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Xian; Zhang, Mei; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Zhang, Ru-Hong; Mu, Xiong-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    To construct a high effective eukaryotic expressing plasmid PcDNA 3.1-MSX-2 encoding Sprague-Dawley rat MSX-2 gene for the further study of MSX-2 gene function. The full length SD rat MSX-2 gene was amplified by PCR, and the full length DNA was inserted in the PMD1 8-T vector. It was isolated by restriction enzyme digest with BamHI and Xhol, then ligated into the cloning site of the PcDNA3.1 expression plasmid. The positive recombinant was identified by PCR analysis, restriction endonudease analysis and sequence analysis. Expression of RNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Sequence analysis and restriction endonudease analysis of PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 demonstrated that the position and size of MSX-2 cDNA insertion were consistent with the design. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed specific expression of mRNA and protein of MSX-2 in the transfected HEK293 cells. The high effective eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 encoding Sprague-Dawley Rat MSX-2 gene which is related to craniofacial development can be successfully reconstructed. It may serve as the basis for the further study of MSX-2 gene function.

  11. Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

    2010-11-01

    Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

  12. Long-Term Correction of Sandhoff Disease Following Intravenous Delivery of rAAV9 to Mouse Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Jagdeep S; Altaleb, Naderah; Bello, Alexander; Kruck, Christa; LaFave, Matthew C; Varshney, Gaurav K; Burgess, Shawn M; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Hurlbut, David; Hemming, Richard; Kobinger, Gary P; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidoses are severe neurodegenerative disorders resulting from a deficiency in β-hexosaminidase A activity and lacking effective therapies. Using a Sandhoff disease (SD) mouse model (Hexb−/−) of the GM2 gangliosidoses, we tested the potential of systemically delivered adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) expressing Hexb cDNA to correct the neurological phenotype. Neonatal or adult SD and normal mice were intravenously injected with AAV9-HexB or –LacZ and monitored for serum β-hexosaminidase activity, motor function, and survival. Brain GM2 ganglioside, β-hexosaminidase activity, and inflammation were assessed at experimental week 43, or an earlier humane end point. SD mice injected with AAV9-LacZ died by 17 weeks of age, whereas all neonatal AAV9-HexB–treated SD mice survived until 43 weeks (P < 0.0001) with only three exhibiting neurological dysfunction. SD mice treated as adults with AAV9-HexB died between 17 and 35 weeks. Neonatal SD-HexB–treated mice had a significant increase in brain β-hexosaminidase activity, and a reduction in GM2 ganglioside storage and neuroinflammation compared to adult SD-HexB– and SD-LacZ–treated groups. However, at 43 weeks, 8 of 10 neonatal-HexB injected control and SD mice exhibited liver or lung tumors. This study demonstrates the potential for long-term correction of SD and other GM2 gangliosidoses through early rAAV9 based systemic gene therapy. PMID:25515709

  13. Expression of Rous sarcoma virus-derived retroviral vectors in the avian blastoderm: Potential as stable genetic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.T.; Stoker, A.W.; Bissell, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    Retroviruses are valuable tools in studies of embryonic development, both as gene expression vectors and as cell lineage markers. In this study early chicken blastoderm cells are shown to be permissive for infection by Rous sarcoma virus and derivative replication-defective by Rous sarcoma virus and derivative replication-defective vectors, and, in contrast to previously published data, these cells will readily express viral genes. In cultured blastoderm cells, Rous sarcoma virus stably integrates and is transcribed efficiently, producing infectious virus particles. Using replication-defective vectors encoding the bacterial lacZ gene, the authors further show that blastoderms can be infected in culture and inmore » ovo. In ovo, lacZ expression is seen within 24 hours of virus inoculation, and by 96 hours stably expressing clones of cells are observed in diverse tissues throughout the embryo, including epidermis, somites, and heart, as well as in extraembryonic membranes. Given the rapid onset of vector expression and the broad range of permissive cell types, it should be feasible to use Rous sarcoma virus-derived retroviruses as early lineage markers and expression vectors beginning at the blastoderm stage of avian embryogenesis.« less

  14. Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors

    DOEpatents

    Bankiewicz, Krys; Cunningham, Janet

    2012-11-13

    Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant AAV virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) are provided for the treatment of CNS disorders, particularly those disorders which involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. The methods entail providing rAAV virions that comprise a transgene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and administering the virions to the brain of a mammal using a non-manual pump.

  15. Inhalation of Nebulized Perfluorochemical Enhances Recombinant Adenovirus and Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Expression in Lung Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Travis; Bonneau, Laura; Howard, Alan; Blanchard, James; Borda, Juan; Weiner, Daniel J.; Wang, Lili; Gao, Guang Ping; Kolls, Jay K.; Bohm, Rudolf; Liggitt, Denny

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Use of perfluorochemical liquids during intratracheal vector administration enhances recombinant adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated lung epithelial gene expression. We hypothesized that inhalation of nebulized perfluorochemical vapor would also enhance epithelial gene expression after subsequent intratracheal vector administration. Freely breathing adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed for selected times to nebulized perflubron or sterile saline in a sealed Plexiglas chamber. Recombinant adenoviral vector was administered by transtracheal puncture at selected times afterward and mice were killed 3 days after vector administration to assess transgene expression. Mice tolerated the nebulized perflubron without obvious ill effects. Vector administration 6 hr after nebulized perflubron exposure resulted in an average 540% increase in gene expression in airway and alveolar epithelium, compared with that with vector alone or saline plus vector control (p<0.05). However, vector administration 1 hr, 1 day, or 3 days after perflubron exposure was not different from either nebulized saline with vector or vector alone and a 60-min exposure to nebulized perflubron is required. In parallel pilot studies in macaques, inhalation of nebulized perflubron enhanced recombinant AAV2/5 vector expression throughout the lung. Serial chest radiographs, bronchoalveolar lavages, and results of complete blood counts and serum biochemistries demonstrated no obvious adverse effects of nebulized perflubron. Further, one macaque receiving nebulized perflubron only was monitored for 1 year with no obvious adverse effects of exposure. These results demonstrate that inhalation of nebulized perflubron, a simple, clinically more feasible technique than intratracheal administration of liquid perflubron, safely enhances lung gene expression. PMID:22568624

  16. Protection against California 2002 NDV strain afforded by adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing Fusion or Hemagglutination-neuraminidase genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vectored vaccines expressing the combination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes generally have better clinical protection against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) than when either the F and HN genes are expressed alone. Interestingly, the protection induced by F is usually bet...

  17. Quantification of AAV particle titers by infrared fluorescence scanning of coomassie-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E; Linden, R Michael; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two-for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons-a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity.

  18. Tightly regulated, high-level expression from controlled copy number vectors based on the replicon of temperate phage N15.

    PubMed

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Strakhova, Taisia S; Smagin, Vladimir A; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2007-06-15

    A new Escherichia coli host/vector system has been developed to allow a dual regulation of both the plasmid copy number and gene expression. The new pN15E vectors are low copy number plasmids based on the replicon of temperate phage N15, comprising the repA replicase gene and cB repressor gene, controlling the plasmid copy number. Regulation of pN15E copy number is achieved through arabinose-inducible expression of phage N15 antirepressor protein, AntA, whose gene was integrated into the chromosome of the host strain under control of the PBAD promoter. The host strain also carried phage N15 partition operon, sop, allowing stable inheritance of pN15E vectors in the absence of selection pressure. In the first vector, pN15E4, the same PBAD promoter controls expression of a cloned gene. The second vector, pN15E6, carries the phage T5 promoter with a double lac operator repression module thus allowing independent regulation of promoter activity and copy number. Using the lacZ gene to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/repression can be about 7600-fold for pN15E4 and more than 15,000-fold for pN15E6. The low copy number of these vectors ensures very low basal level of expression allowing cloning genes encoding toxic products that was demonstrated by the stable maintenance of a gene encoding a restriction endonuclease in pN15E4. The tight control of transcription and the potential to regulate gene activities quantitatively over wide ranges will open up new approaches in the study of gene function in vivo and controlled expression of heterologous genes.

  19. Systemic errors in quantitative polymerase chain reaction titration of self-complementary adeno-associated viral vectors and improved alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Fagone, Paolo; Wright, J Fraser; Nathwani, Amit C; Nienhuis, Arthur W; Davidoff, Andrew M; Gray, John T

    2012-02-01

    Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vector genomes contain a covalently closed hairpin derived from a mutated inverted terminal repeat that connects the two monomer single-stranded genomes into a head-to-head or tail-to-tail dimer. We found that during quantitative PCR (qPCR) this structure inhibits the amplification of proximal amplicons and causes the systemic underreporting of copy number by as much as 10-fold. We show that cleavage of scAAV vector genomes with restriction endonuclease to liberate amplicons from the covalently closed terminal hairpin restores quantitative amplification, and we implement this procedure in a simple, modified qPCR titration method for scAAV vectors. In addition, we developed and present an AAV genome titration procedure based on gel electrophoresis that requires minimal sample processing and has low interassay variability, and as such is well suited for the rigorous quality control demands of clinical vector production facilities.

  20. Genome-wide profiling of diel and circadian gene expression in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Rund, Samuel S C; Hou, Tim Y; Ward, Sarah M; Collins, Frank H; Duffield, Giles E

    2011-08-09

    Anopheles gambiae, the primary African vector of malaria parasites, exhibits numerous rhythmic behaviors including flight activity, swarming, mating, host seeking, egg laying, and sugar feeding. However, little work has been performed to elucidate the molecular basis for these daily rhythms. To study how gene expression is regulated globally by diel and circadian mechanisms, we have undertaken a DNA microarray analysis of An. gambiae under light/dark cycle (LD) and constant dark (DD) conditions. Adult mated, non-blood-fed female mosquitoes were collected every 4 h for 48 h, and samples were processed with DNA microarrays. Using a cosine wave-fitting algorithm, we identified 1,293 and 600 rhythmic genes with a period length of 20-28 h in the head and body, respectively, under LD conditions, representing 9.7 and 4.5% of the An. gambiae gene set. A majority of these genes was specific to heads or bodies. Examination of mosquitoes under DD conditions revealed that rhythmic programming of the transcriptome is dependent on an interaction between the endogenous clock and extrinsic regulation by the LD cycle. A subset of genes, including the canonical clock components, was expressed rhythmically under both environmental conditions. A majority of genes had peak expression clustered around the day/night transitions, anticipating dawn and dusk. Genes cover diverse biological processes such as transcription/translation, metabolism, detoxification, olfaction, vision, cuticle regulation, and immunity, and include rate-limiting steps in the pathways. This study highlights the fundamental roles that both the circadian clock and light play in the physiology of this important insect vector and suggests targets for intervention.

  1. A universal reference sample derived from clone vector for improved detection of differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rishi L; Gonye, Gregory E; Gao, Guang; Schwaber, James S

    2006-01-01

    Background Using microarrays by co-hybridizing two samples labeled with different dyes enables differential gene expression measurements and comparisons across slides while controlling for within-slide variability. Typically one dye produces weaker signal intensities than the other often causing signals to be undetectable. In addition, undetectable spots represent a large problem for two-color microarray designs and most arrays contain at least 40% undetectable spots even when labeled with reference samples such as Stratagene's Universal Reference RNAs™. Results We introduce a novel universal reference sample that produces strong signal for all spots on the array, increasing the average fraction of detectable spots to 97%. Maximizing detectable spots on the reference image channel also decreases the variability of microarray data allowing for reliable detection of smaller differential gene expression changes. The reference sample is derived from sequence contained in the parental EST clone vector pT7T3D-Pac and is called vector RNA (vRNA). We show that vRNA can also be used for quality control of microarray printing and PCR product quality, detection of hybridization anomalies, and simplification of spot finding and segmentation tasks. This reference sample can be made inexpensively in large quantities as a renewable resource that is consistent across experiments. Conclusion Results of this study show that vRNA provides a useful universal reference that yields high signal for almost all spots on a microarray, reduces variation and allows for comparisons between experiments and laboratories. Further, it can be used for quality control of microarray printing and PCR product quality, detection of hybridization anomalies, and simplification of spot finding and segmentation tasks. This type of reference allows for detection of small changes in differential expression while reference designs in general allow for large-scale multivariate experimental designs. vRNA in

  2. Live attenuated rubella vectors expressing SIV and HIV vaccine antigens replicate and elicit durable immune responses in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Live attenuated viruses are among our most potent and effective vaccines. For human immunodeficiency virus, however, a live attenuated strain could present substantial safety concerns. We have used the live attenuated rubella vaccine strain RA27/3 as a vector to express SIV and HIV vaccine antigens because its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in millions of children. One dose protects for life against rubella infection. In previous studies, rubella vectors replicated to high titers in cell culture while stably expressing SIV and HIV antigens. Their viability in vivo, however, as well as immunogenicity and antibody persistence, were unknown. Results This paper reports the first successful trial of rubella vectors in rhesus macaques, in combination with DNA vaccines in a prime and boost strategy. The vectors grew robustly in vivo, and the protein inserts were highly immunogenic. Antibody titers elicited by the SIV Gag vector were greater than or equal to those elicited by natural SIV infection. The antibodies were long lasting, and they were boosted by a second dose of replication-competent rubella vectors given six months later, indicating the induction of memory B cells. Conclusions Rubella vectors can serve as a vaccine platform for safe delivery and expression of SIV and HIV antigens. By presenting these antigens in the context of an acute infection, at a high level and for a prolonged duration, these vectors can stimulate a strong and persistent immune response, including maturation of memory B cells. Rhesus macaques will provide an ideal animal model for demonstrating immunogenicity of novel vectors and protection against SIV or SHIV challenge. PMID:24041113

  3. Construction of siRNA/miRNA expression vectors based on a one-step PCR process

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zeng, Jie Qiong; Wan, Gang; Hu, Gui Bin; Yan, Hong; Ma, Li Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful means for silencing target gene expression in mammalian cells and is envisioned to be useful in therapeutic approaches to human disease. In recent years, high-throughput, genome-wide screening of siRNA/miRNA libraries has emerged as a desirable approach. Current methods for constructing siRNA/miRNA expression vectors require the synthesis of long oligonucleotides, which is costly and suffers from mutation problems. Results Here we report an ingenious method to solve traditional problems associated with construction of siRNA/miRNA expression vectors. We synthesized shorter primers (< 50 nucleotides) to generate a linear expression structure by PCR. The PCR products were directly transformed into chemically competent E. coli and converted to functional vectors in vivo via homologous recombination. The positive clones could be easily screened under UV light. Using this method we successfully constructed over 500 functional siRNA/miRNA expression vectors. Sequencing of the vectors confirmed a high accuracy rate. Conclusion This novel, convenient, low-cost and highly efficient approach may be useful for high-throughput assays of RNAi libraries. PMID:19490634

  4. A CGMMV genome-replicon vector with partial sequences of coat protein gene efficiently expresses GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Jailani, A Abdul Kader; Solanki, Vikas; Roy, Anirban; Sivasudha, T; Mandal, Bikash

    2017-04-02

    A highly infectious clone of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a cucurbit-infecting tobamovirus was utilized for designing of gene expression vectors. Two versions of vector were examined for their efficacy in expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana. When the GFP gene was inserted at the stop codon of coat protein (CP) gene of the CGMMV genome without any read-through codon, systemic expression of GFP, as well as virion formation and systemic symptoms expression were obtained in N. benthamiana. The qRT-PCR analysis showed 23 fold increase of GFP over actin at 10days post inoculation (dpi), which increased to 45 fold at 14dpi and thereafter the GFP expression was significantly declined. Further, we show that when the most of the CP sequence is deleted retaining only the first 105 nucleotides, the shortened vector containing GFP in frame of original CP open reading frame (ORF) resulted in 234 fold increase of GFP expression over actin at 5dpi in N. benthamiana without the formation of virions and disease symptoms. Our study demonstrated that a simple manipulation of CP gene in the CGMMV genome while preserving the translational frame of CP resulted in developing a virus-free, rapid and efficient foreign protein expression system in the plant. The CGMMV based vectors developed in this study may be potentially useful for the production of edible vaccines in cucurbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering adeno-associated virus 2 vectors for targeted gene delivery to atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    White, K; Büning, H; Kritz, A; Janicki, H; McVey, J; Perabo, L; Murphy, G; Odenthal, M; Work, L M; Hallek, M; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2008-03-01

    Targeted delivery of biological agents to atherosclerotic plaques may provide a novel treatment and/or useful tool for imaging of atherosclerosis in vivo. However, there are no known viral vectors that possess the desired tropism. Two plaque-targeting peptides, CAPGPSKSC (CAP) and CNHRYMQMC (CNH) were inserted into the capsid of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) to assess vector retargeting. AAV2-CNH produced significantly higher levels of transduction than unmodified AAV2 in human, murine and rat endothelial cells, whereas transduction of nontarget HeLa cells was unaltered. Transduction studies and surface plasmon resonance suggest that AAV2-CNH uses membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase as a surface receptor. AAV2-CAP only produced higher levels of transduction in rat endothelial cells, possibly because the virus was found to be affected by proteasomal degradation. In vivo substantially higher levels of both peptide-modified AAV2 vectors was detected in the brachiocephalic artery (site of advanced atherosclerotic plaques) and aorta, whereas reduced levels were detected in all other organs examined. These results suggest that in the AAV2 platform the peptides are exposed on the capsid surface in a way that enables efficient receptor binding and so creates effective atherosclerotic plaque targeted vectors.

  6. Generation of HIV-1 based bi-cistronic lentiviral vectors for stable gene expression and live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Lalit; Budnar, Srikanth; Bhatt, Khyati; Sansare, Sneha; Mukhopadhaya, Amitabha; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Dalal, Sorab N

    2012-10-01

    The study of protein-protein interactions, protein localization, protein organization into higher order structures and organelle dynamics in live cells, has greatly enhanced the understanding of various cellular processes. Live cell imaging experiments employ plasmid or viral vectors to express the protein/proteins of interest fused to a fluorescent protein. Unlike plasmid vectors, lentiviral vectors can be introduced into both dividing and non dividing cells, can be pseudotyped to infect a broad or narrow range of cells, and can be used to generate transgenic animals. However, the currently available lentiviral vectors are limited by the choice of fluorescent protein tag, choice of restriction enzyme sites in the Multiple Cloning Sites (MCS) and promoter choice for gene expression. In this report, HIV-1 based bi-cistronic lentiviral vectors have been generated that drive the expression of multiple fluorescent tags (EGFP, mCherry, ECFP, EYFP and dsRed), using two different promoters. The presence of a unique MCS with multiple restriction sites allows the generation of fusion proteins with the fluorescent tag of choice, allowing analysis of multiple fusion proteins in live cell imaging experiments. These novel lentiviral vectors are improved delivery vehicles for gene transfer applications and are important tools for live cell imaging in vivo.

  7. Inhibition of Choroidal Neovascularization by Intravenous Injection of Adenoviral Vectors Expressing Secretable Endostatin

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Keisuke; Ando, Akira; Gehlbach, Peter; Nesbitt, David; Takahashi, Kyoichi; Goldsteen, Donna; Penn, Michael; Chen, Cheauyan T.; Mori, Keiko; Melia, Michele; Phipps, Sandrina; Moffat, Diana; Brazzell, Kim; Liau, Gene; Dixon, Katharine H.; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Endostatin is a cleavage product of collagen XVIII that inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Interferon α2a blocks tumor angiogenesis and causes regression of hemangiomas, but has no effect on choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Therefore, inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis do not necessarily inhibit ocular neovascularization. In this study, we used an intravenous injection of adenoviral vectors containing a sig-mEndo transgene consisting of murine immunoglobulin κ-chain leader sequence coupled to sequence coding for murine endostatin to investigate the effect of high serum levels of endostatin on CNV in mice. Mice injected with a construct in which sig-mEndo expression was driven by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter had moderately high serum levels of endostatin and significantly smaller CNV lesions at sites of laser-induced rupture of Bruch’s membrane than mice injected with null vector. Mice injected with a construct in which sig-mEndo was driven by the simian cytomegalovirus promoter had ∼10-fold higher endostatin serum levels and had nearly complete prevention of CNV. There was a strong inverse correlation between endostatin serum level and area of CNV. This study provides proof of principle that gene therapy to increase levels of endostatin can prevent the development of CNV and may provide a new treatment for the leading cause of severe loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:11438478

  8. AAV9-based gene therapy partially ameliorates the clinical phenotype of a mouse model of Leigh syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Di Meo, I; Marchet, S; Lamperti, C; Zeviani, M; Viscomi, C

    2017-01-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is the most common infantile mitochondrial encephalopathy. No treatment is currently available for this condition. Mice lacking Ndufs4, encoding NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase iron-sulfur protein 4 (NDUFS4) recapitulates the main findings of complex I (cI)-related LS, including severe multisystemic cI deficiency and progressive neurodegeneration. In order to develop a gene therapy approach for LS, we used here an AAV2/9 vector carrying the human NDUFS4 coding sequence (hNDUFS4). We administered AAV2/9-hNDUFS4 by intravenous (IV) and/or intracerebroventricular (ICV) routes to either newborn or young Ndufs4−/− mice. We found that IV administration alone was only able to correct the cI deficiency in peripheral organs, whereas ICV administration partially corrected the deficiency in the brain. However, both treatments failed to improve the clinical phenotype or to prolong the lifespan of Ndufs4−/− mice. In contrast, combined IV and ICV treatments resulted, along with increased cI activity, in the amelioration of the rotarod performance and in a significant prolongation of the lifespan. Our results indicate that extraneurological organs have an important role in LS pathogenesis and provide an insight into current limitations of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy in multisystem disorders. These findings warrant future investigations to develop new vectors able to efficiently target multiple organs. PMID:28753212

  9. AAV9-based gene therapy partially ameliorates the clinical phenotype of a mouse model of Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, I; Marchet, S; Lamperti, C; Zeviani, M; Viscomi, C

    2017-10-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is the most common infantile mitochondrial encephalopathy. No treatment is currently available for this condition. Mice lacking Ndufs4, encoding NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase iron-sulfur protein 4 (NDUFS4) recapitulates the main findings of complex I (cI)-related LS, including severe multisystemic cI deficiency and progressive neurodegeneration. In order to develop a gene therapy approach for LS, we used here an AAV2/9 vector carrying the human NDUFS4 coding sequence (hNDUFS4). We administered AAV2/9-hNDUFS4 by intravenous (IV) and/or intracerebroventricular (ICV) routes to either newborn or young Ndufs4 -/- mice. We found that IV administration alone was only able to correct the cI deficiency in peripheral organs, whereas ICV administration partially corrected the deficiency in the brain. However, both treatments failed to improve the clinical phenotype or to prolong the lifespan of Ndufs4 -/- mice. In contrast, combined IV and ICV treatments resulted, along with increased cI activity, in the amelioration of the rotarod performance and in a significant prolongation of the lifespan. Our results indicate that extraneurological organs have an important role in LS pathogenesis and provide an insight into current limitations of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy in multisystem disorders. These findings warrant future investigations to develop new vectors able to efficiently target multiple organs.

  10. Effective reduction of the interleukin-1β transcript in osteoarthritis-prone guinea pig chondrocytes via short hairpin RNA mediated RNA interference influences gene expression of mediators implicated in disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Santangeloyz, K.S.; Bertoneyz, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    summary Objective To ascertain a viral vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) capable of reducing the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) transcript in osteoarthritis (OA)-prone chondrocytes and detect corresponding changes in the expression patterns of several critical disease mediators. Methods Cultured chondrocytes from 2-month-old Hartley guinea pigs were screened for reduction of the IL-1β transcript following plasmid-based delivery of U6-driven shRNA sequences. A successful plasmid/shRNA knockdown combination was identified and used to construct an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector for further evaluation. Relative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) was used to quantify in vitro transcript changes of IL-1β and an additional nine genes following transduction with this targeting knockdown vector. To validate in vitro findings, this AAV5 vector was injected into one knee, while either an equivalent volume of saline vehicle (three animals) or non-targeting control vector (three animals) were injected into opposite knees. Fold differences and subsequent percent gene expression levels relative to control groups were calculated using the comparative CT (2−ΔΔCT) method. Results Statistically significant decreases in IL-1β expression were achieved by the targeting knockdown vector relative to both the mock-transduced control and non-targeting vector control groups in vitro. Transcript levels of anabolic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were significantly increased by use of this targeting knockdown vector. Transduction with this targeting AAV5 vector also significantly decreased the transcript levels of key inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-2, IL-8, and IL-12] and catabolic agents [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)13, MMP2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inducible nitrous oxide synthase (iNOS)] relative to both mock-transduced and non-targeting vector control groups. In vivo application of this

  11. Effective reduction of the interleukin-1β transcript in osteoarthritis-prone guinea pig chondrocytes via short hairpin RNA mediated RNA interference influences gene expression of mediators implicated in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, K S; Bertone, A L

    2011-12-01

    To ascertain a viral vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) capable of reducing the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) transcript in osteoarthritis (OA)-prone chondrocytes and detect corresponding changes in the expression patterns of several critical disease mediators. Cultured chondrocytes from 2-month-old Hartley guinea pigs were screened for reduction of the IL-1β transcript following plasmid-based delivery of U6-driven shRNA sequences. A successful plasmid/shRNA knockdown combination was identified and used to construct an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector for further evaluation. Relative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify in vitro transcript changes of IL-1β and an additional nine genes following transduction with this targeting knockdown vector. To validate in vitro findings, this AAV5 vector was injected into one knee, while either an equivalent volume of saline vehicle (three animals) or non-targeting control vector (three animals) were injected into opposite knees. Fold differences and subsequent percent gene expression levels relative to control groups were calculated using the comparative CT (2(-ΔΔCT)) method. Statistically significant decreases in IL-1β expression were achieved by the targeting knockdown vector relative to both the mock-transduced control and non-targeting vector control groups in vitro. Transcript levels of anabolic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were significantly increased by use of this targeting knockdown vector. Transduction with this targeting AAV5 vector also significantly decreased the transcript levels of key inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-2, IL-8, and IL-12] and catabolic agents [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)13, MMP2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inducible nitrous oxide synthase (iNOS)] relative to both mock-transduced and non-targeting vector control groups. In vivo application of this targeting knockdown vector resulted

  12. Rapid high-yield expression of full-size IgG antibodies in plants coinfected with noncompeting viral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Giritch, Anatoli; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Engler, Carola; van Eldik, Gerben; Botterman, Johan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Plant viral vectors allow expression of heterologous proteins at high yields, but so far, they have been unable to express heterooligomeric proteins efficiently. We describe here a rapid and indefinitely scalable process for high-level expression of functional full-size mAbs of the IgG class in plants. The process relies on synchronous coinfection and coreplication of two viral vectors, each expressing a separate antibody chain. The two vectors are derived from two different plant viruses that were found to be noncompeting. Unlike vectors derived from the same virus, noncompeting vectors effectively coexpress the heavy and light chains in the same cell throughout the plant body, resulting in yields of up to 0.5 g of assembled mAbs per kg of fresh-leaf biomass. This technology allows production of gram quantities of mAbs for research purposes in just several days, and the same protocol can be used on an industrial scale in situations requiring rapid response, such as pandemic or terrorism events. PMID:16973752

  13. The Development of a Viral Mediated CRISPR/Cas9 System with Doxycycline Dependent gRNA Expression for Inducible In vitro and In vivo Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    de Solis, Christopher A.; Ho, Anthony; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Ploski, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease, from the type II prokaryotic Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system, has been adapted and utilized by scientists to edit the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the development of a viral mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system that can be rendered inducible utilizing doxycycline (Dox) and can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV). Specifically, we developed an inducible gRNA (gRNAi) AAV vector that is designed to express the gRNA from a H1/TO promoter. This AAV vector is also designed to express the Tet repressor (TetR) to regulate the expression of the gRNAi in a Dox dependent manner. We show that H1/TO promoters of varying length and a U6/TO promoter can edit DNA with similar efficiency in vitro, in a Dox dependent manner. We also demonstrate that our inducible gRNAi vector can be used to edit the genomes of neurons in vivo within the mouse brain in a Dox dependent manner. Genome editing can be induced in vivo with this system by supplying animals Dox containing food for as little as 1 day. This system might be cross compatible with many existing S. pyogenes Cas9 systems (i.e., Cas9 mouse, CRISPRi, etc.), and therefore it likely can be used to render these systems inducible as well. PMID:27587996

  14. Adenovirus vector expressing keratinocyte growth factor using CAG promoter impairs pulmonary function of mice with elastase-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Oki, Hiroshi; Yazawa, Takuya; Baba, Yasuko; Kanegae, Yumi; Sato, Hanako; Sakamoto, Seiko; Goto, Takahisa; Saito, Izumu; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary emphysema impairs quality of life and increases mortality. It has previously been shown that administration of adenovirus vector expressing murine keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) before elastase instillation prevents pulmonary emphysema in mice. We therefore hypothesized that therapeutic administration of KGF would restore damage to lungs caused by elastase instillation and thus improve pulmonary function in an animal model. KGF expressing adenovirus vector, which prevented bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a previous study, was constructed. Adenovirus vector (1.0 × 10 9 plaque-forming units) was administered intratracheally one week after administration of elastase into mouse lungs. One week after administration of KGF-vector, exercise tolerance testing and blood gas analysis were performed, after which the lungs were removed under deep anesthesia. KGF-positive pneumocytes were more numerous, surfactant protein secretion in the airspace greater and mean linear intercept of lungs shorter in animals that had received KGF than in control animals. Unexpectedly, however, arterial blood oxygenation was worse in the KGF group and maximum running speed, an indicator of exercise capacity, had not improved after KGF in mice with elastase-induced emphysema, indicating that KGF-expressing adenovirus vector impaired pulmonary function in these mice. Notably, vector lacking KGF-expression unit did not induce such impairment, implying that the KGF expression unit itself may cause the damage to alveolar cells. Possible involvement of the CAG promoter used for KGF expression in impairing pulmonary function is discussed. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. A single EBV-based vector for stable episomal maintenance and expression of GFP in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Bhaskar; Scheyhing, Kelly; Xue, Haipeng; Fontes, Andrew; Chesnut, Jon; Rao, Mahendra; Lakshmipathy, Uma

    2009-03-01

    Stable expression of transgenes in stem cells has been a challenge due to the nonavailability of efficient transfection methods and the inability of transgenes to support sustained gene expression. Several methods have been reported to stably modify both embryonic and adult stem cells. These methods rely on integration of the transgene into the genome of the host cell, which could result in an expression pattern dependent on the number of integrations and the genomic locus of integration. To overcome this issue, site-specific integration methods mediated by integrase, adeno-associated virus or via homologous recombination have been used to generate stable human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. In this study, we describe a vector that is maintained episomally in hESCs. The vector used in this study is based on components derived from the Epstein-Barr virus, containing the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 expression cassette and the OriP origin of replication. The vector also expresses the drug-resistance marker gene hygromycin, which allows for selection and long-term maintenance of cells harboring the plasmid. Using this vector system, we show sustained expression of green fluorescent protein in undifferentiated hESCs and their differentiating embryoid bodies. In addition, the stable hESC clones show comparable expression with and without drug selection. Consistent with this observation, bulk-transfected adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed persistent marker gene expression as they differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts. Episomal vectors offer a fast and efficient method to create hESC reporter lines, which in turn allows one to test the effect of overexpression of various genes on stem cell growth, proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Essential and Dispensable Virus-Encoded Replication Elements Revealed by Efforts To Develop Hypoviruses as Gene Expression Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Geletka, Lynn M.; Nuss, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated whether hypoviruses, viral agents responsible for virulence attenuation (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, could serve as gene expression vectors. The infectious cDNA clone of the prototypic hypovirus CHV1-EP713 was modified to generate 20 different vector candidates. Although transient expression was achieved for a subset of vectors that contained the green fluorescent protein gene from Aequorea victoria, long-term expression (past day 8) was not observed for any vector construct. Analysis of viral RNAs recovered from transfected fungal colonies revealed that the foreign genes were readily deleted from the replicating virus, although small portions of foreign sequences were retained by some vectors after months of replication. However, the results of vector viability and progeny characterization provided unexpected new insights into essential and dispensable elements of hypovirus replication. The N-terminal portion (codons 1 to 24) of the 5′-proximal open reading frame (ORF), ORF A, was found to be required for virus replication, while the remaining 598 codons of this ORF were completely dispensable. Substantial alterations were tolerated in the pentanucleotide UAAUG that contains the ORF A termination codon and the overlapping putative initiation codon of the second of the two hypovirus ORFs, ORF B. Replication competence was maintained following either a frameshift mutation that caused a two-codon extension of ORF A or a modification that produced a single-ORF genomic organization. These results are discussed in terms of determinants of hypovirus replication, the potential utility of hypoviruses as gene expression vectors, and possible mechanisms by which hypoviruses recognize and delete foreign sequences. PMID:10906211

  17. Restoration of central nervous system alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity and therapeutic benefits in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB mice by a single intracisternal recombinant adeno-associated viral type 2 vector delivery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haiyan; DiRosario, Julianne; Kang, Lu; Muenzer, Joseph; McCarty, Douglas M

    2010-07-01

    Finding efficient central nervous system (CNS) delivery approaches has been the major challenge facing therapeutic development for treating diseases with global neurological manifestation, such as mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease, caused by autosomal recessive defect of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NaGlu). Previously, we developed an approach, intracisternal (i.c.) injection, to deliver recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector to the CNS of mice, leading to a widespread periventricular distribution of transduction. In the present study, we delivered rAAV2 vector expressing human NaGlu into the CNS of MPS IIIB mice by an i.c. injection approach, to test its therapeutic efficacy and feasibility for treating the neurological manifestation of the disease. We demonstrated significant functional neurological benefits of a single i.c. vector infusion in adult MPS IIIB mice. The treatment slowed the disease progression by mediating widespread recombinant NaGlu expression in the CNS, resulting in the reduction of brain lysosomal storage pathology, significantly improved cognitive function and prolonged survival. However, persisting motor function deficits suggested that pathology in areas outside the CNS contributes to the MPS IIIB behavioral phenotype. The therapeutic benefit of i.c. rAAV2 delivery was dose-dependent and could be attribute solely to the CNS transduction because the procedure did not lead to detectable transduction in somatic tissues. A single IC rAAV2 gene delivery is functionally beneficial for treating the CNS disease of MPS IIIB in mice. It is immediately clinically translatable, with the potential of improving the quality of life for patients with MPS IIIB.

  18. Independent and high-level dual-gene expression in adult stem-progenitor cells from a single lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Andreadis, S T

    2009-07-01

    Expression of multiple genes from the same target cell is required in several technological and therapeutic applications such as quantitative measurements of promoter activity or in vivo tracking of stem cells. In spite of such need, reaching independent and high-level dual-gene expression cannot be reliably accomplished by current gene transfer vehicles. To address this issue, we designed a lentiviral vector carrying two transcriptional units separated by polyadenylation, terminator and insulator sequences. With this design, the expression level of both genes was as high as that yielded from lentiviral vectors containing only a single transcriptional unit. Similar results were observed with several promoters and cell types including epidermal keratinocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and hair follicle stem cells. Notably, we demonstrated quantitative dynamic monitoring of gene expression in primary cells with no need for selection protocols suggesting that this optimized lentivirus may be useful in high-throughput gene expression profiling studies.

  19. Intravitreal delivery of AAV-NDI1 provides functional benefit in a murine model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chadderton, Naomi; Palfi, Arpad; Millington-Ward, Sophia; Gobbo, Oliverio; Overlack, Nora; Carrigan, Matthew; O'Reilly, Mary; Campbell, Matthew; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Wolfrum, Uwe; Humphries, Peter; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, G Jane

    2013-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited form of visual dysfunction caused by mutations in several genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I). Development of gene therapies for LHON has been impeded by genetic heterogeneity and the need to deliver therapies to the mitochondria of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the cells primarily affected in LHON. The therapy under development entails intraocular injection of a nuclear yeast gene NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) that encodes a single subunit complex I equivalent and as such is mutation independent. NDI1 is imported into mitochondria due to an endogenous mitochondrial localisation signal. Intravitreal injection represents a clinically relevant route of delivery to RGCs not previously used for NDI1. In this study, recombinant adenoassociated virus (AAV) serotype 2 expressing NDI1 (AAV-NDI1) was shown to protect RGCs in a rotenone-induced murine model of LHON. AAV-NDI1 significantly reduced RGC death by 1.5-fold and optic nerve atrophy by 1.4-fold. This led to a significant preservation of retinal function as assessed by manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and optokinetic responses. Intraocular injection of AAV-NDI1 overcomes many barriers previously associated with developing therapies for LHON and holds great therapeutic promise for a mitochondrial disorder for which there are no effective therapies.