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Sample records for aaviksoo edgar karofeld

  1. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Paola, Luciano de; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  2. Edgar Degas in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Edgar Degas was not yet famous, but was on the point of aesthetic and commercial success when he left Paris in the fall for his New Orleans visit of about four months, during which time he painted 22 major works. It might be said that he was having a midlife crisis at this time. He had been painting ballet and horse pictures to assist his father's…

  3. Looking southeast down the Turtle Creek Valley at the Edgar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast down the Turtle Creek Valley at the Edgar Thomson works from a bluff at North Braddock (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 17 CFR 232.301 - EDGAR Filer Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (September 2009). Additional provisions applicable to Form N-SAR filers are set forth in the EDGAR Filer... Filer Manual. Filers must prepare electronic filings in the manner prescribed by the EDGAR Filer Manual.... The requirements for becoming an EDGAR Filer and updating company data are set forth in the updated...

  5. 17 CFR 232.301 - EDGAR Filer Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (March 2014). Additional provisions applicable to Form N-SAR filers are set forth in the EDGAR Filer... Filer Manual. Filers must prepare electronic filings in the manner prescribed by the EDGAR Filer Manual.... The requirements for becoming an EDGAR Filer and updating company data are set forth in the updated...

  6. 17 CFR 232.301 - EDGAR Filer Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (December 2010). Additional provisions applicable to Form N-SAR filers are set forth in the EDGAR Filer... Filer Manual. Filers must prepare electronic filings in the manner prescribed by the EDGAR Filer Manual.... The requirements for becoming an EDGAR Filer and updating company data are set forth in the updated...

  7. 78 FR 60684 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...-30722] Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final... Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System (EDGAR) Filer Manual and related rules to reflect... the EDGAR Filer Manual is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of October 2, 2013. FOR...

  8. Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, J. G. J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents the objective and methodology chosen for the construction of a global emissions source database called EDGAR and the structural design of the database system. The database estimates on a regional and grid basis, 1990 annual emissions of greenhouse gases, and of ozone depleting compounds from all known sources. (LZ)

  9. [The medical history of Edgar Allan Poe].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2007-09-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed.

  10. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  11. 78 FR 4766 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... primarily to introduce the new EDGARLink Online submission type IRANNOTICE; and support PDF as an official... Portable Document Format (PDF) as an official filing format. EDGAR will continue to accept ASCII and HTML...) and 101 (17 CFR 232.101) of Regulation S-T and the EDGAR Filer Manual relating to the use of PDF files...

  12. 76 FR 1514 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Filer Manual and the rule amendments is January 11, 2011. In accordance with the APA,\\8\\ we find that...-29547] Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final... Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System (EDGAR) Filer Manual to reflect updates to the...

  13. 77 FR 62431 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...-30227] Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final... Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System (EDGAR) Filer Manual and related rules to reflect... Manual is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of October 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  14. 78 FR 29616 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... updated Filer Manual and the rule amendments is May 21, 2013. In accordance with the APA,\\7\\ we find that...-30515] Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final... Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System (EDGAR) Filer Manual and related rules to reflect...

  15. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 Lunar Module pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 lunar landing mission Lunar Module pilot in civilian clothes. Left to right, are Astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander. They are standing by a Command Module Trainer which was used in the exercise.

  16. 75 FR 55965 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... (Monthly Schedule of Portfolio Holdings of Money Market Funds) and any amendments to the form. The EDGAR... Schedule of Portfolio Holdings of Money Market Funds) contact Adam Glazer, Senior Counsel, or C. Hunter...

  17. A Hidden Portrait by Edgar Degas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurrowgood, David; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Kirkham, Robin; Thurrowgood, Saul; Howard, Daryl L.

    2016-08-01

    The preservation and understanding of cultural heritage depends increasingly on in-depth chemical studies. Rapid technological advances are forging connections between scientists and arts communities, enabling revolutionary new techniques for non-invasive technical study of culturally significant, highly prized artworks. We have applied a non-invasive, rapid, high definition X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental mapping technique to a French Impressionist painting using a synchrotron radiation source, and show how this technology can advance scholarly art interpretation and preservation. We have obtained detailed technical understanding of a painting which could not be resolved by conventional techniques. Here we show 31.6 megapixel scanning XRF derived elemental maps and report a novel image processing methodology utilising these maps to produce a false colour representation of a “hidden” portrait by Edgar Degas. This work provides a cohesive methodology for both imaging and understanding the chemical composition of artworks, and enables scholarly understandings of cultural heritage, many of which have eluded conventional technologies. We anticipate that the outcome from this work will encourage the reassessment of some of the world’s great art treasures.

  18. A Hidden Portrait by Edgar Degas

    PubMed Central

    Thurrowgood, David; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Kirkham, Robin; Thurrowgood, Saul; Howard, Daryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The preservation and understanding of cultural heritage depends increasingly on in-depth chemical studies. Rapid technological advances are forging connections between scientists and arts communities, enabling revolutionary new techniques for non-invasive technical study of culturally significant, highly prized artworks. We have applied a non-invasive, rapid, high definition X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental mapping technique to a French Impressionist painting using a synchrotron radiation source, and show how this technology can advance scholarly art interpretation and preservation. We have obtained detailed technical understanding of a painting which could not be resolved by conventional techniques. Here we show 31.6 megapixel scanning XRF derived elemental maps and report a novel image processing methodology utilising these maps to produce a false colour representation of a “hidden” portrait by Edgar Degas. This work provides a cohesive methodology for both imaging and understanding the chemical composition of artworks, and enables scholarly understandings of cultural heritage, many of which have eluded conventional technologies. We anticipate that the outcome from this work will encourage the reassessment of some of the world’s great art treasures. PMID:27490856

  19. The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  20. 17 CFR 274.402 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for access codes to file on EDGAR. 274.402 Section 274.402 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Forms for Electronic Filing § 274.402 Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR..., filing agent or training agent to log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d...

  1. 17 CFR 239.63 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for access codes to file on EDGAR. 239.63 Section 239.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Statements § 239.63 Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR. Form ID must be filed by... log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d) Password Modification...

  2. 17 CFR 239.63 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for access codes to file on EDGAR. 239.63 Section 239.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Statements § 239.63 Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR. Form ID must be filed by... log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d) Password Modification...

  3. 17 CFR 274.402 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for access codes to file on EDGAR. 274.402 Section 274.402 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Forms for Electronic Filing § 274.402 Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR..., filing agent or training agent to log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d...

  4. 78 FR 46256 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... (202) 551-3600; in the Division of Trading and Markets for questions concerning Form 13H contact...://www.sec.gov/info/edgar.shtml . You can also inspect the document at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html . By the...

  5. 76 FR 73506 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Mackintosh, Office of Information Technology, at (202) 551-3600; in the Division of Trading and Markets for... is http://www.sec.gov/info/edgar.shtml . You can also inspect the document at the National Archives... (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  6. Astronaut Edgar Mitchell addresses MSC personnel and news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, right, the Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, addresses JSC/MSC personnel and news media representatives and other visitors soon after he and his fellow crewmen were released from a 15-day confinement period in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. Pictured with Mitchell in front of the LRL, MSC bldg 37, are Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., left, commander; and Stuart A Roosa, command module pilot, Mrs Mitchell is at right and Mrs. Roosa, near left. Roosa is flanked by his four children, left to right, Christopher A., Stuart A. Roosa Jr., John D. and Rosemary D.

  7. Seeds of a Soldier: The True Story of Edgar Allan Poe - The Sergeant Major

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seeds of a Soldier. The true story of Edgar Allan Poe - the...Std Z39-18 Army Space Journal Fall 200360 By Michael L. Howard Seeds of a Soldier The true story of Edgar Allan Poe — the Sergeant Major...provided additional motivation for Poe to ultimately suc- ceed. Poe’s biological father disappeared when Edgar was E (See Seeds , page 56) Author’s Note

  8. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    PubMed

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  9. Technology Transfer at Edgar Mine: Phase 1; October 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad R.; Bauer, Stephen; Nakagawa, Masami

    The objective of this project is to study the flow of fluid through the fractures and to characterize the efficiency of heat extraction (heat transfer) from the test rock mass in the Edgar Mine, managed by Colorado School of Mines in Idaho Springs, CO. The experiment consists of drilling into the wall of the mine and fracturing the rock, characterizing the size and nature of the fracture network, circulating fluid through the network, and measuring the efficiency of heat extraction from the 'reservoir' by monitoring the temperature of the 'produced' fluid with time. This is a multi-year project performed asmore » a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines and Sandia National Laboratories and carried out in phases. This report summarizes Phase 1: Selection and characterization of the location for the experiment, and outlines the steps for Phase 2: Circulation Experiments.« less

  10. Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

  11. The big ideas of Edgar Alexander Pask (1912-66).

    PubMed

    Conacher, I D

    2010-02-01

    Edgar Pask worked before, during and after World War II with the anaesthetist Robert Macintosh. Both were ranking officers and engaged in work with the Royal Air Force Physiological Laboratories at Farnborough, then in the charge of Dr Bryan Matthews. Pask submitted as a Doctorate Thesis a compilation of much of the experimental work in which he was the main subject, most of the data being acquired while he was unconscious. Experiments in which the Farnborough Team were engaged form a central core to the Thesis and relate to the development of life jackets. The information is well known and has been widely publicized, along with most of the biography of Pask. However, some extreme physiological experiments, again with Pask as the test subject and which probably were not conducted at Farnborough, are less well known but in their own way even more extraordinary. The theme in common is Pask's ideas to use the anaesthetized state and the properties of anaesthetic agents as surrogates to the extreme situations Royal Air Force pilots were subject to in modern warfare. There is no purpose to detract from Pask's ideas and selfless heroism by digressions into parallel processes conducted by the opposing Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL) research establishments, but it is evident these were known and had shocked the Farnborough Team (including Pask) before revelation at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials.

  12. Edgar Allan Poe: a case description of the Marfan syndrome in an obscure short story.

    PubMed

    Battle, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    In the obscure short story “A Tale of the Ragged Mountains,” Edgar Allen Poe meticulously described a character with features remarkably consistent with the Marfan syndrome. This description appeared in fiction >50 years before the celebrated index description in the published medical research by Professor Antoine Marfan in Paris in 1896.

  13. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling "prose-poem" "Eureka" (1848), in particular, has…

  14. "Pocahontas" by Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire. Literature Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzschuher, Cynthia

    Intended as an aid to elementary school teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Pocahontas" by Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire. It begins with sample lesson plans, a unit planner, getting to know the book and author, and suggestions for using the unit activities. Next, a section offers…

  15. 17 CFR 232.103 - Liability for transmission errors or omissions in documents filed via EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for transmission errors or omissions in documents filed via EDGAR. 232.103 Section 232.103 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC...

  16. J. Edgar Hoover and the Black Press in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    Holding enormous if controversial power as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Edgar Hoover was sometimes controlled unexpectedly at the highest reaches of government, as illustrated by his failed attempt to obtain an Espionage Act indictment against the black press during World War II. Following anarchist bombings in 1919,…

  17. Hale Boggs on J. Edgar Hoover: Rhetorical Choice and Political Denunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dirk

    This paper examines United States Representative Hale Boggs's 1971 speech on the House floor, in which he denounced J. Edgar Hoover and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for wiretapping members of Congress and infiltrating campus student groups. Following an introduction to the objectives of the paper, the first section reviews Boggs's…

  18. Hey There Edgar Snow, What Happened to the Red Star over Yan'an?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Edgar Snow scored an extraordinary scoop in 1936 when he persuaded Mao Zedong to tell his story. The resulting book--"Red Star Over China"--was a best-seller in the West and translated editions caused a sensation in China. Adult education was the centrepiece of Communist revolution and featured prominently in Red Star. It is now the…

  19. 17 CFR 269.7 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d) Password Modification Authorization Code (PMAC)—allows a filer, filing agent or training agent to change its Password. [69 FR 22710, Apr... Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  20. 17 CFR 249.446 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d) Password Modification Authorization Code (PMAC)—allows a filer, filing agent or training agent to change its Password. [69 FR 22710... Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at at www.fdsys.gov. ...

  1. 17 CFR 259.602 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)—allows a filer, filing agent or training agent to log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change... agent to change its Password. [69 FR 22710, Apr. 26, 2004] Editorial Note: For Federal Register... section of the printed volume and at at www.fdsys.gov. ...

  2. 17 CFR 259.602 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)—allows a filer, filing agent or training agent to log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change... agent to change its Password. [69 FR 22710, Apr. 26, 2004] Editorial Note: For Federal Register... section of the printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  3. 17 CFR 269.7 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d) Password Modification Authorization Code (PMAC)—allows a filer, filing agent or training agent to change its Password. [69 FR 22710, Apr... Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at at www.fdsys.gov. ...

  4. 17 CFR 249.446 - Form ID, uniform application for access codes to file on EDGAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... log on to the EDGAR system, submit filings, and change its CCC. (d) Password Modification Authorization Code (PMAC)—allows a filer, filing agent or training agent to change its Password. [69 FR 22710... Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  5. Edgar Pask and his physiological research--an unsung hero of World War Two.

    PubMed

    Enever, G

    2011-03-01

    Edgar Pask died in 1966 at the age of 53. He was the Professor of Anaesthesia in Newcastle upon Tyne, and a quiet and unassuming man. But during the Second World War he had been involved in a number of dangerous and remarkable experiments; these included investigating the effects of acute hypoxia related to high altitude parachute descents, resuscitation techniques and the effectiveness of lifejackets.

  6. EDGAR: A software framework for the comparative analysis of prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Jochen; Albaum, Stefan P; Doppmeier, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Zakrzewski, Martha; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Background The introduction of next generation sequencing approaches has caused a rapid increase in the number of completely sequenced genomes. As one result of this development, it is now feasible to analyze large groups of related genomes in a comparative approach. A main task in comparative genomics is the identification of orthologous genes in different genomes and the classification of genes as core genes or singletons. Results To support these studies EDGAR – "Efficient Database framework for comparative Genome Analyses using BLAST score Ratios" – was developed. EDGAR is designed to automatically perform genome comparisons in a high throughput approach. Comparative analyses for 582 genomes across 75 genus groups taken from the NCBI genomes database were conducted with the software and the results were integrated into an underlying database. To demonstrate a specific application case, we analyzed ten genomes of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas, for which phylogenetic studies were awkward due to divergent taxonomic systems. The resultant phylogeny EDGAR provided was consistent with outcomes from traditional approaches performed recently and moreover, it was possible to root each strain with unprecedented accuracy. Conclusion EDGAR provides novel analysis features and significantly simplifies the comparative analysis of related genomes. The software supports a quick survey of evolutionary relationships and simplifies the process of obtaining new biological insights into the differential gene content of kindred genomes. Visualization features, like synteny plots or Venn diagrams, are offered to the scientific community through a web-based and therefore platform independent user interface , where the precomputed data sets can be browsed. PMID:19457249

  7. "Bringing Taxonomy to the Service of Genetics": Edgar Anderson and Introgressive Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Kim

    2016-12-01

    In introgressive hybridization (the repeated backcrossing of hybrids with parental populations), Edgar Anderson found a source for variation upon which natural selection could work. In his 1953 review article "Introgressive Hybridization," he asserted that he was "bringing taxonomy to the service of genetics" whereas distinguished colleagues such as Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ernst Mayr did the precise opposite. His work as a geneticist particularly focused on linkage and recombination and was enriched by collaborations with Missouri Botanical Garden colleagues interested in taxonomy as well as with cytologists C.D. Darlington and Karl Sax. As the culmination of a biosystemtatic research program, Anderson's views challenged the mainstream of the Evolutionary Synthesis.

  8. Analysis of Docudrama Techniques and Negotiating One's Identity in David Edgar's "Pentecost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Sharadgeh, Samer Ziyad

    2018-01-01

    Edgar manages to invert the subordinate function of generally accepted objective indicators of membership of a particular national group--language, religion, common history, and territory--into the essential mode of imperative distinction shaping the unique national identity. In other words, it is the fresco and the value assigned to it that…

  9. The ties that bind: Soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Edward R.

    The link between soil science and geology is personified in the American father and daughter: soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp (1870-1959) and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp (1920-2006). From 1904 to 1935, W.E. Tharp mapped soils in 14 states for the US Department of Agriculture, and campaigned during the late 1920s-early 1930s to raise awareness of the high rates of soil erosion from croplands. The lifestyle of the federal soil surveyor in the United States during the early 20th century involved frequent household moves, and it played a formative role in Marie Tharp’s childhood. Her path to a career in geology was molded by this family experience, by mentors encountered in the classroom, and by social barriers that faced women scientists of that era.

  10. The birth of information in the brain: Edgar Adrian and the vacuum tube.

    PubMed

    Garson, Justin

    2015-03-01

    As historian Henning Schmidgen notes, the scientific study of the nervous system would have been "unthinkable" without the industrialization of communication in the 1830s. Historians have investigated extensively the way nerve physiologists have borrowed concepts and tools from the field of communications, particularly regarding the nineteenth-century work of figures like Helmholtz and in the American Cold War Era. The following focuses specifically on the interwar research of the Cambridge physiologist Edgar Douglas Adrian, and on the technology that led to his Nobel-Prize-winning research, the thermionic vacuum tube. Many countries used the vacuum tube during the war for the purpose of amplifying and intercepting coded messages. These events provided a context for Adrian's evolving understanding of the nerve fiber in the 1920s. In particular, they provide the background for Adrian's transition around 1926 to describing the nerve impulse in terms of "information," "messages," "signals," or even "codes," and for translating the basic principles of the nerve, such as the all-or-none principle and adaptation, into such an "informational" context. The following also places Adrian's research in the broader context of the changing relationship between science and technology, and between physics and physiology, in the first few decades of the twentieth century.

  11. THE DEAD-LIVING-MOTHER: MARIE BONAPARTE'S INTERPRETATION OF EDGAR ALLAN POE'S SHORT STORIES.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Francisco Pizarro

    2016-06-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's short stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-living-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable short stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative.

  12. Edgar Buchanan: dentist and popular character actor in movies and television.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2001-07-01

    Edgar Buchanan, D.D.S., pursued a diverse mix of careers during his lifetime: as he practiced dentistry, he also worked as a popular film and television actor. Although he eventually relinquished a full-time dental practice for acting, he continued his commitment to clinical dentistry. Acting in 100 films and four television series across a 35-year span (1939-1975). He personified a scheming, yet well-meaning rustic who specialized in "cracker-barrel" philosophy. Typically, he was cast in classic western movies as a bewhiskered character actor. In several films he played a frontier dentist who was always portrayed in a sympathetic and authentic manner. His unique gravelly voice, subtle facial expressions, folksy mannerisms and portly build enabled Buchanan to step into a wide variety of character roles. His most memorable television role was in the classic situation comedy, "Petticoat Junction," (1963-1970), where he played Uncle Joe, a folksy, lovable, free-loader whose many entertaining schemes created chaos.

  13. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling `prose-poem' Eureka (1848), in particular, has sometimes been scrutinized for anticipations of later scientific developments. By contrast, the present paper argues that it should be understood as a contribution to the raging debates about scientific methodology at the time. This methodological interest, which is echoed in Poe's `tales of ratiocination', gives rise to a proposed new mode of—broadly abductive—inference, which Poe attributes to the hybrid figure of the `poet-mathematician'. Without creative imagination and intuition, Science would necessarily remain incomplete, even by its own standards. This concern with imaginative (abductive) inference ties in nicely with his coherentism, which grants pride of place to the twin virtues of Simplicity and Consistency, which must constrain imagination lest it degenerate into mere fancy.

  14. Edgar Dale's Pyramid of Learning in medical education: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Masters, Ken

    2013-11-01

    Edgar Dale's Pyramid of Learning and percentages of retained learning are cited in educational literature in a range of disciplines. The sources of the Pyramid, however, are misleading. To examine the evidence supporting the Pyramid and the extent to which it is cited in medical education literature. A review of literature (1946-2012) based on a search utilising Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and Google Scholar conducted from September to November 2012. A total of 43 peer-reviewed medical education journal articles and conference papers were found. While some researchers had been misled by their sources, other authors' interpretations of the citations did not align with the content of those citations, had no such citations, had circular references, or consulted questionable sources. There was no agreement on the percentages of learning retention, in spite of many researchers' citing primary texts. The inappropriate citing of the Pyramid and its associated percentages in medical education literature is widespread and continuous. This citing undermines much of the published work, and impacts on research-based medical education literature. While the area of learning/teaching strategies and amount of retention from each is an area for future research, any reference to the Pyramid should be avoided.

  15. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database.

    PubMed

    Puliafito, S Enrique; Allende, David G; Castesana, Paula S; Ruggeri, Maria F

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution), of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road), residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O), ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC) and other specific air quality indicators such as SO 2 , PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%); followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%); residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%); and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%). This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km), the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km 2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km 2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining activities.

  16. Complying with the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Regulations: [EDGAR Part 86]. A Guide for University and College Administrators. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRicco, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This guide describes the requirements of the 1989 amendments to the "Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act" (DFSCA), as articulated in the "Education Department General Administrative Regulations" (EDGAR) Part 86,--the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Regulations--and ways in which institutions of higher education (IHEs) have met…

  17. The final days of Edgar Allan Poe: clues to an old mystery using 21st century medical science.

    PubMed

    Francis, Roger A

    This study examines all documented information regarding the final days and death of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), in an attempt to determine the most likely cause of death of the American poet, short story writer, and literary critic. Information was gathered from letters, newspaper accounts, and magazine articles written during the period after Poe's death, and also from biographies and medical journal articles written up until the present. A chronology of Poe's final days was constructed, and this was used to form a differential diagnosis of possible causes of death. Death theories over the last 160 years were analyzed using this information. This analysis, along with a review of Poe's past medical history, would seem to support an alcohol-related cause of death.

  18. A history of the American Board of Surgery: vignettes from the certifying examination: The Edgar J. Poth Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed

    Walker, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The American Board of Surgery was established in 1937 to certify surgeons who through training, experience, and examination meet the highest standards of surgical care. This lecture was given as the Edgar Poth lecture at the April 2015 meeting of the Southwestern Surgical Congress. Dr Poth was a surgical educator from the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston who was President of the Southwestern in 1963. The paper presents the history of the founding of the American Board of Surgery, with particular emphasis on the certifying examination-Part 2. Vignettes of occurrences associated with the "Oral" examination are given. The examination has changed substantially from a 2-day event involving an actual surgical procedure to the 90-minute quiz given today. The oral examinations remain an important part in the process of certification of surgeons of the highest quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A review of bioinformatics platforms for comparative genomics. Recent developments of the EDGAR 2.0 platform and its utility for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Blom, J; Glaeser, S P; Jaenicke, S; Juhre, T; Rupp, O; Schwengers, O; Spänig, S; Goesmann, A

    2017-11-10

    The rapid development of next generation sequencing technology has greatly increased the amount of available microbial genomes. As a result of this development, there is a rising demand for fast and automated approaches in analyzing these genomes in a comparative way. Whole genome sequencing also bears a huge potential for obtaining a higher resolution in phylogenetic and taxonomic classification. During the last decade, several software tools and platforms have been developed in the field of comparative genomics. In this manuscript, we review the most commonly used platforms and approaches for ortholog group analyses with a focus on their potential for phylogenetic and taxonomic research. Furthermore, we describe the latest improvements of the EDGAR platform for comparative genome analyses and present recent examples of its application for the phylogenomic analysis of different taxa. Finally, we illustrate the role of the EDGAR platform as part of the BiGi Center for Microbial Bioinformatics within the German network on Bioinformatics Infrastructure (de.NBI). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Scraping EDGAR with Python

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashraf, Rasha

    2017-01-01

    This article presents Python codes that can be used to extract data from Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings. The Python program web crawls to obtain URL paths for company filings of required reports, such as Form 10-K. The program then performs a textual analysis and counts the number of occurrences of words in the filing that…

  1. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  2. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  3. SS Edgar M. Queeny collision with the Liberian S/T Corinthos, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, 31 January 1975. Marine casualty report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1977-10-27

    At 0029, on January 31, 1975, the U.S. Registered tankship SS EDGAR M. QUEENY, laden with chemical and petroleum products, was maneuvering into Marcus Hook channel of the Delaware River in Pennsylvania, when it collided with the Liberian tanker S/T CORINTHOS which was moored and discharging a bulk cargo of crude oil at the British Petroleum Company dock. The port anchor of the QUEENY slightly penetrated the port side plating of the CORINTHOS at an angle of about 39 deg. into one or more of the wing cargo tanks, which were being pumped and were approximately half full. Almost immediately,more » a series of increasingly intense explosions began in the CORINTHOS, and the vessel was engulfed in flames. Twenty-six persons were killed or are missing and 11 were injured in this accident. The QUEENY suffered minor damage but the CORINTHOS was destroyed. The Delaware River was polluted by oil about Marcus Hook. Property damage was estimated to be $20 million.« less

  4. Apollo 14 Mission image - Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, stands by the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during the early moments of the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1) of the mission.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    AS14-66-9233 (5 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, stands by the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during the early moments of the first extravehicular activity (EVA) of the mission. He was photographed by astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., mission commander, using a 70mm modified lunar surface Hasselblad camera. While astronauts Shepard and Mitchell descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Antares" to explore the Fra Mauro region of the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Kitty Hawk" in lunar orbit.

  5. Edgar Allan Poe: The Army Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, J. Thomas

    This issue of the United States Military Academy Library Bulletin reviews the reported facts of Poe's biography from his enlistment at the age of 15 to the termination of his military sojourn. The 1831 and the 1966 Corps of Cadets' subscriptions for Poe's "Poems" are also discussed, and a long-term inaccuracy regarding the poet's West…

  6. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  7. Edgar Schein's Process versus Content Consultation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, Gary F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes Schein's three models of consultation based on assumptions inherent in different helping styles: purchase of expertise and doctor-patient models, which focus on content of organization problems; and process consultation model, which focuses on how organizational problems are solved. Notes that Schein has suggested that consultants begin…

  8. 75 FR 17853 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Trading and Markets for questions regarding OMB expiration dates for Forms TA-1 and TA-2 contact Catherine... Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741- 6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  9. 77 FR 19077 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... update contact Walter Hamscher, at (202) 551-5397; in the Division of Trading and Markets for questions... Management and Division of Trading and Markets filer support fax numbers along with existing Division of... Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA...

  10. 76 FR 47438 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...-T, 13H-R, for large trader registration, and N-PX-CR, N-PX-FM, N-PX-NT, N-PX-VR and their amendments... Management for questions regarding submission form types N-PX, N-PX/A, N-PX-CR, N- PX-FM, N-PX-NT, N-PX-VR... submission form types N-PX-CR, N-PX-NT, N-PX-VR and their amendments will be added on EDGARLink Online for...

  11. 77 FR 54806 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... that qualify either under the JOBS Act or the Division of Corporate Finance's foreign private issuer... Corporation Finance, for questions on Confidential Registration Statement, Form ID, and Forms D contact...

  12. Edgar Allan Poe's "Ligeia": an object-relational interpretation.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick-Woldenberg, C

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that Poe's short story "Ligeia," in which the narrator experiences the death of his adored first wife (Ligeia), a second marriage to the despised Rowena, and ultimately the death of Rowena and the revivification of Ligeia, is not a supernatural tale, but rather a psychological one. According to this reading, the poisoning of Rowena and the revivification of Ligeia are hallucinated by the narrator in the course of an opium-induced psychotic break. The antecedents to this break are explored in light of object relations theory, with particular emphasis placed on the way in which the two women function as part objects. Ligeia represents the narrator's romantic and spiritual side and is associated with the good mother, while Rowena, who represents his more mundane and materialistic side, is associated with the rejecting mother. It is argued that the narrator, functioning primarily in the schizoid position and employing such defense mechanisms as splitting and projection--which already require a high degree of fantasy--is not an unlikely candidate for such a break.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell (hand up) and Buzz Aldrin on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell (hand up) and Buzz Aldrin on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  16. Education and Globalization: An Environmental Perspective. An Interview with Edgar Gonzalez-Gaudiano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter L.

    1995-01-01

    Gonzalez-Gaudiano abandoned a professorship at the National Autonomous University of Mexico to tackle environmental education and indigenous education. In this interview, he explains the politics of overpopulation; the unsustainable nature of capitalism; and the interrelationships between environmental justice and human security and among poverty,…

  17. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Talk: Quantum spintronics: abandoning perfection for new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awschalom, David D.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in exploiting the quantum properties of electronic and nuclear spins for the manipulation and storage of information in the solid state. Such schemes offer qualitatively new scientific and technological opportunities by leveraging elements of standard electronics to precisely control coherent interactions between electrons, nuclei, and electromagnetic fields. We provide an overview of the field, including a discussion of temporally- and spatially-resolved magneto-optical measurements designed for probing local moment dynamics in electrically and magnetically doped semiconductor nanostructures. These early studies provided a surprising proof-of-concept that quantum spin states can be created and controlled with high-speed optoelectronic techniques. However, as electronic structures approach the atomic scale, small amounts of disorder begin to have outsized negative effects. An intriguing solution to this conundrum is emerging from recent efforts to embrace semiconductor defects themselves as a route towards quantum machines. Individual defects in carbon-based materials possess an electronic spin state that can be employed as a solid state quantum bit at and above room temperature. Developments at the frontier of this field include gigahertz coherent control, nanofabricated spin arrays, nuclear spin quantum memories, and nanometer-scale sensing. We will describe advances towards quantum information processing driven by both physics and materials science to explore electronic, photonic, and magnetic control of spin. Work supported by the AFOSR, ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  18. A Philatelic Ramble through Chemistry (by Edgar Heilbronner and Foil A. Miller)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Daniel

    1998-08-01

    Wiley-VCH: New York, 1998. 268 pp. ISBN 3-906390-17-9. $200.00. A philatelic ramble? My Merriam Webster's dictionary says that a ramble is, among other things, a leisurely excursion for pleasure. I think the title of the book under review could not have been more appropriate. A Philatelic Ramble through Chemistry is, indeed, an enjoyable overview of the world of chemistry as pictured on postage stamps and other philatelic materials. More than a thousand (!) color illustrations enhance Heilbronner and Miller's idiosyncratic writing, which combines engaging historical essays with fascinating anecdotes. Although the idea of using stamps in teaching chemistry is not new (see, for example, the "Chemistry on Stamps" series in this Journal in the 1980s), the authors succeed in presenting their stories with unusual charm and wit, aimed at a broad audience, chemists and philatelists alike.

  19. 77 FR 29696 - James Edgar Lundeen, Sr., M.D.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    .... \\2\\ In accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), an agency ``may take official notice... General's Manual on the Administrative Procedure Act 80 (1947) (Wm. W. Gaunt & Sons, Inc., Reprint 1979). In accordance with the APA and DEA's regulations, Respondent is ``entitled on timely request to an...

  20. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: The Higgs Boson, String Theory, and the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I'll describe how string theory is exciting because it can address most, perhaps all, of the questions we hope to understand about our world: why quarks and leptons make up our world, what forces form our world, cosmology, parity violation, and much more. I'll explain why string theory is testable in basically the same ways as the rest of physics, and why much of what is written about that is misleading. String theory is already or soon being tested in several ways, including correctly predicting the recently observed Higgs boson properties and mass, and predictions for dark matter, LHC physics, cosmological history, and more, from work in the increasingly active subfield ``string phenomenology.''

  1. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Talk: Measuring the Electron Magnetic Moment and the Fine Structure Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielse, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    The electron magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons has been measured to a precision of 3 parts in 1013. This measurement, with quantum electrodynamics (AED) theory, provides the most precise value of the fine structure constant. This measurement, with a value of the fine structure from other measurements, also tests QED and sets a limit on the internal structure of the electron. A one-electron quantum cyclotron is at the heart of the measurement -- an electron suspended in a magnetic field and cooled enough that its lowest cyclotron and spin quantum states can be deduced with quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. A cylindrical Penning trap cavity inhibits spontaneous emission and feedback methods make the electron excite and sustain its own motion for detection. A new apparatus is being commissioned in pursuit of more precise measurements. Adapted methods are promising for observing a proton spin flip, which should make it possible to compare the antiproton and proton magnetic moments a million times more accurately than is currently possible.

  2. Creativity and Complex Thoughts of Gifted Students from Contributions of Edgar Morin and Rudolf Steiner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro; Stoltz, Tania; Guérios, Ettiène; de Freitas, Samarah Perszel

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to highlight the importance of creativity in education of gifted children. Gifted students are generally individuals that talk with uncertainty because they are always looking for solutions and discoveries for their varied researches in their area of interest. These students need educational practices that develop creativity and…

  3. Community concerns about sex selection: research as a way forward - response to Edgar Dahl's 'The presumption in favour of liberty'.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine A

    2004-03-01

    This commentary argues that notwithstanding the implicit logic underpinning philosophical and moral arguments regarding individual rights to access sex selection for non-medical reasons, community concerns about the psychosocial impact of the technology cannot be dismissed or ignored. It is true, however, that such concerns are often based on unsupported assumptions about the impact of the technology on individuals, families and communities and about the propensity of scientists, unless restrained, to act in ways that are irresponsible or dangerous. The research conducted to date has dispelled many of the myths and assumptions about IVF children and their families. Further careful research is now needed to test the extent to which fears and assumptions regarding 'designer babies' are justified.

  4. Impulse Flashover Tests at Edgar Beauchamp High Voltage Test Facility, Dixon, California, in Support of Cutler Insulator Failure Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    sites. The strength member of the safety core insulators is a fiberglass belt wrapped around pins in the end fittings. Porcelain tubes cover the belt... porcelain tube and heavily tracked the fiberglass belt but left the belt intact structurally (Figure 1). Figure 1. Cutler safety core insulator ...fail-safe insulators . For these tests, the porcelain tube of the safety core insulator was replaced with a plastic see-through tube. The test report [5

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  6. The Long March to Educational Inequality in Illinois: Financial Facts for "The Committee versus Edgar." MacArthur-Spencer Series Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickrod, G. Alan; And Others

    The equity of public school funding in Illinois is investigated in this report. A longitudinal, cartographic methodology examines the county as the unit of analysis for the school years 1972-73 through 1990-91. Findings indicate that Illinois school districts are currently more unequal than when the state equalization aid formula state was adopted…

  7. Holocaust "Laughter" and Edgar Hilsenrath's "The Nazi and the Barber": Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Laughter and Humor in Holocaust Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2018-01-01

    This article tries to defend the position that Holocaust Education can be enriched by appreciating laughter and humor as critical and transformative forces that not only challenge dominant discourses about the Holocaust and its representational limits, but also reclaim humanity, ethics, and difference from new angles and juxtapositions. Edgar…

  8. Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare , Estonia, Georgia, Russian Federation Cyber Strategy, Convention on Cybercrime, NATO Center...Federation ......................................................................................... 33  X.  The Future of Russian Cyber Warfare ................................................................... 39...Issue 15.09); Binoy Kampmark, Cyber Warfare Between Estonia And Russia, (Contemporary Review: Autumn, 2003), p 288-293; Jaak Aaviksoo, Address by the

  9. 17 CFR 240.14d-102 - Schedule 14D-1F. Tender offer statement pursuant to rule 14d-1(b) under the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... report or annual information form filed or submitted by the issuer with securities regulators of Ontario... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in...

  10. 17 CFR 240.13e-102 - Schedule 13E-4F. Tender offer statement pursuant to section 13(e) (1) of the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in... exemption from Rule 10b-13, the predecessor to Rule 14e-5.] Part I—Information Required To Be Sent to...

  11. 17 CFR 240.14d-102 - Schedule 14D-1F. Tender offer statement pursuant to rule 14d-1(b) under the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... report or annual information form filed or submitted by the issuer with securities regulators of Ontario... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in...

  12. 17 CFR 240.13e-102 - Schedule 13E-4F. Tender offer statement pursuant to section 13(e) (1) of the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in... exemption from Rule 10b-13, the predecessor to Rule 14e-5.] Part I—Information Required To Be Sent to...

  13. 17 CFR 240.14d-102 - Schedule 14D-1F. Tender offer statement pursuant to rule 14d-1(b) under the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... report or annual information form filed or submitted by the issuer with securities regulators of Ontario... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in...

  14. 17 CFR 240.13e-102 - Schedule 13E-4F. Tender offer statement pursuant to section 13(e) (1) of the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in... exemption from Rule 10b-13, the predecessor to Rule 14e-5.] Part I—Information Required To Be Sent to...

  15. 17 CFR 240.14d-102 - Schedule 14D-1F. Tender offer statement pursuant to rule 14d-1(b) under the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... report or annual information form filed or submitted by the issuer with securities regulators of Ontario... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in...

  16. 17 CFR 240.13e-102 - Schedule 13E-4F. Tender offer statement pursuant to section 13(e) (1) of the Securities Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Office of EDGAR and Information Analysis at (202) 551-3610. (2) If filing the Schedule in paper... Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system in accordance with the EDGAR rules set forth in... exemption from Rule 10b-13, the predecessor to Rule 14e-5.] Part I—Information Required To Be Sent to...

  17. Building Component Maintenance and Repair Data Base: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Building Component Maintenance and Repair Data Base: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems by Edgar S. Neely Robert D. Neathammer...Repair Data Base: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems RDTE dated 1980EIMB 1984 - 1989 6. AUTHOR(S) Edgar S. Neely, Robert D...Laboratory (USACERL). The Principal Investigators were Dr. Edgar Neely and Mr. Robert Neathammer (USACERL-FS). The primary contractor for much of the

  18. Forging Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    their respective Services and put together under one newly established command, FS. 1 Edgar H . Schein , Organizational Culture and Leadership, 4th...Universitetsforlaget, 2011), 141. 46 Edgar H . Schein , Organizational Culture and Leadership, 4th ed. (San Francisco: Jossey – Bass, 2010), 35. 21...organization. 51 Schein , Organizational culture and leadership, 40. 52 Edgar H . Schein , Coming to a New Awareness of Organizational Culture, Sloan

  19. Pathway to Change? An Appraisal of the Australian Defence Force’s Strategy for Cultural Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    November): 445-463. Schein , Edgar H . 2010. Organizational culture and leadership. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Sekerka, Leslie E., Justin D...academics in the field of organizational change, including Geert Hofstede and Edgar Schein : “A set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation...organization. In Organizational Culture and Leadership, Edgar Schein offers an equally convincing analysis of the nature of an organization’s culture. He

  20. Embedding Mission Command in Army Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    analysis of Army culture using ideas and concepts presented by Edgar H . Schein . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Army Leadership, Trust, Empowerment, Operational...The focal point of this study is an analysis of Army culture using ideas and concepts presented by Edgar H . Schein . Embedding...is an analysis of Army culture using ideas and concepts presented by Edgar H . Schein . Auftragstaktik and Mission Command Doctrine Mission command

  1. A Door Is a Big Wooden Thing with a Knob: Getting a Handle on Metaphorical Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, M. J.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

    This paper chronicles the evolution of a metaphorical graphical user interface (MGUI) at Lehigh University (Pennsylvania). From its inception, "The Funeral of Edgar" has been a guided exploration of Edgar Allan Poe's poem, "The Raven," aimed at modeling high school students' critical and analytical reading skills. This product…

  2. Student Teaching Changed Me: A Look at Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Scores before and after the Student Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2017-01-01

    Student teaching as the culminating experience of a teacher preparation program has been shown to be of great importance in the preparation of pre-service agricultural educators (Harlin, Roberts, Mowen, Edgar, & Briers, 2007; Roberts, Mowen, Edgar, Harlin, & Briers, 2007; Kitchel & Torres, 2006, 2007; Myers & Dyer, 2004). Kolb's…

  3. 76 FR 55788 - Amendments To Include New Applicant Types on Form ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of non-agency parties). The APA also generally requires publication of a rule in the Federal Register...\\ See EDGAR Filing Manual (Volume I) General Information (Section 2.4, Accessing EDGAR). Currently, Form... Administrative Procedure Act (``APA'') \\34\\ generally requires an agency to publish, before adopting a rule...

  4. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) One or more electronic format documents may be submitted for storage in the non-public EDGAR data... data storage area at any time, not to exceed a total of one megabyte of digital information. If an...-public EDGAR data storage area for assembly as a segmented filing. (2) Segments shall be submitted no...

  5. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) One or more electronic format documents may be submitted for storage in the non-public EDGAR data... data storage area at any time, not to exceed a total of one megabyte of digital information. If an...-public EDGAR data storage area for assembly as a segmented filing. (2) Segments shall be submitted no...

  6. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) One or more electronic format documents may be submitted for storage in the non-public EDGAR data... data storage area at any time, not to exceed a total of one megabyte of digital information. If an...-public EDGAR data storage area for assembly as a segmented filing. (2) Segments shall be submitted no...

  7. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) One or more electronic format documents may be submitted for storage in the non-public EDGAR data... data storage area at any time, not to exceed a total of one megabyte of digital information. If an...-public EDGAR data storage area for assembly as a segmented filing. (2) Segments shall be submitted no...

  8. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) One or more electronic format documents may be submitted for storage in the non-public EDGAR data... data storage area at any time, not to exceed a total of one megabyte of digital information. If an...-public EDGAR data storage area for assembly as a segmented filing. (2) Segments shall be submitted no...

  9. Institute of Family Studies Newsletter; No. 10, August 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Meredith, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This newsletter's first article is the director's report "Double Standards in Australian Family Policy" by Don Edgar. It asks for government support for families in the form of programs and funding, not just rhetoric. The next article, "IFS Research", also by Don Edgar, details the past, current and future research of the…

  10. The Anxiety of Learning. The HBR Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Psychologist Edgar Schein draws parallels between prisoner-of-war camps and corporate learning organizations. For individuals in both environments, he contends, learning is a coercive process that can be used for both deplorable and acceptable ends. (Author/JOW)

  11. 17 CFR 230.493 - Additional Schedule B disclosure and filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Gathering and Retrieval System (EDGAR) unless it has obtained a hardship exemption under § 232.201... contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Commission; and...

  12. 17 CFR 230.493 - Additional Schedule B disclosure and filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Data Gathering and Retrieval System (EDGAR) unless it has obtained a hardship exemption under § 232.201... contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Commission; and...

  13. 17 CFR 230.493 - Additional Schedule B disclosure and filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Data Gathering and Retrieval System (EDGAR) unless it has obtained a hardship exemption under § 232.201... contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Commission; and...

  14. 17 CFR 230.493 - Additional Schedule B disclosure and filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Data Gathering and Retrieval System (EDGAR) unless it has obtained a hardship exemption under § 232.201... contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Commission; and...

  15. Looking west inside of the machine/forge shop at chargin door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west inside of the machine/forge shop at chargin door of the forging furnace. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth stockhouse in foreground and open hearth furnace building in background - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 34 CFR 608.4 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General § 608.4... 34 CFR 77.1: Applicant Application Award Budget EDGAR Equipment Fiscal year Grant period Private...

  18. 34 CFR 608.4 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General § 608.4... 34 CFR 77.1: Applicant Application Award Budget EDGAR Equipment Fiscal year Grant period Private...

  19. Looking northwest at the teeming aisle building of the basic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at the teeming aisle building of the basic oxygen plant; furnace building is in background. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  20. Looking southwest toward the basic oxygen steelmaking plant from a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest toward the basic oxygen steelmaking plant from a neighborhodd in Braddock by Eleventh Street. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Risky Business: Risk Tolerance in U.S. Army Special Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    24 Edgar H . Schein , Organizational Culture and Leadership (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1997), 144–146. 25 Steven Kerr, “On the Folly of Rewarding...Armies, 1888–1918. London: Frank Cass & Co, 1995. Schein , Edgar H . Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass, 1997. 67...University of New Hampshire: South- Western Thomson Learning, 2003), 82. 12 development could result in a path-dependent pattern.23 Schein explores

  2. The United States Marine Corps Reserve: Reorganization for an Integrated Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    ForceHeadquartersGroup/MarineCorpsI ndividualReserveSupportActivity/Definitions.aspx 23 MCRAMM,1-3 24 Edgar H . Schein , Organizational Culture and...COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, 2012. Schein , Edgar H . Organizational Culture and Leadership. The Jossey-Bass Business & Management Series. 3rd...Significant differences exist in culture among the reservists and the active duty members. Schein defines culture as “A pattern of shared basic

  3. Gaming the System: A Game Theory Analysis of Theater Airborne ISR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    2-0, 50. 18 Edgar Schein , Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3 rd ed. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass, 2004), 17. 19 The absence of the... Edgar H . Organizational Culture and Leadership. Third Edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2004. Shanker, Thom. “At Odds with Air Force, Army Adds...level and it is reasonable to assume that the land components will play a similar role in future conflicts. Dr. Edward Schein defines

  4. Building Maintenance and Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: Electrical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: Electrical Systems by Edgar S. Neely Robert D. Neathammer James R. Stirn Robert P. Winkler This research...systems have been developed to assist planners in preparing DD Form 1391 documentation, designers in life-cycle cost component selection, and maintainers...Maintenance and Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: RDTE dated 1980 Electrical Systems REIMB 1984 - 1989 6. AUTH4OR(S) Edgar S. Neely, Robert D

  5. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform application form for access codes to file on EDGAR, and (2) File, by uploading as a Portable... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of part 232. 232...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a...

  6. Army Science Board (ASB) 1983 Summer Study on the Future Development Goal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    PARTICIPATED WITH ASB DR. ROGER 0. BOURKE JPL MR. ARTHUR C. CHRISTMAN TRADOC MAJ MICHAEL M. FERGUSON TRADOC DR. EDGAR M. JOHNSON ARI BG ROBERT B...MARGARET POTTER ASS MS. SHARON L. BERTONI ODCSOPS MS. BRENDA E. CALLAHAN OASAIRDA) MRS. SHARON J. LAYTON ODCSOPS MRS. MARY G. QUELLEIrE ODCSRDA I

  7. The Values of Negative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bier, Jesse

    1983-01-01

    Advocates introducing high school literature classes by analyzing the serious flaws in an important work such as Edgar Alan Poe's poem, "The Raven," in order to increase student involvement in evaluating literature, strengthen student trust of the teacher's judgment, and motivate students for positive criticism. (MM)

  8. An Investigation of the Awareness and Use of Style in Adolescents' Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Elizabeth; Bereiter, Carl

    A study assessed the ability of 20 eleventh grade students to recognize particular stylistic features when reading and then to use such features in their writing. Half the subjects were given a model paragraph from an Edgar Allen Poe story, without having the story identified for them, while the other half received only a verbal summary of the…

  9. Who Dun It? Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanarini, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 23 mysteries that will appeal to adolescent readers. Notes that further lists of excellent titles in the category of juvenile and young adult mystery are available on the Edgar Allen Poe website at http://www.mysterywriters.org/awards.html. (SR)

  10. The Artist of the Beautiful: An Allegory for Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Following her return to the classroom after a two-year administrative absence, Kathleen Thornton--the Director of Undergraduate English Advisement and a lecturer at the University of Albany, New York--was struck by the language her undergraduate students used to discuss the stories of authors such as Edgar Allan Poe or Nathaniel Hawthorne. While…

  11. Constructing Complexity: Using Reading Levels to Differentiate Reading Comprehension Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Declan

    2008-01-01

    The author remembers a class when he asked his students to discuss in small groups how Edgar Allan Poe suggests a judgment of the main character in "The Cask of Amontillado". During their discussion it became clear to the author that the students couldn't come to consensus because they had no grasp of the narrator's explanations of his motivations…

  12. "Why Will You Say That I Am Mad?" Using Poe's "Tell-Tale Heart" as a Composition Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Laura Raidonis

    1998-01-01

    Describes an exercise for basic writers which encompasses reading, listening, and writing. Finds that Edgar Allan Poe's "Tell-Tale Heart" has an effective vocabulary, a first-person conversational tone for the "mad" voice, and a second-person direct address that makes it easy to follow. Notes that inexperienced readers can…

  13. Poe and Prolixity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching Edgar Allan Poe's writings which uses writing as a tool to decipher the story and to teach a valuable lesson in creative writing and style, and which shows students how a text changes when it is either abridged or adapted. (SR)

  14. Reclaiming the Power of Subversive Language in Romantic and Transcendental Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Kelly Ann

    2004-01-01

    A high school teacher tries to eliminate the obstacles to subversive teaching in public schools by asking them to design schools that embodied the principles of learning suggested by the romantic and transcendental writers like Emily Dickinson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. It helps the students…

  15. What's Happening in January?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    The booklet contains brief information on nine January events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: New Year; Epiphany; and the birthdays of Betsy Ross, Eugenio Maria de Hostos, Dr. Martin Luther King, Benjamin Franklin, Edgar Allan Poe, William McKinley, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet includes brief biographical…

  16. Horror from the Soul--Gothic Style in Allan Poe's Horror Fictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe made tremendous contribution to horror fiction. Poe's inheritance of gothic fiction and American literature tradition combined with his living experience forms the background of his horror fictions. He inherited the tradition of the gothic fictions and made innovations on it, so as to penetrate to subconsciousness. Poe's horror…

  17. Planning and Financing School Improvement and Construction Projects. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H., Ed.

    Suggestions and guidelines to help school administrators, business officials, board members, and others interested in improving school facilities are presented in this book. Chapter 1, "School Building Programs, Equipment Acquisition: The Anatomy of School Debt Financing" (Edgar H. Bittle), provides an overview of the legal and planning issues…

  18. Career Orientation of Secondary School Students (M/F) in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapwijk, Remke; Rommes, Els

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new perspective is developed to promote a positive relationship between young people and technology. An in-depth study of the values young Dutch secondary school students feel are essential in their future profession was made. Following organisational psychologist Edgar Schein, we distinguish career anchors, each with their own…

  19. Career Anchors: A New Concept in Career Development for the Professional Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Thomas J.

    Created by Dr. Edgar Schein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the career anchor model suggests that certain motivational/talent/value drives, formed through work experience, function to guide and constrain entire careers; and that such anchors are the source of stability that permits growth and change in other areas. The concept…

  20. Micropolitics, Leadership and All That...The Need To Increase the Micropolitical Awareness and Skills of School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mel

    1999-01-01

    Explores the influence of micropolitical factors on school organization and management, drawing on Ball's idea regarding the inevitability of micropolitics in school settings. Using Edgar Schein's small-group perspective, shows how micropolitical analyses of school cultures and teacher behavior can be used to increase school leaders'…

  1. Leadership Education for the Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous Now: A Challenge to the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis Carvan, Moreen

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Schein (2004) proposed that leading was in the midst of an evolutionary shift in which the primary challenge would be to sustain a culture of learning in an emerging "age of perpetual learning and change. What learning is required through leadership education to address this challenge? What design will assure that these learning…

  2. Unit 1003: The Language of Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This language unit for grade 10 builds on a definition of the expository use of language developed in the two previous 10th-grade units. In a brief overview of report language, the referential language of Thomas Huxley is compared with the expressive language of Edgar Allan Poe. The writings of S. I. Hayakawa, Hans Guth, and others are examined…

  3. 77 FR 69454 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ..., South Carolina. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried, Assistant Vice President) 230.... Woods, Bluffton, South Carolina, individually and as part of a group acting in concert with Edgar Woods.... Woods, Milton Woods Jr. and Susan H Woods, both of Ridgeland, South Carolina, and J. Eric Woods...

  4. View of Apollo 14 crewmen in Command Module simulation training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-07-15

    S70-45580 (July 1970) --- The members of the prime crew of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission participate in Command Module (CM) simulation training at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Left to right are astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander.

  5. "The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

  6. 34 CFR 655.4 - What definitions apply to the International Education Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are defined in 34 CFR part 77: Acquisition Applicant Application Award Budget Contract EDGAR Equipment... higher education for the purpose of carrying out a common objective on their behalf. Critical languages means each of the languages contained in the list of critical languages designated by the Secretary...

  7. Agonizing Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiskis, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the author's experience of teaching Edgar Allan Poe as part of the American literature survey at Elmira College in Elmira, New York. While his specialty is Mark Twain, his students would be much happier if they could skip the colonial and national period, and move directly to studying Poe. In this article, the author…

  8. United States Air Force History. A Guide to Documentary Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    artificial limbs, crea- tive activity, and delegates to an interallied congress. The areas represented by aerial photographs are only partially identified...Interim Government of Korea, 154 477, 604 See also Korea, Korean War Hoover, J. Edgar, 604 Seas oeKra aHopkins, HEarr 8, 6 84, 3International Aeroplane Co

  9. Dale's Cone Revisited: Critically Examining the Misapplication of a Nebulous Theory to Guide Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak, Prem

    2003-01-01

    Edgar Dale's (1946) Cone of Experience model-and various adaptations-have been used by practitioners for decades. However, little has been accomplished by way of examining and refining the model (and its associated theories). This article suggests several philosophical perspectives by which gaps in the prevalent version of Dale's Cone could be…

  10. What Do Researchers Say about Scientific Literacy in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Kearton, Ginny

    2010-01-01

    This article is the second in a thread of three pieces about scientific literacy. The first, written by Edgar Jenkins, provided an introduction to scientific literacy within the context of citizenship and the ways that scientific literacy might be interpreted by those with a concern about public understanding of science or the public engagement…

  11. Expressing Yourself Poe-etically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Joanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Middle grades teachers should create meaningful learning activities involving stimulating literature and interesting composition prompts. This article describes a unit in which eighth graders read short stories by Edgar Allan Poe. Using multiple learning and teaching approaches, they expanded their vocabularies, responded artistically to "The…

  12. Previous Attempts to Debunk the Mythical Retention Chart and Corrupted Dale's Cone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    Critics have been attempting to debunk the mythical retention chart at least since 1971. The earliest critics, David Curl and Frank Dwyer, were addressing just the retention data. Beginning around 2002, a new generation of critics has taken on the illegitimate combination of the retention chart and Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience--the corrupted…

  13. Focus on the USA. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edgar W., Ed.

    Essays on varieties of English in the United States include: "Research Trends in the Study of American English" (Edgar W. Schneider); "Piney Woods Southern" (Lee Pederson); "Foundations of American English" (William A. Kretzschmar, Jr.); "The Comparability of Linguistic Atlas Records: The Case of LANCS an…

  14. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Dr. Edgar Waggoner, Director, Integrated Systems research Program Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), takes notes during a House Subcommittee on Oversight hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. The Classic Readability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBay, William H., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Early in the 20th century, educators began looking for scientific methods for matching texts with readers. Some of the best minds in education dedicated themselves to this task, including Edward L. Thorndike, William S. Gray, Ralph Tyler, Edgar Dale, Irving Lorge, and Jeanne S. Chall. The purpose of this book is to bring students of reading into…

  16. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  17. 17 CFR 232.105 - Limitation on use of HTML documents and hypertext links.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on use of HTML... Requirements § 232.105 Limitation on use of HTML documents and hypertext links. (a) Electronic filers must... EDGAR database on the Commission's public web site (www.sec.gov). Electronic filers also may include...

  18. Editorial development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wileman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2013, Professor Edgar Knobloch of the University of California, Berkeley, USA, will be the new co-Editor-in-Chief of Nonlinearity, joining current co-Editor-in-Chief Professor Anatoly Neishtadt. Edgar comes to the position with a wealth of experience, including a spell as a valued member of the Editorial Board of Nonlinearity, and wide respect from across the nonlinear science community. We very much look forward to working with Edgar to continue to develop the journal's high standards of quality and interest to the readership. Whilst welcoming Edgar to the position, we would also like to extend our gratitude to Professor Jon Keating for his tremendous contribution to Nonlinearity during his time as co-Editor-in-Chief. Jon joined the journal in 1997 as a member of the Editorial Board, taking over as co-Editor-in-Chief in 2004. Throughout his time as both a member of the Editorial Board and as a co-Editor-in-Chief, Jon worked tirelessly to uphold the highest quality standards and to ensure that Nonlinearity is a place where researchers can both read and publish the most stimulating work in nonlinear science. His joint leadership with Professor Anatoly Neishtadt has seen Nonlinearity continue from strength to strength. Jon will be sorely missed. On behalf of the London Mathematical Society, Institute of Physics and the entire Editorial Board we wish him all the best in the future.

  19. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Published by the Association of American Colleges and Universities, this issue of "Diversity Digest" focuses on institutional leadership and how it advances diversity in higher education. Articles presented in this issue include: (1) Intercultural Learning for Inclusive Excellence (Edgar Beckham); (2) Demanding, Attracting, and Developing…

  20. 76 FR 49805 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... request for extension of the previously approved collection of information discussed below. Regulation S-T... submission of documents on the Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (``EDGAR'') system... any information collection requirements. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not...

  1. 77 FR 52373 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...'') is soliciting comments on the collection of information summarized below. The Commission plans to submit this existing collection of information to the Office of Management and Budget (``OMB'') for..., Analysis and Retrieval System (``EDGAR''). The current voluntary program permits any fund to participate...

  2. 76 FR 33375 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the collection of information summarized below. The Commission plans to submit this existing collection of information to the Office of... Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (``EDGAR'') system. Regulation S-T is assigned one burden hour for [[Page...

  3. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL AND INNOVATIVE TRAINING What... established under EDGAR §§ 75.530-75.562, the following items are allowable under experimental and innovative...

  4. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL AND INNOVATIVE TRAINING What... established under EDGAR §§ 75.530-75.562, the following items are allowable under experimental and innovative...

  5. 34 CFR 655.4 - What definitions apply to the International Education Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are defined in 34 CFR part 77: Acquisition Applicant Application Award Budget Contract EDGAR Equipment... higher education for the purpose of carrying out a common objective on their behalf. Critical languages means each of the languages contained in the list of critical languages designated by the Secretary...

  6. 34 CFR 655.4 - What definitions apply to the International Education Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are defined in 34 CFR part 77: Acquisition Applicant Application Award Budget Contract EDGAR Equipment... higher education for the purpose of carrying out a common objective on their behalf. Critical languages means each of the languages contained in the list of critical languages designated by the Secretary...

  7. 34 CFR 655.4 - What definitions apply to the International Education Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are defined in 34 CFR part 77: Acquisition Applicant Application Award Budget Contract EDGAR Equipment... higher education for the purpose of carrying out a common objective on their behalf. Critical languages means each of the languages contained in the list of critical languages designated by the Secretary...

  8. 34 CFR 655.4 - What definitions apply to the International Education Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are defined in 34 CFR part 77: Acquisition Applicant Application Award Budget Contract EDGAR Equipment... higher education for the purpose of carrying out a common objective on their behalf. Critical languages means each of the languages contained in the list of critical languages designated by the Secretary...

  9. 75 FR 60411 - Request for Comment on Options for a Proposed Exemptive Order Relating to the Trading and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... in the precious metals markets. \\28\\ See http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1459862... efficient exposure to commodity market price movements.\\4\\ These Precious Metal Commodity-Based ETFs have... conditions to the exemption orders) and that novel products may be introduced without undue delay for market...

  10. Computers in Science Education: Can They Go Far Enough? Have We Gone Too Far?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, John Richard

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that although computers may churn out creative research, science is still dependent on science education, and that science education consists of increasing human experience. Also considers uses and misuses of computers in the science classroom, examining Edgar Dale's "cone of experience" related to laboratory computer and "extended…

  11. Career Anchors: Distribution and Impact on Job Satisfaction, the Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Nira; Valency, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the career anchor concept developed by Edgar Schein. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on the distribution of the eight career anchors, on a large heterogeneous sample and the differences in the distribution by gender and type of employment; and the impact of the congruence on job…

  12. Community Leadership through Community-Based Programming: The Role of the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Edgar J.; And Others

    Organized around 15 tasks involved in the community-based programming (CBP) process, this book provides practical, field-tested guidance on successfully implementing CBP in community colleges. Following prefatory materials, the following chapters are provided: (1) "An Introduction to the Community-Based Programming Process" (Edgar J.…

  13. The Effect of Microstructure on the Properties of High Strength Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    precracked samples were loaded with opposing bolts to constant crack opening displacement (COD) values. The notch with the precrack was sealed with Scotch tape ...Respectfully submitted: Edgar K. Starke, Jr. Principal Investigator Si Il I REFERENCES 1. P. C. Paris and F. Erdogan , J. Basic Eng., Vol. 85, 1963, p. 528

  14. The Evolution of Fire Support Doctrine Was Driven by Airmobile Doctrine and New Weapon Systems During the Vietnam War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-18

    army.mil/history/factsheets/army.shtml (accessed on 26 Apr 2004). 7Catchpole, 153. 8Pamela Feltus , Air Power: The Korean War, U.S., [Centennial of...Edgar C., Jr. Tools of War. Boston, MA: Boston Publishing Company, 1984. 87 Feltus , Pamela. Air Power: The Korean War, U.S. Centennial of Flight

  15. Apollo 14 crewmembers sealed inside a Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Separated by aluminum and glass of their Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), the Apollo 14 crewmen visit with their families and friends upon arriving at Ellington Air Force Base in the early morning hours of February 12, 1971. Looking through the MQF window are Astronats Alan B Shepard Jr. (left); Stuart A Roosa (right); and Edgar D. Mitchell.

  16. Apollo 14 crewmembers sealed inside a Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Sealed inside a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), Apollo 14 astronauts greet newsmen and crewmen aboard the U.S.S. New Orleans, Apollo 14 prime recovery ship. They are, from left to right, Astronauts Stuart A. Roosa, Alan B. Shepard Jr., and Edgar D. Mitchell.

  17. My Classroom: Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Cerise

    2017-01-01

    In his first teaching assignment, as a fifth-grade English teacher, Edgar Manaran had only 20 desks for 48 students. Yet he was able to apply productive classroom strategies throughout his 25-hour teaching week. Some of his students sat on plastic chairs due to the shortage of desks, but that did not change the dynamic of Mr. Manaran's classes. He…

  18. Strategic Arguments and Tactical Battles over Federal Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines public agency attempts to disseminate information in ways that satisfy constituencies, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and the private sector. The Securities and Exchange Commission's release of EDGAR, the Patent and Trademark Office's recent lawsuit, and Department of Defense problems with Fedlog are cited. Statements and policy…

  19. "It is Democratic Citizens We Are After:" The Possibilities and the Expectations for the Social Studies From the Writings of Shirley H. Engle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.; Ligon, Jerry A.

    2004-01-01

    For almost five decades during his professional life, Engle was deeply concerned about the philosophical views that made up social studies education, as well as ways those views were being practiced in the classrooms. In particular, he criticized the philosophical views of two contemporary educators, Edgar Wesley and Jerome Bruner. Wesley believed…

  20. Quality Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Harvey Jay; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The section meeting of the 1987 Forum on Deafness included the following presentations: "Early Identification and the Hearing Impaired Child's Right to Become" (Judith Marlowe); "Quality Education for All Deaf Children: An Achievable Goal" (Jack Brownley); "Defining Quality at the Postsecondary Level" (Edgar Lowell); "Charting the Transition from…

  1. Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects, and Treatment of Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, John, Ed.

    This monograph consists of eight papers which refer in one way or another to the pharmacology of cocaine. The papers are: (1) Cocaine 1984: Introduction and Overview" (John Grabowski); (2) "Cocaine: A Growing Public Health Problem" (Edgar H. Adams and Jack Durell); (3) "Neural Mechanisms of the Reinforcing Action of…

  2. Challenging the Limits of Critique in Education through Morin's Paradigm of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The position adopted in this paper is inspired by Edgar Morin's paradigm of complexity and his critique of scientific and philosophical forms of reductionism. This paper is based on research focusing on the diversity of conceptions of critique developed in academic discourses. It aims to challenge the fragmentation and the reduction framing the…

  3. An Empirical Study of the Application of Psychological Principles to the Teaching of Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martland, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An empirical study was carried out to explore effects of three sets of schedules developed by Edgar Stones as guidelines conducive to student learning. Guidelines for concept teaching, psychomotor skill development, and teaching problem solving formed the instructional framework for teaching 11-year-old children the principles of navigational…

  4. Reexamining the Structure of Hemingway's "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, James

    2003-01-01

    Considers how Hemingway's "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife" is a model of Edgar Allan Poe's aesthetic of the short story. Examines this work on many levels. Concludes that great writers, such as Ernest Hemingway, challenge readers to find the clues, to connect the dots, to pay attention to the "little details." (SG)

  5. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: GM Assembly Division in Linden, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Motors Assembly Division (GM) site is 35 acres and is located at 1016 West Edgar Road in an area zoned for residential, commercial and manufacturing/industrial uses in Linden, New Jersey. The facility has operated since 1935 as a manufacturing

  7. Unique Unto Itself: The Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1908 to 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, John F., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses several misunderstandings about the nature of the FBI's Central Records System. Although depicted in popular culture and much of FBI historiography as a tool for the Cold War suppression of American radicals, the FBI's records system grew out of Department of Justice systems already in place before J. Edgar Hoover became…

  8. Dissent and the State: Unleashing the FBI, 1917-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theoharis, Athan G.

    1990-01-01

    Follows development of Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Finds the agency monitored dissident activities and investigated outside its defined jurisdiction with presidential support. States J. Edgar Hoover expanded the FBI's information-gathering procedures beyond legal boundaries resulting in a powerful, autonomous agency that poisoned U.S.…

  9. KSC-2011-1311

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-29

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -- Apollo 14 Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell talks to attendees of the Apollo 14 Anniversary Soirée at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex's Saturn V Center. The celebration was hosted by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Apollo 14 landed on the lunar surface 40 years ago on Feb. 5, 1971. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  10. Organizational Resilience and Culture a Model for Information Technology Service Management (ITSM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granito, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational change and organizational culture have been studied and written about by many authors, most notably by Edgar Schein (1990, 1992), and are named as critical components of organizational maturity through such industry standards as The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Control Objectives for Information and Related…

  11. Award-Winning Books: A Selected List for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Sandra

    1984-01-01

    Lists adolescent fiction and nonfiction titles that received Boston Globe/Horn Book Award, Carnegie Medal, Child Study Children's Book Committee at Bank Street College Award, Christopher Award, Edgar Allen Poe Award, Golden Kite Award, Nebula Award, and National Book Award/American Book Award. Each entry includes bibliographic information and…

  12. Apollo 14 prime crew during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The prime crewmen of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission are shown inside a Command Module trainer during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Left to right, are Astronauts Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  13. A Study on the Mobile Learning of English and American Literature Based on WeChat Public Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Guiyu; Liu, Yang; Cui, Shanmeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses Edgar Dale's Audio-visual Learning Theory and Jean Piaget's Constructionist Learning Theory as the theoretical framework to conduct two control experimental tests and a questionnaire research to investigate students' impression and expectations toward WeChat public account based mobile learning mode as well as its validity,…

  14. 34 CFR 390.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING What... costs established in EDGAR §§ 75.530-75.562, the following items are allowable under short-term training projects: (1) Trainee per diem costs; (2) Trainee travel in connection with a training course; (3) Trainee...

  15. 34 CFR 390.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING What... costs established in EDGAR §§ 75.530-75.562, the following items are allowable under short-term training projects: (1) Trainee per diem costs; (2) Trainee travel in connection with a training course; (3) Trainee...

  16. 34 CFR 390.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING What... costs established in EDGAR §§ 75.530-75.562, the following items are allowable under short-term training projects: (1) Trainee per diem costs; (2) Trainee travel in connection with a training course; (3) Trainee...

  17. 17 CFR 230.493 - Additional Schedule B disclosure and filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disclose in its Schedule B registration statement: (1) That the Commission maintains an Internet site that... (2) The address for the Commission Internet site (http://www.sec.gov). A foreign government or political subdivision filing on EDGAR is further encouraged to give its Internet address, if available. [67...

  18. Education Department General Administrative Regulations. 34 CFR Parts 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85 and 86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    During calendar year 1994, the U.S. Department of Education published significant revisions to the Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR). These regulatory changes addressed the noncompeting continuation (NCC) application process for discretionary grants and cooperative agreements, the Department's implementation of the…

  19. Fish-eye lens view Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell in Lunar Module Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-07-15

    S70-45555 (July 1970) --- A fish-eye lens view showing astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (foreground) and Edgar D. Mitchell in the Apollo lunar module mission simulator at the Kennedy Space Center during preflight training for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission. Shepard is the Apollo 14 commander; and Mitchell is the lunar module pilot.

  20. 75 FR 27318 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview... Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. [FR Doc. 2010-11607 Filed 5-13-10; 8:45 am...) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) in 34 CFR parts 74, 75, 77, 79, 80...

  1. 77 FR 46658 - Proposed Priority; Technical Assistance To Improve State Data Capacity-National Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... percent of youth with individualized education programs (IEPs) graduating with a regular high school... 100,000 schools through EDFacts. \\4\\ Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR... Department programs (e.g., Consolidated State Performance Report under the Elementary and Secondary Education...

  2. Selected Papers from the International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (14th, Jacksonville, Florida, April 1-5, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "Building a Pedagogical Model for Synchronous Distance Learning Courses" (Panagiotes S. Anastasiades); "Delivery of Courseware using CD-ROM Media" (Brian Brighouse and Denis Edgar-Nevill); "Lessons Learned from Blended Biology Classes" (Arthur L. Buikema, Jr.); "Everything I Ever Needed to Know I…

  3. Exploring: Microbes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on microbes. Different types of microorganisms are introduced based on their living environments or whether they are harmful or beneficial. Contents include: (1) "It's a Small World" (Blake Edgar); (2) "The Human Body: A Complex Ecosystem" (Nik Walter); (3) "The Hills That…

  4. Looking east inside of the ingot mold stripper building for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of the ingot mold stripper building for the 44" slab mill at a row of ingots. A row of ingot molds are pictured east on the left. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, 44" Slab Mill, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Blueprint for Action: Dialogues from Wingspread II. Proceedings of the Conference on Adolescent Pregnancy: State Action on Adolescent Pregnancy (2nd, Racine, Wisconsin, August 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to improve and coordinate state-level efforts to ameliorate the crisis of adolescent pregnancy. The document includes summaries of addresses by Edgar May, vice-president of the American Public Welfare Association's board of directors; Ann Rosewater, staff director of the Select Committee…

  6. 34 CFR 206.5 - What definitions apply to these programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGAGED IN MIGRANT AND OTHER SEASONAL FARMWORK-HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM AND COLLEGE ASSISTANCE... Elementary school EDGAR Facilities Minor remodeling Nonprofit Private Project Public Secondary school... secondary school; (iii) Is a public or nonprofit institution; (iv) Admits as a regular student only a person...

  7. 34 CFR 206.5 - What definitions apply to these programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGAGED IN MIGRANT AND OTHER SEASONAL FARMWORK-HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM AND COLLEGE ASSISTANCE... Elementary school EDGAR Facilities Minor remodeling Nonprofit Private Project Public Secondary school... secondary school; (iii) Is a public or nonprofit institution; (iv) Admits as a regular student only a person...

  8. 34 CFR 206.5 - What definitions apply to these programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGAGED IN MIGRANT AND OTHER SEASONAL FARMWORK-HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM AND COLLEGE ASSISTANCE... Elementary school EDGAR Facilities Minor remodeling Nonprofit Private Project Public Secondary school... secondary school; (iii) Is a public or nonprofit institution; (iv) Admits as a regular student only a person...

  9. 34 CFR 206.5 - What definitions apply to these programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGAGED IN MIGRANT AND OTHER SEASONAL FARMWORK-HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM AND COLLEGE ASSISTANCE... Elementary school EDGAR Facilities Minor remodeling Nonprofit Private Project Public Secondary school... secondary school; (iii) Is a public or nonprofit institution; (iv) Admits as a regular student only a person...

  10. 34 CFR 608.4 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply? 608.4 Section 608.4 Education... What definitions apply? (a) Definitions in EDGAR. The following terms used in this part are defined in... Project period Public Secretary (b) Other definitions. The following definitions also apply to this part...

  11. 34 CFR 609.4 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply? 609.4 Section 609.4 Education... definitions apply? (a) Definitions in EDGAR. The following terms used in this part are defined in 34 CFR 77.1... Secretary (b) The following definition applies to a term used in this part: Qualified graduate program means...

  12. Degas at the Races. Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kimberly; Sturman, Shelley; Perlin Ruth R.; Moore, Barabara S.

    This teaching guide discusses Edgar Germain Hilaire Degas (1834-1917), his paintings, and his sculpture. The guide focuses on his paintings of daily activities at the horse racetrack in Paris (France). The unit has a concise biography of Degas. It is divided into two parts: Part 1: "Paintings and Drawings" (Kimberly Jones); and Part 2:…

  13. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon L., Ed.; Wild, Estelle, Ed.

    This collection of 13 author-contributed papers addresses various aspects of programming for students with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "System Support and Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents with Seriously Disordered Behaviors: Orchestrating Successful Transitions" (Eugene Edgar); (2) "Targets for…

  14. 75 Years and More in Yorkshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood-Robinson, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    To celebrate the work of the Association for Science Education (ASE), the Science Masters' Association (SMA) and the Association of Women Science Teachers (AWST) in Yorkshire, the Region Committee invited Edgar Jenkins to write a celebratory history, entitled "75 years and More in Yorkshire". The booklet, locating that work in its wider…

  15. Re-examining Vernacular Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two books, "American Earlier Black English," by Edgar W. Schneider, and "The Death of Black English," by Ronald Butters, that capture the essence of the renewed controversy on the reemergence of the historical issue and a new dispute over the current development of Vernacular Black English. (36 references) (JL)

  16. Writing and Publishing: The Ultimate Teen Guide. It Happened to Me #27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Tina P.

    2010-01-01

    Edgar Allen Poe, Langston Hughes, Louisa May Alcott, and Stephen King are just a handful of famous authors who began their publishing careers in their teens. Many young adults would like to write and publish but few know where to begin. While there are many books on how to write and how to get published, none are written specifically for teens.…

  17. Degas: Vision and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The art of Edgar Degas is discussed in relation to his impaired vision, including amblyopia, later blindness in one eye, corneal scarring, and photophobia. Examined are ways in which Degas compensated for vision problems, and dominant themes of his art such as the process of perception and spots of brilliant light. (Author/JDD)

  18. Discrepancies and Uncertainties in Bottom-up Gridded Inventories of Livestock Methane Emissions for the Contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; Hristov, A. N.; Harper, M.; Meinen, R.; Day, R.; Lopes, J.; Ott, T.; Venkatesh, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this analysis we used a spatially-explicit, bottom-up approach, based on animal inventories, feed intake, and feed intake-based emission factors to estimate county-level enteric (cattle) and manure (cattle, swine, and poultry) livestock methane emissions for the contiguous United States. Combined enteric and manure emissions were highest for counties in California's Central Valley. Overall, this analysis yielded total livestock methane emissions (8,916 Gg/yr; lower and upper bounds of 6,423 and 11,840 Gg/yr, respectively) for 2012 that are comparable to the current USEPA estimates for 2012 (9,295 Gg/yr) and to estimates from the global gridded Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventory (8,728 Gg/yr), used previously in a number of top-down studies. However, the spatial distribution of emissions developed in this analysis differed significantly from that of EDGAR. As an example, methane emissions from livestock in Texas and California (highest contributors to the national total) in this study were 36% lesser and 100% greater, respectively, than estimates by EDGAR. Thespatial distribution of emissions in gridded inventories (e.g., EDGAR) likely strongly impacts the conclusions of top-down approaches that use them, especially in the source attribution of resulting (posterior) emissions, and hence conclusions from such studies should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 34 CFR 396.4 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What definitions apply? 396.4 Section 396.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE DEAF-BLIND General § 396.4 What definitions apply? (a) Definitions in EDGAR. The following...

  1. 34 CFR 381.5 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What definitions apply? 381.5 Section 381.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... What definitions apply? (a) Definitions in EDGAR. The following terms used in this part are defined in...

  2. 34 CFR 381.5 - What definitions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What definitions apply? 381.5 Section 381.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... What definitions apply? (a) Definitions in EDGAR. The following terms used in this part are defined in...

  3. Use of cold-bonded, waste oxide briquettes at U.S. Steel Mon Valley BOP shop

    SciTech Connect

    DiCaprio, V.; Howell, K.; Harris, R.

    1995-09-01

    In attempts to avoid the escalated costs and environmental concerns associated with taking waste oxide materials to a landfill, National Recovery Systems Inc., in conjunction with US Steel, built a waste oxide briquetting facility at the USS Mon Valley works (Edgar Thomson plant) to recycle various sludges and scales. The waste oxide briquette is currently a blend of BOP classifier sludge, BOP filter drum sludge, casterscale and hot strip mill scale. In addition to the landfill cost avoidance, the waste oxide briquette is also a low cast, steel scrap supplement. This paper describes the production of the waste oxide briquettemore » and the use of the recycled material at the Edgar Thomson BOP shop.« less

  4. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-11

    hotels, she observes, welcome the gaming establishments because these generate more revenue for their food and beverage section as well as increase ...and finally to 50 per cent in November last year. The sales tax was also increased by 100 per cent to 20 per cent. *****’ The increases in sales...ANG PAHAYAGANG MALAYA, 26 Jan 87) 72 Negros Labor Leader Hits Sugar Workers Program Critics (Edgar Cadagat; ANG PAHAYAGANG MALAYA, 26 Jan 87

  5. Cultural Organization: Fragments of a Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    34 In B. Staw & L.L. Cummings (eds.) Research in Organization Behavior , Vol. 6, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1963. November, 1982. 0070-11H 0983 TR-11 Bailyn... Behavior . November, 1982. TR-12 Schein, Edgar H. "The Role of the Founder In the Creation of Organizational Culture." Organizational Dynamics, Summer...34 Forthcoming in J. Lorscb (ed.) Handbook of Organizational Behavior , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. May, 1983. TR-20 Van Maanen, John

  6. The Research Psychologist in the Army -- 1917 to 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    Katzell, David R. Krathwohl, Russell G. Leiter, E. F. Lindquist, Irving Lorge, Grace Manson, Richard H. Paynter, Ruth Pederson (Richardson), Evelyn...Boren, Martin D. Braine, Rcbert Galambos, Murray Glanzer, Eliot S. Hearst, Richard Hernstein, Ardie Lubin, Walle Nauta, Edgar H. Schein, Murray Sidman...Rasmussen, Director 1956-1962; Theodore R. Vallance , Director 1962-1966; and Preston S. Abbott, Director 1967 to 1968. July 1956. HumRRO Division No. 6

  7. Artist's concept of Apollo 14 crewmen on their firs traverse of lunar surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-11

    S71-16101 (January 1971) --- A Grumman Aerospace Corporation artist's concept of Apollo 14 crewmen, astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, as they set out on their first traverse. Shepard is pulling the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET) which contains cameras, lunar sample bags, tools and other paraphernalia. Shepard has the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3) in his other hand. Mitchell is carrying the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) barbell mode.

  8. Saturn V Dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the original Von Braun german rocket team participate in the Saturn V replica didication ceremony at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. Pictured are (L/R): Walter Jacobi, Konrad Dannenberg, Apollo 14's Edgar Mitchell, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Apollo 12's Dick Gordon, Gerhard Reisig, Werner Dahm, MSFC Director Art Stephenson, Director of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center Mike Wing, Walter Haeusserman, and Ernst Stuhlinger.

  9. Analyzing Source Apportioned Methane in Northern California During DISCOVER-AQ-CA Using Airborne Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric concentrations in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were 5.30 Gg/day (Gg 1.0 109 grams) (equating to 1.9 103 Gg/yr) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes 30 of total emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 concentrations over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 concentrations in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) -5 and linear regression slope 0.25). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when hot spots of local emission sources were measured and atmospheric CH4 concentrations reached values 3.0 parts per million (model NMB -10). Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California and further the understanding of the physical processes

  10. Analyzing source apportioned methane in northern California during Discover-AQ-CA using airborne measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Loewenstein, Max; Tadić, Jovan M.; Wecht, Kevin J.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fischer, Marc L.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric mixing ratios in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were ∼5.30 Gg day-1 (Gg = 1.0 × 109 g) (equating to ∼1.90 × 103 Gg yr-1) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes ∼30% of total CH4 emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 mixing ratios over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 mixing ratios in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) = -5.2% and linear regression slope = 0.20). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when large amounts of CH4 were measured over local emission sources and atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios reached values >2.5 parts per million. Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California.

  11. Artist's concept of Apollo 14 Command/Service Modules circling Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-11

    S71-16574 (11 Jan. 1971) --- An artist's concept depicting the Apollo 14 Command and Service Modules (CSM) circling the moon as the Lunar Module (LM) heads toward a lunar landing. While astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remains with the CSM in lunar orbit, astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, will descend in the LM to explore an area in the rugged Fra Mauro highlands.

  12. Apollo Command/Service Modules photographed against black sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-04

    AS14-66-9344 (February 1971) --- The Apollo Command and Service Modules (CSM) are photographed against a black sky background from the Lunar Module (LM) above the moon. While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the LM "Antares" to explore the Fra Mauro region of the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa , command module pilot, remained with the CSM "Kitty Hawk" in lunar orbit.

  13. Personality and Politics: The Untold Story of Robert S. McNamara and Curtis E. Lemay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    James H. Douglas, Jr . F.F. Everest William C. Garland Harry E. Goldsworthy Brian S. Gunderson Ernest C. Hardin, Jr . Michael J. Ingelido Leon W...Schriever Alton D. Slay Frederick H. Smith F.H. Smith, Jr . Guyford H. Steven Maxwell D. Taylor John W. Vogt Adriel N. Williams E.M. Zuckert...of Oahu, Hawaii. 22 Curtis E. LeMay Oral History Interview conducted by Edgar F. Puryear, Jr . 17

  14. View of the Laser Ranging Retro Reflector deployed by Apollo 14 astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    AS14-67-9386 (5 Feb. 1971) --- A close-up view of the laser ranging retro reflector (LR3) which the Apollo 14 astronauts deployed on the moon during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  15. A Computer Based Data Management System for Automating the Air Force Vehicle Master Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    and columns -- but a much more sophisticated approach defining the relations among the data. Dr. Edgar F . Codd , who first proposed the relational...39 f . Vehicle Types Screen ... .......... 41 7. NSN Selection Screen ... .......... 41 8. NSN Retry Screen ..... ............ 9. F:ve-Year Outlook...had a single source o: inormation on the vehicle fleet, to be used in deve- uctn..: f .. ng and prioratizing the vehicle program- re~suireo to meet the

  16. Design Recommendations for Query Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUERY LANGUAGES S.L. Ehrenreich Submitted by: Stanley M. Halpin, Acting Chief HUMAN FACTORS TECHNICAL AREA Approved by: Edgar ...respond to que- ries that it recognizes as faulty. Codd (1974) states that in designing a nat- ural query language, attention must be given to dealing...impaired. Codd (1974) also regarded the user’s perception of the data base to be of critical importance in properly designing a query language system

  17. Design Guidelines for User Transactions with Battlefield Automated Systems: Prototype for a Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    83-86. Codd , E. F ., Seven Steps to Rendezvous with the Casual User (Technical Report RJ-1333). San Jose, California: IBM Research Laboratory, January...SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the - Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel L. NEALE COSBY EDGAR M. JOHNSON Colonel, IN...automated systems. The work here demonstrates that the concept can be productively extended to the behavioral domain. .I: UNC!•ASSI! F I TD SeCURITY CL

  18. Excitation of the Magnetospheric Cavity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-16

    gyrofrequency of 880 kHz at the ground at the equator, and uses a diffusive equilibrium model [ Angerami and Thomas, 1964] to calculate charged particle...significantly damped [Smith and Angerami , 1968; Edgar, 1976; Gurnett and Inan, 1988], resonantly interacting with, and pitch angle scattering...2429, 1999. Angerami , J. J., and J. O. Thomas, Studies of planetary Atmospheres, 1, The distribution of electrons and ions in the Earth’s

  19. KSC-2009-4178

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – CNN correspondent John Zarella, left, moderates NASA's 40th Anniversary of Apollo Celebration of the July 1969 launch and landing on the moon. The ceremony, held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida featured Apollo astronauts (at the dais) Buzz Aldrin, Walt Cunningham, Edgar Mitchell, Al Worden, Charlie Duke, Vance Brand, Gerald Carr and Bruce McCandless. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  20. KSC-2009-4187

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The Apollo/Saturn V Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida is filled with guests gathered to hear about the Apollo 11 launch and landing in July 1969 from eight Apollo astronauts: . The event is part of NASA's 40th Anniversary of Apollo Celebration. Participating are CNN correspondent, who moderated, Buzz Aldrin, Walt Cunningham, Edgar Mitchell, Al Worden, Charlie Duke, Vance Brand, Gerald Carr and Bruce McCandless. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  1. KSC-2009-4179

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – With CNN correspondent John Zarella (left) moderating, Apollo astronauts (at the dais) Buzz Aldrin, Walt Cunningham, Edgar Mitchell, Al Worden, Charlie Duke, Vance Brand, Gerald Carr and Bruce McCandless share stories of their experiences during NASA's 40th Anniversary of Apollo Celebration of the July 1969 launch and landing on the moon. The ceremony was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  2. KSC-2009-4186

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – CNN Correspondent John Zarella (left), moderates NASA's 40th Anniversary of Apollo Celebration of the moon launch and landing in July 1969, which was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At right are Apollo astronauts Buzz Aldrin, Walt Cunningham and Edgar Mitchell. Eight Apollo astronauts shared their experiences with a crowd of guests. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  3. Launch of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    S71-18395 (31 Jan. 1971) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida at 4:03:02 p.m. (EST), Jan. 31, 1971, on a lunar landing mission. Aboard the Apollo 14 spacecraft were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  4. Launch - Apollo 14 Lunar Landing Mission - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    S71-17621 (31 Jan. 1971) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:03:02 p.m. (EST), Jan. 31, 1981, on a lunar landing mission. Aboard the Apollo 14 spacecraft were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  5. Development of Officer Selection Battery Forms 3 and 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    the development, standardization, and validation of two parallel forms of a test to be used for assessing young men and women applying to ROTC. Fairly...appropriate di6ffculty, high reliability, and state-of-the-art validity and fairness for mit~orities and women . EDGAR M. JOHNSON Technical Directcr 4v 4...administrable, test for use in assessing young men and women applying to Advanced Army ROTC. Procedur .-: Earlier research had performed an analysis of the

  6. K0-Behavior of Normally Consolidated Fine-Grained Soils during One-Dimensional Secondary Compression Aging and the Quantitative Prediction of the Quasi-Preconsolidation Effect.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Plastic Kaolinite and three Agsco novaculite, were allowed to age a minimum of 14 days under 2 tsf vertical stress while the Ko-condition was maintained and...16 3.1 Introduction ................................ 16 3.2 Edgar Plastic Kaolinite ....................... 17 3.3 Novaculite...system are provided. "’Six normally consolidated fine-grained specimens, three Edjar Plastic Kaolinite and three Agsco novaculite, were allowed to

  7. Apollo 14 prime crew aboard NASA Motor Vessel Retriever during training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-10-24

    S70-51699 (24 Oct. 1970) --- The prime crew of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission relaxes aboard the NASA motor vessel retriever, prior to participating in water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Left to right are astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. They are standing by a Command Module (CM) trainer which was used in the exercises.

  8. Census Report: Volume V, 1986. Sanitized Version.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    ALBERT N. 0916 o6 ORG ! KNAPP, CLARE A. 0916 KNAUER, JAMES P. 0638 KNIGHT, RAYMOND J., JR. 0837 KNIGHT, SUSAN S. 0809 KNOPP, LARRY C. 0599 KNOTTS ...0599 NOWAK, CHERYL LYNN 0918 NUDD, EDWARD J. 0890 NUDD, EDWARD JAMES 0890 NUNAN, SCOTT C. 0927 NUNGESSER, GEORGE R. 0837 NUTTER, HOWARD E. 0837...ERIC J. 0599 PARKER, RICHARD LEE 0638 PARKER, SYLVIA E. 0916 PARKS, CHERYL A. 0837 PARSONS, STEELE V. i0599 PARTON, EDGAR L. 0682 PASSELL, SETH D. 0923

  9. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  10. Early Jet Engines and the Transition from Centrifugal to Axial Compressors: A Case Study in Technological Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    report, prepared by physicist Edgar Buckingham in 1922, did not encourage further development of the concept. 3 1 But Buckingham did not actually...because Buckingham , an able physicist, treated the problem as well-defined, as is usual in solving a scientific problem. Buckingham was not a...But Buckingham did not have the same purpose in mind as those later inventors. Buckingham the physicist did not ask the same questions as Whittle

  11. Neoplasms of the Stomach, Liver & Pancreas: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment among High-Risk Populations | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Agenda - Day 1, September 18, 2015 08:00 am - Registration 08:30 am - Welcome remarks and overview of the Conference Dr. Leslie Ford (NCI) – 5 min Dr. Edgar Colon (RCM and UPRCCC) - 5 min Luz Maria Rodriguez – Conference objectives & structure  Global Cancer Burden: An Overview and State of the Problem Moderators: Dr. Luz Maria Rodriguez and Dr. Victor Jose Carlo (PR

  12. General Thomas Dresser White: Renaissance Man in a Dark Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Interview with Maj Gen Haywood S. Hansell,” interview by Edgar F. Puryear, Jr., February 25, 1979 , Air Force Historical Research Agency. 66 Puryear...man in space, the Air Force collaborated with NASA to develop the Dyna- Soar , a manned spacecraft launched via a Titan rocket and returned as a...glider. For White, “The Dyna- Soar …is the first vehicle which will combine the advantages of manned aircraft and missiles into a

  13. An Historical Comparison Between the Southern Secession Movement of 1860 and the Soviet Secession Movements of Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    of science into areas from which if had heretofore been excluded was lyrically and accurately described by the American writer Edgar Allen Poe who...understanding the intellectual foundation of the American Revolution. A. THE PHILOSOPHY OF LOCKE In An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End...indeed the weakest part of his essay ; yet, there is no convincing way to refute the point. He seemed almost to be saying that complete democracy, with

  14. A National Security Strategy for Sweden: Balancing Risks and Opportunities in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Command and Staff College. International Security Studies: AY10 Coursebook . Montgomery, 2009. Air Command and Staff College. War Studies Course: AY10... Coursebook . Montgomery, 2009. Assadourian, Eric (Project Director at the World Watch Institute). Vital Signs 2007-2008; The Trends that are Shaping Our...Air Command and Staff College International Security Studies: AY10 Coursebook . Montgomery, 2009. Edgar, Johan, Linda Hjerten, Mira Micic and Eric

  15. Calling for the absent male.

    PubMed

    Edgar, D

    1999-08-01

    This is an edited version of a keynote address given by Dr Don Edgar at both the VicHealth Conference on 'Healthy Relationships in the Workplace' held in August 1998 and the Tasmanian Men's Health Conference held in Launceston in November 1998. Men's lack of communication skills and emotional intelligence has serious negative consequences for their own physical and mental health, the wellbeing of their families and for the quality of their performance in the workplace.

  16. Organizational Culture and Leadership Practices in the 75th Ranger Regiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    culture inspires the actions of executive leaders . Edgar Schein predicts this phenomenon in his three level model of organizational culture.1 Executive...culture of the 75th Ranger Regiment developed; and through a survey questionnaire administered to selected leaders in the 75th Ranger Regiment, it explores...prevailing views on the effect unit culture has on leadership practices. This study reveals that, first, executive leaders are more likely than mid

  17. Apollo 16 prime and backup crewmen during geological field trip in New Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-09-09

    Dr. Lee Silver (pointing foregroung), California Institute of Technology, calls a geological feature near Taos, New Mexico, to the attention of Apollo 16 prime and backup crewmen during a geological field trip. The crewmen, from left to right, are Astronauts Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot; Fred W. Haise Jr., backup commander; Edgar D. Mitchell, backup Lunar Module pilot; and John W. Young, commander.

  18. AFOSR PRET: Homeostatic & Circadian Regulation of Wakefulness During Jet Lag and Sleep Deprivation: Effect of Wake-Promoting Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-31

    Behavioral Monitor 42 Samuel Rikoon Behavioral Monitor Jenna Rimberg Behavioral Monitor Elizabeth Rossin Behavioral Monitor Luz- Adriana Samper Behavioral...reviews, dissertations supported in whole or in Part by the Center 2000 (n = 2) Journal articles, chapters, reviews, dissertations Kas , M.J.H., and D.M...2001. Dinges, D.F.: Stress, fatigue, and behavioral energy. Nutrition Reviews, 59(1): S30-S32, 2001. Kas , M.J.H., and D.M. Edgar. Scheduled

  19. Apollo 14 Mission image - View of Astronaut Mitchell and the Modular Equipment Transporter with the Lunar Module in background.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-06

    AS14-64-9140 (6 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, participates in the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA). He is standing near the modularized equipment transporter (MET). While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Mitchell descended in the Apollo 14 LM to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  20. Cognitive and Motivational Consequences of Tutoring and Discovery Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    for the Behavioral and Social Sciences t*J Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. [flEIC QUAUTy INSPECTED U.S. Army Research...Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences A Directorate of the U.S. Total Army Personnel Command EDGAR M. JOHNSON Director Research...and Social Sciences. NOTE: The views, opinions, and findings in this Research Note are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an

  1. The case for refining bottom-up methane emission inventories using top-down measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Ginty, Elisa; Bashir, Safdar; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2017-04-01

    Bottom-up global methane emission estimates are important for guiding policy development and mitigation strategies. Such inventories enable rapid and consistent proportioning of emissions by industrial sectors and land use at various scales from city to country to global. There has been limited use of top-down measurements to guide refining emission inventories. Here we compare the EDGAR gridmap data version 4.2 with over 5000 km of daytime ground level mobile atmospheric methane surveys in eastern Australia. The landscapes and industries surveyed include: urban environments, dryland farming, intensive livestock farming (both beef and lamb), irrigation agriculture, open cut and underground coal mining, and coal seam gas production. Daytime mobile methane surveys over a 2-year period show that at the landscape scale there is a high level of repeatability for the mole fraction of methane measured in the ground level atmosphere. Such consistency in the mole fraction of methane indicates that these data can be used as a proxy for flux. A scatter plot of the EDGAR emission gridmap Log[ton substance / 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree / year] versus the median mole fraction of methane / 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree in the ground level atmosphere highlights that the extent of elevated methane emissions associated with coal mining in the Hunter coalfields, which covers an area of 56 km by 24 km, has been under-represented in the EDGAR input data. Our results also show that methane emissions from country towns (population < 100,000) are underestimated in the EDGAR inventory. This is possibly due to poor information on the extent of urban gas leaks. Given the uncertainties associated with the base land use and industry data for each country, we generalise the Australian observations to the global inventory with caution. The extensive comparison of top-down measurements versus the EDGAR version 4.2 methane gridmaps highlights the need for adjustments to the base resource data and/or the

  2. Maintenance Resources by Building Use for U.S. Army Installations. Volume 2. Appendices A through H

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Installations, Volume II: Appendices A Through H RDTE dated 1980REIMB 1984 6 . AUTHOR(S) Edgar S. Neely and Robert D. Neathammer 7 . PERFORML’JG...Recurring Maintenance Factor 1.10 MRT For Major Cost Tasks and Replacement Tasks Decade 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .050 .190 .240 .300 .280...Special Condition Multiplier 1.00 Annual Recurring Maintenance Factor .79 MRT For Major Cost Tasks and Replacement Tasks Decade 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 0

  3. High angle view of Apollo 14 space vehicle on way to Pad A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-11-09

    S70-54127 (9 Nov. 1970) --- A high-angle view at Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), showing the Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle on the way from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to Pad A. The Saturn V stack and its mobile launch tower sit atop a huge crawler-transporter. The Apollo 14 crewmen will be astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  4. High angle view of Apollo 14 space vehicle on way to Pad A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-11-09

    S70-54119 (9 Nov. 1970) --- A high-angle view at Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), showing the Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle on the way from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to Pad A. The Saturn V stack and its mobile launch tower sit atop a huge crawler-transporter. The Apollo 14 crewmen will be astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  5. Psychoanalysis and detective fiction: a tale of Freud and criminal storytelling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about Freud's influence on popular culture. This article addresses the influence of literature on Freud's psychoanalytical theory, specifically the role that modern detective fiction played in shaping Freudian theory. Edgar Allan Poe gave Freud the literary precedent; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's creation Sherlock Holmes gave him the analytical model. In turn, the world of crime story-telling embedded Freudian theories in subsequent forms, spinning the tales of crime into a journey into the human mind. As these tales were popularized on the silver screen in the early 20th century, psychoanalytical ideas moved from the lecture halls into the cultural mainstream.

  6. Response to 'No country is an island: comment on the House of Commons report Human Reproductive Technologies and the Law'.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Pushpa M

    2005-07-01

    Edgar Dahl supports sex selection, e.g. through separation of X and Y sperm or through PGD. It is argued in this commentary that while such sex selection would seem reasonable for balancing a family (wanting a daughter if one already has a son, or vice-versa), it is likely to lead to skewing of female-male ratios, not only in India where it is already as low as 0.8 in certain parts, but possibly also in Great Britain as male chauvinism is not a thing of the past anywhere.

  7. The 1986 ARI (Army Research Institute) Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Media Habits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    EDGAR M. JOHNSONCOI Technical Director Cmadn Technical review by Accesion For Curtis L. Gilroy NTAS CRA&:AI Laurel N. Oliver DI A UnC ABm~jc NOTICES...NBC SOURCE T681 X240 SOLID GOLD X241 SOUL TRAIN X242 AMERICAN BANDSTAND X243 DANCE FEVER U" X244 MOVIES ON NETWORK TV X755 MUSIC VIDEOS (NOT...BLACKE’S MAGIC Y080 MOONLIGHTING Y081 MACGIVER Y082 STINGRAY Y083 AIRWOLF Y084 THE A-TEAM Y085 HUNTER Y086 MIAMI VICE Y087 HARDCASTLE AND MCCORMICK Y088

  8. Astronaut Alan Shepard near Lunar Landing Training Vehicle prior to test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-12-14

    S70-56287 (14 Dec. 1970) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, stands near a Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV) prior to a test flight at Ellington Air Force Base, Houston, on Dec. 14, 1970. Shepard will be at the controls of the Apollo 14 Lunar Module (LM) when it lands on the moon in the highlands near Fra Mauro. Astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Shepard and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descend in the LM to explore the moon.

  9. MMC M509 Temperature Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-03-10

    S71-18399 (31 Jan. 1971) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida at 4:03:02 p.m. (EST), Jan. 31, 1971, on a lunar landing mission. This view is framed by moss-covered dead trees in the dark foreground. Aboard the Apollo 14 spacecraft were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  10. Launch - Apollo XIV - Lunar Landing Mission - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    S71-18398 (31 Jan. 1971) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida at 4:03:02 p.m. (EST), Jan. 31, 1971, on a lunar landing mission. This view is framed by moss-covered dead trees in the dark foreground. Aboard the Apollo 14 spacecraft were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  11. Satellite-derived methane hotspot emission estimates using a fast data-driven method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Schneising, Oliver; Reuter, Maximilian; Heymann, Jens; Krautwurst, Sven; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.; Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert J.; Somkuti, Peter; Detmers, Rob G.; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Aben, Ilse; Butz, André; Frankenberg, Christian; Turner, Alexander J.

    2017-05-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric greenhouse gas and an adequate understanding of its emission sources is needed for climate change assessments, predictions, and the development and verification of emission mitigation strategies. Satellite retrievals of near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of atmospheric methane, i.e. XCH4, can be used to quantify methane emissions. Maps of time-averaged satellite-derived XCH4 show regionally elevated methane over several methane source regions. In order to obtain methane emissions of these source regions we use a simple and fast data-driven method to estimate annual methane emissions and corresponding 1σ uncertainties directly from maps of annually averaged satellite XCH4. From theoretical considerations we expect that our method tends to underestimate emissions. When applying our method to high-resolution atmospheric methane simulations, we typically find agreement within the uncertainty range of our method (often 100 %) but also find that our method tends to underestimate emissions by typically about 40 %. To what extent these findings are model dependent needs to be assessed. We apply our method to an ensemble of satellite XCH4 data products consisting of two products from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and two products from TANSO-FTS/GOSAT covering the time period 2003-2014. We obtain annual emissions of four source areas: Four Corners in the south-western USA, the southern part of Central Valley, California, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. We find that our estimated emissions are in good agreement with independently derived estimates for Four Corners and Azerbaijan. For the Central Valley and Turkmenistan our estimated annual emissions are higher compared to the EDGAR v4.2 anthropogenic emission inventory. For Turkmenistan we find on average about 50 % higher emissions with our annual emission uncertainty estimates overlapping with the EDGAR emissions. For the region around Bakersfield in the Central Valley we

  12. Portrait - New 19

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1967-05-01

    S67-30404 (May 1967) --- Portrait of astronaut group selected April 4, 1966. Seated, left to right, are Edward G. Givens Jr., Edgar D. Mitchell, Charles M. Duke Jr., Don L. Lind, Fred W. Haise Jr., Joe H. Engle, Vance D. Brand, John S. Bull and Bruce McCandless II. Standing, left to right, are John L. Swigert Jr., William R. Pogue, Ronald E. Evans, Paul J. Weitz, James B. Irwin, Gerald P. Carr, Stuart A. Roosa, Alfred M. Worden, Thomas K. Mattingly and Jack R. Lousma. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  13. A Relational/Object-Oriented Database Management System: R/OODBMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Concepts In 1968, Dr. Edgar F . Codd had the idea that "predicate logic could be applied to maintaining the logical integrity of the data" in a DBMS [CD90, p...Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990. [Co70] Codd , E. F ., "A Relational Model for Large Shared Data Banks," Communications of the ACM, v. 13, no.6...pp. 377-387 Jun 1970. [CD90] Interview between E. F . Codd and DBMS, "Relational philosopher: the creator of the relational model talks about his

  14. WWII U.S. General of the Army Officers: A Selective Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    U51 Puryear, Edgar F ., Jr. 19 Stars, A Study in Military Character P8 and Leadership, 2d ed., Novato, CA: Presidio Pr., c1981. E181 Shoemaker...MILLER 81 JAN 83 UNCLASSIFIED USRFAS/MSLD/SB92 F /G 15/7, N ,000007-mhNil I lmlllllfllff ’ oo WAI~I Il am’ 1 . ° MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART...Dec 1951. _______________ "Your Professional Career," A, 2:12,13,33, Jun 1953. B - Materials About Gen Bradley 1. Serials Article, F ., 38:58, Mar-Apr

  15. A Prototype Climate Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    accessing the fields used for matching. The relational data base model was developed in the early 1970s by Edgar F . Codd , has become the most important...Thetr goal ofd tisp earh iTESS(3), and porting this software to TESS(3) hasT he go al o f th is research is to develop a C IS tob e u . C I A T d m o...meteorological observations every three hours around the clock. Lt. Matthew F . Maury, upon taking command of the depot in July of 1842, found that the resultant

  16. Orbital Servicing: Issue or Answer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    system costs. .j-- INISGRA&I IDTIC TAB uastoaio. - Z AV611abilitY CodDS il t specal BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lieutenant Colonel Douglas P. Hotard (M.S...The process is similar to an F -15 refueling from a KC-1O, except that in space it is the refueling vehicle which must use fuel in order to maneuver...System Designs Promote Survival of the Fittest," Defense Electronics, June 1985. 10. Ulsamer, Edgar , "At Risk in Space," Air Force Magazine, September

  17. U.S. Coast Guard Alternatives for Distributed Data Base Management Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    relational databases as the result of the papers and theoretical work done by Dr. Edgar F . Codd . But, the number of commercially available relational DBMSs...DEC 82UNCLASSIFIED F /G 5/O NIL _mlEEEEElllEEE mohEohmhhhohEI mmmmmmmmm EohhmhohmhhEEE L96 130 ’II,, 1 .8 IIIII L2 116 111111 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION...CLASS. (of thoo nftmj I S .. C kA S S O U1 I C A T IO t i 0 O f t G A D I N * to. oHSTRIGUTIOu STATEMeNT tei lab *GPM# Approved for public release

  18. KSC-2009-4190

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – During NASA's 40th Anniversary of Apollo Celebration at the Apollo/Saturn V Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Center Director Bob Cabana (center) and Chief Operating Officer of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Bob Moore (left of Cabana) join Apollo astronauts on the stage. At far left is the program moderator John Zarella, with CNN. The astronauts are (from left) Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell, Walt Cunningham, Buzz Aldrin, (Moore, Cabana), Charlie Duke, Vance Brand, Gerald Carr and Bruce McCandless. The celebration honored the July 1969 launch and landing on the moon. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  19. KSC-2009-4192

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – During NASA's 40th Anniversary of Apollo Celebration at the Apollo/Saturn V Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Visitor Complex Chief Operating Officer, Bob Moore (center left), gives Center Director Bob Cabana a plaque commemorating the Apollo Treasures Gallery. Others on stage are (far left) the program moderator, John Zarella, with CNN, and Apollo astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell, Walt Cunningham, Buzz Aldrin, (Moore, Cabana), Charlie Duke, Vance Brand, Gerald Carr and Bruce McCandless. The celebration honored the July 1969 launch and landing on the moon. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  20. Launch - Apollo 14 Lunar Landing Mission - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    S71-17620 (31 Jan. 1971) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:03:02 p.m. (EST), Jan. 31, 1981, on a lunar landing mission. This view of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower. Aboard the Apollo 14 spacecraft were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  1. Overall view of Mission Control Center during Apollo 14

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    S71-16879 (31 Jan. 1971) --- Overall view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the Apollo 14 transposition and docking maneuvers. The Apollo 14 Lunar Module, still attached to the Saturn IVB stage, can be seen on the large television monitor. Due to difficulty with the docking mechanism six attempts were made before a successful "hard dock" of the Command Module with the Lunar Module was accomplished. Aboard the Command Module were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell.

  2. Apollo 14 crewmembers sealed inside a Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-09

    S71-18557 (9 Feb. 1971) --- Sealed inside a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), Apollo 14 astronauts greet newsmen and crew men aboard the USS New Orleans, Apollo 14 prime recovery ship. They are from left to right, astronauts Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. Apollo 14 splashdown occurred at 3:04:39 p.m. (CST), Feb. 9, 1971, in the South Pacific Ocean, approximately 765 nautical miles from American Samoa.

  3. Apollo 14 crewmembers sealed inside a Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-12

    S71-19508 (12 Feb. 1971) --- Separated by aluminum and glass of their Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), the Apollo 14 crew members visit with their families and friends upon arriving at Ellington Air Force Base in the early morning hours of Feb. 12, 1971. Looking through the MQF window are astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (left), commander; Stuart A. Roosa (right), command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. The crew men were brought to Houston aboard a C-141 transport plane from Pago Pago, American Samoa. The USS New Orleans had transported the crew to American Samoa from the recovery site in the South Pacific.

  4. Analyzing source apportioned methane in northern California during Discover-AQ-CA using airborne measurements and model simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; ...

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH 4) emissions and atmospheric mixing ratios in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH 4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH 4 emissions were ~5.30 Gg day –1 (Ggmore » = 1.0 × 10 9 g) (equating to ~1.90 × 10 3 Gg yr –1) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes ~30% of total CH 4 emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH 4 mixing ratios over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH 4 mixing ratios in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) = –5.2% and linear regression slope = 0.20). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when large amounts of CH 4 were measured over local emission sources and atmospheric CH 4 mixing ratios reached values >2.5 parts per million. Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH 4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH 4 emissions in California.« less

  5. Applied Sciences Department (R&D) Patents; a Compilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-28

    References Cited the first ampoule so that the two ampoules can he bro- UNITED STATES PATENTS ken simultaneously, and, upon mixing of the chemilu...Che-V222/541 miluminescent material and the other ampoule con-.tains an activator material. The almpoules can be bro-(561 References Cited ken by...Eaminer.-Robe" F. Stshl Aimmweys- Edgar J. broere. Ii. H Loach . and Paul S. isat `PYROTECHNCIGNALING ID E 1cER IT4 COMtPiOm WA!Eft EACTII’tIGN11M 4

  6. Emerging Generation of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    consist of a diverse mix of born-again religious believers and new agers who garner their values from the latest action movie and daily talk shows.2...Cycle Two begins when they return home to a warm reception of a grateful nation and huge yellow ribbons that drape the threshold of the family... trailer : http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=QcE6CdR60NY&feature=related (accessed 4 December 2010). 20 Ibid, 2:07. 21 Simon Wessely and Edgar Jones

  7. On the Nature of Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V.

    At the attention of scientist, philosophers and layman alike. It was so extraordinary in fact that even today we are fascinated by it and by the no less uncommon people who got involved. The subject of this story was an amazing machine, more precisely an automaton. Known as the Turk, it was a mechanical chess player, made of wood and dressed in a Turkish-like costume (see Fig. 1). It played chess with Napoleon, inspired Charles Babbage and moved the great Edgar Allan Poe to write a critical essay about the nature of the automaton [1].

  8. Members of House Committee on Science and Astronautics Visited MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on March 9, 1962 to gather first-hand information of the nation's space exploration program. The congressional group was composed of members of the Subcommittee on Marned Space Flight. Headed by Representative Olin E. Teague of Texas, other members were James G. Fulton, Pennsylvania; Ken Heckler, West Virginia; R. Walter Riehlman, New York; Richard L. Roudebush, Indiana; John W. Davis, Georgia; James C. Corman, California; Joseph Waggoner, Louisiana; J. Edgar Chenoweth, Colorado; and William G. Bray, Indiana.

  9. Members of House Committee on Science and Astronautics Visited MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on March 9, 1962 to gather first-hand information of the nation's space exploration program. The congressional group was composed of members of the Subcommittee on Marned Space Flight. Headed by Representative Olin E. Teague of Texas, other members were James G. Fulton, Pennsylvania; Ken Heckler, West Virginia; R. Walter Riehlman, New York; Richard L. Roudebush,, Indiana; John W. Davis, Georgia; James C. Corman, California; Joseph Waggoner, Louisiana; J. Edgar Chenoweth, Colorado; and William G. Bray, Indiana.

  10. Multi-gas and multi-source comparisons of six land use emission datasets and AFOLU estimates in the Fifth Assessment Report, for the tropics for 2000-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Herold, Martin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Houghton, Richard A.; Rossi, Simone; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Ogle, Stephen; Poulter, Benjamin; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher; de Bruin, Sytze

    2016-10-01

    The Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector contributes with ca. 20-25 % of global anthropogenic emissions (2010), making it a key component of any climate change mitigation strategy. AFOLU estimates, however, remain highly uncertain, jeopardizing the mitigation effectiveness of this sector. Comparisons of global AFOLU emissions have shown divergences of up to 25 %, urging for improved understanding of the reasons behind these differences. Here we compare a variety of AFOLU emission datasets and estimates given in the Fifth Assessment Report for the tropics (2000-2005) to identify plausible explanations for the differences in (i) aggregated gross AFOLU emissions, and (ii) disaggregated emissions by sources and gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). We also aim to (iii) identify countries with low agreement among AFOLU datasets to navigate research efforts. The datasets are FAOSTAT (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division), EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), the newly developed AFOLU "Hotspots", "Houghton", "Baccini", and EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) datasets. Aggregated gross emissions were similar for all databases for the AFOLU sector: 8.2 (5.5-12.2), 8.4, and 8.0 Pg CO2 eq. yr-1 (for Hotspots, FAOSTAT, and EDGAR respectively), forests reached 6.0 (3.8-10), 5.9, 5.9, and 5.4 Pg CO2 eq. yr-1 (Hotspots, FAOSTAT, EDGAR, and Houghton), and agricultural sectors were with 1.9 (1.5-2.5), 2.5, 2.1, and 2.0 Pg CO2 eq. yr-1 (Hotspots, FAOSTAT, EDGAR, and EPA). However, this agreement was lost when disaggregating the emissions by sources, continents, and gases, particularly for the forest sector, with fire leading the differences. Agricultural emissions were more homogeneous, especially from livestock, while those from croplands were the most diverse. CO2 showed the largest differences among the datasets. Cropland soils and enteric fermentation led to the smaller N2O and CH4 differences. Disagreements

  11. Parallel Attack and the Enemy’s Decision Making Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Theory Coursebook , Vol 2, Sept 1997, p 365 8 Joint Publication 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations, 1 Feb 1995, p III-11 9 Gorrell, LtCol Edgar S., “The...Behavioral Strategies,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol 90, Issue 432, December, 1995, p1137 3 Joint Publication 5-0, Doctrine for...Strategies,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol 90, Issue 432, December, 1995, p1137 Allison, Graham T., “Conceptual Models and the Cuban

  12. Television transmission at end of second extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, can be seen throwing a 'javelin' left handed during a television transmission near the close of the second extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro landing site. Mitchell used the staff of the Solar Wind Composition experiment as the 'javelin'. Behind Mitchell is Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander. Also visible in the picture are the erectable S-Band antenna (left foreground) and Lunar Module (left background) (20783); Shepard can be seen preparing to swing at a golf ball during television transmission at end of EVA-2 (20784).

  13. War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Quito: Programa de la Naciones Unidas Para el Desarrollo, 2004. 33. Catherine M. Conaghan, “Ecuador: Correa’s Plebiscitary President,” Journal of...jungle area of Ecuador known as Angostura.2 The target of the attack was long time FARC leader Raúl Reyes (nom de guerre for Luis Edgar Devia Silva...million to FARC. March 4 Uribe announces that Colombia will de - nounce Chávez for support to terrorism before the International Criminal Court. 4

  14. Ground level view of Apollo 14 space vehicle leaving VAB for launch pad

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-11-09

    S70-54121 (9 Nov. 1970) --- A ground level view at Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), showing the Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle leaving the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The Saturn V stack and its mobile launch tower, atop a huge crawler-transporter, were rolled out to Pad A. The Apollo 14 crewmen will be astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot.

  15. Apollo 14 Command Module approaches touchdown in South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-09

    S71-18753 (9 Feb. 1971) --- The Apollo 14 Command Module (CM), with astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, aboard, approaches touchdown in the South Pacific Ocean to successfully end a 10-day lunar landing mission. The splashdown occurred at 3:04:39 p.m. (CST), Feb. 9, 1971, approximately 765 nautical miles south of American Samoa. The three crew men were flown by helicopter to the USS New Orleans prime recovery ship.

  16. Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell practice using Active Seismic Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-10-30

    S71-15273 (October 1970) --- Apollo 14 astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander (right); and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, practice using the Active Seismic Experiment (ASE) to set off explosions on the lunar surface and arm a mortar to launch four grenades after they leave. Measurements of the ensuing vibrations of the moon, radioed to Earth, will give scientists new information on the shape, structure and thickness of the outer lunar crust. ASE will be deployed during one of two Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA) periods.

  17. Global distribution of methane emissions, emission trends, and OH trends inferred from an inversion of GOSAT data for 2010-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasakkers, J. D.; Jacob, D.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Hersher, M.; Scarpelli, T.; Turner, A. J.; Sheng, J.; Bloom, A. A.; Bowman, K. W.; Parker, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present a global inversion of methane sources and sinks using GOSAT satellite data from 2010 up to 2015. The inversion optimizes emissions and their trends at 4° × 5° resolution as well as the interannual variability of global OH concentrations. It uses an analytical approach that quantifies the information content from the GOSAT observations and provides full error characterization. We show how the analytical approach can be applied in log-space, ensuring the positivity of the posterior. The inversion starts from state-of-science a priori emission inventories including the Gridded EPA inventory for US anthropogenic emissions, detailed oil and gas emissions for Canada and Mexico, EDGAR v4.3.2 for anthropogenic emissions in other countries, the WetCHARTs product for wetlands, and our own estimates for geological seeps. Inversion results show lower emissions over Western Europe and China than predicted by EDGAR v4.3.2 but higher emissions over Japan. In contrast to previous inversions that used incorrect patterns in a priori emissions, we find that the EPA inventory does not underestimate US anthropogenic emissions. Results for trends show increasing emissions in the tropics combined with decreasing emissions in Europe, and a decline in OH concentrations contributing to the global methane trend.

  18. Spatiotemporal assessment of CO2 emissions and its satellite remote sensing over Pakistan and neighboring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and spatiotemporal variability of mid-tropospheric CO2 has been discussed using EDGAR database and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua satellite observations. The EDGAR data indicate an increase of 147% in anthropogenic CO2 emissions from 66,101 to 163,737 Gg for Pakistan during the period of 1990-2008. Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan) is found with the highest increase of 260% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions followed by Delhi (India) 153%, Karachi (Pakistan) 66% and Lahore (Pakistan) 59% whereas a decreasing trend of -53% is observed for Kabul (Afghanistan) during 1990-2008. Industrial activities, road transportation, open field crop-waste burning, and energy production have been identified as major anthropogenic emission sources of CO2 in the studied region. AIRS CO2 retrievals over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India and Afghanistan show an averaged CO2 to be 383±5 ppm with a positive trend of 5.05% during December 2002 to February 2012. An elevated value of CO2 has been observed over northern mountainous and high human settlement regions. The seasonal analysis shows a spring maximum 385±5 ppm with a secondary peak in late autumn, and the highest increasing trend of 5.5% associated with winter. May and August showed maximum and minimum mean monthly values of 385±5 ppm and 382±5 ppm respectively. HYSPLIT trajectories of air masses movement have been drawn to track CO2 transport.

  19. Atmospheric observations and inverse modelling for quantifying emissions of point-source synthetic greenhouse gases in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Tim; Manning, Alistair; Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray

    2017-04-01

    The fluorinated species carbon tetrafluoride (CF4; PFC-14), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and trifluoromethane (CHF3; HFC-23) are potent greenhouse gases with 100-year global warming potentials of 6,630, 16,100 and 12,400, respectively. Unlike the majority of CFC-replacements that are emitted from fugitive and mobile emission sources, these gases are mostly emitted from large single point sources - semiconductor manufacturing facilities (all three), aluminium smelting plants (CF4) and chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) factories (HFC-23). In this work we show that atmospheric measurements can serve as a basis to calculate emissions of these gases and to highlight emission 'hotspots'. We use measurements from one Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) long term monitoring sites at Gosan on Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This site measures CF4, NF3 and HFC-23 alongside a suite of greenhouse and stratospheric ozone depleting gases every two hours using automated in situ gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry instrumentation. We couple each measurement to an analysis of air history using the regional atmospheric transport model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) driven by 3D meteorology from the Met Office's Unified Model, and use a Bayesian inverse method (InTEM - Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling) to calculate yearly emission changes over seven years between 2008 and 2015. We show that our 'top-down' emission estimates for NF3 and CF4 are significantly larger than 'bottom-up' estimates in the EDGAR emissions inventory (edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu). For example we calculate South Korean emissions of CF4 in 2010 to be 0.29±0.04 Gg/yr, which is significantly larger than the Edgar prior emissions of 0.07 Gg/yr. Further, inversions for several separate years indicate that emission hotspots can be found without prior spatial information. At present these gases make a small contribution to global radiative forcing, however, given

  20. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory of Natural Gas Production and Distribution over Contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Omara, M.; Adams, P. J.; Presto, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas after Carbon Dioxide. The natural gas production and distribution accounts for 23% of the total anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States. The boost of natural gas production in U.S. in recent years poses a potential concern of increased methane emissions from natural gas production and distribution. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (Edgar) v4.2 and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) are currently the most commonly used methane emission inventories. However, recent studies suggested that both Edgar v4.2 and the EPA GHGI largely underestimated the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution in U.S. constrained by both ground and satellite measurements. In this work, we built a gridded (0.1° Latitude ×0.1° Longitude) methane emission inventory of natural gas production and distribution over the contiguous U.S. using emission factors measured by our mobile lab in the Marcellus Shale, the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the Uintah Basin, and emission factors reported from other recent field studies for other natural gas production regions. The activity data (well location and count) are mostly obtained from the Drillinginfo, the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) and the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results show that the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution estimated by our inventory is about 20% higher than the EPA GHGI, and in some major natural gas production regions, methane emissions estimated by the EPA GHGI are significantly lower than our inventory. For example, in the Marcellus Shale, our estimated annual methane emission in 2015 is 600 Gg higher than the EPA GHGI. We also ran the GEOS-Chem methane simulation to estimate the methane concentration in the atmosphere with our built inventory, the EPA GHGI and the Edgar v4.2 over the nested North American Domain. These simulation results showed differences in

  1. STS-96 Crew Training, Mission Animation, Crew Interviews, STARSHINE, Discovery Rollout and Repair of Hail Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-96, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev during various training activities. Scenes include astronaut suit-up, EVA training in the Virtual Reality Lab, Orbiter space vision training, bailout training, and crew photo session. Footage also shows individual crew interviews, repair activities to the external fuel tank, and Discovery's return to the launch pad. The engineers are seen sanding, bending, and painting the foam used in repairing the tank. An animation of the deployment of the STARSHINE satellite, International Space Station, and the STS-96 Mission is presented. Footage shows the students from Edgar Allen Poe Middle School sanding, polishing, and inspecting the mirrors for the STARSHINE satellite. Live footage also includes students from St. Michael the Archangel School wearing bunny suits and entering the clean room at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  2. Painless Parker's legacy: ethics, commerce, and advertising in the professions.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will review the life and contributions of Dr. Edgar Parker, the infamous and controversial pioneer who specialized in a precarious straddling of the ethics of the commercial marketplace and the ethics of care. Something of a Rorschach test, he was alternatively referred to as a charlatan, the first people's dentist, a renegade, a crusader, a quack, the Henry Ford of dentistry, and "a menace to the dignity of the profession". He eventually owned and managed thirty dental offices, several in San Francisco, as well as the Parker Dental Circus. Because many young, twenty-first century practitioners have little problem with slick advertising, it seems appropriate to revisit Painless Parker's career and contribution to the current state of affairs.

  3. ASCANS Saturn V & LCC Tour

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-03

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – NASA astronaut candidates Anne McClain, from left, Andrew Morgan, Nicole Mann, Victor Glover, Christina Hammock and Josh Cassada observe the Apollo 14 command module which carried astronauts Alan Shepard, Stu Roosa and Edgar Mitchell on their lunar landing mission in 1971.The astronauts toured the Apollo Saturn V Center at Kennedy Space Center in Florida during a daylong set of briefings and tours of different facilities at NASA's primary launch center. The astronaut class of 2013 was selected by NASA after an extensive year-and-a-half search. The new group will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system. To learn more about the astronaut class of 2013, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/2013astroclass.html Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  4. Saturn Apollo Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    The moon bound Apollo 14, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander Alan B. Shepard Jr., Command Module pilot Stuart A. Roosa, and Lunar Module pilot Edgar D. Mitchell, lifted off from launch complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center on January 31, 1971. It was the third manned lunar landing, the first manned landing in exploration of the lunar highlands, and it demonstrated pinpoint landing capability. The major goal of Apollo 14 was the scientific exploration of the Moon in the foothills of the rugged Fra Mauro region. The lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Shepard and Mitchell included setting up an automated scientific laboratory called Apollo Lunar Scientific Experiments Package (ALSEP), and collecting a total of about 95 pounds (43 kilograms) of Moon rock and soil for a geological investigation back on the Earth. The mission safely returned to Earth on February 9, 1971.

  5. Saturn Apollo Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    The moon bound Apollo 14, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander Alan B. Shepard Jr., Command Module pilot Stuart A. Roosa, and Lunar Module pilot Edgar D. Mitchell, lifted off from launch complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center on January 31, 1971, and safely returned to Earth on February 9, 1971. It was the third manned lunar landing, the first manned landing in exploration of the lunar highlands, and it demonstrated pinpoint landing capability. The major goal of Apollo 14 was the scientific exploration of the Moon in the foothills of the rugged Fra Mauro region. The extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Shepard and Mitchell included setting up an automated scientific laboratory called Apollo Lunar Scientific Experiments Package (ALSEP), shown here fully deployed. In addition, they collected a total of about 95 pounds (43 kilograms) of Moon rock and soil for a geological investigation back on the Earth.

  6. Apollo 14 crewmen near site of volcanic eruption on Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Prime crewmen and backup crewmen of the Apollo 14 mission look over an area near the site of a volcanic eruption in Aloi Alae, Hawaii. Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (leaning with left hand on ground) and Edgar D. Mitchell (behind Shepard, wearing dark glasses) are the prime crewmen scheduled to walk on the moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (almost obscured at extreme left) and Joe H. Engle (partially visible, on Cernan's right) are back-up crew commander and lunar module pilot, respectively, for the mission. Others in the photograph are Pat Crosland (in hard hat), a geologist and a park ranger in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Michael C McEwen (facing Mitchell) of the Geology Branch, Lunar and Earth Sciences Division, Manned Spacecraft Center; and Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, who made the trip to serve as a spacecraft communicator during simulations of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface.

  7. Are archetypes transmitted or emergent? A response to Christian Roesler.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vallas, François

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the author argues that Jung's concept of archetype should not be reduced to an univocal definition. Jung himself proposed many definitions of this concept, some of them being partially or totally contradictory to others. A univocal and logical way of thinking can lead us to refute and reject part of those definitions, but a complex way of thinking, as proposed by Edgar Morin or Roy Bhaskar for example, can allow us to consider that those apparent contradictions in Jung's definitions of archetype reflect the complexity of the psychic reality. The main argument of the author is that Jung was missing the epistemological concept of emergence (which appeared in science at the time of his death) and that he tried to express it with the epistemological concepts of his time. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. Adaptive-randomised self-calibration of electro-mechanical shutters for space imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Zaccariotto, Mirco; Pertile, Marco

    2006-11-01

    This work describes the self-calibration of a high-precision open-loop mechanism. The self-calibration method is applied to a mechanical shutter for space applications, which was launched onboard the ESA-ROSETTA mission (launch: 2 March 2004). It is based on an adaptive 'model reference' and a 'randomised' search method which may be generalised to applications in which high performance and functionality are strongly interconnected. The method makes use of an adaptive 'model-reference' control approach [K.J. Astrom, B. Wittenmark, On self-tuning regulators Automatica 9 (1973) 185-199 [16]; K.J. Astrom, Theory and application of adaptive control, in: Proceedings of the Eighth IFAC World Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 1981 [17]; D.E. Seborg, S.L. Shah, T.F. Edgar, Adaptive control strategies for process control, AIChE Journal 6(32) (1986) 881-895 [18

  9. Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, Brian D. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The 1971 Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro, a lunar highland area, is highlighted in this video. The mission's primary goal was the collection of lunar rocks and soil samples and lunar exploration. The soil and rock sampling was for the geochronological determination of the Moon's evolution and its comparison with that of Earth. A remote data collection station was assembled on the Moon and left for continuous data collection and surface monitoring experiments. The Apollo 14 astronauts were Alan B. Shepard, Edgar D. Mitchell, and Stuart A. Rossa. Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell landed on the Moon (February 5, 1971) and performed the sampling, the EVA, and deployment of the lunar experiments. There is film-footage of the lunar surface, of the command module's approach to both the Moon and the Earth, Moon and Earth spacecraft launching and landing, in-orbit command- and lunar-module docking, and of Mission Control.

  10. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  11. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Ivy, D. J.; Fraser, P.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Rhee, T. S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The perfluorocarbon (PFC) cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) is a very long-lived (up to 3,200 years) and potent greenhouse gas (100-year global warming potential up to 10,300) with a wide range of industrial uses. We present an update of our PFC-318 archived air and in situ measurements from remote and urban AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) sites and affiliated stations in both hemispheres. Most importantly, we have significantly improved our Southern Hemisphere (SH) data density by measuring the Cape Grim Air Archive (1970s-2010). Combined with our previously presented measurements of archived Northern Hemisphere (NH) flasks (1973-2009), we provide thirty year spanning records for both hemispheres. We have also further extended our in situ records by continuing our measurements at all remote stations, with the longest hemispheric records starting in November 2007 at Jungfraujoch (NH) and in June 2010 at Cape Grim (SH). We compare our data with those of Oram (1999) and Oram et al. (2011), who focus on SH data alone, and with other previous data sets. From our measurements, we derive emission estimates using a chemical transport model and inverse method, and compare our results to previous measurement based emission estimates (top-down) and to the EDGAR emission database (bottom-up). As stated previously (Mühle et al., 2010), we find emissions of ~1 Gg/yr in recent years while EDGAR estimates only 0.02 Gg/yr for 2005, similar to what Oram et al. (2011) find. We conclude that PFC-318 is the third most important PFC in terms of abundance and CO2-equivalent emissions. We continue to observe mostly baseline concentrations at remote AGAGE stations and urban sites in the USA, Europe, and Australia, in contrast to frequent pollution episodes measured at sites in East Asia, indicating significant regional emissions in East Asia, as found by Saito et al. (2010). EDGAR, Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 4.1. http://edgar

  12. A high-resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) inventory of methane emissions from Canadian and Mexican oil and gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jian-Xiong; Jacob, Daniel J.; Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2017-06-01

    Canada and Mexico have large but uncertain methane emissions from the oil/gas industry. Inverse analyses of atmospheric methane observations can improve emission estimates but require accurate source patterns as prior information. In order to serve this need, we develop a 0.1° × 0.1° gridded inventory of oil/gas emissions in Canada for 2013 and Mexico for 2010 by disaggregating national emission inventories using best available data for production, processing, transmission, and distribution. Results show large differences with the EDGAR v4.2 gridded global inventory used in past inverse analyses. Canadian emissions are concentrated in Alberta (gas production and processing) and Mexican emissions are concentrated along the east coast (oil production).

  13. Apollo 13 MCC - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-14

    S70-34986 (14 April 1970) --- A group of six astronauts and two flight controllers monitor the console activity in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) during the problem-plagued Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Seated, left to right, are MOCR Guidance Officer Raymond F. Teague; astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 prime crew lunar module pilot; and astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 prime crew commander. Standing, left to right, are scientist-astronaut Anthony W. England; astronaut Joe H. Engle, Apollo 14 backup crew lunar module pilot; astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 14 backup crew commander; astronaut Ronald E. Evans, Apollo 14 backup crew command module pilot; and M.P. Frank, a flight controller. When this picture was made, the Apollo 13 moon landing had already been canceled, and the Apollo 13 crew men were in trans-Earth trajectory attempting to bring their damaged spacecraft back home.

  14. [Nursing training from the perspective of education-- reflections and challenges for the future].

    PubMed

    Faustino, Regina Lúcia; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2002-12-01

    The present article proposes to show a reflection in the nurse's formation on the point of view of educators, philosophers and contemporary researchers. Moacir Gadotti, Edgar Morin e Philippe Perrenoud's theories and reflections were used, as well as the four pillars of the contemporary education, presented in the Delors Account. The adoption of tools like learning to know, learning to do, learning to be and learning to live together as well as the competences abording, are indispensable devices in the formation of professionals in the modern world. It is believed that in incorporating these new dimensions to the nurse's formation, it will be possible to untie the notts that are to be overcome in the conformation of critic nursing professionals, competent and agents of social transformation.

  15. KSC-04pd1824

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, Corky Philyaw (left) and Edgar Suarez (right) prepare the flight battery for installation on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) spacecraft (far left). DART was designed and built for NASA by Orbital Sciences Corporation as an advanced flight demonstrator to locate and maneuver near an orbiting satellite. It is designed to demonstrate technologies required for a spacecraft to locate and rendezvous, or maneuver close to, other craft in space. Results from the DART mission will aid in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle and will also assist in vehicle development for crew transfer and crew rescue capability to and from the International Space Station. DART will be launched from an Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket no earlier than Oct. 26.

  16. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  17. A New Approach on Sampling Microorganisms from the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, B.; Lehnen, J. N.; Prince, J.; Bering, E., III; Rodrigues, D.

    2017-12-01

    University of Houston's Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) astrobiology group will attempt to provide a cross-sectional analysis of microorganisms in the lower stratosphere by collecting living microbial samples using a sterile and lightweight balloon-borne payload. Refer to poster by Dr. Edgar Bering in session ED032. The purpose of this research is two-fold: first, to design a new system that is capable of greater mass air intake, unlike the previous iterations where heavy and power-intensive pumps are used; and second, to provide proof of concept that live samples are accumulated in the upper atmosphere and are viable for extensive studies and consequent examination for their potential weather-altering characteristics. Multiple balloon deployments will be conducted to increase accuracy and to provide larger set of data. This paper will also discuss visual presentation of the payload along with analyzed information of the captured samples. Design details will be presented to NASA investigators for professional studies

  18. Television transmission at end of second extravehicular activity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-06

    S71-20784 (5 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 commander, can be seen preparing to swing at a golf ball during a television transmission near the close of the second Extravehicular Activity (EVA-2) at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro landing site. Shepard is using a real golf ball and an actual six iron, attached to the end of the handle for the contingency sample return. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, looks on. Also visible in the picture is the erectable S-Band antenna (left foreground). Astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit, while Shepard and Mitchell descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  19. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    PubMed

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  20. Reflections in the light of the complexity theory and nursing education.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ronny Anderson de Oliveira; Araujo, Elidianne Layanne Medeiros de; Nascimento, Neyce de Matos; Lima, Raquel Janyne de; França, Jael Rúbia Figueiredo de Sá; Oliveira, Jacira Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    to reflect on nursing education, taking into account the principles of complex thinking proposed by Morin. reflection based on the principles of the complexity theory by Edgar Morin. the application of complexity in teaching proposes an emancipatory education based on questioning and social transformation. It comprises the education of nurses who interact with others as a characteristic of their work. It is necessary to prepare students to develop critical and reflective attitudes and actions to overcome the fragmentation and linearity of knowledge. nursing care has been based on a reductionist assistance, reflecting the Cartesian model. Thus, nursing education seeks to comprise shared knowledge and experiences so that no subject or professional overpowers another, accepting the uniqueness of professionals and patients.

  1. Plaque the Apollo 14 crew will leave on the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-27

    S71-16637 (January 1971) --- A close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 14 astronauts will leave behind on the moon during their lunar landing mission. Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, will descend to the lunar surface in the Lunar Module (LM) "Antares". Astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. The seven by nine inch stainless steel plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the LM's descent stage. Commemorative plaques were also left on the moon by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 astronauts.

  2. Mission Control Center (MCC): Apollo XV - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    S71-41759 (2 Aug. 1971) --- A partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the liftoff of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "Falcon" ascent stage from the lunar surface. An RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle made it possible for people on Earth to watch the LM's spectacular launch from the moon. The LM liftoff was at 171:37 ground elapsed time. The LRV was parked about 300 feet east of the LM. The TV camera was remotely controlled from a console in the MOCR. Seated in the right foreground is astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, a spacecraft communicator. Mitchell was lunar module pilot of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission. Note liftoff on the television monitor in the center background.

  3. Saturn Apollo Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    Stuart A. Roosa, Apollo 14 Command Module pilot, undergoes a final space suit check prior to liftoff. The Apollo 14, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Roosa; Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Mission Commander; and Edgar D. Mitchell, Lunar Module pilot, lifted off from launch complex 39A at KSC on January 31, 1971. It was the third manned lunar landing, the first manned landing in exploration of the lunar highlands, and it demonstrated pinpoint landing capability. The major goal of Apollo 14 was the scientific exploration of the Moon in the foothills of the rugged Fra Mauro region. The lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Shepard and Mitchell included setting up an automated scientific laboratory called Apollo Lunar Scientific Experiments Package (ALSEP), and collecting a total of about 95 pounds (43 kilograms) of Moon rock and soil for a geological investigation back on the Earth. Apollo 14 safely returned to Earth on February 9, 1971.

  4. The Parker-Sochacki Method of Solving Differential Equations: Applications and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmin, Joseph W.

    2006-11-01

    The Parker-Sochacki method is a powerful but simple technique of solving systems of differential equations, giving either analytical or numerical results. It has been in use for about 10 years now since its discovery by G. Edgar Parker and James Sochacki of the James Madison University Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics. It is being presented here because it is still not widely known and can benefit the listeners. It is a method of rapidly generating the Maclauren series to high order, non-iteratively. It has been successfully applied to more than a hundred systems of equations, including the classical many-body problem. Its advantages include its speed of calculation, its simplicity, and the fact that it uses only addition, subtraction and multiplication. It is not just a polynomial approximation, because it yields the Maclaurin series, and therefore exhibits the advantages and disadvantages of that series. A few applications will be presented.

  5. Apollo 14 Mission image - View of the ALSEP Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    AS14-67-9361 (5 Feb. 1971) --- A close-up view of two components of the Apollo lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP) which the Apollo 14 astronauts deployed on the moon during their first extravehicular activity (EVA). In the center background is the ALSEP's central station (CS); and in the foreground is the mortar package assembly of the ALSEP's active seismic experiment (ASE). The modularized equipment transporter (MET) can be seen in the right background. While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  6. A bottom up approach to on-road CO2 emissions estimates: improved spatial accuracy and applications for regional planning.

    PubMed

    Gately, Conor K; Hutyra, Lucy R; Wing, Ian Sue; Brondfield, Max N

    2013-03-05

    On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories use spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state-level data. Such procedures introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated, and limit analysis of the relationship between emissions and demographic trends at local scales. We develop an on-road emission inventory product for Massachusetts-based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS). We provide annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1 × 1 km grid scale for the years 1980 through 2008. We compared our results with on-road emissions estimates from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), with the Vulcan Product, and with estimates derived from state fuel consumption statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Our model differs from FHWA estimates by less than 8.5% on average, and is within 5% of Vulcan estimates. We found that EDGAR estimates systematically exceed FHWA by an average of 22.8%. Panel regression analysis of per-mile CO2 emissions on population density at the town scale shows a statistically significant correlation that varies systematically in sign and magnitude as population density increases. Population density has a positive correlation with per-mile CO2 emissions for densities below 2000 persons km(-2), above which increasing density correlates negatively with per-mile emissions.

  7. Medical nutrition therapy as a potential complementary treatment for psoriasis--five case reports.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy C; Hairfield, Michelle; Richards, Douglas G; McMillin, David L; Mein, Eric A; Nelson, Carl D

    2004-09-01

    This research evaluated five case studies of patients with psoriasis following a dietary regimen. There is no cure for psoriasis and the multiple treatments currently available only attempt to reduce the severity of symptoms. Treatments range from topical applications, systemic therapies, and phototherapy; while some are effective, many are associated with significant adverse effects. There is a need for effective, affordable therapies with fewer side effects that address the causes of the disorder. Evaluation consisted of a study group of five patients diagnosed with chronic plaque psoriasis (two men and three women, average age 52 years; range 40-68 years) attending a 10-day, live-in program during which a physician assessed psoriasis symptoms and bowel permeability. Subjects were then instructed on continuing the therapy protocol at home for six months. The dietary protocol, based on Edgar Cayce readings, included a diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, small amounts of protein from fish and fowl, fiber supplements, olive oil, and avoidance of red meat, processed foods, and refined carbohydrates. Saffron tea and slippery elm bark water were consumed daily. The five psoriasis cases, ranging from mild to severe at the study onset, improved on all measured outcomes over a six-month period when measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) (average pre- and post-test scores were 18.2 and 8.7, respectively), the Psoriasis Severity Scale (PSS) (average pre- and post-test scores were 14.6 and 5.4, respectively), and the lactulose/mannitol test of intestinal permeability (average pre- and post-test scores were 0.066 to 0.026, respectively). These results suggest a dietary regimen based on Edgar Cayce's readings may be an effective medical nutrition therapy for the complementary treatment of psoriasis; however, further research is warranted to confirm these results.

  8. Comparison of emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants and greenhouse gases in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, Eri; Kim, Hankyul; Zhong, Min; Avramov, Alexander; Zhao, Yu; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Klimont, Zbigniew; Wagner, Fabian; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic air pollutant emissions have been increasing rapidly in China, leading to worsening air quality. Modelers use emissions inventories to represent the temporal and spatial distribution of these emissions needed to estimate their impacts on regional and global air quality. However, large uncertainties exist in emissions estimates. Thus, assessing differences in these inventories is essential for the better understanding of air pollution over China. We compare five different emissions inventories estimating emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) from China. The emissions inventories analyzed in this paper include the Regional Emission inventory in ASia v2.1 (REAS), the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research v4.2 (EDGAR), the inventory by Yu Zhao (ZHAO), and the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS). We focus on the period between 2000 and 2008, during which Chinese economic activities more than doubled. In addition to national totals, we also analyzed emissions from four source sectors (industry, transport, power, and residential) and within seven regions in China (East, North, Northeast, Central, Southwest, Northwest, and South) and found that large disagreements exist among the five inventories at disaggregated levels. These disagreements lead to differences of 67 µg m-3, 15 ppbv, and 470 ppbv for monthly mean PM10, O3, and CO, respectively, in modeled regional concentrations in China. We also find that all the inventory emissions estimates create a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited environment and MEIC emissions lead to much lower O3 mixing ratio in East and Central China compared to the simulations using REAS and EDGAR estimates, due to their low VOC emissions. Our results illustrate that a better

  9. EU effect: Exporting emission standards for vehicles through the global market economy.

    PubMed

    Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Guizzardi, D; Galmarini, S

    2016-12-01

    Emission data from EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), rather than economic data, are used to estimate the effect of policies and of the global exports of policy-regulated goods, such as vehicles, on global emissions. The results clearly show that the adoption of emission standards for the road transport sector in the two main global markets (Europe and North America) has led to the global proliferation of emission-regulated vehicles through exports, regardless the domestic regulation in the country of destination. It is in fact more economically convenient for vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell a standard product to the widest possible market and in the greatest possible amounts. The EU effect (European Union effect) is introduced as a global counterpart to the California effect. The former is a direct consequence of the penetration of the EURO standards in the global markets by European and Japanese manufacturers, which effectively export the standard worldwide. We analyze the effect on PM 2.5 emissions by comparing a scenario of non-EURO standards against the current estimates provided by EDGAR. We find that PM 2.5 emissions were reduced by more than 60% since the 1990s worldwide. Similar investigations on other pollutants confirm the hypothesis that the combined effect of technological regulations and their diffusion through global markets can also produce a positive effect on the global environment. While we acknowledge the positive feedback, we also demonstrate that current efforts and standards will be totally insufficient should the passenger car fleets in emerging markets reach Western per capita figures. If emerging countries reach the per capita vehicle number of the USA and Europe under current technological conditions, then the world will suffer pre-1990 emission levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of 5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  11. Atmospheric variability of methane over Pakistan, Afghanistan and adjoining areas using retrievals from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we have studied spatial and temporal variability of methane total column (MTC) over Pakistan and neighboring regions of Afghanistan, India and Iran by using observations of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard EOS ENVISAT. Satellite measurements show large spatio-temporal variations in MTC over the study domain at different time scales. We find an average MTC of 1787±22 ppb (annual average±standard deviation) with 3.7% (slope 7.14±1.28, y-intercept 1751±7.19, r=0.91) increase during the period of January 2003 to April 2012. An enhanced MTC is observed mostly over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and areas with high anthropogenic activities. MTC exhibits a seasonal peak of 1804±28 ppb in summer followed by autumn (1800±25 ppb) and winter (1777±24 ppb). We have also discussed anthropogenic emission estimates in the study area obtained from EDGAR database. Substantial increments of 77% and 61% are observed in anthropogenic CH4 emissions for Pakistan and Afghanistan, respectively, during 1990-2008. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation and livestock sectors are found to be the highest. EDGAR data have also identified megacity Lahore, Sukkur, megacity Karachi, Dera Ghazi Khan, megacity Delhi and Ahmedabad as large point sources of CH4 emissions in the region. The emissions from Karachi show the highest increase of 107%, while Lahore is found with the highest annual average emissions of 8.8×10-10 kg m-2 s-1.

  12. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from California based on 2010 CalNex Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, B.; Miller, S.; Kort, E. A.; Santoni, G. W.; Daube, B.; Commane, R.; Angevine, W. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Andrews, A. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; Tian, H.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important gas for climate and for stratospheric chemistry, with an atmospheric lifetime exceeding 100 years. Global concentrations have increased steadily since the 18th century, apparently due to human-associated emissions, principally from application of nitrogen fertilizers. However, quantitative studies of agricultural emissions at large spatial scales are lacking, inhibited by the difficulty of measuring small enhancements of atmospheric concentrations. Here we derive regional emission rates for N2O in the Central Valley of California, based on analysis of in-situ airborne atmospheric observations collected using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer. The data were obtained on board the NOAA P-3 research aircraft during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) program in May and June, 2010. We coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model to STILT (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) to link our in-situ observations to surface emissions, and then used a variety of statistical methods to identify source areas and to extract optimized emission rates from the inversion. Our results support the view that fertilizer application is the largest source of N2O in the Central Valley. But the spatial distribution of derived surface emissions, based on California land use and activity maps, was very different than indicated in the leading emissions inventory (EDGAR 4.0), and our estimated total emission flux of N2O for California during the study period was 3 - 4 times larger than EDGAR and other inventories.

  13. IMG_4293

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-14

    The BARREL team prepares to release the second scientific balloon in its Sweden campaign on Aug. 13, 2015. In addition to the instruments used in previous BARREL campaigns, this second balloon launched from the Esrange Space Center in Kiruna is carrying one of two instruments designed by a team from the University of Houston. With funding from the Undergraduate Student Instrument Program, or USIP, at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Wallops Flight Facility, the team of 12 students, under the direction of Edgar Bering at the University of Houston, developed a magnetometer -- which measures magnetic fields -- and an instrument to measure electrons, which flew on this launch. To collect their data, the University of Houston team needs to recover their instrument after the balloon comes down. After this launch, the balloon began to drift toward the mountains, which would have impeded recovery. So the team terminated the flight at 1:18 pm EDT to bring the payload slowly and safely to the ground. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – measures electrons in the atmosphere near the poles. Such electrons rain down into the atmosphere from two giant radiation belts surrounding Earth, called the Van Allen belts. For its third campaign, BARREL is launching six balloons from the Esrange Space Center in Kiruna, Sweden. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Credit: NASA/University of Houston/Edgar Bering NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Quantification of CO emissions from the city of Madrid using MOPITT satellite retrievals and WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Iris N.; Houweling, Sander; Aben, Ilse; Röckmann, Thomas; Krol, Maarten; Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of mega-cities leads to air quality problems directly affecting the citizens. Satellite measurements are becoming of higher quality and quantity, which leads to more accurate satellite retrievals of enhanced air pollutant concentrations over large cities. In this paper, we compare and discuss both an existing and a new method for estimating urban-scale trends in CO emissions using multi-year retrievals from the MOPITT satellite instrument. The first method is mainly based on satellite data, and has the advantage of fewer assumptions, but also comes with uncertainties and limitations as shown in this paper. To improve the reliability of urban-to-regional scale emission trend estimation, we simulate MOPITT retrievals using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry core (WRF-Chem). The difference between model and retrieval is used to optimize CO emissions in WRF-Chem, focusing on the city of Madrid, Spain. This method has the advantage over the existing method in that it allows both a trend analysis of CO concentrations and a quantification of CO emissions. Our analysis confirms that MOPITT is capable of detecting CO enhancements over Madrid, although significant differences remain between the yearly averaged model output and satellite measurements (R2 = 0.75) over the city. After optimization, we find Madrid CO emissions to be lower by 48 % for 2002 and by 17 % for 2006 compared with the EdgarV4.2 emission inventory. The MOPITT-derived emission adjustments lead to better agreement with the European emission inventory TNO-MAC-III for both years. This suggests that the downward trend in CO emissions over Madrid is overestimated in EdgarV4.2 and more realistically represented in TNO-MACC-III. However, our satellite and model based emission estimates have large uncertainties, around 20 % for 2002 and 50 % for 2006.

  15. Quantification of point sources of carbon monoxide using satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Iris; Houweling, Sander; Aben, Ilse; Roeckmann, Thomas; Krol, Maarten

    2017-04-01

    The growth of mega-cities leads to air quality problems directly affecting the citizens. With satellite measurements becoming of higher quality and quantity, satellite instruments can more accurately retrieve the enhanced air pollutant concentrations over large cities. The aim of this research is to quantify carbon monoxide emissions from megacities and their trends using satellite retrievals, combined with an atmospheric chemistry and transport model. Earlier emission estimations of cities have been done using MOPITT satellite data only. To improve the reliability of the emission estimation, we simulate MOPITT retrievals using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry core (WRF-Chem). The difference between model and retrieval is used to optimize CO emissions in WRF-Chem, focusing on the city of Madrid, Spain. A reasonable agreement is obtained between the yearly averaged model output and satellite measurements (R2=0.75) for Madrid. After optimization, the emission of Madrid is reduced by 48% for 2002 and by 17% for 2006 compared with EdgarV4.2. The MOPITT derived emission adjustments lead to a better agreement with a European emission inventory TNO-MAC-III for both years. This suggested that the downward trend in CO emissions over Madrid is overestimated in EdgarV4.2 and more realistically represented in TNO-MAC-III. However, uncertainties remain large using our satellite-based emission estimation method, in the order of 20% for 2002 and 50% for 2006. Therefore, different options to increase the degrees of freedom in the optimization are investigated, to account for the noise in the MOPITT data. We also show comparisons with IASI data, which have a higher temporal resolution. The method is developed for application to Sentinel 5P TROPOMI, to be launched in June 2017.

  16. [County-scale N2O emission inventory of China's manure management system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Qing; Ying, Na; Xu, Peng; Hou, Xi-Kang

    2013-10-01

    Manure is one of the two largest contributors to China's N2O emission. By using the county-scale activity data and the regional emission factors and related parameters with spatial differentiation in China in 2008, this paper assessed the N2O emission loading, sources profile, spatial pattern, and uncertainty, aimed to establish a high-resolution N2O emission inventory of China's manure management system in 2008. As compared with the research results based on the IPCC, EDGAR, and other works, the proposed emission inventory was more reliable and comprehensive. The total China' s N2O emission from manure in 2008 was estimated as 572 Gg, among which, the emission from the manure except pasture/range/paddock was 322 Gg (56.3%), from the manure in pasture/range/paddock was 180 Gg (31.5%), and the indirect emission from atmospheric volatilized N deposition and leaching/runoff was 45.8 Gg (8.0%) and 1.23 Gg (0.2%), respectively. The spatial pattern of China's N2O emission from manure was more centralized, and mainly concentrated in Jilin, Shandong, Sichuan, Hunan, Henan, Heilongjiang, and Liaoning provinces, contributing 52.4% of the total emission, and more than 25% being from 84 counties (only < 3% of the whole counties). The proposed emission inventory had a higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Different with this inventory, the IPCC underestimated the direct emission while overestimated the indirect emission, with the regions of higher emission rate being underestimated by -1.5%-6.0% and those of lower emission rate being overestimated by 1.6%-13%. As for the EDGAR, the regions of higher emission rate were underestimated by -18. 8--50.0%, and those of lower emission rate were mostly overestimated by 25%-54.1%.

  17. Evaluating uncertainties in nitrous oxide emission inventories with multi-scale observations for an agriculture-dominated region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Lee, X.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Although agriculture accounts for about 80% of the global anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, large uncertainties exist in regional inventories of N2O emissions from agriculture. The uncertainties mainly include poorly quantified plant flux, large heterogeneity of direct N2O emissions from cropland, and underestimated N2O lost through leaching and run off. To evaluate these uncertainties we conducted observations on three contrasting scales in the Midwest U.S., an agriculture dominated region (Zhang et al., 2014a). Observations at the plant, ecosystem, and regional scales include: 1) N2O flux measurements from the aboveground section of corn and soybean plants using newly designed plant chamber; 2) N2O flux-gradient measurements in a soybean-corn rotation field; and 3) N2O concentration measurements at 3 m and 200 m level on a communication tower (KCMP tower, 44°41'19''N, 93°4'22''W) that were used to estimate regional N2O fluxes with boundary layer methods (Zhang et al., 2014b). With these observations we evaluated the uncertainties in two frequently-used N2O inventories: EDGAR42 (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 4.2); and a national GHG inventory (U.S. EPA, 2014). The results indicate that EDGAR42 and EPA inventory underestimated N2O emissions for the region around the KCMP tower at least by a factor of three and two respectively. The underestimation is not likely caused by neglecting N2O flux from crops since N2O fluxes from unfertilized soybean and fertilized corn plants were about one magnitude lower than N2O emissions from the soil-plant ecosystem. The direct N2O emissions from cropland accounted for less than 20% of the regional flux, suggesting a significant influence by other sources and indirect emissions in the regional N2O budget. ReferencesU.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2012, 529 pp., Washington, D.C.. X Zhang, X Lee, TJ Griffis, AE Andrews, JM Baker, MD Erickson

  18. A New High-Resolution N2O Emission Inventory for China in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Z.; Zhou, F.; Ciais, P.; Tao, S.; Piao, S.; Raymond, P. A.; He, C.; Li, B.; Wang, R.; Wang, X.; Peng, S.; Zeng, Z.; Chen, H.; Ying, N.; Hou, X.; Xu, P.

    2014-12-01

    The amount and geographic distribution of N2O emissions over China remain largely uncertain. Most of existing emission inventories use uniform emission factors (EFs) and the associated parameters and apply spatial proxies to downscale national or provincial data, resulting in the introduction of spatial bias. In this study, county-level and 0.1° × 0.1° gridded anthropogenic N2O emission inventories for China (PKU-N2O) in 2008 are developed based on high-resolution activity data and regional EFs and parameters. These new estimates are compared with estimates from EDGAR v4.2, GAINS-China, National Development and Reform Commission of China (NDRC), and with two sensitivity tests: one that uses high-resolution activity data but the default IPCC methodology (S1) and the other that uses regional EFs and parameters but starts from coarser-resolution activity data. The total N2O emissions are 2150 GgN2O/yr (interquartile range from 1174 to 2787 GgN2O/yr). Agriculture contributes 64% of the total, followed by energy (17%), indirect emissions (12%), wastes (5%), industry (2.8%), and wildfires (0.2%). Our national emission total is 17% greater than that of the EDGAR v4.2 global product sampled over China and is also greater than the GAINS-China, NDRC, and S1 estimates by 10%, 50%, and 17%, respectively. We also found that using uniform EFs and parameters or starting from national/provincial data causes systematic spatial biases compared to PKU-N2O. In addition, the considerable differences between the relative contributions of the six sectors across the six Agro-Climate Zones primarily reflect the different distributions of industrial activities and land use. Eastern China (8.7% area of China) is the largest contributor of N2O emissions and accounts for nearly 25% of the total. Spatial analysis also shows nonlinear relationships between N2O emission intensities and urbanization. Per-capita and per-GDP N2O emissions increase gradually with an increase in the urban

  19. Updated SO2 emission estimates over China using OMI/Aura observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Theys, Nicolas; Ding, Jieying; Zyrichidou, Irene; Mijling, Bas; Balis, Dimitrios; van der A, Ronald Johannes

    2018-03-01

    The main aim of this paper is to update existing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission inventories over China using modern inversion techniques, state-of-the-art chemistry transport modelling (CTM) and satellite observations of SO2. Within the framework of the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) MarcoPolo (Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations) project, a new SO2 emission inventory over China was calculated using the CHIMERE v2013b CTM simulations, 10 years of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)/Aura total SO2 columns and the pre-existing Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC v1.2). It is shown that including satellite observations in the calculations increases the current bottom-up MEIC inventory emissions for the entire domain studied (15-55° N, 102-132° E) from 26.30 to 32.60 Tg annum-1, with positive updates which are stronger in winter ( ˜ 36 % increase). New source areas were identified in the southwest (25-35° N, 100-110° E) as well as in the northeast (40-50° N, 120-130° E) of the domain studied as high SO2 levels were observed by OMI, resulting in increased emissions in the a posteriori inventory that do not appear in the original MEIC v1.2 dataset. Comparisons with the independent Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, EDGAR v4.3.1, show a satisfying agreement since the EDGAR 2010 bottom-up database provides 33.30 Tg annum-1 of SO2 emissions. When studying the entire OMI/Aura time period (2005 to 2015), it was shown that the SO2 emissions remain nearly constant before the year 2010, with a drift of -0.51 ± 0.38 Tg annum-1, and show a statistically significant decline after the year 2010 of -1.64 ± 0.37 Tg annum-1 for the entire domain. Similar findings were obtained when focusing on the greater Beijing area (30-40° N, 110-120° E) with pre-2010 drifts of -0.17 ± 0.14 and post-2010 drifts of -0.47 ± 0.12 Tg annum-1. The new SO2 emission inventory is publicly available and forms

  20. Understanding methane variability from 1980 - 2015 using inversions of methane, δ13C and ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rona; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) increased globally during the 20th century, from a pre-industrial value of approximately 722 ppb to 1773 ppb in 1999. The upward trend, however, was interrupted between 1999 and 2006, when the atmospheric growth rate of CH4 was close to zero. From 2007, atmospheric CH4 started to increase again and, in 2014, the growth rate was substantially faster (12.5 ppb/y) than in any other year since 2007. Changes in the atmospheric growth rate indicate changes in the balance of CH4 sources and sinks, however, the cause of the 1999-2006 stabilization and subsequent rise in atmospheric CH4, and its attribution to different sources is still not fully resolved. Various explanations have been proposed for the pause in the growth, including a reduction in fossil fuel and wetland emissions, and for its renewed increase, such as increasing emissions from wetlands, enteric fermentation, and fossil fuels, as well as a decline in the OH sink. To better constrain the sources and sinks of CH4, we have performed an inversion using the AGAGE 12-box model of the atmosphere using atmospheric observations of CH4, δ13C, and of ethane. Using observations of these 3 atmospheric tracers simultaneously, a stronger constraint is placed on the different sources, as well as the principal atmospheric sink via oxidation by OH. In the model, we account for all emissions grouped into microbial, fossil fuel, biomass burning, landfill and ocean sources, as well as the soil oxidation sink. We also account for the atmospheric sink of CH4 and ethane via oxidation by OH and Cl radicals. The modelled lifetimes of CH4 and ethane were 8.2 years and 1.3 months, respectively. Inversions were also performed in which the OH sink was optimized simultaneously with the emissions. We find that fossil fuel emissions were underestimated in the northern mid to high latitudes in the 1980s but were overestimated from the mid 1990s onwards with respect to the prior (EDGAR-4.2), and that there is no

  1. Contribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions to Global CH4 Balances by Utilizing δ13C-CH4 Observations in CarbonTracker Data Assimilation System (CTDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangasaho, V. E.; Tsuruta, A.; Aalto, T.; Backman, L. B.; Houweling, S.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Lienert, S.; Joos, F.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Michael, S.; White, J. W. C.

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric burden of CH4 has more than doubled since preindustrial time. Evaluating the contribution from anthropogenic and natural emissions to the global methane budget is of great importance to better understand the significance of different sources at the global scale, and their contribution to changes in growth rate of atmospheric CH4 before and after 2006. In addition, observations of δ13C-CH4 suggest an increase in natural sources after 2006, which matches the observed increase and variation of CH4 abudance. Methane emission sources can be identified using δ13C-CH4, because different sources produce methane with process-specific isotopic signatures. This study focuses on inversion model based estimates of global anthropogenic and natural methane emission rates to evaluate the existing methane emission estimates with a new δ13C-CH4 inversion system. In situ measurements of atmospheric methane and δ13C-CH4 isotopic signature, provided by the NOAA Global Monitoring Division and the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, will be assimilated into the CTDAS-13C-CH4. The system uses the TM5 atmospheric transport model as an observation operator, constrained by ECMWF ERA Interim meteorological fields, and off-line TM5 chemistry fields to account for the atmospheric methane sink. LPX-Bern DYPTOP ecosystem model is used for prior natural methane emissions from wetlands, peatlands and mineral soils, GFED v4 for prior fire emissions and EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory for prior anthropogenic emissions. The EDGAR antropogenic emissions are re-divided into enteric fermentation and manure management, landfills and waste water, rice, coal, oil and gas, and residential emissions, and the trend of total emissions is scaled to match optimized anthropogenic emissions from CTE-CH4. In addition to these categories, emissions from termites and oceans are included. Process specific δ13C-CH4 isotopic signatures are assigned to each emission source to estimate 13CH4 fraction

  2. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-11-01

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is particularly needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30-65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow

  3. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  4. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; ...

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  5. Simulation of Arctic Black Carbon using Hemispheric CMAQ: Role of Russia's BC Emissions, Transport, and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Fu, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon plays a unique role in the Arctic climate system due to its multiple effects. It causes Arctic warming by directly absorbing sunlight from space and by darkening the surface albedo of snow and ice, which indirectly leads to further warming and melting, thus inducing an Arctic amplification effect. BC depositions over the Arctic are more sensitive to regions in close proximity. In this study, we reconstruct BC emissions for Russian Federation, which is the country that occupies the largest area in the Arctic Circle. Local Russia information such as activity data, emission factors and other emission source data are used. In 2010, total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia is estimated to be around 254 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a dominant 43.9% of Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 22.0%, 17.8%, 11.5%, and 4.8%, respectively. BC simulations were conducted using the hemispheric version of CMAQ with polar projection. Emission inputs are from a global emissions database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulations using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 46 - 61% of the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four air monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and Tiksi) in the Arctic Circle, surface BC simulations are improved the most during the Arctic haze periods (October - March). Emission perturbation studies show that Russia's BC emissions contribute over 50% of the surface BC concentrations over the Arctic during the cold seasons. This study demonstrates the good capability of H-CMAQ in

  6. A new gridded on-road CO2 emissions inventory for the United States, 1980-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.

    2013-12-01

    On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. However, mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories have used spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state level data, which may introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated. We have developed a national on-road emissions inventory product based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. We produce annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1km spatial resolution for the contiguous United States for the years 1980 through 2011. For the year 2011 we also produce an hourly emissions product at the 1km scale using hourly traffic volumes from hundreds of automated traffic counters across the country. National on-road emissions rose at roughly 2% per year from 1980 to 2006, with emissions peaking at 1.71 Tg CO2 in 2007. However, while national emissions have declined 6% since the peak, we observe considerable regional variation in emissions trends post-2007. While many states show stable or declining on-road emissions, several states and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, mountain west and south had emissions increases of 3-10% from 2008 to 2011. Our emissions estimates are consistent with state-reported totals of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. This is in contrast to on-road CO2 emissions estimated by the Emissions Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which we show to be inconsistent in matching on-road emissions to published fuel consumption at the scale of U.S. states, due to the non-linear relationships between emissions and EDGAR's chosen spatial proxies at these scales. Since our emissions estimates were generated independent of population density and other demographic data, we were able to conduct a panel regression analysis to estimate the relationship between these

  7. High-resolution CO2 and CH4 flux inverse modeling combining GOSAT, OCO-2 and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; Ito, A.; Janardanan Achari, R.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Kaiser, J. W.; Belikov, D.; Valsala, V.; O'Dell, C.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a high-resolution CO2 and CH4 flux inversion system that is based on the Lagrangian-Eulerian coupled tracer transport model, and is designed to estimate surface fluxes from atmospheric CO2 and CH4 data observed by the GOSAT and OCO-2 satellites and by global in-situ networks, including observation in Siberia. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) FLEXPART to estimate the surface flux footprints for each observation at 0.1-degree spatial resolution for three days of transport. The LPDM is coupled to a global atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM). The adjoint of the coupled transport model is used in an iterative optimization procedure based on either quasi-Newtonian algorithm or singular value decomposition. Combining surface and satellite data for use in inversion requires correcting for biases present in satellite observation data, that is done in a two-step procedure. As a first step, bi-weekly corrections to prior flux fields are estimated for the period of 2009 to 2015 from in-situ CO2 and CH4 data from global observation network, included in Obspack-GVP (for CO2), WDCGG (CH4) and JR-STATION datasets. High-resolution prior fluxes were prepared for anthropogenic emissions (ODIAC and EDGAR), biomass burning (GFAS), and the terrestrial biosphere. The terrestrial biosphere flux was constructed using a vegetation mosaic map and separate simulations of CO2 fluxes by the VISIT model for each vegetation type present in a grid. The prior flux uncertainty for land is scaled proportionally to monthly mean GPP by the MODIS product for CO2 and EDGAR emissions for CH4. Use of the high-resolution transport leads to improved representation of the anthropogenic plumes, often observed at continental continuous observation sites. OCO-2 observations are aggregated to 1 second averages, to match the 0.1 degree resolution of the transport model. Before including satellite observations in the inversion, the monthly varying latitude-dependent bias is

  8. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success. PMID:26644975

  9. SciTech Connect

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.

    Here we present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scaledependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be consistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a wide range of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show largemore » differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Finally, our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.« less

  10. Data mining of text as a tool in authorship attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, Ari J. E.; Toivonen, Jarmo; Autio, Sami; Maekinen, Jarno; Back, Barbro; Vanharanta, Hannu

    2001-03-01

    It is common that text documents are characterized and classified by keywords that the authors use to give them. Visa et al. have developed a new methodology based on prototype matching. The prototype is an interesting document or a part of an extracted, interesting text. This prototype is matched with the document database of the monitored document flow. The new methodology is capable of extracting the meaning of the document in a certain degree. Our claim is that the new methodology is also capable of authenticating the authorship. To verify this claim two tests were designed. The test hypothesis was that the words and the word order in the sentences could authenticate the author. In the first test three authors were selected. The selected authors were William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, and George Bernard Shaw. Three texts from each author were examined. Every text was one by one used as a prototype. The two nearest matches with the prototype were noted. The second test uses the Reuters-21578 financial news database. A group of 25 short financial news reports from five different authors are examined. Our new methodology and the interesting results from the two tests are reported in this paper. In the first test, for Shakespeare and for Poe all cases were successful. For Shaw one text was confused with Poe. In the second test the Reuters-21578 financial news were identified by the author relatively well. The resolution is that our text mining methodology seems to be capable of authorship attribution.

  11. Shipping emissions over Europe: A state-of-the-art and comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, M. A.; Leitão, J.; Gama, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.

    2018-03-01

    Several emission inventories exist for Europe, which include emissions originating from ship traffic in European sea areas. However, few comparisons of these inventories, in particular focusing on specific emission sectors like shipping, exist in literature. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review and compare commonly used, and freely available, emission inventories available for the European domain, specifically for shipping and its main pollutants (NOx, SOx and PM10). Five different inventories were considered which include shipping activity: 1) EMEP; 2) TNO-MACC_III; 3) E-PRTR; 4) EDGAR and 5) STEAM. The inventories were initially compared in terms of total emission values and their spatial distribution. The total emission values are largely in agreement (with the exception of E-PRTR), however, the spatial representation shows significant differences in the emission distribution, in particular over the Mediterranean region. As for the contribution of shipping to overall emissions, this sector represent on average 16%, 11% and 5% of total NOx, SOx and PM10 emissions, respectively. Recommendations are given regarding the specific use of each available inventory.

  12. Gridded National Inventory of U.S. Methane Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Turner, Alexander J.; Weitz, Melissa; Wirth, Tom; Hight, Cate; DeFigueiredo, Mark; Desai, Mausami; Schmeltz, Rachel; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1 deg x 0.1 deg spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale dependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be onsistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissionsand Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a widerange of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show large differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.

  13. Recent global methane trends: an investigation using hierarchical Bayesian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M. L.; Stavert, A.; Ganesan, A.; Lunt, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Following a decade with little growth, methane concentrations began to increase across the globe in 2007, and have continued to rise ever since. The reasons for this renewed growth are currently the subject of much debate. Here, we discuss the recent observed trends, and highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses in current "inverse" methods for quantifying fluxes using observations. In particular, we focus on the outstanding problems of accurately quantifying uncertainties in inverse frameworks. We examine to what extent the recent methane changes can be explained by the current generation of flux models and inventories. We examine the major modes of variability in wetland models along with the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR). Using the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART), we determine whether the spatial and temporal atmospheric trends predicted using these emissions can be brought into consistency with in situ atmospheric observations. We use a novel hierarchical Bayesian methodology in which scaling factors applied to the principal components of the flux fields are estimated simultaneously with the uncertainties associated with the a priori fluxes and with model representations of the observations. Using this method, we examine the predictive power of methane flux models for explaining recent fluctuations.

  14. Effect of MERRA-2 initial and boundary conditions on WRF-Chem aerosol simulations over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhov, Alexander; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we test the sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical distributions of aerosols to the initial and boundary conditions (IC&BC) of the aerosol/chemistry. We use the WRF-Chem model configured over the Arabian Peninsula to study both dust and anthropogenic aerosols. Currently, in the WRF-Chem the aerosol/chemistry IC&BC are constructed using either default aerosol/chemistry profiles with no inflow of aerosols and chemicals through the lateral boundaries or using the aerosol/chemistry fields from MOZART, the model for ozone and related chemical tracers from the NCAR. Here, we construct aerosol/chemistry IC&BC using MERRA-2 output. MERRA-2 is a recently developed reanalysis that assimilates ground-based and satellite observations to provide the improved distributions of aerosols and chemical species. We ran WRF-Chem simulations for July-August 2015 using GOCART/AFWA dust emission and GOCART aerosol schemes. We used the EDGAR HTAP V4 dataset to calculate SO2 emissions. Comparison of three runs initiated using the same ERA-Interim reanalysis fields but different aerosol/chemistry IC&BC (default WRF-Chem, MOZART, and MERRA-2) with AERONET, Micropulse Lidar, Balloon, and satellite observations shows that the MERRA-2 IC&BC are superior.

  15. X-Ray Dust Scattering At Small Angles: The Complete Halo Around GX13+1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.

    2007-01-01

    The exquisite angular resolution available with Chandra should allow precision measurements of faint diffuse emission surrounding bright sources, such as the X-ray scattering halos created by interstellar dust. However, the ACIS CCDs suffer from pileup when observing bright sources, and this creates difficulties when trying to extract the scattered halo near the source. The initial study of the X-ray halo around GX13+1 using only the ACIS-I detector done by Smith, Edgar & Shafer (2002) suffered from a lack of sensitivity within 50" of the source, limiting what conclusions could be drawn. To address this problem, observations of GX13+1 were obtained with the Chandra HRC-I and simultaneously with the RXTE PCA. Combined with the existing ACIS-I data, this allowed measurements of the X-ray halo between 2-1000". After considering a range of dust models, each assumed to be smoothly distributed with or without a dense cloud along the line of sight, the results show that there is no evidence in this data for a dense cloud near the source, as suggested by Xiang et al. (2005). In addition, although no model leads to formally acceptable results, the Weingartner & Draine (2001) and all but one of the composite grain models from Zubko, Dwek & Arendt (2004) give particularly poor fits.

  16. Lagrangian Transport Model Forecasts as Useful Support of the Flight Planning During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2k2) Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, C.; Cooper, O.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; James, P.; Dunlea, E.; Nicks, D. K.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the Lagrangian tracer transport model FLEXPART is shown to be a useful forecasting tool for the flight planning during the ITCT 2k2 (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002) aircraft measurement campaign. The advantages of this model are that it requires only a short computation time, has a finer spatial resolution and does not suffer numerical diffusion compared to chemistry transport models (CTMs). It is a compromise between simple trajectory calculations and complex CTMs that makes best use of available computer hardware. During the campaign FLEXPART provided three-day forecasts for four different anthropogenic CO tracers: Asian, North American, Japanese, and European. The forecasts were based on data from the Aviation model (AVN) of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and relied on the EDGAR emission inventory for the base year 1990. In two case studies, the forecast abilities of FLEXPART are analysed and discussed by comparing the forecasts with measurement data, results from the post analysis modelling, infrared satellite images, and backward trajectories calculated with two different Lagrangian trajectory models. It is shown that intercontinental transport and dispersion of pollution plumes were qualitatively well predicted, and the aircraft could successfully be directed into the polluted air masses.

  17. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

    2012-02-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.

  18. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Burlamaque-Neto, A.C.; Santos, G.R.; Lisbôa, L.M.; Goldim, J.R.; Machado, C.L.B.; Matte, U.; Giugliani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  19. Vision loss and hearing loss in painting and musical composition.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the impact of vision and hearing loss on great painters and musical composers. The visual work of Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet all showed alterations as their vision failed. In contrast, Gabriel Fauré, Bedřich Smetana, and Ludwig von Beethoven wrote many of their best compositions while totally deaf, and Georg Friedrich Handel and Frederick Delius struggled to compose late in life when they lost their vision (although their hearing remained excellent). There are 2 major distinctions between the role of vision and hearing for these artistic disciplines. First, there is a surrogate means of "hearing" music, through the musical score, which allows composers to write and edit music while totally deaf. The greatest problem with deafness for a skilled composer is interference from internal noise (tinnitus). There is no surrogate for vision to allow a painter to work when the subject is a blur or the colors on the canvas cannot be distinguished. Second, although the appreciation of art is visual and that of music is auditory, the transcription of both art and musical composition is visual. Thus, visual loss does pose a problem for a composer accustomed to working with good sight, because it disrupts habitual methods of writing and editing music. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conditions for the successful integration of Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in the nuclear safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Michèle; Lévêque, Françoise; Dutillieu, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents some elements which come from the experience feedback at CEA about the conditions for the successful integration of HOF in the nuclear safety analysis. To point out some of these conditions, one of the concepts proposed by Edgar Morin to describe the functioning of "complex" systems: the dialogical principle has been used. The idea is to look for some dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another. Three dialogical pairs are presented in this communication. The first two pairs are related to the organization of the HOF network and the last one is related to the methods which are used to analyse the working situations. The three pairs are: specialist - non-specialist actors of the network, centralized - distributed human resources in the network and microscopic - macroscopic levels of HOF methods to analyse the working situations. To continuously improve these three dialogical pairs, it is important to keep the differences which exist between the two elements of a pair and to find and maintain a balance between the two elements of the pairs.

  1. Visual perception and consciousness in dermatopathology: mechanisms of figure-ground segregation account for errors in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Böer, Almut

    2009-02-01

    Visual perception has been the object of research in psychology for almost a century. Little has been written, however, about the effects of perceptive phenomena on methods in medicine that utilize interpretation of two-dimensional images for diagnosis. Starting from the work by Edgar Rubin in the beginning of the last century, this article gives a summary of observations of psychologists who investigated the mechanisms of so-called "figure-ground segregation." These unconscious mechanisms follow rules that explain why certain structures are perceived consciously as a figure, whereas other structures surrounding such a figure are neglected and not perceived consciously in detail. Perception of a structure as a figure can be due to, for example, a convex shape of its contour, proximity of lines around it, closed contours, a simple shape, and attribution of meaning to a structure. In examples from the practice of dermatopathology, those unconscious mechanisms of figure-ground segregation will be shown to be relevant to diagnosis of sections of tissue. The mechanisms help to explain why, for example, ill-defined and concave-shaped structures, stromal differences of neoplasms, interstitial infiltrates and deposits, and simulators of common diseases are often difficult to recognize at first sight. Teachers of dermatopathology need to be aware of these unconscious mechanisms of visual perception because they explain why novices struggle with certain diagnoses and differential diagnoses. Proper instruction about these phenomena, early in the process of training, will prevent a student from being frustrated with misperceptions.

  2. Gridded National Inventory of U.S. Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Maasakkers, Joannes D; Jacob, Daniel J; Sulprizio, Melissa P; Turner, Alexander J; Weitz, Melissa; Wirth, Tom; Hight, Cate; DeFigueiredo, Mark; Desai, Mausami; Schmeltz, Rachel; Hockstad, Leif; Bloom, Anthony A; Bowman, Kevin W; Jeong, Seongeun; Fischer, Marc L

    2016-12-06

    We present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale-dependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be consistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a wide range of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show large differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.

  3. Apollo 14 Crew Receive Greetings Inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts listen to official greetings from the Mobile Quarantine Facility aboard the USS New Orleans following their safe return from the third manned lunar landing mission. Pictured (from left to right) are Stuart A. Roosa, Command Module pilot ; Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Mission commander; and Edgar D. Mitchell, Lunar Module pilot. The Apollo 14 crew launched from launch complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center on January 31, 1971 and safely returned to Earth on February 9, 1971. It was the first manned landing in exploration of the lunar highlands, and it demonstrated pinpoint landing capability. The major goal of Apollo 14 was the scientific exploration of the Moon in the foothills of the rugged Fra Mauro region. The extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Shepard and Mitchell included setting up an automated scientific laboratory called Apollo Lunar Scientific Experiments Package (ALSEP), and collecting a total of about 95 pounds (43 kilograms) of Moon rock and soil for a geological investigation back on the Earth.

  4. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  5. High-Resolution Atmospheric Emission Inventory of the Argentine Enery Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Castesana, Paula; Allende, David; Ruggeri, Florencia; Pinto, Sebastián; Pascual, Romina; Bolaño Ortiz, Tomás; Fernandez, Rafael Pedro

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a high-resolution spatially disaggregated inventory (2.5 km x 2.5 km), updated to 2014, of the main emissions from energy activities in Argentina. This inventory was created with the purpose of improving air quality regional models. The sub-sectors considered are public electricity and heat production, cement production, domestic aviation, road and rail transportation, inland navigation, residential and commercial, and fugitive emissions from refineries and fuel expenditure. The pollutants considered include greenhouse gases and ozone precursors: CO2, CH4, NOx, N2O VOC; and other gases specifically related to air quality including PM10, PM2.5, SOx, Pb and POPs. The uncertainty analysis of the inventories resulted in a variability of 3% for public electricity generation, 3-6% in the residential, commercial sector, 6-12% terrestrial transportation sector, 10-20% in oil refining and cement production according to the considered pollutant. Aviation and maritime navigation resulted in a higher variability reaching more than 60%. A comparison with the international emission inventory EDGAR shows disagreements in the spatial distribution of emissions, probably due to the finer resolution of the map presented here, particularly as a result of the use of new spatially disaggregated data of higher resolution that is currently available.

  6. Anthropogenic emissions of methane in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scot M.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Michalak, Anna M.; Kort, Eric A.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Fischer, Marc L.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Miller, Ben R.; Miller, John B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-01-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the spatial distribution of anthropogenic methane sources in the United States by combining comprehensive atmospheric methane observations, extensive spatial datasets, and a high-resolution atmospheric transport model. Results show that current inventories from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research underestimate methane emissions nationally by a factor of ∼1.5 and ∼1.7, respectively. Our study indicates that emissions due to ruminants and manure are up to twice the magnitude of existing inventories. In addition, the discrepancy in methane source estimates is particularly pronounced in the south-central United States, where we find total emissions are ∼2.7 times greater than in most inventories and account for 24 ± 3% of national emissions. The spatial patterns of our emission fluxes and observed methane–propane correlations indicate that fossil fuel extraction and refining are major contributors (45 ± 13%) in the south-central United States. This result suggests that regional methane emissions due to fossil fuel extraction and processing could be 4.9 ± 2.6 times larger than in EDGAR, the most comprehensive global methane inventory. These results cast doubt on the US EPA’s recent decision to downscale its estimate of national natural gas emissions by 25–30%. Overall, we conclude that methane emissions associated with both the animal husbandry and fossil fuel industries have larger greenhouse gas impacts than indicated by existing inventories. PMID:24277804

  7. Aligning Leadership Across Systems and Organizations to Develop Strategic Climate to for Evidence-Based Practice Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Farahnak, Lauren R.; Ehrhart, Mark G.; Sklar, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing impetus to bridge the gap between basic science discovery, development of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and their availability and delivery in order to improve public health impact of such practices. In seeking to capitalize on factors that support implementation and sustainment of EBPs, it is important to consider that healthcare is delivered within the outer context of public health systems, and the inner context of healthcare organizations and workgroups. Leaders have a key role in determining the nature of system and organizational context. This article will addresses the role of leadership across levels in developing strategic climate for EBP implementation within the outer (i.e., system) and inner (i.e., organization, work group) contexts of healthcare. Within the framework of Edgar Schein’s “climate embedding mechanisms,” we describe strategies that leaders at the system, organization, and work group levels can consider and apply to develop a strategic climates that support the implementation and sustainment of EBP in healthcare and allied healthcare settings. PMID:24641560

  8. [The image of animal magnetism in fictional literature: the cases of Poe, Doyle and Du Maurier].

    PubMed

    Bonet Safont, Juan Marcos

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the social image of the phenomenon known as mesmerism, or animal magnetism, through analysis of the works: The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar (1845) by Edgar Allan Poe, The Great Keinplatz Experiment (1885) by Conan Doyle and Trilby (1894) by George Du Maurier. We describe the stereotype of the mesmerist and the uses of mesmerism observed. We pay attention to the spaces and actors of the mesmeric transcript presented in the stories. We consider the reception of these stories by the public and the relationship of the authors with mesmeric and hypnotic knowledge. Nowadays, academic researchers in the discipline of psychology publish articles and books on popular myths about hypnosis in attempts to depict the distorted images related to this phenomenon. This distorted image of the hypnotic process and the hypnotist derives from "circus" hypnotism shows (stage hypnosis), the cinema, television and fictional literature. Works of fiction represent a unique and invaluable source of information, ideas, speculations, concerns and opportunities around animal magnetism and hypnosis, and the exploration and analysis of this literature is an essential chapter in any historical study of this topic. We see how the literary use of mesmerism by Poe, Doyle and Du Maurier is not chance or peripheral, with all three being intellectually interested in and stimulated by these ideas.

  9. Aligning leadership across systems and organizations to develop a strategic climate for evidence-based practice implementation.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing impetus to bridge the gap between basic science discovery, development of evidence-based practices (EBPs), and the availability and delivery of EBPs in order to improve the public health impact of such practices. To capitalize on factors that support implementation and sustainment of EBPs, it is important to consider that health care is delivered within the outer context of public health systems and the inner context of health care organizations and work groups. Leaders play a key role in determining the nature of system and organizational contexts. This article addresses the role of leadership and actions that leaders can take at and across levels in developing a strategic climate for EBP implementation within the outer (i.e., system) and inner (i.e., organization, work group) contexts of health care. Within the framework of Edgar Schein's "climate embedding mechanisms," we describe strategies that leaders at the system, organization, and work group levels can consider and apply to develop strategic climates that support the implementation and sustainment of EBP in health care and allied health care settings.

  10. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: contributions to World War II.

    PubMed

    Folk, G Edgar

    2010-09-01

    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with either physical fitness of soldiers or the energetic cost of military tasks in extreme heat and cold. New military emergency rations to be manufactured in large quantities were analyzed in the Fatigue Laboratory and then tested in the field. Newly designed cold weather clothing was tested in the cold chamber at -40 degrees F, and desired improvements were made and tested in the field by staff and soldiers in tents and sleeping bags. Electrically heated clothing was designed for high-altitude flight crews and tested both in laboratory chambers and field tests before being issued. This eye witness account of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory during World War II was recorded by Dr. G. Edgar Folk, who is likely the sole surviving member of that famous laboratory.

  11. Buckingham (1907): An appreciation

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-11-17

    Nearly a century ago, Edgar Buckingham (1907) published a seminal work on the movement of soil moisture which is part of the foundation of modern soil physics. It also constitutes a pioneering contribution in the study of multi-phase flow in porous media. A physicist, Buckingham took on an earth science issue of importance to society, and produced superb basic science as a byproduct. Buckingham impresses us with his ability to combine experiment and theory, and his capacity to intuitively explain difficult ideas to a wide audience. Science progresses both by gradual accretion of knowledge, and by sudden influx of ideas.more » Buckingham's contribution belongs in the latter category. After a brief, four-year rendezvous with soil science, he went on to pursue a long and distinguished career in physics with the National Bureau of Standards. This paper is an appreciation of Buckingham's contribution on soil moisture in the context of contemporary developments in diffusion theory, and the rapid growth of science in America at the turn of the twentieth century.« less

  12. Prediction of blast fragmentation of underground stopes for in situ leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Stagg, M.S.; Otterness, R.E.; Djahanguiri, F.

    1994-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines (USBM) evaluated empirical equations that predict fragmentation from underground stope rounds. Controlled blasting is necessary for creating leaching stopes that maximize the recovery and minimize backbreak of the perimeter wall. This paper presents the fragmentation results from one of the three drop-raise blasts used to develop a reduced-scale cylindrical stope, 1.8 m in diameter and 6 m in height. The stope is located in the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine (Edgar Mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This stope is part of a USBM research effort to determine the feasibility of incorporating in situ leachingmore » of rubblized stopes into active underground metal and nonmetal mines. All the material from the first blast, 14 mtons was sieved. The resulting distribution was compared to the distribution predicted from empirical equations. The best fit was found with a USBM equation developed from over 50 sieved, reduced-scale (1- to 2-m) high wall blasts. Modifications to the equations were made to account for the observed differences due to breakout angle, shot geometry, initiation timing, decoupling, rock fracture toughness and explosive energy.« less

  13. Search extension transforms Wiki into a relational system: a case for flavonoid metabolite database.

    PubMed

    Arita, Masanori; Suwa, Kazuhiro

    2008-09-17

    In computer science, database systems are based on the relational model founded by Edgar Codd in 1970. On the other hand, in the area of biology the word 'database' often refers to loosely formatted, very large text files. Although such bio-databases may describe conflicts or ambiguities (e.g. a protein pair do and do not interact, or unknown parameters) in a positive sense, the flexibility of the data format sacrifices a systematic query mechanism equivalent to the widely used SQL. To overcome this disadvantage, we propose embeddable string-search commands on a Wiki-based system and designed a half-formatted database. As proof of principle, a database of flavonoid with 6902 molecular structures from over 1687 plant species was implemented on MediaWiki, the background system of Wikipedia. Registered users can describe any information in an arbitrary format. Structured part is subject to text-string searches to realize relational operations. The system was written in PHP language as the extension of MediaWiki. All modifications are open-source and publicly available. This scheme benefits from both the free-formatted Wiki style and the concise and structured relational-database style. MediaWiki supports multi-user environments for document management, and the cost for database maintenance is alleviated.

  14. Six Apollo astronauts in front of Saturn V at ASVC prior to grand opening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the former Apollo program astronauts pose in front of an Apollo Command and Service Module during a tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The astronauts are (from left): Apollo 14 Lunar Module Pilot Edgar D. Mitchell; Apollo 10 Command Module Pilot and Apollo 16 Commander John W. Young; Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr.; Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford; Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweikart. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  15. Climate and health impacts of clean cookstove implementation programs in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, F.; Marais, E. A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Coffey, E.; Muvandimwe, D.; Hannigan, M.; Henze, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    In Africa, 77% of the population (646 million people in 2010) use solid fuels as the main cooking source. These cooking methods are often inefficient and result in significant burdens to both climate and human health, particularly for women and children. In order to fully understand the impacts of clean cookstove implementation programs, a better understanding of the background concentrations of aerosols, aerosol precursors, and ozone precursors are needed, along with improved information on the changes in emissions from transitions to newer technologies. Through the use of the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, we have calculated species-specific climate and health sensitivities using a range of African emissions estimates including EDGAR-HTAP and a more recent improved emissions inventory, DICE-Africa. These sensitivities account for the spatial heterogeneity of emissions with respect to their impacts and allow for efficient estimation of the impacts of various clean cookstove implementation emissions scenarios that are based on laboratory and field measurements of emissions factors, along with realistic adoption and usage rates from field surveys. The resulting estimates of premature deaths and global surface temperature change are then aggregated to the national scale in order to provide policy makers with improved information regarding the implementation of clean cookstoves throughout continental Africa.

  16. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  17. Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Kort, Eric A; Shepson, Paul B; Brewer, Alan; Cambaliza, Maria; Conley, Stephen A; Davis, Ken; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Mike; Herndon, Scott C; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lavoie, Tegan; Lyon, David; Newberger, Tim; Pétron, Gabrielle; Rella, Chris; Smith, Mackenzie; Wolter, Sonja; Yacovitch, Tara I; Tans, Pieter

    2015-07-07

    We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production.

  18. Search extension transforms Wiki into a relational system: A case for flavonoid metabolite database

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Masanori; Suwa, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Background In computer science, database systems are based on the relational model founded by Edgar Codd in 1970. On the other hand, in the area of biology the word 'database' often refers to loosely formatted, very large text files. Although such bio-databases may describe conflicts or ambiguities (e.g. a protein pair do and do not interact, or unknown parameters) in a positive sense, the flexibility of the data format sacrifices a systematic query mechanism equivalent to the widely used SQL. Results To overcome this disadvantage, we propose embeddable string-search commands on a Wiki-based system and designed a half-formatted database. As proof of principle, a database of flavonoid with 6902 molecular structures from over 1687 plant species was implemented on MediaWiki, the background system of Wikipedia. Registered users can describe any information in an arbitrary format. Structured part is subject to text-string searches to realize relational operations. The system was written in PHP language as the extension of MediaWiki. All modifications are open-source and publicly available. Conclusion This scheme benefits from both the free-formatted Wiki style and the concise and structured relational-database style. MediaWiki supports multi-user environments for document management, and the cost for database maintenance is alleviated. PMID:18822113

  19. Managers can drive their subordinates mad.

    PubMed

    Kets de Vries, M F

    1979-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of "folie à deux"--an aberrant relationship between manager and subordinates that is characterized by shared delusions. Though most visible among public figures like Adolf Hitler, J. Edgar Hoover and Jim Jones, the problem also surfaces among private managers and their associates with dangerous implications for the firm. In folie à deux, the unusual behavior patterns of a manager in an isolated setting become mirrored by dependent subordinates, and the organization loses touch with its original goals and strategies. The author describes the dynamics of this phenomenon and details steps to remedy the situation. Once recognized, he suggests that the manager establish a trusting relationship with the instigator as a prelude to altering the behavior patterns, then transfer the subordinates and reorient the work climate so that independence and responsibility are encouraged. If the instigator is a powerful executive, the author suggests enlisting the support of a countervailing force, such as the government or a union, to guide the organization away from possible self-destructive adventures.

  20. Statistical Downscaling of WRF-Chem Model: An Air Quality Analysis over Bogota, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anikender; Rojas, Nestor

    2015-04-01

    Statistical downscaling is a technique that is used to extract high-resolution information from regional scale variables produced by coarse resolution models such as Chemical Transport Models (CTMs). The fully coupled WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model is used to simulate air quality over Bogota. Bogota is a tropical Andean megacity located over a high-altitude plateau in the middle of very complex terrain. The WRF-Chem model was adopted for simulating the hourly ozone concentrations. The computational domains were chosen of 120x120x32, 121x121x32 and 121x121x32 grid points with horizontal resolutions of 27, 9 and 3 km respectively. The model was initialized with real boundary conditions using NCAR-NCEP's Final Analysis (FNL) and a 1ox1o (~111 km x 111 km) resolution. Boundary conditions were updated every 6 hours using reanalysis data. The emission rates were obtained from global inventories, namely the REanalysis of the TROpospheric (RETRO) chemical composition and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR). Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network techniques are used to downscale the model output at each monitoring stations. The results confirm that the statistically downscaled outputs reduce simulated errors by up to 25%. This study provides a general overview of statistical downscaling of chemical transport models and can constitute a reference for future air quality modeling exercises over Bogota and other Colombian cities.

  1. On the early history of field emission including attempts of tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleint, C.

    1993-04-01

    Field emission is certainly one of the oldest surface science techniques, its roots reaching back about 250 years to the time of enlightenment. An account of very early studies and of later work is given but mostly restricted to Leipzig and to pre-Müllerian investigations. Studies of field emission from metal tips were carried out in the 18th century by Johann Heinrich Winkler who used vacuum pumps built by Jacob Leupold, a famous Leipzig mechanic. A short account of the career of Winkler will be given and his field emission experiments are illustrated. Field emission was investigated again in Leipzig much later by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld who worked on the improvement of X-ray tubes. He coined the terms ‘autoelektronische Entladung’ of ‘Äona-Effekt’ in 1922, and developed degassing procedures which are very similar to modern ultra-high vacuum processing. A pre-quantum mechanical explanation of the field emission phenomena was undertaken by Walter Schottky. Cunradi (1926) tried to measure temperature changes during field emission. Franz Rother, in a thesis (1914) suggested by Otto Wiener, dealt with the distance dependence of currents in vacuum between electrodes down to 20 nm. His habilitation in 1926 was an extension of his early work but now with field emission tips as a cathode. We might look at his measurements of the field emission characteristics in dependence on distance as a precursor to modern tunneling spectroscopy as well.

  2. Career anchors of dentist leaders.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Tiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The work of a health care leader is demanding; in order to cope, leaders need motivation and support. The occurrence of intrinsic factors called career anchors (combination of one's competence, motives and values) could be a contributing factor in dentist leaders' career decisions. The aim of our study was to identify dentist leaders' career anchors and their association to dentist leaders' retention or turnover of the leadership position. Materials were gathered in 2014 via an electronic questionnaire from 156 current (Leaders) or former (Leavers) Finnish dentist leaders. Career anchor evaluation was conducted by the questionnaire and scoring-table taken from Edgar Schein's Career Anchors Self-Assessment. Both the most and the least important career anchors were detected by the highest and lowest scores and their occurrence reported as percentages. Associations between career anchor scores and tendency to stay were analyzed with logistic regression. 'Technical/Functional Competence' and 'Lifestyle' were most frequently reported as the most important and 'Entrepreneurial Creativity' and 'General Managerial Competence' as the least important career anchors. However, a higher level of 'General Managerial Competence' anchor was most significantly associated with staying in a leadership position. Instead, 'Pure Challenge' and 'Lifestyle' decreased the odds to stay. The knowledge of the important and essential career anchors of dentist leaders' and individuals' could perform crucial part in career choices and also in planning education, work opportunities and human resource policies promoting retention of dentist leaders and probably also other health care leaders.

  3. Apollo 14 crewmen near site of volcanic eruption on Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-10

    S70-34421 (April 1970) --- Prime crew men and backup crew men, of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, look over an area near the site of a volcanic eruption on Dec. 30, 1969. Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (leaning with left hand on ground) and Edgar D. Mitchell (behind Shepard, wearing dark glasses) are the prime crew men scheduled to walk on the moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (almost obscured at extreme left) and Joe H. Engle (partially visible, on Cernan's right) are backup crew commander and lunar module pilot, respectively, for the mission. Others in the photograph are Pat Crosland (in hard hat), a geologist and a park ranger in Hawaii Volcanoes State Park; Michael C. McEwen (facing Mitchell) of the Geology Branch, Lunar and Earth Sciences Division, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC); and astronaut Bruce McCandless II, who made the trip to serve as a spacecraft communicator during simulations of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface.

  4. The XXIIIrd Phage/Virus Assembly Meeting.

    PubMed

    Serwer, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The XXIIIrd Phage/Virus Assembly (PVA) meeting returned to its birthplace in Lake Arrowhead, CA on September 8-13, 2013 (Fig. 1). The original meeting occurred in 1968, organized by Bob Edgar (Caltech, Pasadena, CA USA), Fred Eiserling (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA) and Bill Wood (Caltech, Pasadena, CA USA). The organizers of the 2013 meeting were Bill Gelbart (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA) and Jack Johnson (Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA USA). This meeting specializes in an egalitarian format. Students are distinguished from senior faculty primarily by the signs of age. With the exception of historically based introductory talks, all talks were allotted the same time and freedom. This tradition began when the meeting was phage-only and has been continued now that all viruses are included. Many were the animated conversations about basic questions. New and international participants were present, a sign that the field has significant attraction, as it should, based on details below. The meeting was also characterized by a sense of humor and generally good times, a chance to both enjoy the science and forget the funding malaise to which many participants are exposed. I will present some of the meeting content, without attempting to be comprehensive.

  5. View of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer (LPM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-12-21

    S70-56721 (December 1970) --- A close-up view of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer (LPM), which will be used by the crew of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission during the second extravehicular activity (EVA). The LPM's components, a tripod-mounted flux-gate magnetometer sensor head and an electronics data package, connected by a 50-feet flat cable, function together to measure variations in the lunar magnetic field at several points on the geological traverse. Data gathered will be used to determine the location, strength and dimensions of magnetic sources, as well as knowledge of the local and total selenological structure. The LPM will be carried on the Modular Equipment Transporter (MET), and deployed by the lunar module pilot, who will align the sensor head at least 35 feet from the data package. The LM pilot will then return to the MET and verbally relay the LPM readouts to Earth. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell is the lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission.

  6. Saturn Apollo Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-31

    In the launch control center at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), Walter J. Kapryan, Director of Launch Operations (center), discusses an aspect of the Apollo 14 flight with Marshall Space Flight Center’s (MSFC) Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director (right). The Apollo 14, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander Alan B. Shepard Jr., Command Module pilot Stuart A. Roosa, and Lunar Module pilot Edgar D. Mitchell, lifted off from launch complex 39A at KSC on January 31, 1971. It was the third manned lunar landing, the first manned landing in exploration of the lunar highlands, and it demonstrated pinpoint landing capability. The major goal of Apollo 14 was the scientific exploration of the Moon in the foothills of the rugged Fra Mauro region. The extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Shepard and Mitchell included setting up an automated scientific laboratory called Apollo Lunar Scientific Experiments Package (ALSEP), and collecting a total of about 95 pounds (43 kilograms) of Moon rock and soil for a geological investigation back on the Earth. Apollo 14 safely returned to Earth on February 9, 1971.

  7. The Parker-Sochacki Method--A Powerful New Method for Solving Systems of Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmin, Joseph W.

    2001-04-01

    The Parker-Sochacki Method--A Powerful New Method for Solving Systems of Differential Equations Joseph W. Rudmin (Physics Dept, James Madison University) A new system of solving systems of differential equations will be presented, which has been developed by J. Edgar Parker and James Sochacki, of the James Madison University Mathematics Department. The method produces MacClaurin Series solutions to systems of differential equations, with the coefficients in either algebraic or numerical form. The method yields high-degree solutions: 20th degree is easily obtainable. It is conceptually simple, fast, and extremely general. It has been applied to over a hundred systems of differential equations, some of which were previously unsolved, and has yet to fail to solve any system for which the MacClaurin series converges. The method is non-recursive: each coefficient in the series is calculated just once, in closed form, and its accuracy is limited only by the digital accuracy of the computer. Although the original differential equations may include any mathematical functions, the computational method includes ONLY the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Furthermore, it is perfectly suited to parallel -processing computer languages. Those who learn this system will never use Runge-Kutta or predictor-corrector methods again. Examples will be presented, including the classical many-body problem.

  8. Obtaining the Thermal Efficiency of a Steam Railroad Machine Toy According Dale's Cone of Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista-Hernandez, Omar Tomas; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gregorio

    2011-03-01

    Physics is crucial to understanding the world around us, the world inside us, and the world beyond us. It is the most basic and fundamental science, hence, our interest in developing innovative strategies supported by the imagination and knowledge to make the learning process funny, attractive and interesting to people, so, we can help to change the general idea that Physics is an abstract and complicated science. We all know this instinctively, however, turn-of-the-century educationist Edgar Dale illustrated this with research when he developed the Cone of Learning - which states that after two weeks we remember only 10% of what we read, but we remember 90% of what we do. Based on that theory, we obtain the thermal efficiency of a steam railroad machine -this is a toy train that could be bought at any department store-, and show you the great percentage of energy lost when moving this railroad machine, just as the real life is. While doing this practice we don't focus on the results itself, instead, we try to demostrate that physics is funny and it is not difficult to learn. We must stress that this practice was done with pre-universitary and univesitary students, however, can be shown to the community in general.

  9. Gridded national inventory of U.S. methane emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; ...

    2016-11-16

    Here we present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scaledependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be consistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a wide range of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show largemore » differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Finally, our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.« less

  10. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    estimated regional NO2 emissions are about 2-3% (administrative Huabei region) or 5% (larger Huabei region) of the global anthropogenic NO2 emissions. We compare our inventory (IPAC-NC) with the global emission inventory EDGAR-CIRCE and the Asian emission inventory INTEX-B. Except for a factor of 3 lower EC emission rate in comparison with INTEX-B, the biases of the total emissions of most primary air pollutants in Huabei estimated in our inventory, with respect to EDGAR-CIRCE and INTEX-B, generally range from -30% to +40%. Large differences up to a factor of 2-3 for local emissions in some areas (e.g. Beijing and Tianjin) are found. It is recommended that the inventories based on the activity rates and emission factors for each specific year should be applied in future modeling work related to the changes in air quality and atmospheric chemistry over this region.

  11. Arctic Black Carbon Initiative: Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from Power & Industry in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresko, J.; Hodson, E. L.; Cheng, M.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.; Storey, J.

    2012-12-01

    resolution (2.5° x 2.5° spatial resolution) that a particular region emits BC which deposits in the Russian Arctic. We utilize data from three Arctic measurement stations during the most recent decade: Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada; Barrow, Alaska; and Tiksi Bay, Russia. To understand more about individual Arctic BC sources, we conduct further research to improve inventory estimates of Russian industrial and energy sector BC emissions. By comparing inventory data on power plant locations and emissions from two publically-available databases (EDGAR-HTAP and CARMA databases) to each other and to additional observations from satellites and the AERONET observation network in Russia, we assess the accuracy of the Russian BC emission inventory in EDGAR-HTAP, a commonly used database for atmospheric transport modeling. We then use a global (GEOS-CHEM) atmospheric transport model to quantify the finer spatial distribution of BC within the Arctic. Lastly, we use data on Russian fuel use combined with published emissions factors to build a national-scale model of energy use and associated emissions from critical industrial and heat & power sources of BC. We use this model to estimate the technical potential of reducing BC emissions through proven mitigation efforts such as improvements in energy efficiency and in emission control technologies.

  12. Assessing representation errors of IAGOS CO2, CO and CH4 profile observations: the impact of spatial variations in near-field emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, Fabio; Thouret, Valerie; Nedelec, Philippe; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Airborne platforms have their main strength in the ability of collecting mixing ratio and meteorological data at different heights across a vertical profile, allowing an insight in the internal structure of the atmosphere. However, rental airborne platforms are usually expensive, limiting the number of flights that can be afforded and hence on the amount of data that can be collected. To avoid this disadvantage, the MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurements of Ozone and water vapor by Airbus In-service airCraft/In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) program makes use of commercial airliners, providing data on a regular basis. It is therefore considered an important tool in atmospheric investigations. However, due to the nature of said platforms, MOZAIC/IAGOS's profiles are located near international airports, which are usually significant emission sources, and are in most cases close to major urban settlements, characterized by higher anthropogenic emissions compared to rural areas. When running transport models at finite resolution, these local emissions can heavily affect measurements resulting in biases in model/observation mismatch. Model/observation mismatch can include different aspects in both horizontal and vertical direction, for example spatial and temporal resolution of the modeled fluxes, or poorly represented convective transport or turbulent mixing in the boundary layer. In the framework of the IGAS (IAGOS for GMES Atmospheric Service) project, whose aim is to improve connections between data collected by MOZAIC/IAGOS and Copernicus Atmospheric Service, the present study is focused on the effect of the spatial resolution of emission fluxes, referred to here as representation error. To investigate this, the Lagrangian transport model STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) was coupled with EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) version-4.3 emission inventory at European regional scale. EDGAR's simulated fluxes for CO, CO2

  13. Compilation of a Global Emission Inventory from 1980 to 2000 for Global Model Simulations of the Long-term Trend of Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, T. L.; Mian, Chin; Bond, T. C.; Carn, S. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Streets, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The approach to create a comprehensive emission inventory for the time period 1980 to 2000 is described in this paper. We have recently compiled an emission database, which we will use for a 21 year simulation of tropospheric aerosols with the GOCART model. Particular attention was paid to the time-dependent SO2, black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions. For the emission of SO2 from sporadically erupting volcanoes, we assembled emission data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution, using the VEI to derive the volcanic cloud height and the SO2 amount, and amended this dataset by the SO2 emission data from the TOMS instrument when available. 3-dimensional aircraft emission data was obtained for a number of years from the AEAP project, converted from burned fuel to SO2 and interpolated to each year, taking the sparsity of the flight patterns into account. Other anthopogenic SO2 emissions are based on gridded emissions from the EDGAR 2000 database (excluding sources from aircraft, biomass burning and international ship traffic), which were scaled to individual years with country/regional based emission inventories. Gridded SO2 emissions from international ship traffic for 2000 and the scaling factors for other years are from [Eyring et al., 2005]. We used gridded anthropogenic black and organic carbon emissions for 1996 [Bond et al., 2005], again excluding aircraft, biomass burning and ship sources. These emissions were scaled with regional based emission inventories from 1980 to 2000 to derive gridded emissions for each year. The biomass burning emissions are based on a climatology, which is scaled with regional scaling factors derived from the TOMS aerosol index and the AVHRR/ATSR fire counts to each year [Duncan et al., 2003]. Details on the integration of the information from the various sources will be provided and the distribution patterns and total emissions in the final product will be discussed.

  14. Compilation of a Global Emission Inventory from 1980 to 2000 for Global Model Simulations of the Long-term Trend of Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Thomas L.; Chin, Mian; Bond, Tami C.; Carn, SImon A.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.

    2006-01-01

    The approach to create a comprehensive emission inventory for the time period 1980 to 2000 is described in this paper. We have recently compiled an emission database, which we will use for a 21 year simulation of tropospheric aerosols with the GOCART model. Particular attention was paid to the time-dependent SO2, black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions. For the emission of SO2 from sporadically erupting volcanoes, we assembled emission data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution, using the VEI to derive the volcanic cloud height and the SO2 amount, and amended this dataset by the SO2 emission data from the TOMS instrument when available. 3-dimensional aircraft emission data was obtained for a number of years from the AEAP project, converted from burned fuel to SO2 and interpolated to each year, taking the sparsity of the flight patterns into account. Other anthropogenic SO2 emissions are based on gridded emissions from the EDGAR 2000 database (excluding sources from aircraft, biomass burning and international ship traffic), which were scaled to individual years with country/regional based emission inventories. Gridded SO2 emissions from international ship traffic for 2000 and the scaling factors for other years are from [Eyring et al., 2005]. We used gridded anthropogenic black and organic carbon emissions for 1996 [Bond et al., 2005], again excluding aircraft, biomass burning and ship sources. These emissions were scaled with regional based emission inventories from 1980 to 2000 to derive gridded emissions for each year. The biomass burning emissions are based on a climatology, which is scaled with regional scaling factors derived from the TOMS aerosol index and the AVHRR/ASTR fire counts to each year [Duncan et al., 2003]. Details on the integration of the information from the various sources will be provided and the distribution patterns and total emissions in the final product will be discussed.

  15. Methane sources in Hong Kong - identification by mobile measurement and isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Rebecca; Brownlow, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    Hong Kong (22.4°N, 114.1°E) has a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic sources of methane within a small densely populated area (1106 km2, population ˜7.3 million). These include emissions from important source categories that have previously been poorly studied in tropical regions such as agriculture and wetlands. According to inventories (EDGAR v.4.2) anthropogenic methane emissions are mainly from solid waste disposal, wastewater disposal and fugitive leaks from oil and gas. Methane mole fraction was mapped out across Hong Kong during a mobile measurement campaign in July 2016. This technique allows rapid detection of the locations of large methane emissions which may focus targets for efforts to reduce emissions. Methane is mostly emitted from large point sources, with highest concentrations measured close to active landfill sites, sewage works and a gas processing plant. Air samples were collected close to sources (landfills, sewage works, gas processing plant, wetland, rice, traffic, cows and water buffalo) and analysed by mass spectrometry to determine the δ13C isotopic signatures to extend the database of δ13C isotopic signatures of methane from tropical regions. Isotopic signatures of methane sources in Hong Kong range from -70 ‰ (cows) to -37 ‰ (gas processing). Regular sampling of air for methane mole fraction and δ13C has recently begun at the Swire Institute of Marine Science, situated at Cape d'Aguilar in the southeast of Hong Kong Island. This station receives air from important source regions: southerly marine air from the South China Sea in summer and northerly continental air in winter and measurements will allow an integrated assessment of emissions from the wider region.

  16. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; Popa, Maria E.; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique for in situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of (+0.25 ± 0.04) ‰ for δ13C and (-4.3 ± 0.4) ‰ for δD. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high-precision and high-temporal-resolution dataset not only reveals the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European domain.

  17. Investigation of the N2O emission strength in the U. S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congsheng; Lee, Xuhui; Griffis, Timothy J.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Andrews, Arlyn E.

    2017-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) has a high global warming potential and depletes stratospheric ozone. The U. S. Corn Belt plays an important role in the global anthropogenic N2O budget. To date, studies on local surface N2O emissions and the atmospheric N2O budget have commonly used Lagrangian models. In the present study, we used an Eulerian model - Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to investigate the relationships between N2O emissions in the Corn Belt and observed atmospheric N2O mixing ratios. We derived a simple equation to relate the emission strengths to atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, and used the derived equation and hourly atmospheric N2O measurements at the KCMP tall tower in Minnesota to constrain agricultural N2O emissions. The modeled spatial patterns of atmospheric N2O were evaluated against discrete observations at multiple tall towers in the NOAA flask network. After optimization of the surface flux, the model reproduced reasonably well the hourly N2O mixing ratios monitored at the KCMP tower. Agricultural N2O emissions in the EDGAR42 database needed to be scaled up by 19.0 to 28.1 fold to represent the true emissions in the Corn Belt for June 1-20, 2010 - a peak emission period. Optimized mean N2O emissions were 3.00-4.38, 1.52-2.08, 0.61-0.81 and 0.56-0.75 nmol m- 2 s- 1 for June 1-20, August 1-20, October 1-20 and December 1-20, 2010, respectively. The simulated spatial patterns of atmospheric N2O mixing ratios after optimization were in good agreement with the NOAA discrete observations during the strong emission peak in June. Such spatial patterns suggest that the underestimate of emissions using IPCC (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology is not dependent on tower measurement location.

  18. The anxiety of learning. Interview by Diane L. Coutu.

    PubMed

    Schein, Edgar H

    2002-03-01

    Despite all the time, money, and energy that executives pour into corporate change programs, the stark reality is that few companies ever succeed in genuinely reinventing themselves. That's because the people at those companies rarely master the art of transformational learning--that is, eagerly challenging deeply held assumptions about a company's processes and, in response, altering their thoughts and actions. Instead, most people just end up doing the same old things in superficially tweaked ways. Why is transformational learning so hard to achieve? HBR senior editor Diane Coutu explores this question with psychologist and MIT professor Edgar Schein, a world-renowned expert on organizational development. In sharp contrast to the optimistic rhetoric that permeates the debate on corporate learning and change, Schein is cautious about what companies can and cannot accomplish. Corporate culture can change, he says, but this kind of learning takes time, and it isn't fun. Learning is a coercive process, Schein argues, that requires blood, sweat, tears, and a certain level of anxiety to achieve the desired effect. In this article, he describes two basic types of anxiety--learning anxiety and survival anxiety--that drive radical relearning in organizations. Schein's theories spring from his early research on how American prisoners of war in Korea had been brainwashed by their captors. He cites the parallels between the "coercive persuasion" tactics the Chinese communists used to control their prisoners (isolating powerful ones and overseeing all communications) and the corporate boot camps that American companies use to indoctrinate their managers. Indeed, heavy socialization is back in style in U.S. corporations today, Schein says, even if no one is calling it that.

  19. A Novel Quantitative Trait Locus on Mouse Chromosome 18, “era1,” Modifies the Entrainment of Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Striz, Martin; DeVoss, Jason; Murphy, Greer M.; Edgar, Dale M.; O'Hara, Bruce F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus conveys 24-h rhythmicity to sleep-wake cycles, locomotor activity, and other behavioral and physiological processes. The timing of rhythms relative to the light/dark (LD12:12) cycle is influenced in part by the endogenous circadian period and the time of day specific sensitivity of the clock to light. We now describe a novel circadian rhythm phenotype, and a locus influencing that phenotype, in a segregating population of mice. Methods: By crossbreeding 2 genetically distinct nocturnal strains of mice (Cast/Ei and C57BL/6J) and backcrossing the resulting progeny to Cast/Ei, we have produced a novel circadian phenotype, called early runner mice. Results: Early runner mice entrain to a light/dark cycle at an advanced phase, up to 9 hours before dark onset. This phenotype is not significantly correlated with circadian period in constant darkness and is not associated with disruption of molecular circadian rhythms in the SCN, as assessed by analysis of period gene expression. We have identified a genomic region that regulates this phenotype—a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 18 (near D18Mit184) that we have named era1 for Early Runner Activity locus one. Phase delays caused by light exposure early in the subjective night were of smaller magnitude in backcross offspring that were homozygous Cast/Ei at D18Mit184 than in those that were heterozygous at this locus. Conclusion: Genetic variability in the circadian response to light may, in part, explain the variance in phase angle of entrainment in this segregating mouse population. Citation: Wisor JP; Striz M; DeVoss J; Murphy GM; Edgar DM; O'Hara BF. A novel quantitative trait locus on mouse chromosome 18, “era1,” modifies the entrainment of circadian rhythms. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1255-1263. PMID:17969459

  20. Current and future background ozone simulations for Mexico using a multi-scale regional climate modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, B. K.; Gonzalez Abraham, R.; Avise, J. C.; Chung, S. H.; Salathe, E. P.; Zhang, Y.; Guenther, A. B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Streets, D. G.

    2013-05-01

    Global change will clearly have a significant impact on the environment. Among the concerns for future air quality in North America, intercontinental transport of pollution has become increasingly important. In this study, we examined the effect of projected changes in Asian emissions and emissions from lightning and wildfires to produce ozone background concentrations within Mexico and the continental US. This provides a basis for developing an understanding of North American background levels and how they may change in the future. Meteorological fields were downscaled from the results of the ECHAM5 global climate model using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. Two nested domains were employed, one covering most of the Northern Hemisphere from eastern Asia to North America using 220 km grid cells (semi-hemispheric domain) and one covering the continental US and northern Mexico using 36 km grid cells. Meteorological results from WRF were used to drive the MEGAN biogenic emissions model, the SMOKE emissions processing tool, and the CMAQ chemical transport model to predict ozone concentrations for current (1995-2004) and future (2045-2054) summertime conditions. The MEGAN model was used to calculate biogenic emissions for all simulations. For the semi-hemispheric domain, year 2000 global emissions of gases (ozone precursors) from anthropogenic (outside of North America), natural, and biomass burning sources from the POET and EDGAR emission inventories were used. The global tabulation for black and organic carbon (BC and OC respectively) was obtained from Bond et al. (2004) For the future decade, the current emissions were projected to the year 2050 following the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario. Anthropogenic emissions from the US, Canada, and Mexico were omitted so that only global background concentrations, and local biogenic, wildfire, and lightning emissions were treated. In this paper, we focus on background ozone

  1. Air quality modelling over the Eastern Mediterranean using the WRF/Chem model: Comparison of gas-phase chemistry and aerosol mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, George K.; Christoudias, Theodoros; Proestos, Yiannis; Kushta, Jonilda; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the performance of three coupled gas-phase chemistry and aerosol mechanisms included in the WRF/Chem model has been performed over the Eastern Mediterranean focusing on Cyprus during the CYPHEX campaign in 2014, using high temporal and spatial resolution. The model performance was evaluated by comparing calculations to measurements of gas phase species (O3, CO, NOx, SO2) and aerosols (PM10, PM2.5) from 13 ground stations. Initial results indicate that the calculated day-to-day and diurnal variations of the aforementioned species show good agreement with observations. The model was set up with three nested grids, downscaling to 4km over Cyprus. The meteorological boundary conditions were updated every 3 hours throughout the simulation using the Global Forecast System (GFS), while chemical boundary conditions were updated every 6 hours using the MOZART global chemical transport model. Biogenic emissions were calculated online by the the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1). Anthropogenic emissions were based on the EDGAR HTAP v2 global emission inventory, provided on a horizontal grid resolution of 0.1o × 0.1o. Three simulations were performed employing different chemistry and aerosol mechanisms; i) RADM2 chemical mechanism and MADE/SORGAM aerosols, ii) CBMZ chemical mechanism and MOSAIC aerosols, iii) MOZART chemical mechanism and MOSAIC aerosols. Results show that the WRF/Chem model satisfactorily estimates the trace gases relative concentrations at the background sites but not at the urban and traffic sites, while some differences appear between the simulated concentrations by the three mechanisms. The resulting discrepancies between the model outcome and measurements, especially at the urban and traffic sites, suggest that a higher resolution anthropogenic emission inventory might help improve fine resolution, regional air quality modelling. Differences in the simulated concentrations by the

  2. PREFACE: Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2008-02-01

    The physics of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos has become nowadays a subject of fast development. On the other hand present and planed experimental facilities installed in the American continent, attract and facilitate the involvement of local young researchers. For these reasons Professor Oscar Saavedra and his team of the high altitude cosmic ray Chacaltaya laboratory and the Universidad Mayor de San Andres in La Paz Bolivia, conceived the idea of organizing the First School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics in La Paz 9-20 August 2004. That school was possible, in spite of the scarcity of funds, thanks to the solidary participation of several distinguish lecturers who paid their travel and local expenses. Their lectures were made available on a CD by the local students. It was then decided that a second school be organized for 2006 in Mexico. It was held from 28 August to 15 September 15. Some of the lecturers in this Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics were too busy to write their lectures, but here we put at the disposal of the interested community the contributions of Roberto Battiston, Karen S Caballero, Edgar Casimiro, David Delepine, Giorgio Giacomelli, Gonzalo Rodríguez and Luis Villaseñor. This School was possible thanks to the financial assistance of CONACyT (Mexico), the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), the University of Torino and the Centro Latino Americano de Fisica. Arnulfo Zepeda The editors of these proceedings are: Rebeca López Rodrigo Pelayo Oscar Saavedra Arnulfo Zepeda

  3. An analysis of the global spatial variability of column-averaged CO2 from SCIAMACHY and its implications for CO2 sources and sinks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Zhang, Xiuying; Huang, Chunlin; Lu, Xuehe; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are important because of their potential for improving the scientific understanding of global carbon cycle processes and budgets. We present an analysis of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (denoted XCO2) of the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) retrievals, which were derived from a satellite instrument with relatively long-term records (2003–2009) and with measurements sensitive to the near surface. The spatial-temporal distributions of remotely sensed XCO2 have significant spatial heterogeneity with about 6–8% variations (367–397 ppm) during 2003–2009, challenging the traditional view that the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric CO2 is not significant enough (2 and surface CO2 were found for major ecosystems, with the exception of tropical forest. In addition, when compared with a simulated terrestrial carbon uptake from the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) carbon emission inventory, the latitudinal gradient of XCO2 seasonal amplitude was influenced by the combined effect of terrestrial carbon uptake, carbon emission, and atmospheric transport, suggesting no direct implications for terrestrial carbon sinks. From the investigation of the growth rate of XCO2 we found that the increase of CO2 concentration was dominated by temperature in the northern hemisphere (20–90°N) and by precipitation in the southern hemisphere (20–90°S), with the major contribution to global average occurring in the northern hemisphere. These findings indicated that the satellite measurements of atmospheric CO2 improve not only the estimations of atmospheric inversion, but also the understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and its feedback to atmospheric CO2.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.

    SciTech Connect

    VAN HEYST,B.J.

    1999-10-01

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to providemore » modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.« less

  5. Measurement of air pollutant emissions from Lome, Cotonou and Accra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, James; Vaughan, Adam; Nelson, Bethany; Young, Stuart; Evans, Mathew; Morris, Eleanor; Ladkin, Russel

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of airborne pollutants (e.g. the oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide) in existing and evolving cities along the Guinea Coast cause respiratory diseases with potentially large costs to human health and the economic capacity of the local workforce. It is important to understand the rate of emission of such pollutants in order to model current and future air quality and provide guidance to the potential outcomes of air pollution abatement strategies. Often dated technologies and poor emission control strategies lead to substantial uncertainties in emission estimates calculated from vehicle and population number density statistics. The unreliable electrical supply in cities in the area has led to an increased reliance on small-scale diesel powered generators and these potentially present a significant source of emissions. The uncontrolled open incineration of waste adds a further very poorly constrained emission source within the cities. The DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project involved a field campaign which used highly instrumented aircraft capable of in situ measurements of a range of air pollutants. Seven flights using the UK British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft specifically targeted air pollution emissions from cities in West Africa (4 x Accra, Ghana; 2 x Lome, Togo and 1 x Cotonou, Benin). Measurements of NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4 and CO2 were made at multiple altitudes upwind and downwind of the cities, with the mass balance technique used to calculate emission rates. These are then compared to the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates. Ultimately the data will be used to inform on and potentially improve the emission estimates, which in turn should lead to better forecasting of air pollution in West African cities and help guide future air pollution abatement strategy.

  6. WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over south Asia during the pre-monsoon: effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit; Ojha, Narendra; Pozzer, Andrea; Mar, Kathleen A.; Beig, Gufran; Lelieveld, Jos; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate numerical simulations of surface ozone mixing ratios over the south Asian region during the pre-monsoon season, employing three different emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with the second-generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2) chemical mechanism: the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research - Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (EDGAR-HTAP), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment phase B (INTEX-B) and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS). Evaluation of diurnal variability in modelled ozone compared to observational data from 15 monitoring stations across south Asia shows the model ability to reproduce the clean, rural and polluted urban conditions over this region. In contrast to the diurnal average, the modelled ozone mixing ratios during noontime, i.e. hours of intense photochemistry (11:30-16:30 IST - Indian Standard Time - UTC +5:30), are found to differ among the three inventories. This suggests that evaluations of the modelled ozone limited to 24 h average are insufficient to assess uncertainties associated with ozone buildup. HTAP generally shows 10-30 ppbv higher noontime ozone mixing ratios than SEAC4RS and INTEX-B, especially over the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), central India and southern India. The HTAP simulation repeated with the alternative Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemical mechanism showed even more strongly enhanced surface ozone mixing ratios due to vertical mixing of enhanced ozone that has been produced aloft. Our study indicates the need to also evaluate the O3 precursors across a network of stations and the development of high-resolution regional inventories for the anthropogenic emissions over south Asia accounting for year-to-year changes to further reduce uncertainties in modelled ozone over this region.

  7. Long-term tropospheric trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, D. E.; Mani, F. S.; Laube, J. C.; Newland, M. J.; Reeves, C. E.; Sturges, W. T.; Penkett, S. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.; Fraser, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania between 1978 and 2008 and during a series of more recent aircraft sampling programmes have been analysed to determine the atmospheric abundance and trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318). c-C4F8 has an atmospheric lifetime in excess of 3000 yr and a global warming potential (GWP) of 10 300 (100 yr time horizon), making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases detected in the atmosphere to date. The abundance of c-C4F8 in the Southern Hemisphere has risen from 0.35 ppt in 1978 to 1.2 ppt in 2010, and is currently increasing at a rate of around 0.03 ppt yr-1. It is the third most abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC) in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (~75 ppt) and C2F6 (~4 ppt). Although a number of potential sources of c-C4F8 have been reported, including the electronics and semi-conductor industries, there remains a large discrepancy in the atmospheric budget. Using a 2-D global model to derive top-down global emissions based on the Cape Grim measurements yields a recent (2007) emission rate of around 1.1 Gg yr-1 and a cumulative emission up to and including 2007 of 38.1 Gg. Emissions reported on the EDGAR emissions database for the period 1986-2005 represent less than 1% of the top-down emissions for the same period, which suggests there is a large unaccounted for source of this compound. It is also apparent that the magnitude of this source has varied considerably over the past 30 yr, declining sharply in the late 1980s before increasing again in the mid-1990s.

  8. Long-term tropospheric trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, D. E.; Mani, F. S.; Laube, J. C.; Newland, M. J.; Reeves, C. E.; Sturges, W. T.; Penkett, S. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.; Fraser, P. J.

    2011-07-01

    Air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania between 1978 and 2008 and during a series of more recent aircraft sampling programmes have been analysed to determine the atmospheric abundance and trend of octafluorocyclobutane (-C4F8 or PFC-318). c-C4F8 has an atmospheric lifetime in excess of 3000 yr and a global warming potential (GWP) of 10 300 (100 yr time horizon), making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases detected in the atmosphere to date. The abundance of c-C4F8 in the Southern Hemisphere has risen from 0.35 ppt in 1978 to 1.2 ppt in 2010, and is currently increasing at a rate of around 0.03 ppt yr-1. It is the third most abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC) in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (~75 ppt) and C2F6 (~4 ppt). The origin of c-C4F8 is unclear. Using a 2-D global model to derive top-down global emissions based on the Cape Grim measurements yields a recent (2007) emission rate of around 1.1 Gg yr-1 and a cumulative emission up to and including 2007 of 38.1 Gg. Emissions reported on the EDGAR emissions database for the period 1986-2005 represent less than 1 % of the top-down emissions for the same period, which suggests there is a large unaccounted for source of this compound. It is also apparent that the magnitude of this source has varied considerably over the past 30 yr, declining sharply in the late 1980s before increasing again in the mid-1990s.

  9. Top-Down Assessment of the Asian Carbon Budget Since the Mid 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R.; Canadell, J.; Patra, P. K.; Chevallier, F.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Law, R. M.; Ziehn, T.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Peters, W.; Ganshin, A.; Zhuravlev, R.; Maki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Shirai, T.; Ishizawa, M.; Saeki, T.; Poulter, B.; Ciais, P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principle driver of anthropogenic climate change. Asia is an important region for the global carbon budget, with four of the world's ten largest national emitters of CO2, but it is also a region with considerable uncertainty in both anthropogenic emissions and land biosphere fluxes of CO2. Furthermore, Asia has undergone rapid economic growth over the past two decades, which has been associated with large increases in fossil fuel emissions, 190% for India and 240% for China between 1990 and 2010. We have used an ensemble of seven atmospheric CO2 inversions and three standard fossil fuel and cement fluxes, based on the inventories of CDIAC, EDGAR and IEA, to determine the land biosphere fluxes for East, South and Southeast Asia, and to ascertain the robustness and overall uncertainty of the results. We find that the East Asian land biosphere was on average a carbon sink of -0.35 ± 0.37 PgC y-1 (median and MAD), or equivalently 17 ± 18% of East Asia's fossil fuel and cement emissions, over 1996 - 2012. Between 1996 - 2001 and 2008 - 2012, we find an increase in the sink of 0.74 ± 0.28 PgC y-1, however the magnitude of this is contingent on the assumed increase in fossil fuel emissions. For South Asia, we find that on average the land biosphere was close to carbon neutral, -0.01 ± 0.20 PgC y-1 over 1996 - 2012 and that there was no significant trend. For Southeast Asia, we find no evidence for a trend in the land biosphere flux over 1996 - 2012 and we cannot determine any difference from carbon neutrality (as assumed a priori by most inversions) with a flux of 0.06 ± 0.29 PgC y-1, throughout this period despite extensive tropical deforestation.

  10. Retraction: erbB expression changes in ethanol and 7,12- dimethylbenz (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The authors (Garcia Carrancá A, Zentero Galindo E, Jiménez Farfán MD and Hernandez Guerrero JC) express that one of the figures of the original article (Jacinto-Alemán LF, García-Carrancá A, LeybaHuerta ER, Zenteno-Galindo E, Jiménez-Farfán MD, Hernández-Guerrero JC. erbB expression changes in ethanol and 7,12- dimethylbenz (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31.) corresponding to Western blots have not been found and the voluntary alteration of this figure is evident. The coauthors Alejandro García Carranca, Edgar Zenteno Galindo, Maria Dolores Jiménez Farfán and Juan Carlos Hernández Guerrero have made the decision to take back what has been published, as they have come to the conclusion, that at least this result is false. The editor declare that the journal had the signed copyright by the authors when the article was initially published. This copyright document certifies that the undersigned authors warrants that the article is original; is not under consideration by another publication; and its tables or figures have not been previously published. The authors confirmed that the final article had been read and each author´s contribution had been approved by the appropriate author. The editor has made the decision to retract the article due to the above comments of some authors against the rest. The editors apologize to the readers and reviewers of Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal for the inconvenience caused by the authors of the article. PMID:24378357

  11. Slowdown of N2O emissions from China's croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, F.; Shang, Z.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.; Tian, H.; Saikawa, E.; Zaehle, S.; Del Grosso, S. J.; Galloway, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    To feed the increasing population, China has experienced a rapid agricultural development over past decades, accompanied by increased fertilizer consumptions in croplands, but the magnitude, trend, and causes of the associated nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions has remain unclear. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of fertilizer consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few regional representativeness of the Nrate-flux relationships in China. Here we re-estimate China's N2O emissions from croplands using three different methods: flux upscaling technique, process-based models and atmospheric inversion, and also analyze the corresponding drivers using an attribution approach. The three methods produce similar estimates of N2O emissions in the range of 0.67 ± 0.08 to 0.62± 0.11 Tg nitrogen per year, which is 29% larger than the estimates by the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) that is adopted by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the emission baseline and twofold larger than the latest Chinese national report submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, but the revised trend slows down after 2005. Fertilizer N application per area is the dominant factor driving the increase in N2O emissions across most cropping regions from 1990 to 2004, but climate-induced change of emission factors has also controlled N2O flux from 2005 onwards. Our findings suggest that, as precipitation would increase in North China but decline in the South in future, EF will increasingly control China's agri. soil emissions of N2O, unless offset by larger reductions of fertilizer consumptions.

  12. In Memoriam; Recent Ph.D.s; Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James Bush died this year, at age 83. He had been an AGU member (Ocean Sciences) since 1950. Faure Hugues died this year. He had been an AGU member (Hydrology) since 1986. Murphy Manson died this year. He became an AGU member (Planetology) in 2002. Edgar O. McCutchen died this year, at age 78. He had been an AGU member (Ocean Sciences) since 1966. Willard James Pierson, Jr. died on 7 June 2003, at age 81. He was an AGU Fellow (Ocean Sciences) who joined in 1948.Atmospheric Sciences:Evaluation of land surface models using ground-based point-scale measurements, Lifeng Luo, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Alan Robock, May 2003.Hydrology: Studies of solute transport through fractured till in Iowa, Martin F. Helmke, Iowa State University, Ames, William W. Simpkins and Robert Horton, May 2003.; Controls on the persistence of water within perched basins of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, northern Canada, Daniel Lee Peters, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, Terry D. Prowse and James M. Buttle, January 2003.Ocean Sciences: Oceanographic conditions around the Galapagos Archipelago and their influence on cetacean community structure, Daniel M. Palacios, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Bruce R. Mate, April 2003.Klaus Keil has received the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science (DSc) from the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, in recognition of his contributions to the understanding of the mineralogy and petrology of meteorites and the early history of the solar system.Richard (Rick) Sibson has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, U.K.

  13. What controls the atmospheric methane seasonal variability over India?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Tania; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Valsala, Vinu; Lin, Xin; Ramonet, Michel; Mahajan, Anoop; Datye, Amey; Kumar, K. Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric CH4 observations from two ground-based stations within Indian subcontinent, namely, Sinhagad (SNG) and Cape Rama station (CRI) showed a strong seasonality with a minima (∼1800 ± 20 ppb) during southwest monsoon (SWM; i.e. June-September, JJAS) and a maxima (2000 ± 30 ppb) during northeast monsoon (NEM i.e. December-February, DJF) with a peak-to-peak seasonality close to 200 ppb. The Indian summer (winter) monsoon is characterized with strong southwesterly (northeasterly) winds of oceanic (land) origin at the surface level and strong easterly (westerly) jet streams aloft. The monsoon dynamics has pronounced impact on CH4 variability over India and is analyzed with winds, Lagrangian trajectories, and 3-dimentional distributions of CH4 simulated by a general circulation model. The model simulations suggest a consistent annual vertical structure (mean and sub-seasonal uncertainty) of CH4 over India with a stark contrast in concentration from summer to winter at surface levels (below 750 mb) in confirmation with what is identified by the ground-based observations. During SWM (NEM) the air with comparatively lower (higher) CH4 concentrations from southern (northern) hemisphere reduces the CH4 over India by 1814 ± 26 ppb (enhances by 1950 ± 51 ppb). The contribution of local fluxes to this seasonality appears to be albeit weak as the synthesized CH4 fluxes (from EDGAR dataset) of the Indian peninsula itself show a peak in summer and a dip in winter. Similar property of CH4 is also common to nearby oceanic region (i.e. over Arabian Sea, 1765 ± 10 ppb during summer) suggesting the role of monsoon dynamics as the controlling factor. Further the mixing and convection carries the CH4 to the upper atmosphere and advect inward or outward aloft according the seasonal monsoon dynamics.

  14. Scenarios over the past 3 decades: air quality impact of European legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Guizzardi, D.; Schaaf, E.; Muntean, M.; Dentener, F. J.; Sindelarova, K.; Granier, C.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of air pollution span from local to global, affecting human health, climate, visibility and ecosystems. Several actions at national, regional and global scale have been adopted to reduce pollutant emission levels. In our work we make use of the EDGAR_ v4.3 emission database to compare today's pollutant levels with ex-post scenarios developed to assess the impact and effectiveness of legislation over the last 3 decades on air quality and climate. Differently from most of literature works addressing future air quality, here we focus on historical global anthropogenic emissions (years 1970-2010) of several gaseous and particulate air pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC) and past emission scenarios to demonstrate the role that policy has played in improving air quality. Three scenarios have been developed and compared to today's situation (year 2010), assuming the lack of abatement measures, the complete stagnation of technology (no reduction measures applied and constant emission factors from 1970), and a constant fuel mixture (with a more prominent role for coal in the 1970s). Special focus is dedicated to the power generation sector, manufacturing industry and road transport activities since these were mostly influenced by official regulations in the EU. Global SO2 emissions from transport dropped down by 8.5 times due to the deployment of low S content fuels; NOx and CO emissions are indeed a function of combustion efficiency and therefore decreased with the introduction of new technologies, while NH3 emitted by road transport increased in Europe by 18% due to the introduction of catalyzers. Finally, particulate matter emissions are mainly abated by the installation of End-of-Pipe measures (e.g. filters) especially in the energy and transport sectors.

  15. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cheng; Liu, Shoudong; Wang, Yongwei; Zhang, Mi; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Jiaping

    2018-06-03

    Anthropogenic CO 2 emissions from cities represent a major source contributing to the global atmospheric CO 2 burden. Here, we examined the enhancement of atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratios by anthropogenic emissions within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, one of the world's most densely populated regions (population greater than 150 million). Tower measurements of CO 2 mixing ratios were conducted from March 2013 to August 2015 and were combined with numerical source footprint modeling to help constrain the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. We simulated the CO 2 enhancements (i.e., fluctuations superimposed on background values) for winter season (December, January, and February). Overall, we observed mean diurnal variation of CO 2 enhancement of 23.5~49.7 μmol mol -1 , 21.4~52.4 μmol mol -1 , 28.1~55.4 μmol mol -1 , and 29.5~42.4 μmol mol -1 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. These enhancements were much larger than previously reported values for other countries. The diurnal CO 2 enhancements reported here showed strong similarity for all 3 years of the study. Results from source footprint modeling indicated that our tower observations adequately represent emissions from the broader YRD area. Here, the east of Anhui and the west of Jiangsu province contributed significantly more to the anthropogenic CO 2 enhancement compared to the other sectors of YRD. The average anthropogenic CO 2 emission in 2014 was 0.162 (± 0.005) mg m -2  s -1 and was 7 ± 3% higher than 2010 for the YRD. Overall, our emission estimates were significantly smaller (9.5%) than those estimated (0.179 mg m -2  s -1 ) from the EDGAR emission database.

  16. Lagrangian modeling of global atmospheric methane (1990-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfeuille, Florian; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    In the MAIOLICA-II project, the lagrangian particle model FLEXPART is used to simulate the global atmospheric methane over the 1990-2012 period. In this lagrangian framework, 3 million particles are permanently transported based on winds from ERA-interim. The history of individual particles can be followed allowing for a comprehensive analysis of transport pathways and timescales. The link between sources (emissions) and receptors (measurement stations) is then established in a straightforward manner, a prerequisite for source inversion problems. FLEXPART was extended to incorporate the methane loss by reaction with OH, soil uptake and stratospheric loss reactions with prescribed Cl and O(1d) radicals. Sources are separated into 245 different tracers, depending on source origin (anthropogenic, wetlands, rice, biomass burning, termites, wild animals, oceans, volcanoes), region of emission, and time since emission (5 age classes). The inversion method applied is a fixed-lag Kalman smoother similar to that described in Bruhwiler et al. [2005]. Results from the FLEXPART global methane simulation and from the subsequent inversion will be presented. Results notably suggest: - A reduction in methane growth rates due to diminished wetland emissions and anthropogenic European emission in 1990-1993. - A second decrease in 1995-1996 is also mainly attributed to these two emission categories. - A reduced increase in Chinese anthropogenic emissions after 2003 compared to EDGAR inventories. - Large South American wetlands emissions during the entire period. Bruhwiler, L. M. P., Michalak, A. M., Peters, W., Baker, D. F. & Tans, P. 2005: An improved Kalman smoother fore atmospheric inversions, Atmos Chem Phys, 5, 2691-2702.

  17. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A BARREL payload sits on the launch pad at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/University of Houston/Edgar Bering NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The first BARREL balloon is inflated just before its launch on Aug. 13, 2016, from Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/University of Houston/Edgar Bering NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kuze, A.; Notholt, J.; Ohyama, H.; Parker, R.; Payne, V. H.; Sussmann, R.; Sweeney, C.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2015-06-01

    We use 2009-2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a-1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2-42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9-27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0-44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern-central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29-44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22-31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11-15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0-10.1 Tg a-1.

  20. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kuze, A.; Notholt, J.; Ohyama, H.; Parker, R.; Payne, V. H.; Sussmann, R.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2015-02-01

    We use 2009-2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently used for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a-1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2-42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9-27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0-44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29-44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22-31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11-15% to coal with an additional 9.0-10.1 Tg a-1 source from wetlands.

  1. EDGARv4 Gridded Anthropogenic Emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) from Power Generation, Residential and Transport Sectors: Regional Trends Analysis in East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Crippa, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Dentener, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances and so harmful for human health. Mitigation of these emissions are internationally addressed by the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the Stockholm Convention. A global insight on POPs emissions evolution is essential since they can be transported long distances, they bio-accumulate and damage the environment. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4) is currently updated with POPs. We have estimated the global emissions of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP)) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from fuel combustion in the power generation, residential and transport sectors. This emissions inventory has been developed by using as input to the EDGAR technology-based emissions calculation algorithm the fossil fuel consumption data from International Energy Agency (2014) and the emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2013). We provide a complete emission time series for the period 1970-2010 and discuss the trends. A comprehensive analysis of the contribution of East Asia region to the total global will be provided for each substance of the POPs group. An example is presented in Figure 1 for BaP emissions from residential sector; with emissions mainly from China, the East Asia region has a great share (32%) in the total global. We distributed the POPs emissions on gridmaps of 0.1°x0.1° resolution. Areas with high emissions in East Asia will be presented and discussed; Figure 2 shows the hot-spots in East Asia for BaP emissions from the residential sector. These emission gridmaps, used as input for the chemical transport models, contribute to the improvement of impact evaluation, which is a key element in measuring the effectiveness of mitigation

  2. Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Thérèse; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-03-01

    We applied the positive matrix factorization model to two large data sets collected during two intensive measurement campaigns (summer 2011 and winter 2012) at a sub-urban site in Beirut, Lebanon, in order to identify NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons) sources and quantify their contribution to ambient levels. Six factors were identified in winter and five factors in summer. PMF-resolved source profiles were consistent with source profiles established by near-field measurements. The major sources were traffic-related emissions (combustion and gasoline evaporation) in winter and in summer accounting for 51 and 74 wt %, respectively, in agreement with the national emission inventory. The gasoline evaporation related to traffic source had a significant contribution regardless of the season (22 wt % in winter and 30 wt % in summer). The NMHC emissions from road transport are estimated from observations and PMF results, and compared to local and global emission inventories. The PMF analysis finds reasonable differences on emission rates, of 20-39 % higher than the national road transport inventory. However, global inventories (ACCMIP, EDGAR, MACCity) underestimate the emissions up to a factor of 10 for the transportation sector. When combining emission inventory to our results, there is strong evidence that control measures in Lebanon should be targeted on mitigating the NMHC emissions from the traffic-related sources. From a global perspective, an assessment of VOC (volatile organic compounds) anthropogenic emission inventories for the Middle East region as a whole seems necessary as these emissions could be much higher than expected at least from the road transport sector.

  3. 150 Years of the American Nautical Almanac Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    1999-05-01

    In 1849, 50 years before the founding of the American Astronomical Society, the American Nautical Almanac Office was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Although the British had published a Nautical Almanac since 1767, both patriotic and practical reasons lay behind the founding of an American Nautical Almanac Office in the context of the growth of science in the United States. Lt. Charles Henry Davis served as the first Superintendent. In 1866 the Office moved to Washington, D. C., and beginning in 1893 it was physically located at the new (present) site of the U. S. Naval Observatory, of which it became a part over the next few years, and where it has since remained. >From its beginning the work of the Office was much broader than the publication of data for navigation. The Office also sought to improve the theories of motion of the Sun, Moon and planets, and the astronomical constants on which the Almanac was based. Under Simon Newcomb, Superintendent of the Office from 1877 until his retirement in 1897, a consistent system of constants was devised; some of these constants remained unchanged until 1984. The American Nautical Almanac Office was dominated before World War II by its Directors William S. Eichelberger (1910-1929) and A. James Robertson (1929-1939). During the War years Wallace J. Eckert introduced punched card techniques to the Office. Gerald Clemence used these techniques to improve planetary theories during his years as Director (1945-1958), and also ushered in the era of the electronic computer for both research and production. International collaboration was a hallmark of the tenures of Clemence, Edgar Woolard, Raynor Duncombe and P. K. Seidelmann, who also implemented changes necessitated by the Space Age. Since 1990 the Nautical Almanac Office has been part of the Astronomical Applications Department of the Naval Observatory.

  4. Block-and-Matrix Serpentinite Emplacement Mechanisms in the California Coast Ranges from 35 to 39° N: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    We review the large geological literature on serpentinite emplacement mechanisms based on field relations described in dozens of articles on specific serpentinite localities in California. Many of these papers focused on the numerous mercury mines that were associated with serpentinite bodies and their partial alteration to silica-carbonate rocks and mercury metallization by carbonated hydrothermal alteration. USGS Geologists Edgar Bailey, Don Everhart, Frank Wells, Clyde Ross, and Robert Coleman, had access to extensive underground mercury mine workings and this access afforded these authors three-dimensional information on the geometries and contact relations of fresh serpentinites with host rocks (Ross, 1940a & b. Bailey, 1942, 1946, 1948, 1951; Bailey and Myers, 1942; Bailey, 1964; Bailey and Myers, 1942; Bailey, Irwin, and Jones, 1964; Wells, 1951; Coleman, 1957). Their unequivocal view was that members of this class of serpentinite bodies were emplaced as serpentinites by "cold-intrusion" as sills, dikes, plugs, and along faults. Other geologists have shared this view (Turner and Verhoogen, 1951; Page, 1966, 1967; Page, de Vito, and Coleman, 1999; Coleman, 1971; Lockwood, 1972; Murata, et. al., 1979). Serpentinites along contacts are described as sheared and these bodies shared many of the geological features of igneous intrusions such as branching, lenticular shapes, and pinch-and-swell geometries, but lacked the mineralogy of high-temperature contact metamorphism. Many of these classic papers have evidently have been forgotten. A recent paper posits a large mantle source of water from the former forearc during the Mesozoic and Paleogene subduction era and after the transition to transpressive continental-transform kinematics of the San Andreas Fault System (Kirby, Wang, and Brocher, Earth Planets and Space 2014; Kirby, 2015 AGU Abstract). This model gives insights into both the source of these serpentinite bodies and their rheological mobilization by a

  5. "Mr. Database" : Jim Gray and the History of Database Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hanwahr, Nils C

    2017-12-01

    Although the widespread use of the term "Big Data" is comparatively recent, it invokes a phenomenon in the developments of database technology with distinct historical contexts. The database engineer Jim Gray, known as "Mr. Database" in Silicon Valley before his disappearance at sea in 2007, was involved in many of the crucial developments since the 1970s that constitute the foundation of exceedingly large and distributed databases. Jim Gray was involved in the development of relational database systems based on the concepts of Edgar F. Codd at IBM in the 1970s before he went on to develop principles of Transaction Processing that enable the parallel and highly distributed performance of databases today. He was also involved in creating forums for discourse between academia and industry, which influenced industry performance standards as well as database research agendas. As a co-founder of the San Francisco branch of Microsoft Research, Gray increasingly turned toward scientific applications of database technologies, e. g. leading the TerraServer project, an online database of satellite images. Inspired by Vannevar Bush's idea of the memex, Gray laid out his vision of a Personal Memex as well as a World Memex, eventually postulating a new era of data-based scientific discovery termed "Fourth Paradigm Science". This article gives an overview of Gray's contributions to the development of database technology as well as his research agendas and shows that central notions of Big Data have been occupying database engineers for much longer than the actual term has been in use.

  6. Evaluation of Space-Based Constraints on Global Nitrogen Oxide Emissions with Regional Aircraft Measurements over and Downwind of Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Chance, Kelly; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Flocke, Frank M.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Neuman, J. Andy; Swanson, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).

  7. Evolving models for medical physics education and training: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Sprawls, P

    2008-01-01

    There is a significant need for high-quality medical physics education and training in all countries to support effective and safe use of modern medical technology for both diagnostic and treatment purposes. This is, and will continue to be, achieved using appropriate technology to increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of educational activities everywhere in the world. While the applications of technology to education and training are relatively new, the successful applications are based on theories and principles of the learning process developed by two pioneers in the field, Robert Gagne and Edgar Dale.The work of Gagne defines the different levels of learning that can occur and is used to show the types and levels of learning that are required for the application of physics and engineering principles to achieve appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic results from modern technology. The learning outcomes are determined by the effectiveness of the learning activity or experience. The extensive work of Dale as formulated in his Cone of Experience relates the effectiveness to the efficiency of educational activities. A major challenge in education is the development and conduction of learning activities (classroom discussions, laboratory and applied experiences, individual study, etc) that provide an optimum balance between effectiveness and efficiency. New and evolving models of the educational process use technology as the infrastructure to support education that is both more effective and efficient.The goal is to use technology to enhance human performance for both learners (students) and learning facilitators (teachers). A major contribution to global education is the trend in the development of shared educational resources. Two models of programs to support this effort with open and free shared resources are Physical Principles of Medical Imaging Online (http://www.sprawls.org/resources) and AAPM Continuing Education Courses (http://www.aapm.org/international).

  8. Evolving models for medical physics education and training: a global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sprawls, P

    2008-01-01

    There is a significant need for high-quality medical physics education and training in all countries to support effective and safe use of modern medical technology for both diagnostic and treatment purposes. This is, and will continue to be, achieved using appropriate technology to increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of educational activities everywhere in the world. While the applications of technology to education and training are relatively new, the successful applications are based on theories and principles of the learning process developed by two pioneers in the field, Robert Gagne and Edgar Dale. The work of Gagne defines the different levels of learning that can occur and is used to show the types and levels of learning that are required for the application of physics and engineering principles to achieve appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic results from modern technology. The learning outcomes are determined by the effectiveness of the learning activity or experience. The extensive work of Dale as formulated in his Cone of Experience relates the effectiveness to the efficiency of educational activities. A major challenge in education is the development and conduction of learning activities (classroom discussions, laboratory and applied experiences, individual study, etc) that provide an optimum balance between effectiveness and efficiency. New and evolving models of the educational process use technology as the infrastructure to support education that is both more effective and efficient. The goal is to use technology to enhance human performance for both learners (students) and learning facilitators (teachers). A major contribution to global education is the trend in the development of shared educational resources. Two models of programs to support this effort with open and free shared resources are Physical Principles of Medical Imaging Online (http://www.sprawls.org/resources) and AAPM Continuing Education Courses (http

  9. Atmospheric Pollution from Shipping and Oil platforms of West Africa (APSOWA) observed during the airborne DACCIWA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak-Tong, Gisèle; Brocchi, Vanessa; Catoire, Valéry; Stratmann, Greta; Sauer, Daniel; Deroubaix, Adrien; Deetz, Konrad; Schlager, Hans

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the European DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project, the airborne study APSOWA (Atmospheric Pollution from Shipping and Oil platforms of West Africa) has been conducted in July 2016 to study emissions from oil rigs and maritime traffic in the Gulf of Guinea. The measurements were performed during four flights of about 3-4 hours including meandering transects through emission plumes in the planetary boundary layer (around 300 m asl) off the coast of West Africa from Ivory Coast to Togo. Several instruments have been used on-board the DLR Falcon-20, providing measurements of the pollutants O3, CO, NO2, SO2, aerosol content and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local air pollution. The first part of our study is focused on the FPSO Kwame Nkrumah facility operating in the Jubilee oil field off the coast of Ghana. Aircraft observations have been combined with a nested-grid regional scale Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) to estimate surface emission fluxes from this platform. A simplified inverse method is used and repeated until the modelling output and aircraft observations converged. The estimated fluxes of CO, SO2, NO2 are compared to global (EDGAR, MACCity) and regional (Deetz and Vogel, 2017, in press) inventories. A second part of the study provides the first results of the APSOWA flights for the study of the impact of shipping emissions on the regional air quality. Using data from Marine Traffic, ship positions during the campaign are identified. Then, FLEXPART is used to quantify the contributions of the ship emissions to the aircraft observations. Finally, direct measurements in the MBL around 4°N latitude along the Ghana coast show no strong evidence of the presence of an atmospheric pollution maritime corridor simulated by MACCity.

  10. Carl Sagan and the Exploration of Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Inspired by childhood readings of books by Edgar Rice Burroughs, Carl Sagan's first interest in planetary science focused on Mars and Venus. Typical of much of his career he was skeptical of early views about these planets. Early in this century it was thought that the Martian wave of darkening, a seasonal albedo change on the planet, was biological in origin. He suggested instead that it was due to massive dust storms, as was later shown to be the case. He was the first to recognize that Mars has huge topography gradients across its surface. During the spacecraft era, as ancient river valleys were found on the planet, he directed studies of Mars' ancient climate. He suggested that changes in the planets orbit were involved in climate shifts on Mars, just as they are on Earth. Carl had an early interest in Venus. Contradictory observations led to a controversy about the surface temperature, and Carl was one of the first to recognize that Venus has a massive greenhouse effect at work warming its surface. His work on radiative transfer led to an algorithm that was extensively used by modelers of the Earth's climate and whose derivatives still dominate the calculation of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres today. Carl inspired a vast number of young scientists through his enthusiasm for new ideas and discoveries, his skeptical approach, and his boundless energy. I had the privilege to work in Carl's laboratory during the peak of the era of Mars' initial exploration. It was an exciting time, and place. Carl made it a wonderful experience.

  11. Isotopic source signatures: Impact of regional variability on the δ13CH4 trend and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Aryeh I.; Coulon, Ancelin; Stenke, Andrea; Schwietzke, Stefan; Peter, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric methane growth rate has fluctuated over the past three decades, signifying variations in methane sources and sinks. Methane isotopic ratios (δ13CH4) differ between emission categories, and can therefore be used to distinguish which methane sources have changed. However, isotopic modelling studies have mainly focused on uncertainties in methane emissions rather than uncertainties in isotopic source signatures. We simulated atmospheric δ13CH4 for the period 1990-2010 using the global chemistry-climate model SOCOL. Empirically-derived regional variability in the isotopic signatures was introduced in a suite of sensitivity simulations. These simulations were compared to a baseline simulation with commonly used global mean isotopic signatures. We investigated coal, natural gas/oil, wetland, livestock, and biomass burning source signatures to determine whether regional variations impact the observed isotopic trend and spatial distribution. Based on recently published source signature datasets, our calculated global mean isotopic signatures are in general lighter than the commonly used values. Trends in several isotopic signatures were also apparent during the period 1990-2010. Tropical livestock emissions grew during the 2000s, introducing isotopically heavier livestock emissions since tropical livestock consume more C4 vegetation than midlatitude livestock. Chinese coal emissions, which are isotopically heavy compared to other coals, increase during the 2000s leading to higher global values of δ13CH4 for coal emissions. EDGAR v4.2 emissions disagree with the observed atmospheric isotopic trend for almost all simulations, confirming past doubts about this emissions inventory. The agreement between the modelled and observed δ13CH4 interhemispheric differences improves when regional source signatures are used. Even though the simulated results are highly dependent on the choice of methane emission inventories, they emphasize that the commonly used

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions estimated with the Carbon Tracker Lagrange regional inversion framework suggest the North American source comes predominantly from agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, C. D.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Saikawa, E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Benmergui, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon Tracker Lagrange (CTL) regional inversion framework is used to estimate North American nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of 1.6 ± 0.4 Tg N/yr over 2008-2013. More than half of the North American emissions are estimated to come from the central agricultural belt, extending from southern Canada to Texas, and are strongest in spring and early summer, consistent with a nitrogen fertilizer-driven source. The estimated N2O flux from the Midwestern corn/soybean belt and the more northerly wheat belt corresponds to 5% of synthetic + organic N fertilizer applied to those regions. While earlier regional atmospheric inversion studies have suggested that global inventories such as EDGAR may be underestimating U.S. anthropogenic N2O emissions by a factor of 3 or more, our results, integrated over a full calendar year, are generally consistent with those inventories and with global inverse model results and budget constraints. The CTL framework is a Bayesian method based on footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model applied to atmospheric N2O data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, including surface, aircraft and tall tower platforms. The CTL inversion results are sensitive to the prescribed boundary condition or background value of N2O, which is estimated based on a new Empirical BackGround (EBG) product derived from STILT back trajectories applied to NOAA data. Analysis of the N2O EBG products suggests a significant, seasonally-varying influence on surface N2O data due to the stratospheric influx of N2O-depleted air. Figure 1. Posterior annual mean N2O emissions for 2010 estimated with the CTL regional inversion framework. The locations of NOAA surface and aircraft data used in the inversion are superimposed as black circles and grey triangles, respectively. Mobile surface sites are indicated with asterisks.

  13. Uncertainties in United States agricultural N2O emissions: comparing forward model simulations to atmospheric N2O data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, C. D.; Saikawa, E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric N2O concentrations have increased from 275 ppb in the preindustrial to about 325 ppb in recent years, a ~20% increase with important implications for both anthropogenic greenhouse forcing and stratospheric ozone recovery. This increase has been driven largely by synthetic fertilizer production and other perturbations to the global nitrogen cycle associated with human agriculture. Several recent regional atmospheric inversion studies have quantified North American agricultural N2O emissions using top-down constraints based on atmospheric N2O data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, including surface, aircraft and tall tower platforms. These studies have concluded that global N2O inventories such as EDGAR may be underestimating the true U.S. anthropogenic N2O source by a factor of 3 or more. However, simple back-of-the-envelope calculations show that emissions of this magnitude are difficult to reconcile with the basic constraints of the global N2O budget. Here, we explore some possible reasons why regional atmospheric inversions might overestimate the U.S. agricultural N2O source. First, the seasonality of N2O agricultural sources is not well known, but can have an important influence on inversion results, particularly when the inversions are based on data that are concentrated in the spring/summer growing season. Second, boundary conditions can strongly influence regional inversions but the boundary conditions used may not adequately account for remote influences on surface data such as the seasonal stratospheric influx of N2O-depleted air. We will present a set of forward model simulations, using the Community Land Model (CLM) and two atmospheric chemistry tracer transport models, MOZART and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), that examine the influence of terrestrial emissions and atmospheric chemistry and dynamics on atmospheric variability in N2O at U.S. and

  14. Human motor unit recordings: origins and insight into the integrated motor system.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

    2011-08-29

    Soon after Edward Liddell [1895-1981] and Charles Sherrington [1857-1952] introduced the concept of a motor unit in 1925 and the necessary technology was developed, the recording of single motor unit activity became feasible in humans. It was quickly discovered by Edgar Adrian [1889-1977] and Detlev Bronk [1897-1975] that the force exerted by muscle during voluntary contractions was the result of the concurrent recruitment of motor units and modulation of the rate at which they discharged action potentials. Subsequent studies found that the relation between discharge frequency and motor unit force was characterized by a sigmoidal function. Based on observations on experimental animals, Elwood Henneman [1915-1996] proposed a "size principle" in 1957 and most studies in humans focussed on validating this concept during various types of muscle contractions. By the end of the 20th C, the experimental evidence indicated that the recruitment order of human motor units was determined primarily by motoneuron size and that the occasional changes in recruitment order were not an intended strategy of the central nervous system. Fundamental knowledge on the function of Sherrington's "common final pathway" was expanded with observations on motor unit rotation, minimal and maximal discharge rates, discharge variability, and self-sustained firing. Despite the great amount of work on characterizing motor unit activity during the first century of inquiry, however, many basic questions remain unanswered and these limit the extent to which findings on humans and experimental animals can be integrated and generalized to all movements. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In-situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; E Popa, Maria; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    High precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) based technique for in-situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in-situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of +0.05 ± 0.03 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and -3.6 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD-CH4. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high precision and temporal resolution dataset does not only reveal the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site, but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget, when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European

  16. Recent updates in the aerosol component of the C-IFS model run by ECMWF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Samuel; Boucher, Olivier; Hauglustaine, Didier; Kipling, Zak; Flemming, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The Composition-Integrated Forecast System (C-IFS) is a global atmospheric composition forecasting tool, run by ECMWF within the framework of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). The aerosol model of C-IFS is a simple bulk scheme that forecasts 5 species: dust, sea-salt, black carbon, organic matter and sulfate. Three bins represent the dust and sea-salt, for the super-coarse, coarse and fine mode of these species (Morcrette et al., 2009). This talk will present recent updates of the aerosol model, and also introduce forthcoming developments. It will also present the impact of these changes as measured scores against AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Airbase PM10 observations. The next cycle of C-IFS will include a mass fixer, because the semi-Lagrangian advection scheme used in C-IFS is not mass-conservative. C-IFS now offers the possibility to emit biomass-burning aerosols at an injection height that is provided by a new version of the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS). Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) production will be scaled on non-biomass burning CO fluxes. This approach allows to represent the anthropogenic contribution to SOA production; it brought a notable improvement in the skill of the model, especially over Europe. Lastly, the emissions of SO2 are now provided by the MACCity inventory instead of and older version of the EDGAR dataset. The seasonal and yearly variability of SO2 emissions are better captured by the MACCity dataset. Upcoming developments of the aerosol model of C-IFS consist mainly in the implementation of a nitrate and ammonium module, with 2 bins (fine and coarse) for nitrate. Nitrate and ammonium sulfate particle formation from gaseous precursors is represented following Hauglustaine et al. (2014); formation of coarse nitrate over pre-existing sea-salt or dust particles is also represented. This extension of the forward model improved scores over heavily populated areas such as Europe, China and Eastern

  17. Thermography Examination of Abdominal Area Skin Temperatures in Individuals With and Without Focal-Onset Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    King, Hollis H; Cayce, Charles Thomas; Herrin, Jeph

    Early osteopathic theory and practice, and the work of the medical intuitive Edgar Cayce suggested that the abdominal areas of individuals with epilepsy would manifest "cold spots." The etiology for this phenomenon was thought to be abdominal adhesions caused by inflammation and viscero-somatic reflexes caused by adhesions or injury to visceral or musculoskeletal system structures. Indeed, until that advent of electroencephalography in the 1930s, medical practice regarding epilepsy focused on abdominal neural and visceral structures. Following two hypotheses were formulated to evaluate any abdominal temperature phenomena: (1) an abdominal quadrant division analysis would find one or more quadrants "colder" in the focal-onset epilepsy group (ICD9-CM 345.4 and 345.5) compared to controls. (2) Total abdominal areas of individuals with focal-onset epilepsy wound be colder than a control group. Overall, 50 patients with the diagnosis of focal-onset epilepsy were recruited from the office of the Epilepsy Foundation of Florida and 50 control subjects with no history of epilepsy were recruited through advertising to the public. Under controlled room conditions all subjects had infrared thermographic images made and recorded by Med-Hot Model MH-731 FLIR equipment. There were no significant demographic difference between experimental patients and control subjects, though the control group tended to be younger and more often male; however, these were controlled for in all analyses. In the quadrant analysis, there were significant differences in that more epileptic patients had colder left upper abdominal quadrant temperatures than the control group (66.8% versus 44.9%; P = .030). In the total abdominal analysis, however, there were no significant differences. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with focal-onset epilepsy have colder abdominal areas. If substantiated in further research, present study results will require further examination of the mechanisms of

  18. Refinement of pollutant gas emissions in the state of Rio de Janeiro for applications in modeling air quality on a local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Chovert, Angel; Félix Alonso, Marcelo; Frassoni, Ariane; José Ferreira, Valter; Eiras, Denis; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modeling is a fundamental tool for studying the earth system components along with weather and climate forecast. In fact, the development of on-line models allows to simulate conditions of the atmosphere, for example, to evaluate certain chemicals in weather events with the purpose of improving a region's quality of air. For this determined purpose, the on-line models employ information from a broad range of sources in order to generate its variables forecasts. But beyond vast information sources, for a region's quality of air study, the data concerning the amount and distribution of emissions of polluting gases must be representative, as well as, it's required complete georeferenced emissions for simulations made with high resolution. Consequently, the modifications made in this work to the PREP-CHEM-SRC (Preprocessor of trace gas and aerosol emission fields for regional and a global atmospheric chemistry models) tool are presented to meliorate the initialization files for BRAMS models, 5.2 version (Brazilian Developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) with vehicle emissions in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was determined the annual vehicle emission, until the year 2030, of the nitrogen oxides species (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) for each city and using different scenarios. For Rio de Janeiro city, a process of distribution by emissions of the main pollutant gases was implemented. In total, five different types of routes were used and the emission percentage for each one was calculated using the most current traffic information in them. For to check the industrial contributions to the emissions were used the global datasets RETRO (REanalysis of TROpospheric chemical composition) and EDGAR-HTAP (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research). On the other hand, for the biogenic contributions was used information from the MEGAN model (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols

  19. Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB

  20. Air quality modelling in the summer over the eastern Mediterranean using WRF-Chem: chemistry and aerosol mechanism intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, George K.; Christoudias, Theodoros; Proestos, Yiannis; Kushta, Jonilda; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2018-02-01

    We employ the WRF-Chem model to study summertime air pollution, the intense photochemical activity and their impact on air quality over the eastern Mediterranean. We utilize three nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 80, 16 and 4 km, with the finest grid focusing on the island of Cyprus, where the CYPHEX campaign took place in July 2014. Anthropogenic emissions are based on the EDGAR HTAP global emission inventory, while dust and biogenic emissions are calculated online. Three simulations utilizing the CBMZ-MOSAIC, MOZART-MOSAIC, and RADM2-MADE/SORGAM gas-phase and aerosol mechanisms are performed. The results are compared with measurements from a dense observational network of 14 ground stations in Cyprus. The model simulates T2 m, Psurf, and WD10 m accurately, with minor differences in WS10 m between model and observations at coastal and mountainous stations attributed to limitations in the representation of the complex topography in the model. It is shown that the south-eastern part of Cyprus is mostly affected by emissions from within the island, under the dominant (60 %) westerly flow during summertime. Clean maritime air from the Mediterranean can reduce concentrations of local air pollutants over the region during westerlies. Ozone concentrations are overestimated by all three mechanisms (9 % ≤ NMB ≤ 23 %) with the smaller mean bias (4.25 ppbV) obtained by the RADM2-MADE/SORGAM mechanism. Differences in ozone concentrations can be attributed to the VOC treatment by the three mechanisms. The diurnal variability of pollution and ozone precursors is not captured (hourly correlation coefficients for O3 ≤ 0.29). This might be attributed to the underestimation of NOx concentrations by local emissions by up to 50 %. For the fine particulate matter (PM2.5), the lowest mean bias (9 µg m-3) is obtained with the RADM2-MADE/SORGAM mechanism, with overestimates in sulfate and ammonium aerosols. Overestimation of sulfate aerosols by this mechanism may be

  1. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  2. Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000-2005 in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Rufino, Mariana C.; Herold, Martin; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Herrero, Mario; Ogle, Stephen; Li, Changsheng; Poulter, Benjamin; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher; Stuiver, John; de Bruin, Sytze

    2016-07-01

    According to the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), emissions must be cut by 41-72 % below 2010 levels by 2050 for a likely chance of containing the global mean temperature increase to 2 °C. The AFOLU sector (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) contributes roughly a quarter ( ˜ 10-12 Pg CO2e yr-1) of the net anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation, fire, wood harvesting, and agricultural emissions including croplands, paddy rice, and livestock. In spite of the importance of this sector, it is unclear where the regions with hotspots of AFOLU emissions are and how uncertain these emissions are. Here we present a novel, spatially comparable dataset containing annual mean estimates of gross AFOLU emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), associated uncertainties, and leading emission sources, in a spatially disaggregated manner (0.5°) for the tropics for the period 2000-2005. Our data highlight the following: (i) the existence of AFOLU emissions hotspots on all continents, with particular importance of evergreen rainforest deforestation in Central and South America, fire in dry forests in Africa, and both peatland emissions and agriculture in Asia; (ii) a predominant contribution of forests and CO2 to the total AFOLU emissions (69 %) and to their uncertainties (98 %); (iii) higher gross fluxes from forests, which coincide with higher uncertainties, making agricultural hotspots appealing for effective mitigation action; and (iv) a lower contribution of non-CO2 agricultural emissions to the total gross emissions (ca. 25 %), with livestock (15.5 %) and rice (7 %) leading the emissions. Gross AFOLU tropical emissions of 8.0 (5.5-12.2) were in the range of other databases (8.4 and 8.0 Pg CO2e yr-1 in FAOSTAT and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) respectively), but we offer a spatially detailed benchmark for monitoring progress in reducing emissions from the land sector in the tropics. The location of

  3. Ammonia emissions from the agriculture sector in Argentina; 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castesana, Paula S.; Dawidowski, Laura E.; Finster, Laura; Gómez, Darío R.; Taboada, Miguel A.

    2018-04-01

    Agriculture is one of the key economic sectors in Argentina and, in the last decades, the increase in prices and competitiveness of some grains has imposed important changes. In this process, crop cultivation occupied significant extensions of land areas previously dedicated to livestock farming, which in turn have experienced intensification in terms of production through an increasing share of feedlot systems. The agriculture sector is the main NH3 emitter in Argentina, however no inventory developed locally has been thus far available. We estimated the time series 2000-2012 of NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg, with the use of mineral fertilizers accounting for 43.0%, manure in pasture 32.5%, manure management 23.0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Urea use was the major source of NH3 emissions and its application on wheat and corn crops dominated the trend. Emissions from open biomass burning were estimated but not included in the national totals because of the difficulties in differentiating between agricultural (i.e., prescribed burning of savannas) and non-agricultural emission sources. Compared to this work, NH3 emissions reported by EDGAR were 83% higher than our estimates. The time series of spatially distributed NH3 emission estimates clearly showed the effect of the expansion of cropland, the displacement of planted areas of N-fertilizes crops by competing soybean cultivation and the relocation and intensification of beef cattle production. This new inventory constitutes a tool for policies concerning the impact of agricultural activities on air quality and contributes with more accurate and updated information useful for atmospheric chemical transport modeling. The accuracy and applicability of the inventory may be improved by local studies aimed at refining the spatial disaggregation by focusing in specific areas of fertilizer application, reflecting

  4. Inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions in mainland China from 1980 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Bousquet, Philippe; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Bengang; Lin, Xin; Tao, Shu; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Methane (CH4) has a 28-fold greater global warming potential than CO2 over 100 years. Atmospheric CH4 concentration has tripled since 1750. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions from China have been growing rapidly in the past decades and contribute more than 10 % of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions with large uncertainties in existing global inventories, generally limited to country-scale statistics. To date, a long-term CH4 emission inventory including the major sources sectors and based on province-level emission factors is still lacking. In this study, we produced a detailed annual bottom-up inventory of anthropogenic CH4 emissions from the eight major source sectors in China for the period 1980-2010. In the past 3 decades, the total CH4 emissions increased from 24.4 [18.6-30.5] Tg CH4 yr-1 in 1980 (mean [minimum-maximum of 95 % confidence interval]) to 44.9 [36.6-56.4] Tg CH4 yr-1 in 2010. Most of this increase took place in the 2000s decade with averaged yearly emissions of 38.5 [30.6-48.3] Tg CH4 yr-1. This fast increase of the total CH4 emissions after 2000 is mainly driven by CH4 emissions from coal exploitation. The largest contribution to total CH4 emissions also shifted from rice cultivation in 1980 to coal exploitation in 2010. The total emissions inferred in this work compare well with the EPA inventory but appear to be 36 and 18 % lower than the EDGAR4.2 inventory and the estimates using the same method but IPCC default emission factors, respectively. The uncertainty of our inventory is investigated using emission factors collected from state-of-the-art published literatures. We also distributed province-scale emissions into 0.1° × 0.1° maps using socioeconomic activity data. This new inventory could help understanding CH4 budgets at regional scale and guiding CH4 mitigation policies in China.

  5. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318) in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Fraser, P. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    PFC-318 (c-C4F8, cyclo-octafluorobutane) is a long-lived (3200 years) perfluorocarbon (PFC) greenhouse gas with a high 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100 = 10,300) and a wide range of industrial uses. We extend previous atmospheric measurements of PFC-318 in the Cape Grim Air Archive (Oram, 1999) with our new in situ measurements from remote and urban AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and affiliated stations. Our longest in situ record is from the Jungfraujoch observatory in the Swiss Alps, and our data set is augmented by measurements of flasks from the King Sejong and Troll coastal Antarctic stations and several locations in the Northern Hemisphere. In mid-2009 we find ˜1.25 ppt (parts-per-trillion, dry mol fraction) in the Northern Hemisphere and ˜1.20 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere, with rise rates of ˜0.03 ppt/yr and an interhemispheric ratio of ˜1.04. We obtain PFC-318 emissions for 2008-2010 of ˜1 Gg/yr using a simple box model, and preliminary measurements of older archived air at SIO indicate similar emissions since at the least the late 1990s. In contrast, the EDGAR v4 emissions database estimates much lower PFC-318 emissions of 0.02 Gg/yr for 2005. Using GWP100 we calculate ˜10 million tons of CO2-equivalent PFC-318 emissions/yr for 2008-2010, about double the CO2-equivalent PFC-218 annual emissions, or 0.4 times the CO2-equivalent PFC-116 annual emissions, reported for 2008-2009 by Mühle et al. (2010). Thus PFC-318 is the third most important PFC in terms of CO2-equivalent emissions. We find mostly baseline conditions at remote AGAGE stations and urban sites in the USA, Europe, and Australia, in contrast to frequent above baseline conditions at Gosan station, Jeju Island, South Korea, indicating significant emission sources in East Asia as found by Saito et al. (2010). Oram, D.E., Trends of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons in the Southern Hemisphere and model calculation of global emissions, Ph.D. thesis, University

  6. Conversion of commensal Escherichia coli K-12 to an invasive form via expression of a mutant histone-like protein.

    PubMed

    Koli, Preeti; Sudan, Sudhanshu; Fitzgerald, David; Adhya, Sankar; Kar, Sudeshna

    2011-01-01

    The HUα(E38K, V42L) mutant of the bacterial histone-like protein HU causes a major change in the transcription profile of the commensal organism Escherichia coli K-12 (Kar S, Edgar R, Adhya S, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102:16397-16402, 2005). Among the upregulated genes are several related to pathogenic interactions with mammalian cells, as evidenced by the expression of curli fibers, Ivy, and hemolysin E. When E. coli K-12/ HUα(E38K, V42L) was added to Int-407 cells, there was host cell invasion, phagosomal disruption, and intracellular replication. The invasive trait was also retained in a murine ileal loop model and intestinal explant assays. In addition to invasion, the internalized bacteria caused a novel subversion of host cell apoptosis through modification and regulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim(EL) and Puma. Changes in the transcription profile were attributed to positive supercoiling of DNA leading to the altered availability of relevant promoters. Using the E. coli K-12/HUα(E38K, V42L) variant as a model, we propose that traditional commensal E. coli can adopt an invasive lifestyle through reprogramming its cellular transcription, without gross genetic changes. Escherichia coli K-12 is well established as a benign laboratory strain and a human intestinal commensal. Recent evidences, however, indicate that the typical noninvasive nature of resident E. coli can be reversed under specific circumstances even in the absence of any major genomic flux. We previously engineered an E. coli strain with a mutant histone-like protein, HU, which exhibited significant changes in nucleoid organization and global transcription. Here we showed that the changes induced by the mutant HU have critical functional consequences: from a strict extracellular existence, the mutant E. coli adopts an almost obligate intracellular lifestyle. The internalized E. coli exhibits many of the prototypical characteristics of traditional intracellular bacteria, like phagosomal

  7. Emissions of mercury in Southern Africa derived from long-term observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H. H.; Labuschagne, C.; Slemr, F.

    2012-05-01

    Mercury emissions in South Africa have so far been estimated only by a bottom-up approach from activities and emission factors for different processes. In this paper we derive GEM/CO (GEM being gaseous elemental mercury, Hg0), GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios from plumes observed during long-term monitoring of these species at Cape Point between March 2007 and December 2009. The average observed GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios were 2.40 ± 2.65 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 47), 62.7 ± 80.2 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 44), 3.61 ± 4.66 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 46), 35.6 ± 25.4 ppb ppm-1 (n = 52), 20.2 ± 15.5 ppb ppm-1 (n=48), and 0.876 ± 1.106 ppb ppm-1 (n=42), respectively. The observed CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios agree within the combined uncertainties of the observations and emissions with the ratios calculated from EDGAR (version 4.2) CO2, CO, and CH4 inventories for South Africa and Southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique) in 2007 and 2008 (inventories for 2009 are not available yet). Total elemental mercury emission of 13.1, 15.2, and 16.1 t Hg yr-1 are estimated independently using the GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, and GEM/CH4 emission ratios and the annual mean CO, CO2, and CH4 emissions, respectively, of South Africa in 2007 and 2008. The average of these independent estimates of 14.8 ± 1.5 t GEM yr-1 is much less than the total emission of 257 t Hg yr-1 from older inventories. Considering that emission of GEM represents only 50-78% of all mercury emissions, our estimates come close to the total mercury emission estimates ranging between 40-50 t Hg yr-1 from more recent inventories.

  8. Trace Gases and Aerosols Simulated Over the Indian Domain: Evaluation of the Model Wrf-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M.; Yadav, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Venkataraman, C.; Kanawade, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    As the anthropogenic emissions from the Asian countries contribute substantially to the global aerosol loading, the study of the distribution of trace gases and aerosols over this region has received increasing attention in recent years. In the present work, the aerosol properties over the Indian domain during the pre-monsoon season has been addressed. The "online" meteorological and chemical transport Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model has been implemented over Indian subcontinent for three consecutive summers in 2008, 2009 and 2010.The initial and boundary conditions are obtained from NCAR reanalysis data. The global emission inventories (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO) and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)) have been used and are projected for the period of study using the method provided in Ohara et al. (2007). The emission rates of sulfur dioxide, black carbon, organic carbon and PM2.5 available in the global inventory are replaced with the high resolution emission inventory developed over India for the present study. The model simulates meteorological parameters, trace gases and particulate matter. Simulated mixing ratios of trace gases (Ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and SO2) are compared with ground based as well as satellite observations over India with specific focus on Indo-Gangetic Plain. Simulated aerosol optical depth are in good agreement with those observed by Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The vertical profiles of extinction coefficient have been compared with the Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLnet) data. The simulated mass concentration of BC shows very good agreement with those observed at a few ground stations. The vertical profiles of BC have also been compared with aircraft observations carried out during summer of 2008 and 2009, resulting in good agreement. This study shows that WRF-Chem model captures many important features of the observations and

  9. Estimates of Methane and Ethane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Using Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Kort, E. A.; Shepson, P. B.; Conley, S. A.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Deng, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Smith, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Recent development of horizontal drilling technology and advances in hydraulic fracturing techniques by the oil and gas industry have dramatically increased onshore U.S. natural gas and oil production in the last several years. The primary component of natural gas is methane (CH4), a powerful greenhouse gas; therefore, natural gas leakage into the atmosphere affects its climate impact. We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, made in March and October 2013 as part of the Environmental Defense Fund's Barnett Coordinated Campaign. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13x 103 kg/hr, or 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 /yr; (95% CI). Repeated mass balance flights in the same basin on eight different days and two seasons demonstrate the consistency of the mass balance approach. On the basis of airborne C2H6 and CH4 measurements, we find 71-85% of the observed CH4 emissions quantified in the Barnett Shale are derived from fossil sources. The average C2H6 flux was 6.6 ± 0.2 x 103 kg/hr and consistent across six days in spring and fall of 2013. This result is the first demonstration of this approach for C2H6. We estimate that 60±11x103 kg CH4/hr (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate is significantly higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program.

  10. Insect fauna of the Rhode Island coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder, Samuel Hubbard

    1893-01-01

    Some years ago Rev. Edgar F. Clark, then of Providence, Rhode Island, discovered in the Coal-measures of the neighborhood of that city the wing of a cockroach. This stimulated further search by others as well as himself, with the result of finding a fair number and variety of insect types, some of special interest. Most of the discoveries have been made by Mr. Clark (part of them while in the service of the U. S. Geological Survey) and by two young inen of Providence, Messrs. Frederick P. Gorham and Herbert Scholfield, who have been particularly encouraged in their work by Prof. A. S. Packard, of Brown University.All of the specimens have passed under my eye and are herewith described and figured. They consist of Anthracomartus, the first discovered Arachnid in the Carboniferous deposits of the eastern United States; a new genus of Neuropteroidea and one of Protophasmida, each very different from any forms hitherto found in this country, but rather allied to some from the rich Carboniferous beds of Commentry, in France, presenting new features of alliance between the Carboniferous faunas of Europe and America; and a number of cockroaches, all represented by their wings alone. These last show considerable variety of form, both known subfamilies of Paloblattarioe being present, including three genera and nearly a dozen species, the genus Etoblattina, which is the prevalent Carboniferous type the world over, being represented by at least eight species, which again show unusual diversity in size, form, and distribution of the nervules that form the framework of the wing.All the species without exception are new to science and unknown elsewhere.A few additional stones have been submitted to me containing what are apparently parts of the wings of cockroaches, but they are too fragmentary to be of the least value. Nothing more can be said than that they are or may be portions of such wings.It is hoped that the publication of this bulletin will excite further exploration

  11. Importing, Working With, and Sharing Microstructural Data in the StraboSpot Digital Data System, Including an Example Dataset from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N.; Cunningham, H.; Snell, A.; Newman, J.; Tikoff, B.; Chatzaras, V.; Walker, J. D.; Williams, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    There is currently no repository where a geologist can survey microstructural datasets that have been collected from a specific field area or deformation experiment. New development of the StraboSpot digital data system provides a such a repository as well as visualization and analysis tools. StraboSpot is a graph database that allows field geologists to share primary data and develop new types of scientific questions. The database can be accessed through: 1) a field-based mobile application that runs on iOS and Android mobile devices; and 2) a desktop system. We are expanding StraboSpot to include the handling of a variety of microstructural data types. Presented here is the detailed vocabulary and logic used for the input of microstructural data, and how this system operates with the anticipated workflow of users. Microstructural data include observations and interpretations from photomicrographs, scanning electron microscope images, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy data. The workflow for importing microstructural data into StraboSpot is organized into the following tabs: Images, Mineralogy & Composition; Sedimentary; Igneous; Metamorphic; Fault Rocks; Grain size & configuration; Crystallographic Preferred Orientation; Reactions; Geochronology; Relationships; and Interpretations. Both the sample and the thin sections are also spots. For the sample spot, the user can specify whether a sample is experimental or natural; natural samples are inherently linked to their field context. For the thin section (sub-sample) spot, the user can select between different options for sample preparation, geometry, and methods. A universal framework for thin section orientation is given, which allows users to overlay different microscope images of the same area and keeps georeferenced orientation. We provide an example dataset of field and microstructural data from the Mt Edgar dome, a granitic complex in the Paleoarchean East Pilbara craton

  12. A Subject Matter Expert View of Curriculum Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA selected for funding the PLANETS project: Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science. The PLANETS partnership develops planetary science and engineering curricula for out of classroom time (OST) education settings. This partnership is between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the US Geological Survey (USGS), curriculum developers at the Boston Museum of Science (MOS) Engineering is Everywhere (EiE), science and engineering teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University (NAU) Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL), and OST teacher networks across the world. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus was on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We have begun development of a third module for elementary school students. The first model teaches about the science and engineering of the availability of water in the Solar System, finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities, initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by L. Edgar et al., Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration (233008) The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing in planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In these activities and discussions, we include observation and measurement techniques and tools as well as collection and use of specific data of interest to scientists. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by R. Anderson et al., Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students (232683) The third module

  13. Regional emission and loss budgets of atmospheric methane (2002-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Ishijima, K.; Umezawa, T.; Ito, A.; Aoki, S.; Morimoto, S.; Kort, E. A.; Crotwell, A. M.; Ravi Kumar, K.; Nakazawa, T.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry and short-term forcing of climate. Clear understanding of atmospheric CH4's budget of emissions and losses is required to aid sustainable development of Earth's future environment. We used an atmospheric chemistry-transport model (JAMSTEC's ACTM) for simulating atmospheric CH4. An inverse modeling system has been developed for estimating CH4 emissions (7 ensemble cases) from 53 land regions for 2002-2012 using measurements at 39 sites. Global net CH4 emissions varied between 505-509 and 524-545 Tg/yr during 2002-2004 and 2010-2012, respectively (ranges based on 6 inversion cases), with a step like increase in 2007 in agreement with atmospheric measurement. The inversion system did not account for interannual variations in radicals reacting with CH4 in atmosphere. Our results suggest that the recent update of EDGAR inventory (version 4.2FT2010) overestimated global total emissions by at least 25 Tg/yr in 2010. Increase in CH4 emission since 2004 originated in the tropical and southern hemisphere regions, with timing consistent with an increase of non-dairy cattle stocks by ~10% in 2012 from 1056 million heads in 2002, leading to ~10 Tg/yr increase in emissions from enteric fermentation. All 7 inversions robustly estimated the interannual variations in emissions, but poorly constrained the seasonal cycle amplitude or phase consistently for all regions due to sparse observational network. Forward simulation results using both the a priori and a posteriori emissions are compared with independent aircraft measurements for validation. By doing that we are able to reject the upper limit (545 Tg/yr) of global total emissions as 14 Tg/yr too high during 2008-2012, which allows us to further conclude that CH4 emission increase rate over the East Asia (China mainly) region was 7-8 Tg/yr between the 2002-2006 and 2008-2012 periods, contrary to 1-17 Tg/yr in the a priori emissions.

  14. Quantitative analysis by next generation sequencing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of splenic B cells transcriptomes from wild-type and Usp3-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Lancini, Cesare; Gargiulo, Gaetano; van den Berk, Paul C M; Citterio, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The data described here provide genome-wide expression profiles of murine primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of B cell populations, obtained by high throughput sequencing. Cells are derived from wild-type mice and from mice deficient for the ubiquitin-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ). Modification of histone proteins by ubiquitin plays a crucial role in the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR) (Jackson and Durocher, 2013) [1]. USP3 is a histone H2A deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR in response to DNA double-strand breaks (Nicassio et al., 2007; Doil et al., 2008) [2], [3]. Deletion of USP3 in mice increases the incidence of spontaneous tumors and affects hematopoiesis [4]. In particular, Usp3-knockout mice show progressive loss of B and T cells and decreased functional potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during aging. USP3-deficient cells, including HSCs, display enhanced histone ubiquitination, accumulate spontaneous DNA damage and are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (Lancini et al., 2014) [4]. To address whether USP3 loss leads to deregulation of specific molecular pathways relevant to HSC homeostasis and/or B cell development, we have employed the RNA-sequencing technology and investigated transcriptional differences between wild-type and Usp3Δ/Δ LSK, naïve B cells or in vitro activated B cells. The data relate to the research article "Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells" (Lancini et al., 2014) [4]. The RNA-sequencing and analysis data sets have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus (Edgar et al., 2002) [5] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE58495 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE58495). With this article, we present validation of the RNA-seq data set through quantitative real-time PCR and comparative analysis.

  15. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Wen; Liu, Xuejun; Li, Yi; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Yuehan; Zhang, Wuting

    2017-08-01

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3- and NH4+) in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980-2010), satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005) and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008-2015).Based on the emission data, during 1980-2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-2) and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha-1 yr-2) over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM) MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4), the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr-1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric pollution in China. Moreover, the multiple datasets

  16. GOSAT observations of anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardanan, Rajesh; Maksyutov, Shamil; Oda, Tomohiro; Saito, Makoto; Ito, Akihiko; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Ganshin, Alexander; Yoshida, Yukio; Yokota, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important greenhouse gases in terms of radiative forcing. Human activities such as combustion of fossil fuel (for CO2), and gas leakage, animal agriculture, rice cultivation and landfill emissions (for CH4), are considered to be major sources of their emissions. Global emissions datasets usually depend on emission estimates reported by countries, which are seldom evaluated in an objective way. Here we present a method for delineating anthropogenic contributions to global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (2009-2014) concentration fields using GOSAT observations of column-average dry air mole fractions (XCO2 and XCH4) and atmospheric transport model simulations using high-resolution emissions datasets (ODIAC for CO2 and EDGAR for CH4). The XCO2 and XCH4 concentration enhancements due to anthropogenic emissions are estimated at all GOSAT observation locations using the transport model simulation. We calculated threshold values to classify GOSAT observations into two categories: (1) data influenced by the anthropogenic sources and (2) those not influenced. We defined a clean background (averaged concentrations of GOSAT data that are free from contamination) in 10˚ ×10˚ regions over the globe and subtracted the background values from individual GOSAT observations. The anomalies (GOSAT observed values minus background values) were binned and compared to model-based anomalies over continental regions and selected countries. For CO2, we have found global and regional linear relationships between model and observed anomalies especially for Eurasia and North America. The analysis for East Asian region showed a systematic bias that is somewhat comparable in magnitude to the uncertainties in emission inventories in that region, which were reported by recent studies. In the case of CH4, we found a good match between inventory-based estimates and GOSAT observations for continental regions and large countries. The inventory

  17. GOSAT Observations of Anthropogenic Emission of Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardanan Achari, R.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; W Kaiser, J.; Ganshin, A.; Matsunaga, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, T.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important greenhouse gases in terms of radiative forcing. Anthropogenic activities such as combustion of fossil fuel (for CO2) and gas leakage, animal agriculture, rice cultivation and landfill emissions (CH4), are considered to be major sources of those emissions. Still, emission data usually depend on national emission reports, which are seldom evaluated independently. Here we present a method for delineating anthropogenic contribution to global atmospheric CO2 (2009-2014) and CH4 (2009-2012) fields using GOSAT observations of column-average dry air mole fractions (XCO2 and XCH4) and atmospheric transport model simulations using high-resolution emission inventories. The CO2 and CH4 concentration enhancement due to anthropogenic activities, are estimated with the transport model at all GOSAT observation locations using high-resolution emission inventories (ODIAC for CO2 and EDGAR for CH4). Based on this estimate, using a threshold value, the observations are classified into two categories: data influenced by the anthropogenic sources and those not including them. To extract concentration enhancements due to the anthropogenic emissions, we define a clean background (the averaged values for the data free from contamination) in 10°×10° regions over the globe and are subtracted from the individual observational data including the anthropogenic contamination. Thus the anomalies contain contributions from anthropogenic sources. These anomalies are binned and analyzed for continental scale regions and countries. For CO2, we have found global and regional linear relationships between model and observed anomalies especially for Eurasia and North America. The analysis for East Asian region showed a systematic bias that is comparable in magnitude to the reported uncertainties in emission inventories in that region. In the case of CH4, we also found a good match between inventory-based estimates and GOSAT observations for

  18. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; ...

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore » methane source of 539 Tg a −1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a -1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a -1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a -1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a -1.« less

  19. California's Methane Budget derived from CalNex P-3 Aircraft Observations and the WRF-STILT Lagrangian Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, G. W.; Xiang, B.; Kort, E. A.; Daube, B.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Wecht, K.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Angevine, W. M.; Trainer, M.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We present constraints on California emission inventories of methane (CH4) using atmospheric observations from nine NOAA P-3 flights during the California Nexus (CalNex) campaign in May and June of 2010. Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) and a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) and calibrated to NOAA standards in-flight. Five flights sampled above the northern and southern central valley and an additional four flights probed the south coast air basin, quantifying emissions from the Los Angeles basin. The data show large (>100 ppb) CH4 enhancements associated with point and area sources such as cattle and manure management, landfills, wastewater treatment, gas production and distribution infrastructure, and rice agriculture. We compare aircraft observations to modeled CH4 distributions by accounting for a) transport using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorology, b) emissions from inventories such as EDGAR and ones constructed from California-specific state and county databases, each gridded to 0.1° x 0.1° resolution, and c) spatially and temporally evolving boundary conditions such as GEOS-Chem and a NOAA aircraft profile measurement derived curtain imposed at the edge of the WRF domain. After accounting for errors associated with transport, planetary boundary layer height, lateral boundary conditions, seasonality of emissions, and the spatial resolution of surface emission prior estimates, we find that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) CH4 budget is a factor of 1.64 too low. Using a Bayesian inversion to the flight data, we estimate California's CH4 budget to be 2.5 TgCH4/yr, with emissions from cattle and manure management, landfills, rice, and natural gas infrastructure, representing roughly 82%, 26%, 9% and 32% (sum = 149% with other sources accounting for the additional 15%) of the current CARB CH4 budget estimate of 1.52 TgCH4

  20. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.

    2015-02-18

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently usedmore » for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a −1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a −1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a −1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a −1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29–44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11–15% to coal with an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a −1 source from wetlands.« less

  1. Methane Emissions from Landfill: Isotopic Evidence for Low Percentage of Oxidation from Gas Wells, Active and Closed Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; Zazzeri, Giulia; al-Shalaan, Aalia; France, James; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    Large landfill sites remain a significant source of methane emissions in developed and developing countries, with a global estimated flux of 29 Tg / yr in the EDGAR 2008 database. This is significantly lower than 20 years ago due to the introduction of gas extraction systems, but active cells still emit significant amounts of methane before the gas is ready for extraction. Historically the methane was either passively oxidized through topsoil layers or flared. Oxidation is still the primary method of methane removal in many countries, and covered, remediated cells across the world continue to emit small quantities of methane. The isotopic signatures of methane from landfill gas wells, and that emitted from active and closed cells have been characterized for more than 20 UK landfills since 2011, with more recent work in Kuwait and Hong Kong. Since 2013 the emission plumes have been identified by a mobile measurement system (Zazzeri et al., 2015). Emissions in all 3 countries have a characteristic δ13C signature of -58 ± 3 ‰ dominated by emissions from the active cells, despite the hot, dry conditions of Kuwait and the hot, humid conditions of Hong Kong. Gas well samples define a similar range. Surface emissions from closed cells and closed landfills are mostly in the range -56 to -52 ‰Ṫhese are much more depleted values than those observed in the 1990s (up to -35 ) when soil oxidation was the dominant mechanism of methane removal. Calculations using isotopic signatures of the amount of methane oxidised in these closed areas before emission to atmosphere range from 5 to 15%, but average less than 10%, and are too small to calculate from the high-emitting active cells. Compared to other major methane sources, landfills have the most consistent isotopic signature globally, and are distinct from the more 13C-enriched natural gas, combustion and biomass burning sources. Zazzeri, G. et al. (2015) Plume mapping and isotopic characterization of anthropogenic methane

  2. Ground and aircraft-based methane measurements in Siberia: source attribution using tracers and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Paris, J. D.; Pruvost, A.; Peng, S.; Turquety, S.; Berchet, A.; Pison, I.; Helle, J.; Arshinov, M.; Belan, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is also naturally emitted by a number of processes, including microbial activity in wetlands, permafrost degradation and wildfires. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of its natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). Furthermore, high latitude regions are large natural sources of CH4 in the atmosphere. Observing boreal/Arctic CH4 variability and understanding its main driving processes using atmospheric measurements and transport model is the task of this work. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns (flights in the tropospheric layer up to 9 km connecting the two cities of Novosibirsk and Yakutsk) and continuous measurements at Fonovaya Observatory (60 km west of Tomsk - 56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) have been performed in order to provide observational data on the composition of Siberian air. The study is focused on 2012, during which a strong heat wave impacted Siberia, leading to the highest mean daily temperature values on record since the beginning of the 20th century. This abnormal drought has led to numerous large forest fires. A chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfires (APIFLAME), is used to determine contributions of CH4 sources in the region. Recent results concerning CH4 fluxes and its atmospheric variability in the Siberian territory derived from a modeled-based analysis will be shown and discussed. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S

  3. Decadal trends in regional CO2 fluxes estimated from atmospheric inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Top-down approach (or atmospheric inversion) using atmospheric transport models and CO2 observations are an effective way to optimize surface fluxes at subcontinental scales and monthly time intervals. We used the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC AGCM-based Chemistry Transport Model (JAMSTEC's ACTM) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations at NOAA, CSIRO, JMA, NIES, NIES-MRI sites from Obspack GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product (2013) for estimating CO2 fluxes for the period of 1990-2011. Carbon fluxes were estimated for 84 partitions (54 lands + 30 oceans) of the globe by using a Bayesian synthesis inversion framework. A priori fluxes are (1) atmosphere-ocean exchange from Takahashi et al. (2009), (2) 3-hourly terrestrial biosphere fluxes (annually balanced) from CASA model, and (3) fossil fuel fluxes from CDIAC global totals and EDGAR4.2 spatial distributions. Four inversion cases have been tested with 1) 21 sites (sites which have real data fraction of 90 % or more for 1989-2012), 2) 21 sites + CONTRAIL data, 3) 66 sites (over 70 % coverage), and 4) 157 sites. As a result of time-dependent inversions, mean total flux (excluding fossil fuel) for the period 1990-2011 is estimated to be -3.09 ±0.16 PgC/yr (mean and standard deviation of the four cases), where land (incl. biomass burning and land use change) and ocean absorb an average rate of -1.80 ±0.18 and -1.29 ±0.08 PgC/yr, respectively. The average global total sink from 1991-2000 to 2001-2010 increases by about 0.5 PgC/yr, mainly due to the increase in northern and tropical land sinks (Africa, Boreal Eurasia, East Asia and Europe), while ocean sinks show no clear trend. Inversion with CONTRAIL data estimates large positive flux anomalies in late 1997 associated with the 1997/98 El-Nino, while inversion without CONTARIL data between Japan and Australia fails to estimate such large anomalies. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1401) of the Ministry of the Environment

  4. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  5. Development of atmospheric N2O isotopomers model based on a chemistry-coupled atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, K.; Toyoda, S.; Sudo, K.; Yoshikawa, C.; Nanbu, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Yoshida, N.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that isotopic information is useful to qualitatively understand cycles and constrain sources of some atmospheric species, but so far there has been no study to model N2O isotopomers throughout the atmosphere from the troposphere to the stratosphere, including realistic surface N2O isotopomers emissions. We have started to develop a model to simulate spatiotemporal variations of the atmospheric N2O isotopomers in both the troposphere and the stratosphere, based on a chemistry-coupled atmospheric general circulation model, in order to obtain more accurate quantitative understanding of the global N2O cycle. For surface emissions of the isotopomers, combination of EDGAR-based anthropogenic and soil fluxes and monthly varying GEIA oceanic fluxes are factored, using isotopic values of global total sources estimated from firn-air analyses based long-term trend of the atmospheric N2O isotopomers. Isotopic fractionations in chemical reactions are considered for photolysis and photo-oxidation of N2O in the stratosphere. The isotopic fractionation coefficients have been employed from studies based on laboratory experiments, but we also will test the coefficients determined by theoretical calculations. In terms of the global N2O isotopomer budgets, precise quantification of the sources is quite challenging, because even the spatiotemporal variabilities of N2O sources have never been adequately estimated. Therefore, we have firstly started validation of simulated isotopomer results in the stratosphere, by using the isotopomer profiles obtained by balloon observations. N2O concentration profiles are mostly well reproduced, partly because of realistic reproduction of dynamical processes by nudging with reanalysis meteorological data. However, the concentration in the polar vortex tends to be overestimated, probably due to relatively coarse wave-length resolution in photolysis calculation. Such model features also appear in the isotopomers results, which are

  6. WRF and WRF-Chem v3.5.1 simulations of meteorology and black carbon concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mues, Andrea; Lauer, Axel; Lupascu, Aurelia; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Kuik, Friderike; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2018-06-01

    An evaluation of the meteorology simulated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model for the region of south Asia and Nepal with a focus on the Kathmandu Valley is presented. A particular focus of the model evaluation is placed on meteorological parameters that are highly relevant to air quality such as wind speed and direction, boundary layer height and precipitation. The same model setup is then used for simulations with WRF including chemistry and aerosols (WRF-Chem). A WRF-Chem simulation has been performed using the state-of-the-art emission database, EDGAR HTAP v2.2, which is the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, in cooperation with the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) organized by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, along with a sensitivity simulation using observation-based black carbon emission fluxes for the Kathmandu Valley. The WRF-Chem simulations are analyzed in comparison to black carbon measurements in the valley and to each other. The evaluation of the WRF simulation with a horizontal resolution of 3×3 km2 shows that the model is often able to capture important meteorological parameters inside the Kathmandu Valley and the results for most meteorological parameters are well within the range of biases found in other WRF studies especially in mountain areas. But the evaluation results also clearly highlight the difficulties of capturing meteorological parameters in such complex terrain and reproducing subgrid-scale processes with a horizontal resolution of 3×3 km2. The measured black carbon concentrations are typically systematically and strongly underestimated by WRF-Chem. A sensitivity study with improved emissions in the Kathmandu Valley shows significantly reduced biases but also underlines several limitations of such corrections. Further improvements of the model and of the emission data are needed before being

  7. From Utility to Exploration: Teaching with Data to Develop Complexity Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Scientific, social, and economic advances are possible because we impose simplicity and predictability on natural and social systems that are inherently complex and uncertain. But, the work of Edgar Morin, Gregory Bateson and others, suggests that a failure to integrate the simple and the complex in our thinking (worldview) is a root cause of humanity's unsustainable existence. This diagnosis is challenging for scientists because we make the world visible through data: complex earth systems reduced to numbers. What we do with those numbers mirrors our approach to the world. Geoscience students gain much of their experience working with data from courses in statistics, physics, and chemistry as well as courses in their major. They learn to solve problems within a scientific context, and are led to see data analysis as a set of tools needed to make predictions and decisions (e.g., probabilities, regression equations). They learn that there are right ways of doing things and correct answers to be found. We do need such skills - but they reflect a simple and reductionist view. For example, the objective of a regression model may be to reduce a large number of data to a much smaller number of parameters to gain utility in prediction. However, this is the "wrong direction" to approach complexity. The mission of Geometrics, a combined undergraduate & graduate course (ESS 321/521), at West Chester University is to seek ways to meaningfully reveal complexity (within the limitations of the data) and to understand data differently. The aim is to create multiple, possibly divergent, views of data sets to create a sense of richness and depth. This presentation will give examples of heuristic models, exploratory methods (e.g., moving average and kernel modeling; ensemble simulation) and visualizations (data slicing, conditioning, and rotation). Excel programs used in the course are constructed to develop a sense of playfulness and freedom in the students' approach to data, and

  8. Ensemble prediction of air quality using the WRF/CMAQ model system for health effect studies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Li, Xun; Huang, Lin; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    Accurate exposure estimates are required for health effect analyses of severe air pollution in China. Chemical transport models (CTMs) are widely used to provide spatial distribution, chemical composition, particle size fractions, and source origins of air pollutants. The accuracy of air quality predictions in China is greatly affected by the uncertainties of emission inventories. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with meteorological inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used in this study to simulate air pollutants in China in 2013. Four simulations were conducted with four different anthropogenic emission inventories, including the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), the Emission Inventory for China by School of Environment at Tsinghua University (SOE), the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), and the Regional Emission inventory in Asia version 2 (REAS2). Model performance of each simulation was evaluated against available observation data from 422 sites in 60 cities across China. Model predictions of O3 and PM2.5 generally meet the model performance criteria, but performance differences exist in different regions, for different pollutants, and among inventories. Ensemble predictions were calculated by linearly combining the results from different inventories to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the ensemble results and the observations in all cities. The ensemble concentrations show improved agreement with observations in most cities. The mean fractional bias (MFB) and mean fractional errors (MFEs) of the ensemble annual PM2.5 in the 60 cities are -0.11 and 0.24, respectively, which are better than the MFB (-0.25 to -0.16) and MFE (0.26-0.31) of individual simulations. The ensemble annual daily maximum 1 h O3 (O3-1h) concentrations are also improved, with mean normalized bias (MNB) of 0.03 and mean normalized errors (MNE) of 0.14, compared to MNB of 0.06-0.19 and

  9. Methane Emissions from Kuwait: long-term measurement, mobile plume mapping and isotopic characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Shalaan, Aalia; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; Zazzeri, Giulia; Alsarawi, Mohammad; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    National and EDGAR inventories suggest that the dominant sources of methane in Kuwait are leaks from gas flaring and distribution (92%) and landfills (5%),with additional smaller emissions from sewage (wastewater) treatment and ruminant animals. New measurements during 2015 and 2016 suggest that the inventories differ greatly from observations. Regular weekly bag samples have been collected from 3 sites in Kuwait, one NW of the city, one to the SE and one in the city from the rooftop of Kuwait College of Science. These take turns to have the highest recorded mole fractions, depending on wind direction. Associated with higher mole fraction is a consistent depletion in 13C of methane, pointing to a national source mix with 13C of -54.8‰. This is significantly different from the calculation using inventories that suggest a mix of -51.3‰. Mobile plume identification using a Picarro G2301 analyser, coupled with Tedlar bag sampling for isotopic analysis (Zazzeri et al., 2015), reveals that by far the largest observed source of methane in Kuwait is from landfill sites (13C of -57‰), with smaller contributions from fossil fuel industry (-51‰), wastewater treatment (-50‰) and ruminant animals (cows, -62‰; camels -60‰, sheep -64‰). Many of these isotopic signatures are close to those observed for the same source categories in other countries, for example landfill emission signatures have the same range as those calculated for UK and Hong Kong (-60 to -55‰), even to the level that older closed and capped landfills emit smaller amounts of methane at more enriched values (-55 to -50‰), due to small % of topsoil oxidation. Our findings suggest that many more top down measurements must be made to verify emissions inventories, particularly in middle eastern countries where a significant proportion of emissions are unverified calculations of fossil fuel emissions. Zazzeri, G. et al. (2015) Plume mapping and isotopic characterization of anthropogenic

  10. Quantifying fossil fuel CO2 from continuous measurements of APO: a novel approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickers, Penelope; Manning, Andrew C.; Forster, Grant L.; van der Laan, Sander; Wilson, Phil A.; Wenger, Angelina; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Using atmospheric measurements to accurately quantify CO2 emissions from fossil fuel sources requires the separation of biospheric and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. The ability to quantify the fossil fuel component of CO2 (ffCO2) from atmospheric measurements enables more accurate 'top-down' verification of CO2 emissions inventories, which frequently have large uncertainty. Typically, ffCO2 is quantified (in ppm units) from discrete atmospheric measurements of Δ14CO2, combined with higher resolution atmospheric CO measurements, and with knowledge of CO:ffCO2 ratios. In the United Kingdom (UK), however, measurements of Δ14CO2 are often significantly biased by nuclear power plant influences, which limit the use of this approach. We present a novel approach for quantifying ffCO2 using measurements of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen; a tracer derived from concurrent measurements of CO2 and O2) from two measurement sites in Norfolk, UK. Our approach is similar to that used for quantifying ffCO2 from CO measurements (ffCO2(CO)), whereby ffCO2(APO) = (APOmeas - APObg)/RAPO, where (APOmeas - APObg) is the APO deviation from the background, and RAPO is the APO:CO2 combustion ratio for fossil fuel. Time varying values of RAPO are calculated from the global gridded COFFEE (CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate) dataset, combined with NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) transport model footprints. We compare our ffCO2(APO) results to results obtained using the ffCO2(CO) method, using CO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios (RCO) from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) database. We find that the APO ffCO2 quantification method is more precise than the CO method, owing primarily to a smaller range of possible APO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios, compared to the CO:CO2 emission ratio range. Using a long-term dataset of atmospheric O2, CO2, CO and Δ14CO2 from Lutjewad, The Netherlands, we examine the

  11. OBITUARY: Professor Jan Evetts in memoriam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Glowacki, Bartek

    2005-11-01

    It is with great sadness that we report the death of Jan Evetts, who lost his second battle with cancer on 18 August 2005. In 1988 he was appointed Founding Editor of this journal where his leadership created the foundation upon which its success rests today. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials, and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the scientific community is incalculable, as is attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' embryonic superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for applications in magnets. Competing theories for the critical current density at that time were fine filaments or `Mendelssohn Sponge' versus the pinning of Abrikosov quantized vortices. The results of the group's work, to which Jan made a major contribution, came down heavily in favour of the latter theory. Jan's outstanding characteristic was his

  12. Using semi-continuous, in-situ measurements of nitrous oxide isotopic composition at a suburban site to track emission processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Eliza; Henne, Stephan; Christoph, Hüglin; Christoph, Zellweger; Béla, Tuzson; Erkan, Ibraim; Lukas, Emmenegger; Joachim, Mohn

    2017-04-01

    , δ15Nbulk and particularly SP appear to vary too strongly in response to other factors affecting emission processes to provide a useful distinction between source categories on a regional scale - these isotopocules may however be useful to distinguish emission pathways on a local scale. For comparison, FLEXPART-COSMO transport simulations [4] were combined with emissions from the EDGAR inventory and estimates of source isotopic composition from literature, to simulate N2O isotopic composition at the sampling site. The model was able to capture variability in N2O mole fraction adequately (R2 = 0.34; p <<0.01). However, the measured variability in source isotopic composition was 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than simulated, illustrating that our knowledge of isotopic source signatures - in particular technical N2O sources - is still too limited to successfully model variations in ambient N2O isotopic composition. [1] Mohn et al. (2012) Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, doi:10.5194/amt-5-1601-2012 [2] Harris et al. (2014) Analytical Chemistry, doi: 10.1021/ac403606u. [3] Röckmann et al. (2016) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-16-10469-2016. [4] Henne et al. (2016) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-16-3683-2016.

  13. Accretion-powered Compact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; The workshop logo; A short history of the CV workshop F. A. Córdova; Part I. Observations: 1. Low mass x-ray binaries A. P. Cowley, P. C. Schmidtke, D. Crampton, J. B. Hutchings, C. A. Haswell, E. L. Robinson, K. D. Horne, H. M. Johnston, S. R. Kulkarni, S. Kitamoto, X. Han, R. M. Hjellming, R. M. Wagner, S. L. Morris, P. Hertz, A. N. Parmar, L. Stella, P. Giommi, P. J. Callanan, T. Naylor, P. A. Charles, C. D. Bailyn, J. N. Imamura, T. Steiman-Cameron, J. Kristian, J. Middleditch, L. Angelini and J. P. Noris; 2. Nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables R. S. Polidan, C. W. Mauche, R. A. Wade, R. H. Kaitchuck, E. M. Schlegel, P. A. Hantzios, R. C. Smith, J. H. Wood, F. Hessman, A. Fiedler, D. H. P. Jones, J. Casares, P. A. Charles, J. van Paradijs, E. Harlaftis, T. Naylor, G. Sonneborn, B. J. M. Hassall, K. Horne, C. A. la Dous, A. W. Shafter, N. A. Hawkins, D. A. H. Buckley, D. J. Sullivan, F. V. Hessman, V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, J. Singh, S. Seetha, F. Giovannelli, A. Bianchini, E. M. Sion, D. J. Mullan, H. L. Shipman, G. Machin, P. J. Callanan, S. B. Howell, P. Szkody, E. M. Schlegel and R. F. Webbink; 3. Magnetic cataclysmic variables C. Hellier, K. O. Mason, C. W. Mauche, G. S. Miller, J. C. Raymond, F. K. Lamb, J. Patterson, A. J. Norton, M. G. Watson, A. R. King, I. M. McHardy, H. Lehto, J. P. Osborne, E. L. Robinson, A. W. Shafter, S. Balachandran, S. R. Rosen, J. Krautter, W. Buchholz, D. A. H. Buckley, I. R. Tuoly, D. Crampton, B. Warner, R. M. Prestage, B. N. Ashoka, M. Mouchet, J. M. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M. Hameury, P. Szkody, P. Garnavich, S. Howell, T. Kii, M. Cropper, K. Mason, J. Bailey, D. T. Wickramasinghe, L. Ferrario, K. Beuermann, A. D. Schwope, H.-C. Thomas, S. Jordan, J. Schachter, A. V. Filippenko, S. M. Kahn, F. B. S. Paerels, K. Mukai, M. L. Edgar, S. Larsson, R. F. Jameson, A. R. King, A. Silber, R. Remillard, H. Bradt, M. Ishida, T. Ohashi and G. D. Schmidt; Part II. Accretion Theory: 4. Nonmagnetic W. Kley, F. Geyer, H. Herold, H

  14. The asteroid 2014 JO25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodniza, Alberto; Pereira, Mario

    2017-10-01

    The asteroid 2014 JO25 was discovered by A. D. Grauer at the Mt. Lemmon Survey on May 2014, and Joe Masiero used observations from the NEOWISE in 2014 to estimate a diameter of 650 meters [1]. However, using the radio telescope at Arecibo-Puerto Rico, astronomers obtained radar images on April 17-2017 and Edgar Rivera Valentín (scientist at Arecibo) said: “We found 2014 JO25 is a contact binary asteroid, two space rocks that were originally separate bodies, and each segment is about 640 meters and 670 meters, for a total of about 1.3 km long. Its rotation is of 3.5 hours” [2]. This asteroid flew past Earth on April 19 at a distance of about 4.6 lunar distances from the Earth. This was the closest approach by an asteroid since 4179 Toutatis. Toutatis flew past Earth on September 2004 at a distance of about 4 lunar distances from the Earth [3]. In April 12-2020 the asteroid will be at a minimum possible distance of 0.1617280 A.U from Earth [4]. From our observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we obtained a lot of pictures. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center [5] and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [6]. Astrometry and photometry were carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity=0.88454+/-0.00152, semi-major axis= 2.0573+/- 0.0216 A.U, orbital inclination=25.22+/-0.10 deg, longitude of the ascending node =30.6530+/-0.0032 deg, argument of perihelion=49.586+/-0.012 deg, mean motion = 0.33402+/-0.00527 deg/d, perihelion distance=0.237524+/-0.000644 A.U, aphelion distance=3.8770+/-0.0449 A.U, absolute magnitude =18.1. The parameters were calculated based on 164 observations. Dates: 2017 April: 22 to 24 with mean residual=0.22 arcseconds.The asteroid has an orbital period of 2.95 years.[1] https://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2014JO25/2014JO25_planning.html[2] http://earthsky.org/astronomy-essentials/large-asteroid-2014-jo25-close-april-19-2017-how-to-see[3] https

  15. Temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Naveen; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, S.; Patra, Prabir K.; Sheel, Varun

    2016-05-01

    ) and evening rush hours (18:00-22:00 h) respectively. We compute total yearly emissions of CO to be 69.2 ± 0.07 Gg for the study region using the observed CO : CO2 correlation slope and bottom-up CO2 emission inventory. This calculated emission of CO is 52 % larger than the estimated emission of CO by the emissions database for global atmospheric research (EDGAR) inventory. The observations of CO2 have been compared with an atmospheric chemistry-transport model (ACTM), which incorporates various components of CO2 fluxes. ACTM is able to capture the basic variabilities, but both diurnal and seasonal amplitudes are largely underestimated compared to the observations. We attribute this underestimation by the model to uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere fluxes and coarse model resolution. The fossil fuel signal from the model shows fairly good correlation with observed CO2 variations, which supports the overall dominance of fossil fuel emissions over the biospheric fluxes in this urban region.

  16. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2011-07-01

    chemical plants. The estimated regional NO2 emissions are about 2-3 % (administrative Huabei region) or 5 % (larger Huabei region) of the global anthropogenic NO2 emissions. We compare our inventory (IPAC-NC) with a global emission inventory EDGAR-CIRCE and an Asian emission inventory INTEX-B. While the total emissions in Huabei are comparable with each other, large differences up to a factor of 2-3 for local emissions in the areas such as the Beijing and Tianjin megacities are found. We expect that our inventory will provide more practical spatial distributions of air pollutant emissions in the Huabei region of China and can be applied for air pollution and chemistry research on this region in the future.

  17. A model-based data analysis of the atmospheric methane above Siberia during YAK-AEROSIB airborne campaign in summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pruvost, Arnaud; Berchet, Antoine; Pison, Isabelle; Arshinov, Mikhail; Belan, Boris

    2014-05-01

    High latitude regions are large sources of CH4 in the atmosphere, both natural from boreal wetlands and wildfires, and anthropogenic from natural gas extraction industry, especially in the Russian Arctic. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of the natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). After a decade of pause, atmospheric methane seems to be increasing again, with a possible significant contribution from the wetlands of the northern high latitudes initiated by an unusual rise of regional temperatures in 2007 (Dlugokencky et al., 2009). This work aims at better understanding high latitude CH4 sources and sinks using atmospheric measurements and transport model. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns have been performed in order to provide observational data about the composition of Siberian air. In this work, we focus on the 2012 campaign which has been conducted on July 31st and August 1st. It consisted of five flights, performed in the troposphere from the boundary layer up to 8.5 km, connecting Novosibirsk to Yakutsk and back. This particular campaign was dominated by wildfires in Western and central Siberia. Therefore a chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfire (GFED), has been used to interpret the collected data. From tagged tracers and model observation mismatch we describe results concerning CH4 fluxes in the Siberian territory. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S., P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J

  18. Development of an integrated chemical weather prediction system for environmental applications at meso to global scales: NMMB/BSC-CHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorba, O.; Pérez, C.; Karsten, K.; Janjic, Z.; Dabdub, D.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    forecasting applications in regional or global domains. An emission process allows the coupling of different emission inventories sources such as RETRO, EDGAR and GEIA for the global domain, EMEP for Europe and HERMES for Spain. The photolysis scheme is based on the Fast-J scheme, coupled with physics of each model layer (e.g., aerosols, clouds, absorbers as ozone) and it considers grid-scale clouds from the atmospheric driver. The dry deposition scheme follows the deposition velocity analogy for gases, enabling the calculation of deposition fluxes from airborne concentrations. No cloud-chemistry processes are included in the system yet (no wet deposition, scavenging and aqueous chemistry). The modeling system developments will be presented and first results of the gas-phase chemistry at global scale will be discussed. REFERENCES Janjic, Z.I., and Black, T.L., 2007. An ESMF unified model for a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9, 05025. Pérez, C., Haustein, K., Janjic, Z.I., Jorba, O., Baldasano, J.M., Black, T.L., and Nickovic, S., 2008. An online dust model within the meso to global NMMB: current progress and plans. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, A41K-03, 2008. Damian, V., Sandu, A., Damian, M., Potra, F., and Carmichael, G.R., 2002. The kinetic preprocessor KPP - A software environment for solving chemical kinetics. Comp. Chem. Eng., 26, 1567-1579. Sandu, A., and Sander, R., 2006. Technical note:Simulating chemical systems in Fortran90 and Matlab with the Kinetic PreProcessor KPP-2.1. Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 6, 187-195.

  19. Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2011-11-01

    Volume 1: List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume one; 1. Noise-activated escape from metastable states: an historical view Rolf Landauer; 2. Some Markov methods in the theory of stochastic processes in non-linear dynamical systems R. L. Stratonovich; 3. Langevin equations with coloured noise J. M. Sancho and M. San Miguel; 4. First passage time problems for non-Markovian processes Katja Lindenberg, Bruce J. West and Jaume Masoliver; 5. The projection approach to the Fokker-Planck equation: applications to phenomenological stochastic equations with coloured noises Paolo Grigolini; 6. Methods for solving Fokker-Planck equations with applications to bistable and periodic potentials H. Risken and H. D. Vollmer; 7. Macroscopic potentials, bifurcations and noise in dissipative systems Robert Graham; 8. Transition phenomena in multidimensional systems - models of evolution W. Ebeling and L. Schimansky-Geier; 9. Coloured noise in continuous dynamical systems: a functional calculus approach Peter Hanggi; Appendix. On the statistical treatment of dynamical systems L. Pontryagin, A. Andronov and A. Vitt; Index. Volume 2: List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume two; 1. Stochastic processes in quantum mechanical settings Ronald F. Fox; 2. Self-diffusion in non-Markovian condensed-matter systems Toyonori Munakata; 3. Escape from the underdamped potential well M. Buttiker; 4. Effect of noise on discrete dynamical systems with multiple attractors Edgar Knobloch and Jeffrey B. Weiss; 5. Discrete dynamics perturbed by weak noise Peter Talkner and Peter Hanggi; 6. Bifurcation behaviour under modulated control parameters M. Lucke; 7. Period doubling bifurcations: what good are they? Kurt Wiesenfeld; 8. Noise-induced transitions Werner Horsthemke and Rene Lefever; 9. Mechanisms for noise-induced transitions in chemical systems Raymond Kapral and Edward Celarier; 10. State selection dynamics in symmetry-breaking transitions Dilip K. Kondepudi; 11. Noise in a

  20. Emissions of mercury in southern Africa derived from long-term observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H. H.; Labuschagne, C.; Slemr, F.

    2012-08-01

    Mercury emissions in South Africa have so far been estimated only by a bottom-up approach from activities and emission factors for different processes. In this paper we derive GEM/CO (GEM being gaseous elemental mercury, Hg0), GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios from plumes observed during long-term monitoring of these species at Cape Point between March 2007 and December 2009. The average observed GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios were 2.40 ± 2.65 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 47), 62.7 ± 80.2 pg m-3 ppm-1 (n = 44), 3.61 ± 4.66 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 46), 35.6 ± 25.4 ppb ppm-1 (n = 52), 20.2 ± 15.5 ppb ppm-1 (n = 48), and 0.876 ± 1.106 ppb ppb-1 (n = 42), respectively. The observed CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios agree within the combined uncertainties of the observations and emissions with the ratios calculated from EDGAR (version 4.2) CO2, CO, and CH4 inventories for South Africa and southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique) in 2007 and 2008 (inventories for 2009 are not available yet). Total elemental mercury emission of 13.1, 15.2, and 16.1 t Hg yr-1 are estimated independently using the GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, and GEM/CH4 emission ratios and the annual mean CO, CO2, and CH4 emissions, respectively, of South Africa in 2007 and 2008. The average of these independent estimates of 14.8 t GEM yr-1 is much less than the total emission of 257 t Hg yr-1 shown by older inventories which are now considered to be wrong. Considering the uncertainties of our emission estimate, of the emission inventories, and the fact that emission of GEM represents 50-78 % of all mercury emissions, our estimate is comparable to the currently cited GEM emissions in 2004 and somewhat smaller than emissions in 2006. A further increase of mercury emissions due to increasing electricity consumption will lead to a more pronounced difference. A quantitative assessment of the difference

  1. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: the role of EU policy-industry interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Dentener, F.; Guizzardi, D.; Sindelarova, K.; Muntean, M.; Van Dingenen, R.; Granier, C.

    2015-07-01

    The EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) v4.3 global anthropogenic emissions inventory of several gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon (BC and OC)) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emission scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in fuels consumption, technology, end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields. This database presents changes in activity data, fuels and air pollution abatement technology for the past 4 decades, using international statistics and following guidelines for bottom-up emission inventory at the Tier 1 and Tier 2 levels with region-specific default values. With two further retrospective scenarios we assess (1) the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe (EOP) reduction measures in the European Union (EU) by considering a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors from 1970 and with no further abatement measures and improvement in European emissions standards, but fuel consumption occurring at historical pace, and (2) the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy use with constant fuel consumption since 1970, but technological development and end-of-pipe reductions. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, the manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject of multi-pollutant EU Air Quality regulations. If technology and European EOP reduction measures had stagnated at 1970 levels, EU air quality in 2010 would have suffered from 129 % higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions, demonstrating the large role of technology in reducing emissions in 2010. However, if fuel consumption had remained constant starting in 1970, the EU would have benefited from current technology and

  2. PREFACE: Peyresq Physics Workshops 11 and 12—'Micro and Macro Structure of Spacetime', Peyresq, Alpes de Haute Provence, France (17 23 June 2006 and 16 22 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, D.; Verdaguer, E.

    2008-08-01

    -optical and condensed matter physics. The richness of this theme spans a diverse spectrum of current topics which can be gleaned from the titles of the talks presented in these two meetings. Peyresq is a medieval Provençal village situated 100km from Nice at an altitude of 1528m. The village was founded in the early 13th century. At the beginning of the 17th century there were around 50 houses and by 1851 the village counted 208 inhabitants distributed among 53 families. Like many other villages of Haute Provence, it was almost completely deserted after the Second World War. During the 1950s the village was progressively entirely rebuilt in its original spirit and style by students of Belgian universities, mainly the Université Libre de Bruxelles, under the guidance of Mady and Toine Smets. The aim was to create a 'Foyer d'Humanisme', an international humanistic center for cultural, artistic, and scientific pursuits. The workshops were financed by the Fondation Peyresq, Foyer d'Humanisme, the Fondation Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peyresq, and OLAM (Association pour la Recherche Fondamentale, Brussels). We would like to thank all these institutions for their help and financial support. We extend our warm appreciation to Madame Mady Smets without whom none of this work could have come to light. We would like to thank all the participants for the many lively discussions that we have enjoyed and for their effort in preparing written contributions. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Tom Spicer, Joseph Tennant and Eirini Messaritaki, for their support and efficiency in preparing this volume. Finally, we thank Edgar Gunzig and Bei-Lok Hu as the main driving forces behind the organization of these workshops.

  3. The Luminosity Function of OB Associations in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    1997-02-01

    OB associations ionize the interstellar medium, producing both localized H II regions and diffuse ionized gas. The supernovae resulting from these associations pressurize and stir the interstellar medium. Using Smith, Biermann, & Mezger's compilation of radio H II regions in the Galaxy, and Kennicutt, Edgar, & Hodge's optical study of H II regions in nearby galaxies, we show that the luminosity distribution of giant OB associations in the Galaxy can be fit by a truncated power law of the form \\Nscra(>S)=\\Nscrau[(Su/S)-1], where S is the ionizing photon luminosity, \\Nscra(>S) is the number of associations with a luminosity of at least S, and Su is the upper limit to the distribution. The coefficient \\Nscrau is the number of the most luminous associations, with a luminosity between 0.5Su and Su. For the Galaxy, \\Nscrau=6.1 the fact that the number of the most luminous associations is significantly larger than unity indicates that there is a physical limit to the maximum size of H II regions in the Galaxy. To extend the luminosity distribution to small H II regions, we assume that the birthrate of associations, \\Nscr\\dota(>\\Nscr*), is also a truncated power law, \\Nscr\\dota(>\\Nscr*)~[(\\Nscr*u/\\Nscr*)-1], where \\Nscr* is the number of stars in the association. For large associations, the ionizing luminosity is proportional to the number of stars, S~\\Nscr* for smaller associations, we use both an analytic and a Monte Carlo approach to find the resulting luminosity distribution \\Nscra(>S). H II regions are generally centrally concentrated, with only the dense central regions being bright enough to appear in radio catalogs. Anantharamaiah postulated that radio H II regions have extended envelopes in order to account for diffuse radio recombination line emission in the Galaxy. Some of these envelopes are visible as the ionized ``worms'' discussed by Heiles and coworkers. We estimate that on the average the envelopes of radio H II regions absorb about twice

  4. Inter-comparison of Speciated Aerosol Loading over India for Global and Regional Emission Inventory using a Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Abhishek; Dey, Sagnik; Goyal, Pramila

    2017-04-01

    Air quality of a region directly affects health of entire biotic and abiotic components of ecosystem. Exposure to particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in atmosphere has been directly related to mortality and mobility in various studies. India is one of the aerosol hotspots globally with 0.8 million premature death attributed to exposure to ambient PM2.5. Robust long-term in-situ data of speciated PM2.5 is lacking in India. The problem cannot be resolved by utilizing satellite data as inferring composition is difficult. Therefore a modelling approach is required. We examine spatial and temporal distribution of PM2.5 and its constituent species with a regional and global inventory through chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) over India. The simulation is conducted with RADM2 chemistry and GOCART aerosol module for 8 years (2007-2014). Emissions are interpolated for domain from global anthropogenic emission inventory RETRO and EDGAR for species other than BC, OC and Sulfate. Results from GOCART global inventory are compared with results from a regional inventory for species OC, BC and Sulfate. Validation of CTM simulations against observations (ground based monitoring stations and satellite observations) demonstrates the capability of the CTM to represent space-time variation of aerosols in this region. For example, the build-up of aerosols over the eastern part of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) during winter (as observed by space-borne sensors) due to the meteorological influence is well captured by the CTM. A correlation of 0.51 and 0.52 has been observed between monitored and model simulated PM2.5 at the two big cities of India, New Delhi and Mumbai respectively. Distribution of PM2.5 is high in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) and distribution of OC and BC is also more in IGB region with both emission inventories. In the IGB region OC and BC contribute 8 - 20 % and 2.5 - 5 % to total PM2.5. Global and regional emission inventories are showing similar

  5. Observations and modeling of air quality trends over 1990-2010 across the Northern Hemisphere: China, the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wong, D. C.; Wei, C.; Gilliam, R.; Pouliot, G.

    2015-03-01

    Trends in air quality across the Northern Hemisphere over a 21-year period (1990-2010) were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) multiscale chemical transport model driven by meteorology from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations and internally consistent historical emission inventories obtained from EDGAR. Thorough comparison with several ground observation networks mostly over Europe and North America was conducted to evaluate the model performance as well as the ability of CMAQ to reproduce the observed trends in air quality over the past 2 decades in three regions: eastern China, the continental United States and Europe. The model successfully reproduced the observed decreasing trends in SO2, NO2, 8 h O3 maxima, SO42- and elemental carbon (EC) in the US and Europe. However, the model fails to reproduce the decreasing trends in NO3- in the US, potentially pointing to uncertainties of NH3 emissions. The model failed to capture the 6-year trends of SO2 and NO2 in CN-API (China - Air Pollution Index) from 2005 to 2010, but reproduced the observed pattern of O3 trends shown in three World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG) sites over eastern Asia. Due to the coarse spatial resolution employed in these calculations, predicted SO2 and NO2 concentrations are underestimated relative to all urban networks, i.e., US-AQS (US - Air Quality System; normalized mean bias (NMB) = -38% and -48%), EU-AIRBASE (European Air quality data Base; NMB = -18 and -54%) and CN-API (NMB = -36 and -68%). Conversely, at the rural network EU-EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme), SO2 is overestimated (NMB from 4 to 150%) while NO2 is simulated well (NMB within ±15%) in all seasons. Correlations between simulated and observed O3 wintertime daily 8 h maxima (DM8) are poor compared to other seasons for all networks. Better correlation between simulated and observed SO42- was found compared to that for SO2. Underestimation of summer SO42- in

  6. Global methane emission estimates for 2000-2012 from CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Hakkarainen, Janne; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Krol, Maarten C.; Spahni, Renato; Houweling, Sander; Laine, Marko; Dlugokencky, Ed; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Langenfelds, Ray; Ellul, Raymond; Arduini, Jgor; Apadula, Francesco; Gerbig, Christoph; Feist, Dietrich G.; Kivi, Rigel; Yoshida, Yukio; Peters, Wouter

    2017-03-01

    We present a global distribution of surface methane (CH4) emission estimates for 2000-2012 derived using the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 (CTE-CH4) data assimilation system. In CTE-CH4, anthropogenic and biospheric CH4 emissions are simultaneously estimated based on constraints of global atmospheric in situ CH4 observations. The system was configured to either estimate only anthropogenic or biospheric sources per region, or to estimate both categories simultaneously. The latter increased the number of optimizable parameters from 62 to 78. In addition, the differences between two numerical schemes available to perform turbulent vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model TM5 were examined. Together, the system configurations encompass important axes of uncertainty in inversions and allow us to examine the robustness of the flux estimates. The posterior emission estimates are further evaluated by comparing simulated atmospheric CH4 to surface in situ observations, vertical profiles of CH4 made by aircraft, remotely sensed dry-air total column-averaged mole fraction (XCH4) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), and XCH4 from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The evaluation with non-assimilated observations shows that posterior XCH4 is better matched with the retrievals when the vertical mixing scheme with faster interhemispheric exchange is used. Estimated posterior mean total global emissions during 2000-2012 are 516 ± 51 Tg CH4 yr-1, with an increase of 18 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2000-2006 to 2007-2012. The increase is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from South American temperate, Asian temperate and Asian tropical TransCom regions. In addition, the increase is hardly sensitive to different model configurations ( < 2 Tg CH4 yr-1 difference), and much smaller than suggested by EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory (33 Tg CH4 yr-1), which was used for prior anthropogenic emission estimates. The result is in good agreement with other

  7. Application of the WRF-Chem model for the simulation of air quality over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushta, Jonilda; Proestos, Yiannis; Georgiou, George; Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-04-01

    The fully coupled WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model is used to simulate air quality over Cyprus. Cyprus is an island country with complex topography, located in the eastern corner of East Mediterranean region, affected year-long by local, regional and long range transported pollution. An extensive sensitivity analysis of the model performance has been performed over the area of interest with three domains of respective grid spacing of 40, 8 and 2 km. Different configurations have been deployed regarding horizontal resolution, simulation timestep, boundary conditions, NOx emissions and speciation method of emitted NMVOCs (Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds). The WRF-Chem model simulated hourly concentrations of air pollutants for a month-long period (July 2014) during which measurements are available over 13 stations (4 of which background stations, 1 industrial and 8 urban/traffic stations). The model was initialized with meteorological initial and boundary conditions (ICBC) using NCAR-NCEP's F Global Forecast System output (GFS) at a 1o x1o spatial resolution. The ICBC for the chemical species are derived from the MOZART global model results (2.5o x 2.5o). Both ICBCs datasets are updated every 6 hours. The emission inventory used in the study is the EDGAR-HTAP v2 dataset with a horizontal grid resolution of 0.1o × 0.1o, while an additional dataset with speciated NMVOCs (instead of summed volatile species) is also tested. The diurnal cycle of the atmospheric concentrations of ozone averaged over the island, exhibits a maximum of 114 μg/m3 when the boundary conditions are derived from MOZART and 94 μg/m3 when the boundary conditions are not included (local background and production), suggesting a constant inflow of ozone from long range transport of about 20 μg/m3. The contribution of pollution from regional sources is more pronounced at the western border due to the characteristic summer time north-northeasterly etesian flow

  8. Large Variations in Ice Volume During the Middle Eocene "Doubthouse"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawber, C. F.; Tripati, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    of Eocene Greenhouse and Doubthouse sequences on the New Jersey coastal plain; the Icehouse cometh. Geology 24 (7), 639-642. 4.Tripati, A.K., Backman, J., Elderfield, H., and Ferretti, P., 2005, Eocene bipolar glaciation associated with global carbon cycle changes. Nature 436 (7049), 341-346. 5.Edgar, K.M., Wilson, P.A., Sexton, P.F., and Suganuma, Y., 2007, No extreme bipolar glaciation during the main Eocene calcite compensation shift. Nature 448 (7156), 908-911. 6.DeConto, R. and Pollard, D., 2003, Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctic induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature 421, 245-249.

  9. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    framework model are interpreted seismic lines, 3d-models can be generated either in time or in depth domain. Some partners will build their 3d-model in time domain and convert it after finishing to depth. Other participants will transform seismic information first and will model directly in depth domain. To ensure comparability between the different parts transnational velocity models for time-depth conversion are required at an early stage of the project. The exchange of model geometries, topology, and geo-scientific content will be achieved applying an appropriate cyberinfrastructure called GST. It provides functionalities to ensure semantic and technical interoperability. Within the project GeoMol a web server for the dissemination of 3d geological models will be implemented including an administrative interface for the role-based access, real-time transformation of country-specific coordinate systems and a web visualisation features. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu. The GeoMol 3D-modelling team: Roland Baumberger (swisstopo), Magdalena Bottig (GBA), Alessandro Cagnoni (RLB), Laure Capar (BRGM), Renaud Couëffé (BRGM), Chiara D'Ambrogi (ISPRA), Chrystel Dezayes (BRGM), Gerold Diepolder (LfU BY), Charlotte Fehn (LGRB), Sunseare Gabalda (BRGM), Gregor Götzl (GBA), Andrej Lapanje (GeoZS), Fabio Carlo Molinari (RER-SGSS), Edgar Nitsch (LGRB), Robert Pamer (LfU BY), Sebastian Pfleiderer (GBA), Marco Pantaloni (ISPRA), Uta Schulz (LfU BY), Günter Sokol (LGRB), Gunther Wirsing (LGRB), Heiko Zumsprekel (LGRB)

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga

    2012-08-01

    , Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 9. Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 10. Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University, Latvia Local Committee Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Maris Kundzins, Anastasija Jozepa, Anna Muratova, Raitis Siatkovskis, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Sniedze Abele, Mikus Voss, Andris Sivars, Peteris Lesnicenoks, Virginija Liepina. In Memoriam Dr. habil. phys. Inta Muzikante (08.01.1951-15.02.2012) Inta Muzikante Inta was born in Valmiera, a town in the northern part of Latvia. She attended school in Sigulda and high school in Riga. While at the high-school, Inta decided to study natural sciences. After graduating from high-school in 1969 she entered the physics section of the Physics and Mathematics department of University of Latvia and obtained her university degree in 1974. In parallel with University studies, Inta started to work at the Semiconductor Physics Research Lab at the University of Latvia. After graduating she was offered a position at the Physical Energetics institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, in the laboratory of Professor Edgars Silinsh, one of the most internationally well known Latvian physicists. Inta started researching electronic and photoelectric processes in organic crystals and thin films. This was a novel field, pioneered both internationally and in Latvia by Profesors E Silinsh, O Neilands and J Freimanis. It could be said that Inta stood at the cradle of this research field and stayed faithful to it all of her life. Her work was very successful and within a few years she advanced from research assistant to researcher and then leading research scientist. Her first scientific topic was studies of the mechanism of charge carrier photogeneration and separation in organic molecular crystals. In 1983 for a work

  11. Editorial: A dedication to Professor Jan Evetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harald; Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Barber, Zoe; Somekh, Rob; Glowacki, Bartek

    2006-03-01

    A few days before the beginning of the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity we learned that Professor Jan Evetts, a pioneer of superconductor research, a brilliant scientist, a wonderful person and a great personal friend, had passed away. We therefore decided to dedicate the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity to the memory of Jan Evetts. The following citation is based on material provided by his former supervisor (D Dew-Hughes) and his closest co-workers in Cambridge. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan Evetts passed away after losing his second battle with cancer on 24th August 2005. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the superconductivity community is incalculable, as attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He entered the college in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for

  12. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    from the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the US tackle this challenge by demonstrating a top-down method for fabricating nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) nanowires or nanolines. The work demonstrates a constant room temperature electrical resistivity of the NiSi nanowires as the line widths are reduced to as low as 23 nm [5]. The field effect transistor, the closest device under current research to that comprising the transistor first patented by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in Canada in 1925, has become the focus of a large proportion of research in nanoscale science and technology. Up to now, most devices have been based on natural n-type transition metal oxides, but synthesis of p-type metal oxide nanowires enables the development of novel complementary nanowire devices and circuits, including LEDs, electrically driven nanolasers and multiplexing biosensors. Doping is the most common means of producing p-type semiconductor nanowires but the stability and reproducibility of these structures are often poor. A collaboration of researchers in China and Singapore has demonstrated that CuO nanowires could be a promising candidate for a p-type field-effect transistor [6]. The sensitivity of nanowires to gases in their surroundings has stimulated considerable interest for applications in sensing, and the CuO nanowires in this report also exhibit a high response to CO gas in air at 200 °C. In this issue, researchers in Korea and the US provide an overview of the use of nanomaterials in memory technology [7]. The review provides details of the current status and future prospects of alternatives that may become available in the near future for phase-change RAM, ferroelectric RAM and magnetic RAM, as well as other novel architectures under investigation such as molecular memory and devices based on carbon nanotubes. Nanowires feature here as well. Although, as pointed out in the review the use of nanowires in phase-change RAM is still far from being at the

  13. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu The GeoMol seismic interpretation team: Roland Baumberger (swisstopo), Agnès BRENOT (BRGM), Alessandro CAGNONI (RLB), Renaud COUËFFE (BRGM), Gabriel COURRIOUX (BRGM), Chiara D'Ambrogi (ISPRA), Chrystel Dezayes (BRGM), Charlotte Fehn (LGRB), Sunseare GABALDA (BRGM), Gregor Götzl (GBA), Andrej Lapanje (GeoZS), Stéphane MARC (BRGM), Alberto MARTINI (RER-SGSS), Fabio Carlo Molinari (RER-SGSS), Edgar Nitsch (LGRB), Robert Pamer (LfU BY), Marco PANTALONI (ISPRA), Sebastian Pfleiderer (GBA), Andrea PICCIN (RLB), (Nils Oesterling (swisstopo), Isabel Rupf (LGRB), Uta Schulz (LfU BY), Yves SIMEON (BRGM), Günter SÖKOL (LGRB), Heiko Zumsprekel (LGRB)

  14. PREFACE: Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2010): Gravity as a Crossroad in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Víctor; Barceló, Carlos; Jaramillo, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    geometric approaches to the quantization of general relativity (e.g. loop quantum gravity in the context of the canonical program) and approaches leaning on or evolving from a (quantum) field theory treatment of gravity (e.g. string/M-theory). Day 3: Theoretical Cosmology vs Physical CosmologyThis day addressed the current challenges in cosmology from a double perspective. On the one hand, offering an analysis of the large scale picture of the universe emerging from the accumulated body of observational data and, on the other hand, assessing the theoretical attempts to explain such a picture putting a special emphasis on the role of gravity. Day 4: Relativity vs AstrophysicsThis day was focused on astrophysical problems where general relativity plays a fundamental role. Challenges and difficulties encountered by relativists modelling specific astrophysical scenarios were disucssed as well as the problems found by astrophysicists needing general relativity as a key conceptual ingredient. Particular emphasis was placed on gravitational waves and compact objects. Day 5: Mathematical Relativity vs Numerical RelativityThis day discussed fundamental problems in general relativity, and more generally in gravity physics, where a close collaboration between relativists in the geometry/analysis community on the one hand, and relativists in the numerical community on the other hand, can prove to be particularly successful and insightful. The contributions in this volume have been organized in two blocks, corresponding to plenary and parallel sessions during the conference. In both cases we have kept the chronological order of the presented talks. The only exception to this rule is the parallel session dedicated to the memory of the late S Brian Edgar, labeled as IV.A during the conference, which we have placed immediately after the plenary session contributions. The result of the 'dialogue experience' at the conference was extremely satisfactory and gratifying. Scientific sessions

  15. Use of the HadGEM2 climate-chemistry model to investigate interannual variability in methane sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Garry; O'Connor, Fiona; Clark, Douglas; Huntingford, Chris; Gedney, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    emission totals for the different years and source sectors using sector and species-specific scaling factors based on the annual trends given in various EDGAR time series: (a) version 4.2 for all species (except NMVOCs) and version 4.1 for NMVOCs; (b) v3.2. This approach was also applied to the emissions from aviation (only for oxides of nitrogen) and international shipping. Biomass burning: Month-specific emission inventories are available from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, v3.1) for the years 1997 to 2009 [7]. The emissions were rescaled to give the same decadal mean as used in the Hadley Centre's earlier HadGEM2 runs (25 Tg CH4 per annum). Other: Sources such as termites and hydrates for methane were taken from the GEIA website and the dataset of Fung et al. [8]. The datasets contain a single annual cycle, which was assumed to apply for all years. For CH4, there are also emissions from wetlands. These were either based on the dataset of Fung et al. [8] or derived from the JULES (Joint UK Land Earth Simulator) land surface model [9, 10]. The standard version of JULES uses a simple methane wetland emission parameterization, developed and tested by [11] for use at large spatial scales. The surface concentrations from the different model runs have been compared to surface atmospheric CH4 measurements. In addition, growth rates have been derived. These comparisons will be reported and used to assess the contribution of different methane sources to the interannual variations in the methane growth rate. References [1] Dlugokencky, E.J., et al.: Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 369, 2058-2072; doi: 10.1098/rsta.2010.0341, 2011. [2] Forster, P., et al.: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D

  16. Obituary: Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, 1919-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, William M.; Arny, Thomas T.; Trimble, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    Japanese. He was fascinated with Olbers' Paradox (which he pointed out had not been discovered by Olbers and was not really a paradox, but a riddle), the question of why the sky is dark at night if the universe is filled with bright stars and galaxies. His book, Darkness at Night, points out that this is not primarily because the universe is expanding, nor because light is absorbed, but rather because the stars and galaxies have had only about 15 billion years to radiate and indeed do not have enough energy to keep radiating for much longer. He points out that this conclusion was anticipated in the writings of Edgar Allan Poe! Ted's monograph, Cosmology: The Science of the Universe, has gone through some seven printings and two editions. Again typical of his command of the history of science, he describes the problem of the "cosmic edge" of the universe by quoting fifth-century BCE soldier-philosopher Archytas of Tarentum, who asked what happens to a spear that is hurled across the outer boundary of the universe? But to many of us, Ted's most intriguing book is Masks of the Universe (second edition published just three years ago). Is our present cosmology, with ordinary matter, dark matter, and dark energy, but another mask obscuring a Universe which will remain perforce forever unknown? Will the ?CDM model be looked upon some day in the same way that we now view the medieval, the geometric, or the mythic universes of earlier eras? Read the book and form your own opinion!

  17. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

  18. Obituary: Edward W. Burke, Jr. (1924-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Raymond, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    research trips out west and served as a constant source of encouragement throughout his long career. Dr. Burke is survived by his wife, Julee, a son, Edward W. Burke, III, a daughter, Julia Burke Torbert (Edgar) and one grandson, Samuel Burke Torbert. An endowed chair has been established in his name at King College: The Edward W. Burke, Jr., Endowed Chair in Natural Science. His legacy to education in the natural sciences in the Appalachian region will continue to inspire future generations.

  19. Chemical Modification of Cellulose Esters for Oral Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangtao

    Polymer functional groups have critical impacts upon physical, chemical and mechanical properties, and thus affect the specific applications of the polymer. Functionalization of cellulose esters and ethers has been under extensive investigation for applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, food ingredients, and automobile coating. In oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations have been used, prepared by forming miscible blends of polymers and drugs to inhibit crystallization and enhance bioavailability of the drug. The Edgar and Taylor groups have revealed that some cellulose o-carboxyalkanoates were highly effective as ASD polymers, with the pendant carboxylic acid groups providing both specific polymer-drug interactions and pHtriggered release through swelling of the ionized polymer matrix. While a variety of functional groups such as hydroxyl and amide groups are also of interest, cellulose functionalization has relied heavily on classical methods such as esterification and etherification for appending functional groups. These methods, although they have been very useful, are limited in two respects. First, they typically employ harsh reaction conditions. Secondly, each synthetic pathway is only applicable for one or a narrow group of functionalities due to restrictions imposed by the required reaction conditions. To this end, there is a great impetus to identify novel reactions in cellulose modification that are mild, efficient and ideally modular. In the initial effort to design and synthesize cellulose esters for oral drug delivery, we developed several new methods in cellulose functionalization, which can overcome drawbacks of conventional synthetic pathways, provide novel cellulose derivatives that are otherwise inaccessible, and present a platform for structure-property relationship study. Cellulose o-hydroxyalkanoates were previously difficult to access as the hydroxyl groups, if not protected, react

  20. MOC Views of Martian Solar Eclipses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    -middle-right (Ascraeus Mons).

    Phobos and the smaller, more distant satellite, Deimos, were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall, an astronomer at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. Hall had been hunting for martian satellites for some time, and was about to abandon the search when he was encouraged by his wife to continue. In honor of her role, the largest crater on Phobos was named Stickney, her maiden name. Phobos is a tiny, potato-shaped world that is only about 13 km by 11 km by 9 km (8 mi by 7 mi by 6 mi) in size.

    In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published a story entitled 'Under the Moons of Mars' (printed in book form in 1917 as A Princess of Mars) in which he referred to the 'hurtling moons of Barsoom' (Barsoom being the 'native' word for Mars in the fictional account). Burroughs was inspired by the fact that Phobos, having an orbital period of slightly less than 8 hours, would appear from Mars to rise in the west and set in the east only five and a half hours later. (Despite Burroughs' phrase, the outer moon, Deimos, can hardly be said to 'hurtle' -- it takes nearly 60 hours to cross the sky from east to west, rising on one day and not setting again for over two more.)

    If you could stand on Mars and watch Phobos passing overhead, you would notice that this moon appears to be only about half the size of what Earth's Moon looks like when viewed from the ground. In addition, the Sun would seem to have shrunk to about 2/3 (or nearly 1/2) of its size as seen from Earth. Martian eclipses are therefore dark but not as spectacular as total solar eclipses on Earth can be. In compensation, the martian eclipses are thousands of times more common, occurring a few times a day somewhere on Mars whenever Phobos passes over the planet's sunlit side. Due to the changing geometry of the MGS orbit relative to that of Phobos, the shadow is actually seen in MOC global map images (like in the second figure above) about a dozen times a month.

    The shadow of Phobos was seen