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Sample records for ab binding alters

  1. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod binding-proteins from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Castro, Diana L; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are currently used for pest control in transgenic crops but evolution of resistance by the insect pests threatens the use of this technology. The Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack the alpha helix-1 of the parental Cry1Ab toxin and was shown to counter resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in different insect species including the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In addition, Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to Cry1Ab-susceptible S. frugiperda populations. To gain insights into the mechanisms of this Cry1AbMod-enhanced toxicity, we isolated the Cry1AbMod toxin binding proteins from S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), which were identified by pull-down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS results indicated that Cry1AbMod toxin could bind to four classes of aminopeptidase (N1, N3, N4 y N5) and actin, with the highest amino acid sequence coverage acquired for APN 1 and APN4. In addition to these proteins, we found other proteins not previously described as Cry toxin binding proteins. This is the first report that suggests the interaction between Cry1AbMod and APN in S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accurate ab initio binding energies of the benzene dimer.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Choon; Lee, Jae Shin

    2006-04-20

    Accurate binding energies of the benzene dimer at the T and parallel displaced (PD) configurations were determined using the single- and double-coupled cluster method with perturbative triple correction (CCSD(T)) with correlation-consistent basis sets and an effective basis set extrapolation scheme recently devised. The difference between the estimated CCSD(T) basis set limit electronic binding energies for the T and PD shapes appears to amount to more than 0.3 kcal/mol, indicating the PD shape is a more stable configuration than the T shape for this dimer in the gas phase. This conclusion is further strengthened when a vibrational zero-point correction to the electronic binding energies of this dimer is made, which increases the difference between the two configurations to 0.4-0.5 kcal/mol. The binding energies of 2.4 and 2.8 kcal/mol for the T and PD configurations are in good accord with the previous experimental result from ionization potential measurement.

  3. Molecular Characterization of abLIM, a Novel Actin-binding and Double Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Dorothy J.; Hayes, Annmarie; Adamian, Michael; Chishti, Athar H.; Li, Tiansen

    1997-01-01

    Molecules that couple the actin-based cytoskeleton to intracellular signaling pathways are central to the processes of cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. We have characterized a novel protein, the actin-binding LIM (abLIM) protein, which could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. abLIM protein consists of a COOH-terminal cytoskeletal domain that is fused to an NH2-terminal domain consisting of four double zinc finger motifs. The cytoskeletal domain is ∼50% identical to erythrocyte dematin, an actin-bundling protein of the red cell membrane skeleton, while the zinc finger domains conform to the LIM motif consensus sequence. In vitro expression studies demonstrate that abLIM protein can bind to F-actin through the dematin-like domain. Transcripts corresponding to three distinct isoforms have a widespread tissue distribution. However, a polypeptide corresponding to the full-length isoform is found exclusively in the retina and is enriched in biochemical extracts of retinal rod inner segments. abLIM protein also undergoes extensive phosphorylation in light-adapted retinas in vivo, and its developmental expression in the retina coincides with the elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Based on the composite primary structure of abLIM protein, actin-binding capacity, potential regulation via phosphorylation, and isoform expression pattern, we speculate that abLIM may play a general role in bridging the actin-based cytoskeleton with an array of potential LIM protein-binding partners. The developmental time course of abLIM expression in the retina suggests that the retina-specific isoform may have a specialized role in the development or elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. PMID:9245787

  4. Cytotoxicity and binding profiles of activated Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab to three insect cell lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While Cry1Ac has been known to bind with larval midgut proteins cadherin, APN (amino peptidase N), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and ABCC2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2), little is known about the receptors of Cry2Ab. To provide a clue to the receptors of Cry2Ab, we tested the baselin...

  5. Hfq variant with altered RNA binding functions

    PubMed Central

    Ziolkowska, Katarzyna; Derreumaux, Philippe; Folichon, Marc; Pellegrini, Olivier; Régnier, Philippe; Boni, Irina V.; Hajnsdorf, Eliane

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between Hfq and RNA is central to multiple regulatory processes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found a missense mutation in Hfq (V43R) which strongly affects2 the RNA binding capacity of the Hfq protein and its ability to stimulate poly(A) tail elongation by poly(A)-polymerase in vitro. In vivo, overexpression of this Hfq variant fails to stimulate rpoS–lacZ expression and does not restore a normal growth rate in hfq null mutant. Cells in which the wild-type gene has been replaced by the hfqV43R allele exhibit a phenotype intermediate between those of the wild-type and of the hfq minus or null strains. This missense mutation derepresses Hfq synthesis. However, not all Hfq functions are affected by this mutation. For example, HfqV43R represses OppA synthesis as strongly as the wild-type protein. The dominant negative effect of the V43R mutation over the wild-type allele suggests that hexamers containing variant and genuine subunits are presumably not functional. Finally, molecular dynamics studies indicate that the V43R substitution mainly changes the position of the K56 and Y55 side chains involved in the Hfq–RNA interaction but has probably no effect on the folding and the oligomerization of the protein. PMID:16449205

  6. Ab initio Study of Transition metal binding to the Prion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pan, Jianping

    2004-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of the prion protein (PrP) is of critical public health importance in view of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. In recent years, it has been shown that the normal form (PrP^c) binds copper^1), and the structure of the copper binding domain has been elaborated. Hypotheses about toxicity associated with binding of other metals (notably manganese) have been put forward, Accordingly, using the ab initio SIESTA density functional theory code^2), we calculated the binding energy E_B(M) of M-(PrP) complexes relative to initially uncomplexed M ions, with M=Cu,Ni,Zn,Mn and (PrP)^* the minimal binding domain. The binding energy trend is E_B(Ni)>E_B(Cu)>E_B(Zn)>E_B(Mn), consistent with recent experiments apart from the surprising stability of Ni. We will also present preliminary results for binding of initially complexed M ions. *-Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Research 1) G.S. Jackson et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 98, 8531 (2001). 2) P. Ordejón, et al., Phys. Rev. B53, R10441 (1996); J.M. Soler et al., J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 2745 (2002).

  7. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.

    2015-02-01

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.

  8. Mutational Analysis of the TnrA-Binding Sites in the Bacillus subtilis nrgAB and gabP Promoter Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Lewis V.; Zalieckas, Jill M.; Ferson, Amy E.; Fisher, Susan H.

    1998-01-01

    Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis nrgAB promoter is activated during nitrogen-limited growth by the TnrA protein. A common inverted repeat, TGTNAN7TNACA (TnrA site), is centered 49 to 51 bp upstream of the transcriptional start sites for the TnrA-regulated nrgAB, gabP P2, and nas promoters. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the nrgAB promoter region showed that conserved nucleotides within the TnrA site, the A+T-rich region between the two TnrA half-sites, and an upstream A tract are all required for high-level activation of nrgAB expression. Mutations that alter the relative distance between the two half-sites of the nrgAB TnrA site abolish nitrogen regulation of nrgAB expression. Spacer mutations that change the relative distance between the TnrA site and −35 region of the nrgAB promoter reveal that activation of nrgAB expression occurs only when the TnrA site is located 49 to 51 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Mutational analysis of the conserved nucleotides in the gabP P2 TnrA site showed that this sequence is also required for nitrogen-regulated gabP P2 expression. The TnrA protein, expressed in an overproducing Escherichia coli strain, had a 625-fold-higher affinity for the wild-type nrgAB promoter DNA than for a mutated nrgAB promoter DNA fragment that is unable to activate nrgAB expression in vivo. These results indicate that the proposed TnrA site functions as the binding site for the TnrA protein. TnrA was found to activate nrgAB expression during late exponential growth in nutrient sporulation medium containing glucose, suggesting that cells become nitrogen limited during growth in this medium. PMID:9603886

  9. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in assembly of MacAB-TolC macrolide transporter

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary MacB is a founding member of the Macrolide Exporter family of transporters belonging to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily. These proteins are broadly represented in genomes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are implicated in virulence and protection against antibiotics and peptide toxins. MacB transporter functions together with MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, which stimulates MacB ATPase. In gram-negative bacteria, MacA is believed to couple ATP hydrolysis to transport of substrates across the outer membrane through a TolC-like channel. In this study, we report a real-time analysis of concurrent ATP hydrolysis and assembly of MacAB-TolC complex. MacB binds nucleotides with a low millimolar affinity and fast on- and off-rates. In contrast, MacA-MacB complex is formed with a nanomolar affinity, which further increases in the presence of ATP. Our results strongly suggest that association between MacA and MacB is stimulated by ATP binding to MacB but remains unchanged during ATP hydrolysis cycle. We also found that the large periplasmic loop of MacB plays the major role in coupling reactions separated in two different membranes. This loop is required for MacA-dependent stimulation of MacB ATPase and at the same time, contributes to recruitment of TolC into a trans-envelope complex. PMID:23057817

  10. Recognizing metal and acid radical ion-binding sites by integrating ab initio modeling with template-based transferals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuzhen; Dong, Qiwen; Yang, Jianyi; Zhang, Yang

    2016-11-01

    More than half of proteins require binding of metal and acid radical ions for their structure and function. Identification of the ion-binding locations is important for understanding the biological functions of proteins. Due to the small size and high versatility of the metal and acid radical ions, however, computational prediction of their binding sites remains difficult. We proposed a new ligand-specific approach devoted to the binding site prediction of 13 metal ions (Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ , Na + , K + ) and acid radical ion ligands (CO3 2- , NO2 - , SO4 2- , PO4 3- ) that are most frequently seen in protein databases. A sequence-based ab initio model is first trained on sequence profiles, where a modified AdaBoost algorithm is extended to balance binding and non-binding residue samples. A composite method IonCom is then developed to combine the ab initio model with multiple threading alignments for further improving the robustness of the binding site predictions. The pipeline was tested using 5-fold cross validations on a comprehensive set of 2,100 non-redundant proteins bound with 3,075 small ion ligands. Significant advantage was demonstrated compared with the state of the art ligand-binding methods including COACH and TargetS for high-accuracy ion-binding site identification. Detailed data analyses show that the major advantage of IonCom lies at the integration of complementary ab initio and template-based components. Ion-specific feature design and binding library selection also contribute to the improvement of small ion ligand binding predictions. http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/IonCom CONTACT: hxz@imut.edu.cn or zhng@umich.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Molecular characterization and functions of fatty acid and retinoid binding protein gene (Ab-far-1) in Aphelenchoides besseyi.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Xiang, Yu; Xie, Hui; Xu, Chun-Ling; Xie, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, is a kind of plant parasitic nematodes that cause serious losses in rice and many other crops. Fatty acid and retinoid binding protein (FAR) is a specific protein in nematodes and is related to development, reproduction, infection to the host, and disruption of plant defense reactions, so the inhibition of FAR function is the potential approach to control A. besseyi. The full-length of Ab-far-1 cDNA is 805 bp, including 546 bp of ORF that encodes 181 amino acids. Software analysis revealed that the Ab-FAR-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a hydrophobic secretory signal peptide, but did not have glycosylation sites. The Ab-FAR-1 had 52% homology to Gp-FAR-1 protein. The Ab-FAR-1 and Gp-FAR-1 were grouped in the same branch according to the phylogenetic tree. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ab-FAR-1 (rAb-FAR-1) bound with the fluorescent analogues 11-((5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino) undecannoic acid (DAUDA), cis-parinaric acid and retinol, but the oleic acid would compete with the binding site. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to assess the expression level of Ab-far-1 at different development stages of A. besseyi, the highest expression was found in the females, followed by eggs, juveniles and males. Using in situ hybridization technique, Ab-far-1 mRNA was present in the hypodermis of juveniles and adults, the ovaries of females and the testes of males. When A. besseyi was treated with Ab-far-1 dsRNA for 48 h, the silencing efficiency of Ab-far-1 was the best and the number of nematodes on the carrot was the least. Thus FAR plays important roles in the development and reproduction of nematodes. This study is useful and helpful to figure out a new way to control the plant parasitic nematodes.

  12. Aqueous Cation-Amide Binding: Free Energies and IR Spectral Signatures by Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pluharova, Eva; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-03

    Understanding specific ion effects on proteins remains a considerable challenge. N-methylacetamide serves as a useful proxy for the protein backbone that can be well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The spectroscopic signatures in the amide I band reflecting the strength of the interaction of alkali cations and alkali earth dications with the carbonyl group remain difficult to assign and controversial to interpret. Herein, we directly compute the IR shifts corresponding to the binding of either sodium or calcium to aqueous N-methylacetamide using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the two cations interact with aqueous N-methylacetamide with different affinitiesmore » and in different geometries. Since sodium exhibits a weak interaction with the carbonyl group, the resulting amide I band is similar to an unperturbed carbonyl group undergoing aqueous solvation. In contrast, the stronger calcium binding results in a clear IR shift with respect to N-methylacetamide in pure water. Support from the Czech Ministry of Education (grant LH12001) is gratefully acknowledged. EP thanks the International Max-Planck Research School for support and the Alternative Sponsored Fellowship program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PJ acknowledges the Praemium Academie award from the Academy of Sciences. Calculations of the free energy profiles were made possible through generous allocation of computer time from the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). Calculations of vibrational spectra were performed in part using the computational resources in the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant CHE-0431312. CJM is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. PNNL is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle

  13. Perspectives from ab-initio and tight-binding: Applications to transition metal compounds and superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Vijay Shankar

    The experimental and theoretical study of transition metal compounds have occupied condensed matter physicists for the best part of the last century. The rich variety of physical behaviour exhibited by these compounds owes its origin to the subtle balance of the energy scales at play for the d orbitals. In this thesis, we study three different systems comprised of transition metal atoms from the third, the fourth, and the fifth group of the periodic table using a combination of ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) computations and effective tight-binding models for the electronic properties. We first consider the electronic properties of artificially fabricated perovskite superlattices of the form [(SrIrO3)m / SrTiO3] with integer m denoting the number of layers of SrIrO3. After discussing the results of experiments undertaken by our collaborators, we present the results of our DFT calculations and build tight-binding models for the m = 1 and m = 2 superlattices. The active ingredient is found to be the 5d orbitals with significant spin-orbit coupling. We then study the energies of magnetic ground states within DFT and compare and contrast our results with those obtained for the bulk Ruddlesden-Popper iridates. Together with experimental measurements, our results suggest that these superlattices are an exciting venue to probe the magnetism and metal-insulator transitions that occur from the intricate balance of the spin-orbit coupling and electron interactions, as has been reported for their bulk counterparts. Next, we consider alpha-RuCl3, a honeycomb lattice compound. We first show using DFT calculations in conjunction with experiments performed by our collaborators, how spin-orbit coupling in the 4d orbitals of Ru is essential to understand the insulating state realized in this compound. Then, in the latter half of the chapter, we study the magnetic ground states of a two-dimensional analogue of alpha-RuCl3 in weak and strong-coupling regimes obtained from

  14. Shared Midgut Binding Sites for Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in Two Important Corn Pests, Ostrinia nubilalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Van Rie, Jeroen; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2013-01-01

    First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect populations. One of such examples is the combination of Cry1A.105 with Cry1Fa and Cry2Ab to control O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda. Cry1A.105 is a chimeric protein with domains I and II and the C-terminal half of the protein from Cry1Ac, and domain III almost identical to Cry1Fa. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the chimeric Cry1A.105 has shared binding sites either with Cry1A proteins, with Cry1Fa, or with both, in O. nubilalis and in S. frugiperda. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from last instar larval midguts were used in competition binding assays with 125I-labeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa, and unlabeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae. The results showed that Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa competed with high affinity for the same binding sites in both insect species. However, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae did not compete for the binding sites of Cry1 proteins. Therefore, according to our results, the development of cross-resistance among Cry1Ab/Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry1Fa proteins is possible in these two insect species if the alteration of shared binding sites occurs. Conversely, cross-resistance between these proteins and Cry2A proteins is very unlikely in such case. PMID:23861865

  15. Thiol versus hydroxamate as zinc binding group in HDAC inhibition: An ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai

    2015-11-15

    Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding toward class IIa HDACs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Thiol Versus Hydroxamate as Zinc Binding Group In HDAC Inhibition: An Ab Initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding towards class IIa HDACs. PMID:26452222

  17. Arginine metabolism is altered in adults with A-B + ketosis-prone diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A-B + ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a subset of type 2 diabetes in which patients have severe but reversible B cell dysfunction of unknown etiology. Plasma metabolomic analysis indicates that abnormal arginine metabolism may be involved. The objective of this study was to determine the relation be...

  18. Neurogranin alters the structure and calcium binding properties of calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Laurel; Chandrasekar, Anuja; Wang, Xu; Putkey, John A; Waxham, M Neal

    2014-05-23

    Neurogranin (Ng) is a member of the IQ motif class of calmodulin (CaM)-binding proteins, and interactions with CaM are its only known biological function. In this report we demonstrate that the binding affinity of Ng for CaM is weakened by Ca(2+) but to a lesser extent (2-3-fold) than that previously suggested from qualitative observations. We also show that Ng induced a >10-fold decrease in the affinity of Ca(2+) binding to the C-terminal domain of CaM with an associated increase in the Ca(2+) dissociation rate. We also discovered a modest, but potentially important, increase in the cooperativity in Ca(2+) binding to the C-lobe of CaM in the presence of Ng, thus sharpening the threshold for the C-domain to become Ca(2+)-saturated. Domain mapping using synthetic peptides indicated that the IQ motif of Ng is a poor mimetic of the intact protein and that the acidic sequence just N-terminal to the IQ motif plays an important role in reproducing Ng-mediated decreases in the Ca(2+) binding affinity of CaM. Using NMR, full-length Ng was shown to make contacts largely with residues in the C-domain of CaM, although contacts were also detected in residues in the N-terminal domain. Together, our results can be consolidated into a model where Ng contacts residues in the N- and C-lobes of both apo- and Ca(2+)-bound CaM and that although Ca(2+) binding weakens Ng interactions with CaM, the most dramatic biochemical effect is the impact of Ng on Ca(2+) binding to the C-terminal lobe of CaM. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Balancing charge in the complementarity-determining regions of humanized mAbs without affecting pI reduces non-specific binding and improves the pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Datta-Mannan, Amita; Thangaraju, Arunkumar; Leung, Donmienne; Tang, Ying; Witcher, Derrick R; Lu, Jirong; Wroblewski, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    Lowering the isoelectric point (pI) through engineering the variable region or framework of an IgG can improve its exposure and half-life via a reduction in clearance mediated through non-specific interactions. As such, net charge is a potentially important property to consider in developing therapeutic IgG molecules having favorable pharmaceutical characteristics. Frequently, it may not be possible to shift the pI of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) dramatically without the introduction of other liabilities such as increased off-target interactions or reduced on-target binding properties. In this report, we explored the influence of more subtle modifications of molecular charge on the in vivo properties of an IgG1 and IgG4 monoclonal antibody. Molecular surface modeling was used to direct residue substitutions in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to disrupt positive charge patch regions, resulting in a reduction in net positive charge without affecting the overall pI of the mAbs. The effect of balancing the net positive charge on non-specific binding was more significant for the IgG4 versus the IgG1 molecule that we examined. This differential effect was connected to the degree of influence on cellular degradation in vitro and in vivo clearance, distribution and metabolism in mice. In the more extreme case of the IgG4, balancing the charge yielded an ∼7-fold improvement in peripheral exposure, as well as significantly reduced tissue catabolism and subsequent excretion of proteolyzed products in urine. Balancing charge on the IgG1 molecule had a more subtle influence on non-specific binding and yielded only a modest alteration in clearance, distribution and elimination. These results suggest that balancing CDR charge without affecting the pI can lead to improved mAb pharmacokinetics, the magnitude of which is likely dependent on the relative influence of charge imbalance and other factors affecting the molecule's disposition.

  20. Balancing charge in the complementarity-determining regions of humanized mAbs without affecting pI reduces non-specific binding and improves the pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Datta-Mannan, Amita; Thangaraju, Arunkumar; Leung, Donmienne; Tang, Ying; Witcher, Derrick R; Lu, Jirong; Wroblewski, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    Lowering the isoelectric point (pI) through engineering the variable region or framework of an IgG can improve its exposure and half-life via a reduction in clearance mediated through non-specific interactions. As such, net charge is a potentially important property to consider in developing therapeutic IgG molecules having favorable pharmaceutical characteristics. Frequently, it may not be possible to shift the pI of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) dramatically without the introduction of other liabilities such as increased off-target interactions or reduced on-target binding properties. In this report, we explored the influence of more subtle modifications of molecular charge on the in vivo properties of an IgG1 and IgG4 monoclonal antibody. Molecular surface modeling was used to direct residue substitutions in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to disrupt positive charge patch regions, resulting in a reduction in net positive charge without affecting the overall pI of the mAbs. The effect of balancing the net positive charge on non-specific binding was more significant for the IgG4 versus the IgG1 molecule that we examined. This differential effect was connected to the degree of influence on cellular degradation in vitro and in vivo clearance, distribution and metabolism in mice. In the more extreme case of the IgG4, balancing the charge yielded an ∼7-fold improvement in peripheral exposure, as well as significantly reduced tissue catabolism and subsequent excretion of proteolyzed products in urine. Balancing charge on the IgG1 molecule had a more subtle influence on non-specific binding and yielded only a modest alteration in clearance, distribution and elimination. These results suggest that balancing CDR charge without affecting the pI can lead to improved mAb pharmacokinetics, the magnitude of which is likely dependent on the relative influence of charge imbalance and other factors affecting the molecule's disposition. PMID:25695748

  1. Quantitative structure activity relationships from optimised ab initio bond lengths: steroid binding affinity and antibacterial activity of nitrofuran derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. J.; Popelier, P. L. A.

    2004-02-01

    The present day abundance of cheap computing power enables the use of quantum chemical ab initio data in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). Optimised bond lengths are a new such class of descriptors, which we have successfully used previously in representing electronic effects in medicinal and ecological QSARs (enzyme inhibitory activity, hydrolysis rate constants and pKas). Here we use AM1 and HF/3-21G* bond lengths in conjunction with Partial Least Squares (PLS) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to predict the Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin (CBG) binding activity of the classic steroid data set, and the antibacterial activity of nitrofuran derivatives. The current procedure, which does not require molecular alignment, produces good r2 and q2 values. Moreover, it highlights regions in the common steroid skeleton deemed relevant to the active regions of the steroids and nitrofuran derivatives.

  2. Novobiocin binding to NalD induces the expression of the MexAB-OprM pump in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Wenquan; Sang, Hong; Liu, Xichun; Ge, Zhiyun; Zhang, Jin; Lan, Lefu; Yang, Cai-Guang; Chen, Hao

    2016-06-01

    NalD was reported to be the secondary repressor of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump, the major system contributing to intrinsic multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we show that novobiocin binds directly to NalD, which leads NalD to dissociate from the DNA promoter, and thus de-represses the expression of the MexAB-OprM pump. In addition, we have solved the crystal structure of NalD at a resolution of 2.90 Å. The structural alignment of NalD to its homologue TtgR reveals that the residues N129 and H167 in NalD are involved in its novobiocin-binding ability. We have confirmed the function of these two amino acids by EMSA and plate assay. The results presented here highlight the importance and diversity of regulatory mechanism in bacterial antibiotic resistance, and provide further insight for novel antimicrobial development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physical origins of weak H 2 binding on carbon nanostructures: Insight from ab initio studies of chemically functionalized graphene nanoribbons

    DOE PAGES

    Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; ...

    2014-05-05

    Here, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH 2, COOH, NO 2, or H 2PO 3. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. Furthermore, the largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strongmore » functionalization” by H 2PO 3 (115 meV/H 2 versus 52 meV/H 2 on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. These results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of hydrogen in graphene. They also have relevance for the storage of hydrogen

  4. Binding Interactions of Agents That Alter α-Synuclein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sivanesam, K.; Byrne, A.; Bisaglia, M.; Bubacco, L.

    2015-01-01

    Further examination of peptides with well-folded antiparallel β strands as inhibitors of amyloid formation from α-synuclein has resulted in more potent inhibitors. Several of these had multiple Tyr residues and represent a new lead for inhibitor design by small peptides that do not divert α-synuclein to non-amyloid aggregate formation. The most potent inhibitor obtained in this study is a backbone cyclized version of a previously studied β hairpin, designated as WW2, with a cross-strand Trp/Trp cluster. The cyclization was accomplished by adding a d-Pro-l-Pro turn locus across strand termini. At a 2:1 peptide to α-synuclein ratio, cyclo-WW2 displays complete inhibition of β-structure formation. Trp-bearing antiparallel β-sheets held together by a disulphide bond are also potent inhibitors. 15N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein provided new mechanistic details. The time course of 15N HSQC spectral changes observed during β-oligomer formation has revealed which segments of the structure become part of the rigid core of an oligomer at early stages of amyloidogenesis and that the C-terminus remains fully flexible throughout the process. All of the effective peptide inhibitors display binding-associated titration shifts in 15N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein in the C-terminal Q109-E137 segment. Cyclo-WW2, the most potent inhibitor, also displays titration shifts in the G41-T54 span of α-synuclein, an additional binding site. The earliest aggregation event appears to be centered about H50 which is also a binding site for our most potent inhibitor. PMID:25705374

  5. Binding Interactions of Agents That Alter α-Synuclein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sivanesam, K; Byrne, A; Bisaglia, M; Bubacco, L; Andersen, N

    Further examination of peptides with well-folded antiparallel β strands as inhibitors of amyloid formation from α-synuclein has resulted in more potent inhibitors. Several of these had multiple Tyr residues and represent a new lead for inhibitor design by small peptides that do not divert α-synuclein to non-amyloid aggregate formation. The most potent inhibitor obtained in this study is a backbone cyclized version of a previously studied β hairpin, designated as WW2, with a cross-strand Trp/Trp cluster. The cyclization was accomplished by adding a d-Pro-l-Pro turn locus across strand termini. At a 2:1 peptide to α-synuclein ratio, cyclo-WW2 displays complete inhibition of β-structure formation. Trp-bearing antiparallel β-sheets held together by a disulphide bond are also potent inhibitors. 15 N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein provided new mechanistic details. The time course of 15 N HSQC spectral changes observed during β-oligomer formation has revealed which segments of the structure become part of the rigid core of an oligomer at early stages of amyloidogenesis and that the C-terminus remains fully flexible throughout the process. All of the effective peptide inhibitors display binding-associated titration shifts in 15 N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein in the C-terminal Q109-E137 segment. Cyclo-WW2, the most potent inhibitor, also displays titration shifts in the G41-T54 span of α-synuclein, an additional binding site. The earliest aggregation event appears to be centered about H50 which is also a binding site for our most potent inhibitor.

  6. Characterization of Escherichia coli Type 1 Pilus Mutants with Altered Binding Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sandra L.; Spears, Patricia A.; Havell, Edward A.; Hamrick, Terri S.; Horton, John R.; Orndorff, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    PCR mutagenesis and a unique enrichment scheme were used to obtain two mutants, each with a single lesion in fimH, the chromosomal gene that encodes the adhesin protein (FimH) of Escherichia coli type 1 pili. These mutants were noteworthy in part because both were altered in the normal range of cell types bound by FimH. One mutation altered an amino acid at a site previously shown to be involved in temperature-dependent binding, and the other altered an amino acid lining the predicted FimH binding pocket. PMID:11395476

  7. Mutation Induced Conformational Change In CaMKII Peptide Alters Binding Affinity to CaM Through Alternate Binding Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezerski, Jacob; Cheung, Margaret

    CaM forms distinct conformation states through modifications in its charge distribution upon binding to Ca2+ ions. The occurrence of protein structural change resulting from an altered charge distribution is paramount in the scheme of cellular signaling. Not only is charge induced structural change observed in CaM, it is also seen in an essential binding target: calmodulin-depended protein kinase II (CaMKII). In order to investigate the mechanism of selectivity in relation to changes in secondary structure, the CaM binding domain of CaMKII is isolated. Experimentally, charged residues of the CaMKII peptide are systematically mutated to alanine, resulting in altered binding kinetics between the peptide and the Ca2+ saturated state of CaM. We perform an all atom simulation of the wildtype (RRK) and mutated (AAA) CaMKII peptides and generate structures from the trajectory. We analyze RRK and AAA using DSSP and find significant structural differences due to the mutation. Structures from the RRK and AAA ensembles are then selected and docked onto the crystal structure of Ca2+ saturated CaM. We observe that RRK binds to CaM at the C-terminus, whereas the 3-residue mutation, AAA, shows increased patterns of binding to the N-terminus and linker regions of CaM. Due to the conformational change of the peptide ensemble from charged residue mutation, a distinct change in the binding site can be seen, which offers an explanation to experimentally observed changes in kinetic binding rates

  8. MGMT DNA repair gene promoter/enhancer haplotypes alter transcription factor binding and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meixiang; Cross, Courtney E; Speidel, Jordan T; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2016-10-01

    The O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein removes O 6 -alkyl-guanine adducts from DNA. MGMT expression can thus alter the sensitivity of cells and tissues to environmental and chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. Previously, we defined the haplotype structure encompassing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region and found that haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT promoter activity. The exact mechanism(s) by which these haplotypes exert their effect on MGMT promoter activity is currently unknown, but we noted that many of the SNPs comprising the MGMT P/E haplotypes are located within or in close proximity to putative transcription factor binding sites. Thus, these haplotypes could potentially affect transcription factor binding and, subsequently, alter MGMT promoter activity. In this study, we test the hypothesis that MGMT P/E haplotypes affect MGMT promoter activity by altering transcription factor (TF) binding to the P/E region. We used a promoter binding TF profiling array and a reporter assay to evaluate the effect of different P/E haplotypes on TF binding and MGMT expression, respectively. Our data revealed a significant difference in TF binding profiles between the different haplotypes evaluated. We identified TFs that consistently showed significant haplotype-dependent binding alterations (p ≤ 0.01) and revealed their role in regulating MGMT expression using siRNAs and a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The data generated support our hypothesis that promoter haplotypes alter the binding of TFs to the MGMT P/E and, subsequently, affect their regulatory function on MGMT promoter activity and expression level.

  9. PxAPN5 serves as a functional receptor of Cry2Ab in Plutella xylostella (L.) and its binding domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Xu, Lian; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Qing-Xi; Zhu, Yu-Jing

    2017-12-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are widely studied for their potential roles as one of the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins. In the present study, a loss of function analyses by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the Plutella xylostella APN5 (PxAPN5), a binding protein of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab, were performed. The knocking down of PxAPN5 in P. xylostella larvae greatly reduced their susceptibility to Cry2Ab and led to a decrease of Cry2Ab binding to P. xylostella midgut. Four truncated fragments of PxAPN5 were further constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E.coli) to find the binding region of PxAPN5 to Cry2Ab. The ligand blot result indicated that D1 domain (residues 1-262) and D3 domain (residues 510-620) of PxAPN5 could specially bind to Cry2Ab. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress Introduction Rate Alters the Benefit of AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ariel M; Dunlop, Mary J

    2018-01-01

    Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. Therefore, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we studied how the rate of stress introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key stress response mechanism. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC of Escherichia coli , are membrane transporters well known for the ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels. Although efflux pumps improve stress tolerance, pump overexpression can result in a substantial fitness cost to the cells. We hypothesized that the ideal pump expression level would involve a rate-dependent trade-off between the benefit of pumps and the cost of their expression. To test this, we evaluated the benefit of the AcrAB-TolC pump under different rates of stress introduction, including a step, a fast ramp, and a gradual ramp. Using two chemically diverse stresses, the antibiotic chloramphenicol and the jet biofuel precursor pinene, we assessed the benefit provided by the pumps. A mathematical model describing these effects predicted the benefit as a function of the rate of stress introduction. Our findings demonstrate that as the rate of introduction is lowered, stress response mechanisms provide a disproportionate benefit to pump-containing strains, allowing cells to survive beyond the original inhibitory concentrations. IMPORTANCE Efflux pumps are ubiquitous in nature and provide stress tolerance in the cells of species ranging from bacteria to mammals. Understanding how pumps provide tolerance has far-reaching implications for diverse fields, from medicine to biotechnology. Here, we investigated how the rate of stressor appearance impacts tolerance. We focused on two distinct substrates of AcrAB-TolC efflux pumps, the

  11. Investigation of the binding mode of a novel cruzain inhibitor by docking, molecular dynamics, ab initio and MM/PBSA calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Luan Carvalho; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Cino, Elio A.; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado

    2018-03-01

    Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC50 = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization. Here, the cruzain binding mode of compound 1 was investigated using docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ab initio derived parameters, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA. Two ligand protonation states and four binding poses were evaluated. A careful ligand parameterization method was employed to derive more physically meaningful parameters than those obtained by automated tools. The poses of unprotonated 1 were unstable in MD, showing large conformational changes and diffusing away from the binding site, whereas the protonated form showed higher stability and interaction with negatively charged residues Asp161 and Cys25. MM/PBSA also suggested that these two residues contribute favorably to binding of compound 1. By combining results from MD, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA, a binding mode of 1 is proposed. The results also provide insights for further optimization of 1, an interesting lead compound for the development of new cruzain inhibitors.

  12. Investigation of the binding mode of a novel cruzain inhibitor by docking, molecular dynamics, ab initio and MM/PBSA calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Luan Carvalho; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Cino, Elio A.; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado

    2018-05-01

    Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC50 = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization. Here, the cruzain binding mode of compound 1 was investigated using docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ab initio derived parameters, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA. Two ligand protonation states and four binding poses were evaluated. A careful ligand parameterization method was employed to derive more physically meaningful parameters than those obtained by automated tools. The poses of unprotonated 1 were unstable in MD, showing large conformational changes and diffusing away from the binding site, whereas the protonated form showed higher stability and interaction with negatively charged residues Asp161 and Cys25. MM/PBSA also suggested that these two residues contribute favorably to binding of compound 1. By combining results from MD, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA, a binding mode of 1 is proposed. The results also provide insights for further optimization of 1, an interesting lead compound for the development of new cruzain inhibitors.

  13. Investigation of the binding mode of a novel cruzain inhibitor by docking, molecular dynamics, ab initio and MM/PBSA calculations.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luan Carvalho; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Cino, Elio A; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado

    2018-05-01

    Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC 50  = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization. Here, the cruzain binding mode of compound 1 was investigated using docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ab initio derived parameters, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA. Two ligand protonation states and four binding poses were evaluated. A careful ligand parameterization method was employed to derive more physically meaningful parameters than those obtained by automated tools. The poses of unprotonated 1 were unstable in MD, showing large conformational changes and diffusing away from the binding site, whereas the protonated form showed higher stability and interaction with negatively charged residues Asp161 and Cys25. MM/PBSA also suggested that these two residues contribute favorably to binding of compound 1. By combining results from MD, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA, a binding mode of 1 is proposed. The results also provide insights for further optimization of 1, an interesting lead compound for the development of new cruzain inhibitors.

  14. MicroRNA-20a/b regulates cholesterol efflux through post-transcriptional repression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Song, Xiaosu; Bai, Rui; Yang, Huiyu; Yang, Zhiming; Xiao, Chuanshi; Bian, Yunfei

    2017-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and exhibits anti-atherosclerosis effects. Some microRNAs (miRs) regulate ABCA1 expression, and recent studies have shown that miR-20a/b might play a critical role in atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we attempted to clarify the potential contribution of miR-20a/b in post-transcriptional regulation of ABCA1, cholesterol efflux, and atherosclerosis. We performed bioinformatics analysis and found that miR-20a/b was highly conserved and directly bound to ABCA1 mRNA with low binding free energy. Luciferase-reporter assay also confirmed that miR-20a/b significantly reduced luciferase activity associated with the ABCA1 3' untranslated region reporter construct. Additionally, miR-20a/b decreased ABCA1 expression, which, in turn, decreased cholesterol efflux and increased cholesterol content in THP-1 and RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells. In contrast, miR-20a/b inhibitors increased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux, decreased cholesterol content, and inhibited foam-cell formation. Consistent with our in vitro results, miR-20a/b-treated ApoE -/- mice showed decreased ABCA1expression in the liver and reductions of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Furthermore, miR-20a/b regulated the formation of nascent high-density lipoprotein and promoted atherosclerotic development, whereas miR-20a/b knockdown attenuated atherosclerotic formation. miR-20 is a new miRNA capable of targeting ABCA1 and regulating ABCA1 expression. Therefore, miR-20 inhibition constitutes a new strategy for ABCA1-based treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Horizontal transfer of miR-106a/b from cisplatin resistant hepatocarcinoma cells can alter the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Raji, Grace R; Sruthi, T V; Edatt, Lincy; Haritha, K; Sharath Shankar, S; Sameer Kumar, V B

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that horizontal transfer of genetic material can act as a communication tool between heterogenous populations of tumour cells, thus altering the chemosensitivity of tumour cells. The present study was designed to check whether the horizontal transfer of miRNAs released by cisplatin resistant (Cp-r) Hepatocarcinoma cells can alter the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells. For this exosomes secreted by cisplatin resistant and cisplatin sensitive HepG2 cells (EXres and EXsen) were isolated and characterised. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that EXres can make Hela cells resistant to cisplatin. Analysis of miR-106a/b levels in EXres and EXsen showed that their levels vary. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-106a/b play an important role in EXsen and EXres mediated change in chemosensitivity of Hela cells to cisplatin. Further SIRT1 was identified as a major target of miR-106a/b using in silico tools and this was proved by experimentation. Also the effect of miR-106a/b in chemosensitivity was seen to be dependent on regulation of SIRT1 by miR-106a/b. In brief, this study brings into light, the SIRT1 dependent mechanism of miR-106a/b mediated regulation of chemosensitivity upon the horizontal transfer from one cell type to another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new link between transcriptional initiation and pre-mRNA splicing: The RNA binding histone variant H2A.B

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Tay, Ying Jin; Tng, Wei-Quan; Wilkins, Marc; Ryan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of histone H2A with its variant forms is critical for regulating all aspects of genome organisation and function. The histone variant H2A.B appeared late in evolution and is most highly expressed in the testis followed by the brain in mammals. This raises the question of what new function(s) H2A.B might impart to chromatin in these important tissues. We have immunoprecipitated the mouse orthologue of H2A.B, H2A.B.3 (H2A.Lap1), from testis chromatin and found this variant to be associated with RNA processing factors and RNA Polymerase (Pol) II. Most interestingly, many of these interactions with H2A.B.3 (Sf3b155, Spt6, DDX39A and RNA Pol II) were inhibited by the presence of endogenous RNA. This histone variant can bind to RNA directly in vitro and in vivo, and associates with mRNA at intron—exon boundaries. This suggests that the ability of H2A.B to bind to RNA negatively regulates its capacity to bind to these factors (Sf3b155, Spt6, DDX39A and RNA Pol II). Unexpectedly, H2A.B.3 forms highly decompacted nuclear subdomains of active chromatin that co-localizes with splicing speckles in male germ cells. H2A.B.3 ChIP-Seq experiments revealed a unique chromatin organization at active genes being not only enriched at the transcription start site (TSS), but also at the beginning of the gene body (but being excluded from the +1 nucleosome) compared to the end of the gene. We also uncover a general histone variant replacement process whereby H2A.B.3 replaces H2A.Z at intron-exon boundaries in the testis and the brain, which positively correlates with expression and exon inclusion. Taken together, we propose that a special mechanism of splicing may occur in the testis and brain whereby H2A.B.3 recruits RNA processing factors from splicing speckles to active genes following its replacement of H2A.Z. PMID:28234895

  17. Synthetic Polymer Affinity Ligand for Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) Cry1Ab/Ac Protein: The Use of Biomimicry Based on the Bt Protein-Insect Receptor Binding Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingming; Huang, Rong; Weisman, Adam; Yu, Xiaoyang; Lee, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yalu; Huang, Chao; Hu, Senhua; Chen, Xiuhua; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Chen, Hao; Shea, Kenneth J

    2018-05-24

    We report a novel strategy for creating abiotic Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) protein affinity ligands by biomimicry of the recognition process that takes place between Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins and insect receptor cadherin-like Bt-R 1 proteins. Guided by this strategy, a library of synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared and screened for binding to three epitopes 280 FRGSAQGIEGS 290 , 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 and 436 FRSGFSNSSVSIIR 449 located in loop α8, loop 2 and loop 3 of domain II of Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins. A negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticle (NP12) was found to have high affinity to one of the epitopes, 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . This same NP also had specific binding ability to both Bt Cry1Ab and Bt Cry1Ac, proteins that share the same epitope, but very low affinity to Bt Cry2A, Bt Cry1C and Bt Cry1F closely related proteins that lack epitope homology. To locate possible NP- Bt Cry1Ab/Ac interaction sites, NP12 was used as a competitive inhibitor to block the binding of 865 NITIHITDTNNK 876 , a specific recognition site in insect receptor Bt-R 1 , to 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . The inhibition by NP12 reached as high as 84%, indicating that NP12 binds to Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins mainly via 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . This epitope region was then utilized as a "target" or "bait" for the separation and concentration of Bt Cry1Ac protein from the extract of transgenic Bt cotton leaves by NP12. This strategy, based on the antigen-receptor recognition mechanism, can be extended to other biotoxins and pathogen proteins when designing biomimic alternatives to natural protein affinity ligands.

  18. Effect of impurity doping on tunneling conductance in AB-stacked bi-layer graphene: A tight-binding study

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, G. C., E-mail: siva1987@iopb.res.in, E-mail: skp@iopb.res.in, E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in; Sahu, Sivabrata; Panda, S. K.

    2016-04-13

    We report here a microscopic tight-binding model calculation for AB-stacked bilayer graphene in presence of biasing potential between the two layers and the impurity effects to study the evolution of the total density of states with special emphasis on opening of band gap near Dirac point. We have calculated the electron Green’s functions for both the A and B sub-lattices by Zubarev technique. The imaginary part of the Green’s function gives the partial and total density of states of electrons. The density of states are computed numerically for 1000 × 1000 grid points of the electron momentum. The evolution ofmore » the opening of band gap near van-Hove singularities as well as near Dirac point is investigated by varying the different interlayer hoppings and the biasing potentials. The inter layer hopping splits the density of states at van-Hove singularities and produces a V-shaped gap near Dirac point. Further the biasing potential introduces a U shaped gap near Dirac point with a density minimum at the applied potential(i.e. at V/2).« less

  19. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  20. Regulatory RNA binding proteins contribute to the transcriptome-wide splicing alterations in human cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiongye; Wei, Lei; Zhang, Michael Q; Wang, Xiaowo

    2018-06-24

    Dysregulation of mRNA splicing has been observed in certain cellular senescence process. However, the common splicing alterations on the whole transcriptome shared by various types of senescence are poorly understood. In order to systematically identify senescence-associated transcriptomic changes in genome-wide scale, we collected RNA sequencing datasets of different human cell types with a variety of senescence-inducing methods from public databases and performed meta-analysis. First, we discovered that a group of RNA binding proteins were consistently down-regulated in diverse senescent samples and identified 406 senescence-associated common differential splicing events. Then, eight differentially expressed RNA binding proteins were predicted to regulate these senescence-associated splicing alterations through an enrichment analysis of their RNA binding information, including motif scanning and enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation data. In addition, we constructed the splicing regulatory modules that might contribute to senescence-associated biological processes. Finally, it was confirmed that knockdown of the predicted senescence-associated potential splicing regulators through shRNAs in HepG2 cell line could result in senescence-like splicing changes. Taken together, our work demonstrated a broad range of common changes in mRNA splicing switches and detected their central regulatory RNA binding proteins during senescence. These findings would help to better understand the coordinating splicing alterations in cellular senescence.

  1. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of controlmore » cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.« less

  2. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6

    PubMed Central

    Boschert, V.; Frisch, C.; Back, J. W.; van Pee, K.; Weidauer, S. E.; Muth, E.-M.; Schmieder, P.; Beerbaum, M.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2016-01-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure–function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  3. Alteration of human serum albumin binding properties induced by modifications: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, Małgorzata; Szkudlarek, Agnieszka; Chudzik, Mariola; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Sułkowska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Albumin, a major transporting protein in the blood, is the main target of modification that affects the binding of drugs to Sudlow's site I and II. These modification of serum protein moderates its physiological function, and works as a biomarker of some diseases. The main goal of the paper was to explain the possible alteration of human serum albumin binding properties induced by modifications such as glycation, oxidation and ageing, their origin, methods of evaluation and positive and negative meaning described by significant researchers.

  4. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential alterations of cortical glutamatergic binding sites in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, D.T.; Dewar, D.; Graham, D.I.

    1990-02-01

    Involvement of cortical glutamatergic mechanisms in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) has been investigated with quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography. The distribution and density of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake sites and glutamate receptor subtypes--kainate, quisqualate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate--were measured in adjacent sections of frontal cortex obtained postmortem from six patients with SDAT and six age-matched controls. The number of senile plaques was determined in the same brain region. Binding of D-(3H)aspartate to Na(+)-dependent uptake sites was reduced by approximately 40% throughout SDAT frontal cortex relative to controls, indicating a general loss of glutamatergic presynaptic terminals. (3H)Kainate receptor binding was significantly increased bymore » approximately 70% in deep layers of SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls, whereas this binding was unaltered in superficial laminae. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.914) between kainate binding and senile plaque number in deep cortical layers. Quisqualate receptors, as assessed by 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-(3H)methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid binding, were unaltered in SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls. There was a small reduction (25%) in N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive (3H)glutamate binding only in superficial cortical layers of SDAT brains relative to control subjects. (3H)Glutamate binding in SDAT subjects was unrelated to senile plaque number in superficial cortical layers (r = 0.104). These results indicate that in the presence of cortical glutamatergic terminal loss in SDAT plastic alterations occur in some glutamate receptor subtypes but not in others.« less

  6. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Vant-Hull, Barry; Vargas, Aurora M; Wasserman, Richard L; Grimm, Casey C

    2016-01-01

    Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause of food allergy. We compare the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and the 2S albumin Ana o 3 composes up to 40% of the soluble protein. Analysis of trypsin-treated extracts by LC/MS/MS indicate changes in the relative number and intensity of peptides. The relative cumulative intensity of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 1 and 2 peptides are altered by heating, while those of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 3 peptides remaine relatively constant. ELISA experiments indicate that there is a decrease in rabbit IgG and human serum IgE binding to soluble cashew proteins following heating. Our findings indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew allergens, resulting in altered IgE binding. Our results support the use of both Ana o 2 and Ana o 3 as potential cashew allergen diagnostic targets.

  7. Alterations in Hemagglutinin Receptor-Binding Specificity Accompany the Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mochalova, Larisa; Harder, Timm; Tuzikov, Alexander; Bovin, Nicolai; Wolff, Thorsten; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of hemagglutinin H5 and H7 subtypes emerge after introduction of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from wild birds into poultry flocks, followed by subsequent circulation and evolution. The acquisition of multiple basic amino acids at the endoproteolytical cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) is a molecular indicator for high pathogenicity, at least for infections of gallinaceous poultry. Apart from the well-studied significance of the multibasic HA cleavage site, there is only limited knowledge on other alterations in the HA and neuraminidase (NA) molecules associated with changes in tropism during the emergence of HPAIVs from LPAIVs. We hypothesized that changes in tropism may require alterations of the sialyloligosaccharide specificities of HA and NA. To test this hypothesis, we compared a number of LPAIVs and HPAIVs for their HA-mediated binding and NA-mediated desialylation of a set of synthetic receptor analogs, namely, α2-3-sialylated oligosaccharides. NA substrate specificity correlated with structural groups of NAs and did not correlate with pathogenic potential of the virus. In contrast, all HPAIVs differed from LPAIVs by a higher HA receptor-binding affinity toward the trisaccharides Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ (3′SLN) and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ (SiaLec) and by the ability to discriminate between the nonfucosylated and fucosylated sialyloligosaccharides 3′SLN and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ (SiaLex), respectively. These results suggest that alteration of the receptor-binding specificity accompanies emergence of the HPAIVs from their low-pathogenic precursors. IMPORTANCE Here, we have found for the first time correlations of receptor-binding properties of the HA with a highly pathogenic phenotype of poultry viruses. Our study suggests that enhanced receptor-binding affinity of HPAIVs for a typical “poultry-like” receptor, 3′SLN, is provided by

  8. Aβ delays fibrin clot lysis by altering fibrin structure and attenuating plasminogen binding to fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Zamolodchikov, Daria

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by the presence of increased levels of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels. This accumulated Aβ can bind to fibrin(ogen) and render fibrin clots more resistant to degradation. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ42 specifically binds to fibrin and induces a tighter fibrin network characterized by thinner fibers and increased resistance to lysis. However, Aβ42-induced structural changes cannot be the sole mechanism of delayed lysis because Aβ overlaid on normal preformed clots also binds to fibrin and delays lysis without altering clot structure. In this regard, we show that Aβ interferes with the binding of plasminogen to fibrin, which could impair plasmin generation and fibrin degradation. Indeed, plasmin generation by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but not streptokinase, is slowed in fibrin clots containing Aβ42, and clot lysis by plasmin, but not trypsin, is delayed. Notably, plasmin and tPA activities, as well as tPA-dependent generation of plasmin in solution, are not decreased in the presence of Aβ42. Our results indicate the existence of 2 mechanisms of Aβ42 involvement in delayed fibrinolysis: (1) through the induction of a tighter fibrin network composed of thinner fibers, and (2) through inhibition of plasmin(ogen)–fibrin binding. PMID:22238323

  9. Alteration of methotrexate binding to human serum albumin induced by oxidative stress. Spectroscopic comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Równicka-Zubik, J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes of oxidative modified albumin conformation by comparison of non-modified (HSA) and modified (oHSA) human serum albumin absorption spectra, Red Edge Excitation Shift (REES) effect and fluorescence synchronous spectra were investigated. Studies of absorption spectra indicated that changes in the value of absorbance associated with spectral changes in the region from 200 to 250 nm involve structural alterations related to variations in peptide backbone conformation. Analysis of the REES effect allowed for the observation of changes caused by oxidation in the region of the hydrophobic pocket containing the tryptophanyl residue. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed changes of the position of the tryptophanyl and tyrosil residues fluorescent band. Effect of oxidative stress on binding of methotrexate (MTX) was investigated by spectrofluorescence, UV-VIS and 1HNMR spectroscopy. MTX caused the fluorescence quenching of non-modified (HSA) and modified (oHSA) human serum albumin molecule. The values of binding constants, Hill's coefficients and a number of binding sites in the protein molecule in the high affinity binding site were calculated for the binary MTX-HSA and MTX-oHSA systems. For these systems, qualitative analysis in the low affinity binding sites was performed with the use of the 1HNMR technique.

  10. Antibody Binding Alters the Characteristics and Contents of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Histoplasma capsulatum

    SciTech Connect

    Matos Baltazar, Ludmila; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.

    ABSTRACT Histoplasma capsulatumproduces extracellular vesicles containing virulence-associated molecules capable of modulating host machinery, benefiting the pathogen. Treatment ofH. capsulatumcells with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can change the outcome of infection in mice. We evaluated the sizes, enzymatic contents, and proteomic profiles of the vesicles released by fungal cells treated with either protective MAb 6B7 (IgG1) or nonprotective MAb 7B6 (IgG2b), both of which bindH. capsulatumheat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). Our results showed that treatment with either MAb was associated with changes in size and vesicle loading. MAb treatments reduced vesicle phosphatase and catalase activities compared to those of vesicles from untreated controls. Wemore » identified 1,125 proteins in vesicles, and 250 of these manifested differences in abundance relative to that of proteins in vesicles isolated from yeast cells exposed to Hsp60-binding MAbs, indicating that surface binding of fungal cells by MAbs modified protein loading in the vesicles. The abundance of upregulated proteins in vesicles upon MAb 7B6 treatment was 44.8% of the protein quantities in vesicles from fungal cells treated with MAb 6B7. Analysis of orthologous proteins previously identified in vesicles from other fungi showed that different ascomycete fungi have similar proteins in their extracellular milieu, many of which are associated with virulence. Our results demonstrate that antibody binding can modulate fungal cell responses, resulting in differential loading of vesicles, which could alter fungal cell susceptibility to host defenses. This finding provides additional evidence that antibody binding modulates microbial physiology and suggests a new function for specific immunoglobulins through alterations of fungal secretion. IMPORTANCEDiverse fungal species release extracellular vesicles, indicating that this is a common pathway for the delivery of molecules to the extracellular space. However

  11. Polyethylene glycol binding alters human telomere G-quadruplex structure by conformational selection

    PubMed Central

    Buscaglia, Robert; Miller, M. Clarke; Dean, William L.; Gray, Robert D.; Lane, Andrew N.; Trent, John O.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used to perturb the conformations of nucleic acids, including G-quadruplexes. The mechanism by which PEG alters G-quadruplex conformation is poorly understood. We describe here studies designed to determine how PEG and other co-solutes affect the conformation of the human telomeric quadruplex. Osmotic stress studies using acetonitrile and ethylene glycol show that conversion of the ‘hybrid’ conformation to an all-parallel ‘propeller’ conformation is accompanied by the release of about 17 water molecules per quadruplex and is energetically unfavorable in pure aqueous solutions. Sedimentation velocity experiments show that the propeller form is hydrodynamically larger than hybrid forms, ruling out a crowding mechanism for the conversion by PEG. PEGs do not alter water activity sufficiently to perturb quadruplex hydration by osmotic stress. PEG titration experiments are most consistent with a conformational selection mechanism in which PEG binds more strongly to the propeller conformation, and binding is coupled to the conformational transition between forms. Molecular dynamics simulations show that PEG binding to the propeller form is sterically feasible and energetically favorable. We conclude that PEG does not act by crowding and is a poor mimic of the intranuclear environment, keeping open the question of the physiologically relevant quadruplex conformation. PMID:23804761

  12. Changes at the nuclear lamina alter binding of pioneer factor Foxa2 in aged liver.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Holly; Singh, Larry N; Patrick, Marissa A; Price, Andrew J; Osorio, Fernando G; López-Otín, Carlos; Bochkis, Irina M

    2018-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regulation of heterochromatin at the nuclear envelope underlies metabolic disease susceptibility and age-dependent metabolic changes, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we profile lamina-associated domains (LADs) using lamin B1 ChIP-Seq in young and old hepatocytes and find that, although lamin B1 resides at a large fraction of domains at both ages, a third of lamin B1-associated regions are bound exclusively at each age in vivo. Regions occupied by lamin B1 solely in young livers are enriched for the forkhead motif, bound by Foxa pioneer factors. We also show that Foxa2 binds more sites in Zmpste24 mutant mice, a progeroid laminopathy model, similar to increased Foxa2 occupancy in old livers. Aged and Zmpste24-deficient livers share several features, including nuclear lamina abnormalities, increased Foxa2 binding, de-repression of PPAR- and LXR-dependent gene expression, and fatty liver. In old livers, additional Foxa2 binding is correlated to loss of lamin B1 and heterochromatin (H3K9me3 occupancy) at these loci. Our observations suggest that changes at the nuclear lamina are linked to altered Foxa2 binding, enabling opening of chromatin and de-repression of genes encoding lipid synthesis and storage targets that contribute to etiology of hepatic steatosis. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Brief report: altered horizontal binding of single dots to coherent motion in autism.

    PubMed

    David, Nicole; Rose, Michael; Schneider, Till R; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K

    2010-12-01

    Individuals with autism often show a fragmented way of perceiving their environment, suggesting a disorder of information integration, possibly due to disrupted communication between brain areas. We investigated thirteen individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and thirteen healthy controls using the metastable motion quartet, a stimulus consisting of two dots alternately presented at four locations of a hypothetical square, thereby inducing an apparent motion percept. This percept is vertical or horizontal, the latter requiring binding of motion signals across cerebral hemispheres. Decreasing the horizontal distance between dots could facilitate horizontal percepts. We found evidence for altered horizontal binding in HFA: Individuals with HFA needed stronger facilitation to experience horizontal motion. These data are interpreted in light of reduced cross-hemispheric communication.

  14. Binding site feature description of 2-substituted benzothiazoles as potential AcrAB-TolC efflux pump inhibitors in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, S; Altinkanat-Gelmez, G; Bolelli, K; Guneser-Merdan, D; Ufuk Over-Hasdemir, M; Aki-Yalcin, E; Yalcin, I

    2015-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family efflux pumps are important in the antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria. However, although a number of bacterial RND efflux pump inhibitors have been developed, there has been no clinically available RND efflux pump inhibitor to date. A set of BSN-coded 2-substituted benzothiazoles were tested alone and in combinations with ciprofloxacin (CIP) against the AcrAB-TolC overexpressor Escherichia coli AG102 clinical strain. The results indicated that the BSN compounds did not show intrinsic antimicrobial activity when tested alone. However, when used in combinations with CIP, a reversal in the antibacterial activity of CIP with up to 10-fold better MIC values was observed. In order to describe the binding site features of these BSN compounds with AcrB, docking studies were performed using the CDocker method. The performed docking poses and the calculated binding energy scores revealed that the tested compounds BSN-006, BSN-023, and BSN-004 showed significant binding interactions with the phenylalanine-rich region in the distal binding site of the AcrB binding monomer. Moreover, the tested compounds BSN-006 and BSN-023 possessed stronger binding energies than CIP, verifying that BSN compounds are acting as the putative substrates of AcrB.

  15. Rapid assays for lectin toxicity and binding changes that reflect altered glycosylation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Pamela; Sundaram, Subha

    2014-06-03

    Glycosylation engineering is used to generate glycoproteins, glycolipids, or proteoglycans with a more defined complement of glycans on their glycoconjugates. For example, a mammalian cell glycosylation mutant lacking a specific glycosyltransferase generates glycoproteins, and/or glycolipids, and/or proteoglycans with truncated glycans missing the sugar transferred by that glycosyltransferase, as well as those sugars that would be added subsequently. In some cases, an alternative glycosyltransferase may then use the truncated glycans as acceptors, thereby generating a new or different glycan subset in the mutant cell. Another type of glycosylation mutant arises from gain-of-function mutations that, for example, activate a silent glycosyltransferase gene. In this case, glycoconjugates will have glycans with additional sugar(s) that are more elaborate than the glycans of wild type cells. Mutations in other genes that affect glycosylation, such as nucleotide sugar synthases or transporters, will alter the glycan complement in more general ways that usually affect several types of glycoconjugates. There are now many strategies for generating a precise mutation in a glycosylation gene in a mammalian cell. Large-volume cultures of mammalian cells may also generate spontaneous mutants in glycosylation pathways. This article will focus on how to rapidly characterize mammalian cells with an altered glycosylation activity. The key reagents for the protocols described are plant lectins that bind mammalian glycans with varying avidities, depending on the specific structure of those glycans. Cells with altered glycosylation generally become resistant or hypersensitive to lectin toxicity, and have reduced or increased lectin or antibody binding. Here we describe rapid assays to compare the cytotoxicity of lectins in a lectin resistance test, and the binding of lectins or antibodies by flow cytometry in a glycan-binding assay. Based on these tests, glycosylation changes expressed

  16. In vitro selection of zinc fingers with altered DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A C; Kim, S H; Wells, J A

    1994-05-17

    We have used random mutagenesis and phage display to alter the DNA-binding specificity of Zif268, a transcription factor that contains three zinc finger domains. Four residues in the helix of finger 1 of Zif268 that potentially mediate DNA binding were identified from an X-ray structure of the Zif268-DNA complex. A library was constructed in which these residues were randomly mutated and the Zif268 variants were fused to a truncated version of the gene III coat protein on the surface of M13 filamentous phage particles. The phage displayed the mutant proteins in a monovalent fashion and were sorted by repeated binding and elution from affinity matrices containing different DNA sequences. When the matrix contained the natural nine base pair operator sequence 5'-GCG-TGG-GCG-3', native-like zinc fingers were isolated. New finger 1 variants were found by sorting with two different operators in which the singly modified triplets, GTG and TCG, replaced the native finger 1 triplet, GCG. Overall, the selected finger 1 variants contained a preponderance of polar residues at the four sites. Interestingly, the net charge of the four residues in any selected finger never derived more that one unit from neutrality despite the fact that about half the variants contained three or four charged residues over the four sites. Measurements of the dissociation constants for two of these purified finger 1 variants by gel-shift assay showed their specificities to vary over a 10-fold range, with the greatest affinity being for the DNA binding site for which they were sorted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Monoclonal antibody binding to the macrophage-specific receptor sialoadhesin alters the phagocytic properties of human and mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, Marjorie; Cappoen, Davie; Elewaut, Dirk; Nauwynck, Hans J; Maes, Louis; Caljon, Guy; Cos, Paul; Delputte, Peter L

    2017-02-01

    Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on macrophages in steady state conditions, but during inflammation, Sn can be upregulated both on macrophages and on circulating monocytes. It was shown for different species that Sn becomes internalized after binding with monoclonal antibodies. These features suggest that Sn is a potential target for immunotherapies. In this study, human and mouse macrophages were treated with anti-Sn monoclonal antibodies or F(ab') 2 fragments and the effect of their binding to Sn on phagocytosis was analyzed. Binding of antibodies to Sn resulted in delayed and reduced phagocytosis of fluorescent beads. No effect was observed on Fc-mediated phagocytosis or phagocytosis of bacteria by human macrophages. In contrast, an enhanced phagocytosis of bacteria by mouse macrophages was detected. These results showed that stimulation of Sn could have different effects on macrophage phagocytosis, depending both on the type of phagocytosis and cellular background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Binding mode of cytochalasin B to F-actin is altered by lateral binding of regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Mihashi, K

    1991-01-01

    The binding of cytochalasin B (CB) to F-actin was studied using a trace amount of [3H]-cytochalasin B. F-Actin-bound CB was separated from free CB by ultracentrifugation and the amount of F-actin-bound CB was determined by comparing the radioactivity both in the supernatant and in the precipitate. A filament of pure F-actin possessed one high-affinity binding site for CB (Kd = 5.0 nM) at the B-end. When the filament was bound to native tropomyosin (complex of tropomyosin and troponin), two low-affinity binding sites for CB (Kd = 230 nM) were created, while the high-affinity binding site was reserved (Kd = 3.4 nM). It was concluded that the creation of low-affinity binding sites was primarily due to binding of tropomyosin to F-actin, as judged from the following two observations: (1) a filament of F-actin/tropomyosin complex possessed one high-affinity binding site (Kd = 3.9 nM) plus two low-affinity binding sites (Kd = 550 nM); (2) the Ca2(+)-receptive state of troponin C in F-actin/native tropomyosin complex did not affect CB binding.

  19. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  20. MacA, a Periplasmic Membrane Fusion Protein of the Macrolide Transporter MacAB-TolC, Binds Lipopolysaccharide Core Specifically and with High Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

  1. Cytosolic T3-binding protein modulates dynamic alteration of T3-mediated gene expression in cells.

    PubMed

    Takeshige, Keiko; Sekido, Takashi; Kitahara, Jun-ichirou; Ohkubo, Yousuke; Hiwatashi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroaki; Nishio, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Teiji; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    μ-Crystallin (CRYM) is also known as NADPH-dependent cytosolic T3-binding protein. A study using CRYM-null mice suggested that CRYM stores triiodothyronine (T3) in tissues. We previously established CRYM-expressing cells derived from parental GH3 cells. To examine the precise regulation of T3-responsive genes in the presence of CRYM, we evaluated serial alterations of T3-responsive gene expression by changing pericellular T3 concentrations in the media. We estimated the constitutive expression of three T3-responsive genes, growth hormone (GH), deiodinase 1 (Dio1), and deiodinase 2 (Dio2), in two cell lines. Subsequently, we measured the responsiveness of these three genes at 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after adding various concentrations of T3. We also estimated the levels of these mRNAs 24 and 48 h after removing T3. The levels of constitutive expression of GH and Dio1 were low and high in C8 cells, respectively, while Dio2 expression was not significantly different between GH3 and C8 cells. When treated with T3, Dio2 expression was significantly enhanced in C8 cells, while there were no differences in GH or Dio1 expression between GH3 and C8 cell lines. In contrast, removal of T3 retained the mRNA expression of GH and Dio2 in C8 cells. These results suggest that CRYM expression increases and sustains the T3 responsiveness of genes in cells, especially with alteration of the pericellular T3 concentration. The heterogeneity of T3-related gene expression is dependent on cellular CRYM expression in cases of dynamic changes in pericellular T3 concentration.

  2. Maternal nutrition during the first 50 d of gestation alters expression of metal-binding genes in fetal cerebrum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that maternal nutrition during the first 50 d of gestation would alter the metal-binding transcriptome of the developing cerebrum. 14 beef heifers were estrus synchronized and assigned to 2 treatments at breeding (CON-100% of requirements; RES-60% of CON). Heifers were ovariohysterec...

  3. Elucidation of the genetic and epigenetic landscape alterations in RNA binding proteins in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Kulandaivelu; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2017-01-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated in cancer development. An integrated bioinformatics analysis of RBPs (n = 1756) in various datasets (n = 11) revealed several genetic and epigenetically altered events among RBPs in glioblastoma (GBM). We identified 13 mutated and 472 differentially regulated RBPs in GBM samples. Mutations in AHNAK predicted poor prognosis. Copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation and miRNA targeting contributed to RBP differential regulation. Two sets of differentially regulated RBPs that may be implicated in initial astrocytic transformation and glioma progression were identified. We have also identified a four RBP (NOL3, SUCLG1, HERC5 and AFF3) signature, having a unique expression pattern in glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), to be an independent poor prognostic indicator in GBM. RBP risk score derived from the signature also stratified GBM into low-risk and high-risk groups with significant survival difference. Silencing NOL3, SUCLG1 and HERC5 inhibited GSC maintenance. Gene set enrichment analysis of differentially regulated genes between high-risk and low-risk underscored the importance of inflammation, EMT and hypoxia in high-risk GBM. Thus, we provide a comprehensive overview of genetic and epigenetic regulation of RBPs in glioma development and progression. PMID:28035070

  4. Alteration of Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV conformation upon enzyme binding to positively supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Crisona, Nancy J; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R

    2006-07-14

    Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV (topo IV) is an essential enzyme that unlinks the daughter chromosomes for proper segregation at cell division. In vitro, topo IV readily distinguishes between the two possible chiralities of crossing segments in a DNA substrate. The enzyme relaxes positive supercoils and left-handed braids 20 times faster, and with greater processivity, than negative supercoils and right-handed braids. Here, we used chemical cross-linking of topo IV to demonstrate that enzyme bound to positively supercoiled DNA is in a different conformation from that bound to other forms of DNA. Using three different reagents, we observed novel cross-linked species of topo IV when positively supercoiled DNA was in the reaction. We show that the ParE subunits are in close enough proximity to be cross-linked only when the enzyme is bound to positively supercoiled DNA. We suggest that the altered conformation reflects efficient binding by topo IV of the two DNA segments that participate in the strand passage reaction.

  5. Ab initio study of the binding of Trichostatin A (TSA) in the active site of histone deacetylase like protein (HDLP).

    PubMed

    Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Martins, José C; Tourwé, Dirk; Geerlings, Paul

    2003-08-21

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have recently attracted considerable interest because of their therapeutic potential for the treatment of cell proliferative diseases. An X-ray structure of a very potent inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), bound to HDLP (an HDAC analogue isolated from Aquifex aeolicus), is available. From this structure, an active site model (322 atoms), relevant for the binding of TSA and structural analogues, has been derived, and TSA has been minimized in this active site at HF 3-21G* level. The resulting conformation is in excellent accordance with the X-ray structure, and indicates a deprotonation of the hydroxamic acid in TSA by His 131. Also, a water molecule was minimized in the active site. In addition to a similar deprotonation, in accordance with a possible catalytic mechanism of HDAC as proposed by Finnin et al. (M. S. Finnin, J. R. Donigian, A. Cohen, V. M. Richon, R. A. Rifkind and P. A. Marks, Nature, 1999, 401, 188-193), a displacement of the resulting OH- ion in the active site was observed. Based on these results, the difference in energy of binding between TSA and water was calculated. The resulting value is realistic in respect to experimental binding affinities. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of the His 131-Asp 166 charge relay system was investigated. Although the Asp residue in this motif is known to substantially increase the basicity of the His residue, no proton transfer from His 131 to Asp 166 was observed on binding of TSA or water. However, in the empty protonated active site, this proton transfer does occur.

  6. Physical origins of weak H{sub 2} binding on carbon nanostructures: Insight from ab initio studies of chemically functionalized graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.

    2014-05-07

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH{sub 2}, COOH, NO{sub 2}, or H{sub 2}PO{sub 3}. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. The largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” bymore » H{sub 2}PO{sub 3} (115 meV/H{sub 2} versus 52 meV/H{sub 2} on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. Our results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of hydrogen in graphene. They also have relevance for the

  7. Basis of altered RNA-binding specificity by PUF proteins revealed by crystal structures of yeast Puf4p

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Matthew T.; Higgin, Joshua J.; Hall, Traci M.Tanaka

    2008-06-06

    Pumilio/FBF (PUF) family proteins are found in eukaryotic organisms and regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to sequences in the 3' untranslated region of target transcripts. PUF proteins contain an RNA binding domain that typically comprises eight {alpha}-helical repeats, each of which recognizes one RNA base. Some PUF proteins, including yeast Puf4p, have altered RNA binding specificity and use their eight repeats to bind to RNA sequences with nine or ten bases. Here we report the crystal structures of Puf4p alone and in complex with a 9-nucleotide (nt) target RNA sequence, revealing that Puf4p accommodates an 'extra' nucleotide by modestmore » adaptations allowing one base to be turned away from the RNA binding surface. Using structural information and sequence comparisons, we created a mutant Puf4p protein that preferentially binds to an 8-nt target RNA sequence over a 9-nt sequence and restores binding of each protein repeat to one RNA base.« less

  8. CD4-binding site alterations in CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes influencing gp120-CD4 interactions and fusogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sterjovski, Jasminka; Churchill, Melissa J.; Roche, Michael

    2011-02-20

    CD4-binding site (CD4bs) alterations in gp120 contribute to different pathophysiological phenotypes of CCR5-using (R5) HIV-1 strains, but the potential structural basis is unknown. Here, we characterized functionally diverse R5 envelope (Env) clones (n = 16) to elucidate potential structural alterations within the gp120 CD4bs that influence Env function. Initially, we showed that the magnitude of gp120-CD4-binding correlates with increased fusogenicity and reduced CD4 dependence. Analysis of three-dimensional gp120 structural models revealed two CD4bs variants, D279 and N362, that were associated with reduced CD4 dependence. Further structural analysis showed that a wider aperture of the predicted CD4bs cavity, as constrained bymore » the inner-most atoms at the gp120 V1V2 stem and the V5 loop, was associated with amino acid alterations within V5 and correlated with increased gp120-CD4 binding and increased fusogenicity. Our results provide evidence that the gp120 V5 loop may alter CD4bs conformation and contribute to increased gp120-CD4 interactions and Env fusogenicity.« less

  9. A peptide-binding motif for I-A(g7), the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule of NOD and Biozzi AB/H mice.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L C; Honeyman, M C; Trembleau, S; Gregori, S; Gallazzi, F; Augstein, P; Brusic, V; Hammer, J; Adorini, L

    1997-03-17

    The class II major histocompatibility complex molecule I-A(g7) is strongly linked to the development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in non obese diabetic mice and to the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Biozzi AB/H mice. Structurally, it resembles the HLA-DQ molecules associated with human IDDM, in having a non-Asp residue at position 57 in its beta chain. To identify the requirements for peptide binding to I-A(g7) and thereby potentially pathogenic T cell epitopes, we analyzed a known I-A(g7)-restricted T cell epitope, hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) amino acids 9-27. NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations demonstrated that the minimal epitope for activation of the T cell hybridoma 2D12.1 was M12-R21 and the minimum sequence for direct binding to purified I-A(g7) M12-Y20/K13-R21. Alanine (A) scanning revealed two primary anchors for binding at relative positions (p) 6 (L) and 9 (Y) in the HEL epitope. The critical role of both anchors was demonstrated by incorporating L and Y in poly(A) backbones at the same relative positions as in the HEL epitope. Well-tolerated, weakly tolerated, and nontolerated residues were identified by analyzing the binding of peptides containing multiple substitutions at individual positions. Optimally, p6 was a large, hydrophobic residue (L, I, V, M), whereas p9 was aromatic and hydrophobic (Y or F) or positively charged (K, R). Specific residues were not tolerated at these and some other positions. A motif for binding to I-A(g7) deduced from analysis of the model HEL epitope was present in 27/30 (90%) of peptides reported to be I-A(g7)-restricted T cell epitopes or eluted from I-A(g7). Scanning a set of overlapping peptides encompassing human proinsulin revealed the motif in 6/6 good binders (sensitivity = 100%) and 4/13 weak or non-binders (specificity = 70%). This motif should facilitate identification of autoantigenic epitopes relevant to the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of IDDM.

  10. Sugar-binding and crystallographic studies of an arabinose-binding protein mutant (Met108Leu) that exhibits enhanced affinity and altered specificity.

    PubMed

    Vermersch, P S; Lemon, D D; Tesmer, J J; Quiocho, F A

    1991-07-16

    In addition to hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces contribute to the affinity of protein-carbohydrate interactions. Nonpolar van der Waals contacts in the complexes of the L-arabinose-binding protein (ABP) with monosaccharides have been studied by means of site-directed mutagenesis, equilibrium and rapid kinetic binding techniques, and X-ray crystallography. ABP, a periplasmic transport receptor of Escherichia coli, binds L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-fucose with preferential affinity in the order of Ara greater than Gal much greater than Fuc. Well-refined, high-resolution structures of ABP complexed with the three sugars revealed that the structural differences in the ABP-sugar complexes are localized around C5 of the sugars, where the equatorial H of Ara has been substituted for CH3 (Fuc) or CH2OH (Gal). The side chain of Met108 undergoes a sterically dictated, ligand-specific, conformational change to optimize nonpolar interactions between its methyl group and the sugar. We found that the Met108Leu ABP binds Gal tighter than wild-type ABP binds Ara and exhibits a preference for ligand in the order of Gal much greater than Fuc greater than Ara. The differences in affinity can be attributed to differences in the dissociation rates of the ABP-sugar complexes. We have refined at better than 1.7-A resolution the crystal structures of the Met108Leu ABP complexed with each of the sugars and offer a molecular explanation for the altered binding properties.

  11. Multiple Intrinsically Disordered Sequences Alter DNA Binding by the Homeodomain of the Drosophila Hox Protein Ultrabithorax*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Bondos, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    During animal development, distinct tissues, organs, and appendages are specified through differential gene transcription by Hox transcription factors. However, the conserved Hox homeodomains bind DNA with high affinity yet low specificity. We have therefore explored the structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Hox protein Ultrabithorax and the impact of its nonhomeodomain regions on DNA binding properties. Computational and experimental approaches identified several conserved, intrinsically disordered regions outside the homeodomain of Ultrabithorax that impact DNA binding by the homeodomain. Full-length Ultrabithorax bound to target DNA 2.5-fold weaker than its isolated homeodomain. Using N-terminal and C-terminal deletion mutants, we demonstrate that the YPWM region and the disordered microexons (termed the I1 region) inhibit DNA binding ∼2-fold, whereas the disordered I2 region inhibits homeodomain-DNA interaction a further ∼40-fold. Binding is restored almost to homeodomain affinity by the mostly disordered N-terminal 174 amino acids (R region) in a length-dependent manner. Both the I2 and R regions contain portions of the activation domain, functionally linking DNA binding and transcription regulation. Given that (i) the I1 region and a portion of the R region alter homeodomain-DNA binding as a function of pH and (ii) an internal deletion within I1 increases Ultrabithorax-DNA affinity, I1 must directly impact homeodomain-DNA interaction energetics. However, I2 appears to indirectly affect DNA binding in a manner countered by the N terminus. The amino acid sequences of I2 and much of the I1 and R regions vary significantly among Ultrabithorax orthologues, potentially diversifying Hox-DNA interactions. PMID:18508761

  12. Alterations in L-Glutamate Binding in Alzheimer's and Huntington's Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Penney, John B.; Young, Anne B.; D'Amato, Constance J.; Hicks, Samuel P.; Shoulson, Ira

    1985-03-01

    Brain sections from patients who had died with senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), Huntington's disease (HD), or no neurologic disease were studied by autoradiography to measure sodium-independent L-[3H]glutamate binding. In brain sections from SDAT patients, glutamate binding was normal in the caudate, putamen, and claustrum but was lower than normal in the cortex. The decreased cortical binding represented a reduction in numbers of binding sites, not a change in binding affinity, and appeared to be the result of a specific decrease in numbers of the low-affinity quisqualate binding site. No significant changes in cortical binding of other ligands were observed. In brains from Huntington's disease patients, glutamate binding was lower in the caudate and putamen than in the same regions of brains from control and SDAT patients but was normal in the cortex. It is possible that development of positron-emitting probes for glutamate receptors may permit diagnosis of SDAT in vivo by means of positron emission tomographic scanning.

  13. HUMAN LIVER FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN (L-FABP) T94A VARIANT ALTERS STRUCTURE, STABILITY, AND INTERACTION WITH FIBRATES

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory G.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    Although the human L-FABP T94A variant arises from the most commonly occurring SNP in the entire FABP family, there is a complete lack of understanding regarding the role of this polymorphism in human disease. It has been hypothesized that the T94A substitution results in complete loss of ligand binding ability and function analogous to L-FABP gene ablation. This possibility was addressed using recombinant human WT T94T and T94A variant L-FABP and cultured primary human hepatocytes. Non-conservative replacement of the medium sized, polar, uncharged T residue by a smaller, nonpolar, aliphatic A residue at position 94 of human L-FABP significantly increased L-FABP protein α-helical structure at the expense of β-sheet and concomitantly decreased thermal stability. T94A did not alter binding affinities for PPARα agonist ligands (phytanic acid, fenofibrate, fenofibric acid). While T94A did not alter the impact of phytanic acid and only slightly altered that of fenofibrate on human L-FABP secondary structure, the active metabolite fenofibric acid altered T94A secondary structure much more than that of WT T94T L-FABP. Finally, in cultured primary human hepatocytes the T94A variant exhibited significantly reduced fibrate-mediated induction of PPARα-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, FATP5, and PPARα itself. Thus, while T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for PPARα agonist ligands, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure, stability, as well as conformational and functional response to fibrate. PMID:24299557

  14. Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5Nx) Viruses with Altered H5 Receptor-Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongbo; de Vries, Erik; McBride, Ryan; Dekkers, Jojanneke; Peng, Wenjie; Bouwman, Kim M.; Nycholat, Corwin; Verheije, M. Helene; Paulson, James C.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5Nx) virus clade 2.3.4.4 is unprecedented. H5N8 and H5N2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in Europe and North America, and lethal human infections with H5N6 virus have occurred in Asia. Knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. We report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in receptor-binding specificity. In contrast to ancestral clade 2.3.4 H5 proteins, novel clade 2.3.4.4 H5 proteins bind to fucosylated sialosides because of substitutions K222Q and S227R, which are unique for highly pathogenic influenza virus H5 proteins. North American clade 2.3.4.4 virus isolates have retained only the K222Q substitution but still bind fucosylated sialosides. Altered receptor-binding specificity of virus clade 2.3.4.4 H5 proteins might have contributed to emergence and spread of H5Nx viruses. PMID:27869615

  15. Glycolipid acquisition by human glycolipid transfer protein dramatically alters intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence: insights into glycolipid binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiuhong; Malakhova, Margarita L; Pike, Helen M; Benson, Linda M; Bergen, H Robert; Sugár, István P; Malinina, Lucy; Patel, Dinshaw J; Brown, Rhoderick E

    2009-05-15

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small, soluble proteins that selectively accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids. The GLTP fold is conformationally unique among lipid binding/transfer proteins and serves as the prototype and founding member of the new GLTP superfamily. In the present study, changes in human GLTP tryptophan fluorescence, induced by membrane vesicles containing glycolipid, are shown to reflect glycolipid binding when vesicle concentrations are low. Characterization of the glycolipid-induced "signature response," i.e. approximately 40% decrease in Trp intensity and approximately 12-nm blue shift in emission wavelength maximum, involved various modes of glycolipid presentation, i.e. microinjection/dilution of lipid-ethanol solutions or phosphatidylcholine vesicles, prepared by sonication or extrusion and containing embedded glycolipids. High resolution x-ray structures of apo- and holo-GLTP indicate that major conformational alterations are not responsible for the glycolipid-induced GLTP signature response. Instead, glycolipid binding alters the local environment of Trp-96, which accounts for approximately 70% of total emission intensity of three Trp residues in GLTP and provides a stacking platform that aids formation of a hydrogen bond network with the ceramide-linked sugar of the glycolipid headgroup. The changes in Trp signal were used to quantitatively assess human GLTP binding affinity for various lipids including glycolipids containing different sugar headgroups and homogenous acyl chains. The presence of the glycolipid acyl chain and at least one sugar were essential for achieving a low-to-submicromolar dissociation constant that was only slightly altered by increased sugar headgroup complexity.

  16. Base substitutions at scissile bond sites are sufficient to alter RNA-binding and cleavage activity of RNase III.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsub; Sim, Se-Hoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Younghoon; Lee, Kangseok

    2011-02-01

    RNase III, a double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease, degrades bdm mRNA via cleavage at specific sites. To better understand the mechanism of cleavage site selection by RNase III, we performed a genetic screen for sequences containing mutations at the bdm RNA cleavage sites that resulted in altered mRNA stability using a transcriptional bdm'-'cat fusion construct. While most of the isolated mutants showed the increased bdm'-'cat mRNA stability that resulted from the inability of RNase III to cleave the mutated sequences, one mutant sequence (wt-L) displayed in vivo RNA stability similar to that of the wild-type sequence. In vivo and in vitro analyses of the wt-L RNA substrate showed that it was cut only once on the RNA strand to the 5'-terminus by RNase III, while the binding constant of RNase III to this mutant substrate was moderately increased. A base substitution at the uncleaved RNase III cleavage site in wt-L mutant RNA found in another mutant lowered the RNA-binding affinity by 11-fold and abolished the hydrolysis of scissile bonds by RNase III. Our results show that base substitutions at sites forming the scissile bonds are sufficient to alter RNA cleavage as well as the binding activity of RNase III. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibody binding in altered gravity: implications for immunosorbent assay during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Jake; Fogel, Marilyn; Steele, Andrew; Wainwright, Norman; Pierson, Duane L.; McKay, David S.

    2003-01-01

    A single antibody-incubation step of an indirect, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed during microgravity, Martian gravity (0.38 G) and hypergravity (1.8 G) phases of parabolic flight, onboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft. Antibody-antigen binding occurred within 15 seconds; the level of binding did not differ between microgravity, Martian gravity and 1 G (Earth's gravity) conditions. During hypergravity and 1 G, antibody binding was directly proportional to the fluid volume (per microtiter well) used for incubation; this pattern was not observed during microgravity. These effects in microgravity may be due to "fluid spread" within the chamber (observed during microgravity with digital photography), leading to greater fluid-surface contact and subsequently antibody-antigen contact. In summary, these results demonstrate that: i) ELISA antibody-incubation and washing steps can be successfully performed by human operators during microgravity, Martian gravity and hypergravity; ii) there is no significant difference in antibody binding between microgravity, Martian gravity and 1 G conditions; and iii) a smaller fluid volume/well (and therefore less antibody) was required for a given level of binding during microgravity. These conclusions indicate that reduced gravity would not present a barrier to successful operation of immunosorbent assays during spaceflight.

  18. Denervation does not alter the number of neuronal bungarotoxin binding sites on autonomic neurons in the frog cardiac ganglion.

    PubMed

    Sargent, P B; Bryan, G K; Streichert, L C; Garrett, E N

    1991-11-01

    The binding of neuronal bungarotoxin (n-BuTX; also known as bungarotoxin 3.1, kappa-bungarotoxin, and toxin F) was analyzed in normal and denervated parasympathetic cardiac ganglia of the frog Rana pipiens, n-BuTX blocks both EPSPs and ACh potentials at 5-20 nM, as determined by intracellular recording techniques. Scatchard analysis on homogenates indicates that cardiac ganglia have two classes of binding sites for 125I-n-BuTX: a high-affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd,app) of 1.7 nM and a Bmax (number of binding sites) of 3.8 fmol/ganglion and a low-affinity site with a Kd,app of 12 microM and a Bmax of 14 pmol/ganglion. alpha-Bungarotoxin does not appear to interfere with the binding of 125I-n-BuTX to either site. The high-affinity binding site is likely to be the functional nicotinic ACh receptor (AChR), given the similarity between its affinity for 125I-n-BuTX and the concentration of n-BuTX required to block AChR function. Light microscopic autoradiographic analysis of 125I-n-BuTX binding to the ganglion cell surface reveals that toxin binding is concentrated at synaptic sites, which were identified using a synaptic vesicle-specific antibody. Scatchard analysis of autoradiographic data reveals that 125I-n-BuTX binding to the neuronal surface is saturable and has a Kd,app similar to that of the high-affinity binding site characterized in homogenates. Surface binding of 125I-n-BuTX is blocked by nicotine, carbachol, and d-tubocurarine (IC50 less than 20 microM), but not by atropine (IC50 greater than 10 mM). Denervation of the heart increases the ACh sensitivity of cardiac ganglion cells but has no effect upon the number of high-affinity binding sites for 125I-n-BuTX in tissue homogenates. Moreover, autoradiographic analysis indicates that denervation does not alter the number of 125I-n-BuTX binding sites on the ganglion cell surface. n-BuTX is as effective in reducing ganglion cell responses to ACh in denervated ganglia as it is in

  19. Photocontrol of the expression of genes encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins and small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in etiolated seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum (L. ) and Nicotiana tabacum (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmeyer, B.; Cashmore, A.R.; Schaefer, E.

    Phytochrome and the blue ultraviolet-A photoreceptor control light-induced expression of genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II and photosystem I and the genes for the small subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in etiolated seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). A high irradiance response also controls the induction of these genes. Genes encoding photosystem II- and I-associated chlorophyll a/b binding proteins both exhibit a transient rapid increase in expression in response to light pulse or to continuous irradiation. In contrast, genes encoding the small subunit exhibit a continuous increase in expression in response to light.more » These distinct expression characteristics are shown to reflect differences at the level of transcription.« less

  20. Protein A affinity chromatography of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture broths containing biopharmaceutical monoclonal antibody (mAb): Experiments and mechanistic transport, binding and equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Grom, Matic; Kozorog, Mirijam; Caserman, Simon; Pohar, Andrej; Likozar, Blaž

    2018-04-15

    Protein A-based affinity chromatography is a highly-efficient separation method to capture, purify and isolate biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAb) - an important medical product of biopharmaceutical industrial manufacturing. It is considered the most expensive step in purification downstream operations; therefore, its performance optimization offers a great cost saving in the overall production expenditure. The biochemical mixture-separating specific interaction experiments with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture harvest, containing glycosylated extracellular immunoglobulins (Ig), were made using five different state-of-the-art commercial resins. Packing breakthrough curves were recorded at an array of prolonged residence times. A mathematical simulation model was developed, applied and validated in combination with non-linear regression algorithms on bed effluent concentrations to determine the previously-unknown binding properties of stationary phase materials. Apart from the columns' differential partitioning, the whole external system was also integrated. It was confirmed that internal pore diffusion is the global rate-limiting resistance of the compound retention process. Immobilizing substrate characteristics, obtained in this engineering study, are indispensable for the scale-up of the periodic counter-current control with mechanistic load, elution and wash reduction. Furthermore, unit's volumetric flow screening measurements revealed dynamic effect correlation to eluate quality parameters, like the presence of aggregates, the host cell-related impurities at supernatant's extended feeding, and titre. Numerical sensitivity outputs demonstrated the impacts of fluidics (e.g. axial dispersion coefficient), thermodynamics (Langmuir adsorption) and mass transfer fluxes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolutionarily conserved heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B proteins functionally interact with human and Drosophila TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43).

    PubMed

    Romano, Maurizio; Buratti, Emanuele; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Del Bel Belluz, Lisa; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco; Feiguin, Fabian

    2014-03-07

    Human TDP-43 represents the main component of neuronal inclusions found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) Drosophila ortholog (TBPH) can biochemically and functionally overlap the properties of the human factor. The recent direct implication of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2B1 and A1, known TDP-43 partners, in the pathogenesis of multisystem proteinopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis supports the hypothesis that the physical and functional interplay between TDP-43 and hnRNP A/B orthologs might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. To test this hypothesis and further validate the fly system as a useful model to study this type of diseases, we have now characterized human TDP-43 and Drosophila TBPH similarity in terms of protein-protein interaction pathways. In this work we show that TDP-43 and TBPH share the ability to associate in vitro with Hrp38/Hrb98DE/CG9983, the fruit fly ortholog of the human hnRNP A1/A2 factors. Interestingly, the protein regions of TDP-43 and Hrp38 responsible for reciprocal interactions are conserved through evolution. Functionally, experiments in HeLa cells demonstrate that TDP-43 is necessary for the inhibitory activity of Hrp38 on splicing. Finally, Drosophila in vivo studies show that Hrp38 deficiency produces locomotive defects and life span shortening in TDP-43 with and without animals. These results suggest that hnRNP protein levels can play a modulatory role on TDP-43 functions.

  2. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cashew nuts are included in a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergies. IgE binding to allergens within the nuts can cause allergic reactions that can be severe. Foods containing cashew nuts must be labeled to prevent accidental exposure to people who suffer from allergy to cashew nuts....

  3. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  4. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normalmore » epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.« less

  5. Incorporation of Tyrosine and Glutamine Residues into the Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Heme Distal Pocket Alters NO and O2 Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Emily R.; Deng, Sarah; Marletta, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the physiologically relevant activator of the mammalian hemoprotein soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). The heme cofactor of α1β1 sGC has a high affinity for NO but has never been observed to form a complex with oxygen. Introduction of a key tyrosine residue in the sGC heme binding domain β1(1–385) is sufficient to produce an oxygen-binding protein, but this mutation in the full-length enzyme did not alter oxygen affinity. To evaluate ligand binding specificity in full-length sGC we mutated several conserved distal heme pocket residues (β1 Val-5, Phe-74, Ile-145, and Ile-149) to introduce a hydrogen bond donor in proximity to the heme ligand. We found that the NO coordination state, NO dissociation, and enzyme activation were significantly affected by the presence of a tyrosine in the distal heme pocket; however, the stability of the reduced porphyrin and the proteins affinity for oxygen were unaltered. Recently, an atypical sGC from Drosophila, Gyc-88E, was shown to form a stable complex with oxygen. Sequence analysis of this protein identified two residues in the predicted heme pocket (tyrosine and glutamine) that may function to stabilize oxygen binding in the atypical cyclase. The introduction of these residues into the rat β1 distal heme pocket (Ile-145 → Tyr and Ile-149 → Gln) resulted in an sGC construct that oxidized via an intermediate with an absorbance maximum at 417 nm. This absorbance maximum is consistent with globin FeII-O2 complexes and is likely the first observation of a FeII-O2 complex in the full-length α1β1 protein. Additionally, these data suggest that atypical sGCs stabilize O2 binding by a hydrogen bonding network involving tyrosine and glutamine. PMID:20231286

  6. Changes in solvation during DNA binding and cleavage are critical to altered specificity of the EcoRI endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Clifford R.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    1998-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases such as EcoRI bind and cleave DNA with great specificity and represent a paradigm for protein–DNA interactions and molecular recognition. Using osmotic pressure to induce water release, we demonstrate the participation of bound waters in the sequence discrimination of substrate DNA by EcoRI. Changes in solvation can play a critical role in directing sequence-specific DNA binding by EcoRI and are also crucial in assisting site discrimination during catalysis. By measuring the volume change for complex formation, we show that at the cognate sequence (GAATTC) EcoRI binding releases about 70 fewer water molecules than binding at an alternate DNA sequence (TAATTC), which differs by a single base pair. EcoRI complexation with nonspecific DNA releases substantially less water than either of these specific complexes. In cognate substrates (GAATTC) kcat decreases as osmotic pressure is increased, indicating the binding of about 30 water molecules accompanies the cleavage reaction. For the alternate substrate (TAATTC), release of about 40 water molecules accompanies the reaction, indicated by a dramatic acceleration of the rate when osmotic pressure is raised. These large differences in solvation effects demonstrate that water molecules can be key players in the molecular recognition process during both association and catalytic phases of the EcoRI reaction, acting to change the specificity of the enzyme. For both the protein–DNA complex and the transition state, there may be substantial conformational differences between cognate and alternate sites, accompanied by significant alterations in hydration and solvent accessibility. PMID:9482860

  7. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Mattias N E; Dey, Barna; Mörner, Andreas; Svehla, Krisha; O'dell, Sijy; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Voss, Gerald; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Shaw, George M; Mascola, John R; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2008-10-03

    The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3). Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4) rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT) rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity) primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  8. Binding of a neutralizing antibody to dengue virus alters the arrangement of surface glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lok, Shee-Mei; Kostyuchenko, Victor; Nybakken, Grant E.

    The monoclonal antibody 1A1D-2 has been shown to strongly neutralize dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 3, primarily by inhibiting attachment to host cells. A crystal structure of its antigen binding fragment (Fab) complexed with domain III of the viral envelope glycoprotein, E, showed that the epitope would be partially occluded in the known structure of the mature dengue virus. Nevertheless, antibody could bind to the virus at 37 degrees C, suggesting that the virus is in dynamic motion making hidden epitopes briefly available. A cryo-electron microscope image reconstruction of the virus:Fab complex showed large changes in the organization ofmore » the E protein that exposed the epitopes on two of the three E molecules in each of the 60 icosahedral asymmetric units of the virus. The changes in the structure of the viral surface are presumably responsible for inhibiting attachment to cells.« less

  9. Binding among select episodic elements is altered via active short-term retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Donna J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated memory of associated objects, which was associated with unique patterns of viewing behavior during study and enhanced ERP correlates of retrieval during test, relative to other reminder cues that were not actively retrieved. Active short-term retrieval therefore enhanced binding of retrieved elements with others, thus creating powerful memory cues for entire episodes. © 2015 Bridge and Voss; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. One Crystal, Two Temperatures: Cryocooling Penalties Alter Ligand Binding to Transient Protein Sites

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, Marcus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-05-28

    Interrogating fragment libraries by X-ray crystallography is a powerful strategy for discovering allosteric ligands for protein targets. Cryocooling of crystals should theoretically increase the fraction of occupied binding sites and decrease radiation damage. However, it might also perturb protein conformations that can be accessed at room temperature. Using data from crystals measured consecutively at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, we found that transient binding sites could be abolished at the cryogenic temperatures employed by standard approaches. Finally, changing the temperature at which the crystallographic data was collected could provide a deliberate perturbation to the equilibrium of protein conformations andmore » help to visualize hidden sites with great potential to allosterically modulate protein function.« less

  11. Altered self-assembly and apatite binding of amelogenin induced by N-terminal proline mutation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Uskoković, Vuk; Le, Thuan; DenBesten, Pamela; Huang, Yulei; Habelitz, Stefan; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Objective A single Pro-70 to Thr (p.P70T) mutation of amelogenin is known to result in hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). This study aims to test the hypothesis that the given mutation affects the self-assembly of amelogenin molecules and impairs their ability to conduct the growth of apatite crystals. Design Recombinant human full-length wild-type (rh174) and p.P70T mutated amelogenins were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), protein quantification assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after the binding of amelogenins to hydroxyapatite crystals. The crystal growth modulated by both amelogenins in a dynamic titration system was observed using AFM. Results As compared to rh174 amelogenin, p.P70T mutant displayed significantly increased sizes of the assemblies, higher binding affinity to apatite, and decreased crystal height. Conclusions Pro-70 plays an important structural role in the biologically relevant amelogenin self-assembly. The disturbed regularity of amelogenin nanospheres by this single mutation resulted in an increased binding to apatite and inhibited crystal growth. PMID:21081224

  12. Alterations of rings B and C of colchicine are cumulative in overall binding to tubulin but modify each kinetic step.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, C; Gorbunoff, M J; Andreu, J M; Engelborghs, Y

    1996-12-10

    The role of the elimination of ring B and/or the modification of ring C of colchicine in tubulin binding kinetics and thermodynamics has been characterized, using four different molecules. These ligands are colchicine (COL); 2-methoxy-5-(2',3',4'-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-on e (MTC), in which the central ring B has been reduced to one bond; allocolchicine (ALLO), in which ring C has been replaced by a six-membered ring; and 2,3,4-trimethoxy-4'-carbomethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl (TCB), where the same two modifications are made simultaneously. This paper describes the kinetics of association of ALLO with tubulin. The binding is accompanied by a fluorescence increase with slow biphasic kinetics, indicating binding to fast and slow tubulin isotypes. Binding to each of these isotypes occurs in two steps: a fast initial binding followed by a slower isomerization step. The K1 and k2 values for ALLO at 25 degrees C are 14,000 +/- 2,000 and 25,000 +/- 6,000 M-1 (fast and slow isotypes) and 0.055 +/- 0.003 s-1 and 0.013 +/- 0.001 s-1 (fast and slow isotype), respectively. For ALLO the reaction standard enthalpy change of the initial binding is 68 +/- 5 kJ.mol-1 (fast isotype) and 45 +/- 33 kJ.mol-1 (slow isotype) and the activation energy for the second forward step is 58 +/- 14 kJ.mol-1 (fast isotype) and 81 +/- 17 kJ.mol-1 (slow isotype). Displacement kinetics of bound ALLO by podophyllotoxin was monoexponential. The activation energy for the isomerization in the off direction is 107 +/- 7 kJ.mol-1. Comparison of the thermodynamic parameters for all four compounds shows that the modifications of both rings are cumulative with respect to overall binding. For the intermediate state there is a mutual influence of both modifications, suggesting an alteration of the reaction pathway.

  13. Human 15-LOX-1 active site mutations alter inhibitor binding and decrease potency.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michelle; van Hoorebeke, Christopher; Horn, Thomas; Deschamps, Joshua; Freedman, J Cody; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Jacobson, Matthew P; Holman, Theodore

    2016-11-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h15-LOX-1 or h12/15-LOX) reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces bioactive lipid derivatives that are implicated in many important human diseases. One such disease is stroke, which is the fifth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in America. The discovery of h15-LOX-1 inhibitors could potentially lead to novel therapeutics in the treatment of stroke, however, little is known about the inhibitor/active site interaction. This study utilizes site-directed mutagenesis, guided in part by molecular modeling, to gain a better structural understanding of inhibitor interactions within the active site. We have generated eight mutants (R402L, R404L, F414I, F414W, E356Q, Q547L, L407A, I417A) of h15-LOX-1 to determine whether these active site residues interact with two h15-LOX-1 inhibitors, ML351 and an ML094 derivative, compound 18. IC 50 values and steady-state inhibition kinetics were determined for the eight mutants, with four of the mutants affecting inhibitor potency relative to wild type h15-LOX-1 (F414I, F414W, E356Q and L407A). The data indicate that ML351 and compound 18, bind in a similar manner in the active site to an aromatic pocket close to F414 but have subtle differences in their specific binding modes. This information establishes the binding mode for ML094 and ML351 and will be leveraged to develop next-generation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Controllable activation of nanoscale dynamics in a disordered protein alters binding kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, David J. E.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas

    The phosphorylation of specific residues in a flexible disordered activation loop yields precise control of signal transduction. One paradigm is the phosphorylation of S339/S340 in the intrinsically disordered tail of the multi-domain scaffolding protein NHERF1, which affects the intracellular localization and trafficking of NHERF1 assembled signaling complexes. Using neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE), we show salt-concentration-dependent excitation of nanoscale motion at the tip of the C-terminal tail in the phosphomimic S339D/S340D mutant. The “tip of the whip” that is unleashed is near the S339/S340 phosphorylation site and flanks the hydrophobic Ezrin-binding motif. The kinetic association rate constant of the bindingmore » of the S339D/S340D mutant to the FERM domain of Ezrin is sensitive to buffer salt concentration, correlating with the excited nanoscale dynamics. The results suggest that electrostatics modulates the activation of nanoscale dynamics of an intrinsically disordered protein, controlling the binding kinetics of signaling partners. Furthermore NSE can pinpoint the nanoscale dynamics changes in a highly specific manner.« less

  15. Controllable activation of nanoscale dynamics in a disordered protein alters binding kinetics

    DOE PAGES

    Callaway, David J. E.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas; ...

    2017-03-08

    The phosphorylation of specific residues in a flexible disordered activation loop yields precise control of signal transduction. One paradigm is the phosphorylation of S339/S340 in the intrinsically disordered tail of the multi-domain scaffolding protein NHERF1, which affects the intracellular localization and trafficking of NHERF1 assembled signaling complexes. Using neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE), we show salt-concentration-dependent excitation of nanoscale motion at the tip of the C-terminal tail in the phosphomimic S339D/S340D mutant. The “tip of the whip” that is unleashed is near the S339/S340 phosphorylation site and flanks the hydrophobic Ezrin-binding motif. The kinetic association rate constant of the bindingmore » of the S339D/S340D mutant to the FERM domain of Ezrin is sensitive to buffer salt concentration, correlating with the excited nanoscale dynamics. The results suggest that electrostatics modulates the activation of nanoscale dynamics of an intrinsically disordered protein, controlling the binding kinetics of signaling partners. Furthermore NSE can pinpoint the nanoscale dynamics changes in a highly specific manner.« less

  16. MSH1 Is a Plant Organellar DNA Binding and Thylakoid Protein under Precise Spatial Regulation to Alter Development

    DOE PAGES

    Virdi, Kamaldeep S.; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Kundariya, Hardik; ...

    2015-11-14

    As metabolic centers, plant organelles participate in maintenance, defense, and signaling. MSH1 is a plant-specific protein involved in organellar genome stability in mitochondria and plastids. Plastid depletion of MSH1 causes heritable, non-genetic changes in development and DNA methylation. We investigated the msh1 phenotype using hemi-complementation mutants and transgene-null segregants from RNAi suppression lines to sub-compartmentalize MSH1 effects. We show that MSH1 expression is spatially regulated, specifically localizing to plastids within the epidermis and vascular parenchyma. The protein binds DNA and localizes to plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids, but fractionation and protein–protein interactions data indicate that MSH1 also associates with the thylakoidmore » membrane. Plastid MSH1 depletion results in variegation, abiotic stress tolerance, variable growth rate, and delayed maturity. Depletion from mitochondria results in 7%–10% of plants altered in leaf morphology, heat tolerance, and mitochondrial genome stability. MSH1 does not localize within the nucleus directly, but plastid depletion produces non-genetic changes in flowering time, maturation, and growth rate that are heritable independent of MSH1. MSH1 depletion alters non-photoactive redox behavior in plastids and a sub-set of mitochondrially altered lines. Ectopic expression produces deleterious effects, underlining its strict expression control. Unraveling the complexity of the MSH1 effect offers insight into triggers of plant-specific, transgenerational adaptation behaviors.« less

  17. Alterations in gut transport of minerals and in binding proteins during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The structural components of the skeleton develop and are maintained in a 1 g environment, shaped by the mechanical load to which they are constantly exposed. Altering such a mechanical load by reducing the gravitational force imposed on the system, as in space flight, has profound effects on the skeleton and permits an exploration of the molecular events which regulate normal skeletal homeostasis. The objective was to determine whether simulated weightlessness reduced intestinal calcium transport, and if so, to determine the molecular mechanisms for such an effect. A nonstressful tail suspension in which the rats gained weight normally while suspended was used to simulate weightlessness. A significant change in intestinal calcium transport was not demonstrated. However, a cyclic change in bone formation with suspension was shown. Based on these observations, the objective changed to determination of the hormonal regulation of bone formation during simulated weightlessness.

  18. Parietal disruption alters audiovisual binding in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Kamke, Marc R; Vieth, Harrison E; Cottrell, David; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-09-01

    Selective attention and multisensory integration are fundamental to perception, but little is known about whether, or under what circumstances, these processes interact to shape conscious awareness. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the causal role of attention-related brain networks in multisensory integration between visual and auditory stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. The flash illusion is a widely studied multisensory phenomenon in which a single flash of light is falsely perceived as multiple flashes in the presence of irrelevant sounds. We investigated the hypothesis that extrastriate regions involved in selective attention, specifically within the right parietal cortex, exert an influence on the multisensory integrative processes that cause the flash illusion. We found that disruption of the right angular gyrus, but not of the adjacent supramarginal gyrus or of a sensory control site, enhanced participants' veridical perception of the multisensory events, thereby reducing their susceptibility to the illusion. Our findings suggest that the same parietal networks that normally act to enhance perception of attended events also play a role in the binding of auditory and visual stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ATR-X mutations cause impaired nuclear location and altered DNA binding properties of the XNP/ATR-X protein.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, C; Lutz, Y; Mignon, C; Compe, E; Depetris, D; Mattei, M G; Fontes, M; Colleaux, L

    2000-10-01

    Mutations in the XNP/ATR-X gene, located in Xq13.3, are associated with several X linked mental retardation syndromes, the best known being alpha thalassaemia with mental retardation (ATR-X). The XNP/ATR-X protein belongs to the family of SWI/SNF DNA helicases and contains three C2-C2 type zinc fingers of unknown function. Previous studies have shown that 65% of mutations of XNP have been found within the zinc finger domain (encoded by exons 7, 8, and the beginning of exon 9) while 35% of the mutations have been found in the helicase domain extending over 3 kb at the C-terminus of the protein. Although different types of mutations have been identified, no specific genotype-phenotype correlation has been found, suggesting that gene alteration leads to a loss of function irrespective of mutation type. Our aims were to understand the function of the XNP/ATR-X protein better, with specific attention to the functional consequences of mutations to the zinc finger domain. We used monoclonal antibodies directed against the XNP/ATR-X protein and performed immunocytochemical and western blot analyses, which showed altered or absent XNP/ATR-X expression in cells of affected patients. In addition, we used in vitro experiments to show that the zinc finger domain can mediate double stranded DNA binding and found that the DNA binding capacity of mutant forms in ATR-X patients is severely reduced. These data provide insights into the understanding of the functional significance of XNP/ATR-X mutations.

  20. L1198F Mutation Resensitizes Crizotinib to ALK by Altering the Conformation of Inhibitor and ATP Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Sun, Rong; Wu, Yuehong; Song, Mingzhu; Li, Jia; Yang, Qianye; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bao, Jinku; Zhao, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment with small molecule inhibitors is greatly challenged by acquired resistance. A recent study reported the newest generation inhibitor resistant mutation L1198F led to the resensitization to crizotinib, which is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC. It is of great importance to understand how this extremely rare event occurred for the purpose of overcoming the acquired resistance of such inhibitors. In this study, we exploited molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to dissect the molecular mechanisms. Our MD results revealed that L1198F mutation of ALK resulted in the conformational change at the inhibitor site and altered the binding affinity of ALK to crizotinib and lorlatinib. L1198F mutation also affected the autoactivation of ALK as supported by the identification of His1124 and Tyr1278 as critical amino acids involved in ATP binding and phosphorylation. Our findings are valuable for designing more specific and potent inhibitors for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC and other types of cancer. PMID:28245558

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maskey, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR) in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus. PMID:24069603

  2. Esophageal cancer alters the expression of nuclear pore complex binding protein Hsc70 and eIF5A-1.

    PubMed

    Moghanibashi, Mehdi; Rastgar Jazii, Ferdous; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Zare, Maryam; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Parivar, Kazem; Mohamadynejad, Parisa

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the only corridor for macromolecules exchange between nucleus and cytoplasm. NPC and its components, nucleoporins, play important role in the diverse physiological processes including macromolecule exchange, chromosome segregation, apoptosis and gene expression. Recent reports also suggest involvement of nucleoporins in carcinogenesis. Applying proteomics, we analyzed expression pattern of the NPC components in a newly established esophageal cancer cell line from Persia (Iran), the high-risk region for esophageal cancer. Our results indicate overexpression of Hsc70 and downregulation of subunit alpha type-3 of proteasome, calpain small subunit 1, and eIF5A-1. Among these proteins, Hsc70 and eIF5A-1 are in direct interaction with NPC and involved in the nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Hsc70 plays a critical role as a chaperone in the formation of a cargo-receptor complex in nucleocytoplasmic transport. On the other hand, it is an NPC-associated protein that binds to nucleoporins and contributes in recycling of the nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors in mammals and affects transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm. The other nuclear pore interacting protein: eIF5A-1 binds to the several nucleoporins and participates in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Altered expression of Hsc70 and eIF5A-1 may cause defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport and play a role in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  3. Phosphorylation of a conserved serine in the deoxyribonucleic acid binding domain of nuclear receptors alters intracellular localization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Montana, Vedrana; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Brelivet, Yann; Moras, Dino; Maeda, Yutaka; Parpura, Vladimir; Paschal, Bryce M; Sladek, Frances M

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a superfamily of transcription factors whose genomic functions are known to be activated by lipophilic ligands, but little is known about how to deactivate them or how to turn on their nongenomic functions. One obvious mechanism is to alter the nuclear localization of the receptors. Here, we show that protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates a highly conserved serine (Ser) between the two zinc fingers of the DNA binding domain of orphan receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha). This Ser (S78) is adjacent to several positively charged residues (Arg or Lys), which we show here are involved in nuclear localization of HNF4alpha and are conserved in nearly all other NRs, along with the Ser/threonine (Thr). A phosphomimetic mutant of HNF4alpha (S78D) reduced DNA binding, transactivation ability, and protein stability. It also impaired nuclear localization, an effect that was greatly enhanced in the MODY1 mutant Q268X. Treatment of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 with PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also resulted in increased cytoplasmic localization of HNF4alpha as well as decreased endogenous HNF4alpha protein levels in a proteasome-dependent fashion. We also show that PKC phosphorylates the DNA binding domain of other NRs (retinoic acid receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, and thyroid hormone receptor beta) and that phosphomimetic mutants of the same Ser/Thr result in cytoplasmic localization of retinoid X receptor alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Thus, phosphorylation of this conserved Ser between the two zinc fingers may be a common mechanism for regulating the function of NRs.

  4. Bone sialoprotein binding to matrix metalloproteinase-2 alters enzyme inhibition kinetics†

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Alka; Fisher, Larry W.; Fedarko, Neal S.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycophosphoprotein normally restricted in expression to skeletal tissue that is also induced by multiple neoplasms in vivo. Previous work has shown that BSP can bind to matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Because of MMP-2 activity in promoting tumor progression, potential therapeutic inhibitors were developed, but clinical trials have been disappointing. The effect of BSP on MMP-2 modulation by inhibitors was determined with purified components and in cell culture. Enzyme inhibition kinetics were studied using a low-molecular weight freely diffusable substrate and purified MMP-2, BSP, and natural (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2) and synthetic (ilomastat and oleoyl-N-hydroxylamide) inhibitors. We determined parameters of enzyme kinetics by varying substrate concentrations at different fixed inhibitor concentrations added to MMP-2 alone, MMP-2 and BSP, or preformed MMP-2-BSP complexes and solving a general linear mixed inhibition rate equation with a global curve fitting program. Two in vitro angiogenesis model systems employing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to follow BSP modulation of MMP-2 inhibition and tubule formation. The presence of BSP increased the competitive KI values between 15- and 47-fold for natural and synthetic inhibitors. The extent of tubule formation by HUVECs cocultured with dermal fibroblasts was reduced in the presence of inhibitors, while the addition of BSP restored vessel formation. A second HUVEC culture system demonstrated that tubule formation by cells expressing BSP could be inhibited by an activity blocking antibody against MMP-2. BSP modulation of MMP-2 activity and inhibition may define its biological role in promoting tumor progression. PMID:18465841

  5. Bone sialoprotein binding to matrix metalloproteinase-2 alters enzyme inhibition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Alka; Fisher, Larry W; Fedarko, Neal S

    2008-06-03

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycophosphoprotein normally restricted in expression to skeletal tissue that is also induced by multiple neoplasms in vivo. Previous work has shown that BSP can bind to matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Because of MMP-2 activity in promoting tumor progression, potential therapeutic inhibitors were developed, but clinical trials have been disappointing. The effect of BSP on MMP-2 modulation by inhibitors was determined with purified components and in cell culture. Enzyme inhibition kinetics were studied using a low-molecular weight freely diffusable substrate and purified MMP-2, BSP, and natural (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2) and synthetic (ilomastat and oleoyl- N-hydroxylamide) inhibitors. We determined parameters of enzyme kinetics by varying substrate concentrations at different fixed inhibitor concentrations added to MMP-2 alone, MMP-2 and BSP, or preformed MMP-2-BSP complexes and solving a general linear mixed inhibition rate equation with a global curve fitting program. Two in vitro angiogenesis model systems employing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to follow BSP modulation of MMP-2 inhibition and tubule formation. The presence of BSP increased the competitive K I values between 15- and 47-fold for natural and synthetic inhibitors. The extent of tubule formation by HUVECs cocultured with dermal fibroblasts was reduced in the presence of inhibitors, while the addition of BSP restored vessel formation. A second HUVEC culture system demonstrated that tubule formation by cells expressing BSP could be inhibited by an activity blocking antibody against MMP-2. BSP modulation of MMP-2 activity and inhibition may define its biological role in promoting tumor progression.

  6. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in young growing animals by alteration of energy status.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J; Rudd, B T; White, D A; Shakespear, R A

    1993-09-01

    The regulation of plasma insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) by energy status has been assessed in 2-month-old pigs. Energy balance was modified by altering thermoregulatory demand and energy intake, with litter-mates being kept for several weeks at either 35 or 10 degrees C on a high (H) or low (L) level of food intake (where H = 2L); plasma samples were taken 20-24 h after the last meal. The two major forms of circulating IGFBP, as estimated by Western blot analysis, were identified putatively as IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 (relative molecular weights of 34 and 40-45 kDa respectively). There were significant differences in IGFBP profiles between the four treatment groups of 35H, 35L, 10H and 10L: the 40-45 kDa IGFBP (putative IGFBP-3) was elevated both in the warm and on a high food intake (P < 0.001), and there was a marked reciprocal relation between the 40-45 and 34 kDa IGFBPs. The relative concentration of the 34 kDa IGFBP (putative IGFBP-2) was greatest in the 10L and least in the 35H group. It is concluded that long-term alterations in energy balance, induced by changes in either intake or thermoregulatory demand, can significantly affect the plasma profile of IGFBPs during the first two months of life.

  7. Perfusion alterations converge with patterns of pathological spread in transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Pilar M; Jester, Charles; Olm, Christopher A; Placek, Katerina; Agosta, Federica; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Irwin, David J; Detre, John A; Filippi, Massimo; Grossman, Murray; McMillan, Corey T

    2018-04-17

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) commonly share the presence of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) inclusions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated evidence for TDP-43 pathology spread, but while structural imaging usually reveals overt neuronal loss, perfusion imaging may detect more subtle neural activity alterations. We evaluated perfusion as an early marker for incipient pathology-associated brain alterations in TDP-43 proteinopathies. Cortical thickness (CT) and perfusion measurements were obtained in ALS (N = 18), pathologically and/or genetically confirmed bvFTD-TDP (N = 12), and healthy controls (N = 33). bvFTD showed reduced frontotemporal CT, hypoperfusion encompassing orbitofrontal and temporal cortices, and hyperperfusion in motor and occipital regions. ALS did not show reduced CT, but exhibited hypoperfusion in motor and temporal regions, and hyperperfusion in frontal and occipital cortices. Frontotemporal hypoperfusion and reduced CT correlated with cognitive and behavioral impairments as investigated using Mini-Mental State Examination and Philadelphia Brief Assessment of Cognition in bvFTD, and hypoperfusion in motor regions correlated with motor disability as measured by the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised in ALS. Hypoperfusion marked early pathologically involved regions, while hyperperfusion characterized regions of late pathological involvement. Distinct perfusion patterns may provide early markers of pathology distribution in TDP-43 proteinopathies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to β-lactams results in the alteration of penicillin-binding proteins in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Park, Miseon; Rafii, Fatemeh

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens causes a variety of mild to severe infections in humans and other animals. A decrease in the affinity of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) transpeptidases for β-lactams is considered one of the mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in bacteria. Two strains of C. perfringens isolated from bovines and one isolated from a chicken, which had decreased susceptibility to β-lactams, had variations in the amino acid sequences of the central penicillin-binding regions of the PBPs. β-Lactam-resistant mutants of another C. perfringens strain, ATCC 13124, were selected in vitro to determine the effects of exposure to β-lactams on the PBP genes. Cultures of the wild type rapidly developed resistance to penicillin G, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. The susceptibilities of all of the selected mutants to some other β-lactams also decreased. The largest PBP found in C. perfringens, CPF_2395, appeared to be the primary target of all three drugs. Strain resistant to penicillin G had mutation resulting in the substitution of one amino acid within the central penicillin-binding/transpeptidase domain, but the ceftrioxane and cephalothin-resistant strains had mutations resulting in the substitution of two amino acids in this region. The cephalothin-resistant mutant also had additional mutations in the CPF_0340 and CPF_2218 genes in this critical region. No other mutations were observed in the three other PBPs of the in vitro resistant mutants. Resistance development also altered the growth rate and cell morphology of the mutants, so in addition to the PBPs, some other genes, including regulatory genes, may have been affected during the interaction with β-lactam antibiotics. This is the first study showing the effects of β-lactam drugs on the substitution of amino acids in PBPs of C. perfringens and points to the need for studies to detect other unknown alterations affecting the physiology of resistant strains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. High Throughput Screening for Compounds That Alter Muscle Cell Glycosylation Identifies New Role for N-Glycans in Regulating Sarcolemmal Protein Abundance and Laminin Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Paula V.; Pang, Mabel; Marshall, Jamie L.; Kung, Raymond; Nelson, Stanley F.; Stalnaker, Stephanie H.; Wells, Lance; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H.; Baum, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder characterized by loss of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that connects the actin cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle cells to extracellular matrix. Dystrophin binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein β-dystroglycan (β-DG), which associates with cell surface α-dystroglycan (α-DG) that binds laminin in the extracellular matrix. β-DG can also associate with utrophin, and this differential association correlates with specific glycosylation changes on α-DG. Genetic modification of α-DG glycosylation can promote utrophin binding and rescue dystrophic phenotypes in mouse dystrophy models. We used high throughput screening with the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) to identify compounds that altered muscle cell surface glycosylation, with the goal of finding compounds that increase abundance of α-DG and associated sarcolemmal glycoproteins, increase utrophin usage, and increase laminin binding. We identified one compound, lobeline, from the Prestwick library of Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds that fulfilled these criteria, increasing WFA binding to C2C12 cells and to primary muscle cells from wild type and mdx mice. WFA binding and enhancement by lobeline required complex N-glycans but not O-mannose glycans that bind laminin. However, inhibiting complex N-glycan processing reduced laminin binding to muscle cell glycoproteins, although O-mannosylation was intact. Glycan analysis demonstrated a general increase in N-glycans on lobeline-treated cells rather than specific alterations in cell surface glycosylation, consistent with increased abundance of multiple sarcolemmal glycoproteins. This demonstrates the feasibility of high throughput screening with plant lectins to identify compounds that alter muscle cell glycosylation and identifies a novel role for N-glycans in regulating muscle cell function. PMID:22570487

  10. Alterations of Hepatic Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease via D-box-binding Protein Aggravate the Renal Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Kengo; Matsunaga, Naoya; Ikeda, Eriko; Kondo, Hideaki; Ikeyama, Hisako; Tokushige, Kazutaka; Itcho, Kazufumi; Furuichi, Yoko; Yoshida, Yuya; Matsuda, Masaki; Yasuda, Kaori; Doi, Atsushi; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Aramaki, Hironori; Irino, Yasuhiro; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-03-04

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increase in serum retinol; however, the underlying mechanisms of this disorder are poorly characterized. Here, we found that the alteration of hepatic metabolism induced the accumulation of serum retinol in 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) mice. The liver is the major organ responsible for retinol metabolism; accordingly, microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic expression of most CYP genes was changed in 5/6Nx mice. In addition, D-box-binding protein (DBP), which controls the expression of several CYP genes, was significantly decreased in these mice. Cyp3a11 and Cyp26a1, encoding key proteins in retinol metabolism, showed the greatest decrease in expression in 5/6Nx mice, a process mediated by the decreased expression of DBP. Furthermore, an increase of plasma transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in 5/6Nx mice led to the decreased expression of the Dbp gene. Consistent with these findings, the alterations of retinol metabolism and renal dysfunction in 5/6Nx mice were ameliorated by administration of an anti-TGF-β1 antibody. We also show that the accumulation of serum retinol induced renal apoptosis in 5/6Nx mice fed a normal diet, whereas renal dysfunction was reduced in mice fed a retinol-free diet. These findings indicate that constitutive Dbp expression plays an important role in mediating hepatic dysfunction under CKD. Thus, the aggravation of renal dysfunction in patients with CKD might be prevented by a recovery of hepatic function, potentially through therapies targeting DBP and retinol. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The A31P missense mutation in cardiac myosin binding protein C alters protein structure but does not cause haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Bezold Kooiker, Kristina; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Yang, Yuanzhang; Kostyukova, Alla S; Mustacich, Debbie J; Hoye, Elaine R; Stern, Joshua A; Kittleson, Mark D; Harris, Samantha P

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in MYBPC3, the gene encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are a major cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). While most mutations encode premature stop codons, missense mutations causing single amino acid substitutions are also common. Here we investigated effects of a single proline for alanine substitution at amino acid 31 (A31P) in the C0 domain of cMyBP-C, which was identified as a natural cause of HCM in cats. Results using recombinant proteins showed that the mutation disrupted C0 structure, altered sensitivity to trypsin digestion, and reduced recognition by an antibody that preferentially recognizes N-terminal domains of cMyBP-C. Western blots detecting A31P cMyBP-C in myocardium of cats heterozygous for the mutation showed a reduced amount of A31P mutant protein relative to wild-type cMyBP-C, but the total amount of cMyBP-C was not different in myocardium from cats with or without the A31P mutation indicating altered rates of synthesis/degradation of A31P cMyBP-C. Also, the mutant A31P cMyBP-C was properly localized in cardiac sarcomeres. These results indicate that reduced protein expression (haploinsufficiency) cannot account for effects of the A31P cMyBP-C mutation and instead suggest that the A31P mutation causes HCM through a poison polypeptide mechanism that disrupts cMyBP-C or myocyte function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear proteins that bind the human gamma-globin gene promoter: alterations in binding produced by point mutations associated with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, D L; Rood, K L; Gray, T A; Riordan, M F; Sartor, C I; Collins, F S

    1988-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the human fetal-to-adult hemoglobin switch have not yet been elucidated. Point mutations identified in the promoter regions of gamma-globin genes from individuals with nondeletion hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) may mark cis-acting sequences important for this switch, and the trans-acting factors which interact with these sequences may be integral parts in the puzzle of gamma-globin gene regulation. We have used gel retardation and footprinting strategies to define nuclear proteins which bind to the normal gamma-globin promoter and to determine the effect of HPFH mutations on the binding of a subset of these proteins. We have identified five proteins in human erythroleukemia cells (K562 and HEL) which bind to the proximal promoter region of the normal gamma-globin gene. One factor, gamma CAAT, binds the duplicated CCAAT box sequences; the -117 HPFH mutation increases the affinity of interaction between gamma CAAT and its cognate site. Two proteins, gamma CAC1 and gamma CAC2, bind the CACCC sequence. These proteins require divalent cations for binding. The -175 HPFH mutation interferes with the binding of a fourth protein, gamma OBP, which binds an octamer sequence (ATGCAAAT) in the normal gamma-globin promoter. The HPFH phenotype of the -175 mutation indicates that the octamer-binding protein may play a negative regulatory role in this setting. A fifth protein, EF gamma a, binds to sequences which overlap the octamer-binding site. The erythroid-specific distribution of EF gamma a and its close approximation to an apparent repressor-binding site suggest that it may be important in gamma-globin regulation. Images PMID:2468996

  13. Mutations in the nucleotide binding pocket of MreB can alter cell curvature and polar morphology in Caulobacter.

    PubMed

    Dye, Natalie A; Pincus, Zachary; Fisher, Isabelle C; Shapiro, Lucy; Theriot, Julie A

    2011-07-01

    The maintenance of cell shape in Caulobacter crescentus requires the essential gene mreB, which encodes a member of the actin superfamily and the target of the antibiotic, A22. We isolated 35 unique A22-resistant Caulobacter strains with single amino acid substitutions near the nucleotide binding site of MreB. Mutations that alter cell curvature and mislocalize the intermediate filament crescentin cluster on the back surface of MreB's structure. Another subset have variable cell widths, with wide cell bodies and actively growing thin extensions of the cell poles that concentrate fluorescent MreB. We found that the extent to which MreB localization is perturbed is linearly correlated with the development of pointed cell poles and variable cell widths. Further, we find that a mutation to glycine of two conserved aspartic acid residues that are important for nucleotide hydrolysis in other members of the actin superfamily abolishes robust midcell recruitment of MreB but supports a normal rate of growth. These mutant strains provide novel insight into how MreB's protein structure, subcellular localization, and activity contribute to its function in bacterial cell shape. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Mutations in the nucleotide binding pocket of MreB can alter cell curvature and polar morphology in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Natalie A; Pincus, Zachary; Fisher, Isabelle C; Shapiro, Lucy; Theriot, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Summary The maintenance of cell shape in Caulobacter crescentus requires the essential gene mreB, which encodes a member of the actin superfamily and the target of the antibiotic, A22. We isolated 35 unique A22-resistant Caulobacter strains with single amino acid substitutions near the nucleotide binding site of MreB. Mutations that alter cell curvature and mislocalize the intermediate filament crescentin cluster on the back surface of MreB's structure. Another subset have variable cell widths, with wide cell bodies and actively growing thin extensions of the cell poles that concentrate fluorescent MreB. We found that the extent to which MreB localization is perturbed is linearly correlated with the development of pointed cell poles and variable cell widths. Further, we find that a mutation to glycine of two conserved aspartic acid residues that are important for nucleotide hydrolysis in other members of the actin superfamily abolishes robust midcell recruitment of MreB but supports a normal rate of growth. These mutant strains provide novel insight into how MreB's protein structure, subcellular localization, and activity contribute to its function in bacterial cell shape. PMID:21564339

  15. Proteomic analysis of the intestinal adaptation response reveals altered expression of fatty acid binding proteins following massive small bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Andrew N; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Wilson, Guineva; Taylor, Russell G; Rainczuk, Adam; Meehan, Katie L; Sourial, Magdy; Fuller, Peter J; Stanton, Peter G; Robertson, David M; Bines, Julie E

    2010-03-05

    Intestinal adaptation in response to the loss of the small intestine is essential to restore enteral autonomy in patients who have undergone massive small bowel resection (MSBR). In a proportion of patients, intestinal function is not restored, resulting in chronic intestinal failure (IF). Early referral of such patients for transplant provides the best prognosis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain elusive and there is currently no convenient marker to predict whether patients will develop IF. We have investigated the adaptation response in a well-characterized porcine model of intestinal adaptation. 2D DIGE analysis of ileal epithelium from piglets recovering from massive small bowel resection (MSBR) identified over 60 proteins that changed specifically in MSBR animals relative to nonoperational or sham-operated controls. Three fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP, FABP-6, and I-FABP) showed changes in MSBR animals. The expression changes and localization of each FABP were validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis. FABP expression changes in MSBR animals occurred concurrently with altered triglyceride and bile acid metabolism as well as weight gain. The observed FABP expression changes in the ileal epithelium occur as part of the intestinal adaptation response and could provide a clinically useful marker to evaluate adaptation following MSBR.

  16. Repeated MDMA ("Ecstasy") exposure in adolescent male rats alters temperature regulation, spontaneous motor activity, attention, and serotonin transporter binding.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Fraiman, Joseph B; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2005-09-01

    Previous research in our laboratory found that repeated exposure of adolescent rats to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) impaired working memory and reduced anxiety. The present experiment extended these findings by investigating the physiological, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of a modified MDMA treatment regimen. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 mg/kg of MDMA hourly for a period of 4 hr on every fifth day from postnatal day 35-60. Acute effects of the MDMA treatment included hypothermia, serotonin syndrome behavior, and ejaculation. Body weight gain was attenuated by repeated drug administration. The animals completed anxiety and working memory tests beginning 4 days after the final MDMA dose. MDMA altered habituation to the open-field, increased locomotor activity in the elevated plus-maze, decreased attention in the novel object-recognition test, and reduced serotonin transporter binding in the neocortex. These results indicate that repeated exposure to a relatively moderate MDMA dose during adolescence produces later changes in behavior and neurochemistry. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  17. Dietary fat and the diabetic state alter insulin binding and the fatty acyl composition of the adipocyte plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Field, C J; Ryan, E A; Thomson, A B; Clandinin, M T

    1988-01-01

    Control and diabetic rats were fed on semi-purified high-fat diets providing a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) of 1.0 or 0.25, to examine the effect of diet on the fatty acid composition of major phospholipids of the adipocyte plasma membrane. Feeding the high-P/S diet (P/S = 1.0) compared with the low-P/S diet (P/S = 0.25) increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids in both control and diabetic animals. The diabetic state decreased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, in adipocyte membrane phospholipids. The decrease in arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids of diabetic animals tended to be normalized to within the control values when high-P/S diets were given. For control animals, altered plasma-membrane composition was associated with change in insulin binding, suggesting that change in plasma-membrane composition may have physiological consequences for insulin-stimulated functions in the adipocyte. PMID:3052424

  18. Altered binding of thioflavin t to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase after phosphorylation of the active site by chlorpyrifos oxon or dichlorvos

    SciTech Connect

    Sultatos, L.G.; Kaushik, R.

    2008-08-01

    The peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, when occupied by a ligand, is known to modulate reaction rates at the active site of this important enzyme. The current report utilized the peripheral anionic site specific fluorogenic probe thioflavin t to determine if the organophosphates chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos bind to the peripheral anionic site of human recombinant acetylcholinesterase, since certain organophosphates display concentration-dependent kinetics when inhibiting this enzyme. Incubation of 3 nM acetylcholinesterase active sites with 50 nM or 2000 nM inhibitor altered both the B{sub max} and K{sub d} for thioflavin t binding to the peripheral anionic site. However, thesemore » changes resulted from phosphorylation of Ser203 since increasing either inhibitor from 50 nM to 2000 nM did not alter further thioflavin t binding kinetics. Moreover, the organophosphate-induced decrease in B{sub max} did not represent an actual reduction in binding sites, but instead likely resulted from conformational interactions between the acylation and peripheral anionic sites that led to a decrease in the rigidity of bound thioflavin t. A drop in fluorescence quantum yield, leading to an apparent decrease in B{sub max}, would accompany the decreased rigidity of bound thioflavin t molecules. The organophosphate-induced alterations in K{sub d} represented changes in binding affinity of thioflavin t, with diethylphosphorylation of Ser203 increasing K{sub d}, and dimethylphosphorylation of Ser203 decreasing K{sub d}. These results indicate that chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos do not bind directly to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, but can affect binding to that site through phosphorylation of Ser203.« less

  19. Mismatch repair factor MSH2-MSH3 binds and alters the conformation of branched DNA structures predicted to form during genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Surtees, Jennifer A; Alani, Eric

    2006-07-14

    Genetic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae predict that the mismatch repair (MMR) factor MSH2-MSH3 binds and stabilizes branched recombination intermediates that form during single strand annealing and gene conversion. To test this model, we constructed a series of DNA substrates that are predicted to form during these recombination events. We show in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay that S. cerevisiae MSH2-MSH3 specifically binds branched DNA substrates containing 3' single-stranded DNA and that ATP stimulates its release from these substrates. Chemical footprinting analyses indicate that MSH2-MSH3 specifically binds at the double-strand/single-strand junction of branched substrates, alters its conformation and opens up the junction. Therefore, MSH2-MSH3 binding to its substrates creates a unique nucleoprotein structure that may signal downstream steps in repair that include interactions with MMR and nucleotide excision repair factors.

  20. Trichloroethylene-induced alterations in DNA methylation were enriched in polycomb protein binding sites in effector/memory CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Blossom, Sarah J.; Reisfeld, Brad; Erickson, Stephen W.; Vyas, Kanan; Maher, Mary; Broadfoot, Brannon; West, Kirk; Bai, Shasha; Cooney, Craig A.; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) can promote autoimmunity, and expand effector/memory (CD62L) CD4+ T cells. In order to better understand etiology reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was used to study how a 40-week exposure to TCE in drinking water altered methylation of ∼337 770 CpG sites across the entire genome of effector/memory CD4+ T cells from MRL+/+ mice. Regardless of TCE exposure, 62% of CpG sites in autosomal chromosomes were hypomethylated (0–15% methylation), and 25% were hypermethylated (85–100% methylation). In contrast, only 6% of the CpGs on the X chromosome were hypomethylated, and 51% had mid-range methylation levels. In terms of TCE impact, TCE altered (≥ 10%) the methylation of 233 CpG sites in effector/memory CD4+ T cells. Approximately 31.7% of these differentially methylated sites occurred in regions known to bind one or more Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, namely Ezh2, Suz12, Mtf2 or Jarid2. In comparison, only 23.3% of CpG sites not differentially methylated by TCE were found in PcG protein binding regions. Transcriptomics revealed that TCE altered the expression of ∼560 genes in the same effector/memory CD4+ T cells. At least 80% of the immune genes altered by TCE had binding sites for PcG proteins flanking their transcription start site, or were regulated by other transcription factors that were in turn ordered by PcG proteins at their own transcription start site. Thus, PcG proteins, and the differential methylation of their binding sites, may represent a new mechanism by which TCE could alter the function of effector/memory CD4+ T cells. PMID:29129997

  1. Mutations that alter the equilibrium between open and closed conformations of Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein impede its ability to enhance the solubility of passenger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nallamsetty, Sreedevi; Waugh, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Certain highly soluble proteins, such as Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein (MBP), have the ability to enhance the solubility of their fusion partners, making them attractive vehicles for the production of recombinant proteins, yet the mechanism of solubility enhancement remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the solubility-enhancing properties of MBP are dramatically affected by amino acid substitutions that alter the equilibrium between its “open” and “closed” conformations. Our findings indicate that the solubility-enhancing activity of MBP is mediated by its open conformation and point to a likely role for the ligand-binding cleft in the mechanism of solubility enhancement. PMID:17964542

  2. Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Inga; Jabłońska, Jadwiga; Zmojdzian, Monika; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Renaud, Yoan; Junion, Guillaume; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Huelsmann, Sven; Jagla, Krzysztof; Jagla, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), maintain normal cellular function by controlling protein homeostasis in stress conditions. However, sHsps are not only activated in response to environmental insults, but also exert developmental and tissue-specific functions that are much less known. Here, we show that during normal development the Drosophila sHsp CryAB [L(2)efl] is specifically expressed in larval body wall muscles and accumulates at the level of Z-bands and around myonuclei. CryAB features a conserved actin-binding domain and, when attenuated, leads to clustering of myonuclei and an altered pattern of sarcomeric actin and the Z-band-associated actin crosslinker Cheerio (filamin). Our data suggest that CryAB and Cheerio form a complex essential for muscle integrity: CryAB colocalizes with Cheerio and, as revealed by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, binds to Cheerio, and the muscle-specific attenuation of cheerio leads to CryAB-like sarcomeric phenotypes. Furthermore, muscle-targeted expression of CryAB(R120G), which carries a mutation associated with desmin-related myopathy (DRM), results in an altered sarcomeric actin pattern, in affected myofibrillar integrity and in Z-band breaks, leading to reduced muscle performance and to marked cardiac arrhythmia. Taken together, we demonstrate that CryAB ensures myofibrillar integrity in Drosophila muscles during development and propose that it does so by interacting with the actin crosslinker Cheerio. The evidence that a DRM-causing mutation affects CryAB muscle function and leads to DRM-like phenotypes in the fly reveals a conserved stress-independent role of CryAB in maintaining muscle cell cytoarchitecture. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. G3139, an Anti-Bcl-2 Antisense Oligomer that Binds Heparin-Binding Growth Factors and Collagen I, Alters In Vitro Endothelial Cell Growth and Tubular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, C.A.; Wu, SiJian; Voskresenskiy, Anatoliy M.; Zhou, Jin-Feng; Shin, Joongho; Miller, Paul; Souleimanian, Naira; Benimetskaya, Luba

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effects of G3139 on the interaction of heparin-binding proteins (e.g., FGF2 and collagen I) with endothelial cells. G3139 is an 18mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeted to the initiation codon region of the Bcl-2 mRNA. A randomized, prospective global Phase III trial in advanced melanoma (GM301) has evaluted G3139 in combination with dacarbazine. However, the mechanism of action of G3139 is incompletely understood, as it is unlikely that Bcl-2 silencing is the sole mechanism for chemo-sensitization in melanoma cells. Experimental Design The ability of G3139 to interact with and protect heparin-binding proteins was quantitated. The effects of G3139 on the binding of FGF2 to high affinity cell surface receptors, and the induction of cellular mitogenesis and tubular morphogenesis in HMEC-1 and HUVEC cells were determined. Results G3139 binds with picomolar affinity to collagen I. By replacing heparin, the drug can potentiate the binding of FGF2 to FGFR1 IIIc, and it protects FGF from oxidation and from proteolysis. G3139 can increase endothelial cell mitogenesis and tubular morphogenesis of HMEC-1 cells in 3D collagen gels, increases the mitogenesis of HUVEC cells similarly, and induces vessel sprouts in the rat aortic ring model. Conclusions G3139 dramatically affects the behavior of endothelial cells. There may be a correlation between this observation and the treatment interaction with LDH observed clinically. PMID:19351753

  4. Altered binding of /sup 125/I-labeled calmodulin to a 46. 5-kilodalton protein in skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, E.A.; Wallace, R.W.

    1987-02-01

    The levels of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins have been determined in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and age- and sex-matched controls. Calmodulin ranged from 0.20 to 0.76 microgram/mg protein; there was no difference between calmodulin concentration in fibroblasts from CF patients and controls. Calmodulin-binding proteins of 230, 212, 204, 164, 139, 70, 59, 46.5, and 41 kD were identified. A protein with a mobility identical to the 59-kD calmodulin-binding protein was labeled by antiserum against calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Although Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent phosphatase activity was detected, there was no different in activity between control and CF fibroblastsmore » or in the level of phosphatase protein as determined by radioimmunoassay. Lower amounts of /sup 125/I-calmodulin were bound to the 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein in CF fibroblasts as compared with controls. The 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein may be reduced in CF fibroblasts or its structure may be altered resulting in a reduced binding capacity and/or affinity for calmodulin and perhaps reflecting, either directly or indirectly, the genetic defect responsible for cystic fibrosis.« less

  5. Altering the orientation of a fused protein to the RNA-binding ribosomal protein L7Ae and its derivatives through circular permutation.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Shoji J; Sagawa, Fumihiko; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Inoue, Tan

    2015-10-23

    RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) are useful for constructing functional nano-objects because a variety of functional proteins can be displayed on a designed RNA scaffold. Here, we report circular permutations of an RNA-binding protein L7Ae based on the three-dimensional structure information to alter the orientation of the displayed proteins on the RNA scaffold. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that most of the designed circular permutants formed an RNP nano-object. Moreover, the alteration of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) orientation was confirmed with AFM by employing EGFP on the L7Ae permutant on the RNA. The results demonstrate that targeted fine-tuning of the stereo-specific fixation of a protein on a protein-binding RNA is feasible by using the circular permutation technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Penicillin-binding protein 1A, 2B, and 2X alterations in Canadian isolates of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Kimberly A; Zhanel, George G; Hoban, Daryl J

    2002-10-01

    Alterations within the penicillin-binding domain of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x were determined for 15 Canadian isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates showed a variety of PBP 2X substitutions and contained a Thr445-Ala change after the PBP 2B SSN motif. Only isolates for which penicillin MICs were > or =0.5 micro g/ml had PBP 1A alterations near the STMK and SRN motifs. Sequence analysis revealed identical PBP 1A, PBP 2B, and PBP 2X substitution patterns among all isolates for which penicillin MICs were > or =1 micro g/ml.

  7. Penicillin-Binding Protein 1A, 2B, and 2X Alterations in Canadian Isolates of Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, Kimberly A.; Zhanel, George G.; Hoban, Daryl J.

    2002-01-01

    Alterations within the penicillin-binding domain of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x were determined for 15 Canadian isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates showed a variety of PBP 2X substitutions and contained a Thr445-Ala change after the PBP 2B SSN motif. Only isolates for which penicillin MICs were ≥0.5 μg/ml had PBP 1A alterations near the STMK and SRN motifs. Sequence analysis revealed identical PBP 1A, PBP 2B, and PBP 2X substitution patterns among all isolates for which penicillin MICs were ≥1 μg/ml. PMID:12234855

  8. Altering the orientation of a fused protein to the RNA-binding ribosomal protein L7Ae and its derivatives through circular permutation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohuchi, Shoji J.; Sagawa, Fumihiko; Sakamoto, Taiichi

    RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) are useful for constructing functional nano-objects because a variety of functional proteins can be displayed on a designed RNA scaffold. Here, we report circular permutations of an RNA-binding protein L7Ae based on the three-dimensional structure information to alter the orientation of the displayed proteins on the RNA scaffold. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that most of the designed circular permutants formed an RNP nano-object. Moreover, the alteration of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) orientation was confirmed with AFM by employing EGFP on the L7Ae permutant on the RNA. Themore » results demonstrate that targeted fine-tuning of the stereo-specific fixation of a protein on a protein-binding RNA is feasible by using the circular permutation technique.« less

  9. Changes in complementarity-determining regions significantly alter IgG binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    King, Amy C.; Kavosi, Mania; Wang, Mengmeng; O'Hara, Denise M.; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Katragadda, Madan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT A large body of data exists demonstrating that neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding of an IgG via its Fc CH2-CH3 interface trends with the pharmacokinetics (PK) of IgG. We have observed that PK of IgG molecules vary widely, even when they share identical Fc domains. This led us to hypothesize that domains distal from the Fc could contribute to FcRn binding and affect PK. In this study, we explored the role of these IgG domains in altering the affinity between IgG and FcRn. Using a surface plasmon resonance-based assay developed to examine the steady-state binding affinity (KD) of IgG molecules to FcRn, we dissected the contributions of IgG domains in modulating the affinity between FcRn and IgG. Through analysis of a broad collection of therapeutic antibodies containing more than 50 unique IgG molecules, we demonstrated that variable domains, and in particular complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), significantly alter binding affinity to FcRn in vitro. Furthermore, a panel of IgG molecules differing only by 1–5 mutations in CDRs altered binding affinity to FcRn in vitro, by up to 79-fold, and the affinity values correlated with calculated isoelectric point values of both variable domains and CDR-L3. In addition, tighter affinity values trend with faster in vivo clearance of a set of IgG molecules differing only by 1–3 mutations in human FcRn transgenic mice. Understanding the role of CDRs in modulation of IgG affinity to FcRn in vitro and their effect on PK of IgG may have far-reaching implications in the optimization of IgG therapeutics. PMID:28991504

  10. Sulfated Low Molecular Weight Lignins, Allosteric Inhibitors of Coagulation Proteinases via the Heparin Binding Site, Significantly Alter the Active Site of Thrombin and Factor Xa Compared to Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brian L.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  11. Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brian L; Desai, Umesh R

    2014-11-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A longitudinal assessment of hormonal and physical alterations during normal puberty in boys. I. Serum growth hormone-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Martha, P M; Rogol, A D; Carlsson, L M; Gesundheit, N; Blizzard, R M

    1993-08-01

    Previous studies have provided compelling evidence that GH secretion increases transiently during midpuberty in normally growing children. Although it is likely that the increase in GH production serves a primary role in generating the pubertal growth spurt, such a conclusion necessarily assumes that other essential "down-stream" components of the GH axis responsible for mediating the effects of GH remain unchanged. To investigate this concept, we assessed longitudinally another important component of the endogenous GH axis, the serum GH-binding protein (GHBP)/receptor system, in a cohort of 11 normal boys as they matured through normal puberty. At 4-month intervals over 4.0-5.1 yr, 24-h serum GH concentration profiles and serum GHBP activity were evaluated. Serum GHBP levels varied over a more than 12-fold range (40-504 pmol/L) among all subjects. However, the values for individual subjects consistently varied within more narrow limits. The coefficient of variation for values from all subjects was 51% compared to the mean intrasubject coefficient of variation of only 30% (P < 0.05). Although the highest GHBP level (all subjects) was 12.6-fold greater than the lowest, the mean intrasubject range was only 3.1 +/- 0.5-fold (P < 0.05). The overall mean serum GHBP level correlated directly with the overall mean body mass index (r = 0.69; P = 0.018), but correlated inversely with the mean 24-h GH concentration (r = -0.61; P < 0.05). There was no significant increase in the GHBP level during puberty. However, because mean 24-h GH concentrations did increase during midpuberty, the data suggest that an increase in the relative amounts of free vs. bound GH develops during the period of the pubertal growth spurt. These data indicate that serum GHBP levels are regulated in individual children within much more narrow limits than those present in the larger population and do not undergo the dramatic changes during puberty typical of GH secretion and linear growth velocity. As a

  13. Sudan ebolavirus long recovered survivors produce GP-specific Abs that are of the IgG1 subclass and preferentially bind FcγRI.

    PubMed

    Radinsky, Olga; Edri, Avishay; Brusilovsky, Michael; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Sobarzo, Ariel; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Lutwama, Julius; Dye, John; Lobel, Leslie; Porgador, Angel

    2017-07-20

    Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs. We developed a cell-based reporter system to quantitate pathogen-specific antibody binding to FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB and FcγRI. With this system, we demonstrate that anti-GP-specific stimulation of the FcγRI reporter by survivors' sera was substantially high one year after acute infection, with a slight reduction in activity over a decade post infection. We further demonstrate that GP-specific IgG1 is by far the seroprevalent subclass that retained and even enhanced its presence in the sera, over ten years post infection; the prevalence of other GP-specific IgG subclasses was considerably reduced over time. In accordance, GP-specific FcγRI reporter response and GP-specific total IgG1 subclass correlated in the studied group of Ebola survivors. These observations are important for further informing Ebola vaccine and therapeutic development.

  14. Alteration of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a C-type lectin CEL-I mutant with an EPN carbohydrate-binding motif.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Ishimine, Tomohiro; Baba, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masanari; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro

    2013-07-01

    CEL-I is a Gal/GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. This lectin is composed of two carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) with the carbohydrate-recognition motif QPD (Gln-Pro- Asp), which is generally known to exist in galactose-specific C-type CRDs. In the present study, a mutant CEL-I with EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif, which is thought to be responsible for the carbohydrate-recognition of mannose-specific Ctype CRDs, was produced in Escherichia coli, and its effects on the carbohydrate-binding specificity were examined using polyamidoamine dendrimer (PD) conjugated with carbohydrates. Although wild-type CEL-I effectively formed complexes with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-PD but not with mannose-PD, the mutant CEL-I showed relatively weak but definite affinity for mannose-PD. These results indicated that the QPD and EPN motifs play a significant role in the carbohydrate-recognition mechanism of CEL-I, especially in the discrimination of galactose and mannose. Additional mutations in the recombinant CEL-I binding site may further increase its specificity for mannose, and should provide insights into designing novel carbohydrate-recognition proteins.

  15. Alteration of the Copper-Binding Capacity of Iron-Rich Humic Colloids during Transport from Peatland to Marine Waters.

    PubMed

    Muller, François L L; Cuscov, Marco

    2017-03-21

    Blanket bogs contain vast amounts of Sphagnum-derived organic substances which can act as powerful chelators for dissolved iron and thus enhance its export to the coastal ocean. To investigate the variations in quantity and quality of these exports, adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) was used to characterize the metal binding properties of molecular weight-fractionated dissolved organic matter (MW-fractionated DOM) in the catchment and coastal plume of a small peat-draining river over a seasonal cycle. Within the plume, both iron- and copper-binding organic ligands showed a linear, conservative distribution with increasing salinity, illustrating the high stability of peatland-derived humic substances (HS). Within the catchment, humic colloids lost up to 50% of their copper-binding capacity, expressed as a molar ratio to organic carbon, after residing for 1 week or more in the main reservoir of the catchment. Immediately downstream of the reservoir, the molar ratio [L 2 ]/[C org ], where L 2 was the second strongest copper-binding ligand, was 0.75 × 10 -4 when the reservoir residence time was 5 h but 0.34 × 10 -4 when it was 25 days. Residence time did not affect the carbon specific iron-binding capacity of the humic substances which was [L]/[C org ] = (0.80 ± 0.20) × 10 -2 . Our results suggest that the loss of copper-binding capacity with increasing residence time is caused by intracolloidal interactions between iron and HS during transit from peat soil to river mouth.

  16. Novel Gal3 proteins showing altered Gal80p binding cause constitutive transcription of Gal4p-activated genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Blank, T E; Woods, M P; Lebo, C M; Xin, P; Hopper, J E

    1997-01-01

    Gal4p-mediated activation of galactose gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally requires both galactose and the activity of Gal3p. Recent evidence suggests that in cells exposed to galactose, Gal3p binds to and inhibits Ga180p, an inhibitor of the transcriptional activator Gal4p. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of novel mutant forms of Gal3p that can induce Gal4p activity independently of galactose. Five mutant GAL3(c) alleles were isolated by using a selection demanding constitutive expression of a GAL1 promoter-driven HIS3 gene. This constitutive effect is not due to overproduction of Gal3p. The level of constitutive GAL gene expression in cells bearing different GAL3(c) alleles varies over more than a fourfold range and increases in response to galactose. Utilizing glutathione S-transferase-Gal3p fusions, we determined that the mutant Gal3p proteins show altered Gal80p-binding characteristics. The Gal3p mutant proteins differ in their requirements for galactose and ATP for their Gal80p-binding ability. The behavior of the novel Gal3p proteins provides strong support for a model wherein galactose causes an alteration in Gal3p that increases either its ability to bind to Gal80p or its access to Gal80p. With the Gal3p-Gal80p interaction being a critical step in the induction process, the Gal3p proteins constitute an important new reagent for studying the induction mechanism through both in vivo and in vitro methods. PMID:9111326

  17. Alteration of Cyclic-AMP Response Element Binding Protein in the Postmortem Brain of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Khan, Mansoor A.; Bhaumik, Runa; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) function has been suggested in bipolar (BP) illness and schizophrenia (SZ), based on both indirect and direct evidence. To further elucidate the role of CREB in these disorders, we studied CREB expression and function in two brain areas implicated in these disorders, i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and cingulate gyrus (CG). Methods We determined CREB protein expression using Western blot technique, CRE-DNA binding using gel shift assay, and mRNA expression using real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in DLPFC and CG of the postmortem brain of BP (n = 19), SZ (n = 20), and normal control (NC, n = 20) subjects. Results We observed that CREB protein and mRNA expression and CRE-DNA binding activity were significantly decreased in the nuclear fraction of DLPFC and CG obtained from BP subjects compared with NC subjects. However, the protein and mRNA expression and CRE-DNA binding in SZ subjects was significantly decreased in CG, but not in DLPFC, compared with NC. Conclusion These studies thus indicate region-specific abnormalities of CREB expression and function in both BP and SZ. They suggest that abnormalities of CREB in CG may be associated with both BP and SZ, but its abnormality in DLPFC is specific to BP illness. PMID:24148789

  18. Gene polymorphism linked to increased asthma and IBD risk alters gasdermin-B structure, a sulfatide and phosphoinositide binding protein.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kinlin L; Kulakova, Liudmila; Herzberg, Osnat

    2017-02-14

    The exact function of human gasdermin-B (GSDMB), which regulates differentiation and growth of epithelial cells, is yet to be elucidated. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, GSDMB gene amplification and protein overexpression indicate a poor response to HER2-targeted therapy. Genome-wide association studies revealed a correlation between GSDMB SNPs and an increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and asthma. The N- and C-terminal domains of all gasdermins possess lipid-binding and regulatory activities, respectively. Inflammatory caspases cleave gasdermin-D in the interdomain linker but not GSDMB. The cleaved N-terminal domain binds phosphoinositides and cardiolipin, forms membrane-disrupting pores, and executes pyroptosis. We show that both full-length GSDMB and the N-terminal domain bind to nitrocellulose membranes immobilized with phosphoinositides or sulfatide, but not with cardiolipin. In addition, the GSDMB N-terminal domain binds liposomes containing sulfatide. The crystal structure of the GSDMB C-terminal domain reveals the structural impact of the amino acids encoded by SNPs that are linked to asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A loop that carries the polymorphism amino acids corresponding to healthy individuals (Gly299:Pro306) exhibits high conformational flexibility, whereas the loop carrying amino acids found in individuals with increased disease risk (Arg299:Ser306) exhibits a well-defined conformation and higher positive surface charge. Apoptotic executioner caspase-3, -6, and -7, but not the inflammatory caspases, cleave GSDMB at 88 DNVD 91 within the N-terminal domain. Selective sulfatide binding may indicate possible function for GSDMB in the cellular sulfatide transport.

  19. Gene polymorphism linked to increased asthma and IBD risk alters gasdermin-B structure, a sulfatide and phosphoinositide binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kinlin L.; Kulakova, Liudmila; Herzberg, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    The exact function of human gasdermin-B (GSDMB), which regulates differentiation and growth of epithelial cells, is yet to be elucidated. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, GSDMB gene amplification and protein overexpression indicate a poor response to HER2-targeted therapy. Genome-wide association studies revealed a correlation between GSDMB SNPs and an increased susceptibility to Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and asthma. The N- and C-terminal domains of all gasdermins possess lipid-binding and regulatory activities, respectively. Inflammatory caspases cleave gasdermin-D in the interdomain linker but not GSDMB. The cleaved N-terminal domain binds phosphoinositides and cardiolipin, forms membrane-disrupting pores, and executes pyroptosis. We show that both full-length GSDMB and the N-terminal domain bind to nitrocellulose membranes immobilized with phosphoinositides or sulfatide, but not with cardiolipin. In addition, the GSDMB N-terminal domain binds liposomes containing sulfatide. The crystal structure of the GSDMB C-terminal domain reveals the structural impact of the amino acids encoded by SNPs that are linked to asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A loop that carries the polymorphism amino acids corresponding to healthy individuals (Gly299:Pro306) exhibits high conformational flexibility, whereas the loop carrying amino acids found in individuals with increased disease risk (Arg299:Ser306) exhibits a well-defined conformation and higher positive surface charge. Apoptotic executioner caspase-3, -6, and -7, but not the inflammatory caspases, cleave GSDMB at 88DNVD91 within the N-terminal domain. Selective sulfatide binding may indicate possible function for GSDMB in the cellular sulfatide transport. PMID:28154144

  20. Free energy simulations reveal a double mutant avian H5N1 virus hemagglutinin with altered receptor binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Das, Payel; Li, Jingyuan; Royyuru, Ajay K; Zhou, Ruhong

    2009-08-01

    Historically, influenza pandemics have been triggered when an avian influenza virus or a human/avian reassorted virus acquires the ability to replicate efficiently and become transmissible in the human population. Most critically, the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) must adapt to the usage of human-like (alpha-2,6-linked) sialylated glycan receptors. Therefore, identification of mutations that can switch the currently circulating H5N1 HA receptor binding specificity from avian to human might provide leads to the emergence of pandemic H5N1 viruses. To define such mutations in the H5 subtype, here we provide a computational framework that combines molecular modeling with extensive free energy simulations. Our results show that the simulated binding affinities are in good agreement with currently available experimental data. Moreover, we predict that one double mutation (V135S and A138S) in HA significantly enhances alpha-2,6-linked receptor recognition by the H5 subtype. Our simulations indicate that this double mutation in H5N1 HA increases the binding affinity to alpha-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors by 2.6 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol per HA monomer that primarily arises from the electrostatic interactions. Further analyses reveal that introduction of this double mutation results in a conformational change in the receptor binding pocket of H5N1 HA. As a result, a major rearrangement occurs in the hydrogen-bonding network of HA with the human receptor, making the human receptor binding pattern of double mutant H5N1 HA surprisingly similar to that observed in human H1N1 HA. These large scale molecular simulations on single and double mutants thus provide new insights into our understanding toward human adaptation of the avian H5N1 virus. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. DcR3 binds to ovarian cancer via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates tumor cells response to platinum with corresponding alteration in the expression of BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overcoming platinum resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). In our previous work Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) was found to be related to platinum resistance. The major objective of this work was to define the cellular interaction of DcR3 with EOC and to explore its effects on platinum responsiveness. Methods We studied cell lines and primary cultures for the expression of and the cells ability to bind DcR3. Cells were cultured with DcR3 and then exposed to platinum. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Finally, the cells molecular response to DcR3 was studied using real time RT-PCR based differential expression arrays, standard RT-PCR, and Western blot. Results High DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity of women with EOC is associated with significantly shorter time to first recurrence after platinum based therapy (p = 0.02). None-malignant cells contribute DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity. The cell lines studied do not secrete DcR3; however they all bind exogenous DcR3 to their surface implying that they can be effected by DcR3 from other sources. DcR3s protein binding partners are minimally expressed or negative, however, all cells expressed the DcR3 binding Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) Syndecans-2, and CD44v3. DcR3 binding was inhibited by heparin and heparinase. After DcR3 exposure both SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 became more resistant to platinum with 15% more cells surviving at high doses. On the contrary CaOV3 became more sensitive to platinum with 20–25% more cell death. PCR array analysis showed increase expression of BRCA1 mRNA in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 and decreased BRCA1 expression in CaOV-3 after exposure to DcR3. This was confirmed by gene specific real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Conclusions Non-malignant cells contribute to the high levels of DcR3 in ovarian cancer. DcR3 binds readily to EOC cells via HSPGs and alter their responsiveness to platinum chemotherapy. The paradoxical responses seen

  2. Maximally localized Wannier functions in LaMnO3 within PBE + U, hybrid functionals and partially self-consistent GW: an efficient route to construct ab initio tight-binding parameters for eg perovskites.

    PubMed

    Franchini, C; Kováčik, R; Marsman, M; Murthy, S Sathyanarayana; He, J; Ederer, C; Kresse, G

    2012-06-13

    Using the newly developed VASP2WANNIER90 interface we have constructed maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) for the e(g) states of the prototypical Jahn-Teller magnetic perovskite LaMnO(3) at different levels of approximation for the exchange-correlation kernel. These include conventional density functional theory (DFT) with and without the additional on-site Hubbard U term, hybrid DFT and partially self-consistent GW. By suitably mapping the MLWFs onto an effective e(g) tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian we have computed a complete set of TB parameters which should serve as guidance for more elaborate treatments of correlation effects in effective Hamiltonian-based approaches. The method-dependent changes of the calculated TB parameters and their interplay with the electron-electron (el-el) interaction term are discussed and interpreted. We discuss two alternative model parameterizations: one in which the effects of the el-el interaction are implicitly incorporated in the otherwise 'noninteracting' TB parameters and a second where we include an explicit mean-field el-el interaction term in the TB Hamiltonian. Both models yield a set of tabulated TB parameters which provide the band dispersion in excellent agreement with the underlying ab initio and MLWF bands.

  3. Limits of transforming competence of SV40 nuclear and cytoplasmic large T mutants with altered Rb binding sequences.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, D; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1993-03-01

    Multiple amino acid substitutions were introduced into the SV40 large T region that harbors the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding site and the nuclear transport signal, changing either one or both of these determinants. Mutant activities were examined in a set of assays allowing different levels of transforming potential to be distinguished; phenotypic changes in established and pre-crisis rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) were detected under isogenic cell conditions, and comparisons made with other established rodent cells. The limit of the transforming ability of mutants with important substitutions in the Rb binding site fell between two transformation levels of the same established rat cells. Such cells could be induced to form dense foci but not agar colonies (their parental pre-crises REFs, as expected, were untransformed either way). Nonetheless, agar colony induction was possible in other cell lines, such as mouse NIH3T3 and (for one of the mutants) rat F2408. All these mutants efficiently immortalized pre-crisis REFs. The transforming ability of cytoplasmic mutants appeared to depend on the integrity of the Rb-binding sequence to approximately the same extent as that of the wild-type large T, although evidence of in vivo Rb-cytoplasmic large T complexes was not found. The presence or absence of small t was critical when the transforming task of mutants was near the limit of their abilities.

  4. Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 μM and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 μM. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 μM histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 μM HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and TNFα responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.

  5. Role of Altered Sialylation of the I-Like Domain of β1 Integrin in the Binding of Fibronectin to β1 Integrin: Thermodynamics and Conformational Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Di; Song, Yuhua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract N-glycosylation of the I-like domain of β1 integrin plays an essential role in integrin structure and function, and the altered sialylation of β1 integrin regulates β1 integrin binding to fibronectin. However, the structural basis underlying the effect of altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain on β1 integrin binding to fibronectin remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analyses to investigate changes in binding thermodynamics and in conformation of the glycosylated β1 I-like domain-FN-III9-10 complex caused by altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain. Binding free energy analyses showed that desialylation of β1 I-like domain increased β1 integrin binding to fibronectin, consistent with experimental results. Interaction analyses showed that altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain resulted in significant changes in the interaction of the N-glycans of the I-like domain with both the I-like domain and fibronectin, and these changes could directly affect the allosteric regulation of the interaction between the I-like domain and fibronectin. Altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain caused significant conformational changes in key functional sites of both the β1 I-like domain and fibronectin. In addition, altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain resulted in changes in the degree of correlated motions between residues in the I-like domain and residues in fibronectin, and in the degree of motion changes in fibronectin, which could affect β1 integrin binding to fibronectin. We believe results from this study provide thermodynamic and structural evidence for a role of altered sialylation of β1 integrin in regulating β1 integrin binding to fibronectin and it's induced cellular activities. PMID:20655849

  6. Mutations in Human Tubulin Proximal to the Kinesin-Binding Site Alter Dynamic Instability at Microtubule Plus- and Minus-Ends

    SciTech Connect

    Ti, Shih-Chieh; Pamula, Melissa C.; Howes, Stuart C.

    The assembly of microtubule-based cellular structures depends on regulated tubulin polymerization and directional transport. In this research, we have purified and characterized tubulin heterodimers that have human β-tubulin isotype III (TUBB3), as well as heterodimers with one of two β-tubulin mutations (D417H or R262H). Both point mutations are proximal to the kinesin-binding site and have been linked to an ocular motility disorder in humans. Compared to wild-type, microtubules with these mutations have decreased catastrophe frequencies and increased average lifetimes of plus- and minus-end-stabilizing caps. Importantly, the D417H mutation does not alter microtubule lattice structure or Mal3 binding to growing filaments.more » Instead, this mutation reduces the affinity of tubulin for TOG domains and colchicine, suggesting that the distribution of tubulin heterodimer conformations is changed. Together, our findings reveal how residues on the surface of microtubules, distal from the GTP-hydrolysis site and inter-subunit contacts, can alter polymerization dynamics at the plus- and minus-ends of microtubules.« less

  7. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  8. Functional non-coding polymorphism in an EPHA2 promoter PAX2 binding site modifies expression and alters the MAPK and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyin; Ma, Zhiwei; Jiao, Xiaodong; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2017-08-30

    To identify possible genetic variants influencing expression of EPHA2 (Ephrin-receptor Type-A2), a tyrosine kinase receptor that has been shown to be important for lens development and to contribute to both congenital and age related cataract when mutated, the extended promoter region of EPHA2 was screened for variants. SNP rs6603883 lies in a PAX2 binding site in the EPHA2 promoter region. The C (minor) allele decreased EPHA2 transcriptional activity relative to the T allele by reducing the binding affinity of PAX2. Knockdown of PAX2 in human lens epithelial (HLE) cells decreased endogenous expression of EPHA2. Whole RNA sequencing showed that extracellular matrix (ECM), MAPK-AKT signaling pathways and cytoskeleton related genes were dysregulated in EPHA2 knockdown HLE cells. Taken together, these results indicate a functional non-coding SNP in EPHA2 promoter affects PAX2 binding and reduces EPHA2 expression. They further suggest that decreasing EPHA2 levels alters MAPK, AKT signaling pathways and ECM and cytoskeletal genes in lens cells that could contribute to cataract. These results demonstrate a direct role for PAX2 in EPHA2 expression and help delineate the role of EPHA2 in development and homeostasis required for lens transparency.

  9. A SAM-dependent methyltransferase cotranscribed with arsenate reductase alters resistance to peptidyl transferase center-binding antibiotics in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Singh, Chhaya; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The genome of Azospirillum brasilense harbors a gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, which is located downstream of an arsenate reductase gene. Both genes are cotranscribed and translationally coupled. When they were cloned and expressed individually in an arsenate-sensitive strain of Escherichia coli, arsenate reductase conferred tolerance to arsenate; however, methyltransferase failed to do so. Sequence analysis revealed that methyltransferase was more closely related to a PrmB-type N5-glutamine methyltransferase than to the arsenate detoxifying methyltransferase ArsM. Insertional inactivation of prmB gene in A. brasilense resulted in an increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol and resistance to tiamulin and clindamycin, which are known to bind at the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the ribosome. These observations suggested that the inability of prmB:km mutant to methylate L3 protein might alter hydrophobicity in the antibiotic-binding pocket of the PTC, which might affect the binding of chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tiamulin differentially. This is the first report showing the role of PrmB-type N5-glutamine methyltransferases in conferring resistance to tiamulin and clindamycin in any bacterium.

  10. A SNP in the HTT promoter alters NF-κB binding and is a bidirectional genetic modifier of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Bečanović, Kristina; Nørremølle, Anne; Neal, Scott J; Kay, Chris; Collins, Jennifer A; Arenillas, David; Lilja, Tobias; Gaudenzi, Giulia; Manoharan, Shiana; Doty, Crystal N; Beck, Jessalyn; Lahiri, Nayana; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Warby, Simon C; Connolly, Colúm; De Souza, Rebecca A G; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Hermanson, Ola; Langbehn, Douglas R; Hayden, Michael R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Leavitt, Blair R

    2015-06-01

    Cis-regulatory variants that alter gene expression can modify disease expressivity, but none have previously been identified in Huntington disease (HD). Here we provide in vivo evidence in HD patients that cis-regulatory variants in the HTT promoter are bidirectional modifiers of HD age of onset. HTT promoter analysis identified a NF-κB binding site that regulates HTT promoter transcriptional activity. A non-coding SNP, rs13102260:G > A, in this binding site impaired NF-κB binding and reduced HTT transcriptional activity and HTT protein expression. The presence of the rs13102260 minor (A) variant on the HD disease allele was associated with delayed age of onset in familial cases, whereas the presence of the rs13102260 (A) variant on the wild-type HTT allele was associated with earlier age of onset in HD patients in an extreme case-based cohort. Our findings suggest a previously unknown mechanism linking allele-specific effects of rs13102260 on HTT expression to HD age of onset and have implications for HTT silencing treatments that are currently in development.

  11. Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human mu opioid receptor gene alters beta-endorphin binding and activity: possible implications for opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Bond, C; LaForge, K S; Tian, M; Melia, D; Zhang, S; Borg, L; Gong, J; Schluger, J; Strong, J A; Leal, S M; Tischfield, J A; Kreek, M J; Yu, L

    1998-08-04

    Opioid drugs play important roles in the clinical management of pain, as well as in the development and treatment of drug abuse. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for the most commonly used opioids, including morphine, heroin, fentanyl, and methadone. By sequencing DNA from 113 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance and 39 individuals with no history of drug or alcohol abuse or dependence, we have identified five different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of the mu opioid receptor gene. The most prevalent SNP is a nucleotide substitution at position 118 (A118G), predicting an amino acid change at a putative N-glycosylation site. This SNP displays an allelic frequency of approximately 10% in our study population. Significant differences in allele distribution were observed among ethnic groups studied. The variant receptor resulting from the A118G SNP did not show altered binding affinities for most opioid peptides and alkaloids tested. However, the A118G variant receptor binds beta-endorphin, an endogenous opioid that activates the mu opioid receptor, approximately three times more tightly than the most common allelic form of the receptor. Furthermore, beta-endorphin is approximately three times more potent at the A118G variant receptor than at the most common allelic form in agonist-induced activation of G protein-coupled potassium channels. These results show that SNPs in the mu opioid receptor gene can alter binding and signal transduction in the resulting receptor and may have implications for normal physiology, therapeutics, and vulnerability to develop or protection from diverse diseases including the addictive diseases.

  12. Altered 5-HT2A Receptor Binding after Recovery from Bulimia-Type Anorexia Nervosa: Relationships to Harm Avoidance and Drive for Thinness

    PubMed Central

    Bailer, Ursula F; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Mathis, Chester A; Frank, Guido K; Weissfeld, Lisa; McConaha, Claire W; Henry, Shannan E; Brooks-Achenbach, Sarah; Barbarich, Nicole C; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN and BN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 10 women recovered from bulimia-type AN (REC AN–BN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no binging, or purging) compared with 16 healthy control women (CW) using PET imaging and a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, [18F]altanserin. REC AN–BN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding potential relative to CW in the left subgenual cingulate, the left parietal cortex, and the right occipital cortex. [18F]altanserin binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance and negatively related to novelty seeking in cingulate and temporal regions only in REC AN–BN subjects. In addition, REC AN–BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions. In conclusion, this study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from bulimia-type AN, particularly in subgenual cingulate regions. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. It is possible that subgenual cingulate findings are not specific for AN–BN, but may be related to the high incidence of lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis in these subjects. PMID:15054474

  13. Cation Coordination Alters the Conformation of a Thrombin-Binding G-Quadruplex DNA Aptamer That Affects Inhibition of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Zavyalova, Elena; Tagiltsev, Grigory; Reshetnikov, Roman; Arutyunyan, Alexander; Kopylov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Thrombin-binding aptamers are promising anticoagulants. HD1 is a monomolecular antiparallel G-quadruplex with two G-quartets linked by three loops. Aptamer-thrombin interactions are mediated with two TT-loops that bind thrombin exosite I. Several cations were shown to be coordinated inside the G-quadruplex, including K + , Na + , NH 4 + , Ba 2+ , and Sr 2+ ; on the contrary, Mn 2+ was coordinated in the grooves, outside the G-quadruplex. K + or Na + coordination provides aptamer functional activity. The effect of other cations on aptamer functional activity has not yet been described, because of a lack of relevant tests. Interactions between aptamer HD1 and a series of cations were studied. A previously developed enzymatic method was applied to evaluate aptamer inhibitory activity. The structure-function correlation was studied using the characterization of G-quadruplex conformation by circular dichroism spectroscopy. K + coordination provided the well-known high inhibitory activity of the aptamer, whereas Na + coordination supported low activity. Although NH 4 + coordination yielded a typical antiparallel G-quadruplex, no inhibitory activity was shown; a similar effect was observed for Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ coordination. Mn 2+ coordination destabilized the G-quadruplex that drastically diminished aptamer inhibitory activity. Therefore, G-quadruplex existence per se is insufficient for aptamer inhibitory activity. To elicit the nature of these effects, we thoroughly analyzed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray data on the structure of the HD1 G-quadruplex with various cations. The most reasonable explanation is that cation coordination changes the conformation of TT-loops, affecting thrombin binding and inhibition. HD1 counterparts, aptamers 31-TBA and NU172, behaved similarly with some distinctions. In 31-TBA, an additional duplex module stabilized antiparallel G-quadruplex conformation at high concentrations of divalent cations; whereas in NU172, a different

  14. Design and isolation of ribozyme-substrate pairs using RNase P-based ribozymes containing altered substrate binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, E M; Pan, T

    1999-01-01

    Substrate recognition and cleavage by the bacterial RNase P RNA requires two domains, a specificity domain, or S-domain, and a catalytic domain, or C-domain. The S-domain binds the T stem-loop region in a pre-tRNA substrate to confer specificity for tRNA substrates. In this work, the entire S-domain of the Bacillus subtilis RNase P RNA is replaced with an artificial substrate binding module. New RNA substrates are isolated by in vitro selection using two libraries containing random regions of 60 nt. At the end of the selection, the cleavage rates of the substrate library are approximately 0.7 min(-1)in 10 mM MgCl(2)at 37 degrees C, approximately 4-fold better than the cleavage of a pre-tRNA substrate by the wild-type RNase P RNA under the same conditions. The contribution of the S-domain replacement to the catalytic efficiency is from 6- to 22 000-fold. Chemical and nuclease mapping of two ribozyme-product complexes shows that this contribution correlates with direct interactions between the S-domain replacement and the selected substrate. These results demonstrate the feasibility of design and isolation of RNase P-based, matching ribozyme-substrate pairs without prior knowledge of the sequence or structure of the interactive modules in the ribozyme or substrate. PMID:10518624

  15. Cyclic glycine-proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jian; Gluckman, Peter; Yang, Panzao; Krissansen, Geoff; Sun, Xueying; Zhou, Yongzhi; Wen, Jingyuan; Phillips, Gemma; Shorten, Paul R.; McMahon, Chris D.; Wake, Graeme C.; Chan, Wendy H. K.; Thomas, Mark F.; Ren, April; Moon, Steve; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2014-01-01

    The homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for metabolism, development and survival. Insufficient IGF-1 is associated with poor recovery from wounds whereas excessive IGF-1 contributes to growth of tumours. We have shown that cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, can normalise IGF-1 function by showing its efficacy in improving the recovery from ischemic brain injury in rats and inhibiting the growth of lymphomic tumours in mice. Further investigation in cell culture suggested that cGP promoted the activity of IGF-1 when it was insufficient, but inhibited the activity of IGF-1 when it was excessive. Mathematical modelling revealed that the efficacy of cGP was a modulated IGF-1 effect via changing the binding of IGF-1 to its binding proteins, which dynamically regulates the balance between bioavailable and non-bioavailable IGF-1. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of auto-regulation of IGF-1, which has physiological and pathophysiological consequences and potential pharmacological utility. PMID:24633053

  16. Cyclic glycine-proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian; Gluckman, Peter; Yang, Panzao; Krissansen, Geoff; Sun, Xueying; Zhou, Yongzhi; Wen, Jingyuan; Phillips, Gemma; Shorten, Paul R.; McMahon, Chris D.; Wake, Graeme C.; Chan, Wendy H. K.; Thomas, Mark F.; Ren, April; Moon, Steve; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2014-03-01

    The homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for metabolism, development and survival. Insufficient IGF-1 is associated with poor recovery from wounds whereas excessive IGF-1 contributes to growth of tumours. We have shown that cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, can normalise IGF-1 function by showing its efficacy in improving the recovery from ischemic brain injury in rats and inhibiting the growth of lymphomic tumours in mice. Further investigation in cell culture suggested that cGP promoted the activity of IGF-1 when it was insufficient, but inhibited the activity of IGF-1 when it was excessive. Mathematical modelling revealed that the efficacy of cGP was a modulated IGF-1 effect via changing the binding of IGF-1 to its binding proteins, which dynamically regulates the balance between bioavailable and non-bioavailable IGF-1. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of auto-regulation of IGF-1, which has physiological and pathophysiological consequences and potential pharmacological utility.

  17. Missense-depleted regions in population exomes implicate ras superfamily nucleotide-binding protein alteration in patients with brain malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaoyan; Gong, Henry; Dumas, Kevin; Litwin, Jessica; Phillips, Joanna J; Waisfisz, Quinten; Weiss, Marjan M; Hendriks, Yvonne; Stuurman, Kyra E; Nelson, Stanley F; Grody, Wayne W; Lee, Hane; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2016-01-01

    Genomic sequence interpretation can miss clinically relevant missense variants for several reasons. Rare missense variants are numerous in the exome and difficult to prioritise. Affected genes may also not have existing disease association. To improve variant prioritisation, we leverage population exome data to identify intragenic missense-depleted regions (MDRs) genome-wide that may be important in disease. We then use missense depletion analyses to help prioritise undiagnosed disease exome variants. We demonstrate application of this strategy to identify a novel gene association for human brain malformation. We identified de novo missense variants that affect the GDP/GTP-binding site of ARF1 in three unrelated patients. Corresponding functional analysis suggests ARF1 GDP/GTP-activation is affected by the specific missense mutations associated with heterotopia. These findings expand the genetic pathway underpinning neurologic disease that classically includes FLNA. ARF1 along with ARFGEF2 add further evidence implicating ARF/GEFs in the brain. Using functional ontology, top MDR-containing genes were highly enriched for nucleotide-binding function, suggesting these may be candidates for human disease. Routine consideration of MDR in the interpretation of exome data for rare diseases may help identify strong genetic factors for many severe conditions, infertility/reduction in reproductive capability, and embryonic conditions contributing to preterm loss. PMID:28868155

  18. Synthesis of 19-substituted geldanamycins with altered conformations and their binding to heat shock protein Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, Russell R. A.; Chang, Chuan-Hsin; Xiong, Rui; Williams, Huw E. L.; Davis, Adrienne L.; Lewis, William; Dehn, Donna L.; Siegel, David; Roe, S. Mark; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Ross, David; Moody, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin and its derivatives are inhibitors of heat shock protein Hsp90, an emerging target for novel therapeutic agents both in cancer and in neurodegeneration. However, toxicity of these compounds to normal cells has been ascribed to reaction with thiol nucleophiles at the quinone 19-position. We reasoned that blocking this position would ameliorate toxicity, and that it might also enforce a favourable conformational switch of the trans-amide group into the cis-form required for protein binding. We report here an efficient synthesis of such 19-substituted compounds and realization of our hypotheses. Protein crystallography established that the new compounds bind to Hsp90 with, as expected, a cis-amide conformation. Studies on Hsp90 inhibition in cells demonstrated the molecular signature of Hsp90 inhibitors: decreases in client proteins with compensatory increases in other heat shock proteins in both human breast cancer and dopaminergic neural cells, demonstrating their potential for use in the therapy of cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23511419

  19. Identification of a transcriptional activation domain in yeast repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) using an altered DNA-binding specificity variant

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amanda N.; Weil, P. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) performs multiple vital cellular functions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These include regulation of telomere length, transcriptional repression of both telomere-proximal genes and the silent mating type loci, and transcriptional activation of hundreds of mRNA-encoding genes, including the highly transcribed ribosomal protein- and glycolytic enzyme-encoding genes. Studies of the contributions of Rap1 to telomere length regulation and transcriptional repression have yielded significant mechanistic insights. However, the mechanism of Rap1 transcriptional activation remains poorly understood because Rap1 is encoded by a single copy essential gene and is involved in many disparate and essential cellular functions, preventing easy interpretation of attempts to directly dissect Rap1 structure-function relationships. Moreover, conflicting reports on the ability of Rap1-heterologous DNA-binding domain fusion proteins to serve as chimeric transcriptional activators challenge use of this approach to study Rap1. Described here is the development of an altered DNA-binding specificity variant of Rap1 (Rap1AS). We used Rap1AS to map and characterize a 41-amino acid activation domain (AD) within the Rap1 C terminus. We found that this AD is required for transcription of both chimeric reporter genes and authentic chromosomal Rap1 enhancer-containing target genes. Finally, as predicted for a bona fide AD, mutation of this newly identified AD reduced the efficiency of Rap1 binding to a known transcriptional coactivator TFIID-binding target, Taf5. In summary, we show here that Rap1 contains an AD required for Rap1-dependent gene transcription. The Rap1AS variant will likely also be useful for studies of the functions of Rap1 in other biological pathways. PMID:28196871

  20. Altered fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expression and function in human and animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kyle J; Austin, Rebecca Garland; Nazari, Shayan S; Gersin, Keith S; Iannitti, David A; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Risk factors for developing HCC include viral hepatitis, alcohol and obesity. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern; FABP1 being the predominant hepatic form, and FABP4 the predominant adipocyte form. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression and function of FABPs1-9 in human and animal models of obesity-related HCC. FABP1-9 expression was determined in a mouse model of obesity-promoted HCC. Based on these data, expression and function of FABP4 was determined in human HCC cells (HepG2 and HuH7) in vitro. Serum from patients with different underlying hepatic pathologies was analysed for circulating FABP4 levels. Livers from obese mice, independent of tumour status, exhibited increased FABP4 mRNA and protein expression concomitant with elevated serum FABP4. In vitro, FABP4 expression was induced in human HCC cells by FFA treatment, and led to FABP4 release into culture medium. Treatment of HCC cells with exogenous FABP4 significantly increased proliferation and migration of human HCC cells. Patient serum analysis demonstrated significantly increased FABP4 in those with underlying liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and HCC. These data suggest FABP4, an FABP not normally expressed in the liver, can be synthesized and secreted by hepatocytes and HCC cells, and that FABP4 may play a role in regulating tumour progression in the underlying setting of obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential sensitivity of von Willebrand factor (VWF) 'activity' assays to large and small VWF molecular weight forms: a cross-laboratory study comparing ristocetin cofactor, collagen-binding and mAb-based assays.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, E J; Bonar, R; Chapman, K; Meiring, M; Funk Adcock, D

    2012-06-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD), the most common inherited bleeding disorder, is caused by deficiencies and/or defects in von Willebrand factor (VWF). An effective diagnostic and VWD typing strategy requires plasma testing for factor VIII, and VWF antigen plus one or more VWF 'activity' assays. VWF activity is classically assessed by using VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), although VWF collagen-binding (VWF:CB) and VWF mAb-based (VWF activity [VWF:Act]) assays are used by some laboratories. To perform a cross-laboratory study to specifically evaluate these three VWF activity assays for comparative sensitivity to loss of high molecular weight (HMW) VWF, representing the form of VWF that is most functionally active and that is absent in some types of VWD, namely 2A and 2B. A set of eight samples, including six selectively representing stepwise reduction in HMW VWF, were tested by 51 different laboratories using a variety of assays. The combined data showed that the VWF:CB and VWF:RCo assays had higher sensitivity to the loss of HMW VWF than did the VWF:Act assay. Moreover, within-method analysis identified better HMW VWF sensitivity of some VWF:CB assays than of others, with all VWF:CB assays still showing better sensitivity than the VWF:Act assay. Differences were also identified between VWF:RCo methodologies on the basis of either platelet aggregometry or as performed on automated analyzers. We believe that these results have significant clinical implications for the diagnosis of VWD and monitoring of its therapy, as well as for the future diagnosis and therapy monitoring of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. A Western Corn Rootworm Cadherin-like Protein is not Involved in the Binding and Toxicity of Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Aa Bacillus Thuringiensis Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important insect pest of corn. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins Cry3Aa (as mCry3A) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic corn and are used to control the insect in the U.S. To date, there ...

  3. Free terminal amines in DNA-binding peptides alter the product distribution from guanine radicals produced by single electron oxidation.

    PubMed

    Konigsfeld, Katie M; Lee, Melissa; Urata, Sarah M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-03-01

    Electron deficient guanine radical species are major intermediates produced in DNA by the direct effect of ionizing irradiation. There is evidence that they react with amine groups in closely bound ligands to form covalent crosslinks. Crosslink formation is very poorly characterized in terms of quantitative rate and yield data. We sought to address this issue by using oligo-arginine ligands to model the close association of DNA and its binding proteins in chromatin. Guanine radicals were prepared in plasmid DNA by single electron oxidation. The product distribution derived from them was assayed by strand break formation after four different post-irradiation incubations. We compared the yields of DNA damage produced in the presence of four ligands in which neither, one, or both of the amino and carboxylate termini were blocked with amides. Free carboxylate groups were unreactive. Significantly higher yields of heat labile sites were observed when the amino terminus was unblocked. The rate of the reaction was characterized by diluting the unblocked amino group with its amide blocked derivative. These observations provide a means to develop quantitative estimates for the yields in which these labile sites are formed in chromatin by exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  4. DNA-repair protein hHR23a alters its protein structure upon binding proteasomal subunit S5a

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Kylie J.; Lech, Patrycja J.; Goh, Amanda M.; Wang, Qinghua; Howley, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The Rad23 family of proteins, including the human homologs hHR23a and hHR23b, stimulates nucleotide excision repair and has been shown to provide a novel link between proteasome-mediated protein degradation and DNA repair. In this work, we illustrate how the proteasomal subunit S5a regulates hHR23a protein structure. By using NMR spectroscopy, we have elucidated the structure and dynamic properties of the 40-kDa hHR23a protein and show it to contain four structured domains connected by flexible linker regions. In addition, we reveal that these domains interact in an intramolecular fashion, and by using residual dipolar coupling data in combination with chemical shift perturbation analysis, we present the hHR23a structure. By itself, hHR23a adopts a closed conformation defined by the interaction of an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain with two ubiquitin-associated domains. Interestingly, binding of the proteasomal subunit S5a disrupts the hHR23a interdomain interactions and thereby causes it to adopt an opened conformation. PMID:14557549

  5. Interactions between the two surface proteins of rotavirus may alter the receptor-binding specificity of the virus.

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, E; Arias, C F; López, S

    1996-01-01

    The infection of target cells by most animal rotavirus strains requires the presence of sialic acids (SAs) on the cell surface. We recently isolated variants from simian rotavirus RRV whose infectivity is no longer dependent on SAs and showed that the mutant phenotype segregates with the gene coding for VP4, one of the two surface proteins of rotaviruses (the other one being VP7). The nucleotide sequence of the VP4 gene of four independently isolated variants showed three amino acid changes, at positions 37 (Leu to Pro), 187 (Lys to Arg), and 267 (Tyr to Cys), in all mutant VP4 proteins compared with RRV VP4. The characterization of revertant viruses from two independent mutants showed that the arginine residue at position 187 changed back to lysine, indicating that this amino acid is involved in the determination of the mutant phenotype. Surprisingly, sequence analysis of reassortant virus DS1XRRV, which depends on SAs to infect the cell, showed that its VP4 gene is identical to the VP4 gene of the variants. Since the only difference between DS1XRRV and the RRV variants is the parental origin of the VP7 gene (human rotavirus DS1 in the reassortant), these findings suggest that the receptor-binding specificity of rotaviruses, via VP4, may be influenced by the associated VP7 protein. PMID:8551583

  6. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, alters late atherosclerotic lesion formation in severe hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Boord, Jeffrey B; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Makowski, Liza; Babaev, Vladimir R; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2002-10-01

    The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, has important effects on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Its expression in macrophages enhances early foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. This study was designed to determine whether aP2 deficiency has a similar effect in the setting of advanced atherosclerosis and severe hypercholesterolemia. Mice deficient in aP2 and apolipoprotein E (aP2(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice) and apolipoprotein E-deficient control mice (apoE(-/-) mice) were fed a Western diet for 14 weeks. No significant differences in fasting serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids were found between groups for each sex. Compared with apoE(-/-) control mice, male and female aP2(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice had significant reductions in mean atherosclerotic lesion size in the proximal aorta, en face aorta, and innominate/right carotid artery. Feeding the Western diet in the apoE-deficient background did not cause a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity in vivo, as determined by steady-state serum glucose levels and insulin tolerance testing. These data demonstrate an important role for aP2 expression in the advanced stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Thus, aP2 provides an important physiological link between different features of the metabolic syndrome and is a potential target for therapy of atherosclerosis.

  7. Adipocyte Fatty Acid–Binding Protein, aP2, Alters Late Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Severe Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Boord, Jeffrey B.; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Makowski, Liza; Babaev, Vladimir R.; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, has important effects on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Its expression in macrophages enhances early foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. This study was designed to determine whether aP2 deficiency has a similar effect in the setting of advanced atherosclerosis and severe hypercholesterolemia. Methods and Results Mice deficient in aP2 and apolipoprotein E (aP2−/−apoE−/− mice) and apolipoprotein E-deficient control mice (apoE−/− mice) were fed a Western diet for 14 weeks. No significant differences in fasting serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids were found between groups for each sex. Compared with apoE−/− control mice, male and female aP2−/−apoE−/− mice had significant reductions in mean atherosclerotic lesion size in the proximal aorta, en face aorta, and innominate/right carotid artery. Feeding the Western diet in the apoE-deficient background did not cause a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity in vivo, as determined by steady-state serum glucose levels and insulin tolerance testing. Conclusions These data demonstrate an important role for aP2 expression in the advanced stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Thus, aP2 provides an important physiological link between different features of the metabolic syndrome and is a potential target for therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:12377750

  8. Simulated microgravity alters the expression of cytoskeleton- and ATP-binding-related genes in MLO-Y4 osteocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Zhao, Fan; Qi, Yiduo; Hu, Lifang; Li, Dijie; Yin, Chong; Su, Peihong; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Qian, Jing; Zhou, Hongpo; Zou, Yiwei; Qian, Airong

    2016-12-01

    Bone undergoes dynamic modelling and remodelling processes, and it requires gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for the maintenance of mineral content and structure. Osteocytes are the most commonly found cells in the mature bone, and they are sensitive to mechanical changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microgravity simulated with a random position machine (RPM) on the gene expression profile of osteocytes. Genes sensitive to RPM treatment were sorted on the basis of biological processes, interactions and signalling pathways. Overall, 504 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in osteocytes cultured under RPM conditions were found. The DEGs were further analysed using bioinformatics tools such as DAVID and iReport. A total of 15 ATP-binding and cytoskeleton-related genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our findings demonstrate that the RPM affected the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and the energy-transfer process in osteocytes. The identification of mechanosensitive genes may enhance our understanding of the roles of osteocytes in mechanosensation and may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone-related diseases.

  9. Alteration of DNA binding, dimerization, and nuclear translocation of SHOX homeodomain mutations identified in idiopathic short stature and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katja U; Marchini, Antonio; Sabherwal, Nitin; Röth, Ralph; Niesler, Beate; Marttila, Tiina; Blaschke, Rüdiger J; Lawson, Margaret; Dumic, Miroslav; Rappold, Gudrun

    2005-07-01

    Haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox gene SHOX has been found in patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD). In addition to complete gene deletions and nonsense mutations, several missense mutations have been identified in both patient groups, leading to amino acid substitutions in the SHOX protein. The majority of missense mutations were found to accumulate in the region encoding the highly conserved homeodomain of the paired-like type. In this report, we investigated nine different amino acid exchanges in the homeodomain of SHOX patients with ISS and LWD. We were able show that these mutations cause an alteration of the biological function of SHOX by loss of DNA binding, reduced dimerization ability, and/or impaired nuclear translocation. Additionally, one of the mutations (c.458G>T, p.R153L) is defective in transcriptional activation even though it is still able to bind to DNA, dimerize, and translocate to the nucleus. Thus, we demonstrate that single missense mutations in the homeodomain fundamentally impair SHOX key functions, thereby leading to the phenotype observed in patients with LWD and ISS.

  10. Enhancement of safety and immunogenicity of the Chinese Hu191 measles virus vaccine by alteration of the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in the large polymerase protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilong; Liu, Rongxian; Lu, Mijia; Yang, Yingzhi; Zhou, Duo; Hao, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Dongming; Wang, Bin; Li, Jianrong; Huang, Yao-Wei; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2018-05-01

    The live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine based on the Hu191 strain has played a significant role in controlling measles in China. However, it has considerable adverse effects that may cause public health burden. We hypothesize that the safety and efficacy of MV vaccine can be improved by altering the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in the conserved region VI of the large polymerase protein. To test this hypothesis, we established an efficient reverse genetics system for the rMV-Hu191 strain and generated two recombinant MV-Hu191 carrying mutations in the SAM binding site. These two mutants grew to high titer in Vero cells, were genetically stable, and were significantly more attenuated in vitro and in vivo compared to the parental rMV-Hu191 vaccine strain. Importantly, both MV-Hu191 mutants triggered a higher neutralizing antibody than rMV-Hu191 vaccine and provided complete protection against MV challenge. These results demonstrate its potential for an improved MV vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. OCD is associated with an altered association between sensorimotor gating and cortical and subcortical 5-HT1b receptor binding

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher; Adams, Thomas. G.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Crowley, Michael J.; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, James; Gao, Hong; Kichuk, Stephen A.; Simpson, Ryan; Billingslea, Eileen; Hannestad, Jonas; Bloch, Michael; Mayes, Linda; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Carson, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by impaired sensorimotor gating, as measured using prepulse inhibition (PPI). This effect may be related to abnormalities in the serotonin (5-HT) system. 5-HT1B agonists can impair PPI, produce OCD-like behaviors in animals, and exacerbate OCD symptoms in humans. We measured 5-HT1B receptor availability using 11C-P943 positron emission tomography (PET) in unmedicated, non-depressed OCD patients (n = 12) and matched healthy controls (HC; n = 12). Usable PPI data were obtained from 20 of these subjects (10 from each group). There were no significant main effects of OCD diagnosis on 5-HT1B receptor availability (11C-P943 BPND); however, the relationship between PPI and 11C-P943 BPND differed dramatically and significantly between groups. 5-HT1B receptor availability in the basal ganglia and thalamus correlated positively with PPI in controls; these correlations were lost or even reversed in the OCD group. In cortical regions there were no significant correlations with PPI in controls, but widespread positive correlations in OCD patients. Positive correlations between 5-HT1B receptor availability and PPI were consistent across diagnostic groups only in two structures, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Differential associations of 5-HT1B receptor availability with PPI in patients suggest functionally important alterations in the serotonergic regulation of cortical/subcortical balance in OCD. PMID:26919057

  12. Deficiency of FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 51 alters sleep architecture and recovery sleep responses to stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Albu, Stefana; Romanowski, Christoph P N; Letizia Curzi, M; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Gassen, Nils C; Hartmann, Jakob; Schmidt, Mathias V; Schmidt, Ulrike; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Hausch, Felix; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Kimura, Mayumi

    2014-04-01

    FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, functionally linked to its activity via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Thus, FKBP51 plays an important regulatory role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis necessary for stress adaptation and recovery. Previous investigations illustrated that HPA functionality is influenced by polymorphisms in the gene encoding FKBP51, which are associated with both increased protein levels and depressive episodes. Because FKBP51 is a key molecule in stress responses, we hypothesized that its deletion impacts sleep. To study FKBP51-involved changes in sleep, polysomnograms of FKBP51 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were compared at baseline and in the recovery phase after 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) and 1-h restraint stress (RS). Using another set of animals, the 24-h profiles of hippocampal free corticosterone levels were also determined. The most dominant effect of FKBP51 deletion appeared as increased nocturnal wake, where the bout length was significantly extended while non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep were rather suppressed. After both SD and RS, FKBP51KO mice exhibited less recovery or rebound sleep than WTs, although slow-wave activity during NREMS was higher in KOs, particularly after SD. Sleep compositions of KOs were nearly opposite to sleep profiles observed in human depression. This might result from lower levels of free corticosterone in FKBP51KO mice, confirming reduced HPA reactivity. The results indicate that an FKBP51 deletion yields a pro-resilience sleep phenotype. FKBP51 could therefore be a therapeutic target for stress-induced mood and sleep disorders. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Lesions in two Escherichia coli type 1 pilus genes alter pilus number and length without affecting receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, P W; Orndorff, P E

    1992-01-01

    We describe the characterization of two genes, fimF and fimG (also called pilD), that encode two minor components of type 1 pili in Escherichia coli. Defined, in-frame deletion mutations were generated in vitro in each of these two genes. A double mutation that had deletions identical to both single lesions was also constructed. Examination of minicell transcription and translation products of parental and mutant plasmids revealed that, as predicted from the nucleotide sequence and previous reports, the fimF gene product was a protein of ca. 16 kDa and that the fimG gene product was a protein of ca. 14 kDa. Each of the constructions was introduced, via homologous recombination, into the E. coli chromosome. All three of the resulting mutants produced type 1 pili and exhibited hemagglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes. The latter property was also exhibited by partially purified pili isolated from each of the mutants. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the fimF mutant had markedly reduced numbers of pili per cell, whereas the fimG mutant had very long pili. The double mutant displayed the characteristics of both single mutants. However, pili in the double mutant were even longer than those seen in the fimG mutant, and the numbers of pili were even fewer than those displayed by the fimF mutant. All three mutants could be complemented in trans with a single-copy-number plasmid bearing the appropriate parental gene or genes to give near-normal parental piliation. On the basis of the phenotypes exhibited by the single and double mutants, we believe that the fimF gene product may aid in initiating pilus assembly and that the fimG product may act as an inhibitor of pilus polymerization. In contrast to previous studies, we found that neither gene product was required for type 1 pilus receptor binding. Images PMID:1355769

  14. Altered expression of IL-18 binding protein and IL-18 receptor in basophils and mast cells of asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Ling; Wang, Junling; Chen, Liping; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Huiyun; He, Shaoheng

    2018-05-01

    IL-18 is likely to contribute to asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in asthma. Because the action of IL-18 in the body is regulated by IL-18BP and mast cells and basophils are key cell types involved in asthma, we investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP and IL-18R in basophils and mast cells using flow cytometry and a mouse asthma model. We found that among basophils, approximately 53% and 51% were IL-18 + , 85% and 81% were IL-18BP + basophils, and 19.8% and 8.6% were IL-18R + in healthy control (HC) and asthmatic blood, respectively. The allergens tested had little effect on the expression of IL-18 and related factors. Only 3.5%, 14.3% and 2.4% of dispersed mast cells expressed IL-18, IL-18BP and IL-18R, respectively, in asthmatic sputum. In a mouse asthma model, OVA-sensitized mice exhibited decreased IL-18BP + but increased IL-18R + basophils in their blood. IL-18 increased the number of basophils but eliminated IL-18BP + basophils in mouse blood. IL-18 increased the number of mast cells and IL-18R + mast cells in the lung as well as increased the mast cell numbers and IL-18BP + mast cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-sensitized mice. Thus, basophils and mast cells may be involved in asthma pathogenesis via an IL-18-associated mechanism. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Artificial intelligence in neurodegenerative disease research: use of IBM Watson to identify additional RNA-binding proteins altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bakkar, Nadine; Kovalik, Tina; Lorenzini, Ileana; Spangler, Scott; Lacoste, Alix; Sponaugle, Kyle; Ferrante, Philip; Argentinis, Elenee; Sattler, Rita; Bowser, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatments. Numerous RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been shown to be altered in ALS, with mutations in 11 RBPs causing familial forms of the disease, and 6 more RBPs showing abnormal expression/distribution in ALS albeit without any known mutations. RBP dysregulation is widely accepted as a contributing factor in ALS pathobiology. There are at least 1542 RBPs in the human genome; therefore, other unidentified RBPs may also be linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. We used IBM Watson ® to sieve through all RBPs in the genome and identify new RBPs linked to ALS (ALS-RBPs). IBM Watson extracted features from published literature to create semantic similarities and identify new connections between entities of interest. IBM Watson analyzed all published abstracts of previously known ALS-RBPs, and applied that text-based knowledge to all RBPs in the genome, ranking them by semantic similarity to the known set. We then validated the Watson top-ten-ranked RBPs at the protein and RNA levels in tissues from ALS and non-neurological disease controls, as well as in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. 5 RBPs previously unlinked to ALS, hnRNPU, Syncrip, RBMS3, Caprin-1 and NUPL2, showed significant alterations in ALS compared to controls. Overall, we successfully used IBM Watson to help identify additional RBPs altered in ALS, highlighting the use of artificial intelligence tools to accelerate scientific discovery in ALS and possibly other complex neurological disorders.

  16. A novel thymidylate synthase from the Vibrionales, Alteromonadales, Aeromonadales, and Pasteurellales (VAAP) clade with altered nucleotide and folate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Guevara-Hernandez, Eduardo; Vazquez-Lujan, Luz H; Sanchez-Paz, Arturo; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Lopez-Leal, Gamaliel; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2018-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS, E.C. 2.1.1.45) is a crucial enzyme for de novo deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) biosynthesis. The gene for this enzyme is thyA , which encodes the folate-dependent TS that converts deoxyuridine monophosphate group (dUMP) into (dTMP) using the cofactor 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (mTHF) as a carbon donor. We identified the thyA gene in the genome of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain FIM-S1708+ that is innocuous to humans but pathogenic to crustaceans. Surprisingly, we found changes in the residues that bind the substrate dUMP and mTHF, previously postulated as invariant among all TSs known (Finer-Moore, Santi & Stroud, 2003). Interestingly, those amino acid changes were also found in a clade of microorganisms that contains Vibrionales , Alteromonadales , Aeromonadales , and Pasteurellales (VAAP) from the Gammaproteobacteria class. In this work, we studied the biochemical properties of recombinant TS from V. parahemolyticus FIM-S1708+ (VpTS) to address the natural changes in the TS amino acid sequence of the VAAP clade. Interestingly, the K m for dUMP was 27.3 ± 4.3 µM, about one-fold larger compared to other TSs. The K m for mTHF was 96.3 ± 18 µM, about three- to five-fold larger compared to other species, suggesting also loss of affinity. Thus, the catalytic efficiency was between one or two orders of magnitude smaller for both substrates. We used trimethoprim, a common antibiotic that targets both TS and DHFR for inhibition studies. The IC 50 values obtained were high compared to other results in the literature. Nonetheless, this molecule could be a lead for the design antibiotics towards pathogens from the VAAP clade. Overall, the experimental results also suggest that in the VAAP clade the nucleotide salvage pathway is important and should be investigated, since the de novo dTMP synthesis appears to be compromised by a less efficient thymidylate synthase.

  17. A new buckwheat dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), with a unique substrate binding structure, has altered substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Rintaro; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Hisano, Tomomi; Yasui, Yasuo; Komori, Toshiyuki; Koshio, Motoyuki; Kubota, Seiji; Walker, Amanda R; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Katsuhiro

    2017-12-11

    Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is the key enzyme committed to anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. DFR proteins can catalyse mainly the three substrates (dihydrokaempferol, dihydroquercetin, and dihydromyricetin), and show different substrate preferences. Although relationships between the substrate preference and amino acids in the region responsible for substrate specificity have been investigated in several plant species, the molecular basis of the substrate preference of DFR is not yet fully understood. By using degenerate primers in a PCR, we isolated two cDNA clones that encoded DFR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Based on sequence similarity, one cDNA clone (FeDFR1a) was identical to the FeDFR in DNA databases (DDBJ/Gen Bank/EMBL). The other cDNA clone, FeDFR2, had a similar sequence to FeDFR1a, but a different exon-intron structure. Linkage analysis in an F 2 segregating population showed that the two loci were linked. Unlike common DFR proteins in other plant species, FeDFR2 contained a valine instead of the typical asparagine at the third position and an extra glycine between sites 6 and 7 in the region that determines substrate specificity, and showed less activity against dihydrokaempferol than did FeDFR1a with an asparagine at the third position. Our 3D model suggested that the third residue and its neighbouring residues contribute to substrate specificity. FeDFR1a was expressed in all organs that we investigated, whereas FeDFR2 was preferentially expressed in roots and seeds. We isolated two buckwheat cDNA clones of DFR genes. FeDFR2 has unique structural and functional features that differ from those of previously reported DFRs in other plants. The 3D model suggested that not only the amino acid at the third position but also its neighbouring residues that are involved in the formation of the substrate-binding pocket play important roles in determining substrate preferences. The unique

  18. AF64A depletes hippocampal high-affinity choline uptake but does not alter the density of alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites or modify the effect of exogenous choline.

    PubMed

    Morley, B J; Garner, L L

    1990-06-11

    Sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) and the density of alpha-bungarotoxin (BuTX) receptor-binding sites were measured in the hippocampus following the intraventricular infusion of ethylcholine aziridinium ion (AF64A), a neurotoxin that competes with choline at high-affinity choline transport sites and may result in the degeneration of cholinergic axons. Eight days after the infusion of AF64A into the lateral ventricles (2.5 nmol/side), HACU was depleted by 60% in the hippocampus of experimental animals in comparison with controls, but the density of BuTX-binding sites was not altered. The administration of 15 mg/ml of choline chloride in the drinking water increased the density of BuTX-binding sites, as previously reported by this laboratory. The administration of AF64A did not prevent the effect of exogenous choline on the density of binding sites, nor did choline treatment alter the effect of AF64A on HACU. These data indicate that the density of BuTX-binding sites in the hippocampus is not altered following a substantial decrease in HACU and presumed degeneration of cholinergic axons. Since the effect of exogenous choline was not prevented by AF64A treatment, the data are interpreted to support the hypothesis that the increase in the density of BuTX-binding sites following dietary choline supplementation is attributable to a direct effect of choline on receptor sites.

  19. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  20. Mutagenesis of the Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (Pip2) Binding Site in the Nh2-Terminal Domain of Ezrin Correlates with Its Altered Cellular Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Cécile; Roy, Christian; Montcourrier, Philippe; Mangeat, Paul; Niggli, Verena

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeleton-membrane linker protein ezrin has been shown to associate with phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-containing liposomes via its NH2-terminal domain. Using internal deletions and COOH-terminal truncations, determinants of PIP2 binding were located to amino acids 12–115 and 233–310. Both regions contain a KK(X)nK/RK motif conserved in the ezrin/radixin/moesin family. K/N mutations of residues 253 and 254 or 262 and 263 did not affect cosedimentation of ezrin 1-333 with PIP2-containing liposomes, but their combination almost completely abolished the capacity for interaction. Similarly, double mutation of Lys 63, 64 to Asn only partially reduced lipid interaction, but combined with the double mutation K253N, K254N, the interaction of PIP2 with ezrin 1-333 was strongly inhibited. Similar data were obtained with full-length ezrin. When residues 253, 254, 262, and 263 were mutated in full-length ezrin, the in vitro interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 was not impaired but was no longer PIP2 dependent. This construct was also expressed in COS1 and A431 cells. Unlike wild-type ezrin, it was not any more localized to dorsal actin-rich structures, but redistributed to the cytoplasm without strongly affecting the actin-rich structures. We have thus identified determinants of the PIP2 binding site in ezrin whose mutagenesis correlates with an altered cellular localization. PMID:11086008

  1. Proportionate Dwarfism in Mice Lacking Heterochromatin Protein 1 Binding Protein 3 (HP1BP3) Is Associated With Alterations in the Endocrine IGF-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Arad, Shiri; Le, Phuong T.; Bustin, Michael; Rosen, Clifford J.; Gabet, Yankel

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (HP1BP3) is a recently described histone H1-related protein with roles in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. To explore the potential physiological role of HP1BP3, we have previously described an Hp1bp3−/− mouse model with reduced postnatal viability and growth. We now find that these mice are proportionate dwarfs, with reduction in body weight, body length, and organ weight. In addition to their small size, microcomputed tomography analysis showed that Hp1bp3−/− mice present a dramatic impairment of their bone development and structure. By 3 weeks of age, mice of both sexes have severely impaired cortical and trabecular bone, and these defects persist into adulthood and beyond. Primary cultures of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts from Hp1bp3−/− bone marrow and splenocytes, respectively, showed normal differentiation and function, strongly suggesting that the impaired bone accrual is due to noncell autonomous systemic cues in vivo. One major endocrine pathway regulating both body growth and bone acquisition is the IGF regulatory system, composed of IGF-1, the IGF receptors, and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). At 3 weeks of age, Hp1bp3−/− mice exhibited a 60% reduction in circulating IGF-1 and a 4-fold increase in the levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. These alterations were reflected in similar changes in the hepatic transcripts of the Igf1, Igfbp1, and Igfbp2 genes. Collectively, these results suggest that HP1BP3 plays a key role in normal growth and bone development by regulating transcription of endocrine IGF-1 components. PMID:26402843

  2. Proportionate Dwarfism in Mice Lacking Heterochromatin Protein 1 Binding Protein 3 (HP1BP3) Is Associated With Alterations in the Endocrine IGF-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Arad, Shiri; Le, Phuong T; Bustin, Michael; Rosen, Clifford J; Gabet, Yankel; Orly, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (HP1BP3) is a recently described histone H1-related protein with roles in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. To explore the potential physiological role of HP1BP3, we have previously described an Hp1bp3(-/-) mouse model with reduced postnatal viability and growth. We now find that these mice are proportionate dwarfs, with reduction in body weight, body length, and organ weight. In addition to their small size, microcomputed tomography analysis showed that Hp1bp3(-/-) mice present a dramatic impairment of their bone development and structure. By 3 weeks of age, mice of both sexes have severely impaired cortical and trabecular bone, and these defects persist into adulthood and beyond. Primary cultures of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts from Hp1bp3(-/-) bone marrow and splenocytes, respectively, showed normal differentiation and function, strongly suggesting that the impaired bone accrual is due to noncell autonomous systemic cues in vivo. One major endocrine pathway regulating both body growth and bone acquisition is the IGF regulatory system, composed of IGF-1, the IGF receptors, and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). At 3 weeks of age, Hp1bp3(-/-) mice exhibited a 60% reduction in circulating IGF-1 and a 4-fold increase in the levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. These alterations were reflected in similar changes in the hepatic transcripts of the Igf1, Igfbp1, and Igfbp2 genes. Collectively, these results suggest that HP1BP3 plays a key role in normal growth and bone development by regulating transcription of endocrine IGF-1 components.

  3. Analysis of normal and truncated holo- and apo-retinol-binding protein (RBP) in human serum: altered ratios in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jaconi, S; Saurat, J H; Siegenthaler, G

    1996-05-01

    Retinol, the precursor of the retinoic acid hormone, is transported in the serum by a specific carrier, the retinol-binding protein (RBP). Compared to serum of healthy controls, the serum of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) contains markedly increased levels of the RBP form truncated at the C terminal, des(182Leu-183Leu), (RBP2), which suggests that RBP2 is cleared by the kidney in healthy people but accumulates in serum of CRF patients (Jaconi S, et al. J Lipid Res 1995:36:1247-53). To understand better the mechanism of retinol transport, we have developed a new analytical strategy to analyze the various forms of RBP that circulate in the blood: RBP with and without retinol (holo- and apo-RBP, respectively), RBP bound or not to transthyretin (TTR) and to determine in which of these forms RBP2 circulates. We confirm, but now by direct measurement, that holo-RBP and, to a larger extent, apo-RBP are increased in CRF serum compared to normal serum. We also show that almost all apo-RBP and about 50% of total holo-RBP, corresponding to RBP excess in CRF serum, circulate free and are not complexed to TTR, the remaining 50% being complexed to TTR. This observation suggests that the high levels of free holo-RBP, not bound to TTR, which correspond to the increase in total RBPs measured in CRF serum, may alter the tissue uptake of retinol and be responsible for the signs of hypervitaminosis A observed in these patients. Secondly, we found that the truncation resulting in RBP2 does not alter its binding properties for retinol nor those of holo-RBP2 for TTR. We observed that the high amounts of free holo-RBP2 and holo-RBP in sera of CRF patients were low in normal serum, suggesting that these forms are cleared by the kidney in normal conditions. The possible role of free holo-RBPs is discussed in the context of retinol recycling.

  4. Genotype and phenotype correlation in von Hippel-Lindau disease based on alteration of the HIF-α binding site in VHL protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Jiang-Yi; Peng, Shuang-He; Li, Teng; Ning, Xiang-Hui; Hong, Bao-An; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Peng-Jie; Zhou, Bo-Wen; Zhou, Jing-Cheng; Qi, Nie-Nie; Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Jiu-Feng; Ma, Kai-Fang; Cai, Lin; Gong, Kan

    2018-03-29

    PurposeVon Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare hereditary cancer syndrome that reduces life expectancy. We aimed to construct a more valuable genotype-phenotype correlation based on alterations in VHL protein (pVHL).MethodsVHL patients (n = 339) were recruited and grouped based on mutation types: HIF-α binding site missense (HM) mutations, non-HIF-α binding site missense (nHM) mutations, and truncating (TR) mutations. Age-related risks of VHL-associated tumors and patient survival were compared.ResultsMissense mutations conferred an increased risk of pheochromocytoma (HR = 1.854, p = 0.047) compared with truncating mutations. The risk of pheochromocytoma was lower in the HM group than in the nHM group (HR = 0.298, p = 0.003) but was similar between HM and TR groups (HR = 0.901, p = 0.810). Patients in the nHM group had a higher risk of pheochromocytoma (HR = 3.447, p < 0.001) and lower risks of central nervous system hemangioblastoma (CHB) (HR = 0.700, p = 0.045), renal cell carcinoma (HR = 0.610, p = 0.024), and pancreatic tumor (HR = 0.382, p < 0.001) than those in the combined HM and TR (HMTR) group. Moreover, nHM mutations were independently associated with better overall survival (HR = 0.345, p = 0.005) and CHB-specific survival (HR = 0.129, p = 0.005) than HMTR mutations.ConclusionThe modified genotype-phenotype correlation links VHL gene mutation, substrate binding site, and phenotypic diversity (penetrance and survival), and provides more accurate information for genetic counseling and pathogenesis studies.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.261.

  5. Memories of AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.

    2013-06-01

    I had the good fortune to be a student of A. B. Migdal - AB, as we called him in person or in his absence - and to work in the sector he headed at the Kurchatov Institute, along with his other students and my friends, including Vitya Galitsky, Spartak Belyayev and Tolya Larkin. I was especially close with AB in the second half of the 1950s, the years most important for my formation, and AB's contribution to this formation was very great. To this day, I've often quoted AB on various occasions, as it's hard to put things better or more precisely than he did; I tell friends stories heard from AB, because these stories enhance life as AB himself enhanced it; my daughter is named Tanya after AB's wife Tatyana Lvovna, and so on. In what follows, I'll recount a few episodes in my life in which AB played an important or decisive role, and then will share some other memories of AB...

  6. A molecular model for cocaine binding by the immunotherapeutic human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody 2E2.

    PubMed

    Lape, Michael; Paula, Stefan; Ball, William J

    2010-06-01

    Immunotherapy by cocaine-binding monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. The human (gamma1 heavy chain)/murine (lambda light chain) chimeric mAb 2E2 has excellent affinity and specificity for cocaine and recent animal studies have demonstrated 2E2's ability in vivo to reduce cocaine levels in the brain as well as alter cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. In this study, we used mAb 2E2 amino acid sequence information to create a homology model for the 3-D structure of its Fv fragment. Subsequent computational docking studies revealed the intermolecular interactions potentially responsible for mAb 2E2's cocaine binding properties. The driving force of cocaine binding was identified as a combination of hydrophobic interactions and a single hydrogen bond between a light chain tyrosine residue and a carbonyl oxygen atom of cocaine. The model also allowed for an in silico evaluation of single/double residue mutations in the heavy and light chain variable regions that might further enhance mAb 2E2's cocaine binding properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A Molecular Model for Cocaine Binding by the Immunotherapeutic Human/Mouse Chimeric Monoclonal Antibody 2E2

    PubMed Central

    Lape, Michael; Paula, Stefan; Ball, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Immunotherapy by cocaine-binding monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. The human (γ1 heavy chain)/murine (λ light chain) chimeric mAb 2E2 has excellent affinity and specificity for cocaine and recent animal studies have demonstrated 2E2’s ability in vivo to reduce cocaine levels in the brain as well as alter cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. In this study, we used mAb 2E2 amino acid sequence information to create a homology model for the 3-D structure of its Fv fragment. Subsequent computational docking studies revealed the intermolecular interactions potentially responsible for mAb 2E2’s cocaine binding properties. The driving force of cocaine binding was identified as a combination of hydrophobic interactions and a single hydrogen bond between a light chain tyrosine residue and a carbonyl oxygen atom of cocaine. The model also allowed for an in silico evaluation of single/double residue mutations in the heavy and light chain variable regions that might further enhance mAb 2E2’s cocaine binding properties. PMID:20185210

  8. Comparative study of thiophilic functionalised matrices for polyclonal F(ab')2 purification.

    PubMed

    Kumpalume, Peter; Slater, Nigel K H

    2004-01-02

    Thiophilic adsorbents have been developed using divinyl sulfone or epoxy activated Streamline quartz base matrix. Their capacity and selectivity for binding polyclonal F(ab')2 fragments generated by whole serum proteolysis was tested. Except for epoxy activated guanidine, all the adsorbents displayed high selectivity for F(ab')2 with dynamic binding capacities ranging from 3 to 10 mg/ml of adsorbent. Thiol immobilised ligands adsorbed more F(ab')2 and the recovery was equal to or more than that from amino immobilised ligands. All adsorbents showed good selectivity for IgG and the dynamic binding capacities were better than for F(ab')2.

  9. Fusion proteins comprising the catalytic domain of mutansucrase and a starch-binding domain can alter the morphology of amylose-free potato starch granules during biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nazarian Firouzabadi, Farhad; Kok-Jacon, Géraldine A; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Ji, Qin; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown previously that mutan can be co-synthesized with starch when a truncated mutansucrase (GtfICAT) is directed to potato tuber amyloplasts. The mutan seemed to adhere to the isolated starch granules, but it was not incorporated in the starch granules. In this study, GtfICAT was fused to the N- or C-terminus of a starch-binding domain (SBD). These constructs were introduced into two genetically different potato backgrounds (cv. Kardal and amf), in order to bring GtfICAT in more intimate contact with growing starch granules, and to facilitate the incorporation of mutan polymers in starch. Fusion proteins of the appropriate size were evidenced in starch granules, particularly in the amf background. The starches from the various GtfICAT/SBD transformants seemed to contain less mutan than those from transformants with GtfICAT alone, suggesting that the appended SBD might inhibit the activity of GtfICAT in the engineered fusion proteins. Scanning electron microscopy showed that expression of SBD-GtfICAT resulted in alterations of granule morphology in both genetic backgrounds. Surprisingly, the amf starches containing SBD-GtfICAT had a spongeous appearance, i.e., the granule surface contained many small holes and grooves, suggesting that this fusion protein can interfere with the lateral interactions of amylopectin sidechains. No differences in physico-chemical properties of the transgenic starches were observed. Our results show that expression of granule-bound and "soluble" GtfICAT can affect starch biosynthesis differently.

  10. Perturbation of the quinone-binding site of complex II alters the electronic properties of the proximal [3Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Jonathan; Iwata, So; Rothery, Richard A; Weiner, Joel H; Maklashina, Elena; Cecchini, Gary

    2011-04-08

    Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase (QFR) from Escherichia coli are members of the complex II family of enzymes. SQR and QFR catalyze similar reactions with quinones; however, SQR preferentially reacts with higher potential ubiquinones, and QFR preferentially reacts with lower potential naphthoquinones. Both enzymes have a single functional quinone-binding site proximal to a [3Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. A difference between SQR and QFR is that the redox potential of the [3Fe-4S] cluster in SQR is 140 mV higher than that found in QFR. This may reflect the character of the different quinones with which the two enzymes preferentially react. To investigate how the environment around the [3Fe-4S] cluster affects its redox properties and catalysis with quinones, a conserved amino acid proximal to the cluster was mutated in both enzymes. It was found that substitution of SdhB His-207 by threonine (as found in QFR) resulted in a 70-mV lowering of the redox potential of the cluster as measured by EPR. The converse substitution in QFR raised the redox potential of the cluster. X-ray structural analysis suggests that placing a charged residue near the [3Fe-4S] cluster is a primary reason for the alteration in redox potential with the hydrogen bonding environment having a lesser effect. Steady state enzyme kinetic characterization of the mutant enzymes shows that the redox properties of the [3Fe-4S] cluster have only a minor effect on catalysis.

  11. FTA-ABS test

    MedlinePlus

    ... rule out a possible false-negative result. Normal Results A negative or nonreactive result means that you ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean A positive FTA-ABS is often a ...

  12. mAbs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The twenty two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently marketed in the U.S. have captured almost half of the top-20 U.S. therapeutic biotechnology sales for 2007. Eight of these products have annual sales each of more than $1 B, were developed in the relatively short average period of six years, qualified for FDA programs designed to accelerate drug approval, and their cost has been reimbursed liberally by payers. With growth of the product class driven primarily by advancements in protein engineering and the low probability of generic threats, mAbs are now the largest class of biological therapies under development. The high cost of these drugs and the lack of generic competition conflict with a financially stressed health system, setting reimbursement by payers as the major limiting factor to growth. Advances in mAb engineering are likely to result in more effective mAb drugs and an expansion of the therapeutic indications covered by the class. The parallel development of biomarkers for identifying the patient subpopulations most likely to respond to treatment may lead to a more cost-effective use of these drugs. To achieve the success of the current top-tier mAbs, companies developing new mAb products must adapt to a significantly more challenging commercial environment. PMID:20061824

  13. Maximizing in vivo target clearance by design of pH-dependent target binding antibodies with altered affinity to FcRn.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danlin; Giragossian, Craig; Castellano, Steven; Lasaro, Marcio; Xiao, Haiguang; Saraf, Himanshu; Hess Kenny, Cynthia; Rybina, Irina; Huang, Zhong-Fu; Ahlberg, Jennifer; Bigwarfe, Tammy; Myzithras, Maria; Waltz, Erica; Roberts, Simon; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel; Singh, Sanjaya

    2017-10-01

    Antibodies with pH-dependent binding to both target antigens and neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) provide an alternative tool to conventional neutralizing antibodies, particularly for therapies where reduction in antigen level is challenging due to high target burden. However, the requirements for optimal binding kinetic framework and extent of pH dependence for these antibodies to maximize target clearance from circulation are not well understood. We have identified a series of naturally-occurring high affinity antibodies with pH-dependent target binding properties. By in vivo studies in cynomolgus monkeys, we show that pH-dependent binding to the target alone is not sufficient for effective target removal from circulation, but requires Fc mutations that increase antibody binding to FcRn. Affinity-enhanced pH-dependent FcRn binding that is double-digit nM at pH 7.4 and single-digit nM at pH 6 achieved maximal target reduction when combined with similar target binding affinities in reverse pH directions. Sustained target clearance below the baseline level was achieved 3 weeks after single-dose administration at 1.5 mg/kg. Using the experimentally derived mechanistic model, we demonstrate the essential kinetic interplay between target turnover and antibody pH-dependent binding during the FcRn recycling, and identify the key components for achieving maximal target clearance. These results bridge the demand for improved patient dosing convenience with the "know-how" of therapeutic modality by design.

  14. Hemoglobin Rahere, a human hemoglobin variant with amino acid substitution at the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site. Functional consequences of the alteration and effects of bezafibrate on the oxygen bindings.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, J; Imamura, T; Nagafuchi, S; Bonaventura, J; Bonaventura, C; Cashon, R

    1985-09-01

    We encountered an abnormal hemoglobin (Rahere), with a threonine residue replacing the beta 82 (EF6) lysine residue at the binding site of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which was responsible for overt erythrocytosis in two individuals of a Japanese family. Hemoglobin Rahere shows a lower oxygen affinity on the binding of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or chloride ions than hemoglobin A. Although a decrease in the positive charge density at the binding sites of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in hemoglobin Rahere apparently shifts the allosteric equilibrium toward the low affinity state, it greatly diminishes the cofactor effects by anions. The oxygen affinity of the patient's erythrocytes is substantially lowered by the presence of bezafibrate, which combines with sites different from those of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in either hemoglobin Rahere or hemoglobin A.

  15. Hemoglobin Rahere, a human hemoglobin variant with amino acid substitution at the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site. Functional consequences of the alteration and effects of bezafibrate on the oxygen bindings.

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, J; Imamura, T; Nagafuchi, S; Bonaventura, J; Bonaventura, C; Cashon, R

    1985-01-01

    We encountered an abnormal hemoglobin (Rahere), with a threonine residue replacing the beta 82 (EF6) lysine residue at the binding site of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which was responsible for overt erythrocytosis in two individuals of a Japanese family. Hemoglobin Rahere shows a lower oxygen affinity on the binding of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or chloride ions than hemoglobin A. Although a decrease in the positive charge density at the binding sites of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in hemoglobin Rahere apparently shifts the allosteric equilibrium toward the low affinity state, it greatly diminishes the cofactor effects by anions. The oxygen affinity of the patient's erythrocytes is substantially lowered by the presence of bezafibrate, which combines with sites different from those of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in either hemoglobin Rahere or hemoglobin A. PMID:3930571

  16. Amino acid substitutions in the hormone-binding domain of the human androgen receptor alter the stability of the hormone receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Marcelli, M; Zoppi, S; Wilson, C M; Griffin, J E; McPhaul, M J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the basis of androgen resistance in seven unrelated individuals with complete testicular feminization or Reifenstein syndrome caused by single amino acid substitutions in the hormone-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Monolayer-binding assays of cultured genital skin fibroblasts demonstrated absent ligand binding, qualitative abnormalities of androgen binding, or a decreased amount of qualitatively normal receptor. The consequences of these mutations were examined by introducing the mutations by site-directed mutagenesis into the androgen receptor cDNA sequence and expressing the mutant cDNAs in mammalian cells. The effects of the amino acid substitutions on the binding of different androgens and on the capacity of the ligand-bound receptors to activate a reporter gene were investigated. Substantial differences were found in the responses of the mutant androgen receptors to incubation with testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and mibolerone. In several instances, increased doses of hormone or increased frequency of hormone addition to the incubation medium resulted in normal or near normal activation of a reporter gene by cells expressing the mutant androgen receptors. These studies suggest that the stability of the hormone receptor complex is a major determinant of receptor function in vivo. Images PMID:7929841

  17. A portion of heifers attaining “early puberty” do not display estrus, are anovulatory and have altered sex hormone binding globulin concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cows with excess androstenedione (High A4) in the follicular fluid of dominant follicles attain puberty earlier than their low androstenedione counterparts. Furthermore, High A4 cows are anovulatory (chronic or sporadic) and have lower Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) compared to Low A4 ovulator...

  18. Probing structurally altered and aggregated states of therapeutically relevant proteins using GroEL coupled to bio-layer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Kumru, Ozan S; Cullom, Melissa; Telikepalli, Srivalli N; Lindboe, Elizabeth; Roop, Taylor L; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Amin, Divya; Gao, Phillip; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B; Fisher, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a GroEL-based bio-layer interferometry (BLI) assay to detect structurally altered and/or aggregated species of pharmaceutically relevant proteins is demonstrated. Assay development included optimizing biotinylated-GroEL immobilization to streptavidin biosensors, combined with biophysical and activity measurements showing native and biotinylated GroEL are both stable and active. First, acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) was incubated under conditions known to promote (40°C) and inhibit (heparin addition) molten globule formation. Heat exposed (40°C) FGF-1 exhibited binding to GroEL-biosensors, which was significantly diminished in the presence of heparin. Second, a polyclonal human IgG solution containing 6-8% non-native dimer showed an increase in higher molecular weight aggregates upon heating by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The poly IgG solution displayed binding to GroEL-biosensors initially with progressively increased binding upon heating. Enriched preparations of the IgG dimers or monomers showed significant binding to GroEL-biosensors. Finally, a thermally treated IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution also demonstrated increased GroEL-biosensor binding, but with different kinetics. The bound complexes could be partially to fully dissociated after ATP addition (i.e., specific GroEL binding) depending on the protein, environmental stress, and the assay's experimental conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of GroEL-mAb complexes, released from the biosensor, also confirmed interaction of bound complexes at the GroEL binding site with heat-stressed mAb. Results indicate that the GroEL-biosensor-BLI method can detect conformationally altered and/or early aggregation states of proteins, and may potentially be useful as a rapid, stability-indicating biosensor assay for monitoring the structural integrity and physical stability of therapeutic protein candidates. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  19. Probing structurally altered and aggregated states of therapeutically relevant proteins using GroEL coupled to bio-layer interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Kumru, Ozan S; Cullom, Melissa; Telikepalli, Srivalli N; Lindboe, Elizabeth; Roop, Taylor L; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Amin, Divya; Gao, Phillip; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B; Fisher, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a GroEL-based bio-layer interferometry (BLI) assay to detect structurally altered and/or aggregated species of pharmaceutically relevant proteins is demonstrated. Assay development included optimizing biotinylated-GroEL immobilization to streptavidin biosensors, combined with biophysical and activity measurements showing native and biotinylated GroEL are both stable and active. First, acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) was incubated under conditions known to promote (40°C) and inhibit (heparin addition) molten globule formation. Heat exposed (40°C) FGF-1 exhibited binding to GroEL-biosensors, which was significantly diminished in the presence of heparin. Second, a polyclonal human IgG solution containing 6–8% non-native dimer showed an increase in higher molecular weight aggregates upon heating by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The poly IgG solution displayed binding to GroEL-biosensors initially with progressively increased binding upon heating. Enriched preparations of the IgG dimers or monomers showed significant binding to GroEL-biosensors. Finally, a thermally treated IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution also demonstrated increased GroEL-biosensor binding, but with different kinetics. The bound complexes could be partially to fully dissociated after ATP addition (i.e., specific GroEL binding) depending on the protein, environmental stress, and the assay’s experimental conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of GroEL-mAb complexes, released from the biosensor, also confirmed interaction of bound complexes at the GroEL binding site with heat-stressed mAb. Results indicate that the GroEL-biosensor-BLI method can detect conformationally altered and/or early aggregation states of proteins, and may potentially be useful as a rapid, stability-indicating biosensor assay for monitoring the structural integrity and physical stability of therapeutic protein candidates. PMID:25043635

  20. High-level ab initio calculations for the four low-lying families of minima of (H2O)(20): 1. Estimates of MP2/CBS binding energies and comparison with empirical potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Fanourgakis, Georgios S.; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2004-08-08

    We report estimates of complete basis set (CBS) limits at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation level of theory (MP2) for the binding energies of the lowest lying isomers within each of the four major families of minima of (H2O)20. These were obtained by performing MP2 calculations with the family of correlation-consistent basis sets up to quadruple zeta quality, augmented with additional diffuse functions (aug-cc-pVnZ, n=D, T, Q). The MP2/CBS estimates are: -200.1 kcal/mol (dodecahedron, 30 hydrogen bonds), -212.6 kcal/mol (fused cubes, 36 hydrogen bonds), -215.0 (face-sharing pentagonal prisms, 35 hydrogen bonds) and –217.9 kcal/mol (edge-sharing pentagonal prisms, 34 hydrogen bonds). Themore » energetic ordering of the various (H2O)20 isomers does not follow monotonically the number of hydrogen bonds as in the case of smaller clusters such as the different isomers of the water hexamer. The dodecahedron lies ca. 18 kcal/mol higher in energy than the most stable edge-sharing pentagonal prism isomer. The TIP4P, ASP-W4, TTM2-R, AMOEBA and TTM2-F empirical potentials also predict the energetic stabilization of the edge-sharing pentagonal prisms with respect to the dodecahedron, albeit they universally underestimate the cluster binding energies with respect to the MP2/CBS result. Among them, the TTM2-F potential was found to predict the absolute cluster binding energies to within < 1% from the corresponding MP2/CBS values, whereas the error for the rest of the potentials considered in this study ranges from 3-5%.« less

  1. MicroRNAs form triplexes with double stranded DNA at sequence-specific binding sites; a eukaryotic mechanism via which microRNAs could directly alter gene expression

    DOE PAGES

    Paugh, Steven W.; Coss, David R.; Bao, Ju; ...

    2016-02-04

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA). Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence that microRNAs form triple-helical structures with duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show thatmore » several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 x 10 -16) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. As a result, this work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs can interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.« less

  2. Disease-associated missense mutations in GluN2B subunit alter NMDA receptor ligand binding and ion channel properties.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Laura; Newcombe, Joseph; Topf, Maya; Gibb, Alasdair; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2018-03-06

    Genetic and bioinformatic analyses have identified missense mutations in GRIN2B encoding the NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit in autism, intellectual disability, Lennox Gastaut and West Syndromes. Here, we investigated several such mutations using a near-complete, hybrid 3D model of the human NMDAR and studied their consequences with kinetic modelling and electrophysiology. The mutants revealed reductions in glutamate potency; increased receptor desensitisation; and ablation of voltage-dependent Mg 2+ block. In addition, we provide new views on Mg 2+ and NMDA channel blocker binding sites. We demonstrate that these mutants have significant impact on excitatory transmission in developing neurons, revealing profound changes that could underlie their associated neurological disorders. Of note, the NMDAR channel mutant GluN2B V618G unusually allowed Mg 2+ permeation, whereas nearby N615I reduced Ca 2+ permeability. By identifying the binding site for an NMDAR antagonist that is used in the clinic to rescue gain-of-function phenotypes, we show that drug binding may be modified by some GluN2B disease-causing mutations.

  3. Removal of either N-glycan site from the envelope receptor binding domain of Moloney and Friend but not AKV mouse ecotropic gammaretroviruses alters receptor usage

    SciTech Connect

    Knoper, Ryan C.; Ferrarone, John; Yan Yuhe

    2009-09-01

    Three N-linked glycosylation sites were removed from the envelope glycoproteins of Friend, Moloney, and AKV mouse ecotropic gammaretroviruses: gs1 and gs2, in the receptor binding domain; and gs8, in a region implicated in post-binding cell fusion. Mutants were tested for their ability to infect rodent cells expressing 4 CAT-1 receptor variants. Three mutants (Mo-gs1, Mo-gs2, and Fr-gs1) infect NIH 3T3 and rat XC cells, but are severely restricted in Mus dunni cells and Lec8, a Chinese hamster cell line susceptible to ecotropic virus. This restriction is reproduced in ferret cells expressing M. dunni dCAT-1, but not in cells expressing NIHmore » 3T3 mCAT-1. Virus binding assays, pseudotype assays, and the use of glycosylation inhibitors further suggest that restriction is primarily due to receptor polymorphism and, in M. dunni cells, to glycosylation of cellular proteins. Virus envelope glycan size or type does not affect infectivity. Thus, host range variation due to N-glycan deletion is receptor variant-specific, cell-specific, virus type-specific, and glycan site-specific.« less

  4. MicroRNAs form triplexes with double stranded DNA at sequence-specific binding sites; a eukaryotic mechanism via which microRNAs could directly alter gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Paugh, Steven W.; Coss, David R.; Bao, Ju

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA). Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence that microRNAs form triple-helical structures with duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show thatmore » several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 x 10 -16) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. As a result, this work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs can interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.« less

  5. A randomized trial and novel SPR technique identifies altered lipoprotein-LDL receptor binding as a mechanism underlying elevated LDL-cholesterol in APOE4s

    PubMed Central

    Calabuig-Navarro, M. V.; Jackson, K. G.; Kemp, C. F.; Leake, D. S.; Walden, C. M.; Lovegrove, J. A.; Minihane, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    At a population level APOE4 carriers (~25% Caucasians) are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The penetrance of genotype is however variable and influenced by dietary fat composition, with the APOE4 allele associated with greater LDL-cholesterol elevation in response to saturated fatty acids (SFA). The etiology of this greater responsiveness is unknown. Here a novel surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR) is developed and used, along with hepatocyte (with the liver being the main organ modulating lipoprotein metabolism and plasma lipid levels) uptake studies to establish the impact of dietary fatty acid composition on, lipoprotein-LDL receptor (LDLR) binding, and hepatocyte uptake, according to APOE genotype status. In men prospectively recruited according to APOE genotype (APOE3/3 common genotype, or APOE3/E4), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) were isolated at fasting and 4–6 h following test meals rich in SFA, unsaturated fat and SFA with fish oil. In APOE4s a greater LDLR binding affinity of postprandial TRL after SFA, and lower LDL binding and hepatocyte internalization, provide mechanisms for the greater LDL-cholesterol raising effect. The SPR technique developed may be used for the future study of the impact of genotype, and physiological and behavioral variables on lipoprotein metabolism. Trial registration number NCT01522482. PMID:28276521

  6. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Christy R.; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Waddell, M. Brett; Ridout, Granger; Naeve, Deanna; Leuze, Michael; LoCascio, Philip F.; Panetta, John C.; Wilkinson, Mark R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Naeve, Clayton W.; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Bonten, Erik J.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA) and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR) that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10−16) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription. PMID:26844769

  7. Impact of SPR biosensor assay configuration on antibody: Neonatal Fc receptor binding data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdan; McKay, Patrick; Dutina, George; Hass, Philip E.; Nijem, Ihsan; Allison, David; Cowan, Kyra J.; Lin, Kevin; Quarmby, Valerie; Yang, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Binding interactions with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) are one determinant of pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human monoclonal antibody (rhumAb) therapeutics, and a conserved binding motif in the crystallizable fragment (Fc) region of IgG molecules interacts with FcRn. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assays are often used to characterize interactions between FcRn and rhumAb therapeutics. In such assays, generally either the rhumAb (format 1) or the FcRn protein (format 2) is immobilized on a biosensor chip. However, because evidence suggests that, in some cases, the variable domains of a rhumAb may also affect FcRn binding, we evaluated the effect of SPR assay configuration on binding data. We sought to assess FcRn binding properties of 2 rhumAbs (rhumAb1 and rhumAb2) to FcRn proteins using these 2 biosensor assay formats. The two rhumAbs have greater than 99% sequence identity in the Fc domain but differ in their Fab regions. rhumAb2 contains a positively charged patch in the variable domain that is absent in rhumAb1. Our results showed that binding of rhumAb1 to FcRn was independent of biosensor assay configuration, while binding of rhumAb2 to FcRn was highly SPR assay configuration dependent. Further investigations revealed that the format dependency of rhumAb2-FcRn binding is linked to the basic residues that form a positively charged patch in the variable domain of rhumAb2. Our work highlights the importance of analyzing rhumAb-FcRn binding interactions using 2 alternate SPR biosensor assay configurations. This approach may also provide a simple way to identify the potential for non-Fc-driven FcRn binding interactions in otherwise typical IgGs. PMID:28001487

  8. The mAb against adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2E4 attenuates the inflammation in the mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity via toll-like receptor 4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wang; Lv, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-03-05

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) plays an important role in fatty acid-mediated processes and related metabolic and inflammatory responses. In this study, we prepared a novel monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, designated 2E4. Our data showed that 2E4 specifically binded to the recombinant A-FABP and native A-FABP of mice adipose tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of 2E4 on metabolic and inflammatory responses in C57BL/6J obese mice fed on a high fat diet. 2E4 administration improved glucose response in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. The 2E4 treated groups exhibited lower free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interleukin-6. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that 2E4 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of A-FABP in adipose tissue of mice. Further experiments showed that 2E4 notably suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα and jun-N-terminal kinase through toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Taken together, 2E4 is an effective monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, which attenuated the inflammatory responses induced in the high-fat-diet mice. These findings may provide scientific insight into the treatment of chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to class I and class II HLA antigens on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Zicht, R; Ferrone, S; Bonnard, G D; Herberman, R B

    1985-04-01

    We have examined the effect of several monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to monomorphic determinants of class II HLA antigens, and MoAb to monomorphic determinants of class I HLA antigens and to beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu) on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and cultured T cells (CTC). Some, but not all, anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of PBMNC to MoAb OKT3 and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The degree of inhibitory effect varied considerably. This effect was not limited to anti-class II HLA MoAb since anti-class I HLA MoAb and anti-beta 2-mu MoAb also inhibited MoAb OKT3- or PWM-induced proliferative responses. In contrast, the response of PBMNC to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was not blocked by any anti-class II HLA MoAb. However, some anti-class II HLA MoAb also inhibited the proliferative response of CTC plus allogeneic peripheral blood adherent accessory cells (AC) to PHA or Con A as well as to MoAb OKT3 or PWM. This may be attributable to the substantially greater class II HLA antigen expression by CTC than by fresh lymphocytes. Pretreatment of either CTC or AC with anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited OKT3-induced proliferation. In contrast, pretreatment of CTC, but not AC, with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of CTC to OKT3. Pretreatment of CTC with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited PHA-, Con A and PWM-induced proliferation, to a greater degree than the anti-class II HLA MoAb. It appears as if lymphocyte activation by different mitogens exhibits variable requirements for the presence of cells expressing major histocompatibility determinants. Binding of Ab to membrane markers may interfere with lymphocyte-AC cooperation, perhaps by inhibiting binding of mitogens to their receptors or by interfering with lymphocyte and AC function. We also have examined the role of class II HLA antigens on CTC by depleting class II HLA-positive cells

  10. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  11. Alterations in benzo(A)pyrene metabolism and in vivo binding to hepatic DNA in rats red diets containing menhaden oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, A.E.; Dharwadkar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 type have been shown to support the mixed function oxidases (MFO) responsible for carcinogen activation and to promote tumorigenesis in laboratory animals. The omega-3 fatty acids contained in menhaden oil (MO) have been shown to enhance MFO activity and increase the binding of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in an in vitro microsomal system. Rats fed two levels of MO (0.5% and 20%) for 11 days received a single i.p. dose of (/sup 3/H)B(a)P (5 m Ci/kg) dissolved in DMSO. At selected time intervals thereafter rats were killed, blood withdrawn, livers removedmore » and DNA extracted. Hepatic microsomes were recovered from control rats on each diet at the time of B(a)P administration to assess MFO activities. Binding of B(a)P to DNA was higher in rats fed the 20% MO diet suggesting an increased rate of B(a)P activation. Blood levels of B(a)P were elevated at 16 and 24 hours post B(a)P, however no differences in urine concentrations were observed. Elevations in concentration of cytochrome P-450, ethoxycoumarin dealkylase, and glutathione S-transferase suggest that omega-3 fatty acids of menhaden fish oil support MFO related reactions not unlike the omega-6 fatty acids.« less

  12. Altered respiratory response to substance P and reduced NK1 receptor binding in the nucleus of the solitary tract of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, S B; Geraghty, D P

    1999-04-24

    The respiratory response to microinjection of substance P (SP) into the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) and binding of [125I]-Bolton-Hunter SP ([125I]-BHSP) to brain stem NK1 receptors were compared in young and aged rats. Injection of SP (750 pmol) into the cNTS of young rats (2 months) increased tidal volume (VT) but had no effect on respiratory rate (f). In aged rats (19-21 months), injection of SP had no significant effect on f or VT. The NTS of aged rats displayed significantly lower specific [125I]-BHSP binding than young rats, indicating a reduction in the number in NK1 receptors. These findings show that the respiratory response to microinjection of SP into the cNTS of aged rats is severely blunted and that this phenomenon may be due to a decrease in the number of NK1 receptors in the NTS. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Disruption of the midkine gene (Mdk) resulted in altered expression of a calcium binding protein in the hippocampus of infant mice and their abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Kadomatsu, K; Yuasa, S; Muramatsu, H; Mamiya, T; Nabeshima, T; Fan, Q W; Ishiguro, K; Igakura, T; Matsubara, S; Kaname, T; Horiba, M; Saito, H; Muramatsu, T

    1998-12-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense and prolonged calretinin expression was found in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of the hippocampus of infant Mdk(-/-) mice. In infant Mdk(+/+) mice, calretinin expression in the granule cell layer was weaker, and had disappeared by 4 weeks after birth, when calretinin expression still persisted in Mdk(-/-) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after birth, Mdk(-/-) mice showed a deficit in their working memory, as revealed by a Y-maze test, and had an increased anxiety, as demonstrated by the elevated plus-maze test. Midkine plays an important role in the regulation of postnatal development of the hippocampus.

  14. TCR and IL-7 Signaling Are Altered in the Absence of Functional GTPase of the Immune Associated Nucleotide Binding Protein 5 (GIMAP5)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi-Lin; Serrano, Daniel; Ghobadi, Farnaz; Mayhue, Marian; Hoebe, Kasper; Ilangumaran, Subburaj; Ramanathan, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    GTPase of the immune associated nucleotide binding protein (GIMAP) family of proteins are expressed essentially in cells of the hematopoietic system. Mutation in the founding member of this gene family, Gimap5, results in the lymphopenic phenotype in Bio-Breeding diabetes prone rats. In mice, deletion of functional Gimap5 gene affects the survival and renewal of hematopoietic stem cells in addition to the defects observed in T cells. Here we show that T cells from OTII TCR-transgenic Gimap5sph/sph mice do not proliferate in response to its cognate antigen. Furthermore, T cells from Gimap5 mutant rats and mice show decreased phosphorylation of STAT5 following stimulation with IL-7. Our results suggest that functional Gimap5 is required for optimal signaling through TCR and IL-7R in T cells. PMID:27023180

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 alters the sensitivity to interferon-based anticancer therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Y; Eguchi, H; Wada, H; Noda, T; Murakami, M; Kobayashi, S; Marubashi, S; Takeda, Y; Tanemura, M; Umeshita, K; Doki, Y; Mori, M; Nagano, H

    2010-05-11

    A striking efficiency of interferon (IFN)-based anticancer therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported. Because its clinical efficiency greatly depends on each patient's local response, prediction of local response is crucial. Continuous exposure of IFN-alpha to parental PLC/PRF/5 cells (PLC-P) and a limiting dilution method resulted in the establishment of IFN-resistant cell clones (PLC-Rs). Microarray analyses of PLC-P and PLC-Rs identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) as one of the most significantly downregulated genes in PLC-Rs. Changes in anticancer effects of IFN-alpha were examined in HCC cells after genetic manipulation of IGFBP7 expression. The correlation between immunohistochemically determined IGFBP7 expression and the response to IFN-alpha/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy was investigated in surgically resected HCC specimens. PLC-R cells showed a remarkable downregulation of IGFBP7 and resistance to IFN-alpha, compared with PLC-P. Parental PLC/PRF/5 cells transfected with short hairpin RNA against IGFBP7 showed a significant resistance to IFN-alpha relative to control cells (IC(50) fold increase=14.38 times). Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 transfection into PLC-R restored sensitivity to IFN-alpha. In resected specimens, IGFBP7 expression significantly correlated with the response to IFN-alpha/5-FU therapy. IGFBP7 could be a useful predictor of the response to IFN-based therapy in advanced HCC.

  17. Relative to Quinine and Quinidine, Their 9-Epimers Exhibit Decreased Cytostatic Activity and Altered Heme Binding but Similar Cytocidal Activity versus Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Alexander P.; Sherlach, Katy S.; de Dios, Angel C.

    2013-01-01

    The 9-epimers of quinine (QN) and quinidine (QD) are known to exhibit poor cytostatic potency against P. falciparum (Karle JM, Karle IL, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:1538–1544, 1992). We synthesized 9-epi-QN (eQN) and 9-epi-QD (eQD) via Mitsunobu esterification-saponification and evaluated both cytostatic and cytocidal antimalarial activities. Relative to the cytostatic activity of QN and QD, we observed a large decrease in cytostatic activity (higher 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50s]) against QN-sensitive strain HB3, QN-resistant strain Dd2, and QN-hypersensitive strain K76I, consistent with previous work. However, we observed relatively small changes in cytocidal activity (the 50% lethal dose), similar to observations with chloroquine (CQ) analogues with a wide range of IC50s (see the accompanying paper [A. P. Gorka, J. N. Alumasa, K. S. Sherlach, L. M. Jacobs, K. B. Nickley, J. P. Brower, A. C. de Dios, and P. D. Roepe, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:356–364, 2013]). Compared to QN and QD, the 9-epimers had significantly reduced hemozoin inhibition efficiency and did not affect pH-dependent aggregation of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX) heme. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that the 9-epimers perturb FPIX monomer-dimer equilibrium in favor of monomer, and UV-visible (VIS) titrations showed that eQN and eQD bind monomer with similar affinity relative to QN and QD. However, unique ring proton shifts in the presence of zinc(II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPIX) indicate that binding of the 9-epimers to monomeric heme is via a distinct geometry. We isolated eQN- and eQD-FPIX complexes formed under aqueous conditions and analyzed them by mass, fluorescence, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The 9-epimers produced low-fluorescent adducts with a 2:1 stoichiometry (drug to FPIX) which did not survive electrospray ionization, in contrast to QN and QD complexes. The data offer important insight into the relevance of heme interactions as a

  18. Effects of altered gravity on the expression of Calcium -binding and matrix proteins in the inner ear of developing fish following ∆g-expositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Weigele, Jochen

    The results of the Foton-M3 mission (OmegaHab) give evidence that the otoliths of the fish form OmegaHab were larger as compared to the ground control. Additionally the shape (raphe) and morphology especially the mode of crystallization of the otoliths were affected during growth in weightlessness. The reason for these changes is assumed to originate from changes in the composition of the otolith matrix and Ca-binding proteins (OMP). The OMPs play an important role in controlling the crystallization process and additionally the morphology of crystals, determining the crystallpolymorph and the strength of the crystals. The matrix of otoliths is a complex functional structure containing several calcium-binding proteins, structural proteins and protease inhibitors. Furthermore it is composed of otolith matrix protein-1, Otolin, Otoconin, SPARC and Neuroserpin, which is a specific expression in the otolth matrix for chichlid fish. During embryonic development of the fish inner ear, these proteins show a spacial and temporal expression pattern. The formation of the inner ear -including otoliths and sensory cells -starting from the otocyst-anlage -can be subdivided in several major developmental stages e.g. the forming of the otic cavity (stage 7/8), the tetha cell or seeding stage (stage 8, 9), the development of the semicircular channels (stage 12), the transition to further daily growth (post stage15) and the development of the third otolith, asteriscus (stage 23). These developmental phases contain different constitutions or involvements of matrix proteins. We investigated the matrixprotein composition of the chichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and found that the otolith matrix differentiate between other fishes. In this case some matrix proteins seem to be uniform in fishes, other known matrix proteins are lacking and we have also references to new candidates for matrix proteins chichlids. In this case we investigated the expression of the matrix proteins otolith

  19. Gender-related difference in altered gene expression of a sterol regulatory element binding protein, SREBP-2, by lead nitrate in rats: correlation with development of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2006-01-01

    Changes in gene expression levels of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) after a single i.v. injection of lead nitrate (LN, 100 micromol kg(-1) body weight) were examined comparatively by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in male and female rats. Significant increases in the gene expression level of SREBP-2, a transcription factor for the HMGR gene, occurred at 6-12 h in male and at 24-36 h in female rats after LN-treatment. The gene expression level of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, significantly increased at 3-48 h in male rats and 12-48 h in female rats. Subsequently, significant increases in the amount of hepatic total cholesterol in male and female rats were also observed at 3-48 h and 24-48 h, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that increases in gene expressions of hepatic SREBP-2 and HMGR and the amount of hepatic total cholesterol by LN occur earlier in male rats than in the females, and that increases in the gene expression level of HMGR and the amount of hepatic total cholesterol occur prior to the increase in the gene expression level of SREBP-2 in either sex of rats. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Alterations in phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element of binding protein activity: a pathway for fetal alcohol syndrome-related neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Robin; Cameroni, Irene; Toso, Laura; Abebe, Daniel; Bissel, Stephanie; Spong, Catherine Y

    2009-02-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the leading cause of a spectrum of preventable nongenetic learning and behavioral disorders. In adult (FAS) mice, we measured phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element of binding protein (pCREB) staining in hippocampal subregions to evaluate a possible mechanism underlying FAS learning deficits. Pregnant C57BL6/J mice were treated on gestational day 8 with alcohol or control (saline). After learning assessment, the offspring were perfused for immunohistochemistry and brain sections probed using SER 133 pCREB antibody. Relative staining density was assessed using National Institutes of Health Image software. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance with P < .05 considered significant. In all hippocampal subregions, pCREB staining was greater in the control animals than in the alcohol-treated group (P < or = .0001). In utero alcohol exposure decreased pCREB activity in hippocampal subregions of adult mice. The dentate gyrus had the most robust cumulative decrease in pCREB staining, suggesting FAS adult learning deficits may correlate to enhanced dentate gyrus neurodegeneration.

  1. Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow Phosphorylation is Altered in Duchenne Dystrophy and Arthrogryposis Myopathy in Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Maegen A; Ward, Christopher W; Gurnett, Christina; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2015-08-19

    Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C), encoded by MYBPC1, comprises a family of regulatory proteins of skeletal muscles that are phosphorylated by PKA and PKC. MYBPC1 missense mutations are linked to the development of Distal Arthrogryposis-1 (DA-1). Although structure-function details for this myopathy are evolving, function is undoubtedly driven by sequence variations and post-translational modifications in sMyBP-C. Herein, we examined the phosphorylation profile of sMyBP-C in mouse and human fast-twitch skeletal muscles. We used Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) isolated from young (~2-months old) and old (~14-months old) wild type and mdx mice, and human Abductor Hallucis (AH) and gastrocnemious muscles carrying the DA-1 mutations. Our results indicate both constitutive and differential phosphorylation of sMyBP-C in aged and diseased muscles. We report a 7-35% reduction in the phosphorylation levels of select sites in old wild type and young or old mdx FDB mouse muscles, compared to young wild type tissue. Similarly, we observe a 30-70% decrease in the phosphorylation levels of all PKA and PKC phospho-sites in the DA-1 AH, but not gastrocnemius, muscle. Overall, our studies show that the phosphorylation pattern of sMyBP-C is differentially regulated in response to age and disease, suggesting that phosphorylation plays important roles in these processes.

  2. Penicillin-binding protein 4 of Escherichia coli: molecular cloning of the dacB gene, controlled overexpression, and alterations in murein composition.

    PubMed

    Korat, B; Mottl, H; Keck, W

    1991-03-01

    The penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4), from Escherichia coli, a DD-carboxypeptidase/DD-endopeptidase, was purified in an enzymatically active form to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on 6-aminopenicillanic acid/Sepharose and heparin/Sepharose. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the pure protein were used to identify and isolate PBP4 overproducing clones from an E. coli expression library, which was established on the basis of a temperature-inducible runaway replication plasmid. Three positive clones were isolated, one of which carried the intact structural gene dacB that codes for PBP4, on a 1.9kb SmaI-EcoRI fragment, whereas the other two carried truncated forms of this gene. The direction of transcription was determined. The PBP4 overproducing strain, when grown in rich medium, tolerated 160-fold overexpression. After disrupting cells by sonication, the majority (80%) of the overproduced PBP4 was detected in the 100,000 X g supernatant. Southern blotting analysis using the cloned dacB gene as a probe revealed that, in contrast to that described by Takeda et al. (1981), the plasmid pLC18-38 of the Clarke-Carbon collection does not code for PBP4. The overall composition of murein, synthesized in vitro or in vivo by the PBP4 overproducing strain, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, suggests that PBP4 is not involved in transpeptidation but exclusively catalyses a DD-carboxypeptidase and DD-endopeptidase reaction.

  3. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roll, R. L.; Jones, T. A.; Benowitz, N. L.; Morley, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    (-)-Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). Twelve h beyond the eighteenth day of incubation (E18 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. Short latency vestibular response thresholds and input/output functions were determined to assess neurophysiological consequences of chronic nicotine administration. Samples of serum and extraembryonic (amniotic and albumen) fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine. The brains were removed and divided into diencephalon and mesencephalon and the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites in each brain area was measured. Nicotine and cotinine were found in the serum and extraembryonic fluid, but nicotinic receptors were not up-regulated in the brains of animals infused with nicotine in comparison to controls. Vestibular response thresholds also did not differ between nicotine-treated and control animals.

  4. Main immunogenic region structure promotes binding of conformation-dependent myasthenia gravis autoantibodies, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor conformation maturation, and agonist sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Taylor, Palmer; Losen, Mario; de Baets, Marc H.; Shelton, G. Diane; Lindstrom, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The main immunogenic region (MIR) is a conformation-dependent region at the extracellular apex of α1 subunits of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) that is the target of half or more of the autoantibodies to muscle AChRs in human myasthenia gravis and rat experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. By making chimeras of human α1 subunits with α7 subunits, both MIR epitopes recognized by rat mAbs and by the patient-derived human mAb 637 to the MIR were determined to consist of two discontiguous sequences, which are adjacent only in the native conformation. The MIR, including loop α1 67–76 in combination with the N-terminal α helix α1 1–14, conferred high-affinity binding for most rat mAbs to the MIR. However, an additional sequence corresponding to α1 15–32 was required for high-affinity binding of human mAb 637. A water soluble chimera of Aplysia acetylcholine binding protein with the same α1 MIR sequences substituted was recognized by a majority of human, feline, and canine MG sera. The presence of the α1 MIR sequences in α1/α7 chimeras greatly promoted AChR expression and significantly altered the sensitivity to activation. This reveals a structural and functional, as well as antigenic, significance of the MIR. PMID:19890000

  5. v-Src oncogene product increases sphingosine kinase 1 expression through mRNA stabilization: alteration of AU-rich element-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Sobue, S; Murakami, M; Banno, Y; Ito, H; Kimura, A; Gao, S; Furuhata, A; Takagi, A; Kojima, T; Suzuki, M; Nozawa, Y; Murate, T

    2008-10-09

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is overexpressed in solid tumors and leukemia. However, the mechanism of SPHK1 overexpression by oncogenes has not been defined. We found that v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells showed a high SPHK1 mRNA, SPHK1 protein and SPHK enzyme activity. siRNA of SPHK1 inhibited the growth of v-Src-NIH3T3, suggesting the involvement of SPHK1 in v-Src-induced oncogenesis. v-Src-NIH3T3 showed activations of protein kinase C-alpha, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Their inhibition suppressed SPHK1 expression in v-Src-NIH3T3, whereas their overexpression increased SPHK1 mRNA in NIH3T3. Unexpectedly, the nuclear run-on assay and the promoter analysis using 5'-promoter region of mouse SPHK1 did not show any significant difference between mock- and v-Src-NIH3T3. Furthermore, the half-life of SPHK1 mRNA in mock-NIH3T3 was nearly 15 min, whereas that of v-Src-NIH3T3 was much longer. Examination of two AU-rich region-binding proteins, AUF1 and HuR, that regulate mRNA decay reciprocally, showed decreased total AUF1 protein associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated form and increased serine-phosphorylated HuR protein in v-Src-NIH3T3. Modulation of AUF1 and HuR by their overexpression or siRNA revealed that SPHK1 mRNA in v-Src- and mock-NIH3T3 was regulated reciprocally by these factors. Our results showed, for the first time, a novel mechanism of v-Src-induced SPHK1 overexpression.

  6. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Outburst in Mira AB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2003-09-01

    The nearby system Mira AB composed of an aging AGB star (Mira A) and a WD companion (Mira B) offers a unique laboratory for studying wind accretion processes, a poorly understood phenomenon in many sources. Recent Chandra ACIS-S Obs.(70ks on 12/6/03; PI.M.Karovska) resolved for the first time the components (~0.6") in X-rays, and detected a new bright soft source (< 0.7 keV) in addition to the harder (1-4 keV) emission from Mira B. The new source is spatially and spectrally separated from Mira B and likely associated with Mira A. This is the first detection of X-rays from an AGB star. This source was not detected by ROSAT in 1993 or recently by XMM 8/03 (AAS/03,J.Kastner), and could be a transient phenomenon. Model fitting shows that the soft X-ray emission is likely several emission lines, rather then a continuum; with ACIS spectral resolution we cannot resolve or identify these lines. We propose a 40ks LETG+HRC-S obs. to identify the lines and determine the emission mechanism.

  8. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pantcheva, Mina B.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior chamber drainage angle surgery, namely trabeculotomy and goniotomy, has been commonly utilized in children for many years. Its’ reported success has ranged between 68% and 100% in infants and young children with congenital glaucoma. However, the long-term success of these procedures has been limited in adults presumably due to the formation of anterior synechiae (AS) in the postoperative phase. Recently, ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome™ has emerged as a novel surgical approach to effectively and selectively remove and ablate the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of the Schlemm’s canal in an attempt to avoid AS formation or other forms of wound healing with resultant closure of the cleft. This procedure seems to have an appealing safety profile with respect to early hypotony or infection if compared to trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device implantation. This might be advantageous in some of the impoverish regions of the Middle East and Africa where patients experience difficulties keeping up with their postoperative visits. It is important to note that no randomized trial comparing the Trabectome to other glaucoma procedures appears to have been published to date. Trabectome surgery is not a panacea, however, and it is associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may require additional glaucoma surgery as well as a high incidence of hyphema. Reported results show that postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) remains, at best, in the mid-teen range making it undesirable in patients with low-target IOP goals. A major advantage of Trabectome surgery is that it does not preclude further glaucoma surgery involving the conjunctiva, such as a trabeculectomy or drainage device implantation. As prospective randomized long-term clinical data become available, we will be better positioned to elucidate the exact role of this technique in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium. PMID:21180426

  9. Disruption of Genes Encoding eIF4E Binding Proteins-1 And -2 Does Not Alter Basal or Sepsis-Induced Changes in Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis in Male or Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Pruznak, Anne M.; Deiter, Gina; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Kutzler, Lydia; Kimball, Scot R.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNFα and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding. PMID:24945486

  10. Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Pruznak, Anne M; Deiter, Gina; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Kutzler, Lydia; Kimball, Scot R; Lang, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNFα and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding.

  11. Ab initio vel ex eventu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Der gegenwärtige Stand der physikalischen Erkenntnis, in Sonderheit die Atomistik und die Quantentheorie, ermöglicht (in wohldefinierten Energie-Bereichen) eine ab initio-Berechnung aller physikalischen und chemischen Prozesse und Strukturen. Die Schrödinger-Gleichung erlaubt zusammen mit den Prinzipien der Quantenstatistik (Pauli-Prinzip) aus dem Planckschen Wirkungsquantum h und den atomischen Konstanten die Berechnung aller Energieumsätze, Zeitabläufe etc., die insbesondere die chemische Physik bestimmen. Die Rechenresultate gelten auch quantitativ bis auf die unvermeidliche Stochastik.Die ab initio-Berechnungen korrespondieren einerseits und sind andererseits komplementär zu den auf den Methoden der theoretischen Chemie und der klassischen Thermodynamik beruhenden Ergebnissen ex eventu. Die theoretische Behandlung ab initio führt zu mathematischen Experimenten, die die Laboratoriums-Experimente ergänzen oder auch substituieren.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventuThe present state of physical knowledge, in peculiar atomistic and quantum theory, makes an ab initio calculation of all physical and chemical processes and structures possible (in well defined reaches of energy). The Schrödinger equation together with the principles of quantum statistics (Pauli principle) permits from the Planck and atomistic constants to calculate all exchanges of energy, courses of time, etc. which govern chemical physics. The calculated results are valid even quantitatively apart from the unavoidable stochastics.These ab initio calculations on the one hand correspond and are on the other complimentary to results ex eventu based on the methods of theoretical chemistry and classical thermodynamics. Theoretical treatment ab initio leads to mathematical experiments which add to or even substitute experiments in the laboratory.

  12. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D; Nykiforuk, Cory L; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T; Moloney, Maurice M; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-06-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1 cisΔ11 ) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2 cisΔ9,12 ; 17.9%-44.4% and 7%-13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1 cisΔ11 (38.7%-60.7% and 13.8%-16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3 cisΔ9,12,15 ) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%-48.9% and 5.3%-10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. AB 1725: A Comprehensive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    A summary and analysis is provided of California Assembly Bill (AB) 1725, a reform bill that provides new direction and support for the state's community colleges. The analysis addresses each of the eight sections of the bill: (1) mission, highlighting reforms related to mission statements, transfer core curriculum, remedial limits, articulation…

  14. Fetal programming of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3: evidence for an altered response to undernutrition in late gestation following exposure to periconceptual undernutrition in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, B W; Breier, B H; Keven, C L; Harding, J E; Gluckman, P D

    1998-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in several animal models that undernutrition in utero has significant long lasting effects on subsequent fetal and postnatal development. To address the hypothesis that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may mediate such effects, our study examined whether a period of periconceptual maternal undernutrition could have a lasting influence on the IGF axis in the fetal sheep. Ewes were either allowed to feed ad libitum or kept undernourished from day 60 prior to mating until day 30 after conception, and then both groups were allowed to feed ad libitum. These groups were further divided at day 105 of gestation, either being fed ad libitum or undernourished until day 115 of gestation. Fetal and maternal blood samples were obtained at both day 105 and 115 of gestation. We describe the development of a specific homologous RIA to measure ovine IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in fetal and maternal sheep plasma. Fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) reduced at day 115 of gestation after maternal undernutrition. The fetal plasma IGFBP-2 levels were unchanged. The degree of reduction in fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I between day 105 and 115 of gestation as a response to acute maternal undernutrition was significantly greater (P<0.05) in fetuses of mothers receiving low periconceptual nutrition. The response of maternal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I to undernutrition did not depend on the level of periconceptual nutrition. Western blot data indicate that changes in either maternal or fetal plasma IGFBP-3 concentrations were not the result of increased proteolytic activity. These results suggest that exposure to maternal periconceptual undernutrition reprograms IGFBP-3 and IGF-I regulation in the developing sheep fetus, altering its response to undernutrition in late gestation.

  15. Registration of nine sorghum seed parent (A/B) lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nine sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] A1 cyto plasmic-genic male sterile seed parent (A) and their maintainer (B) lines [KS 133A/B, KS 134A/B, KS 135A/B, KS 136A/B, KS 137A/B, KS 138A/B, KS 139A/B, KS 140A/B and KS 141A/B] were released by the Kansas State University, Agricultural Research Cent...

  16. [VDRL and FTA-ABS reactivity in cerebrospinal fluid: our experience].

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, J A; Martín-Sánchez, A M; Canut, A; García-García, L; Cacho, J

    1990-01-01

    The reactivity of 194 samples of CSF against VDRL and FTA-ABS was studied in patients attending the Clinical Hospital in Salamanca over a five years period. This laboratory was asked to rule out an etiology of syphilis. Twelve samples of CSF proved to be reactive (6.2%) against VDRL and/or FTA-ABS. Seven of these corresponded to six adults diagnosed as suffering from neurosyphilis and one to an infant with early congenital syphilis without neurological alterations; these had in common the presence of active syphilis and a reactive FTA-ABS in serum. In the CSF of the six cases of neurosyphilis, VDRL was reactive in two patients (33.3%) and FTA-ABS in five (83.3%). One minimally reactive VDRL and four FTA-ABS were detected in the remaining five patients, with no known previous history of syphilis, that were suffering from different neurological alterations and that had a nonreactive FTA-ABS in serum. The results obtained in this study point to inappropriate use in CSF of VDRL and FTA-ABS to exclude neurosyphilis in our hospital since only 3.6% of the CSF studied corresponded to patients diagnosed as suffering from neurosyphilis and also to the need for improving the criteria for patient selection.

  17. Monoclonal antibody, mAb 4C13, an effective detoxicant antibody against ricin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dong, Na; Luo, Longlong; Wu, Junhua; Jia, Peiyuan; Li, Qian; Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Zhongcai; Peng, Hui; Lv, Ming; Huang, Chunqian; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Hua; Shan, Junjie; Han, Gang; Shen, Beifen

    2015-07-31

    Ricin is a glycoprotein produced in castor seeds and consists of two polypeptide chains named Ricin Toxin A Chain (RTA) and Ricin Toxin B Chain (RTB), linked via a disulfide bridge. Due to its high toxicity, ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public. However, antibodies can play a pivotal role in neutralizing the toxin. In this research, the anti-toxicant effect of mAb 4C13, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) established using detoxicated ricin as the immunized antigen, was evaluated. Compared with mAb 4F2 and mAb 5G6, the effective mechanism of mAb 4C13 was analyzed by experiments relating to its cytotoxicity, epitope on ricin, binding kinetics with the toxin, its blockage on the protein synthesis inhibition induced by ricin and the intracelluar tracing of its complex with ricin. Our result indicated that mAb 4C13 could recognize and bind to RTA, RTB and exert its high affinity to the holotoxin. Both cytotoxicity and animal toxicity of ricin were well blocked by pre-incubating the toxin with mAb 4C13. By intravenous injection, mAb 4C13 could rescue the mouse intraperitoneally (ip) injected with a lethal dose of ricin (20μg/kg) even at 6h after the intoxication and its efficacy was dependent on its dosage. This research indicated that mAb 4C13 could be an excellent candidate for therapeutic antibodies. Its potent antitoxic efficiency was related to its recognition on the specific epitope with very high affinity and its blockage of protein synthesis inhibition in cytoplasm followed by cellular internalization with ricin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human serum albumin (HSA) for the development of an immunoaffinity system with oriented anti-HSA mAbs as immobilized ligand.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Poonam; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Jayaprakash, N S

    2013-05-05

    Proteins present in human serum are of immense importance in the field of biomarker discovery. But, the presence of high-abundant proteins like albumin makes the analysis more challenging because of masking effect on low-abundant proteins. Therefore, removal of albumin using highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can potentiate the discovery of low-abundant proteins. In the present study, mAbs against human serum albumin (HSA) were developed and integrated in to an immunoaffinity based system for specific removal of albumin from the serum. Hybridomas were obtained by fusion of Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from the mouse immunized with HSA. Five clones (AHSA1-5) producing mAbs specific to HSA were established and characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting for specificity, sensitivity and affinity in terms of antigen binding. The mAbs were able to bind to both native albumin as well as its glycated isoform. Reactivity of mAbs with different mammalian sera was tested. The affinity constant of the mAbs ranged from 10(8) to 10(9)M(-1). An approach based on oriented immobilization was followed to immobilize purified anti-HSA mAbs on hydrazine activated agarose gel and the dynamic binding capacity of the column was determined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorescence dye-based detection of mAb aggregates in CHO culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Albert Jesuran; Schwab, Karen; Prokoph, Nina; Haas, Elena; Handrick, René; Hesse, Friedemann

    2015-06-01

    Product yields, efficacy, and safety of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are reduced by the formation of higher molecular weight aggregates during upstream processing. In-process characterization of mAb aggregate formation is a challenge since there is a lack of a fast detection method to identify mAb aggregates in cell culture. In this work, we present a rapid method to characterize mAb aggregate-containing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatants. The fluorescence dyes thioflavin T (ThT) and 4-4-bis-1-phenylamino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (Bis-ANS) enabled the detection of soluble as well as large mAb aggregates. Partial least square (PLS) regression models were used to evaluate the linearity of the dye-based mAb aggregate detection in buffer down to a mAb aggregate concentration of 2.4 μg mL(-1). Furthermore, mAb aggregates were detected in bioprocess medium using Bis-ANS and ThT. Dye binding to aggregates was stable for 60 min, making the method robust and reliable. Finally, the developed method using 10 μmol L(-1) Bis-ANS enabled discrimination between CHO cell culture supernatants containing different levels of mAb aggregates. The method can be adapted for high-throughput screening, e.g., to screen for cell culture conditions influencing mAb product quality, and hence can contribute to the improvement of production processes of biopharmaceuticals in mammalian cell culture.

  20. Binding Procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  1. Characterization of virulence factor regulation by SrrAB, a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pragman, Alexa A; Yarwood, Jeremy M; Tripp, Timothy J; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2004-04-01

    Workers in our laboratory have previously identified the staphylococcal respiratory response AB (SrrAB), a Staphylococcus aureus two-component system that acts in the global regulation of virulence factors. This system down-regulates production of agr RNAIII, protein A, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), particularly under low-oxygen conditions. In this study we investigated the localization and membrane orientation of SrrA and SrrB, transcription of the srrAB operon, the DNA-binding properties of SrrA, and the effect of SrrAB expression on S. aureus virulence. We found that SrrA is localized to the S. aureus cytoplasm, while SrrB is localized to the membrane and is properly oriented to function as a histidine kinase. srrAB has one transcriptional start site which results in either an srrA transcript or a full-length srrAB transcript; srrB must be cotranscribed with srrA. Gel shift assays of the agr P2, agr P3, protein A (spa), TSST-1 (tst), and srr promoters revealed SrrA binding at each of these promoters. Analysis of SrrAB-overexpressing strains by using the rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis demonstrated that overexpression of SrrAB decreased the virulence of the organisms compared to the virulence of isogenic strains that do not overexpress SrrAB. We concluded that SrrAB is properly localized and oriented to function as a two-component system. Overexpression of SrrAB, which represses agr RNAIII, TSST-1, and protein A in vitro, decreases virulence in the rabbit endocarditis model. Repression of these virulence factors is likely due to a direct interaction between SrrA and the agr, tst, and spa promoters.

  2. Ab Initio Calculations Applied to Problems in Metal Ion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations can provide accurate spectroscopic data (such as molecular structures) vibrational frequencies, binding energies, etc.) that have been very useful in explaining trends in experimental data and in identifying incorrect experimental measurements. In addition, ab initio calculations. have given considerable insight into the many interactions that make the chemistry of transition metal systems so diverse. In this review we focus on cases where calculations and experiment have been used to solve interesting chemical problems involving metal ions. The examples include cases where theory was used to differentiate between disparate experimental values and cases where theory was used to explain unexpected experimental results.

  3. A single amino-acid substitution in the Ets domain alters core DNA binding specificity of Ets1 to that of the related transcription factors Elf1 and E74.

    PubMed

    Bosselut, R; Levin, J; Adjadj, E; Ghysdael, J

    1993-11-11

    Ets proteins form a family of sequence specific DNA binding proteins which bind DNA through a 85 aminoacids conserved domain, the Ets domain, whose sequence is unrelated to any other characterized DNA binding domain. Unlike all other known Ets proteins, which bind specific DNA sequences centered over either GGAA or GGAT core motifs, E74 and Elf1 selectively bind to GGAA corecontaining sites. Elf1 and E74 differ from other Ets proteins in three residues located in an otherwise highly conserved region of the Ets domain, referred to as conserved region III (CRIII). We show that a restricted selectivity for GGAA core-containing sites could be conferred to Ets1 upon changing a single lysine residue within CRIII to the threonine found in Elf1 and E74 at this position. Conversely, the reciprocal mutation in Elf1 confers to this protein the ability to bind to GGAT core containing EBS. This, together with the fact that mutation of two invariant arginine residues in CRIII abolishes DNA binding, indicates that CRIII plays a key role in Ets domain recognition of the GGAA/T core motif and lead us to discuss a model of Ets proteins--core motif interaction.

  4. Immune complexes formed following the binding of anti-platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) antibodies to CXCL4 stimulate human neutrophil activation and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhihua; Visentin, Gian P; Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2008-08-15

    We tested the possibility that immune complexes formed following platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) binding to anti-PF4 antibody can stimulate neutrophil activation, similar to previous reports with platelets. Monoclonal Abs against PF4 and IgG from a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) patient were applied. We observed that although PF4 or anti-PF4 antibody alone did not alter neutrophil function, costimulation with both reagents resulted in approximately 3-fold increase in cell surface Mac-1 expression, enhanced cell adhesion via L-selectin and CD18 integrins, and degranulation of secondary and tertiary granules. The level of Mac-1 up-regulation peaked at an intermediate PF4 dose, suggesting that functional response varies with antigen-antibody stoichiometry. PF4 binding to neutrophils was blocked by chondroitinase ABC. Cell activation was inhibited by both chondroitinase ABC and anti-CD32/FcgammaRII blocking mAb, IV.3. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that immune complexes colocalize with CD32a. Studies with HIT IgG demonstrated that neutrophils could be activated in the absence of exogenous heparin. These data, together, show that leukocyte surface chondroitin sulfates promote neutrophil activation by enhancing immune-complex binding to CD32a. Studies with recombinant PF4 suggest a role for arginine 49 in stabilizing PF4-chondroitin binding. Neutrophils activated via this mechanism may contribute to thrombosis and inflammation in patients mounting an immune response to PF4-heparin.

  5. Immune complexes formed following the binding of anti–platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) antibodies to CXCL4 stimulate human neutrophil activation and cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhihua; Visentin, Gian P.; Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the possibility that immune complexes formed following platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) binding to anti-PF4 antibody can stimulate neutrophil activation, similar to previous reports with platelets. Monoclonal Abs against PF4 and IgG from a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) patient were applied. We observed that although PF4 or anti-PF4 antibody alone did not alter neutrophil function, costimulation with both reagents resulted in approximately 3-fold increase in cell surface Mac-1 expression, enhanced cell adhesion via L-selectin and CD18 integrins, and degranulation of secondary and tertiary granules. The level of Mac-1 up-regulation peaked at an intermediate PF4 dose, suggesting that functional response varies with antigen-antibody stoichiometry. PF4 binding to neutrophils was blocked by chondroitinase ABC. Cell activation was inhibited by both chondroitinase ABC and anti-CD32/FcγRII blocking mAb, IV.3. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that immune complexes colocalize with CD32a. Studies with HIT IgG demonstrated that neutrophils could be activated in the absence of exogenous heparin. These data, together, show that leukocyte surface chondroitin sulfates promote neutrophil activation by enhancing immune-complex binding to CD32a. Studies with recombinant PF4 suggest a role for arginine 49 in stabilizing PF4-chondroitin binding. Neutrophils activated via this mechanism may contribute to thrombosis and inflammation in patients mounting an immune response to PF4-heparin. PMID:18539895

  6. Epitopes in α8β1 and other RGD-binding integrins delineate classes of integrin-blocking antibodies and major binding loops in α subunits

    PubMed Central

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Kawashima, Nagako; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Identification of epitopes for integrin-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has aided our understanding of structure-function relationship of integrins. We mapped epitopes of chicken anti-integrin-α8-subunit-blocking mAbs by mutational analyses, examining regions that harboured all mapped epitopes recognized by mAbs against other α-subunits in the RGD-binding-integrin subfamily. Six mAbs exhibited blocking function, and these mAbs recognized residues on the same W2:41-loop on the top-face of the β-propeller. Loop-tips sufficiently close to W2:41 (<25 Å) contained within a footprint of the mAbs were mutated, and the loop W3:34 on the bottom face was identified as an additional component of the epitope of one antibody, clone YZ5. Binding sequences on the two loops were conserved in virtually all mammals, and that on W3:34 was also conserved in chickens. These indicate 1) YZ5 binds both top and bottom loops, and the binding to W3:34 is by interactions to conserved residues between immunogen and host species, 2) five other blocking mAbs solely bind to W2:41 and 3) the α8 mAbs would cross-react with most mammals. Comparing with the mAbs against the other α-subunits of RGD-integrins, two classes were delineated; those binding to “W3:34 and an top-loop”, and “solely W2:41”, accounting for 82% of published RGD-integrin-mAbs. PMID:26349930

  7. Epitopes in α8β1 and other RGD-binding integrins delineate classes of integrin-blocking antibodies and major binding loops in α subunits.

    PubMed

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Kawashima, Nagako; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2015-09-09

    Identification of epitopes for integrin-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has aided our understanding of structure-function relationship of integrins. We mapped epitopes of chicken anti-integrin-α8-subunit-blocking mAbs by mutational analyses, examining regions that harboured all mapped epitopes recognized by mAbs against other α-subunits in the RGD-binding-integrin subfamily. Six mAbs exhibited blocking function, and these mAbs recognized residues on the same W2:41-loop on the top-face of the β-propeller. Loop-tips sufficiently close to W2:41 (<25 Å) contained within a footprint of the mAbs were mutated, and the loop W3:34 on the bottom face was identified as an additional component of the epitope of one antibody, clone YZ5. Binding sequences on the two loops were conserved in virtually all mammals, and that on W3:34 was also conserved in chickens. These indicate 1) YZ5 binds both top and bottom loops, and the binding to W3:34 is by interactions to conserved residues between immunogen and host species, 2) five other blocking mAbs solely bind to W2:41 and 3) the α8 mAbs would cross-react with most mammals. Comparing with the mAbs against the other α-subunits of RGD-integrins, two classes were delineated; those binding to "W3:34 and an top-loop", and "solely W2:41", accounting for 82% of published RGD-integrin-mAbs.

  8. Timing of AB And eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, V. S.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Gaynullina, E. R.; Karimov, R. G.; Hafizov, B. M.; Satovskii, B. L.; Krushevska, V. N.; Kuznyetsova, Yu. G.; Bogomazov, A. I.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims timing the eclipses of the short period low mass binary star AB And. The times of minima are taken from the literature and from our observations in October 2013 (22 times of minima) and in August 2014 (23 times of minima). We find and discuss an inaccuracy in the determination of the types of minima in the previous investigation by Li et al. (2014). We study the secular evolution of the central binary's orbital period and the possibility of the existence of third and fourth companions in the system.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to meningococcal factor H binding protein with overlapping epitopes and discordant functional activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Beernink, Peter T; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a promising vaccine candidate. Anti-fHbp antibodies can bind to meningococci and elicit complement-mediated bactericidal activity directly. The antibodies also can block binding of the human complement down-regulator, factor H (fH). Without bound fH, the organism would be expected to have increased susceptibility to bacteriolysis. Here we describe bactericidal activity of two anti-fHbp mAbs with overlapping epitopes in relation to their different effects on fH binding and bactericidal activity. Both mAbs recognized prevalent fHbp sequence variants in variant group 1. Using yeast display and site-specific mutagenesis, binding of one of the mAbs (JAR 1, IgG3) to fHbp was eliminated by a single amino acid substitution, R204A, and was decreased by K143A but not by R204H or D142A. The JAR 1 epitope overlapped that of previously described mAb (mAb502, IgG2a) whose binding to fHbp was eliminated by R204A or R204H substitutions, and was decreased by D142A but not by K143A. Although JAR 1 and mAb502 appeared to have overlapping epitopes, only JAR 1 inhibited binding of fH to fHbp and had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity. mAb502 enhanced fH binding and lacked human complement-mediated bactericidal activity. To control for confounding effects of different mouse IgG subclasses on complement activation, we created chimeric mAbs in which the mouse mAb502 or JAR 1 paratopes were paired with human IgG1 constant regions. While both chimeric mAbs showed similar binding to fHbp, only JAR 1, which inhibited fH binding, had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity. The lack of human complement-mediated bactericidal activity by anti-fHbp mAb502 appeared to result from an inability to inhibit binding of fH. These results underscore the importance of inhibition of fH binding for anti-fHbp mAb bactericidal activity.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

    2004-04-01

    The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Impact of linker and conjugation chemistry on antigen binding, Fc receptor binding and thermal stability of model antibody-drug conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Acchione, Mauro; Kwon, Hyewon; Jochheim, Claudia M.; Atkins, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with biotin as a model cargo tethered to IgG1 mAbs via different linkers and conjugation methods were prepared and tested for thermostability and ability to bind target antigen and Fc receptor. Most conjugates demonstrated decreased thermostability relative to unconjugated antibody, based on DSC, with carbohydrate and amine coupled ADCs showing the least effect compared with thiol coupled conjugates. A strong correlation between biotin-load and loss of stability is observed with thiol conjugation to one IgG scaffold, but the stability of a second IgG scaffold is relatively insensitive to biotin load. The same correlation for amine coupling was less significant. Binding of antibody to antigen and Fc receptor was investigated using surface plasmon resonance. None of the conjugates exhibited altered antigen affinity. Fc receptor FcγIIb (CD32b) interactions were investigated using captured antibody conjugate. Protein G and Protein A, known inhibitors of Fc receptor (FcR) binding to IgG, were also used to extend the analysis of the impact of conjugation on Fc receptor binding. H10NPEG4 was the only conjugate to show significant negative impact to FcR binding, which is likely due to higher biotin-load compared with the other ADCs. The ADC aHISNLC and aHISTPEG8 demonstrated some loss in affinity for FcR, but to much lower extent. The general insensitivity of target binding and effector function of the IgG1 platform to conjugation highlight their utility. The observed changes in thermostability require consideration for the choice of conjugation chemistry, depending on the system being pursued and particular application of the conjugate. PMID:22531451

  12. Neutron Reflection Study of Surface Adsorption of Fc, Fab, and the Whole mAb.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongyi; Li, Ruiheng; Smith, Charles; Pan, Fang; Campana, Mario; Webster, John R P; van der Walle, Christopher F; Uddin, Shahid; Bishop, Steve M; Narwal, Rojaramani; Warwicker, Jim; Lu, Jian Ren

    2017-07-12

    Characterizing the influence of fragment crystallization (Fc) and antigen-binding fragment (Fab) on monoclonal antibody (mAb) adsorption at the air/water interface is an important step to understanding liquid mAb drug product stability during manufacture, shipping, and storage. Here, neutron reflection is used to study the air/water adsorption of a mAb and its Fc and Fab fragments. By varying the isotopic contrast, the adsorbed amount, thickness, orientation, and immersion of the adsorbed layers could be determined unambiguously. While Fc adsorption reached saturation within the hour, its surface adsorbed amount showed little variation with bulk concentration. In contrast, Fab adsorption was slower and the adsorbed amount was concentration dependent. The much higher Fc adsorption, as compared to Fab, was linked to its lower surface charge. Time and concentration dependence of mAb adsorption was dominated by Fab behavior, although both Fab and Fc behaviors contributed to the amount of mAb adsorbed. Changing the pH from 5.5 to 8.8 did not much perturb the adsorbed amount of Fc, Fab, or mAb. However, a small decrease in adsorption was observed for the Fc over pH 8-8.8 and vice versa for the Fab and mAb, consistent with a dominant Fab behavior. As bulk concentration increased from 5 to 50 ppm, the thicknesses of the Fc layers were almost constant at 40 Å, while Fab and mAb layers increased from 45 to 50 Å. These results imply that the adsorbed mAb, Fc, and Fab all retained their globular structures and were oriented with their short axial lengths perpendicular to the interface.

  13. Joining the in vitro immunization of alpaca lymphocytes and phage display: rapid and cost effective pipeline for sdAb synthesis.

    PubMed

    Comor, Lubos; Dolinska, Saskia; Bhide, Katarina; Pulzova, Lucia; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Bencurova, Elena; Flachbartova, Zuzana; Potocnakova, Lenka; Kanova, Evelina; Bhide, Mangesh

    2017-01-23

    Camelids possess unique functional heavy chain antibodies, which can be produced and modified in vitro as a single domain antibody (sdAb or nanobody) with full antigen binding ability. Production of sdAb in conventional manner requires active immunization of Camelidae animal, which is laborious, time consuming, costly and in many cases not feasible (e.g. in case of highly toxic or infectious antigens). In this study, we describe an alternative pipeline that includes in vitro stimulation of naïve alpaca B-lymphocytes by antigen of interest (in this case endothelial cell binding domain of OspA of Borrelia) in the presence of recombinant alpaca interleukins 2 and 4, construction of sdAb phage library, selection of antigen specific sdAb expressed on phages (biopanning) and confirmation of binding ability of sdAb to the antigen. By joining the in vitro immunization and the phage display ten unique phage clones carrying sdAb were selected. Out of ten, seven sdAb showed strong antigen binding ability in phage ELISA. Furthermore, two soluble forms of sdAb were produced and their differential antigen binding affinity was measured with bio-layer interferometry. A proposed pipeline has potential to reduce the cost substantially required for maintenance of camelid herd for active immunization. Furthermore, in vitro immunization can be achieved within a week to enrich mRNA copies encoding antigen-specific sdAbs in B cell. This rapid and cost effective pipeline can help researchers to develop efficiently sdAb for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  14. Family distribution of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies in relatives of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestris, F; Searles, R P; Bankhurst, A D; Williams, R C

    1985-01-01

    Recently we reported an inverse relationship between the levels of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study focused on anti-F(ab')2 antibodies in unaffected relatives of SLE patients. Sixty sera from first degree family members from 11 SLE families and 49 sera from 8 control families were studied. Percentage of SLE family members with anti-DNA antibodies (15%) was higher than than control family sera (8%, P less than 0.05). Anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were measured using ELISA assays. The SLE family sera had higher amounts of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies than the normal control family group (P = 0.0051). In an effort to determine if anti-F(ab')2 antibodies found in high titres in the sera of some SLE family members had specificity for the F(ab')2 fragment of anti-DNA antibodies of the SLE relative patients, DNA-anti-DNA inhibition experiments were performed using anti-F(ab')2 prepared from the relative in parallel with anti-F(ab')2 prepared from normal controls with equivalent high titres of serum anti-F(ab')2. Inhibition exhibited by anti-F(ab')2 of first degree relatives was higher than that obtained from control normal donors (P less than 0.02). Such differences in inhibition were not recorded using a control tetanus toxoid-anti-tetanus toxoid assay. In direct binding ELISA experiments, peroxidase-conjugated anti-F(ab')2 antibodies from the same first degree relative showed high relative specificity against purified anti-DNA antibodies of his SLE proband when compared to those obtained against different anti-DNA antibodies isolated from unrelated SLE patients (P less than 0.001). Such a substantial difference was not observed in parallel experiments using peroxidase conjugated anti-F(ab')2 antibodies from normal controls unrelated to SLE subjects. PMID:3874025

  15. Podocyte changes after induction of acute albuminuria in mice by anti-aminopeptidase A mAb.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Henry B P M; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; Wetzels, Jack F M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Assmann, Karel J M

    2003-01-01

    Administration of a specific combination of anti-aminopeptidase A (APA) mAb (ASD-37/41) in mice induces an acute albuminuria which is independent of angiotensin II, a well-known substrate of APA. In the present experiments, we examined whether binding of the mAb initiated changes in the podocytic expression of cytoskeleton (-associated), adhesion and slit-diaphragm proteins in relation to the time course of albuminuria. In addition, we measured ultrastructurally the extent of foot process retraction (the number of foot processes per microm GBM) and the width of the slit pore between the podocytes by morphometric methods. An injection of the mAb combination ASD-37/41 induced a massive but transient albuminuria that started at 6 h, and peaked at 8 h, after which it declined. However, even at day 7 after injection of the mAbs some albuminuria was present. Injection of the combination ASD-3/41 or saline did not induce an albuminuria. Notably, we observed changes in the staining of CD2AP and podocin, two slit-pore-associated proteins that coincided with the start of the albuminuria. Nephrin staining was reduced and podocytic actin staining became more granular only at a time albuminuria was declining (24 h). The number of foot processes per microm GBM was already decreased at 4 h with a further reduction thereafter. The width of the slit pore was unchanged at the time of peak albuminuria and gradually decreased thereafter. At day 7, podocytic foot process effacement was even more prominent although albuminuria was only slightly abnormal. Expression of CD2AP was still granular. We observed however a change toward normal in the expression of podocin. Injection of saline or ASD-3/41 had no effect on the expression of podocytic proteins, the number of foot processes or width of the slit pore. Our data show that the onset of albuminuria in the anti-APA model is related to alterations in CD2AP and podocin, proteins that are important for maintaining slit-diaphragm structure

  16. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA: Affinity and Potency of Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids in Producing Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol–Like Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marusich, Julie A.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wallgren, Michael T.; Cortes, Ricardo A.; Patel, Purvi R.; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of synthetic cannabinoids for abuse began in the early 2000s. Despite legislation banning compounds currently on the drug market, illicit manufacturers continue to release new compounds for recreational use. This study examined new synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA (N-[1-amino-3-methyl-oxobutan-2-yl]-1-[cyclohexylmethyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide), AB-PINACA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide], and FUBIMINA [(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-benzo[d]imadazol-2-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone], with the hypothesis that these compounds, like those before them, would be highly susceptible to abuse. Cannabinoids were examined in vitro for binding and activation of CB1 receptors, and in vivo for pharmacological effects in mice and in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) discrimination. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA bound to and activated CB1 and CB2 receptors, and produced locomotor suppression, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy. Furthermore, these compounds, along with JWH-018 [1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole], CP47,497 [rel-5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol], and WIN55,212-2 ([(3R)-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone, monomethanesulfonate), substituted for Δ9-THC in Δ9-THC discrimination. Rank order of potency correlated with CB1 receptor-binding affinity, and all three compounds were full agonists in [35S]GTPγS binding, as compared with the partial agonist Δ9-THC. Indeed, AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA exhibited higher efficacy than most known full agonists of the CB1 receptor. Preliminary analysis of urinary metabolites of the compounds revealed the expected hydroxylation. AB-PINACA and AB-CHMINACA are of potential interest as research tools due to their unique chemical structures and high CB1 receptor efficacies. Further studies on these chemicals are likely to include research on understanding cannabinoid receptors

  17. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of cocaine binding by a novel human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Paula, Stefan; Tabet, Michael R; Farr, Carol D; Norman, Andrew B; Ball, W James

    2004-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) designed for immunotherapy have a high potential for avoiding the complications that may result from human immune system responses to the introduction of nonhuman mAbs into patients. This study presents a characterization of cocaine/antibody interactions that determine the binding properties of the novel human sequence mAb 2E2 using three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methodology. We have experimentally determined the binding affinities of mAb 2E2 for cocaine and 38 cocaine analogues. The K(d) of mAb 2E2 for cocaine was 4 nM, indicating a high affinity. Also, mAb 2E2 displayed good cocaine specificity, as reflected in its 10-, 1500-, and 25000-fold lower binding affinities for the three physiologically relevant cocaine metabolites benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and ecgonine, respectively. 3D-QSAR models of cocaine binding were developed by comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA). A model of high statistical quality was generated showing that cocaine binds to mAb 2E2 in a sterically restricted binding site that leaves the methyl group attached to the ring nitrogen of cocaine solvent-exposed. The methyl ester group of cocaine appears to engage in attractive van der Waals interactions with mAb 2E2, whereas the phenyl group contributes to the binding primarily via hydrophobic interactions. The model further indicated that an increase in partial positive charge near the nitrogen proton and methyl ester carbonyl group enhances binding affinity and that the ester oxygen likely forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond with mAb 2E2. Overall, the cocaine binding properties of mAb 2E2 support its clinical potential for development as a treatment of cocaine overdose and addiction.

  18. Multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations: a high throughput quality control process for the production of QuantiPlasma and PlasmaScan mAb libraries.

    PubMed

    Székely, Andrea; Szekrényes, Akos; Kerékgyártó, Márta; Balogh, Attila; Kádas, János; Lázár, József; Guttman, András; Kurucz, István; Takács, László

    2014-08-01

    Molecular heterogeneity of mAb preparations is the result of various co- and post-translational modifications and to contaminants related to the production process. Changes in molecular composition results in alterations of functional performance, therefore quality control and validation of therapeutic or diagnostic protein products is essential. A special case is the consistent production of mAb libraries (QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™) for proteome profiling, quality control of which represents a challenge because of high number of mAbs (>1000). Here, we devise a generally applicable multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis process for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations for the high throughput quality control of mAbs of the QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™ libraries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Production and characterization of anti-human IgG F(ab')2 antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-04-10

    In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method. Purity was assessed by SDS-PAGE method. In non-reduced condition only one band was seen in about 150 kDa MW position and in reduced form, two bands were seen in 50 and 25 kDa MW positions. Rabbit IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme. The antibody fragments solution was applied to Gel filtration column to isolate the F(ab')2. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment resulted in one band in 100 kDa corresponds to F(ab')2 fragment and a band in 150 kDa MW position corresponds to undigested IgG antibodies. The activities of FITC conjugated F(ab')2 fragment and commercial ones were compared using flowcytometry method. The activity results implied that the FITC conjugated- anti human F(ab')2 fragment worked as efficiently as the commercial one.

  20. Surface binding properties of aged and fresh (recently excreted) Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surface properties of aged (stored for 10 years) and fresh (recently excreted) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were investigated using monoclonal antibody (mAb) and lectin-binding assays. Fresh oocysts bound a wall-specific mAb labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate while aged oocysts did not. In ...

  1. Solvent (acetone-butanol: ab) production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities, such as corn and molasses, was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  2. Production of a Brassica napus low-molecular mass acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein in Arabidopsis alters the acyl-coenzyme A pool and acyl composition of oil in seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expressio...

  3. Impaired synaptic clustering of postsynaptic density proteins and altered signal transmission in hippocampal neurons, and disrupted learning behavior in PDZ1 and PDZ2 ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 knockin mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs) are scaffold proteins in PSDs that cluster signaling molecules near NMDA receptors. PSD-MAGUKs share a common domain structure, including three PDZ (PDZ1/2/3) domains in their N-terminus. While multiple domains enable the PSD-MAGUKs to bind various ligands, the contribution of each PDZ domain to synaptic organization and function is not fully understood. Here, we focused on the PDZ1/2 domains of PSD-95 that bind NMDA-type receptors, and studied the specific roles of the ligand binding of these domains in the assembly of PSD proteins, synaptic properties of hippocampal neurons, and behavior, using ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 cDNA knockin (KI) mice. Results The KI mice showed decreased accumulation of mutant PSD-95, PSD-93 and AMPA receptor subunits in the PSD fraction of the hippocampus. In the hippocampal CA1 region of young KI mice, basal synaptic efficacy was reduced and long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced with intact long-term depression. In adult KI mice, there was no significant change in the magnitude of LTP in CA1, but robustly enhanced LTP was induced at the medial perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses, suggesting that PSD-95 has an age- and subregion-dependent role. In a battery of behavioral tests, KI mice showed markedly abnormal anxiety-like behavior, impaired spatial reference and working memory, and impaired remote memory and pattern separation in fear conditioning test. Conclusions These findings reveal that PSD-95 including its ligand binding of the PDZ1/2 domains controls the synaptic clustering of PSD-MAGUKs and AMPA receptors, which may have an essential role in regulating hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity, and hippocampus-dependent behavior. PMID:23268962

  4. Impaired synaptic clustering of postsynaptic density proteins and altered signal transmission in hippocampal neurons, and disrupted learning behavior in PDZ1 and PDZ2 ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Nagura, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Katsunori; Takao, Keizo; Tanaka, Tomo; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tamura, Hideki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Suzuki, Hidenori; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Doi, Tomoko

    2012-12-26

    Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs) are scaffold proteins in PSDs that cluster signaling molecules near NMDA receptors. PSD-MAGUKs share a common domain structure, including three PDZ (PDZ1/2/3) domains in their N-terminus. While multiple domains enable the PSD-MAGUKs to bind various ligands, the contribution of each PDZ domain to synaptic organization and function is not fully understood. Here, we focused on the PDZ1/2 domains of PSD-95 that bind NMDA-type receptors, and studied the specific roles of the ligand binding of these domains in the assembly of PSD proteins, synaptic properties of hippocampal neurons, and behavior, using ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 cDNA knockin (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased accumulation of mutant PSD-95, PSD-93 and AMPA receptor subunits in the PSD fraction of the hippocampus. In the hippocampal CA1 region of young KI mice, basal synaptic efficacy was reduced and long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced with intact long-term depression. In adult KI mice, there was no significant change in the magnitude of LTP in CA1, but robustly enhanced LTP was induced at the medial perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses, suggesting that PSD-95 has an age- and subregion-dependent role. In a battery of behavioral tests, KI mice showed markedly abnormal anxiety-like behavior, impaired spatial reference and working memory, and impaired remote memory and pattern separation in fear conditioning test. These findings reveal that PSD-95 including its ligand binding of the PDZ1/2 domains controls the synaptic clustering of PSD-MAGUKs and AMPA receptors, which may have an essential role in regulating hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity, and hippocampus-dependent behavior.

  5. Phage-Mediated Competitive Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Detecting Cry1Ab Toxin by Using an Anti-Idiotypic Camel Nanobody.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yulou; Li, Pan; Dong, Sa; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Qianru; Wang, Yulong; Ge, Jing; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-01-31

    Cry toxins have been widely used in genetically modified organisms for pest control, raising public concern regarding their effects on the natural environment and food safety. In this work, a phage-mediated competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (c-CLIA) was developed for determination of Cry1Ab toxin using anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies. By extracting RNA from camels' peripheral blood lymphocytes, a naive phage-displayed nanobody library was established. Using anti-Cry1Ab toxin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the library for anti-idiotypic antibody screening, four anti-idiotypic nanobodies were selected and confirmed to be specific for anti-Cry1Ab mAb binding. Thereafter, a c-CLIA was developed for detection of Cry1Ab toxin based on anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies and employed for sample testing. The results revealed a half-inhibition concentration of developed assay to be 42.68 ± 2.54 ng/mL, in the linear range of 10.49-307.1 ng/mL. The established method is highly specific for Cry1Ab recognition, with negligible cross-reactivity for other Cry toxins. For spiked cereal samples, the recoveries of Cry1Ab toxin ranged from 77.4% to 127%, with coefficient of variation of less than 9%. This study demonstrated that the competitive format based on phage-displayed anti-idiotypic nanobodies can provide an alternative strategy for Cry toxin detection.

  6. Specific interactions between mycobacterial FtsZ protein and curcumin derivatives: Molecular docking and ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Mitsuki; Sogawa, Haruki; Ota, Shintaro; Karpov, Pavel; Shulga, Sergey; Blume, Yaroslav; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2018-01-01

    Filamentous temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) protein plays essential role in bacteria cell division, and its inhibition prevents Mycobacteria reproduction. Here we adopted curcumin derivatives as candidates of novel inhibitors and investigated their specific interactions with FtsZ, using ab initio molecular simulations based on protein-ligand docking, classical molecular mechanics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations. Based on FMO calculations, we specified the most preferable site of curcumin binding to FtsZ and highlighted the key amino acid residues for curcumin binding at an electronic level. The result will be useful for proposing novel inhibitors against FtsZ based on curcumin derivatives.

  7. Radioiodine Labeled Anti-MIF McAb: A Potential Agent for Inflammation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Hou, Gui-hua; Han, Jian-kui; Song, Jing; Liang, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Radiolabeled anti-MIF McAb can be used to detect in vivo inflammatory changes. The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo biology of radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb using the inflammation model mice. Anti-MIF McAb was radioiodinated with NaI125 by Iodogen method. Animal models were induced in the mice by intramuscular injection of S. aureus, E. coli, and turpentine oil. The biodistribution studies with radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb were performed on inflammation mice. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and anti-MIF McAb binding was investigated using the percent of injected dose per gram tissue (% ID/g) of tissue samples and whole-body autoradiography. The radioactivity of I125-anti-MIF McAb in the inflammatory tissue increased gradually for three inflammation models. The highest uptake was found in S. aureus group and the lowest was in E. coli group. The uptake in turpentine oil group was average. Whole-body autoradiography showed that all inflammation foci could be visualized clearly from 24 hours after injection, but 48 hours images were much clearer in accordance with the high T/NT ratio. These results demonstrate the ability of radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb to measure in vivo inflammatory events represented by high expression of MIF and suggests that radiolabeled anti-MIF McAb warrants further investigation as a potential inflammation-seeking agent for imaging to detect inflammatory disorders. PMID:18317509

  8. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  9. A single-stranded DNA binding protein from mouse tumor cells specifically recognizes the C-rich strand of the (AGG:CCT)n repeats that can alter DNA conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Muraiso, T; Nomoto, S; Yamazaki, H; Mishima, Y; Kominami, R

    1992-01-01

    A protein that binds to a synthetic oligonucleotide of (CCT)12 has been purified from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by a (CCT)12 affinity chromatography. The protein (p70) has an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa, as assayed by Southwestern analysis. A competition experiment revealed that p70 binds to (CCT)12, (CCCT)8 and (CCTCCCT)6, but not to (CTT)12, (CT)16 and (CCTGCCT)6, suggesting that p70 has a sequence-specificity. The complementary (AGG)12 and the double stranded DNA did not show the binding. It is also confirmed by S1 nuclease analysis that the (AGG:CCT)12 duplex takes a single-stranded conformation in the absence of the protein. This raises a possibility that the duplex forms two single-stranded loops in chromosomes, the C-rich strand being bound to p70. Structural analysis of the resulting (AGG)12 strand by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of slower and faster migrated conformers in a neutral pH buffer containing 50 mM NaCl at 5 degrees C. The ratio was dependent on the DNA concentration. Both conformers disappeared in the absence of NaCl. This suggests that (AGG)12 can form intra- and inter-molecular complexes by non-Watson-Crick, guanine:guanine base-pairing. The possible biological function of the (AGG:CCT)n duplex and the p70 is discussed. Images PMID:1480484

  10. Topological Semimetals Studied by Ab Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Murakami, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    In topological semimetals such as Weyl, Dirac, and nodal-line semimetals, the band gap closes at points or along lines in k space which are not necessarily located at high-symmetry positions in the Brillouin zone. Therefore, it is not straightforward to find these topological semimetals by ab initio calculations because the band structure is usually calculated only along high-symmetry lines. In this paper, we review recent studies on topological semimetals by ab initio calculations. We explain theoretical frameworks which can be used for the search for topological semimetal materials, and some numerical methods used in the ab initio calculations.

  11. Proteomic analysis of trichloroethylene-induced alterations in expression, distribution, and interactions of SET/TAF-Iα and two SET/TAF-Iα-binding proteins, eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, in hepatic L-02 cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wen-Xu; Yang, Liang; Chen, Moutong; Yang, Xifei; Ren, Xiaohu; Fang, Shisong; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Peng, Chaoqiong; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xinfeng; Yang, Fan; Wu, Desheng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2012-09-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure causes severe hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of TCE hepatotoxicity remain unclear. Recently, we reported that TCE exposure up-regulated the expression of the oncoprotein SET/TAF-Iα and SET knockdown attenuated TCE-induced cytotoxicity in hepatic L-02 cells. To decipher the function of SET/TAF-Iα and its contributions to TCE-induced hepatotoxicity, we employed a proteomic analysis of SET/TAF-Iα with tandem affinity purification to identify SET/TAF-Iα-binding proteins. We identified 42 novel Gene Ontology co-annotated SET/TAF-Iα-binding proteins. The identifications of two of these proteins (eEF1A1, elongation factor 1-alpha 1; eEF1A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2) were confirmed by Western blot analysis and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP). Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of TCE on the expression, distribution and interactions of eEF1A1, eEF1A2 and SET in L-02 cells. Western blot analysis reveals a significant up-regulation of eEF1A1, eEF1A2 and two isoforms of SET, and immunocytochemical analysis reveals that eEF1A1 and SET is redistributed by TCE. SET is redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, while eFE1A1 is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, we find by Co-IP that TCE exposure significantly increases the interaction of SET with eEF1A2. Our data not only provide insights into the physiological functions of SET/TAF-Iα and complement the SET interaction networks, but also demonstrate that TCE exposure induces alterations in the expression, distribution and interactions of SET and its binding partners. These alterations may constitute the mechanisms of TCE cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectral monitoring of AB Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Díaz, L. F.; Oostra, B.

    2017-07-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, did a spectral monitoring during 2014 and 2015 to AB Aurigae, the brightest Herbig Ae/be star in the northern hemisphere. The aim of this project is applying spectral techniques, in order to identify specific features that could help us not only to understand how this star is forming, but also to establish a pattern to explain general star formation processes. We have recorded 19 legible spectra with a resolving power of R = 11,0000, using a 40 cm Meade telescope with an eShel spectrograph, coupled by a 50-micron optical fiber. We looked for the prominent absorption lines, the Sodium doublet at 5890Å and 5896Å, respectively and Magnesium II at 4481Å; to measure radial velocities of the star, but, we did not find a constant value. Instead, it ranges from 15 km/s to 32 km/s. This variability could be explained by means of an oscillation or pulsation of the external layers of the star. Other variabilities are observed in some emission lines: Hα, Hβ, He I at 5876Å and Fe II at 5018Å. It seems this phenomenon could be typical in stars that are forming and have a circumstellar disk around themselves. This variability is associated with the nonhomogeneous surface of the star and the interaction that it has with its disk. Results of this interaction could be seen also in the stellar wind ejected by the star. More data are required in order to look for a possible period in the changes of radial velocity of the star, the same for the variability of He I and Fe II, and phenomena present in Hα. We plan to take new data in January of 2017.

  13. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2011-05-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  14. Conformational stability and aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies studied with ANS and Thioflavin T binding.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Veysel; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Voynov, Vladimir; Helk, Bernhard; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of aggregation profiles of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is gaining importance because an increasing number of mAb-based therapeutics are entering clinical studies and gaining marketing approval. To develop a successful formulation, it is imperative to identify the critical biochemical properties of each potential mAb drug candidate. We investigated the conformational change and aggregation of a human IgG1 using external dye-binding experiments with fluorescence spectroscopy and compared the aggregation profiles obtained to the results of size-exclusion chromatography. We show that using an appropriate dye at selected mAb concentration, unfolding or aggregation can be studied. In addition, dye-binding experiments may be used as conventional assays to study therapeutic mAb stability.

  15. Ab initio molecular simulations with numeric atom-centered orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Volker; Gehrke, Ralf; Hanke, Felix; Havu, Paula; Havu, Ville; Ren, Xinguo; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias

    2009-11-01

    We describe a complete set of algorithms for ab initio molecular simulations based on numerically tabulated atom-centered orbitals (NAOs) to capture a wide range of molecular and materials properties from quantum-mechanical first principles. The full algorithmic framework described here is embodied in the Fritz Haber Institute "ab initio molecular simulations" (FHI-aims) computer program package. Its comprehensive description should be relevant to any other first-principles implementation based on NAOs. The focus here is on density-functional theory (DFT) in the local and semilocal (generalized gradient) approximations, but an extension to hybrid functionals, Hartree-Fock theory, and MP2/GW electron self-energies for total energies and excited states is possible within the same underlying algorithms. An all-electron/full-potential treatment that is both computationally efficient and accurate is achieved for periodic and cluster geometries on equal footing, including relaxation and ab initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate the construction of transferable, hierarchical basis sets, allowing the calculation to range from qualitative tight-binding like accuracy to meV-level total energy convergence with the basis set. Since all basis functions are strictly localized, the otherwise computationally dominant grid-based operations scale as O(N) with system size N. Together with a scalar-relativistic treatment, the basis sets provide access to all elements from light to heavy. Both low-communication parallelization of all real-space grid based algorithms and a ScaLapack-based, customized handling of the linear algebra for all matrix operations are possible, guaranteeing efficient scaling (CPU time and memory) up to massively parallel computer systems with thousands of CPUs.

  16. Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors' approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a 'still-life', but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein's true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases.

  17. Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya

    2009-06-01

    Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.

  18. The chromatin-binding protein HMGN3 stimulates histone acetylation and transcription across the Glyt1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Barkess, Gráinne; Postnikov, Yuri; Campos, Chrisanne D.; Mishra, Shivam; Mohan, Gokula; Verma, Sakshi; Bustin, Michael; West, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    HMGNs are nucleosome-binding proteins that alter the pattern of histone modifications and modulate the binding of linker histones to chromatin. The HMGN3 family member exists as two splice forms, HMGN3a which is full-length and HMGN3b which lacks the C-terminal RD (regulatory domain). In the present study, we have used the Glyt1 (glycine transporter 1) gene as a model system to investigate where HMGN proteins are bound across the locus in vivo, and to study how the two HMGN3 splice variants affect histone modifications and gene expression. We demonstrate that HMGN1, HMGN2, HMGN3a and HMGN3b are bound across the Glyt1 gene locus and surrounding regions, and are not enriched more highly at the promoter or putative enhancer. We conclude that the peaks of H3K4me3 (trimethylated Lys4 of histone H3) and H3K9ac (acetylated Lys9 of histone H3) at the active Glyt1a promoter do not play a major role in recruiting HMGN proteins. HMGN3a/b binding leads to increased H3K14 (Lys14 of histone H3) acetylation and stimulates Glyt1a expression, but does not alter the levels of H3K4me3 or H3K9ac enrichment. Acetylation assays show that HMGN3a stimulates the ability of PCAF [p300/CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-binding protein-associated factor] to acetylate nucleosomal H3 in vitro, whereas HMGN3b does not. We propose a model where HMGN3a/b-stimulated H3K14 acetylation across the bodies of large genes such as Glyt1 can lead to more efficient transcription elongation and increased mRNA production. PMID:22150271

  19. Tyr120Asp mutation alters domain flexibility and dynamics of MeCP2 DNA binding domain leading to impaired DNA interaction: Atomistic characterization of a Rett syndrome causing mutation.

    PubMed

    D'Annessa, Ilda; Gandaglia, Anna; Brivio, Elena; Stefanelli, Gilda; Frasca, Angelisa; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Di Marino, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene represent the main origin of Rett syndrome, causing a profound intellectual disability in females. MeCP2 is an epigenetic transcriptional regulator containing two main functional domains: a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) and a transcription repression domain (TRD). Over 600 pathogenic mutations were reported to affect the whole protein; almost half of missense mutations affect the MBD. Understanding the impact of these mutations on the MBD structure and interaction with DNA will foster the comprehension of their pathogenicity and possibly genotype/phenotype correlation studies. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a detailed view of the dynamics of WT and mutated MBD in the presence and absence of DNA. The pathogenic mutation Y120D is used as paradigm for our studies. Further, since the Y120 residue was previously found to be a phosphorylation site, we characterize the dynamic profile of the MBD also in the presence of Y120 phosphorylation (pY120). We found that addition of a phosphate group to Y120 or mutation in aspartic acid affect domain mobility that samples an alternative conformational space with respect to the WT, leading to impaired ability to interact with DNA. Experimental assays showing a significant reduction in the binding affinity between the mutated MBD and the DNA confirmed our predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. mAbs: a business perspective.

    PubMed

    Scolnik, Pablo A

    2009-01-01

    The twenty two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently marketed in the U.S. have captured almost half of the top-20 U.S. therapeutic biotechnology sales for 2007. Eight of these products have annual sales each of more than $1 B, were developed in the relatively short average period of six years, qualified for FDA programs designed to accelerate drug approval, and their cost has been reimbursed liberally by payers. With growth of the product class driven primarily by advancements in protein engineering and the low probability of generic threats, mAbs are now the largest class of biological therapies under development. The high cost of these drugs and the lack of generic competition conflict with a financially stressed health system, setting reimbursement by payers as the major limiting factor to growth. Advances in mAb engineering are likely to result in more effective mAb drugs and an expansion of the therapeutic indications covered by the class. The parallel development of biomarkers for identifying the patient subpopulations most likely to respond to treatment may lead to a more cost-effective use of these drugs. To achieve the success of the current top-tier mAbs, companies developing new mAb products must adapt to a significantly more challenging commercial environment.

  1. N-Sulfonyl-β-lactam hapten as an effective labeling reagent for aldolase mAb.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Tsubasa; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2015-04-15

    Utilization of chemically programmed antibodies (cpAbs) is regarded to be one of the most efficient methods for the development of therapeutic systems. cpAbs can extend the half-life of programming reagents, activate immune systems via the Fc region of antibodies and achieve universal vaccination by attaching varieties of small, programmed molecules. In the current study, we aimed to develop a novel labeling reagent for the preparation of cpAbs and found that N-sulfonyl-β-lactams (NSBLs) were optimal. NSBL can be synthesized from readily available 4-(bromomethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride via few simple manipulations and can label the aldolase monoclonal antibody (mAb) 84G3, which could not be labeled effectively by the conventional labeling reagent, N-acyl-β-lactam (NABL). We also demonstrated that the conjugate, which consists of mAb 84G3 and an NSBL bearing a biotin moiety, maintained strong binding activity to streptavidin. In addition, the stability assay of NSBL revealed that NSBLs can tolerate aqueous media without significant decomposition over 24h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. N3LO NN interaction adjusted to light nuclei in ab exitu approach

    DOE PAGES

    Shirokov, A. M.; Shin, I. J.; Kim, Y.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Here, we use phase-equivalent transformations to adjust off-shell properties of similarity renormalization group evolved chiral effective field theory NN interaction (Idaho N3LO) to fit selected binding energies and spectra of light nuclei in an ab exitu approach. Then, we test the transformed interaction on a set of additional observables in light nuclei to verify that it provides reasonable descriptions of these observables with an apparent reduced need for three- and many-nucleon interactions.

  3. Ab initio theory and modeling of water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mohan; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Remsing, Richard C.; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F.; Santra, Biswajit; Sun, Zhaoru; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Klein, Michael L.; Perdew, John P.; Wu, Xifan

    2017-01-01

    Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes the balance among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions that dictates the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Notably, SCAN captures the density difference between water and ice Ih at ambient conditions, as well as many important structural, electronic, and dynamic properties of liquid water. These successful predictions of the versatile SCAN functional open the gates to study complex processes in aqueous phase chemistry and the interactions of water with other materials in an efficient, accurate, and predictive, ab initio manner. PMID:28973868

  4. Ab initio theory and modeling of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mohan; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Remsing, Richard C; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F; Santra, Biswajit; Sun, Zhaoru; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Klein, Michael L; Perdew, John P; Wu, Xifan

    2017-10-10

    Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes the balance among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions that dictates the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Notably, SCAN captures the density difference between water and ice I h at ambient conditions, as well as many important structural, electronic, and dynamic properties of liquid water. These successful predictions of the versatile SCAN functional open the gates to study complex processes in aqueous phase chemistry and the interactions of water with other materials in an efficient, accurate, and predictive, ab initio manner.

  5. Monoclonal antibody proteomics: use of antibody mimotope displaying phages and the relevant synthetic peptides for mAb scouting.

    PubMed

    Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Bognár, Melinda; Végh, Barbara M; Dobi, Krisztina; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Lázár, József; Cseh, Sándor; Takács, László; Kurucz, István

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibody proteomics uses nascent libraries or cloned (Plasmascan™, QuantiPlasma™) libraries of mAbs that react with individual epitopes of proteins in the human plasma. At the initial phase of library creation, cognate protein antigen and the epitope interacting with the antibodies are not known. Scouting for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the best binding characteristics is of high importance for mAb based biomarker assay development. However, in the absence of the identity of the cognate antigen the task represents a challenge. We combined phage display, and surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) experiments to test whether specific phages and the respective mimotope peptides obtained from large scale studies are applicable to determine key features of antibodies for scouting. We show here that mAb captured phage-mimotope heterogeneity that is the diversity of the selected peptide sequences, is inversely correlated with an important binding descriptor; the off-rate of the antibodies and that represents clues for driving the selection of useful mAbs for biomarker assay development. Carefully chosen synthetic mimotope peptides are suitable for specificity testing in competitive assays using the target proteome, in our case the human plasma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GSK3β phosphorylates newly identified site in the proline-alanine-rich region of cardiac myosin-binding protein C and alters cross-bridge cycling kinetics in human: short communication.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Diederik W D; Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; Boontje, Nicky M; Wijnker, Paul J M; Witjas-Paalberends, E Rosalie; Marston, Steven B; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Carrier, Lucie; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Redwood, Charles; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2013-02-15

    Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) regulates cross-bridge cycling kinetics and, thereby, fine-tunes the rate of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. Its effects on cardiac kinetics are modified by phosphorylation. Three phosphorylation sites (Ser275, Ser284, and Ser304) have been identified in vivo, all located in the cardiac-specific M-domain of cMyBP-C. However, recent work has shown that up to 4 phosphate groups are present in human cMyBP-C. To identify and characterize additional phosphorylation sites in human cMyBP-C. Cardiac MyBP-C was semipurified from human heart tissue. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified a novel phosphorylation site on serine 133 in the proline-alanine-rich linker sequence between the C0 and C1 domains of cMyBP-C. Unlike the known sites, Ser133 was not a target of protein kinase A. In silico kinase prediction revealed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) as the most likely kinase to phosphorylate Ser133. In vitro incubation of the C0C2 fragment of cMyBP-C with GSK3β showed phosphorylation on Ser133. In addition, GSK3β phosphorylated Ser304, although the degree of phosphorylation was less compared with protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation at Ser304. GSK3β treatment of single membrane-permeabilized human cardiomyocytes significantly enhanced the maximal rate of tension redevelopment. GSK3β phosphorylates cMyBP-C on a novel site, which is positioned in the proline-alanine-rich region and increases kinetics of force development, suggesting a noncanonical role for GSK3β at the sarcomere level. Phosphorylation of Ser133 in the linker domain of cMyBP-C may be a novel mechanism to regulate sarcomere kinetics.

  7. Herbal formula menoprogen alters insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels in the serum and ovaries of an aged female rat model of menopause.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Zheng, Sheng Z; Lu, Ye; Liu, Daniel; Ma, Hong; Mahady, Gail B

    2015-10-01

    Menoprogen (MPG), a traditional Chinese medicine formula for menopause, improves menopausal symptoms; however, its mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have shown that MPG is not directly estrogenic; thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of MPG on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) levels in an aged female rat model of menopause. In a six-arm study, 14-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per arm) were randomly divided into the following groups: untreated aged, 17β-estradiol-treated aged (estradiol [E2]), and three arms with increasing doses of MPG (162, 324, or 648 mg/kg/d). The sixth arm contained 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats as a normal comparison group. Four weeks after MPG or E2 administration, animals were killed after blood draws, and ovarian tissues were excised. Levels of E2 and progesterone (P4) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum and ovarian tissue levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGF-1 receptor were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the normal group, aged rats had significantly reduced serum levels of E2, P4, and IGF-1, and increased serum and ovarian tissue levels of IGFBP-1. MPG restored serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels and down-regulated ovarian levels of IGFBP-1, which were closely related to increases in E2 and P4 levels in aged rats. No significant differences in either IGF-1 or IGFBP-1 were observed between the three doses of MPG. MPG exerts a direct in vivo effect on aged female rats by positively regulating serum and ovarian IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels.

  8. The Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein Recruits the Host PP2A-B56 Phosphatase to Activate Transcriptional Support Activity of VP30.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Thomas; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Hertz, Emil Peter Thrane; Dietzel, Erik; Stalmann, Gertrud; López-Méndez, Blanca; Davey, Norman E; Nilsson, Jakob; Becker, Stephan

    2018-01-04

    Transcription of the Ebola virus genome depends on the viral transcription factor VP30 in its unphosphorylated form, but the underlying molecular mechanism of VP30 dephosphorylation is unknown. Here we show that the Ebola virus nucleoprotein (NP) recruits the host PP2A-B56 protein phosphatase through a B56-binding LxxIxE motif and that this motif is essential for VP30 dephosphorylation and viral transcription. The LxxIxE motif and the binding site of VP30 in NP are in close proximity, and both binding sites are required for the dephosphorylation of VP30. We generate a specific inhibitor of PP2A-B56 and show that it suppresses Ebola virus transcription and infection. This work dissects the molecular mechanism of VP30 dephosphorylation by PP2A-B56, and it pinpoints this phosphatase as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations of immunogenic, allergenic and adjuvant properties of Cry1Ab protein after intragastric exposure in a food allergy model in mice.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Monica; Bøhn, Thomas; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; Bodin, Johanna; Traavik, Terje; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2016-05-04

    In genetically modified (GM) crops there is a risk that the inserted genes may introduce new allergens and/or adjuvants into the food and feed chain. The MON810 maize, expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab toxin, is grown in many countries worldwide. In animal models, intranasal and intraperitoneal immunisations with the purified Cry1Ab proteins have induced immune responses, and feeding trials with Cry1Ab-containing feed have revealed some altered immune responses. Previous investigations have primarily measured antibody responses to the protein, while investigations of clinical food allergy symptoms, or allergy promotion (adjuvant effect) associated with the Cry1Ab protein are largely missing. We aimed to investigate immunogenic, allergenic and adjuvant properties of purified Cry1Ab toxin (trypCry1Ab, i.e., trypsin activated Cry1Ab) in a mouse model of food allergy. Female C3H/HeJ mice were immunized by intragastric gavage of 10 μg purified, trypsin activated Cry1Ab toxin (trypCry1Ab) alone or together with the food allergen lupin. Cholera toxin was added as a positive control for adjuvant effect to break oral tolerance. Clinical symptoms (anaphylaxis) as well as humoral and cellular responses were assessed. In contrast to results from previous airway investigations, we observed no indication of immunogenic properties of trypCry1Ab protein after repeated intragastric exposures to one dose, with or without CT as adjuvant. Moreover, the results indicated that trypCry1Ab given by the intragastric route was not able to promote allergic responses or anaphylactic reactions against the co-administered allergen lupin at the given dose. The study suggests no immunogenic, allergenic or adjuvant capacity of the given dose of trypCry1Ab protein after intragastric exposure of prime aged mice.

  10. Inhibition of glycosylation on a camelid antibody uniquely affects its FcγRI binding activity.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Natalie; Spearman, Maureen; Meier, Markus; Dorion-Thibaudeau, July; McDougall, Matthew; Patel, Trushar R; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Durocher, Yves; Stetefeld, Jörg; Butler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Glycoengineering of mAbs has become common practice in attempts to generate the ideal mAb candidate for a wide range of therapeutic applications. The effects of these glycan modifications on the binding affinity of IgG mAbs for FcγRIIIa and their cytotoxicity are well known. However, little is understood about the effect that these modifications have on binding to the high affinity FcγRI receptor. This study analyzed the effect of variable N-glycosylation on a human-llama hybrid mAb (EG2-hFc, 80kDa) binding to FcγRI including a comparison to a full-sized IgG1 (DP-12, 150kDa). This was achieved by the addition of three glycosylation inhibitors (swainsonine, castanospermine, and kifunensine) independently to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures to generate hybrid and high mannose glycan structures. Biophysical analysis by circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultra-centrifugation confirmed that the solution-behaviour of the mAbs remained constant over multiple concentrations and glycan treatments. However, changes were observed when studying the interaction of FcγRI with variously glycosylated mAbs. Both mAbs were observed to have a decreased binding affinity upon treatment with swainsonine which produced hybrid glycans. Following de-glycosylation the binding affinity for EG2-hFc was only marginally reduced (6-fold) compared to a drastic (118-fold) decrease for DP-12. In summary, our data suggest that the relatively low molecular weight of chimeric EG2-hFc may contribute to its enhanced stability against glycan changes making it a highly suitable mAb candidate for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potent neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin/B by synergistic action of antibodies recognizing protein and ganglioside receptor binding domain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changchun; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Huajing; Mao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Ji, Guanghui; Shi, Xin; Xia, Tian; Lu, Weijia; Zhang, Dapeng; Dai, Jianxin; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents for life-threatening human disease botulism, have been recognized as biological warfare agents. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics, but the potencies of mAbs against BoNTs are usually less than that of polyclonal antibodies (or oligoclonal antibodies). The confirmation of key epitopes with development of effective mAb is urgently needed. We selected 3 neutralizing mAbs which recognize different non-overlapping epitopes of BoNT/B from a panel of neutralizing antibodies against BoNT/B. By comparing the neutralizing effects among different combination groups, we found that 8E10, response to ganglioside receptor binding site, could synergy with 5G10 and 2F4, recognizing non-overlapping epitopes within Syt II binding sites. However, the combination of 5G10 with 2F4 blocking protein receptor binding sites did not achieve synergistical effects. Moreover, we found that the binding epitope of 8E10 was conserved among BoNT A, B, E, and F, which might cross-protect the challenge of different serotypes of BoNTs in vivo. The combination of two mAbs recognizing different receptors' binding domain in BoNTs has a synergistic effect. 8E10 is a potential universal partner for the synergistical combination with other mAb against protein receptor binding domain in BoNTs of other serotypes.

  12. Diode laser surgery. Ab interno and ab externo versus conventional surgery in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Karp, C L; Higginbotham, E J; Edward, D P; Musch, D C

    1993-10-01

    Fibroblastic proliferation of subconjunctival tissues remains a primary mechanism of failure in filtration surgery. Minimizing the surgical manipulation of episcleral tissues may reduce scarring. Laser sclerostomy surgery involves minimal tissue dissection, and is gaining attention as a method of potentially improving filter duration in high-risk cases. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits underwent filtration surgery in one eye, and the fellow eye remained as the unoperated control. Ten rabbits underwent ab externo diode laser sclerostomy surgery, ten underwent ab interno diode sclerostomy surgery, and five had posterior sclerostomy procedures. Filtration failure was defined as a less-than-4-mmHg intraocular pressure (IOP) difference between the operative and control eyes. The mean time to failure for the ab externo, ab interno, and conventional posterior sclerostomy techniques measured 17.4 +/- 11.5, 13.1 +/- 6.7, and 6.0 +/- 3.1 days, respectively. In a comparison of the laser-treated groups with the conventional procedure, the time to failure was significantly longer (P = 0.02) for the ab externo filter. The mean ab interno sclerostomy duration was longer than the posterior lip procedure, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The overall level of IOP reduction was similar in the three groups. These data suggest that diode laser sclerostomy is a feasible technique in rabbits, and the ab externo approach resulted in longer filter duration than the conventional posterior lip procedure in this model.

  13. The AB Doradus system revisited: The dynamical mass of AB Dor A/C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.; Tognelli, E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Reynolds, J. E.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The study of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars with model-independent measurements of their masses is essential to check the validity of theoretical models of stellar evolution. The well-known PMS binary AB Dor A/C is an important benchmark for this task, since it displays intense and compact radio emission, which makes possible the application of high-precision astrometric techniques to this system. Aims: We aim to revisit the dynamical masses of the components of AB Dor A/C to refine earlier comparisons between the measurements of stellar parameters and the predictions of stellar models. Methods: We observed in phase-reference mode the binary AB Dor A/C, 0.2'' separation, with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 8.4 GHz. The astrometric information resulting from our observations was analyzed along with previously reported VLBI, optical (Hipparcos), and infrared measurements. Results: The main star AB Dor A is clearly detected in all the VLBI observations, which allowed us to analyze the orbital motion of the system and to obtain model-independent dynamical masses of 0.90 ± 0.08 M⊙ and 0.090 ± 0.008 M⊙, for AB Dor A and AB Dor C, respectively. Comparisons with PMS stellar evolution models favor and age of 40-50 Myr for AB Dor A and of 25-120 Myr for AB Dor C. Conclusions: We show that the orbital motion of the AB Dor A/C system is remarkably well determined, leading to precise estimates of the dynamical masses. Comparison of our results with the prediction of evolutionary models support the observational evidence that theoretical models tend to slightly underestimate the mass of the low-mass stars.

  14. Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Is Expressed in Spermatogenic Cells, and It Altered the Expression of Several Nucleic-Acid-Binding and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Germ Cell 1 Spermatogonial (GC1-spg) Cells.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Karthika; Bhagya, Kongattu P; Kumar, Anil Tr; Devi, Anandavalli N; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a gene associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE is expressed heavily in the thymic epithelial cells and is involved in maintaining self-tolerance through regulating the expression of tissue-specific antigens. The testes are the most predominant extrathymic location where a heavy expression of AIRE is reported. Homozygous Aire-deficient male mice were infertile, possibly due to impaired spermatogenesis, deregulated germ cell apoptosis, or autoimmunity. We report that AIRE is expressed in the testes of neonatal, adolescent, and adult mice. AIRE expression was detected in glial cell derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (GFRα)(+) (spermatogonia), GFRα(-)/synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3)(+) (meiotic), and GFRα(-)/Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2)(+) (postmeiotic) germ cells in mouse testes. GC1-spg, a germ-cell-derived cell line, did not express AIRE. Retinoic acid induced AIRE expression in GC1-spg cells. Ectopic expression of AIRE in GC1-spg cells using label-free LC-MS/MS identified a total of 371 proteins that were differentially expressed. 100 proteins were up-regulated, and 271 proteins were down-regulated. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002511. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed increased levels of various nucleic-acid-binding proteins and transcription factors and a decreased level of various cytoskeletal and structural proteins in the AIRE overexpressing cells as compared with the empty vector-transfected controls. The transcripts of a select set of the up-regulated proteins were also elevated. However, there was no corresponding decrease in the mRNA levels of the down-regulated set of proteins. Molecular function network analysis indicated that AIRE influenced gene expression in GC1-spg cells by acting at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, RNA processing, protein transport, protein

  15. Quantitative analysis of glycation and its impact on antigen binding

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Jingjie; Yan, Qingrong; Sokolowska, Izabela; Lewis, Michael J.; Hu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycation has been observed in antibody therapeutics manufactured by the fed-batch fermentation process. It not only increases the heterogeneity of antibodies, but also potentially affects product safety and efficacy. In this study, non-glycated and glycated fractions enriched from a monoclonal antibody (mAb1) as well as glucose-stressed mAb1 were characterized using a variety of biochemical, biophysical and biological assays to determine the effects of glycation on the structure and function of mAb1. Glycation was detected at multiple lysine residues and reduced the antigen binding activity of mAb1. Heavy chain Lys100, which is located in the complementary-determining region of mAb1, had the highest levels of glycation in both stressed and unstressed samples, and glycation of this residue was likely responsible for the loss of antigen binding based on hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis. Peptide mapping and intact liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can both be used to monitor the glycation levels. Peptide mapping provides site specific glycation results, while intact LC-MS is a quicker and simpler method to quantitate the total glycation levels and is more useful for routine testing. Capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) can also be used to monitor glycation because glycation induces an acidic shift in the cIEF profile. As expected, total glycation measured by intact LC-MS correlated very well with the percentage of total acidic peaks or main peak measured by cIEF. In summary, we demonstrated that glycation can affect the function of a representative IgG1 mAb. The analytical characterization, as described here, should be generally applicable for other therapeutic mAbs. PMID:29436927

  16. Bilirubin Binding Capacity in the Preterm Neonate.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B

    2016-06-01

    Total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB), the biochemical measure currently used to evaluate and manage hyperbilirubinemia, is not a useful predictor of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants. Altered bilirubin-albumin binding in premature infants limits the usefulness of TB in premature infants. In this article, bilirubin-albumin binding, a modifying factor for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity, in premature infants is reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilirubin Binding Capacity in the Preterm Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sanjiv B

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB), the biochemical measure currently used to evaluate and manage hyperbilirubinemia, is not a useful predictor of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants. Altered bilirubin-albumin binding in premature infants limits the usefulness of TB in premature infants. In this article, bilirubin-albumin binding, a modifying factor for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity, in premature infants is reviewed. PMID:27235205

  18. Antibody Treatment of Ebola and Sudan Virus Infection via a Uniquely Exposed Epitope within the Glycoprotein Receptor Binding Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    characterize FVM04 binding to EBOV GP, FVM04 Fab in complex with GP∆Muc was analyzed by negative stain electron microscopy. The binding location of...FVM04 revealed an epitope consistent with the crest region residues derived by mutagenesis studies. The class averages suggest that only one FVM04 Fab ...binds to each GP trimer (Figure 3A-B). It is likely that the binding orientation and proximity to the threefold axis precludes additional FVM04 Fabs

  19. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  20. Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies

    DOE PAGES

    Donaldson, Joshua M.; Zer, Cindy; Avery, Kendra N.; ...

    2013-10-07

    Capitalizing on their extraordinary specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most reengineered classes of biological molecules. A major goal in many of these engineering efforts is to add new functionality to the parental mAb, including the addition of cytotoxins and imaging agents for medical applications. Herein, we present a unique peptide-binding site within the central cavity of the fragment antigen binding framework region of the chimeric, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor mAb cetuximab. We demonstrate through diffraction methods, biophysical studies, and sequence analysis that this peptide, a meditope, has moderate affinity for the Fab, is specific to cetuximabmore » (i.e., does not bind to human IgGs), and has no significant effect on antigen binding. We further demonstrate by diffraction studies and biophysical methods that the meditope binding site can be grafted onto the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mAb trastuzumab, and that the antigen binding affinity of the grafted trastuzumab is indistinguishable from the parental mAb. Lastly, we demonstrate a bivalent meditope variant binds specifically and stably to antigen-bearing cells only in the presence of the meditope-enabled mAbs. Collectively, this finding and the subsequent characterization and engineering efforts indicate that this unique interface could serve as a noncovalent “linker” for any meditope-enabled mAb with applications in multiple mAb-based technologies including diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic delivery.« less

  1. Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin. Identification of the binding site for chloroquine and related compounds and influence of the binding site on properties of the C2II channel.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Schiffler, Bettina; Maier, Elke; Lang, Alexander E; Aktories, Klaus; Benz, Roland

    2008-02-15

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin belongs to the family of binary AB type toxins that are structurally organized into distinct enzyme (A, C2I) and binding (B, C2II) components. The proteolytically activated 60-kDa C2II binding component is essential for C2I transport into target cells. It oligomerizes into heptamers and forms channels in lipid bilayer membranes. The C2II channel is cation-selective and can be blocked by chloroquine and related compounds. Residues 303-330 of C2II contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, which has been implicated in the formation of two amphipathic beta-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation. In the present study, C2II mutants created by substitution of different negatively charged amino acids by alanine-scanning mutagenesis were analyzed in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. The results suggested that most of the C2II mutants formed SDS-resistant oligomers (heptamers) similar to wild type. The mutated negatively charged amino acids did not influence channel properties with the exception of Glu(399) and Asp(426), which are probably localized in the vestibule near the channel entrance. These mutants show a dramatic decrease in their affinity for binding of chloroquine and its analogues. Similarly, F428A, which represents the Phi-clamp in anthrax protective antigen, was mutated in C2II in several other amino acids. The C2II mutants F428A, F428D, F428Y, and F428W not only showed altered chloroquine binding but also had drastically changed single channel properties. The results suggest that amino acids Glu(399), Asp(426), and Phe(428) have a major impact on the function of C2II as a binding protein for C2I delivery into target cells.

  2. Unexpected effects of gene deletion on mercury interactions with the methylation-deficient mutant hgcAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The hgcA and hgcB gene pair is essential for mercury (Hg) methylation by certain anaerobic bacteria,1 but little is known about how deletion of hgcAB affects cell surface interactions and intracellular uptake of Hg. Here, we compare hgcAB mutants with the wild-type (WT) strains of both Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 and observe differences in Hg redox transformations, adsorption, and uptake in laboratory incubation studies. In both strains, deletion of hgcAB increased the reduction of Hg(II) but decreased the oxidation of Hg(0) under anaerobic conditions. The measured cellular thiol content in hgcAB mutants was lower than the WT,more » accounting for decreased adsorption and uptake of Hg. Despite the lack of methylation activity, Hg uptake by the hgcAB continued, albeit at a slower rate than the WT. These findings demonstrate that deletion of the hgcAB gene not only eliminates Hg methylation but also alters cell physiology, resulting in changes to Hg redox reactions, sorption, and uptake by cells.« less

  3. THE ROLE OF PROTEIN BINDING OF TRIVALENT ARSENICALS IN ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS AND TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three of the most plausible biological theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are protein binding, oxidative stress and altered DNA methylation. This review presents the role of trivalent arsenicals binding to proteins in arsenic carcinogenesis. Using vacuum filtration based receptor...

  4. Masses and activity of AB Doradus B a/b. The age of the AB Dor quadruple system revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, U.; Czesla, S.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Robrade, J.; Engels, D.; Wieringa, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the close binary AB Dor Ba/b (Rst137B). Our study comprises astrometric orbit measurements, optical spectroscopy, X-ray and radio observations. Using all available adaptive optics images of AB Dor B taken with VLT/NACO from 2004 to 2009, we tightly constrain its orbital period to 360.6 ± 1.5 days. We present the first orbital solution of Rst 137B and estimate the combined mass of AB Dor Ba+b as 0.69+0.02-0.24 M⊙, slightly exceeding previous estimates based on IR photometry. Our determined orbital inclination of Rst 137B is close to the axial inclination of AB Dor A inferred from Doppler imaging. Our VLT/UVES spectra yield high rotational velocities of ≥30 km s-1 for both components Ba and Bb, in accord with previous measurements, which corresponds to rotation periods significantly shorter than one day. Our combined spectral model, using PHOENIX spectra, yields an effective temperature of 3310 ± 50 K for the primary and approximately 60 K less for the secondary. The optical spectra presumably cover a chromospheric flare and show that at least one component of Rst 137B is significantly active. Activity and weak variations are also found in our simultaneous XMM-Newton observations, while our ATCA radio data yield constant fluxes at the level of previous measurements. Using evolutionary models, our newly determined stellar parameters confirm that the age of Rst 137B is between 50 and 100 Myr. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 383.D-1002(A) and the ESO Science Archive Facility. Using data obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and NASA. Using data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).

  5. Identification of a Lacosamide Binding Protein Using an Affinity Bait and Chemical Reporter Strategy: 14-3-3 ζ

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Duk; Kim, Dong Wook; Reamtong, Onrapak; Eyers, Claire; Gaskell, Simon J.; Liu, Rihe; Kohn, Harold

    2011-01-01

    We have advanced a useful strategy to elucidate binding partners of ligands (drugs) with modest binding affinity. Key to this strategy is attaching to the ligand an affinity bait (AB) and a chemical reporter (CR) group, where the AB irreversibly attaches the ligand to the receptor upon binding and the CR group is employed for receptor detection and isolation. We have tested this AB&CR strategy using lacosamide ((R)-1), a low-molecular-weight antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate that using a (R)-lacosamide AB&CR agent ((R)-2) 14-3-3 ζ in rodent brain soluble lysates is preferentially adducted, adduction is stereospecific with respect to the AB&CR agent, and adduction depends upon the presence of endogenous levels of the small molecule metabolite xanthine. Substitution of lacosamide AB agent ((R)- 5) for (R)-2 led to the identification of the 14-3-3 ζ adduction site (K120) by mass spectrometry. Competition experiments using increasing amounts of (R)-1 in the presence of (R)-2 demonstrated that (R)-1 binds at or near the (R)-2 modification site on 14-3-3 ζ. Structure-activity studies of xanthine derivatives provided information concerning the likely binding interaction between this metabolite and recombinant 14-3-3 ζ. Documentation of the 14-3-3 ζ-xanthine interaction was obtained with isothermal calorimetry using xanthine and the xanthine analogue 1,7-dimethylxanthine. PMID:21692503

  6. An allosteric transport mechanism for the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Fan, Guizhen; Hryc, Corey F; Blaza, James N; Serysheva, Irina I; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah; Luisi, Ben F; Du, Dijun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance by transporting diverse antibiotics from the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria, some of these pumps form multi-protein assemblies that span the cell envelope. Here, we report the near-atomic resolution cryoEM structures of the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump in resting and drug transport states, revealing a quaternary structural switch that allosterically couples and synchronizes initial ligand binding with channel opening. Within the transport-activated state, the channel remains open even though the pump cycles through three distinct conformations. Collectively, our data provide a dynamic mechanism for the assembly and operation of the AcrAB-TolC pump. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24905.001 PMID:28355133

  7. Kinetics of Electrocatalytic Reactions from First-Principles: A Critical Comparison with the Ab Initio Thermodynamics Approach.

    PubMed

    Exner, Kai S; Over, Herbert

    2017-05-16

    Multielectron processes in electrochemistry require the stabilization of reaction intermediates (RI) at the electrode surface after every elementary reaction step. Accordingly, the bond strengths of these intermediates are important for assessing the catalytic performance of an electrode material. Current understanding of microscopic processes in modern electrocatalysis research is largely driven by theory, mostly based on ab initio thermodynamics considerations, where stable reaction intermediates at the electrode surface are identified, while the actual free energy barriers (or activation barriers) are ignored. This simple approach is popular in electrochemistry in that the researcher has a simple tool at hand in successfully searching for promising electrode materials. The ab initio TD approach allows for a rough but fast screening of the parameter space with low computational cost. However, ab initio thermodynamics is also frequently employed (often, even based on a single binding energy only) to comprehend on the activity and on the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. The basic idea is that the activation barrier of an endergonic reaction step consists of a thermodynamic part and an additional kinetically determined barrier. Assuming that the activation barrier scales with thermodynamics (so-called Brønsted-Polanyi-Evans (BEP) relation) and the kinetic part of the barrier is small, ab initio thermodynamics may provide molecular insights into the electrochemical reaction kinetics. However, for many electrocatalytic reactions, these tacit assumptions are violated so that ab initio thermodynamics will lead to contradictions with both experimental data and ab initio kinetics. In this Account, we will discuss several electrochemical key reactions, including chlorine evolution (CER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction (ORR), where ab initio kinetics data are available in order to critically compare the results with those derived from a

  8. Target-mediated drug disposition model for drugs with two binding sites that bind to a target with one binding site.

    PubMed

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Gibiansky, Ekaterina

    2017-10-01

    The paper extended the TMDD model to drugs with two identical binding sites (2-1 TMDD). The quasi-steady-state (2-1 QSS), quasi-equilibrium (2-1 QE), irreversible binding (2-1 IB), and Michaelis-Menten (2-1 MM) approximations of the model were derived. Using simulations, the 2-1 QSS approximation was compared with the full 2-1 TMDD model. As expected and similarly to the standard TMDD for monoclonal antibodies (mAb), 2-1 QSS predictions were nearly identical to 2-1 TMDD predictions, except for times of fast changes following initiation of dosing, when equilibrium has not yet been reached. To illustrate properties of new equations and approximations, several variations of population PK data for mAbs with soluble (slow elimination of the complex) or membrane-bound (fast elimination of the complex) targets were simulated from a full 2-1 TMDD model and fitted to 2-1 TMDD models, to its approximations, and to the standard (1-1) QSS model. For a mAb with a soluble target, it was demonstrated that the 2-1 QSS model provided nearly identical description of the observed (simulated) free drug and total target concentrations, although there was some minor bias in predictions of unobserved free target concentrations. The standard QSS approximation also provided a good description of the observed data, but was not able to distinguish between free drug concentrations (with no target attached and both binding site free) and partially bound drug concentrations (with one of the binding sites occupied by the target). For a mAb with a membrane-bound target, the 2-1 MM approximation adequately described the data. The 2-1 QSS approximation converged 10 times faster than the full 2-1 TMDD, and its run time was comparable with the standard QSS model.

  9. Ab Initio Infrared and Raman Spectra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    equilibrium and non -equilibrium systems. It b pointed out that a similar ab !ni- te QFC molecular dynamic approach could be used to compute other types of...applied to -2- equilibrium and non -equilibrium system. It is pointed out that a similar oh im- ib QFCT molecular dynamic approach could be used to...desire to be able to experimentally identify and understand transient species or states (such as those existing during the course of chemical

  10. CCD Observation of STF1169AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Colette; Anderson, David; Morales, Robin; Gerow, Thomas; Ramirez, Brandon; Whipp, Paul; Rowe, David; Freed, Rachel; Genet, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Binary star system STF1169AB was observed on April 9th, 2017 using the 17-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham, Optical Tube Assembly Astrograph Telescope at the Sierra Remote Observatory. Ten images were taken using a Charge-Coupled Device, allowing position angle and separation to be calculated to within 1.2% standard error. The position angle was recorded as 14.95 degrees and the separation as 20.73 arc seconds.

  11. Hemostatic effect of a monoclonal antibody mAb 2021 blocking the interaction between FXa and TFPI in a rabbit hemophilia model.

    PubMed

    Hilden, Ida; Lauritzen, Brian; Sørensen, Brit Binow; Clausen, Jes Thorn; Jespersgaard, Christina; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Bowler, Andrew Neil; Breinholt, Jens; Gruhler, Albrecht; Svensson, L Anders; Petersen, Helle Heibroch; Petersen, Lars Christian; Balling, Kristoffer W; Hansen, Lene; Hermit, Mette Brunsgaard; Egebjerg, Thomas; Friederichsen, Birgitte; Ezban, Mirella; Bjørn, Søren Erik

    2012-06-14

    Hemophilia is treated by IV replacement therapy with Factor VIII (FVIII) or Factor IX (FIX), either on demand to resolve bleeding, or as prophylaxis. Improved treatment may be provided by drugs designed for subcutaneous and less frequent administration with a reduced risk of inhibitor formation. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) down-regulates the initiation of coagulation by inhibition of Factor VIIa (FVIIa)/tissue factor/Factor Xa (FVIIa/TF/FXa). Blockage of TFPI inhibition may facilitate thrombin generation in a hemophilic setting. A high-affinity (K(D) = 25pM) mAb, mAb 2021, against TFPI was investigated. Binding of mAb 2021 to TFPI effectively prevented inhibition of FVIIa/TF/FXa and improved clot formation in hemophilia blood and plasma. The binding epitope on the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain 2 of TFPI was mapped by crystallography, and showed an extensive overlap with the FXa contact region highlighting a structural basis for its mechanism of action. In a rabbit hemophilia model, an intravenous or subcutaneous dose significantly reduced cuticle bleeding. mAb 2021 showed an effect comparable with that of rFVIIa. Cuticle bleeding in the model was reduced for at least 7 days by a single intravenous dose of mAb 2021. This study suggests that neutralization of TFPI by mAb 2021 may constitute a novel treatment option in hemophilia.

  12. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from Camels Bactrianus (C. bactrianus) and Conjugation with Quantum Dots for Imaging FMDV in BHK-21 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Youjun; Sun, Shiqi; Zhou, Guangqing; Jin, Ye; Tian, Hong; Wu, Jinyan; Liu, Xiangtao

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research. PMID:23737944

  13. Ab Initio Crystal Field for Lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2017-03-13

    An ab initio methodology for the first-principle derivation of crystal-field (CF) parameters for lanthanides is described. The methodology is applied to the analysis of CF parameters in [Tb(Pc) 2 ] - (Pc=phthalocyanine) and Dy 4 K 2 ([Dy 4 K 2 O(OtBu) 12 ]) complexes, and compared with often used approximate and model descriptions. It is found that the application of geometry symmetrization, and the use of electrostatic point-charge and phenomenological CF models, lead to unacceptably large deviations from predictions based on ab initio calculations for experimental geometry. It is shown how the predictions of standard CASSCF (Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field) calculations (with 4f orbitals in the active space) can be systematically improved by including effects of dynamical electronic correlation (CASPT2 step) and by admixing electronic configurations of the 5d shell. This is exemplified for the well-studied Er-trensal complex (H 3 trensal=2,2',2"-tris(salicylideneimido)trimethylamine). The electrostatic contributions to CF parameters in this complex, calculated with true charge distributions in the ligands, yield less than half of the total CF splitting, thus pointing to the dominant role of covalent effects. This analysis allows the conclusion that ab initio crystal field is an essential tool for the decent description of lanthanides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm’s canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  15. mAb C19 targets a novel surface marker for the isolation of human cardiac progenitor cells from human heart tissue and differentiated hESCs.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hau Wan; Moerkamp, Asja T; Padmanabhan, Jayanthi; Ng, Sze-Wai; Goumans, Marie-José; Choo, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been isolated from adult and developing hearts using an anti-mouse Sca-1 antibody. However, the absence of a human Sca-1 homologue has hampered the clinical application of the CPCs. Therefore, we generated novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specifically raised against surface markers expressed by resident human CPCs. Here, we explored the suitability of one of these mAbs, mAb C19, for the identification, isolation and characterization of CPCs from fetal heart tissue and differentiating cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Using whole-cell immunization, mAbs were raised against Sca-1+ CPCs and screened for reactivity to various CPC lines by flow cytometry. mAb C19 was found to be specific for Sca-1+ CPCs, with high cell surface binding capabilities. mAb C19 stained small stem-like cells in cardiac tissue sections. Moreover, during differentiation of hESCs towards cardiomyocytes, a transient population of cells with mAb C19 reactivity was identified and isolated using magnetic-activated cell sorting. Their cell fate was tracked and found to improve cardiomyocyte purity from hESC-derived cultures. mAb C19+ CPCs, from both hESC differentiation and fetal heart tissues, were maintained and expanded in culture, while retaining their CPC-like characteristics and their ability to further differentiate into cardiomyocytes by stimulation with TGFβ1. Finally, gene expression profiling of these mAb C19+ CPCs suggested a highly angiogenic nature, which was further validated by cell-based angiogenesis assays. mAb C19 is a new surface marker for the isolation of multipotent CPCs from both human heart tissues and differentiating hESCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Data and Analysis of the Double Stars STFA 10AB and STFA 1744AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcilla, Marisa; Bowden, Sam; DeBlase, Jacqueline; Hall, Anthony; Hall, Corielyn; Hernandez, Alyssa; Renna, Danielle; Rodriguez, Fatima; Salazar, Cassandra; Sanchez, Andres; Teeter, Dayton; Brewer, Mark; Funk, Benjamin; Gillette, Travis; Sharpe, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Eighth grade students at Vanguard Preparatory School measured the double stars STFA 10AB and STFA 1744AB. A 22-inch Newtonian Alt/Az telescope and a 14-inch Celestron Schmidt Cassegrain telescope were used. The star Bellatrix was used as the calibration star to determine the scale constant of the 22-inch telescope to be 7.8 “/tick marks. The double star STFA 1744AB was used as the calibration star to determine the scale constant of the 14-inch telescope to be 5.1 “/tick marks. The separation and position angle of STFA 10AB was determined by the 22-inch telescope to be 347.9” and 339.3°. The separation and position angle of STFA 1744AB was determined by the 14-inch telescope to be 3.6” and 158.1°. The measurements that were calculated were compared to the most recent measurements listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  17. Platelet binding sites for factor VIII in relation to fibrin and phosphatidylserine

    PubMed Central

    Novakovic, Valerie A.; Shi, Jialan; Rasmussen, Jan; Pipe, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin-stimulated platelets expose very little phosphatidylserine (PS) but express binding sites for factor VIII (fVIII), casting doubt on the role of exposed PS as the determinant of binding sites. We previously reported that fVIII binding sites are increased three- to sixfold when soluble fibrin (SF) binds the αIIbβ3 integrin. This study focuses on the hypothesis that platelet-bound SF is the major source of fVIII binding sites. Less than 10% of fVIII was displaced from thrombin-stimulated platelets by lactadherin, a PS-binding protein, and an fVIII mutant defective in PS-dependent binding retained platelet affinity. Therefore, PS is not the determinant of most binding sites. FVIII bound immobilized SF and paralleled platelet binding in affinity, dependence on separation from von Willebrand factor, and mediation by the C2 domain. SF also enhanced activity of fVIII in the factor Xase complex by two- to fourfold. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESH8, against the fVIII C2 domain, inhibited binding of fVIII to SF and platelets but not to PS-containing vesicles. Similarly, mAb ESH4 against the C2 domain, inhibited >90% of platelet-dependent fVIII activity vs 35% of vesicle-supported activity. These results imply that platelet-bound SF is a component of functional fVIII binding sites. PMID:26162408

  18. Insulin binding to erythrocytes after acute 16-methyleneprednisolone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Dwenger, A; Holle, W; Zick, R; Trautschold, I

    1982-10-01

    The binding of [125I]insulin to erythrocytes, glucose and insulin were determined before and 1, 7 and 35 days after ingestion of 2 X 60-methyleneprednisolone. None of two groups of volunteers (7 males, 4 females showed clear alterations of the insulin binding parameters (Ka and R0), or of the fasting cortisol, glucose and insulin concentrations. These results exclude the possibility that the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoides is accompanied by an alteration of the insulin receptor characteristics of erythrocytes.

  19. Peptide-based Antibodies against Glutathione-binding Domains Suppress Superoxide Production Mediated by Mitochondrial Complex I*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingfeng; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Rawale, Sharad; Chen, Chun-An; Zweier, Jay L.; Kaumaya, Pravin T. P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2010-01-01

    Complex I (NQR) is a critical site of superoxide () production and the major host of redox protein thiols in mitochondria. In response to oxidative stress, NQR-derived protein thiols at the 51- and 75-kDa subunits are known to be reversibly S-glutathionylated. Although several glutathionylated domains from NQR 51 and 75 kDa have been identified, their roles in the regulatory functions remain to be explored. To gain further insights into protein S-glutathionylation of complex I, we used two peptides of S-glutathionylated domain (200GAGAYICGEETALIESIEGK219 of 51-kDa protein and 361VDSDTLCTEEVFPTAGAGTDLR382 of 75-kDa protein) as chimeric epitopes incorporating a “promiscuous” T-cell epitope to generate two polyclonal antibodies, AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367. Binding of AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367 inhibited NQR-mediated generation by 37 and 57%, as measured by EPR spin-trapping. To further provide an appropriate control, two peptides of non-glutathionylated domain (21SGDTTAPKKTSFGSLKDFDR40 of 51-kDa peptide and 100WNILTNSEKTKKAREGVMEFL120 of 75-kDa peptide) were synthesized as chimeric epitopes to generate two polyclonal antibodies, Ab51 and Ab75. Binding of A51 did not affect NQR-mediated generation to a significant level. However, binding of Ab75 inhibited NQR-mediated generation by 35%. None of AbGSCA206, AbGSCB367, Ab51, or Ab75 showed an inhibitory effect on the electron transfer activity of NQR, suggesting that antibody binding to the glutathione-binding domain decreased electron leakage from the hydrophilic domain of NQR. When heart tissue homogenates were immunoprecipitated with Ab51 or Ab75 and probed with an antibody against glutathione, protein S-glutathionylation was enhanced in post-ischemic myocardium at the NQR 51-kDa subunit, but not at the 75-kDa subunit, indicating that the 51-kDa subunit of flavin subcomplex is more sensitive to oxidative stress resulting from myocardial infarction. PMID:19940158

  20. Ab initio calculation of the potential bubble nucleus 34Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, T.; Somà, V.; Lecluse, S.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.

    2017-03-01

    Background: The possibility that an unconventional depletion (referred to as a "bubble") occurs in the center of the charge density distribution of certain nuclei due to a purely quantum mechanical effect has attracted theoretical and experimental attention in recent years. Based on a mean-field rationale, a correlation between the occurrence of such a semibubble and an anomalously weak splitting between low angular-momentum spin-orbit partners has been further conjectured. Energy density functional and valence-space shell model calculations have been performed to identify and characterize the best candidates, among which 34Si appears as a particularly interesting case. While the experimental determination of the charge density distribution of the unstable 34Si is currently out of reach, (d ,p ) experiments on this nucleus have been performed recently to test the correlation between the presence of a bubble and an anomalously weak 1 /2--3 /2- splitting in the spectrum of 35Si as compared to 37S. Purpose: We study the potential bubble structure of 34Si on the basis of the state-of-the-art ab initio self-consistent Green's function many-body method. Methods: We perform the first ab initio calculations of 34Si and 36S. In addition to binding energies, the first observables of interest are the charge density distribution and the charge root-mean-square radius for which experimental data exist in 36S. The next observable of interest is the low-lying spectroscopy of 35Si and 37S obtained from (d ,p ) experiments along with the spectroscopy of 33Al and 35P obtained from knock-out experiments. The interpretation in terms of the evolution of the underlying shell structure is also provided. The study is repeated using several chiral effective field theory Hamiltonians as a way to test the robustness of the results with respect to input internucleon interactions. The convergence of the results with respect to the truncation of the many-body expansion, i.e., with respect to

  1. Three-dimensional structure-activity relationship modeling of cocaine binding to two monoclonal antibodies by comparative molecular field analysis.

    PubMed

    Paula, Stefan; Tabet, Michael R; Keenan, Susan M; Welsh, William J; Ball, W James

    2003-01-17

    Successful immunotherapy of cocaine addiction and overdoses requires cocaine-binding antibodies with specific properties, such as high affinity and selectivity for cocaine. We have determined the affinities of two cocaine-binding murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb: clones 3P1A6 and MM0240PA) for cocaine and its metabolites by [3H]-radioligand binding assays. mAb 3P1A6 (K(d) = 0.22 nM) displayed a 50-fold higher affinity for cocaine than mAb MM0240PA (K(d) = 11 nM) and also had a greater specificity for cocaine. For the systematic exploration of both antibodies' binding specificities, we used a set of approximately 35 cocaine analogues as structural probes by determining their relative binding affinities (RBAs) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent competition assay. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models on the basis of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) techniques correlated the binding data with structural features of the ligands. The analysis indicated that despite the mAbs' differing specificities for cocaine, the relative contributions of the steric (approximately 80%) and electrostatic (approximately 20%) field interactions to ligand-binding were similar. Generated three-dimensional CoMFA contour plots then located the specific regions about cocaine where the ligand/receptor interactions occurred. While the overall binding patterns of the two mAbs had many features in common, distinct differences were observed about the phenyl ring and the methylester group of cocaine. Furthermore, using previously published data, a 3D-QSAR model was developed for cocaine binding to the dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) that was compared to the mAb models. Although the relative steric and electrostatic field contributions were similar to those of the mAbs, the DAT cocaine-binding site showed a preference for negatively charged ligands. Besides establishing molecular level insight into the interactions that govern cocaine

  2. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    PubMed Central

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  3. Construction and characterization of an anti-CD20 mAb nanocomb with exceptionally excellent lymphoma-suppressing activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Fei; Wu, Cong; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Ge; Zhao, He; Ke, Chang-Hong; Xu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The CD20-directed monoclonal antibody rituximab (RTX) established a new era in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, suboptimal response and/or resistance to RTX still limit its clinical merits. Although four effector mechanisms are validated to participate in CD20-based immunotherapy, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and lysosome-mediated programmed cell death (PCD), they could hardly be synchronously activated by any anti-CD20 mAb or mAb derivative until now. Herein, a novel mAb nanocomb (polyethylenimine polymer-RTX-tositumomab [PPRT nanocomb]) was firstly constructed through mass arming two different anti-CD20 mAbs (RTX and tositumomab) to one polymer by nanotechnology. Comparing with free mAbs, PPRT nanocomb possesses a comparable binding ability and reduced "off-rate" to surface CD20 of NHL cells. When treated by PPRT nanocomb, the caspase-dependent apoptosis was remarkably enhanced except for concurrently eliciting complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and lysosome-mediated PCD. Besides, "cross-cell link"-assisted homotypic adhesion by PPRT nanocomb further enhanced the susceptibility to PCD of lymphoma cells. Pharmacokinetic assays revealed that PPRT nanocomb experienced a relatively reduced clearance from peripheral blood compared with free antibodies. With the cooperation of all the abovementioned superiorities, PPRT nanocomb exhibits exceptionally excellent in vivo antitumor activities in both disseminated and localized human NHL xenotransplant models.

  4. Intraflagellar transport velocity is governed by the number of active KIF17 and KIF3AB motors and their motility properties under load

    PubMed Central

    Milic, Bojan; Andreasson, Johan O. L.; Hogan, Daniel W.; Block, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Homodimeric KIF17 and heterotrimeric KIF3AB are processive, kinesin-2 family motors that act jointly to carry out anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), ferrying cargo along microtubules (MTs) toward the tips of cilia. How IFT trains attain speeds that exceed the unloaded rate of the slower, KIF3AB motor remains unknown. By characterizing the motility properties of kinesin-2 motors as a function of load we find that the increase in KIF3AB velocity, elicited by forward loads from KIF17 motors, cannot alone account for the speed of IFT trains in vivo. Instead, higher IFT velocities arise from an increased likelihood that KIF3AB motors dissociate from the MT, resulting in transport by KIF17 motors alone, unencumbered by opposition from KIF3AB. The rate of transport is therefore set by an equilibrium between a faster state, where only KIF17 motors move the train, and a slower state, where at least one KIF3AB motor on the train remains active in transport. The more frequently the faster state is accessed, the higher the overall velocity of the IFT train. We conclude that IFT velocity is governed by (i) the absolute numbers of each motor type on a given train, (ii) how prone KIF3AB is to dissociation from MTs relative to KIF17, and (iii) how prone both motors are to dissociation relative to binding MTs. PMID:28761002

  5. Intraflagellar transport velocity is governed by the number of active KIF17 and KIF3AB motors and their motility properties under load.

    PubMed

    Milic, Bojan; Andreasson, Johan O L; Hogan, Daniel W; Block, Steven M

    2017-08-15

    Homodimeric KIF17 and heterotrimeric KIF3AB are processive, kinesin-2 family motors that act jointly to carry out anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), ferrying cargo along microtubules (MTs) toward the tips of cilia. How IFT trains attain speeds that exceed the unloaded rate of the slower, KIF3AB motor remains unknown. By characterizing the motility properties of kinesin-2 motors as a function of load we find that the increase in KIF3AB velocity, elicited by forward loads from KIF17 motors, cannot alone account for the speed of IFT trains in vivo. Instead, higher IFT velocities arise from an increased likelihood that KIF3AB motors dissociate from the MT, resulting in transport by KIF17 motors alone, unencumbered by opposition from KIF3AB. The rate of transport is therefore set by an equilibrium between a faster state, where only KIF17 motors move the train, and a slower state, where at least one KIF3AB motor on the train remains active in transport. The more frequently the faster state is accessed, the higher the overall velocity of the IFT train. We conclude that IFT velocity is governed by ( i ) the absolute numbers of each motor type on a given train, ( ii ) how prone KIF3AB is to dissociation from MTs relative to KIF17, and ( iii ) how prone both motors are to dissociation relative to binding MTs.

  6. Ab initio molecular simulations on specific interactions between amyloid beta and monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuya; Okamoto, Akisumi; Yano, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kondo, Takashi; Kamba, Seiji; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2012-09-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which is a key pathogenetic event in Alzheimer's disease, can be caused by cell-surface saccharides. We here investigated stable structures of the solvated complexes of Aβ with some types of monosaccharides using molecular simulations based on protein-ligand docking and classical molecular mechanics methods. Moreover, the specific interactions between Aβ and the monosaccharides were elucidated at an electronic level by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results, we proposed which type of monosaccharide prefers to have large binding affinity to Aβ and inhibit the Aβ aggregation.

  7. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  8. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  9. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  10. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  11. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  12. Undoing Gender Through Legislation and Schooling: the Case of AB 537 and AB 394 IN California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-11-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools have an unconscious acceptance of heteronormativity and gendered norms, which undermines both the spirit and language of these laws. This paper examines how California schools can both change standard practices and realise the transformative social change that laws like AB 537 and AB 394 can instigate. I assert that the systemic implementation of these laws, through the adoption, enforcement and evaluation of existing AB 537 Task Force Recommendations, is necessary for their success. My second assertion is that AB 537 and AB 394 have the potential to change and reconstitute gender-based and heteronormative standards at school sites.

  13. Bright light does not alter muscarinic receptor binding parameters.

    PubMed

    Giroux, M L; Malatynska, E; Dilsaver, S C

    1991-03-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorders (SADs) are disorders of mood characterized by recurrent episodes of illness with a fixed relationship to season. Winter depression is characterized by recurrent onset of depression in the fall or winter followed by spontaneous recovery in the spring. This syndrome is responsive to treatment with bright light. The pathophysiology of depressive disorders may involve central muscarinic mechanisms. This possibility led to a series of physiological studies. The authors now report that contrary to expectation, treatment with bright light did not decrease the density of muscarinic receptors in either the hypothalamus or striatum.

  14. Characterization of BreR Interaction with the Bile Response Promoters breAB and breR in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Cerda-Maira, Francisca A.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Jude, Brooke A.; Skorupski, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Vibrio cholerae BreR protein is a transcriptional repressor of the breAB efflux system operon, which encodes proteins involved in bile resistance. In a previous study (F. A. Cerda-Maira, C. S. Ringelberg, and R. K. Taylor, J. Bacteriol. 190:7441–7452, 2008), we used gel mobility shift assays to determine that BreR binds at two independent binding sites at the breAB promoter and a single site at its own promoter. Here it is shown, by DNase I footprinting and site-directed mutagenesis, that BreR is able to bind at a distal and a proximal site in the breAB promoter. However, only one of these sites, the proximal 29-bp site, is necessary for BreR-mediated transcriptional repression of breAB expression. In addition, it was determined that BreR represses its own expression by recognizing a 28-bp site at the breR promoter. These sites comprise regions of dyad symmetry within which residues critical for BreR function could be identified. The BreR consensus sequence AANGTANAC-N6-GTNTACNTT overlaps the −35 region at both promoters, implying that the repression of gene expression is achieved by interfering with RNA polymerase binding at these promoters. PMID:23144245

  15. Heterogeneity of envelope molecules expressed on primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles as probed by the binding of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Poignard, Pascal; Moulard, Maxime; Golez, Edwin; Vivona, Veronique; Franti, Michael; Venturini, Sara; Wang, Meng; Parren, Paul W H I; Burton, Dennis R

    2003-01-01

    Virion capture assays, in which immobilized antibodies (Abs) capture virus particles, have been used to suggest that nonneutralizing Abs bind effectively to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary viruses. Here, we show that virion capture assays, under conditions commonly reported in the literature, give a poor indication of epitope expression on the surface of infectious primary HIV-1. First, estimation of primary HIV-1 capture by p24 measurements shows a very poor correlation with an estimation based on infectivity measurements. Second, virion capture appears to require relatively low Ab affinity for the virion, as shown by the ability of a monoclonal Ab to capture a wild-type and a neutralization escape variant virus equally well. Nevertheless, in a more interpretable competition format, it is shown that nonneutralizing anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs compete with a neutralizing anti-CD4bs Ab (b12) for virus capture, suggesting that the nonneutralizing anti-CD4bs Abs are able to bind to the envelope species that is involved in virion capture in these experiments. However, the nonneutralizing anti-CD4bs Abs do not inhibit neutralization by b12 even at considerable excess. This suggests that the nonneutralizing Abs are unable to bind effectively to the envelope species required for virus infectivity. The results were obtained for three different primary virus envelopes. The explanation that we favor is that infectious HIV-1 primary virions can express two forms of gp120, an accessible nonfunctional form and a functional form with limited access. Binding to the nonfunctional form, which needs only to be present at relatively low density on the virion, permits capture but does not lead to neutralization. The expression of a nonfunctional but accessible form of gp120 on virions may contribute to the general failure of HIV-1 infection to elicit cross-neutralizing Abs and may represent a significant problem for vaccines based on viruses or virus

  16. Ab initio quantum chemistry: methodology and applications.

    PubMed

    Friesner, Richard A

    2005-05-10

    This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over the past decade. Incorporation of a condensed-phase environment by means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics or self-consistent reaction field techniques, is presented. A wide range of illustrative applications, focusing on materials science and biology, are discussed briefly.

  17. The Mode of Inhibitor Binding to Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase: Binding Studies and Structure Determination of Unbound and Bound Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Sanket; Singh, Nagendra; Yamini, Shavait; Singh, Avinash; Sinha, Mau; Arora, Ashish; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth) is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design. PMID:23844024

  18. The mode of inhibitor binding to peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase: binding studies and structure determination of unbound and bound peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sanket; Singh, Nagendra; Yamini, Shavait; Singh, Avinash; Sinha, Mau; Arora, Ashish; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2013-01-01

    The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth) is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design.

  19. An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations.more » The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.« less

  20. Registration of immunoglobuline AB/AG reaction with planar polarization interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabok, Alexei V.; Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Ray, Asim K.; Hassan, Aseel K.

    2000-12-01

    Immobilization of human immunoglobuline (IgG) (AG) and goat on human IGG antibodies (AB) as well as AB/AG specific reaction were studied with planar polarization interferometry (PPI). In this novel method, polarized laser beam was coupled into the planar waveguide made on silicon wafer and consisted of 20nm Si3N4 layer sandwiched between two 1.5 micrometers SiO2 layers with the sensing window etched in the top SIO2 layer. One of the immune components was deposited by means of polyelectrolyte self- assembly on top of the Si3N3 layer within the sensing window, P-component of the polarized light is sensitive to adsorption, while s-component serves as a reference. Thus the outcoming light intensity depends on the phase shift between s- and p-components. Different sequences of immobilization of the immune components were studied with both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and PPI methods. It was shown that predeposition of a monolayer of protein A, which is believed to affect the orientation of the immune components, causes an additional increase in the sensitivity. PPI method allowed us to improve substantially the sensitivity towards AB/AG reaction as compared to traditional SPR method. Particularly, of specific binding of 3ng/ml AG was registered.

  1. Ab-initio study of structural, electronic, and transport properties of zigzag GaP nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anurag; Jain, Sumit Kumar; Khare, Purnima Swarup

    2014-03-01

    Stability and electronic properties of zigzag (3 ≤ n ≤ 16) gallium phosphide nanotubes (GaP NTs) have been analyzed by employing a systematic ab-intio approach based on density functional theory using generalized gradient approximation with revised Perdew Burke Ernzerhoff type parameterization. Diameter dependence of bond length, buckling, binding energy, and band gap has been investigated and the analysis shows that the bond length and buckling decreases with increasing diameter of the tube, highest binding energy of (16, 0) confirms this as the most stable amongst all the NTs taken into consideration. The present GaP NTs shows direct band gap and it increases with diameter of the tubes. Using a two probe model for (4, 0) NT the I-V relationship shows an exponential increase in current on applying bias voltage beyond 1.73 volt.

  2. Antibiotic stewardship through the EU project "ABS International".

    PubMed

    Allerberger, Franz; Frank, Annegret; Gareis, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance requires implementation of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programs. The project "ABS International--implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the European Union" was started in September 2006 in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. A training program for national ABS trainers was prepared and standard templates for ABS tools (antibiotic list, guides for antibiotic treatment and surgical prophylaxis, antibiotic-related organization) and valid process measures, as well as quality indicators for antibiotic use were developed. Specific ABS tools are being implemented in up to five healthcare facilities in each country. Although ABS International clearly focuses on healthcare institutions, future antimicrobial stewardship programs must also cover public education and antibiotic prescribing in primary care.

  3. Molecular Spectroscopy by Ab Initio Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Due to recent advances in methods and computers, the accuracy of ab calculations has reached a point where these methods can be used to provide accurate spectroscopic constants for small molecules; this will be illustrated with several examples. We will show how ab initio calculations where used to identify the Hermann infrared system in N2 and two band systems in CO. The identification of all three of these band systems relied on very accurate calculations of quintet states. The analysis of the infrared spectra of cool stars requires knowledge of the intensity of vibrational transitions in SiO for high nu and J levels. While experiment can supply very accurate dipole moments for nu = 0 to 3, this is insufficient to construct a global dipole moment function. We show how theory, combined by the experiment, can be used to generate the line intensities up to nu = 40 and J = 250. The spectroscopy of transition metal containing systems is very difficult for both theory and experiment. We will discuss the identification of the ground state of Ti2 and the spectroscopy of AlCu as examples of how theory can contribute to the understanding of these complex systems.

  4. Focused Wind Mass Accretion in Mira AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, Margarita; de Val-Borro, M.; Hack, W.; Raymond, J.; Sasselov, D.; Lee, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    At a distance of about only 100pc, Mira AB is the nearest symbiotic system containing an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star (Mira A), and a compact accreting companion (Mira B) at about 0.5" from Mira A. Symbiotic systems are interacting binaries with a key evolutionary importance as potential progenitors of a fraction of asymmetric Planetary Nebulae, and SN type Ia, cosmological distance indicators. The region of interaction has been studied using high-angular resolution, multiwavelength observations ranging from radio to X-ray wavelengths. Our results, including high-angular resolution Chandra imaging, show a "bridge" between Mira A and Mira B, indicating gravitational focusing of the Mira A wind, whereby components exchange matter directly in addition to the wind accretion. We carried out a study using 2-D hydrodynamical models of focused wind mass accretion to determine the region of wind acceleration and the characteristics of the accretion in Mira AB. We highlight some of our results and discuss the impact on our understanding of accretion processes in symbiotic systems and other detached and semidetached interacting systems.

  5. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( < 0.05) protein synthesis rates and decreased ( < 0.05) protein degradation rates when compared to control cultures. Treatment of fused BSC cultures with 10 n TBA in the presence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( < 0.05) TBA-mediated increases in protein synthesis rate. Alternatively, inhibition of GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( < 0.05) ability of TBA to decrease protein degradation rate. Additionally, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n

  6. Ab Initio-Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-15

    There are two prime objectives of the research. One is to develop and apply efficient methods for using ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs...31-Mar-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Ab Initio -Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry The...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 hydrocarbon combustion, ab initio quantum chemistry, potential energy surfaces, chemical

  7. Cross-species analysis of Fc engineered anti-Lewis-Y human IgG1 variants in human neonatal receptor transgenic mice reveal importance of S254 and Y436 in binding human neonatal Fc receptor

    PubMed Central

    Burvenich, Ingrid J. G.; Farrugia, William; Lee, Fook T.; Catimel, Bruno; Liu, Zhanqi; Makris, Dahna; Cao, Diana; O'Keefe, Graeme J.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; King, Dylan; Spirkoska, Violeta; Allan, Laura C.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT IgG has a long half-life through engagement of its Fc region with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The FcRn binding site on IgG1 has been shown to contain I253 and H310 in the CH2 domain and H435 in the CH3 domain. Altering the half-life of IgG has been pursued with the aim to prolong or reduce the half-life of therapeutic IgGs. More recent studies have shown that IgGs bind differently to mouse and human FcRn. In this study we characterize a set of hu3S193 IgG1 variants with mutations in the FcRn binding site. A double mutation in the binding site is necessary to abrogate binding to murine FcRn, whereas a single mutation in the FcRn binding site is sufficient to no longer detect binding to human FcRn and create hu3S193 IgG1 variants with a half-life similar to previously studied hu3S193 F(ab')2 (t1/2β, I253A, 12.23 h; H310A, 12.94; H435A, 12.57; F(ab')2, 12.6 h). Alanine substitutions in S254 in the CH2 domain and Y436 in the CH3 domain showed reduced binding in vitro to human FcRn and reduced elimination half-lives in huFcRn transgenic mice (t1/2β, S254A, 37.43 h; Y436A, 39.53 h; wild-type, 83.15 h). These variants had minimal effect on half-life in BALB/c nu/nu mice (t1/2β, S254A, 119.9 h; Y436A, 162.1 h; wild-type, 163.1 h). These results provide insight into the interaction of human Fc by human FcRn, and are important for antibody-based therapeutics with optimal pharmacokinetics for payload strategies used in the clinic. PMID:27030023

  8. Anti-GD2 mAbs and next-generation mAb-based agents for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Perez Horta, Zulmarie; Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated efficacy in the clinic, becoming an important approach for cancer immunotherapy. Due to its limited expression on normal tissue, the GD2 disialogangloside expressed on neuroblastoma cells is an excellent candidate for mAb therapy. In 2015, dinutuximab (an anti-GD2 mAb) was approved by the US FDA and is currently used in a combination immunotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we review the extensive preclinical and clinical development of anti-GD2 mAbs and the different mechanisms by which they mediate tumor cell killing. In addition, we discuss different mAb-based strategies that capitalize on the targeting ability of anti-GD2 mAbs to potentially deliver, as monotherapy, or in combination with other treatments, improved antitumor efficacy. PMID:27485082

  9. A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3.

    PubMed

    Stockbauer, K E; Magoun, L; Liu, M; Burns, E H; Gubba, S; Renish, S; Pan, X; Bodary, S C; Baker, E; Coburn, J; Leong, J M; Musser, J M

    1999-01-05

    The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. One of these variants (mSpeB2) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a tripeptide motif that is commonly recognized by integrin receptors. mSpeB2 is made by all isolates of the unusually virulent serotype M1 and several other geographically widespread clones that frequently cause invasive infections. Only the mSpeB2 variant bound to transfected cells expressing integrin alphavbeta3 (also known as the vitronectin receptor) or alphaIIbbeta3 (platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa), and binding was blocked by a mAb that recognizes the streptococcal protease RGD motif region. In addition, mSpeB2 bound purified platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Defined beta3 mutants that are altered for fibrinogen binding were defective for SpeB binding. Synthetic peptides with the mSpeB2 RGD motif, but not the RSD sequence present in other mSpeB variants, blocked binding of mSpeB2 to transfected cells expressing alphavbeta3 and caused detachment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results (i) identify a Gram-positive virulence factor that directly binds integrins, (ii) identify naturally occurring variants of a documented Gram-positive virulence factor with biomedically relevant differences in their interactions with host cells, and (iii) add to the theme that subtle natural variation in microbial virulence factor structure alters the character of host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study.

    PubMed

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  11. Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.

    PubMed

    Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling

  12. Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence show that a sizable subset of autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) is characterized by increased blood levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), yet the mechanistic link between these two phenomena remains unclear. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages. Here we show that both mutant lines exhibit numerous behavioural hallmarks of ASDs, such as social and communication impairments, perseverative and stereotypical responses, behavioural inflexibility, as well as subtle tactile and motor deficits. Furthermore, both MAOA and A/B KO mice displayed neuropathological alterations reminiscent of typical ASD features, including reduced thickness of the corpus callosum, increased dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex and disrupted microarchitecture of the cerebellum. The severity of repetitive responses and neuropathological aberrances was generally greater in MAOA/B KO animals. These findings suggest that the neurochemical imbalances induced by MAOAdeficiency (either by itself or in conjunction with lack of MAOB) may result in an array of abnormalities similar to those observed in ASDs. Thus, MAOA and A/B KO mice may afford valuable models to help elucidate the neurobiological bases of these disorders and related neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:22850464

  13. Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DOE PAGES

    Martínez, Todd J.

    2017-03-21

    Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This then opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. Here, we arguemore » that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.« less

  14. Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez, Todd J.

    Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This then opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. Here, we arguemore » that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.« less

  15. Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.

  16. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  17. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  18. Targets Fishing and Identification of Calenduloside E as Hsp90AB1: Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Clickable Activity-Based Probe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Xu, Hui-Bo; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Min; Lu, Sen-Bao; Luo, Yun; Wang, Min; Sun, Gui-Bo; Xu, Xu-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2018-01-01

    Calenduloside E (CE), a natural triterpenoid compound isolated from Aralia elata, can protect against ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury in our previous reports. However, the exact targets and mechanisms of CE remain elusive. For the sake of resolving this question, we designed and synthesized a clickable activity-based probe (CE-P), which could be utilized to fish the functional targets in HUVECs using a gel-based strategy. Based on the previous studies of the structure-activity relationship (SAR), we introduced an alkyne moiety at the C-28 carboxylic group of CE, which kept the protective and anti-apoptosis activity. Via proteomic approach, one of the potential proteins bound to CE-P was identified as Hsp90AB1, and further verification was performed by pure recombinant Hsp90AB1 and competitive assay. These results demonstrated that CE could bind to Hsp90AB1. We also found that CE could reverse the Hsp90AB1 decrease after ox-LDL treatment. To make our results more convincing, we performed SPR analysis and the affinity kinetic assay showed that CE/CE-P could bind to Hsp90AB1 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our research showed CE could probably bind to Hsp90AB1 to protect the cell injury, which might provide the basis for the further exploration of its cardiovascular protective mechanisms. For the sake of resolving this question, we designed and synthesized a clickable activity-based probe (CE-P), which could be utilized to fish the functional targets in HUVECs using a gel-based strategy. PMID:29875664

  19. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  20. Effect of solid surface charge on the binding behaviour of a metal-binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Donatan, Senem; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan; Urgen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, solid-binding peptides have been increasingly used as molecular building blocks coupling bio- and nanotechnology. Despite considerable research being invested in this field, the effects of many surface-related parameters that define the binding of peptide to solids are still unknown. In the quest to control biological molecules at solid interfaces and, thereby, tailoring the binding characteristics of the peptides, the use of surface charge of the solid surface may probably play an important role, which then can be used as a potential tuning parameter of peptide adsorption. Here, we report quantitative investigation on the viscoelastic properties and binding kinetics of an engineered gold-binding peptide, 3RGBP1, adsorbed onto the gold surface at different surface charge densities. The experiments were performed in aqueous solutions using an electrochemical dissipative quartz crystal microbalance system. Hydrodynamic mass, hydration state and surface coverage of the adsorbed peptide films were determined as a function of surface charge density of the gold metal substrate. Under each charged condition, binding of 3rGBP1 displayed quantitative differences in terms of adsorbed peptide amount, surface coverage ratio and hydration state. Based on the intrinsically disordered structure of the peptide, we propose a possible mechanism for binding of the peptide that can be used for tuning surface adsorption in further studies. Controlled alteration of peptide binding on solid surfaces, as shown here, may provide novel methods for surface functionalization used for bioenabled processing and fabrication of future micro- and nanodevices. PMID:22491974

  1. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the promiscuous binding and transport properties of L-FABP, we investigated structure and dynamics of human L-FABP with and without bound ligands by means of heteronuclear NMR. The overall conformation of human L-FABP shows the typical β-clam motif. Binding of two oleic acid (OA) molecules does not alter the protein conformation substantially, but perturbs the chemical shift of certain backbone and side-chain protons that are involved in OA binding according to the structure of the human L-FABP/OA complex. Comparison of the human apo and holo L-FABP structures revealed no evidence for an “open-cap” conformation or a “swivel-back” mechanism of the K90 side chain upon ligand binding, as proposed for rat L-FABP. Instead, we postulate that the lipid binding process in L-FABP is associated with backbone dynamics. PMID:22713574

  2. B cell clonal lineage alterations upon recombinant HIV-1 envelope immunization of Rhesus macaques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutr...

  3. Production and Characterization of F(Ab')2 Fragments Obtained by Enzymatic Digestion from Murine Anti-MRSA PBP2a Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Anna Erika Vieira; de Souza, Natalia Plinio; de Sousa, Alvaro Paiva Braga; Lara, Flavio Alves; Senna, Jose Procopio Moreno

    2018-05-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a worldwide health problem. In a previous study, a murine monoclonal antibody (mMAB), capable of binding to PBP2a within MRSA strains, was generated. F(ab') 2 antibody fragments are widely described in the literature as immunochemical tools and reagents for diagnostics and therapeutics, particularly because of their low immunogenicity and rapid pharmacokinetics. In this study, F(ab') 2 fragments from mMAB were generated by enzymatic digestion, using pepsin. They were purified by affinity chromatography using protein A and concentrated by a MWCO 50 kDa filtration unit. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain F(ab') 2 fragments by pepsin digestion. ELISA, western blotting, and fluorescence microscopy data demonstrated that F(ab') 2 affinity for PBP2a is not lost even after the enzymatic digestion process. As expected, in the pharmacokinetics tests, F(ab') 2 presented a faster elimination (between 12 and 18 h) compared to IgG. These F(ab') 2 fragments could be used in future immunodiagnostic applications, including in vitro or in situ radiolabeling and in the treatment of infections caused by this important pathogen.

  4. History of California's AB 1725 and Its Major Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Tab

    This paper addresses the history of California's Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725) legislation and describes its major provisions. Signed in 1988 by Governor George Deukmejian, AB 1725's focus is to emphasize the new role of California community colleges as postsecondary institutions committed to transferring students, offering remedial courses, and…

  5. 7 CFR Exhibits A-B to Subpart G... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] A Exhibits A-B to Subpart G to Part 1822 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS..., Procedures, and Authorizations Exhibits A-B to Subpart G to Part 1822 [Reserved] ...

  6. Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.

  7. 34 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 682 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-B to Part 682 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Appendixes A-B to Part 682 [Reserved] ...

  8. Evolving nucleotide binding surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieber-Emmons, T.; Rein, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the stability and nature of binding of a nucleotide to several known dehydrogenases. The employed approach includes calculation of hydrophobic stabilization of the binding motif and its intermolecular interaction with the ligand. The evolutionary changes of the binding motif are studied by calculating the Euclidean deviation of the respective dehydrogenases. Attention is given to the possible structural elements involved in the origin of nucleotide recognition by non-coded primordial polypeptides.

  9. Keratins Regulate p38MAPK-Dependent Desmoglein Binding Properties in Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Walter, Elias; Fuchs, Michael; Radeva, Mariya Y.; Buechau, Fanny; Magin, Thomas M.; Spindler, Volker; Waschke, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Keratins are crucial for the anchorage of desmosomes. Severe alterations of keratin organization and detachment of filaments from the desmosomal plaque occur in the autoimmune dermatoses pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus (PF), which are mainly caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3. Keratin alterations are a structural hallmark in pemphigus pathogenesis and correlate with loss of intercellular adhesion. However, the significance for autoantibody-induced loss of intercellular adhesion is largely unknown. In wild-type (wt) murine keratinocytes, pemphigus autoantibodies induced keratin filament retraction. Under the same conditions, we used murine keratinocytes lacking all keratin filaments (KtyII k.o.) as a model system to dissect the role of keratins in pemphigus. KtyII k.o. cells show compromised intercellular adhesion without antibody (Ab) treatment, which was not impaired further by pathogenic pemphigus autoantibodies. Nevertheless, direct activation of p38MAPK via anisomycin further decreased intercellular adhesion indicating that cell cohesion was not completely abrogated in the absence of keratins. Direct inhibition of Dsg3, but not of Dsg1, interaction via pathogenic autoantibodies as revealed by atomic force microscopy was detectable in both cell lines demonstrating that keratins are not required for this phenomenon. However, PF-IgG shifted Dsg1-binding events from cell borders toward the free cell surface in wt cells. This led to a distribution pattern of Dsg1-binding events similar to KtyII k.o. cells under resting conditions. In keratin-deficient keratinocytes, PF-IgG impaired Dsg1-binding strength, which was not different from wt cells under resting conditions. In addition, pathogenic autoantibodies were capable of activating p38MAPK in both KtyII wt and k.o. cells, the latter of which already displayed robust p38MAPK activation under resting conditions. Since inhibition of p38MAPK blocked autoantibody-induced loss of

  10. Human sex hormone-binding globulin binding affinities of 125 structurally diverse chemicals and comparison with their binding to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, and α-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huixiao; Branham, William S; Ng, Hui Wen; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacey L; Fang, Hong; Perkins, Roger; Sheehan, Daniel; Tong, Weida

    2015-02-01

    One endocrine disruption mechanism is through binding to nuclear receptors such as the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in target cells. The concentration of a chemical in serum is important for its entry into the target cells to bind the receptors, which is regulated by the serum proteins. Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the major transport protein in serum that can bind androgens and estrogens and thus change a chemical's availability to enter the target cells. Sequestration of an androgen or estrogen in the serum can alter the chemical elicited AR- and ER-mediated responses. To better understand the chemical-induced endocrine activity, we developed a competitive binding assay using human pregnancy plasma and measured the binding to the human SHBG for 125 structurally diverse chemicals, most of which were known to bind AR and ER. Eighty seven chemicals were able to bind the human SHBG in the assay, whereas 38 chemicals were nonbinders. Binding data for human SHBG are compared with that for rat α-fetoprotein, ER and AR. Knowing the binding profiles between serum and nuclear receptors will improve assessment of a chemical's potential for endocrine disruption. The SHBG binding data reported here represent the largest data set of structurally diverse chemicals tested for human SHBG binding. Utilization of the SHBG binding data with AR and ER binding data could enable better evaluation of endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals through AR- and ER-mediated responses since sequestration in serum could be considered. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Undoing Gender through Legislation and Schooling: The Case of AB 537 and AB 394 in California, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools…

  12. Adhesion of Lactobacillus iners AB-1 to human fibronectin: a key mediator for persistence in the vagina?

    PubMed

    McMillan, Amy; Macklaim, Jean M; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2013-07-01

    Lactobacillus iners is prominent in the human vagina and is able to persist despite development of bacterial vaginosis and treatment with antibiotics. A probable factor in its persistent survival is its ability to be retained in the vaginal epithelia. Genome sequencing of the strain showed an organism deplete of many metabolic pathways, yet equipped with fibronectin (Fn)-binding adhesins. The objective of the present study was to assess the ability of L iners AB-1 to bind immobilized Fn. Results showed that the organism superiorly bound the protein compared to other species of Lactobacillus and known binders such as Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of L iners cells by protease rendered its binding abilities to Fn nonfunctional. The findings indicate a mechanism of vaginal persistence for a Lactobacillus species, with implications for reproductive health.

  13. Binding determinants in the interplay between porcine aminopeptidase N and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengpeng; Quan, Guomei; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yiting; Zhou, Mingxu; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Jianzhong; Liu, Siguo; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2018-02-26

    The binding of F4 + enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and the specific receptor on porcine intestinal epithelial cells is the initial step in F4 + ETEC infection. Porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) is a newly discovered receptor for F4 fimbriae that binds directly to FaeG adhesin, which is the major subunit of the F4 fimbriae variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad. We used overlapping peptide assays to map the APN-FaeG binding sites, which has facilitated in the identifying the APN-binding amino acids that are located in the same region of FaeG variants, thereby limiting the major binding regions of APN to 13 peptides. To determine the core sequence motif, a panel of FaeG peptides with point mutations and FaeG mutants were constructed. Pull-down and binding reactivity assays using piglet intestines determined that the amino acids G159 of F4ab, N209 and L212 of F4ac, and A200 of F4ad were the critical residues for APN binding of FaeG. We further show using ELISA and confocal microscopy assay that amino acids 553-568, and 652-670 of the APN comprise the linear epitope for FaeG binding in all three F4 fimbriae variants.

  14. Role of 'B-b' knob-hole interactions in fibrin binding to adsorbed fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Geer, C B; Tripathy, A; Schoenfisch, M H; Lord, S T; Gorkun, O V

    2007-12-01

    The formation of a fibrin clot is supported by multiple interactions, including those between polymerization knobs 'A' and 'B' exposed by thrombin cleavage and polymerization holes 'a' and 'b' present in fibrinogen and fibrin. Although structural studies have defined the 'A-a' and 'B-b' interactions in part, it has not been possible to measure the affinities of individual knob-hole interactions in the absence of the other interactions occurring in fibrin. We designed experiments to determine the affinities of knob-hole interactions, either 'A-a' alone or 'A-a' and 'B-b' together. We used surface plasmon resonance to measure binding between adsorbed fibrinogen and soluble fibrin fragments containing 'A' knobs, desA-NDSK, or both 'A' and 'B' knobs, desAB-NDSK. The desA- and desAB-NDSK fragments bound to fibrinogen with statistically similar K(d)'s of 5.8 +/- 1.1 microm and 3.7 +/- 0.7 microm (P = 0.14), respectively. This binding was specific, as we saw no significant binding of NDSK, which has no exposed knobs. Moreover, the synthetic 'A' knob peptide GPRP and synthetic 'B' knob peptides GHRP and AHRPY, inhibited the binding of desA- and/or desAB-NDSK. The peptide inhibition findings show both 'A-a' and 'B-b' interactions participate in desAB-NDSK binding to fibrinogen, indicating 'B-b' interactions can occur simultaneously with 'A-a'. Furthermore, 'A-a' interactions are much stronger than 'B-b' because the affinity of desA-NDSK was not markedly different from desAB-NDSK.

  15. Altered regulation of Fc gamma RII on aged follicular dendritic cells correlates with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif signaling in B cells and reduced germinal center formation.

    PubMed

    Aydar, Yüksel; Balogh, Péter; Tew, John G; Szakal, Andras K

    2003-12-01

    Aging is associated with reduced trapping of Ag in the form of in immune complexes (ICs) by follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). We postulated that this defect was due to altered regulation of IC trapping receptors. The level of FDC-M1, complement receptors 1 and 2, FcgammaRII, and FDC-M2 on FDCs was immunohistochemically quantitated in draining lymph nodes of actively immunized mice for 10 days after Ag challenge. Initially, FDC FcgammaRII levels were similar but by day 3 a drastic reduction in FDC-FcgammaRII expression was apparent in old mice. FDC-M2 labeling, reflecting IC trapping, was also reduced and correlated with a dramatic reduction in germinal center (GC) B cells as indicated by reduced GC size and number. Nevertheless, labeling of FDC reticula with FDC-M1 and anti-complement receptors 1 and 2 was preserved, indicating that FDCs were present. FDCs in active GCs normally express high levels of FcRs that are thought to bind Fc portions of Abs in ICs and minimize their binding to FcRs on B cells. Thus, cross-linking of B cell receptor and FcR via IC is minimized, thereby reducing signaling via the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif. Old FDCs taken at day 3, when they lack FcgammaRII, were incapable of preventing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif signaling in wild-type B cells but old FDCs stimulated B cells from FcgammaRIIB(-/-) mice to produce near normal levels of specific Ab. The present data support the concept that FcR are regulated abnormally on old FDCs. This abnormality correlates with a reduced IC retention and with a reduced capacity of FDCs to present ICs in a way that will activate GC B cells.

  16. Exploring the feasibility of an anti-idiotypic cocaine vaccine: analysis of the specificity of anticocaine antibodies (Ab1) capable of inducing Ab2beta anti-idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schabacker, D S; Kirschbaum, K S; Segre, M

    2000-05-01

    Conventional vaccination with the cocaine molecule conjugated to a protein carrier is a new approach in the treatment of addiction. Experimentally, this strategy has been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics as well as the psychostimulant effect of a cocaine challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a more stable and less controversial molecule, an anti-idiotypic antibody, which mimics the configuration of the cocaine molecule (Ab2beta), could be successfully used instead of cocaine. Two cocaine conjugates that presented different areas of the cocaine molecule to the immune system were used to produce monoclonal antibodies specific for cocaine (Ab1). Several anti-idiotypic antibodies were then produced. Four were identified as Ab2beta, or internal images of the antigen; when injected into BALB/c mice, they elicited an anticocaine response. The anticocaine response elicited by one of the four Ab2beta (K1-4c) was sufficient to significantly reduce the level of cocaine that targeted the brain following cocaine challenge, compared with the level of cocaine found in the brain of control animals immunized with irrelevant antibody. In conclusion, the possibility of an anti-idiotypic vaccine seems to be worth pursuing.

  17. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  18. Optimization of Antibiotic Use in Hospitals – Antimicrobial Stewardship and the EU Project ABS International

    PubMed Central

    Allerberger, Franz; Lechner, Arno; Wechsler-Fördös, Agnes; Gareis, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The problem of antimicrobial resistance requires common strategies at the European level. Methods We report on an EU initiative fostering antibiotic (AB) stewardship (ABS) in hospitals. Results The project ‘ABS International: implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the EU’ started in September 2006 in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. A training program for national ABS trainers was prepared and standard templates for ABS tools (AB list, guidelines for AB treatment and surgical prophylaxis, and AB-related organization) and valid process measures as well as quality indicators for AB use were developed. Specific ABS tools are being implemented in up to five health care facilities per country. Conclusion ABS International is the first EU-funded initiative focusing on the implementation of structural measures in hospitals to promote the prudent use of ABs. PMID:18667815

  19. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1

    PubMed Central

    Kelker, Matthew S.; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L.; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G.; Wang, Nick X.; Russell, Joshua C.; Baker, Matthew D.; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J. W.; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J.; Narva, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins. PMID:25390338

  20. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  1. Ab initio gene identification in metagenomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhan; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for gene identification in DNA sequences derived from shotgun sequencing of microbial communities. Accurate ab initio gene prediction in a short nucleotide sequence of anonymous origin is hampered by uncertainty in model parameters. While several machine learning approaches could be proposed to bypass this difficulty, one effective method is to estimate parameters from dependencies, formed in evolution, between frequencies of oligonucleotides in protein-coding regions and genome nucleotide composition. Original version of the method was proposed in 1999 and has been used since for (i) reconstructing codon frequency vector needed for gene finding in viral genomes and (ii) initializing parameters of self-training gene finding algorithms. With advent of new prokaryotic genomes en masse it became possible to enhance the original approach by using direct polynomial and logistic approximations of oligonucleotide frequencies, as well as by separating models for bacteria and archaea. These advances have increased the accuracy of model reconstruction and, subsequently, gene prediction. We describe the refined method and assess its accuracy on known prokaryotic genomes split into short sequences. Also, we show that as a result of application of the new method, several thousands of new genes could be added to existing annotations of several human and mouse gut metagenomes. PMID:20403810

  2. Ab initio simulations of molten Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Christopher; Asta, Mark; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Lill, James; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Convective instabilities responsible for misoriented grains in directionally solidified turbine airfoils are produced by variations in liquid-metal density with composition and temperature across the solidification zone. Here, fundamental properties of molten Ni-based alloys, required for modeling these instabilities, are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Equations of state are derived from constant number-volume-temperature ensembles at 1830 and 1750 K for elemental, binary (Ni-X, X=Al, W, Re, and Ta) and ternary (Ni-Al-X, X=W, Re, and Ta) Ni alloys. Calculated molar volumes agree to within 0.6%-1.8% of available measurements. Predictions are used to investigate the range of accuracy of a parameterization of molar volumes with composition and temperature based on measurements of binary alloys. Structural analysis reveals a pronounced tendency for icosahedral short-range order for Ni-W and Ni-Re alloys and the calculations provide estimates of diffusion rates and their dependence on compositions and temperature.

  3. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  4. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  5. Monoclonal and anti-idiotypic anti-EBV/C3d receptor antibodies detect two binding sites, one for EBV and one for C3d on glycoprotein 140, the EBV/C3dR, expressed on human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Barel, M; Fiandino, A; Delcayre, A X; Lyamani, F; Frade, R

    1988-09-01

    Glycoprotein (gp) 140, the EBV/C3dR of B lymphocytes, is a membrane site involved in human cell regulation. To analyze the specificities of the binding sites for EBV and for C3d on the gp 140 molecule, two distinct approaches were used. First, anti-EBV/C3dR mAb were prepared against highly purified EBV/C3dR. Nine anti-EBV/C3dR mAb were obtained. Four of these anti-EBV/C3dR mAb inhibited C3d binding but not EBV binding on gp 140, whereas four others exerted an inverse effect. These differences could not be due to differences in isotype, antibody concentration, affinity constant, and number of molecules bound on cell surface, as these parameters were identical for the nine used mAb. Second, polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) were prepared against F(ab)'2 fragments of polyclonal anti-EBV/C3dR (Ab1). Ab2 recognized the variable portion of Ab1 as controlled by immunoblotting experiments. Ab2, which did not react with the cell surface, inhibited Ab1 binding on Raji cells. Ab2 mimicked the EBV/C3dR by its properties to bind to particle-bound C3d and EBV, preventing their binding on Raji cell surface. C3d binding specificities contained in Ab2 were isolated by affinity chromatography on C3b/C3bi-Sepharose. These specificities, being the internal image of C3d binding site of EBV/C3dR, reacted with Ab1 and inhibited particle-bound C3d binding on Raji cells but did not react with EBV. Taken together, these data support strongly that gp 140, the EBV/C3dR, carried two distinct binding sites, one for EBV and one for C3d.

  6. Phanerozoic extensional faulting and alteration control on uranium mineralization in trachytes of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, Mohamed M.; Waheeb, Anton G.; Aly, Samir M.; Farag, Nagdy M.; Sadek, Adel F.

    2017-12-01

    The Gabal Nasb El Atshan Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian altered trachytes include uranium up to 3165 ppm. The paleostress and resolved shear stress analyses of the deformation systems in Gabal Nasb El Atshan area indicate that the trachyte was subjected to WNW-ESE to E-W tensile shear stress directed extensional regimes. The low-stress regions in the vicinity of extensional faults and their associated joints were favorable locations for fluid flow and the consequence alteration and U-mineralization. This occurred more extensively along the contacts between the sills of trachyte and the Hammamat sedimentary rocks; where the latter acted as a physical barrier for the alteration fluids migration outward. Alteration styles include albitization, aegirinization, arfvedsonization, chloritization and ferruginisation. The albitization is the most common sodic metasomatism, giving sanidine from Or98.8Ab0.7 to Or62.3Ab37.6, anorthoclase from Or51.4Ab48.0 to Or12.2Ab87.6 and albite from Or11.0Ab89.0 to Or0.8Ab99.2. Aegirine and arfvedsonite formed due to decreasing sodium activity in the metasomatic fluids. Sodic metasomatism may be the source of uranium-enrichment, taking place during the late magmatic to deuteric processes. This was followed by a retrograde alteration of chloritization between 175 and 42 °C toward precipitation of Fe-oxides and alteration of primary uranium. Surficial low-temperature alteration remobilized and redistributed the produced uranylhydroxides and ferruginisation caused the reduction and adsorption of U forming betafite, uranophane, soddyite, umohoite, uranotile and uranopilite.

  7. Isolation of a peptide from Ph.D.-C7C phage display library for detection of Cry1Ab.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Qian; Wu, Ai-Hua; Hao, Zhen-Ping; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2017-12-15

    Traditional ELISA methods of using animal immunity yield antibodies for detection Cry toxin. Not only is this incredibly harmful to the animals, but is also time-intensive. Here we developed a simple method to yield the recognition element. Using a critical selection strategy and immunoassay we confirmed a clone from the Ph.D-C7C phage library, which has displayed the most interesting Cry1Ab-binding characteristics examined in this study (Fig. 1). The current study indicates that isolating peptide is an alternative method for the preparation of a recognition element, and that the developed assay is a potentially useful tool for detecting Cry1Ab. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mapping of binding epitopes of a human decay-accelerating factor monoclonal antibody capable of enhancing rituximab-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bo; Ma, Zheng-wei; Li, Hua; Xu, Gui-lian; Zheng, Ping; Zhu, Bo; Wu, Yu-Zhang; Zou, Qiang

    2008-08-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is thought to be one of the most important mechanisms of action of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The decay-accelerating factor (DAF) overexpressed in certain tumors limits the CDC effect of the therapeutic anticancer antibodies. The use of DAF blocking antibodies targeted specifically at cancer cells in combination with immunotherapeutic mAbs of cancer may improve the therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this study, the lysis of Raji cells mediated by CDC was determined after blocking DAF function by anti-DAF polyclonal antibody and 3 mAbs (DG3, DG9, DA11) prepared in our laboratory, respectively, in the presence of the anti-CD20 chimeric mAb rituximab. The binding domains of the three anti-DAF mAbs were identified using yeast surface display technique, and the mimic epitopes of mAb DG3 were screened from a random phage-display nonapeptide library. The results showed that blocking DAF function by anti-DAF polyclonal antibody enhanced complement-mediated killing of Raji cells. Among the 3 mAbs against DAF, only DG3 was found to be able to remarkably enhance the CDC effect of the therapeutic mAb rituximab. DG3 bound to the third short consensus repeat (SCR) of DAF. Binding of DG3 to immobilized DAF was inhibited by mimic epitope peptides screened from the peptide library. Our results suggest that a higher level of DAF expressed by certain tumor cells is significant to abolish the CDC effect of therapeutic anticancer antibodies, and mAbs binding to SCR3 can enhance the complement-mediated killing of Raji cells. It is of significance to identify the DAF epitopes required in inhibiting CDC not only for better understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of DAF, but also for designing and developing anti-DAF mAbs capable of enhancing CDC.

  9. [Find your way in the jungle of mAbs].

    PubMed

    Watier, H

    2017-09-01

    The rapidly increasing number of approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and the huge number of mAbs in clinical development are a matter of concern for who wants to easily identify targets, indications, mechanisms of action and possible adverse effects. The current nomenclature being of limited interest, simple rationales will be presented for helping practitioners in rapidly classify mAbs depending on their structure-pharmacology relationship and in evaluating their potential effects, particularly in transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dazhkova, N G; Salimov, E L

    2013-01-01

    The experience of 28 kidney allotransplantations from the AB0-incompatible donors was analyzed. The comparative group consisted of 38 patients, who received the AB0-compatible organ. The results were assessed using the following parameters: renal function, morphology of the biopsy samples of the transplanted kidney and actuary survival of the recipients with functioning transplants in both groups. The comparative analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups, giving the right to consider the kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors safe and effective.

  11. Comparisons of Transcriptional Profiles of Gut Genes between Cry1Ab-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Ostrinia nubilalis Revealed Genes Possibly Related to the Adaptation of Resistant Larvae to Transgenic Cry1Ab Corn.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Nanyan; Buschman, Lawrent L; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2017-01-30

    A microarray developed on the basis of 2895 unique transcripts from larval gut was used to compare gut gene expression profiles between a laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant (R) strain and its isoline susceptible (S) strain of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) after the larvae were fed the leaves of transgenic corn (MON810) expressing Cry1Ab or its non-transgenic isoline for 6 h. We revealed 398 gut genes differentially expressed (i.e., either up- or down-regulated genes with expression ratio ≥2.0) in S-strain, but only 264 gut genes differentially expressed in R-strain after being fed transgenic corn leaves. Although the percentages of down-regulated genes among the total number of differentially expressed genes (50% in S-strain and 45% in R-strain) were similar between the R- and S-strains, the expression ratios of down-regulated genes were much higher in S-strain than in R-strain. We revealed that 17 and 9 significantly up- or down-regulated gut genes from S and R-strain, respectively, including serine proteases and aminopeptidases. These genes may be associated with Cry1Ab toxicity by degradation, binding, and cellular defense. Overall, our study suggests enhanced adaptation of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on transgenic Cry1Ab corn as revealed by lower number and lower ratios of differentially expressed genes in R-strain than in S-strain of O. nubilalis.

  12. Modification of opiate agonist binding by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, M.E.; Lee, N.M.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    Opiate agonist binding is decreased by GTP, suggesting the possible involvement of GTP binding proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding. This possibility was addressed by asking whether pertussis toxin treatment, which results in ADP-ribosylation and modification of G proteins, would alter opiate agonist binding. The striatum was chosen for the initial brain area to be studied, since regulation of opiate action in this area had been shown to be modified by pertussis toxin. Treatment of striatal membranes with pertussis toxin results in up to a 55% decrease in /sup 3/(H)-DADLE binding as compared with membranes treated identically without toxin.more » This corresponds to a near complete ADP-ribosylation of both G proteins in the striatal membrane. The decrease in agonist binding appears to be due to an altered affinity of the receptor for agonist as opposed to a decrease in the number of sites. This effect of pertussis toxin on opiate agonist binding demonstrates the actual involvement of G proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding.« less

  13. Revealing strategies of quorum sensing in Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Josiane; Abrantes, Julia Laura Fernandes; Del Cerro, Pablo; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2018-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is an important plant-growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) that requires several critical steps for root colonization, including biofilm and exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and cell motility. In several bacteria these mechanisms are mediated by quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the expression of specific genes mediated by the autoinducers N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). We investigated QS mechanisms in strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 of A. brasilense, which are broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. Neither of these strains carries a luxI gene, but there are several luxR solos that might perceive AHL molecules. By adding external AHLs we verified that biofilm and EPS production and cell motility (swimming and swarming) were regulated via QS in Ab-V5, but not in Ab-V6. Differences were observed not only between strains, but also in the specificity of LuxR-type receptors to AHL molecules. However, Ab-V6 was outstanding in indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis and this molecule might mimic AHL signals. We also applied the quorum quenching (QQ) strategy, obtaining transconjugants of Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 carrying a plasmid with acyl-homoserine lactonase. When maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with the wild-type and transconjugant strains, plant growth was decreased with the transconjugant of Ab-V5-confirming the importance of an AHL-mediated QS system-but did not affect plant growth promotion by Ab-V6.

  14. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding asmore » a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.« less

  15. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-02-07

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.

  16. Construction and characterization of an anti-CD20 mAb nanocomb with exceptionally excellent lymphoma-suppressing activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Fei; Wu, Cong; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Ge; Zhao, He; Ke, Chang-Hong; Xu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The CD20-directed monoclonal antibody rituximab (RTX) established a new era in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, suboptimal response and/or resistance to RTX still limit its clinical merits. Although four effector mechanisms are validated to participate in CD20-based immunotherapy, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and lysosome-mediated programmed cell death (PCD), they could hardly be synchronously activated by any anti-CD20 mAb or mAb derivative until now. Herein, a novel mAb nanocomb (polyethylenimine polymer–RTX–tositumomab [PPRT nanocomb]) was firstly constructed through mass arming two different anti-CD20 mAbs (RTX and tositumomab) to one polymer by nanotechnology. Comparing with free mAbs, PPRT nanocomb possesses a comparable binding ability and reduced “off-rate” to surface CD20 of NHL cells. When treated by PPRT nanocomb, the caspase-dependent apoptosis was remarkably enhanced except for concurrently eliciting complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and lysosome-mediated PCD. Besides, “cross-cell link”-assisted homotypic adhesion by PPRT nanocomb further enhanced the susceptibility to PCD of lymphoma cells. Pharmacokinetic assays revealed that PPRT nanocomb experienced a relatively reduced clearance from peripheral blood compared with free antibodies. With the cooperation of all the abovementioned superiorities, PPRT nanocomb exhibits exceptionally excellent in vivo antitumor activities in both disseminated and localized human NHL xenotransplant models. PMID:26257518

  17. Neutralisation and binding of VHS virus by monovalent antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Cupit, P M; Lorenzen, N; Strachan, G; Kemp, G J; Secombes, C J; Cunningham, C

    2001-12-04

    We have previously reported the cloning and characterisation of the heavy and light chain variable domain genes encoding three monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) that bind viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two of these antibodies, 3F1H10 and 3F1A2 both neutralised the virus though 3F1A2 appeared to recognise a broader range of virus isolates. The variable domains of these two antibodies differ by only four residues (Lorenzen et al., 2000a. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 10, 129-142). To further study the mechanism of neutralisation, Fab fragments as well as a series of recombinant bacterial single chain antibody (scAb) fragments were generated from the three anti-VHSV Mabs and their variable domain genes, respectively. Fabs and scAbs derived from the neutralising Mabs were both able to neutralise the VHSV type 1 isolate DK-F1. In addition, a series of scAb fragments were produced using the 3F1H10 variable heavy (VH) chain and variable light (Vkappa) chain domains but containing, either alone or in dual combination, each of the four different residues present in 3F1A2. The dissociation constants of Mabs 3F1H10 and 3F1A2 and their respective Fab and scAb fragments were measured by BIAcore analysis and found to correlate with the capacity of each molecule to neutralise DK-F1. These investigations, together with computer assisted molecular analysis of the theoretical influence of each mutation on antigen binding, led to the identification of a single mutation at position 35a in the VH domain as having the most marked impact on viral neutralisation.

  18. Ab Initio Calculations of Water Line Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry

    1998-01-01

    We report on the determination of a high quality ab initiu potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function for water. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base with J less than 6 for H2O. The changes in the PES are small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Using this adjusted PES, we can match 30,092 of the 30,117 transitions in the HITRAN 96 data base for H2O with theoretical lines. The 10,25,50,75, and 90 percentiles of the difference between the calculated and tabulated line positions are -0.11, -0.04, -0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 l/cm. Non-adiabatic effects are not explicitly included. About 3% of the tabulated line positions appear to be incorrect. Similar agreement using this adjusted PES is obtained for the oxygen 17 and oxygen 18 isotopes. For HDO, the agreement is not as good, with root-mean-square error of 0.25 l/cm for lines with J less than 6. This error is reduced to 0.02 l/cm by including a small asymmetric correction to the PES, which is parameterized by simultaneously fitting to HDO md D2O data. Scaling this correction by mass factors yields good results for T2O and HTO. The intensities summed over vibrational bands are usually in good agreement between the calculations and the tabulated results, but individual lines strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature list consisting of 307,721,352 lines is generated for H2O using our PES and dipole moment function.

  19. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  20. Different Results of IgE Binding- and Crosslinking-Based Allergy Tests Caused by Allergen Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Uchida, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Matsuzawa, Yumiko; Soma, Megumi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical nature of allergen molecules differ from the liquid phase to the solid phase. However, conventional allergy tests are based on the detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)E binding to immobilized allergens. We recently developed an in vitro allergy testing method using a luciferase-reporting humanized rat mast cell line to detect IgE crosslinking-induced luciferase expression (EXiLE test). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antigen immobilization on the results of different in vitro allergy tests using two anti-ovalbumin (OVA) antibodies (Abs), E-C1 and E-G5, with different properties in the OVA-induced allergic reaction. Both Abs showed clear binding to OVA with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by BIAcore analysis. However, only E-C1 potentiated EXiLE response for the liquid-phase OVA. On the other hand, OVA immobilized on solid-phase induced EXiLE responses in both E-C1 Ab- and E-G5 Ab-sensitized mast cells. Western blotting of OVA indicated that E-C1 Ab binds both to OVA monomers and dimers, unlike E-G5 Ab, which probably binds only to the OVA dimer. These results suggest that antigen immobilization enhanced IgE crosslinking ability through multimerization of allergen molecules in the solid phase, resulting in an increase in false positives in IgE binding-based conventional in vitro allergy tests. These findings shed light on the physicochemical nature of antigens as an important factor for the development and evaluation of in vitro allergy tests and suggest that mast cell activation-based allergy testing with liquid-phase allergens is a promising strategy to evaluate the physiological interactions of IgE and allergens.

  1. Creep Behavior of ABS Polymer in Temperature-Humidity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Teagen; Selvaraj, Ramya; Hong, Seokmoo; Kim, Naksoo

    2017-04-01

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), also known as a thermoplastic polymer, is extensively utilized for manufacturing home appliances products as it possess impressive mechanical properties, such as, resistance and toughness. However, the aforementioned properties are affected by operating temperature and atmosphere humidity due to the viscoelasticity property of an ABS polymer material. Moreover, the prediction of optimum working conditions are the little challenging task as it influences the final properties of product. This present study aims to develop the finite element (FE) models for predicting the creep behavior of an ABS polymeric material. In addition, the material constants, which represent the creep properties of an ABS polymer material, were predicted with the help of an interpolation function. Furthermore, a comparative study has been made with experiment and simulation results to verify the accuracy of developed FE model. The results showed that the predicted value from FE model could agree well with experimental data as well it can replicate the actual creep behavior flawlessly.

  2. Evolving trends in mAb production processes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Leslie S.; Mostafa, Sigma S.; Norman, Carnley

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have established themselves as the leading biopharmaceutical therapeutic modality. The establishment of robust manufacturing platforms are key for antibody drug discovery efforts to seamlessly translate into clinical and commercial successes. Several drivers are influencing the design of mAb manufacturing processes. The advent of biosimilars is driving a desire to achieve lower cost of goods and globalize biologics manufacturing. High titers are now routinely achieved for mAbs in mammalian cell culture. These drivers have resulted in significant evolution in process platform approaches. Additionally, several new trends in bioprocessing have arisen in keeping with these needs. These include the consideration of alternative expression systems, continuous biomanufacturing and non‐chromatographic separation formats. This paper discusses these drivers in the context of the kinds of changes they are driving in mAb production processes. PMID:29313024

  3. AB toxins: a paradigm switch from deadly to desirable.

    PubMed

    Odumosu, Oludare; Nicholas, Dequina; Yano, Hiroshi; Langridge, William

    2010-07-01

    To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity.

  4. Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)

  5. Comparison of In Vitro Activity of Liposomal Nystatin against Aspergillus Species with Those of Nystatin, Amphotericin B (AB) Deoxycholate, AB Colloidal Dispersion, Liposomal AB, AB Lipid Complex, and Itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Karen L.; Moore, Caroline B.; Denning, David W.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the in vitro activity of liposomal nystatin (Nyotran) with those of other antifungal agents against 60 Aspergillus isolates. Twelve isolates were itraconazole resistant. For all isolates, geometric mean (GM) MICs (micrograms per milliliter) were 2.30 for liposomal nystatin, 0.58 for itraconazole, 0.86 for amphotericin B (AB) deoxycholate, 9.51 for nystatin, 2.07 for liposomal AB, 2.57 for AB lipid complex, and 0.86 for AB colloidal dispersion. Aspergillus terreus (GM, 8.72 μg/ml; range, 8 to 16 μg/ml) was significantly less susceptible to all of the polyene drugs than all other species (P = 0.0001). PMID:10223948

  6. Effect of the Protein Corona on Antibody-Antigen Binding in Nanoparticle Sandwich Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    de Puig, Helena; Bosch, Irene; Carré-Camps, Marc; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2017-01-18

    We investigated the effect of the protein corona on the function of nanoparticle (NP) antibody (Ab) conjugates in dipstick sandwich immunoassays. Ab specific for Zika virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were conjugated to gold NPs, and another anti-NS1 Ab was immobilized onto the nitrocellulose membrane. Sandwich immunoassay formation was influenced by whether the strip was run in corona forming conditions, i.e., in human serum. Strips run in buffer or pure solutions of bovine serum albumin exhibited false positives, but those run in human serum did not. Serum pretreatment of the nitrocellulose also eliminated false positives. Corona formation around the NP-Ab in serum was faster than the immunoassay time scale. Langmuir binding analysis determined how the immobilized Ab affinity for the NP-Ab/NS1 was impacted by corona formation conditions, quantified as an effective dissociation constant, K D eff . Results show that corona formation mediates the specificity and sensitivity of the antibody-antigen interaction of Zika biomarkers in immunoassays, and plays a critical but beneficial role.

  7. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. IMPORTANCE We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. PMID:26764003

  8. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M

    2016-01-13

    Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of fluid methane properties using ab initio intermolecular interaction potentials.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shih-Wei; Li, Arvin Huang-Te; Chao, Sheng D

    2009-09-01

    Intermolecular interaction energy data for the methane dimer have been calculated at a spectroscopic accuracy and employed to construct an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of fluid methane properties. The full potential curves of the methane dimer at 12 symmetric conformations were calculated by the supermolecule counterpoise-corrected second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. Single-point coupled cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations were also carried out to calibrate the MP2 potentials. We employed Pople's medium size basis sets [up to 6-311++G(3df, 3pd)] and Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets (cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ, X = D, T, Q). For each conformer, the intermolecular carbon-carbon separation was sampled in a step 0.1 A for a range of 3-9 A, resulting in a total of 732 configuration points calculated. The MP2 binding curves display significant anisotropy with respect to the relative orientations of the dimer. The potential curves at the complete basis set (CBS) limit were estimated using well-established analytical extrapolation schemes. A 4-site potential model with sites located at the hydrogen atoms was used to fit the ab initio potential data. This model stems from a hydrogen-hydrogen repulsion mechanism to explain the stability of the dimer structure. MD simulations using the ab initio PES show quantitative agreements on both the atom-wise radial distribution functions and the self-diffusion coefficients over a wide range of experimental conditions. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Superrepression through Altered Corepressor-Activated Protein:Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    He, Chenlu; Custer, Gregory; Wang, Jingheng; Matysiak, Silvina; Beckett, Dorothy

    2018-02-20

    Small molecules regulate transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes by either enhancing or repressing assembly of transcription regulatory complexes. For allosteric transcription repressors, superrepressor mutants can exhibit increased sensitivity to small molecule corepressors. However, because many transcription regulatory complexes assemble in multiple steps, the superrepressor phenotype can reflect changes in any or all of the individual assembly steps. Escherichia coli biotin operon repression complex assembly, which responds to input biotin concentration, occurs via three coupled equilibria, including corepressor binding, holorepressor dimerization, and binding of the dimer to DNA. A genetic screen has yielded superrepressor mutants that repress biotin operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations much lower than those required by the wild type repressor. In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry and sedimentation measurements were used to determine the superrepressor biotin binding and homodimerization properties. The results indicate that, although all variants exhibit biotin binding affinities similar to that measured for BirA wt , five of the six superrepressors show altered homodimerization energetics. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the altered dimerization results from perturbation of an electrostatic network that contributes to allosteric activation of BirA for dimerization. Modeling of the multistep repression complex assembly for these proteins reveals that the altered sensitivity of the transcription response to biotin concentration is readily explained solely by the altered superrepressor homodimerization energetics. These results highlight how coupled equilibria enable alterations in a transcription regulatory response to input signal through an indirect mechanism.

  11. A note on AB INITIO semiconductor band structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentini, Vincenzo

    1992-09-01

    We point out that only the internal features of the DFT ab initio theoretical picture of a crystal should be used in a consistent ab initio calculation of the band structure. As a consequence, we show that ground-state band structure calculations should be performed for the system in equilibrium at zero pressure, i.e. at the computed equilibrium cell volume ω th. Examples of consequences of this attitude are considered.

  12. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  13. How Proteins Bind Macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Elizabeth A.; Beglov, Dmitri; Chennamadhavuni, Spandan; Porco, John A.; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Whitty, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The potential utility of synthetic macrocycles as drugs, particularly against low druggability targets such as protein-protein interactions, has been widely discussed. There is little information, however, to guide the design of macrocycles for good target protein-binding activity or bioavailability. To address this knowledge gap we analyze the binding modes of a representative set of macrocycle-protein complexes. The results, combined with consideration of the physicochemical properties of approved macrocyclic drugs, allow us to propose specific guidelines for the design of synthetic macrocycles libraries possessing structural and physicochemical features likely to favor strong binding to protein targets and also good bioavailability. We additionally provide evidence that large, natural product derived macrocycles can bind to targets that are not druggable by conventional, drug-like compounds, supporting the notion that natural product inspired synthetic macrocycles can expand the number of proteins that are druggable by synthetic small molecules. PMID:25038790

  14. Identification of 50- and 23-/25-kDa HeLa cell membrane glycoproteins involved in poliovirus infection: occurrence of poliovirus specific binding sites on susceptible and nonsusceptible cells.

    PubMed

    Barnert, R H; Zeichhardt, H; Habermehl, K O

    1992-02-01

    Glycoproteins in the range 50 and 23/25 kDa were identified as poliovirus specific binding sites on HeLa cells with the monoclonal antibody mAb 122. mAb 122 is characterized by its partial inhibiting effect on poliovirus reproduction and adsorption when prebound to HeLa cells. The binding sites are endocytosed in native cells and specific for poliovirus as mAb 122 did not interfere with the adsorption of human rhinovirus type 14 (HRV 14). The poliovirus binding sites are present also on nonprimate so called nonsusceptible cells, e.g., mouse L-cells, as could be shown with sensitive ELISA based binding assays and performance of binding studies with fixed cells at 37 degrees.

  15. Ab Initio Computation of Dynamical Properties: Pressure Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Drouin, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Rotational spectroscopy of polar molecules is the main observational tool in many areas of astrophysics, for gases of low densities (n ˜ 102 - 108 cm-3). Spectral line shapes in astrophysical media are largely dominated by turbulence-induced Doppler effects and natural line broadening are negligible. However line broadening remains an important tool for denser gases, like planetary high atmospheres. Understanding the excitation schemes of polar molecules requires the knowledge of excitation transfer rate due to collisional excitation, between the polar molecule and the ambient gas, usually H2. Transport properties in ionized media also require a precise knowledge of momentum transfer rates by elastic collisions. In order to assess the theoretically computed cross section and energy/momentum transfer rates, direct absolute experiments are scarce. The best way is to measure not individual scattering events but rather the global effect of the buffer gas, thanks to the pressure broadening cross sections, whose magnitude can be measured without any scaling parameters. At low temperatures, both elastic and inelastic scattering amplitudes are tested. At higher temperature, depending on the interaction strength, only inelastic scattering cross section are shown to play a significant role 1 ,2. Thanks to the advances of computer capabilities, it has become practical to compute spectral line parameters fromab initio quantum chemistry. In particular, the theory of rotational line broadening is readily incorporated into scattering quantum dynamical theory, like close-coupling schemes. The only approximations used in the computation are the isolated collision/isolated line approximations. We compute the non-binding interaction potential with high precision quantum chemistry and fit the resulting ab initio points onto a suitable functional. We have recently computed several such systems, for molecules in H2 buffer gas: H2O,3 H2CO,4 HCO+ .5 Detailed computations taking into

  16. Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot Neutralize HIV-1*

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Ashish K.; Rathore, Yogendra S.; Badmalia, Maulik D.; Dhoke, Reema R.; Nath, Samir K.; Nihalani, Deepak; Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric disposition of Fab arms in the structures solved for the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb) IgG1 b12 raised the question of whether the unusual shape observed for b12 is common for all IgG1 mAbs or if there is a difference in the overall shape of nmAbs versus non-nmAbs. We compared small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) data-based models and limited proteolysis profiles of some IgG1 mAbs known to be having and lacking HIV-1 neutralizing potency. In non-nmAbs, the Fab arms were found to be symmetrically disposed in space relative to central Fc, but in most nmAbs, the Fab arms were asymmetrically disposed, as seen for IgG1 b12. The only exceptions were 2G12 and 4E10, where both Fab arms were closed above Fc, suggesting some Fab-Fc and/or Fab-Fab interaction in the nmAbs that constrained extension of the Fab-Fc linker. Interestingly, these observations were correlated with differential proteolysis profiles of the mAbs by papain. Under conditions when papain could cut both Fab arms of non-nmAbs, only one Fab arm could be removed from neutralizing ones (except for 2G12 and 4E10). Chromatography and small angle x-ray scattering results of papain-digested products revealed that 1) the Fab-Fc or Fab-Fab interactions in unliganded mAbs are retained in digested products, and 2) whereas anti-gp120 non-nmAbs could bind two gp120 molecules, nmAbs could bind only one gp120. Additional experiments showed that except for 2G12 and 4E10, unopen shapes of nmAbs remain uninfluenced by ionic strength but can be reversibly opened by low pH of buffer accompanied by loss of ligand binding ability. PMID:25331945

  17. Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot Neutralize HIV-1

    DOE PAGES

    Solanki, Ashish K.; Rathore, Yogendra S.; Badmalia, Maulik D.; ...

    2014-10-20

    Asymmetric disposition of Fab arms in the structures solved for the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb) IgG1 b12 raised the question of whether the unusual shape observed for b12 is common for all IgG1 mAbs or if there is a difference in the overall shape of nmAbs versus non-nmAbs. In this paper, we compared small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) data-based models and limited proteolysis profiles of some IgG1 mAbs known to be having and lacking HIV-1 neutralizing potency. In non-nmAbs, the Fab arms were found to be symmetrically disposed in space relative to central Fc, but in most nmAbs, themore » Fab arms were asymmetrically disposed, as seen for IgG1 b12. The only exceptions were 2G12 and 4E10, where both Fab arms were closed above Fc, suggesting some Fab-Fc and/or Fab-Fab interaction in the nmAbs that constrained extension of the Fab-Fc linker. Interestingly, these observations were correlated with differential proteolysis profiles of the mAbs by papain. Under conditions when papain could cut both Fab arms of non-nmAbs, only one Fab arm could be removed from neutralizing ones (except for 2G12 and 4E10). Chromatography and small angle x-ray scattering results of papain-digested products revealed that 1) the Fab-Fc or Fab-Fab interactions in unliganded mAbs are retained in digested products, and 2) whereas anti-gp120 non-nmAbs could bind two gp120 molecules, nmAbs could bind only one gp120. Finally, additional experiments showed that except for 2G12 and 4E10, unopen shapes of nmAbs remain uninfluenced by ionic strength but can be reversibly opened by low pH of buffer accompanied by loss of ligand binding ability.« less

  18. Four-stranded mini microtubules formed by Prosthecobacter BtubAB show dynamic instability.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xian; Fink, Gero; Bharat, Tanmay A M; He, Shaoda; Kureisaite-Ciziene, Danguole; Löwe, Jan

    2017-07-18

    Microtubules, the dynamic, yet stiff hollow tubes built from αβ-tubulin protein heterodimers, are thought to be present only in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report a 3.6-Å helical reconstruction electron cryomicroscopy structure of four-stranded mini microtubules formed by bacterial tubulin-like Prosthecobacter dejongeii BtubAB proteins. Despite their much smaller diameter, mini microtubules share many key structural features with eukaryotic microtubules, such as an M-loop, alternating subunits, and a seam that breaks overall helical symmetry. Using in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that bacterial mini microtubules treadmill and display dynamic instability, another hallmark of eukaryotic microtubules. The third protein in the btub gene cluster, BtubC, previously known as "bacterial kinesin light chain," binds along protofilaments every 8 nm, inhibits BtubAB mini microtubule catastrophe, and increases rescue. Our work reveals that some bacteria contain regulated and dynamic cytomotive microtubule systems that were once thought to be only useful in much larger and sophisticated eukaryotic cells.

  19. Emergent properties of nuclei from ab initio coupled-cluster calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, G.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Jansen, G. R.; Papenbrock, T.

    2016-06-01

    Emergent properties such as nuclear saturation and deformation, and the effects on shell structure due to the proximity of the scattering continuum and particle decay channels are fascinating phenomena in atomic nuclei. In recent years, ab initio approaches to nuclei have taken the first steps towards tackling the computational challenge of describing these phenomena from Hamiltonians with microscopic degrees of freedom. This endeavor is now possible due to ideas from effective field theories, novel optimization strategies for nuclear interactions, ab initio methods exhibiting a soft scaling with mass number, and ever-increasing computational power. This paper reviews some of the recent accomplishments. We also present new results. The recently optimized chiral interaction NNLO{}{{sat}} is shown to provide an accurate description of both charge radii and binding energies in selected light- and medium-mass nuclei up to 56Ni. We derive an efficient scheme for including continuum effects in coupled-cluster computations of nuclei based on chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces, and present new results for unbound states in the neutron-rich isotopes of oxygen and calcium. The coupling to the continuum impacts the energies of the {J}π =1/{2}-,3/{2}-,7/{2}-,3/{2}+ states in {}{17,23,25}O, and—contrary to naive shell-model expectations—the level ordering of the {J}π =3/{2}+,5/{2}+,9/{2}+ states in {}{53,55,61}Ca. ).

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics of solvation effects on reactivity at electrified interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Herron, Jeffrey A.; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2016-08-08

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics (as implemented in periodic, self-consistent (GGA-PBE) density functional theory (DFT) we investigated the mechanism of methanol electro-oxidation on Pt(111). We investigated the role of solvation and electrode potential on the energetics of the first proton transfer step, methanol electro-oxidation to methoxy (CH 3O) or hydroxymethyl (CH 2OH). The results show that solvation weakens the adsorption of methoxy to uncharged Pt(111), while the binding energy of methanol and hydroxymethyl are not significantly affected. The free energies of activation for breaking the C-H and O-H bonds in methanol were calculated through a Blue Moon Ensemble using constrainedmore » ab initio molecular dynamics. Calculated barriers for these elementary steps on unsolvated, uncharged Pt(111) are similar to results for climbing-image nudged elastic band calculations from the literature. Solvation reduces the barrier for both C-H and O-H bond activation steps with respect to their vapor phase values, though the effect is more pronounced for C-H bond activation due to less disruption of the hydrogen-bond network. The calculated activation energy barriers show that breaking the C-H bond of methanol is more facile than the O-H bond on solvated negatively biased, or uncharged Pt(111). Furthermore, with positive bias, O-H bond activation is enhanced, becoming slightly more facile than C-H bond activation.« less

  1. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Studies of Pb m Sb n ( m + n ≤ 9) Alloy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bingyi; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Wenlong; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Na; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2017-10-01

    Structure, stability, and dynamics of Pb m Sb n ( m + n ≤ 9) clusters were investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics. Size dependence of binding energies, the second-order energy difference of clusters, dissociation energy, HOMO-LUMO gaps, Mayer bond order, and the diffusion coefficient of Pb m Sb n clusters were discussed. Results suggest that Pb3Sb2, Pb4Sb2, and Pb5Sb4 ( n = 2 or 4) clusters have higher stability than other clusters, which is consistent with previous findings. In case of Pb-Sb alloy, the dynamics results show that Pb4Sb2 (Pb-22.71 wt pct Sb) can exist in gas phase at 1073 K (800 °C), which reasonably explains the azeotropic phenomenon, and the calculated values are in agreement with the experimental results (Pb-22 wt pct Sb).

  2. Ab initio study on the molecular recognition by metalloporphyrins: CO interaction with iron porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seungwu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Ihm, Jisoon

    1999-02-01

    We have performed ab initio pseudopotential calculations to study the effects of structural deformations of iron porphyrin on the configuration of a carbon monoxide (CO) attached to it. We have considered two proximal deformations around the heme group: (i) rotation of a pyrrole ring in the iron porphyrin, and (ii) rotation of the imidazole side chain bound to the iron atom. We have identified induced changes of the atomic geometry and the electronic structure of the iron porphyrin-CO complex, and the results elucidate the microscopic nature of the CO interaction with the iron porphyrin. Implications on the controversies over the binding angle of the CO molecule on the iron porphyrin under different circumstances are discussed. A potential application to the simulation-based chemical sensor design is also discussed.

  3. Ab-initio calculation of electronic structure and optical properties of AB-stacked bilayer α-graphyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer α-graphyne is a new two-dimensional carbon allotrope with many special features. In this work the electronic properties of AA- and AB-stacked bilayers of this material and then the optical properties are studied, using first principle plane wave method. The electronic spectrum has two Dirac cones for AA stacked bilayer α-graphyne. For AB-stacked bilayer, the interlayer interaction changes the linear bands into parabolic bands. The optical spectra of the most stable AB-stacked bilayer closely resemble to that of the monolayer, except for small shifts of peak positions and increasing of their intensity. For AB-stacked bilayer, a pronounced peak has been found at low energies under the perpendicular polarization. This peak can be clearly ascribed to the transitions at the Dirac point as a result of the small degeneracy lift in the band structure.

  4. Immune recognition of botulinum neurotoxin B: antibody-binding regions on the heavy chain of the toxin.

    PubMed

    Dolimbek, Behzod Z; Steward, Lance E; Aoki, K Roger; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to map the continuous regions recognized by human, horse and mouse anti-botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B) antibodies (Abs). We synthesized a panel of sixty 19-residue peptides (peptide C31 was 24 residues) that overlapped consecutively by 5 residues and together encompassed the entire heavy chain of BoNT/B (H/B, residues 442-1291). Abs from the three host species recognized similar, but not identical, peptides. There were also peptides recognized by two or only by one host species. Where a peptide was recognized by Abs of more than one host species, these Abs were at different levels among the species. Human, horse and mouse Abs bound, although in different amounts, to regions within peptides 736-754, 778-796, 848-866, 932-950, 974-992, 1058-1076 and 1128-1146. Human and horse Abs bound to peptides 890-908 and 1170-1188. Human and mouse Abs recognized peptides 470-488/484-502 overlap, 638-656, 722-740, 862-880, 1030-1048, 1072-1090, 1240-1258 and 1268-1291. We concluded that the antigenic regions localized with the three antisera are quite similar, exhibiting in some cases a small shift to the left or to the right. This is consistent with what is known about protein immune recognition. In the three-dimensional structure, the regions recognized on H/B by anti-BoNT/B Abs occupied surface locations and analysis revealed no correlation between these surface locations and surface electrostatic potential, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, or temperature factor. A region that bound mouse Abs overlapped with a recently defined site on BoNT/B that binds to mouse and rat synaptotagmin II, thus providing a molecular explanation for the blocking (protecting) activity of these Abs. The regions thus localized afford candidates for incorporation into a synthetic vaccine design.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A collection of 17 monoclonal antibodies elicited against the light- harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex which serves photosystem II (LHC-II) of Pisum sativum shows six classes of binding specificity. Antibodies of two of the classes recognize a single polypeptide (the 28- or the 26- kD polypeptides), thereby suggesting that the two proteins are not derived from a common precursor. Other classes of antibodies cross-react with several polypeptides of LHC-II or with polypeptides of both LHC-II and the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b polypeptides of photosystem I (LHC-I), indicating that there are structural similarities among the polypeptides of LHC-II and LHC-I. The evidence for protein processing by which the 26-, 25.5-, and 24.5-kD polypeptides are derived from a common precursor polypeptide is discussed. Binding studies using antibodies specific for individual LHC- II polypeptides were used to quantify the number of antigenic polypeptides in the thylakoid membrane. 27 copies of the 26-kD polypeptide and two copies of the 28-kD polypeptide were found per 400 chlorophylls. In the chlorina f2 mutant of barley, and in intermittent light-treated barley seedlings, the amount of the 26-kD polypeptide in the thylakoid membranes was greatly reduced, while the amount of 28-kD polypeptide was apparently not affected. We propose that stable insertion and assembly of the 28-kD polypeptide, unlike the 26-kD polypeptide, is not regulated by the presence of chlorophyll b. PMID:3528171

  6. Proposal for novel curcumin derivatives as potent inhibitors against Alzheimer's disease: Ab initio molecular simulations on the specific interactions between amyloid-beta peptide and curcumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Shintaro; Fujimori, Mitsuki; Ishimura, Hiromi; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain is closely related with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, we propose novel curcumin derivatives and investigate their binding properties with the amyloid precursor protein (APP), using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations. Our proposed derivative (curcumin XIV) is found to have a large binding energy with APP and interacts strongly with the cleavage site Ala19 by secretase. It is thus expected that curcumin XIV can protect APP from the secretase attack and be a potent inhibitor against the production of Aβ peptides.

  7. The interplay of non-specific binding, target-mediated clearance and FcRn interactions on the pharmacokinetics of humanized antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Datta-Mannan, Amita; Lu, Jirong; Witcher, Derrick R; Leung, Donmienne; Tang, Ying; Wroblewski, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    The application of protein engineering technologies toward successfully improving antibody pharmacokinetics has been challenging due to the multiplicity of biochemical factors that influence monoclonal antibody (mAb) disposition in vivo. Physiological factors including interactions with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and specific antigen binding properties of mAbs, along with biophysical properties of the mAbs themselves play a critical role. It has become evident that applying an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of these factors is critical to rationally guide and apply engineering strategies to optimize mAb pharmacokinetics. The study presented here evaluated the influence of unintended non-specific interactions on the disposition of mAbs whose clearance rates are governed predominantly by either non-specific (FcRn) or target-mediated processes. The pharmacokinetics of 8 mAbs representing a diverse range of these properties was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys. Results revealed complementarity-determining region (CDR) charge patch engineering to decrease charge-related non-specific binding can have a significant impact on improving the clearance. In contrast, the influence of enhanced in vitro FcRn binding was mixed, and related to both the strength of charge interaction and the general mechanism predominant in governing the clearance of the particular mAb. Overall, improved pharmacokinetics through enhanced FcRn interactions were apparent for a CDR charge-patch normalized mAb which was affected by non-specific clearance. The findings in this report are an important demonstration that mAb pharmacokinetics requires optimization on a case-by-case basis to improve the design of molecules with increased therapeutic application. PMID:26337808

  8. Differential induction of anti-V3 crown antibodies with cradle- and ladle-binding modes in response to HIV-1 envelope vaccination.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Preetha; Kumar, Rajnish; Williams, Constance; Itri, Vincenza; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Hessell, Ann J; Haigwood, Nancy L; Sinangil, Faruk; Higgins, Keith W; Liu, Lily; Li, Liuzhe; Nyambi, Phillipe; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Totrov, Maxim; Nadas, Arthur; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Hioe, Catarina E

    2017-03-07

    The V3 loop in the HIV envelope gp120 is one of the immunogenic sites targeted by Abs. The V3 crown in particular has conserved structural elements recognized by cross-reactive neutralizing Abs, indicating its potential contribution in protection against HIV. Crystallographic analyses of anti-V3 crown mAbs in complex with the V3 peptides have revealed that these mAbs recognize the conserved sites on the V3 crown via two distinct strategies: a cradle-binding mode (V3C) and a ladle-binding (V3L) mode. However, almost all of the anti-V3 crown mAbs studied in the past were isolated from chronically HIV-infected individuals. The extents to which the two types of anti-V3 crown Abs are generated by vaccination are unknown. This study analyzed the prevalence of V3C-type and V3L-type Ab responses in HIV-infected individuals and in HIV envelope-immunized humans and animals using peptide mimotopes that distinguish the two Ab types. The results show that both V3L-type and V3C-type Abs were generated by the vast majority of chronically HIV-infected humans, although the V3L-type were more prevalent. In contrast, only one of the two V3 Ab types was elicited in vaccinated humans or animal models, irrespective of HIV-1 envelope clades, envelope constructs (oligomeric or monomeric), and protocols (DNA plus protein or protein alone) used for vaccinations. The V3C-type Abs were produced by vaccinated humans, macaques, and rabbits, whereas the V3L-type Abs were made by mice. The V3C-type and V3L-type Abs generated by the vaccinations were able to mediate virus neutralization. These data indicate the restricted repertoires and the species-specific differences in the functional V3-specific Ab responses induced by the HIV envelope vaccines. The study implies the need for improving immunogen designs and vaccination strategies to broaden the diversity of Abs in order to target the different conserved epitopes in the V3 loop and, by extension, in the entire HIV envelope. Published by

  9. Periplasmic Binding Protein Dimer Has a Second Allosteric Event Tied to Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Le; Ghimire-Rijal, Sudipa; Lucas, Sarah L.

    Here, the ligand-induced conformational changes of periplasmic binding proteins (PBP) play a key role in the acquisition of metabolites in ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport systems. This conformational change allows for differential recognition of the ligand occupancy of the PBP by the ABC transporter. This minimizes futile ATP hydrolysis in the transporter, a phenomenon in which ATP hydrolysis is not coupled to metabolite transport. In many systems, the PBP conformational change is insufficient at eliminating futile ATP hydrolysis. Here we identify an additional state of the PBP that is also allosterically regulated by the ligand. Ligand binding to the homodimericmore » apo PBP leads to a tightening of the interface alpha-helices so that the hydrogen bonding pattern shifts to that of a 3 10 helix, in-turn altering the contacts and the dynamics of the protein interface so that the monomer exists in the presence of ligand.« less

  10. Periplasmic Binding Protein Dimer Has a Second Allosteric Event Tied to Ligand Binding

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Le; Ghimire-Rijal, Sudipa; Lucas, Sarah L.; ...

    2017-09-06

    Here, the ligand-induced conformational changes of periplasmic binding proteins (PBP) play a key role in the acquisition of metabolites in ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport systems. This conformational change allows for differential recognition of the ligand occupancy of the PBP by the ABC transporter. This minimizes futile ATP hydrolysis in the transporter, a phenomenon in which ATP hydrolysis is not coupled to metabolite transport. In many systems, the PBP conformational change is insufficient at eliminating futile ATP hydrolysis. Here we identify an additional state of the PBP that is also allosterically regulated by the ligand. Ligand binding to the homodimericmore » apo PBP leads to a tightening of the interface alpha-helices so that the hydrogen bonding pattern shifts to that of a 3 10 helix, in-turn altering the contacts and the dynamics of the protein interface so that the monomer exists in the presence of ligand.« less

  11. Structural Constraints of Vaccine-Induced Tier-2 Autologous HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Fera, Daniela; Bhiman, Jinal; Eslamizar, Leila; Lu, Xiaozhi; Anasti, Kara; Zhang, Ruijung; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Stolarchuk, Christina; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Eaton, Amanda; Foulger, Andrew; Nie, Xiaoyan; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Barnett, Susan; Kelsoe, Garnett; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Morris, Lynn; Santra, Sampa; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-01-05

    Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Skeletal muscle growth and fiber composition in mice are regulated through the transcription factors STAT5a/b: linking growth hormone to the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Klover, Peter; Chen, Weiping; Zhu, Bing-Mei; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2009-09-01

    In skeletal muscle, STAT5a/b transcription factors are critical for normal postnatal growth, whole-animal glucose homeostasis, and local IGF-1 production. These observations have led us to hypothesize that STAT5a/b are critical for maintenance of normal muscle mass and function. To investigate this, mice with a skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Stat5a/b genes (Stat5MKO) were used. Stat5MKO mice displayed reduced muscle mass, altered fiber-type distribution and reduced activity. On a molecular level, gene expression in skeletal muscle of Stat5MKO and control mice was analyzed by microarrays and real-time PCR, both in the presence and absence of growth hormone (GH) stimulation. Expression of several genes involved in muscle growth and fiber type were significantly changed. Specifically, in the quadriceps, a muscle almost exclusively composed of type II fibers, the absence of STAT5a/b led to increased expression of several genes associated with type I fibers and the de novo appearance of type I fibers. In addition, it is shown here that expression of the androgen receptor gene (Ar) is controlled by GH through STAT5a/b. The link between STAT5a/b and Ar gene is likely through direct transcriptional regulation, as chromatin immunoprecipitaion of the Ar promoter region in C2C12 myoblasts was accomplished by antibodies against STAT5a. These experiments demonstrate an important role for STAT5a/b in skeletal muscle physiology, and they provide a direct link to androgen signaling.

  13. Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gareth R; Moir, Anne

    2011-05-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to c-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for Instituto de Biotecnología de León, INBIOTEC, Parque Científico de León, Av. Real, 1, 24006 León, Spain-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore.

  14. Resistance to pentamidine is mediated by AdeAB, regulated by AdeRS, and influenced by growth conditions in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978.

    PubMed

    Adams, Felise G; Stroeher, Uwe H; Hassan, Karl A; Marri, Shashikanth; Brown, Melissa H

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, effective treatment of infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii has become challenging due to the ability of the bacterium to acquire or up-regulate antimicrobial resistance determinants. Two component signal transduction systems are known to regulate expression of virulence factors including multidrug efflux pumps. Here, we investigated the role of the AdeRS two component signal transduction system in regulating the AdeAB efflux system, determined whether AdeA and/or AdeB can individually confer antimicrobial resistance, and explored the interplay between pentamidine resistance and growth conditions in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Results identified that deletion of adeRS affected resistance towards chlorhexidine and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride, two previously defined AdeABC substrates, and also identified an 8-fold decrease in resistance to pentamidine. Examination of ΔadeA, ΔadeB and ΔadeAB cells augmented results seen for ΔadeRS and identified a set of dicationic AdeAB substrates. RNA-sequencing of ΔadeRS revealed transcription of 290 genes were ≥2-fold altered compared to the wildtype. Pentamidine shock significantly increased adeA expression in the wildtype, but decreased it in ΔadeRS, implying that AdeRS activates adeAB transcription in ATCC 17978. Investigation under multiple growth conditions, including the use of Biolog phenotypic microarrays, revealed resistance to pentamidine in ATCC 17978 and mutants could be altered by bioavailability of iron or utilization of different carbon sources. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence that AdeAB in ATCC 17978 can confer intrinsic resistance to a subset of dicationic compounds and in particular, resistance to pentamidine can be significantly altered depending on the growth conditions.

  15. Comparative Proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 During the High Acidity Rice Vinegar Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zang, Ning; Shi, Jieyan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Ye; Liang, Xinle

    2015-12-01

    As a traditional Asian food for several centuries, vinegar is known to be produced by acetic acid bacteria. The Acetobacter species is the primary starter for vinegar fermentation and has evolutionarily acquired acetic acid resistance, in which Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 is routinely used for industrial production of rice vinegar with a high acidity (9 %, w/v). In contrast to the documented short-term and low acetic acid effects on A. pasteurianus, here we investigated the molecular and cellular signatures of long-term and high acetic acid responses by proteomic profiling with bidimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/MS) analyses. Protein spots of interest were selected based on the threshold ANOVA p value of 0.05 and minimal twofold of differential expression, leading to the identification of 26 proteins that are functionally enriched in oxidoreductase activity, cell membrane, and metabolism. The alterations in protein functioning in respiratory chain and protein denaturation may underlay cellular modifications at the outer membrane. Significantly, we found that at higher acidity fermentation phase, the A. pasteurianus Ab3 cells would adapt to distinct physiological processes from that of an ordinary vinegar fermentation with intermediate acidity, indicating increasing energy requirement and dependency of membrane integrity during the transition of acetic acid production. Together, our study provided new insights into the adaptation mechanisms in A. pasteurianus to high acetic acid environments and yield novel regulators and key pathways during the development of acetic acid resistance.

  16. High pressure stability of lithium metatitanate and metazirconate: Insight from experiments & ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Abhishek; Chakraborty, B.; Tripathi, B. M.; Tyagi, A. K.; Garg, Nandini

    2018-02-01

    Lithium metatitanate (LTO) and lithium metazirconate (LZO) are lithium rich ceramics which can be used as tritium breeder materials for thermonuclear reactors. In-situ x-ray diffraction and ab-initio studies at high pressure show that LTO has a higher bulk modulus than that of LZO. In fact these studies indicate that they are the least compressible of the known lithium rich ceramics like Li2O or Li4SiO4, which are potential candidates for blanket materials. These studies show that the TiO6 octahedra are responsible for the higher bulk modulus of LTO when compared to that of LZO. It has also been shown that the compressibility and distortion of the softer LiO6 octahedra can be controlled by altering the stacking sequence of the more rigid covalently bonded octahedra. This knowledge can be used by chemists to design new lithium based ceramics with higher bulk modulus. It was observed that LTO was stable upto 34 GPa. Ab initio DFT calculations helped to understand the anisotropy in compressibility of both LZO and LTO. This study also shows, that even though the empirical potentials developed by Vijaykumar et al. successfully determine the ambient pressure structure of lithium metatitanate, they cannot be used at non ambient conditions like high pressure [1].

  17. Possible Insecticidal Mechanisms Mediated by Immune-Response-Related Cry-Binding Proteins in the Midgut Juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyu; Gu, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yi; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Cry toxins are insecticidal toxin proteins produced by a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Interactions between the Cry toxins and the receptors from midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), such as cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, and aminopeptidase, are key steps for the specificity and insecticidal activity of Cry proteins. However, little is known about the midgut juice proteins that may interfere with Cry binding to the receptors. To validate the hypothesis that there exist Cry-binding proteins that can interfere with the insecticidal process of Cry toxins, we applied Cry1Ab1-coupled Sepharose beads to isolate Cry-binding proteins form midgut juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua. Trypsin-like serine proteases and Dorsal were found to be Cry1Ab1-binding proteins in the midgut juice of P. xylostella. Peroxidase-C (POX-C) was found to be the Cry1Ab1-binding protein in the midgut juice of S. exigua. We proposed possible insecticidal mechanisms of Cry1Ab1 mediated by the two immune-related proteins: Dorsal and POX-C. Our results suggested that there exist, in the midgut juice, Cry-binding proteins, which are different from BBMV-specific receptors.

  18. Aluminum binding by humus

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetti, M.F.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W. van

    The need for qualitative and quantitative description of the chemical speciation of Al, in particular and other metal ions in general, is stressed by the increased mobilization of metal ions in water and soils due to acid rain deposition. In this paper we present new data of Al binding to two humic acids. These new data sets and the some previously published data will be analyzed with the NICA-Donnan model using one set of parameters to describe the Al binding to the different humic substances. Once the experimental data is described with the NICA-Donnan approach, we will show the effectmore » of Ca on Al binding and surface speciation as well as the effect of Al on the charge of the humic particles. The parameters derived from the laboratory experiments will be used to describe the variation of the field based Al partition coefficient.« less

  19. Hydrothermal Alteration Products as Key to Formation of Duricrust and Rock Coatings on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    1999-03-01

    A model is presented for the formation of duricrust and rock coatings on Mars. Hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tephra may produce a corrosive agent that attacks rock surfaces and binds dust particles to form duricrust.

  20. Ab-initio adsorption study of chitosan on functionalized graphene: critical role of van der Waals interactions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, R; Mazumdar, D

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the adsorption process of an organic biomolecule (chitosan) on epoxy-functionalized graphene using ab-initio density functional methods incorporating van-der-waals (vdW) interactions. The role of London dispersion force on the cohesive energy and conformal preference of the molecule is quantitatively elucidated. Functionalizing graphene with epoxy leads to weak hydrogen-bond interactions with chitosan. Binding energy values increase by over an order of magnitude after including vdW corrections, implying that dispersive interactions dominate the physisorption process. Conformal study show binding upto 30 kcal/mol when the molecule is oriented with the hydroxyl group approaching the functionalized graphene. Our study advances the promise of functionalized graphene for a variety of applications.

  1. Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.

  2. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  3. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  4. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  5. ARSENITE BINDING TO SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES: THE EFFECT OF INCREASING LENGTH BETWEEN TWO CYSTEINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Binding of trivalent arsenicals to peptides and proteins can alter peptide/protein structure and enzyme function and thereby contribute to arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. We utilized radioactive 73As- labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the bindi...

  6. Proteoform-specific protein binding of small molecules in complex matrices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterizing the specific binding between protein targets and small molecules is critically important for drug discovery. Conventional assays require isolation and purification of small molecules from complex matrices through multistep chromatographic fractionation, which may alter their original ...

  7. Comprehensive Human Transcription Factor Binding Site Map for Combinatory Binding Motifs Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Molina, Arnoldo J.; Schöler, Hans R.; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.

    2012-01-01

    To know the map between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites is essential to reverse engineer the regulation process. Only about 10%–20% of the transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) have been reported. This lack of data hinders understanding gene regulation. To address this drawback, we propose a computational method that exploits never used TF properties to discover the missing TFBMs and their sites in all human gene promoters. The method starts by predicting a dictionary of regulatory “DNA words.” From this dictionary, it distills 4098 novel predictions. To disclose the crosstalk between motifs, an additional algorithm extracts TF combinatorial binding patterns creating a collection of TF regulatory syntactic rules. Using these rules, we narrowed down a list of 504 novel motifs that appear frequently in syntax patterns. We tested the predictions against 509 known motifs confirming that our system can reliably predict ab initio motifs with an accuracy of 81%—far higher than previous approaches. We found that on average, 90% of the discovered combinatorial binding patterns target at least 10 genes, suggesting that to control in an independent manner smaller gene sets, supplementary regulatory mechanisms are required. Additionally, we discovered that the new TFBMs and their combinatorial patterns convey biological meaning, targeting TFs and genes related to developmental functions. Thus, among all the possible available targets in the genome, the TFs tend to regulate other TFs and genes involved in developmental functions. We provide a comprehensive resource for regulation analysis that includes a dictionary of “DNA words,” newly predicted motifs and their corresponding combinatorial patterns. Combinatorial patterns are a useful filter to discover TFBMs that play a major role in orchestrating other factors and thus, are likely to lock/unlock cellular functional clusters. PMID:23209563

  8. Comprehensive human transcription factor binding site map for combinatory binding motifs discovery.

    PubMed

    Müller-Molina, Arnoldo J; Schöler, Hans R; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2012-01-01

    To know the map between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites is essential to reverse engineer the regulation process. Only about 10%-20% of the transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) have been reported. This lack of data hinders understanding gene regulation. To address this drawback, we propose a computational method that exploits never used TF properties to discover the missing TFBMs and their sites in all human gene promoters. The method starts by predicting a dictionary of regulatory "DNA words." From this dictionary, it distills 4098 novel predictions. To disclose the crosstalk between motifs, an additional algorithm extracts TF combinatorial binding patterns creating a collection of TF regulatory syntactic rules. Using these rules, we narrowed down a list of 504 novel motifs that appear frequently in syntax patterns. We tested the predictions against 509 known motifs confirming that our system can reliably predict ab initio motifs with an accuracy of 81%-far higher than previous approaches. We found that on average, 90% of the discovered combinatorial binding patterns target at least 10 genes, suggesting that to control in an independent manner smaller gene sets, supplementary regulatory mechanisms are required. Additionally, we discovered that the new TFBMs and their combinatorial patterns convey biological meaning, targeting TFs and genes related to developmental functions. Thus, among all the possible available targets in the genome, the TFs tend to regulate other TFs and genes involved in developmental functions. We provide a comprehensive resource for regulation analysis that includes a dictionary of "DNA words," newly predicted motifs and their corresponding combinatorial patterns. Combinatorial patterns are a useful filter to discover TFBMs that play a major role in orchestrating other factors and thus, are likely to lock/unlock cellular functional clusters.

  9. ABS 3D printed solutions for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bozzo, B.; Sevilla, P.; Martínez-Pasarell, O.; Puig, T.; Granados, X.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing has become a common, inexpensive and rapid prototyping technique, enabling the ad hoc fabrication of complex shapes. In this paper, we demonstrate that 3D printed objects in ABS can be used at cryogenic temperatures, offering flexible solutions in different fields. Firstly, a thermo-mechanical characterization of ABS 3D printed specimens at 77 K is reported, which allowed us to delimit the type of cryogenic uses where 3D printed pieces may be implemented. Secondly, we present three different examples where ABS 3D printed objects working at low temperatures have provided specific solutions: (i) SQUID inserts for angular magnetometry (low temperature material characterization field); (ii) a cage support for a metamaterial ;magnetic concentrator; (superconductivity application), and (iii) dedicated tools for cryopreservation in assisted reproductive techniques (medicine field).

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding glycoconjugates present on the brush border membrane and in the peritrophic membrane of the Douglas-fir tussock moth are peritrophins

    Treesearch

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; John D. Podgwaite

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxin-binding sites in the Douglas fir tussock moth (DFTM) larval gut were localized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac all bound strongly to the DFTM peritrophic membrane (PM); weaker binding of the Cry1A toxins was observed along the apical brush border of the midgut epithelium....

  11. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  12. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  13. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics.

    PubMed

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories-episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  14. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    DOEpatents

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  16. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc carbon catabolite control system revealed by transcript abundance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Valentini, Martina; Wenner, Nicolas; Haichar, Feth el Zahar; Haas, Dieter; Lapouge, Karine

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to utilize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen compounds, allowing it to grow in vastly different environments. The uptake and catabolism of growth substrates are organized hierarchically by a mechanism termed catabolite repression control (Crc) whereby the Crc protein establishes translational repression of target mRNAs at CA (catabolite activity) motifs present in target mRNAs near ribosome binding sites. Poor carbon sources lead to activation of the CbrAB two-component system, which induces transcription of the small RNA (sRNA) CrcZ. This sRNA relieves Crc-mediated repression of target mRNAs. In this study, we have identified novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc system in P. aeruginosa using transcriptome analysis in combination with a search for CA motifs. We characterized four target genes involved in the uptake and utilization of less preferred carbon sources: estA (secreted esterase), acsA (acetyl-CoA synthetase), bkdR (regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism) and aroP2 (aromatic amino acid uptake protein). Evidence for regulation by CbrAB, CrcZ and Crc was obtained in vivo using appropriate reporter fusions, in which mutation of the CA motif resulted in loss of catabolite repression. CbrB and CrcZ were important for growth of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum medium, suggesting that the CbrAB/Crc system may act as an important regulator during chronic infection of the CF lung.

  18. Nonlocal torque operators in ab initio theory of the Gilbert damping in random ferromagnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, I.; Kudrnovský, J.; Drchal, V.

    2015-12-01

    We present an ab initio theory of the Gilbert damping in substitutionally disordered ferromagnetic alloys. The theory rests on introduced nonlocal torques which replace traditional local torque operators in the well-known torque-correlation formula and which can be formulated within the atomic-sphere approximation. The formalism is sketched in a simple tight-binding model and worked out in detail in the relativistic tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The resulting nonlocal torques are represented by nonrandom, non-site-diagonal, and spin-independent matrices, which simplifies the configuration averaging. The CPA-vertex corrections play a crucial role for the internal consistency of the theory and for its exact equivalence to other first-principles approaches based on the random local torques. This equivalence is also illustrated by the calculated Gilbert damping parameters for binary NiFe and FeCo random alloys, for pure iron with a model atomic-level disorder, and for stoichiometric FePt alloys with a varying degree of L 10 atomic long-range order.

  19. Ab initio study of novel carbon nanofoam structure as an anode material for Li secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanjin; Park, Sora; Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2014-03-01

    Using ab inito density functional theory, we investigate the adsorption and diffusion properties of Li atoms on a new carbon nanostructure, which may be used as an anode of Li secondary battery. We focus on a special carbon nanofoam structure consisting of Schwarzite structures with negative Gaussian curvature as core parts, which are interconnected through (4,4) CNT segments. Considering the symmetry of the nanofoam structure, we find various Li adsorption sites exhibiting relatively large binding energies (>= 2 . 00 eV). Based on these adsorption sites, we identify several diffusion paths on the outside or inside surface of the nanofoam structure and examine the diffusion barriers along the paths. Our results show that Li atom can diffuse almost freely due to its low energy barriers on both outside and inside surfaces. Finally, we also evaluate the energy gain tendency and the volume expansion as well as the average binding energy while adding Li atoms to estimate the Li-capacity and recyclability of the system, which are important characterisitics for anode materials. We conclude that the carbon nanofoam structure would be better as an anode material than graphite in Li capacity and volume expansion.

  20. Matrix Isolation and ab initio study of the noncovalent complexes between formamide and acetylene.

    PubMed

    Mardyukov, Artur; Sánchez-García, Elsa; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-02-12

    Matrix isolation spectroscopy in combination with ab initio calculations is a powerful technique for the identification of weakly bound intermolecular complexes. Here, weak complexes between formamide and acetylene are studied, and three 1:1 complexes with binding energies of -2.96, -2.46, and -1.79 kcal/mol have been found at the MP2 level of theory (MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE + BSSE). The two most stable dimers A and B are identified in argon and nitrogen matrices by comparison between the experimental and calculated infrared frequencies. Both complexes are stabilized by the formamide C=O...HC acetylene and H...pi interactions. Large shifts have been observed experimentally for the C-H stretching vibrations of the acetylene molecule, in very good agreement with the calculated values. Eight 1:2 FMA-acetylene trimers (T-A to T-H) with binding energies between -5.44 and -2.62 kcal/mol (MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ + ZPE + BSSE) were calculated. The two most stable trimers T-A and T-B are very close in energy and have similar infrared spectra. Several weak bands that are in agreement with the