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Sample records for ab blood types

  1. Evaluation of a novel feline AB blood typing device.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Layla; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    This prospective study evaluated a novel immunochromatographic (IC) blood typing test for the AB blood group system. Typing was conducted comparatively on ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-anticoagulated blood samples from 89 sick and 16 healthy cats with the IC test, as well as two tests as reference methods, a tube agglutination and a gel column test. The samples were between 0 and 10 days old (median 3 days) and were tested for haemolysis and agglutination; the packed cell volume ranged from 0.07 to 0.57 l/l (median 0.40 l/l). The reference methods agreed with each other in 100% of the test runs. Of the 85 samples tested as blood type A by the two reference methods, 80 were correctly identified by the IC test, four were misidentified as AB and one was rated inconclusive. All B samples were correctly typed. Two of the three AB samples were correctly identified by the IC test and one was rated inconclusive. The sample quality had no influence on test performance. Of 30 repeats, 28 were readable and showed agreement in 27 cases. The agreement of the IC test with the control methods was 96.1% for the 103 conclusive tests, and it showed high sensitivity and specificity for A and B antigen detection. It is suggested that AB results be reconfirmed with a laboratory method and that a 'back-typing' be performed with plasma from B samples to detect the presence of alloantibodies. Given its very good performance and ease of use, the IC test can be recommended for clinical settings.

  2. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V; Giger, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Objective-To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population-490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results-Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.

  3. A Novel Variant in CMAH Is Associated with Blood Type AB in Ragdoll Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Barbara; Grahn, Robert A.; Gustafson, Nicholas A.; Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Adhikari, Badri; Cheng, Janling; Andrews, Gordon; Lyons, Leslie A.; Helps, Chris R.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase is associated with the production of sialic acids on cat red blood cells. The cat has one major blood group with three serotypes; the most common blood type A being dominant to type B. A third rare blood type is known as AB and has an unclear mode of inheritance. Cat blood type antigens are defined, with N-glycolylneuraminic acid being associated with type A and N-acetylneuraminic acid with type B. Blood type AB is serologically characterized by agglutination using typing reagents directed against both A and B epitopes. While a genetic characterization of blood type B has been achieved, the rare type AB serotype remains genetically uncharacterized. A genome-wide association study in Ragdoll cats (22 cases and 15 controls) detected a significant association between blood type AB and SNPs on cat chromosome B2, with the most highly associated SNP being at position 4,487,432 near the candidate gene cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase. A novel variant, c.364C>T, was identified that is highly associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats and, to a lesser degree, with type AB in random bred cats. The newly identified variant is probably linked with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats, and is associated with the expression of both antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid) on the red blood cell membrane. Other variants, not identified by this work, are likely to be associated with blood type AB in other breeds of cat. PMID:27171395

  4. A Novel Variant in CMAH Is Associated with Blood Type AB in Ragdoll Cats.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Barbara; Grahn, Robert A; Gustafson, Nicholas A; Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Adhikari, Badri; Cheng, Janling; Andrews, Gordon; Lyons, Leslie A; Helps, Chris R

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase is associated with the production of sialic acids on cat red blood cells. The cat has one major blood group with three serotypes; the most common blood type A being dominant to type B. A third rare blood type is known as AB and has an unclear mode of inheritance. Cat blood type antigens are defined, with N-glycolylneuraminic acid being associated with type A and N-acetylneuraminic acid with type B. Blood type AB is serologically characterized by agglutination using typing reagents directed against both A and B epitopes. While a genetic characterization of blood type B has been achieved, the rare type AB serotype remains genetically uncharacterized. A genome-wide association study in Ragdoll cats (22 cases and 15 controls) detected a significant association between blood type AB and SNPs on cat chromosome B2, with the most highly associated SNP being at position 4,487,432 near the candidate gene cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase. A novel variant, c.364C>T, was identified that is highly associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats and, to a lesser degree, with type AB in random bred cats. The newly identified variant is probably linked with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats, and is associated with the expression of both antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid) on the red blood cell membrane. Other variants, not identified by this work, are likely to be associated with blood type AB in other breeds of cat.

  5. Feline blood genotyping versus phenotyping, and detection of non-AB blood type incompatibilities in UK cats.

    PubMed

    Tasker, S; Barker, E N; Day, M J; Helps, C R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the agreement between AB blood phenotyping and genotyping and determine whether non-AB blood type incompatibilities exist in UK cats. Blood samples underwent phenotyping (A, B or AB) using microplate agglutination, and genotyping (AA, Ab or bb) using pyrosequencing of a fragment of the cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene. Non-AB blood type incompatibilities were investigated by cross-matching against reference blood of the same phenotype. Of 112 cats tested, 86 (77%) were blood phenotype A, 19 (17%) type B and 7 (6%) type AB. Genotype and initial phenotype agreed in 96% (107 of 112) of cats, but 5 were discordant; these were all B phenotype with either AA (n=2) or Ab (n=3) genotype. Two of the five cats had repeat blood samples tested: one was reclassified as phenotype A; the other remained phenotype B. Two cats had incompatibilities on minor cross-match, but these were attributed to phenotyping errors. Unknown mutation(s) associated with phenotype B, resulting in false AA or Ab genotyping, were evident in a small number of cases in this study. No conclusive evidence for non-AB blood type incompatibilities was found.

  6. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells (and A antibody in the plasma) Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red ... 9% 25% B - 2% 1% 1% 0.4% AB + 3% 4% 2% 7% AB - 1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% Some ... Whether your blood group is type A, B, AB or O is based on the blood types ...

  7. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for feline AB system blood typing.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Baggiani, Luciana; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Perego, Roberta; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of an immunochromatographic cartridge (IC) test for blood typing feline type A, B, and AB blood samples. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Fifty-one nonanemic and 19 anemic feline blood samples. Samples were blood typed by both card agglutination (CA) and IC techniques. Discordant results were analyzed using a back-typing technique for the presence of alloantibodies. Repeatability and reproducibility of the IC method were evaluated. Accuracy of the IC method was determined for feline whole blood anticoagulated with EDTA and citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA1), for feline-packed RBCs with CPDA1 and saline adenine glucose-mannitol, and for autoagglutinated and hemolytic samples. Accuracy of IC testing was determined for feline blood after room temperature, 4 ± 2, -20, and -80°C storage following 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage. In anemic and nonanemic samples the IC technique had a specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% in detecting feline blood types A, B, and AB, outperforming a CA test. Results were repeatable and reproducible. Using IC it was possible to blood type samples anticoagulated with EDTA and CPDA1, packed RBC samples with CPDA1 and saline adenine glucose-mannitol, autoagglutinated and hemolytic samples, and samples stored at 4 ± 2°C and at room temperature for up to 1 month. The IC technique is an accurate assay for the identification of A, B, and AB blood types in anemic and nonanemic feline blood. It has a higher sensitivity and specificity than the CA test, and can be used in samples stored with common anticoagulants or preservative solutions used in feline transfusion medicine. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  8. AB0 blood types: impact on development of prosthetic mechanical valve thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Astarcıoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Kalçık, Macit; Yesin, Mahmut; Gürsoy, Mustafa Ozan; Şen, Taner; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The non-O alleles of the ABO genotype have been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We aimed to assess the association between blood group status and prosthetic valve thrombosis. The association between AB0 blood group status and prosthetic valve thrombosis was assessed in this retrospective study. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 149 patients with a diagnosis of prosthetic valve thrombosis and in 192 control subjects. Non-0 blood group type (p<0.001), presence of NYHA class III-IV status (p<0.001), and central nervous system (p<0.001) and non-central nervous system (p<0.001) emboli were significantly more prevalent in prosthetic valve thrombosis patients than in the control subjects. The incidence of ineffective anticoagulation was higher in patients with prosthetic valve thrombosis than in controls (p<0.001), as was the presence of moderate to severe left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (p<0.001). The non-0 blood prosthetic valve thrombosis subgroup had a higher incidence of obstructive thrombi and central nervous system thrombotic events than having 0 blood prosthetic valve thrombosis subgroup. Non-0 blood group, ineffective anticoagulation, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast, and a poor NYHA functional capacity were identified to be the predictors of prosthetic valve thrombosis. Our data demonstrate that patients with non-0 compared with 0 blood groups have higher incidence of prosthetic valve thrombosis and central nervous system embolism and similar rates of non-central nervous system embolism at presentation compared with 0 blood group type. Thus, non-O blood group may be a risk factor that may be prone to the development of prosthetic valve thrombosis in patients with prosthetic heart valves.

  9. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... low blood pressure. It can even lead vital body systems — like breathing or kidneys — to fail. Here's an ... in Type B or AB blood) enter your body, your Type A immune system gets fired up against them. That means you ...

  10. [The identification of the AB0 blood type system by means of the single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis].

    PubMed

    Lapenkov, M I; Plakhina, N V; Aleksandrova, V Yu; Kuklev, M Yu; Nikolaeva, T L; Konovalova, N V

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a domestically produced test-system for the determination of the AB0 blood type by means of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis. The results of the trials indicate that the proposed test-system can be employed for the investigation of DNA specimens of individual origin obtained from any objects of expertise including micro-objects containing human nuclear DNA.

  11. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... FIND A BLOOD DRIVE Blood Types and the Population O positive is the most common blood type. ... of the different blood types in the U.S. population is: Caucasian African- American Latino-American Asian O + ...

  12. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  13. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  14. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  15. Treatment effect with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 antibody improves hind limb angiogenesis and blood flow in Type 1 diabetic mice with left femoral artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Tekabe, Yared; Anthony, Tamykah; Li, Qing; Ray, Rashmi; Rai, Vivek; Zhang, Geping; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Johnson, Lynne L

    2015-06-01

    We investigated treatment with a receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) blocking antibody on angiogenic response to hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin treated C57BL/6 mice received either murine monoclonal anti-RAGE F(ab')2 intraperitoneally (n=10) or saline (n=9) for 9 weeks. Diabetic plus 10 non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice underwent left femoral artery ligation and 5 days later angiogenesis imaging with (99m)Tc-Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) nanoSPECT/CT. Twenty-four days later, hind limb blood flow was measured with ultrasound, the mice were euthanized, and tissue was taken for immunohistochemistry. The angiogenic imaging signal in ischemic limbs was higher in RAGE-ab treated versus saline treated mice at day 5 (3.1±1.4 vs 1.68±0.35, p=0.02) and blood flow was higher at day 24 (1.49±0.5 vs 0.61±0.39, p=0.04). Immunohistochemistry of ischemic muscles showed greater capillary density in the RAGE-ab treated group versus the vehicle-treated group (p<0.001) (NS from non-diabetic mice). In conclusion, treatment with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 in diabetic mice improves neovascularization in the ischemic leg. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  17. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  18. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  19. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  20. Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 strain Ab4 reveals intact interferon-α induction and induces suppression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 responses in comparison to other viral strains.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Wimer, Christine; Freer, Heather; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Erb, Hollis N

    2011-09-15

    The recent increase in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of neurological disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has suggested a change of virulence of the virus. The exact mechanisms by which EHV-1 induces neurologic disease are not known. Environmental, viral, and host risk factors might contribute to neurological manifestation. Here, we investigated innate interferon-α (IFN-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-4 responses after infection of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with EHV-1 using an available cytokine multiplex assay. Three viral strains representing an older isolate (RacL11), a recent abortigenic (NY03) and a neuropathogenic isolate (Ab4) were compared to identify differences in cytokine induction that might explain the increased pathogenicity of Ab4. Cytokine concentrations were also compared between foals, mares after birth, pregnant and non-pregnant mares to investigate whether immune responses to EHV-1 infection are influenced by age or pregnancy status. PBMC from all groups secreted high concentrations of anti-viral IFN-α in response to EHV-1. A reduced response was observed in foals compared to non-pregnant mares. EHV-1 infection induced moderate IL-10 and overall low IL-4 secretion. Ab4 infection resulted in a significant reduction of IL-10 responses in adult horses. IL-10 and IL-4 responses were lower in foals than in most mare groups. These data suggested that EHV-1 induces robust IFN-α secretion without major differences between viral strains. However, anti-inflammatory IL-10 production was significantly reduced after infection with neuropathogenic Ab4. The ability of this EHV-1 isolate to down-regulate IL-10 production might contribute to increased local inflammation and a higher risk for neurological manifestation of the disease after infection with Ab4. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  2. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing.

    PubMed

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25484059

  5. Assessment of blood types of Ragdoll cats for transfusion purposes.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Baggiani, Luciana

    2013-06-01

    Transfusion of compatible blood types ensures the vitality of transfused erythrocytes and avoids transfusion reactions. Cats with types A, B, and AB blood should receive transfusions of the same blood type. In a feline blood donor program, it is therefore essential to have blood donors of all blood types available. The objectives of this study were the identification of the 3 feline blood types in Ragdoll cats, the comparison of their frequencies with those of Domestic Shorthair (DSH) cats, and the determination of whether Ragdolls are suitable donors in a feline blood donor program. The blood type was determined by gel column agglutination from Ragdoll cats. The relationships between phenotypic traits, the origin of the cats, and the different blood types were examined. The frequencies for potential transfusion reactions and the risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI) were estimated. Of 61 typed Ragdolls, 77.1% had type A, 4.9% type B, and 18% type AB blood. The frequency of blood type A in Ragdolls was lower than in DSH cats (P = .02), while the frequency of blood type AB in Ragdolls was higher than in DSH cats (P = .0002). No relationship was found between blood type and origin of the cat or phenotypic traits. The estimated frequencies of major and minor transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between Ragdolls (donors and recipients), Ragdoll donors and DSH recipients, and DSH donors and Ragdoll recipients were 4.7%, 6.7%, 4.6%, and 18.5%, 20.8%, 7.6%, respectively. The frequency of kittens at risk for NI was 5%. The presence of all 3 feline blood types and a relatively high incidence of AB type cats make Ragdolls an ideal donor breed to include in feline blood transfusion programs. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Blood Typing--Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, W. T., Jr.

    This instructional packet deals with the study of hematology. It is recommended for all high school students of biology. A general understanding of antigen-antibody reactions is necessary before attempting this learning activity. Behavioral objectives place emphasis on the techniques of and understanding of blood typing. The equipment and…

  7. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  8. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System.

    PubMed

    Omi, Toshinori; Nakazawa, Shota; Udagawa, Chihiro; Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat's AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system.

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat’s AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system. PMID:27755584

  11. WHO types A and AB thymomas: not always benign.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit K; Mehta, Rutika J; Henley, John D; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 WHO classification of thymic tumors recognizes five major subtypes of thymomas and thymic carcinoma. Subtypes A and AB thymomas are purported to be benign neoplasms, although prior studies have suggested a potential for malignant behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical behavior of A and AB thymomas identified from a large institutional pathologic database. A retrospective slide review of 500 thymic epithelial tumors identified 71 (∼ 14%) cases of types A and AB thymomas. Clinical history and follow-up information were obtained through retrospective chart review. There were 38 and 33 cases of types A and AB thymomas, respectively. Complete follow-up data were available in 37 (52%) cases. Eighteen (49%) patients (type A, n=9 and type AB, n=9) had evidence of recurrent/metastatic disease at an average of 62 months (range from 6 to 244 months) after initial diagnosis. Survival curves for patients with types A and AB thymomas, with and without recurrences, show a statistically significant difference (P=0.001 and 0.005, respectively). Analysis of this large cohort confirms the potential for subtypes A and AB thymomas to show malignant behavior. Long-term clinical monitoring, therefore, appears to be justified in these cases. This study also shows the poor correlation between the WHO classification and tumor behavior.

  12. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  13. Subgrouping of A and AB blood groups in Indian blood centres: is it required?

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ranjita; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    Anti A1 antibody in the serum of A2 and A2B individuals is rare but when present can have laboratory and clinical significance. Routine subgrouping of all A and AB blood groups in blood centres in India is difficult due to economic constraints and has always been a point of debate. This study thus brings out the prevalence of anti A1 antibody and the clinical significance related to its presence. The results of the study showed a low prevalence of anti A1 antibody and when present, it had a low thermal amplitude and titre. Further, no blood group discrepancy or problems during compatibility testing were encountered with these (A1 antibody positive) blood units. Thus, it may be concluded that in India and other developing countries where resources are scarce, routine subgrouping of A and AB may not be really worthwhile unless there is a group discrepancy, problem during compatibility testing or history of a transfusion reaction.

  14. Pseudosymmetric features of non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gazhulina, A.P. Marychev, M.O.

    2016-07-15

    This work is supplement to our previous investigation (Gazhulina and Marychev, 2015) [1]. We have considered pseudosymmetric features with respect to the operation of inversion (pseudoinversion) for 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals. Analysis of the features of particular structure types allowed us to determine the positions of pseudoinversion centers, subdivide them into separate types, and classify the entire set of crystals studied with respect to the types of pseudoinversion centers and peculiarities of the behavior of the degree of pseudoinversion depending on the ratio of atomic numbers of A and B components. For each group of crystals, average values and lower boundaries of the maximum pseudoinversion are determined and distribution with respect to the degree of pseudoinversion is constructed. - Graphical abstract: A group of 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals have been considered for their pseudosymmetry features with respect to the operation of inversion. Positions of pseudoinversion centers, subdivision of them into separate types, classification of the entire set of crystals studied with respect to the types of pseudoinversion centers and peculiarities of the behavior of the degree of pseudoinversion are established and discussed. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We consider pseudoinversion of 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals. • AB type crystals are divided into three groups with respect to pseudoinversion. • Positions and types of pseudoinversion centers are determined. • Lower boundaries of the maximum pseudoinversion are determined.

  15. Interaction between haptoglobin subtypes and AB0 blood groups in a Bengalee population.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan; Roy, Jayita Ghoshal

    2005-09-01

    Blood samples from 621 individuals of a Caste Hindu Population from West Bengal (India) were investigated in an attempt to find out an association between the AB0 blood groups and Haptoglobin (HP) subtypes. AB0 blood grouping was done on the basis of the agglutination test with standard anti-sera. Haptoglobin subtyping only for the HP*1 allele was done by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). A significant association was found with a significantly lower HP*1S allele frequency in blood group 0 versus other AB0 blood groups. A comparatively higher allele frequency of HP*1S was found in this population sample. An inverse relationship between HP*1S and HP*2 has been revealed in each blood group. It appears that the major portion of HP*1 alleles in the A, B, and AB blood groups belongs to the HP*1S allele compared to that of the 0 blood group.

  16. ABO-identical blood group matching has no survival benefit for AB heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bergenfeldt, Henrik; Höglund, Peter; Andersson, Bodil; Rådegran, Göran; Ohlsson, Mattias; Nilsson, Johan

    2015-03-01

    Although identical blood group matching is preferred, it is uncertain if this results in improved survival and, if so, how large the survival benefits are. Earlier studies have yielded conflicting results and are mostly based on single-center cohorts with few long-term results. Recipients with blood group AB are of particular interest regarding nonidentical blood group matching because they may receive organs from all blood groups. We wanted to test the hypothesis that ABO-identical matching results in superior survival in recipients with blood group AB. We used data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation registry to match a cohort of heart donors with transplant recipients with blood group AB. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the influence of blood group on outcome after heart transplantation. All-cause cumulative mortality during the study period was the primary end point. The study material consisted of 3,589 adult patients with blood group AB who had received heart transplants, representing 18,085 patient-years. No significant difference in survival after identical, as opposed to compatible, ABO matching was found for recipients with blood group AB. In subgroup analysis, we found improved survival for younger recipients (< 55 years) with blood group AB who underwent transplantation with organs from donor blood group O rather than AB (p = 0.02). We found no survival benefit for recipients with blood group AB transplanted with ABO-identical organs. In the subgroup of recipients younger than 55 years of age, our study suggests improved survival for recipients with blood group AB transplanted with an organ from a donor with blood group O. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dielectrophoretic characterization of erythrocytes: positive ABO blood types.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Soumya K; Daggolu, Prashant R; Burgess, Shane C; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2008-12-01

    Dielectrophoretic manipulation of erythrocytes/red blood cells is investigated as a tool to identify blood type for medical diagnostic applications. Positive blood types of the ABO typing system (A+, B+, AB+ and O+) were tested and cell responses quantified. The dielectrophoretic response of each blood type was observed in a platinum electrode microdevice, delivering a field of 0.025V(pp)/microm at 1 MHz. Responses were recorded via video microscopy for 120 s and erythrocyte positions were tabulated at 20-30 s intervals. Both vertical and horizontal motions of erythrocytes were quantified via image object recognition, object tracking in MATLAB, binning into appropriate electric field contoured regions (wedges) and statistical analysis. Cells of O+ type showed relatively attenuated response to the dielectrophoretic field and were distinguished with greater than 95% confidence from all the other three blood types. AB+ cell responses differed from A+ and B+ blood types likely because AB+ erythrocytes express both the A and B glycoforms on their membrane. This research suggests that dielectrophoresis of untreated erythrocytes beyond simple dilution depends on blood type and could be used in portable blood typing devices.

  18. Types of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially in the joints (knees, ankles, and elbows). Plasma Transfusions Plasma is the liquid part of your blood. It's ... or a severe infection, you may need a plasma transfusion. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: January 30, ...

  19. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Leaders Save Lives High school and college students can earn a scholarship and help save lives. ...

  20. Signalment and blood types in cats being evaluated as blood donors at two italian university blood banks.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Miglio, Arianna; Proverbio, Daniela; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta; Mangili, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Data from potential feline blood donors presented at two university blood banks in Italy were recorded. Blood typing was performed using an immunochromatographic method. Over the three years of the study 357 cats representing 15 breeds, 45.3% female and 54.7% male, with a mean age of 3.8 years were evaluated. Of these 90.5% were blood type A, 5.6% type B, and 3.9% type AB. The majority of the cats (54.6%) were European DSH (92.3% were type A, 5.1% type B, and 2.6% type AB), and 21% were Maine Coon (MCO) cats (100% blood type A). The estimated frequencies of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between DSH (donors and recipients), MCO (donor and recipients), DSH donors and MCO recipients, and MCO donors and DSH recipients were 4.8%, 0%, 0%, and 5.1% for major reactions and 7.2%, 0%, 7.7%, and 0% for minor transfusions reactions, respectively. In a population of blood donors that includes DSH and MCO the risk of transfusion reaction is between 5% and 8% if typing is not performed on donor and recipient blood. Blood typing should therefore be performed before transfusion to remove the risk of transfusion reactions due to blood type incompatibilities.

  1. Blood group AB is protective factor for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Wang, Leishen; Sun, Shurong; Liu, Gongshu; Leng, Junhong; Guo, Jia; Lv, Li; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chinese cohort. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 14,198 pregnant women within the first 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women had a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test if the results from GCT were ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for traditional risk factors. Stratified analysis was performed by family history of diabetes (yes versus no). Sensitivity analyses were also performed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for GDM. Women with blood groups A, B or O (i.e. non-AB) were associated with increased risk of GDM as compared with those with blood group AB (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.83). Sensitivity analyses showed that the result was consistent using WHO criteria. The adjusted OR of blood group non-AB versus AB for GDM was enhanced among women with a family history of diabetes (2.69, 1.21-5.96) and attenuated among those without (1.33, 1.03-1.71). Blood group AB was a protective factor against GDM in pregnant Chinese women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liangshan; Jin, Wumin; Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms.

  3. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27462770

  4. How we manage AB plasma inventory in the blood center and transfusion service.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark; Eder, Anne F; Land, Kevin J

    2013-08-01

    The growing use of group AB plasma in the United States in recent years poses unique challenges to blood centers and transfusion services. Blood centers must collect sufficient plasma components from a limited pool of group AB donors while taking steps to improve transfusion safety that further restricts the available supply. Transfusion services, on the other hand, must use the finite resource in the most conscientious and medically appropriate manner. Recently, many investigations have challenged long-held beliefs about transfusion practice and appropriate indications for blood components across a variety of specialties. Balancing supply and demand of group AB plasma requires collaboration between blood suppliers and transfusion services, and opportunities for improvement exist on both sides of the equation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. The cis-AB blood group phenotype: fundamental lessons in glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Olsson, Martin L; Palcic, Monica M

    2006-07-01

    The cis-AB phenotype can raise questions about an apparently paradoxical inheritance of the ABO blood group, such as the birth of an O child from an AB mother. These subtype ABO alleles confer the ability to create both A and B antigens with a single enzyme. A variety of different cis-AB enzymes have been reported and many feature an interchange of amino acids between the normal A enzyme sequence and its B counterpart, rendering the mutant enzyme capable of creating both antigens. The resulting red blood cells do not usually express A or B antigen at the same level that would be expected on common group A(1) or B red blood cells, and the results of investigations into the kinetics of the cis-AB enzyme more clearly predict the extent of antigen expression. By correctly identifying the cis-AB phenotype, the blood bank can be of assistance to a clinician faced with a patient with what appears to be a genetically impossible ABO blood group.

  6. Effect of ABO blood type on ovarian reserve in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shengli; Li, Rong; Chi, Hongbin; Huang, Shuo; Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Xiaoying; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effect of ABO blood type on ovarian reserve in Chinese women. Retrospective analysis. University-affiliated IVF center. The retrospective analysis involved 35,479 women who underwent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles between 2006 and 2012. None. The association between ABO blood types and diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Among 35,479 Chinese women, 11,395 (32.12%) had blood type B, 10,583 (29.83%) had blood type O, 9,861 (27.79%) had blood type A, and 3,640 (10.26%) had blood type AB. There was a statistically significantly higher percentage of blood type O among those with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels ≤10 IU/L compared with those with FSH levels >10 IU/L. Conversely, among the women with DOR, there was statistically significantly higher percentage of those with blood types B and AB. Blood type A was not associated with DOR occurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that blood type O was statistically significantly less often associated with DOR occurrence, whereas the B antigen (blood type B or AB) was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of DOR. Our results have shown that there is an association between ABO blood type and DOR occurrence in Chinese women. Women with blood type O were statistically significantly less likely to have DOR, whereas those with B antigen (blood type B or AB) were statistically significantly more likely to have DOR. Blood type A was not associated with ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Type A-B Behavior, Social Isolation and Life Stress in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozette, Elizabeth J.; Hicks, Robert A.

    Findings from past research emphasize the importance of social isolation and Type A-B behavior in stress management and suggest that relative to Type Bs, Type As are more likely to be social isolates. A study was conducted to measure the interrelationships between Type A-B behavior, social isolation, and the perceived frequency of life stress…

  8. Rapid direct PCR for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Many different molecular typing methods have been reported to complement routine serological ABO blood typing in forensics. However, these ABO genotyping methods are often time-consuming and call for an initial DNA isolation step that requires the use of expensive kits or reagents. We report here a rapid direct ABO genotyping method that eliminates the need for DNA extraction from fresh blood, hair, and body fluid stains before PCR. Using a fast PCR instrument and an optimized polymerase, the genotyping method-which employs a multiplex allele-specific primer set for the simultaneous detection of three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (nucleotides 261, 526, and 803)-identifies A, B, O01/O02, O03, and cis-AB01 alleles in around 70 min from sample collection to electropherogram. Not only will this ABO genotyping method be efficiently used in forensic practice for rapid screening of samples before full-blown multilocus short tandem repeat profiling, but it will also demonstrate an example of rapid direct genotyping of SNPs that offers the advantages of time- and cost-efficiency, convenience, and reduced contamination during DNA analysis.

  9. Reappraisal of the A/B Therapist "Type" Distinction in Terms of the Personality Research Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Study data supported the hypothesis that A-B status is explicable in personality terms: so-called A-type Ss were characterized by cautious self-expression, social ineptness, and a restricted cognitive scope; B-type Ss appeared socially ascendant and "open" to complex experiences. Also, the variables differentiating A-B statuses appeared to involve…

  10. Possible association between human blood types and opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Meymandi, Manzumeh Shamsi; Divsalar, Kouros; Mahmoudi, Minoo; Heravi, Gioia

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder that has been shown to have a genetic component like several other diseases. Finding any factor that is associated with higher risk of addiction tendency may influence the strategies of prevention and treatment of drug abuse and also provide an avenue of further research in genetics, immunology, and other related fields. This case-control study aimed at finding the frequency rate of ABO blood groups and Rhesus (Rh) factor among opioid dependents. Therefore, 249 opioid dependents referred to the Drug Quit center at Bam, Iran (case group) were compared with 360 blood donors referred to the Blood Transfusion Center (control group) in regard to the frequency of blood groups and Rh factor. The two groups were matched for demographic features. The odds ratio for AB blood group in addicts was 3.98 compared to non-addicts (p < .001) and the odds ratio of negative Rh in addicts compared to non-addicts was 4.27 (p < .001). According to the findings, in this population the frequency of negative Rh and AB blood group were significantly less than the predictive values. The relationship between opioid use and blood group type requires a cohort study eliminating all extraneous factors in order to be proved. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains.

    PubMed

    Franciosa, Giovanna; Floridi, Francesca; Maugliani, Antonella; Aureli, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained.

  12. Differentiation of the Gene Clusters Encoding Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Complexes in Clostridium botulinum Type A, Ab, and A(B) Strains

    PubMed Central

    Franciosa, Giovanna; Floridi, Francesca; Maugliani, Antonella; Aureli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained. PMID:15574917

  13. Label-free optical sensor based on red blood cells laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Duo; Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Huang, Hao; Huang, Zufang; Yu, Yun; Qiu, Sufang; Wen, Cuncheng; Cheng, Min; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-17

    The clinical significance of ABO blood typing extends beyond transfusion medicine and is demonstrated to be associated with susceptibility to various diseases, even including cancer. In this study, a home-made laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) system was applied to detect red blood cells (RBCs) with the aim to develop a label-free, simple and objective blood typing method for the first time. High-quality Raman spectra of RBCs in the fingerprint region of 420-1700 cm-1 can be obtained, meanwhile exciting blood typing results can be achieved, especially with an accuracy of 100% for identifying Type AB from other blood types with the use of multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This primary work demonstrates that the label-free RBCs LTRS analysis in conjunction with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has great potential as a biosensor for ABO blood typing.

  14. Management of pregnancies with rare blood types.

    PubMed

    Biale, Y; Dvilansky, A

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant women with antibodies to high incidence blood group antigens should be diagnosed as early as possible and red blood cells should be stored frozen for future possible needs. Either autologous, compatible siblings or unrelated individuals' red blood cells should be frozen. The application of such a program is described in three pregnant women with exceedingly rare antibodies to high incidence blood group antigens (anti-Lutheranb, and PP1Pk, and anti c with blood type B CCddee Du negative).

  15. Paper diagnostic for instantaneous blood typing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Thouas, George; Shen, Wei; Whyte, Gordon; Garnier, Gil

    2010-05-15

    Agglutinated blood transports differently onto paper than stable blood with well dispersed red cells. This difference was investigated to develop instantaneous blood typing tests using specific antibody-antigen interactions to trigger blood agglutination. Two series of experiments were performed. The first related the level of agglutination and the fluidic properties of blood on its transport in paper. Blood samples were mixed at different ratios with specific and nonspecific antibodies; a droplet of each mixture was deposited onto a filter paper strip, and the kinetics of wicking and red cell separation were measured. Agglutinated blood phase separated, with the red blood cells (RBC) forming a distinct spot upon contact with paper while the plasma wicked; in contrast, stable blood suspensions wicked uniformly. The second study analyzed the wicking and the chromatographic separation of droplets of blood deposited onto paper strips pretreated with specific and nonspecific antibodies. Drastic differences in transport occurred. Blood agglutinated by interaction with one of its specific antibodies phase separated, causing a chromatographic separation. The red cells wicked very little while the plasma wicked at a faster rate than the original blood sample. Blood agglutination and wicking in paper followed the concepts of colloids chemistry. The immunoglobin M antibodies agglutinated the red blood cells by polymer bridging, upon selective adsorption on the specific antigen at their surface. The transport kinetics was viscosity controlled, with the viscosity of red cells drastically increasing upon blood agglutination. Three arm prototypes were investigated for single-step blood typing.

  16. The prognostic value of architectural patterns in a study of 37 type AB thymomas.

    PubMed

    Vladislav, I Tudor; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-06-01

    Spindle cell thymomas with prominent amount of lymphocytes are classified as WHO type AB tumors. However, there are architectural pattern differences in these tumors. We investigated the importance of architectural pattern in type AB thymomas in relation to prognostic value. Archival hematoxylin-eosin stained slides of 37 AB type thymomas were reviewed for the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of reticular growth pattern. Reticular growth pattern is defined as the presence of a network of elongated bland spindle cells separating nests of tumor cells admixed with lymphoid cells. The architectural patterns were correlated with tumor stage at diagnosis and presence or absence of recurrent disease. The analysis identified 18 cases of type 1 AB thymoma and 19 cases of type 2. Type 2 cases also had greater cytologic atypia within the spindle cells. Patients with type 1 tumors were more likely to have early stage disease. In contrast, type 2 pattern was associated with higher stage at diagnosis (P<0.001) and greater likelihood for recurrence (P<0.05) and metastases. Architectural features are prognostically relevant in classification of WHO AB type thymomas and may constitute a form of personalized medicine. Independent confirmation of the findings is necessary to confirm the association of architectural pattern with outcomes.

  17. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  18. Design of a sensor for the blood AB0 group antibodies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, D. V.; Kiselev, G. A.; Moiseev, M. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Yaminskiy, I. V.

    2012-02-01

    Control the content of the blood group antibodies in the plasma of the recipient is an important task in modern transplantation. In this paper we proposed to use micromechanical cantilever sensors for detection of the low concentrations of AB0 blood group antibodies in serum. The technique of chemical modification of cantilever surface to create the receptor layer was developed. The apparatus, which provides data acquisition from multiple microconsoles simultaneously was created. We carried out experiments by the detection in a solution the β antibodies with a concentration of 300 times less than the native content of antibodies in the blood. Change in surface stress due to formation of antigen-antibody complexes on the cantilever surface was 0.075 N/m. The resulting lateral strain, apparently, induced by repulsion between the complexes during the sorption of antibodies in layer of antigens, immobilized on the surface. The possibility of regeneration of sensory layer for repeated measurements was shown.

  19. Validation of paper-based assay for rapid blood typing.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Shen, Wei; Zeineddine, Rania; Tran, Huy; Garnier, Gil

    2012-02-07

    We developed and validated a new paper-based assay for the detection of human blood type. Our method involves spotting a 3 μL blood sample on a paper surface where grouping antibodies have already been introduced. A thin film chromatograph tank was used to chromatographically elute the blood spot with 0.9% NaCl buffer for 10 min by capillary absorption. Agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) were fixed on the paper substrate, resulting in a high optical density of the spot, with no visual trace in the buffer wicking path. Conversely, nonagglutinated RBCs could easily be eluted by the buffer and had low optical density of the spot and clearly visible trace of RBCs in the buffer wicking path. Different paper substrates had comparable ability to fix agglutinated blood, while a more porous substrate like Kleenex paper had enhanced ability to elute nonagglutinated blood. Using optimized conditions, a rapid assay for detection of blood groups was developed by spotting blood to antibodies absorbed to paper and eluted with 200 μL of 0.9% NaCl buffer directly by pipetting. RBCs fixation on paper accurately detected blood groups (ABO and RhD) using ascending buffer for 10 min or using a rapid elution step in 100/100 blood samples including 4 weak AB and 4 weak RhD samples. The assay has excellent reproducibility where the same blood group was obtained in 26 samples assessed in 2 different days. Agglutinated blood fixation on porous paper substrate provides a new, simple, and sensitive assay for rapid detection of blood group for point-of-care applications.

  20. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  1. Parainfluenza virus type 3 Ab in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: factors influencing post-transplant Ab titers and associated outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Xie, H; Karron, R A; Thumar, B; Englund, J A; Leisenring, W M; Stevens-Ayers, T; Boeckh, M; Campbell, A P

    2014-09-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) can cause severe respiratory illness among hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Factors associated with PIV-3-specific Ab level, and the association between PIV-3 Ab levels and clinical outcomes in HCT recipients who acquire PIV-3 infection, are unknown. We evaluated PIV-3-specific hemagglutination inhibition Ab levels and clinical outcomes among 172 patients with PIV-3 infection following HCT. In a multivariable linear regression model, high post-transplantation Ab levels were independently associated with higher pre-transplantation recipient titer (mean difference 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26, 0.50), P<0.001). Significant associations between pre-HCT Ab titers in both patients and donors and occurrence of lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) after HCT were not observed. In conclusion, low pre-transplantation titers are associated with low Ab levels after HCT. The relationship between PIV-3 Ab levels and outcomes remain uncertain. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the dynamics of PIV-3-specific Ab responses and the relative contribution of PIV-3-specific Ab to protection from infection acquisition and progression to LRD.

  2. Association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in single embryo transfer cycles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Patel, Hency H; Stone, Logan D; Christos, Paul J; Elias, Rony T; Spandorfer, Steven D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 single embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. Normal responders, <40 years old, undergoing their first IVF cycle with fresh SET. None. Live-birth rate was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between blood type and live birth, while controlling for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for live birth were estimated. A total of 2,329 patients were included. The mean age of the study cohort was 34.6 ± 4.78 years. The distribution of blood types was as follows: A = 897 (38.5%); B = 397 (17.0%); AB = 120 (5.2%); and, O = 1,915 (39.3%) patients. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation, or embryo quality parameters between the blood types. The unadjusted ORs for live birth when comparing blood type A (referent) with blood types B, AB, and O were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.6-1.7), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.4-1.2), and 0.96 (95% CI. 0.6-1.7), respectively. The adjusted ORs for live birth remained not significant when comparing blood type A to blood types B, AB, and O individually. No difference in birth weight or gestational age at delivery was noted among the four blood types. Our findings suggest that ABO blood type is not associated with live-birth rate, birth weight, or gestational age at delivery in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 SET. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of differences between Type A and B individuals in heart rate and blood pressure reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lyness, S A

    1993-09-01

    Past estimates of the magnitude of Type A-B differences in cardiovascular reactivity are probably overly conservative. In addition, it is unclear which situations are more likely to elicit excessive reactivity in Type As. The present meta-analysis found that, overall, Type As had greater heart rate (mean d = .22), diastolic blood pressure (d = .22), and especially systolic blood pressure responses (d = .33) than Type Bs; these effect sizes were small but relatively consistent. However, Type As showed especially greater cardiovascular reactivity in situations characterized as having (a) positive or negative feedback evaluation, (b) socially aversive elements such as verbal harassment or criticism, and (c) elements inherent in playing video games. Measures of time urgency, Type A assessment method, and gender were not found to be strongly related to A-B differences in cardiovascular reactivity. Future studies that use more "Type A-relevant" situations will probably find greater effects.

  4. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    PubMed

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests.

  5. Blood type biochemistry and human disease.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2016-11-01

    Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. Blood group antigens are found on red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, plasma proteins, certain tissues, and various cell surface enzymes, and also exist in soluble form in body secretions such as breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, sweat, gastric secretions, urine, and amniotic fluid. Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:517-535. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Stem Cell Physics. Laser Manipulation of Blood Types: Laser-Stripping-Away of Red Blood Cell Surface Antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    A novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine[2] is proposed. The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multilaser beams with the flowing blood thin films can lead to a conversion of blood types A, B, and AB into O type.[3] The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation),[4] upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, CA.

  7. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    PubMed

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; p<0.01, respectively). Values of pO2 and sO2 in CBS were significantly lower than values obtained in ABS (8.92±2.07 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±4.86 vs. 92.40±4.50; p<0.01, respectively). Obtained pO2 and sO2 values in CBS in the plastic tubes were higher than those in the glass tubes (8.50±1.98 vs. 7.89±2.0 and 89.66±11.04 vs. 88.23±11.22, p<0.01 respectively). pCO2 blood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  8. On the Age, Spectral Type, Orbit, and Comparison to Evolutionary Models of AB Dor C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Nielsen, E. L.; Guirado, J. C.; Biller, B. A.; Lenzen, R.; Brandner, W.; Hartung, M.; Lidman, C.

    We expand upon the results of Close et al. 2005 regarding the young, low-mass object AB Dor C and its role as a calibration point for theoretical tracks. We argue for a new 70±30 Myr age estimate and present two additional detections of C with the Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) camera. Our improved analysis (Nielsen et al. 2005) confirms our spectral type of M8 (±1) and mass of 0.090 ±0.003 Msun for AB Dor C. However, Luhman & Potter (2006) argue for a hotter spectral type (M6±1). Here we adopt the consistent spectral range of M7±1 in this paper as a final spectral type. Plotting AB Dor C (and all other young ({ Myr), low-mass (0.3-0.05 Msun) objects with accurate dynamical masses) on the HR diagram suggests a trend where current evolutionary models tend to over-predict the temperature (or under-predict the mass) for young low-mass stars and high-mass brown dwarfs. With our uncertainties, there is a ˜90% chance that the mass of AB Dor C is underestimated by the DUSTY tracks in the HR diagram.

  9. Association between ABO blood types and sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Ben, Qiwen; Liu, Jun; Wang, Weiyi; Guo, Fang; Yao, Weiyan; Zhong, Jie; Yuan, Yaozong

    2017-08-15

    Although the relationship between non-O blood types and the risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer has been demonstrated, the association between ABO blood types and sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) has not been reported thus far. This hospital-based, case-control study included 387 patients with PNET and 542 age- and sex-matched controls. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The relationship between ABO blood types and clinicopathologic features was also analyzed. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol drinking, and first-degree family history of any cancer, the AORs (95% CI) of functional PNET were 0.87 (0.59-1.28) for blood type A, 0.86 (0.58-1.28) for blood type B, and 0.71 (0.39-1.26) for blood type AB compared with subjects with blood type O. A similar ABO blood-type distribution was observed among cases with non-functional PNETs compared with controls. On comparing blood type B with non-B blood type, cases with non-functional PNETs had marginally higher rates of lymph node invasion (P = 0.047), distant metastasis (P = 0.044), and advanced European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society Stage (P = 0.040). There is no association between the ABO blood group and the development of functional and non-functional PNETs. The ABO blood types are not associated with the clinicopathologic features in patients with functional and non-functional PNETs.

  10. Evidence for Radiogenic Sulfur-32 in Type AB Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Zinner, Ernst; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2013-10-01

    We report C, Si, and S isotope measurements on 34 presolar silicon carbide grains of Type AB, characterized by 12C/13C < 10. Nitrogen, Mg-Al-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions were measured on a subset of these grains. Three grains show large 32S excesses, a signature that has been previously observed for grains from supernovae (SNe). Enrichments in 32S may be due to contributions from the Si/S zone and the result of S molecule chemistry in still unmixed SN ejecta or due to incorporation of radioactive 32Si from C-rich explosive He shell ejecta. However, a SN origin remains unlikely for the three AB grains considered here, because of missing evidence for 44Ti, relatively low 26Al/27Al ratios (a few times 10-3), and radiogenic 32S along with low 12C/13C ratios. Instead, we show that born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that have undergone a very-late thermal pulse (VLTP), known to have low 12C/13C ratios and enhanced abundances of the light s-process elements, can produce 32Si, which makes such stars attractive sources for AB grains with 32S excesses. This lends support to the proposal that at least some AB grains originate from born-again AGB stars, although uncertainties in the born-again AGB star models and possible variations of initial S-isotopic compositions in the parent stars of AB grains make it difficult to draw a definitive conclusion.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR RADIOGENIC SULFUR-32 IN TYPE AB PRESOLAR SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Zinner, Ernst; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk E-mail: peter.hoppe@mpic.de E-mail: mpignatari@gmail.com

    2013-10-20

    We report C, Si, and S isotope measurements on 34 presolar silicon carbide grains of Type AB, characterized by {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C < 10. Nitrogen, Mg-Al-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions were measured on a subset of these grains. Three grains show large {sup 32}S excesses, a signature that has been previously observed for grains from supernovae (SNe). Enrichments in {sup 32}S may be due to contributions from the Si/S zone and the result of S molecule chemistry in still unmixed SN ejecta or due to incorporation of radioactive {sup 32}Si from C-rich explosive He shell ejecta. However, a SN origin remains unlikely for the three AB grains considered here, because of missing evidence for {sup 44}Ti, relatively low {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios (a few times 10{sup –3}), and radiogenic {sup 32}S along with low {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios. Instead, we show that born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that have undergone a very-late thermal pulse (VLTP), known to have low {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios and enhanced abundances of the light s-process elements, can produce {sup 32}Si, which makes such stars attractive sources for AB grains with {sup 32}S excesses. This lends support to the proposal that at least some AB grains originate from born-again AGB stars, although uncertainties in the born-again AGB star models and possible variations of initial S-isotopic compositions in the parent stars of AB grains make it difficult to draw a definitive conclusion.

  12. Time-series Spectroscopy of the Oscillating Algol-type Binary AB Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Jae Woo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Jang-Ho; Rittipruk, Pakakaew

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the high-resolution spectra of the eclipsing binary AB Cas with a δ Sct-type pulsating component, which were obtained using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph in Korea. In this paper, the radial velocities for the primary and secondary stars were measured from a total of 27 spectra made during two nights in 2015 October. We derived accurate physical properties of the system for the first time by simultaneously analyzing our radial velocity curves together with previously published uvby light curves. Individual masses, radii, and effective temperatures of both components were determined to be {M}1=2.01+/- 0.02 M ⊙ and {M}2=0.37+/- 0.02 M ⊙, {R}1=1.84+/- 0.02 R ⊙ and {R}2=1.69+/- 0.03 R ⊙, and {T}{eff,1}=8080+/- 170 K and {T}{eff,2}=4925+/- 150 K, respectively. The results should be more accurate than previous photometric studies. We investigated the evolutionary history of AB Cas by comparing its physical parameters with stellar evolutionary models. The primary component is not a classical δ Sct pulsator but is the result of mass accretion transferred from the initial more massive star, which is the present secondary. This indicates that AB Cas is an oscillating Algol-type eclipsing binary with a low-mass and oversized secondary component filling its inner Roche lobe.

  13. Blood typing using microstructured waveguide smart cuvette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanishevskaya, Anastasiya A.; Shuvalov, Andrey A.; Skibina, Yulia S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a sensitive method that allows one to distinguish positive and negative agglutination reactions used for blood typing and determination of Rh affinity with a high precision. The method is based on the unique properties of photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., microstructured waveguides (MSWs). The transmission spectrum of an MSW smart cuvette filled by a specific or nonspecific agglutinating serum depends on the scattering, refractive, and absorptive properties of the blood probe. This concept was proven in the course of a laboratory clinical study. The obtained ratio of the spectral-based discrimination parameter for positive and negative reactions (I+/I-) was found to be 16 for standard analysis and around 2 for used sera with a weak activity.

  14. Blood typing using microstructured waveguide smart cuvette.

    PubMed

    Zanishevskaya, Anastasiya A; Shuvalov, Andrey A; Skibina, Yulia S; Tuchin, Valery V

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a sensitive method that allows one to distinguish positive and negative agglutination reactions used for blood typing and determination of Rh affinity with a high precision. The method is based on the unique properties of photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., microstructured waveguides (MSWs). The transmission spectrum of an MSW smart cuvette filled by a specific or nonspecific agglutinating serum depends on the scattering, refractive, and absorptive properties of the blood probe. This concept was proven in the course of a laboratory clinical study. The obtained ratio of the spectral-based discrimination parameter for positive and negative reactions (I+/I-) was found to be 16 for standard analysis and around 2 for used sera with a weak activity.

  15. Frequency and inheritance of A and B blood types in feline breeds of the United States.

    PubMed

    Giger, U; Bucheler, J; Patterson, D F

    1991-01-01

    Using a simple hemagglutination assay to determine A and B blood types, we surveyed 1,072 domestic short- and longhair (DSH/DLH) cats and 1,100 purebred cats in the United States. Data from 234 matings with 552 offspring were consistent with the hypothesis that feline blood types A and B are due to the action of two different alleles at the same gene locus and that A is completely dominant over B. Neither an AB nor an O type cat was encountered. No type B cats were found in the Siamese and related breeds or in American Shorthair and Norwegian Forest cats. Among the breeds with type B blood, the proportion was lowest in DSH/DLH cats (0.0028) and variably higher in Abyssinian, Birman, British Shorthair, Devon Rex, Himalayan, Persian, Scottish Fold, and Somali, ranging from 0.15 to 0.59. Since all type B cats have strong, naturally occurring anti-A alloantibodies, fatal neonatal isoerythrolyses occur in type A offspring of type B mothers bred to type A males. The gene frequency of the B allele and the proportion of mating at risk of neonatal isoerythrolysis were estimated in a number of breeds. In most breeds, the frequency of the B allele was less than 0.5. Since the kittens at risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis always have the genotype AB, there is constant natural selection against heterozygotes. Heterozygote disadvantage in the cat AB system represents an unusual form of negative selection, similar to that in Rh blood group incompatibility in humans.

  16. Implications of Blood Type for Ovarian Reserve and Infertility - Impact on Oocyte Yield in IVF Patients.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, D; Corn, C; Stadler, J; Wirleitner, B; Schuff, M; Vanderzwalmen, P; Grabher, F; Zech, N H

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) has been linked to certain subpopulations and distinct gene polymorphisms. It has even been hypothesized that the AB0 blood group system could be linked to ovarian reserve (OR) as reflected by early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Although estimation of OR is routinely done using levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), FSH, estradiol or inhibin B, the diagnostic accuracy of these markers is often limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is any correlation between IVF patients' AB0 blood group system and ART outcome. Methods: In this retrospective observational single-center study we investigated the outcome of 1889 IVF cycles carried out between 2005 and 2012 with regard to blood type and OR in different age groups (21-36 years and 37-43 years). The number of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and metaphase II oocytes obtained after ovarian stimulation, fertilization rate (FR), pregnancy rate (PR) and birth rate (BR) were evaluated with respect to maternal age (21-36 and 37-43 years, respectively). Results: We found no significant differences in the average number of COCs after ovum pick-up in either of the age groups. Moreover, the mean number of MII oocytes and 2PN stages were similar for all blood type groups. As regards IVF outcome measured in terms of PR and BR, no significant differences were observed between the different blood groups. In conclusion, no correlation was found between blood type and female fertility. Discussion: The most precise definition of OR is determining the number of competent oocytes. Based on the finding of our study, the hypothesis that there is a correlation between OR and AB0 blood group system can be dismissed for Caucasian IVF patients.

  17. ABO blood type is associated with endometrial cancer risk in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-11-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk of several malignancies. However, results are not consistent. In this population-based case-control study including 1204 incident endometrial cancer cases and 1212 population controls, we examined the association of self-reported serologic blood type with endometrial cancer risk using a logistic regression model. Women with endometrial cancer were more likely to have blood type A. Compared to women with blood type O, the adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer were 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.28] for type B, 1.24 (95% CI, 0.90-1.69) for type AB, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.19-1.90) for type A. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for cancer risk and level of antigen A (P for trend = 0.0003). The positive association of blood type A with cancer risk was observed regardless of menopausal status, body mass index, oral contraceptive use, or family cancer history. Our results suggest that ABO blood type may be involved in the development of endometrial cancer.

  18. Direct current insulator-based dielectrophoretic characterization of erythrocytes: ABO-Rh human blood typing.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Soumya K; Artemiou, Andreas; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2011-09-01

    A microfluidic platform developed for quantifying the dependence of erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) responses by ABO-Rh blood type via direct current insulator dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) is presented. The PDMS DC-iDEP device utilized a 400 x 170 μm² rectangular insulating obstacle embedded in a 1.46-cm long, 200-μm wide inlet channel to create spatial non-uniformities in direct current (DC) electric field density realized by separation into four outlet channels. The DC-iDEP flow behaviors were investigated for all eight blood types (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-) in the human ABO-Rh blood typing system. Three independent donors of each blood type, same donor reproducibility, different conductivity buffers (0.52-9.1 mS/cm), and DC electric fields (17.1-68.5 V/cm) were tested to investigate separation dependencies. The data analysis was conducted from image intensity profiles across inlet and outlet channels in the device. Individual channel fractions suggest that the dielectrophoretic force experienced by the cells is dependent on erythrocyte antigen expression. Two different statistical analysis methods were conducted to determine how distinguishable a single blood type was from the others. Results indicate that channel fraction distributions differ by ABO-Rh blood types suggesting that antigens present on the erythrocyte membrane polarize differently in DC-iDEP fields. Under optimized conductivity and field conditions, certain blind blood samples could be sorted with low misclassification rates.

  19. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  20. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  1. [Analysis for Discordance of Positive and Negative Blood Typing by Gel Card].

    PubMed

    Li, Cui-Ying; Xu, Hong; Lei, Hui-Fen; Liu, Juan; Li, Xiao-Wei

    2017-08-01

    To explore the method of Gel card identifying ABO blood group, determine the inconsistent cause and the distribution of disease affecting factors, and put forward a method of its solutions. To collect 240 positive and negative typing-discordant blood speciments from patients examined by Gel card and send these speciments to blood type reference laboratory for examining with the classic tube method and serological test, such as salivary blood-group substance, in order to performe genotyping method when serologic test can not be determined. Among 240 positive and negative typing-discordant blood speciments from patients examined by Gel card, 107 blood speciments were positive and negative consistent examined by false agglutination test (44.58%), 133 blood specinents were discordent examined by false agglutination (55.42%), out of them, 35 cases (14.58%) with inconsistent cold agglutination test, 22 cases (9.17%) with weakened AB antigenicity, 16 cases (6.67%) with ABO subtyping, 12 cases (5.00%) with positive direct antiglobulin test, 11 cases (4.58%) with reduced or without antibodies, 11 cases (4.58%) with false aggregation caused by drugs or protein, 11 cases (4.58%) with salivary blood-type substances, 8 cases (3.33%) with non-ABO alloantibody, and 7 cases (2.92%) with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The distribution of disease were following: blood disease (16.83%), tumor (11.88%), and cardiopulmonary diseases (11.39%); chi-square test results indicated that the distribution significantly different. The analysis of ABO blood grouping shows a variety factors influencing positive and negative blood typing, and the Gel Card identification can produc more false positive blood types. Therefore, more attention should be paid on the high incidence diseases, such as blood disease, tumor, and cardiopulmonary disease.

  2. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    PubMed

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  3. Molecular basis of Lewis blood type in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Liu, T C; Lin, S F; Yang, T Y; Perng, L I; Jaung, S J; Hu, C Z; Chang, J G

    2000-11-01

    The Lewis (Le) histo-blood group system comprises two major antigens, Le(a) and Le(b) which are determined by alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and alpha (1,3/1,4)-fucosyltransferase (FUT3). In this study, we analyzed the mutations of FUT2 and FUT3 genes in 101 Taiwanese by molecular biology method and compared them with their serologic phenotypes to explore their relationship. There is at least one wild allele of FUT2 and FUT3 genes in phenotype of Le (a-b+). The phenotypes of Le (a+b-) and Le (a+b+) are caused by mutations of both alleles of FUT2 gene and at least one wild allele of FUT3 gene. The genotypes of Le (a+b-) and Le (a+b+) are the same. Twenty cases are phenotype of Le (a-b-), which are caused by mutations of both alleles of FUT 2 gene and/or FUT 3 gene. Twelve cases were caused by both alleles mutations of FUT 3 gene only, while three cases were caused by mutations of both alleles of FUT2 gene and the rest of the cases were caused by mutations of both alleles of FUT2 and FUT3 genes. Our findings confirm that the Le histo-blood group is determined by the interaction of FUT 2 and FUT 3 genes. Our report is the first study of FUT 2 gene and FUT 3 gene in a Taiwanese population. We suggest that the genetic analysis of Le blood group should include FUT 2 and FUT 3 genes together.

  4. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  5. The relationship between juvenile and non-juvenile periodontitis, ABO blood groups and haemoglobin types.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, M O; Dosmu, E B; Adingbola, T S

    2002-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between juvenile and non-juvenile peridontitis (JP, non-JP), ABO blood groups and haemoglobin type. The heamoglobin electrophoresis was determined by routine technique using cellulose acetate paper and tris buffer at pH 8.5. Tile blood grouping was carried out on all specimens. Forty Nigerian adolescent individuals were investigated, twenty of which were diagnosed as having JP while the remaining 20 were diagnosed a having plaque-induced chronic periodontitis (non JP). This latter group was used as the control group. All the JP patients were either of blood group B/AB, rhesus positive while the non-JP subjects had B rhesus positive/negative, O rhesus positive/negative or AB rhesus positive. The differences between the results of the test and the control groups were statistically significant P < 0.05. All the forty subjects (JP and non-JP) had the haemoglobin type A and none of them exhibited the S and C haemoglobin types. There is a need to further investigate the relationship between juvenile periodontitis, ABO blood group and the common haemoglobin types (A, AS, S, C, and SS) at molecular level.

  6. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  7. Possible efficient p-type doping of AlN using Be: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R. Q.; Shen, L.; Yang, M.; Sha, Z. D.; Cai, Y. Q.; Feng, Y. P.; Huang, Z. G.; Wu, Q. Y.

    2007-10-01

    Spin density functional theory based ab initio study is carried out to investigate the feasibility of fabricating p-type AlN using Be as an efficient dopant. It is found that substitutional BeAl is an acceptor with an activation energy of 0.34eV. To overcome the low solubility of direct incorporation of Be into AlN and self-compensation from Be interstitials, we propose a hydrogen-assisted growth scheme which improves the solubility and suppresses interstitials. Oxygen is also found to be an effective codopant to activate Be in AlN. Our results suggest the possibility of improving p-type conductivity of AlN by Be doping.

  8. A systematic approach to reductions of type-Q ABS equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Mike; Howes, Phil; Nakazono, Nobutaka; Shi, Yang

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of reductions of Möbius type for the lattice equations known as Q1, Q2, and Q3 from the ABS list. The deautonomized form of one particular reduction of Q3 is shown to exist on the A1(1) surface which belongs to the multiplicative type of rational surfaces in Sakai’s classification of Painlevé systems. Using the growth of degrees of iterates, all other mappings that result from the class of reductions considered here are shown to be linearizable. Any possible linearizations are calculated explicitly by constructing a birational transformation defined by invariant curves in the blown up space of initial values for each reduction.

  9. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of 14N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Stephan, Thomas; Boehnke, Patrick; Nittler, Larry R.; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Wang, Jianhua; Davis, Andrew M.; Trappitsch, Reto; Pellin, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 14N-rich AB (14N/15N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takes place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show 13C and 14N excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%-15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.

  10. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  11. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-11-19

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  12. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  13. Management of a rare blood type: Oh "Bombay" in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, A R; Ali, V; Ross, P J; Gammon, E

    1981-06-01

    A rare blood type, Oh "Bombay," was observed in a 30-year-old Indian primigravida. The genetic mode of inheritance is discussed. The obstetric management, with anticipation for the need for blood transfusion, is outlined and the use of autotransfusion for patients with rare blood type is emphasized.

  14. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  15. Human allogeneic AB0/Rh-identical umbilical cord blood cells in the treatment of juvenile patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yury A; Tarakanov, Oleg P; Radaev, Sergey M; Dugina, Tamara N; Ryaskina, Svetlana S; Darevskaya, Anna N; Morozova, Yana V; Khachatryan, William A; Lebedev, Konstantin E; Zotova, Nelli S; Burkova, Anna S; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Smirnov, Vladimir N

    2015-07-01

    The term "cerebral palsy" (CP) encompasses many syndromes that emerge from brain damage at early stages of ontogenesis and manifest as the inability to retain a normal body position or perform controlled movements. Existing methods of CP treatment, including various rehabilitation strategies and surgical and pharmacological interventions, are mostly palliative, and there is no specific therapy focused on restoring injured brain function. During a post-registration clinical investigation, the safety and efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-unmatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells were studied in 80 pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and associated neurological complications. Patients received up to 6 intravenous infusions of AB0/Rh-identical, red blood cell-depleted UCB cells at an average dose of 250 × 10(6) viable cells per infusion. Patients were followed for 3-36 months, and multiple cell infusions did not cause any adverse effects. In contrast, in most patients who received four or more UCB cell infusions, positive dynamics related to significant improvements in neurological status and/or cognitive functions were observed. The results confirm that multiple intravenous infusions of allogeneic AB0/Rh-identical UCB cells may be a safe and effective procedure and could be included in treatment and rehabilitation programs for juvenile patients with cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-12-03

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp–bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Lastly, we compare the out-of-sample classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously.

  17. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-12-01

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp-bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Finally, we compare the out-of-sample classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously.

  18. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp–bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Finally, we compare the out-of-sample classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously. PMID:26631979

  19. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-12-03

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp–bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Lastly, we compare the out-of-samplemore » classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously.« less

  20. Prospective study of ABO blood type and the risk of pulmonary embolism in two large cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Brian M; Kabrhel, Christopher; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kraft, Peter; Rimm, Eric B; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Camargo, Carlos A; Fuchs, Charles S

    2010-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested an association of ABO blood type and the risk of venous thromboembolism; however, most studies were retrospective and lacked important covariates or validated endpoints. Moreover, risk estimates varied widely across studies. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association of blood type and the risk of incident pulmonary embolism (PE) in two large cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. During 1,010,378 person-years of follow-up among 77,025 women and 30,105 men, 499 participants developed PE. Compared to those with O-blood type, participants with non-O blood type had multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.35-2.57) for idiopathic PE, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.62) for non-idiopathic PE, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.22-1.76) for any PE. Hazard ratios were similar for participants with blood types A, B, and AB. Age-adjusted absolute rates of idiopathic PE over 10 years of follow-up differed by blood type: 0.11% for O, 0.20% for A, 0.19% for AB, and 0.21% for B. For idiopathic PE, the population attributable fraction was 33% for inheritance of non-O blood type. Among past and current smokers, participants with non-O vs. O-blood type had a HR for idiopathic PE of 2.56 (95% CI, 1.61-4.08). Among never smokers, the HR for idiopathic PE was 1.30 (95% CI, 0.82-2.05; P interaction=0.04). In two large, prospective cohorts, ABO blood type was significantly associated with the risk of idiopathic and non-idiopathic PE, with even greater risk for idiopathic PE among current and past smokers with non-O blood type.

  1. SN 2013ab: a normal Type IIP supernova in NGC 5669

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhash; Valenti, Stefano; Misra, Kuntal; Pumo, Maria Letizia; Zampieri, Luca; Sand, David; Kumar, Brijesh; Pastorello, Andrea; Sutaria, Firoza; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kumar, Brajesh; Graham, M. L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Ochner, Paolo; Chandola, H. C.; Pandey, Shashi B.

    2015-07-01

    We present densely sampled ultraviolet/optical photometric and low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of the Type IIP supernova 2013ab in the nearby (˜24 Mpc) galaxy NGC 5669, from 2 to 190 d after explosion. Continuous photometric observations, with the cadence of typically a day to one week, were acquired with the 1-2 m class telescopes in the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network, ARIES telescopes in India and various other telescopes around the globe. The light curve and spectra suggest that the supernova (SN) is a normal Type IIP event with a plateau duration of ˜80 d with mid-plateau absolute visual magnitude of -16.7, although with a steeper decline during the plateau (0.92 mag 100 d-1 in V band) relative to other archetypal SNe of similar brightness. The velocity profile of SN 2013ab shows striking resemblance with those of SNe 1999em and 2012aw. Following the Rabinak & Waxman prescription, the initial temperature evolution of the SN emission allows us to estimate the progenitor radius to be ˜800 R⊙, indicating that the SN originated from a red supergiant star. The distance to the SN host galaxy is estimated to be 24.3 Mpc from expanding photosphere method. From our observations, we estimate that 0.064 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. General relativistic, radiation hydrodynamical modelling of the SN infers an explosion energy of 0.35 × 1051 erg, a progenitor mass (at the time of explosion) of ˜9 M⊙ and an initial radius of ˜600 R⊙.

  2. Human blood group typing based on digital photographs of RBC agglutination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    A method for the monitoring of the human erythrocyte agglutination reaction in vitro, which is the basis for determining the human blood type (group), is proposed. The method is based on a statistical analysis of digital photographs of the agglutination process. It is experimentally shown that this analysis of photographs makes it possible to determine the probability that the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes of the studied specimen of blood with corresponding isohemagglutinating sera does occur. To increase the rate of the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes and to improve the sensitivity of the method of monitoring, the bioobject under study is subjected to the action of ultrasonic waves, as was previously proposed by the authors, and the result of the erythrocyte agglutination reaction is read optically. It is shown that, in principle, the method of statistical processing of digital photographs can be used to develop devices for automatic human blood typing in the AB0 and Rh systems.

  3. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  4. Ab-initio study of B{sub 2}-type technetium AB (A=Tc, B=Nb and Ta) intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Nikita Fatima, Bushra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-06

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of AB type (A = Tc, B = Nb and Ta) technetium intermetallic compounds are studied using full potential linearized plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice parameters agree well with the experimental results. The elastic constants obey the stability criteria for cubic system. Ductility for these compounds has been analyzed using the Pugh’s rule and Cauchy’s pressure and found that all the compounds are ductile in nature. Bonding nature is discussed in terms of Fermi surface and band structures.

  5. Blood Type O is not associated with increased blood loss in extensive spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ryu; Dalton, Jarrod E; Ghobrial, Michael; Fu, Alexander Y; Lee, Jae H; Egan, Cameron; Sessler, Daniel I; Kasuya, Yusuke; Turan, Alparslan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether Type O blood group status is associated with increased intraoperative blood loss and requirement of blood transfusion in extensive spine surgery. Retrospective comparative study. University-affiliated, non-profit teaching hospital. Data from 1,050 ASA physical status 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 patients who underwent spine surgeries involving 4 or more vertebral levels were analyzed. Patients with Type O blood were matched to similar patients with other blood types using propensity scores, which were estimated via demographic and morphometric data, medical history variables, and extent of surgery. Intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) was compared among matched patients using a linear regression model; intraoperative transfusion requirement in volume of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelet, cryoprecipitate, cell salvaged blood, volume of intraoperative infusion of hetastarch, 5% albumin, crystalloids, and hospital length of hospital (LOS) were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Intraoperative EBL and requirement of blood product transfusion were similar in patients with Type O blood group and those with other blood groups. There was no association between Type O blood and increased intraoperative blood loss or blood transfusion requirement during extensive spine surgery, with similar hospital LOS in Type O and non-O patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Type and hold system for better blood utilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, S T; Lair, J; Floyd, D M; Cole, G W

    1980-01-01

    Blood bank personnel can convince surgeons to change their presurgical blood orders from a type-and-crossmatch to a type-and-hold approach. To do this, it is necessary to guarantee blood availability within a short time frame if blood should be unexpectedly required. Such a change in blood orders significantly reduced the number of unnecessary crossmatches and the amount of wasted outdated blood in our institution. Economic savings and conservation of resources were realized without compromising the patients' safety or the quality of our service.

  7. Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen

  8. Investigation into the Antigenic Properties and Contributions to Growth in Blood of the Meningococcal Haemoglobin Receptors, HpuAB and HmbR

    PubMed Central

    Bidmos, Fadil A.; Chan, Hannah; Praekelt, Uta; Tauseef, Isfahan; Ali, Youssif M.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Feavers, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of iron from host complexes is mediated by four surface-located receptors of Neisseria meningitidis. The HmbR protein and heterodimeric HpuAB complex bind to haemoglobin whilst TbpBA and LbpBA bind iron-loaded transferrin and lactoferrin complexes, respectively. The haemoglobin receptors are unevenly distributed; disease-causing meningococcal isolates encode HmbR or both receptors while strains with only HpuAB are rarely-associated with disease. Both these receptors are subject to phase variation and 70–90% of disease isolates have one or both of these receptors in an ON expression state. The surface-expression, ubiquity and association with disease indicate that these receptors could be potential virulence factors and vaccine targets. To test for a requirement during disease, an hmbR deletion mutant was constructed in a strain (MC58) lacking HpuAB and in both a wild-type and TbpBA deletion background. The hmbR mutant exhibited an identical growth pattern to wild-type in whole blood from healthy human donors whereas growth of the tbpBA mutant was impaired. These results suggest that transferrin is the major source of iron for N. meningitidis during replication in healthy human blood. To examine immune responses, polyclonal antisera were raised against His-tagged purified-recombinant variants of HmbR, HpuA and HpuB in mice using monolipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies were raised against outer membrane loops of HmbR presented on the surface of EspA, an E. coli fimbrial protein. All antisera exhibited specific reactivity in Western blots but HmbR and HpuA polyclonal sera were reactive against intact meningococcal cells. None of the sera exhibited bactericidal activity against iron-induced wild-type meningococci. These findings suggest that the HmbR protein is not required during the early stages of disease and that immune responses against these receptors may not be protective. PMID:26208277

  9. Investigation into the Antigenic Properties and Contributions to Growth in Blood of the Meningococcal Haemoglobin Receptors, HpuAB and HmbR.

    PubMed

    Bidmos, Fadil A; Chan, Hannah; Praekelt, Uta; Tauseef, Isfahan; Ali, Youssif M; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Feavers, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of iron from host complexes is mediated by four surface-located receptors of Neisseria meningitidis. The HmbR protein and heterodimeric HpuAB complex bind to haemoglobin whilst TbpBA and LbpBA bind iron-loaded transferrin and lactoferrin complexes, respectively. The haemoglobin receptors are unevenly distributed; disease-causing meningococcal isolates encode HmbR or both receptors while strains with only HpuAB are rarely-associated with disease. Both these receptors are subject to phase variation and 70-90% of disease isolates have one or both of these receptors in an ON expression state. The surface-expression, ubiquity and association with disease indicate that these receptors could be potential virulence factors and vaccine targets. To test for a requirement during disease, an hmbR deletion mutant was constructed in a strain (MC58) lacking HpuAB and in both a wild-type and TbpBA deletion background. The hmbR mutant exhibited an identical growth pattern to wild-type in whole blood from healthy human donors whereas growth of the tbpBA mutant was impaired. These results suggest that transferrin is the major source of iron for N. meningitidis during replication in healthy human blood. To examine immune responses, polyclonal antisera were raised against His-tagged purified-recombinant variants of HmbR, HpuA and HpuB in mice using monolipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies were raised against outer membrane loops of HmbR presented on the surface of EspA, an E. coli fimbrial protein. All antisera exhibited specific reactivity in Western blots but HmbR and HpuA polyclonal sera were reactive against intact meningococcal cells. None of the sera exhibited bactericidal activity against iron-induced wild-type meningococci. These findings suggest that the HmbR protein is not required during the early stages of disease and that immune responses against these receptors may not be protective.

  10. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  11. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr+2 and substitutional Fe+1 order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μB) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μB), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe+1 exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond's extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  12. [Gene frequencies and heterozygosity of the AB0 and RH blood group alleles in the populations of two cities of the Donetsk region, Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, V N; Chinakh, D G; Avdeev, A V; Kuleba, V V; Afanas'ev, M V

    2003-04-01

    The frequencies of the AB0 and RH blood group alleles and heterozygosity indices were determined for the populations of two large industrial cities of Gorlovka and Mariupol. In the population of Gorlovka the gene frequencies were as follows: AB0*0 = 0.576, AB0*A = 0.266, AB0*B = 0.158, and RH*D = 0.592, in Mariupol the frequencies were AB0*0 = 0.584, AB0*A = 0.265, AB0*B = 0.151, and RH*D = 0.604. In Gorlovka the heterozygosity indices in respect to the AB0 and RH alleles were 0.572 and 0.483, respectively; in Mariupol, 0.566 and 0.478, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two populations in respect to the genetic markers analyzed. However, the heterozygosity values obtained were more similar to the corresponding estimates for some populations of Russia, than for the total population of the Ukraine.

  13. Superhydrophobic surface supported bioassay--an application in blood typing.

    PubMed

    Li, Lizi; Tian, Junfei; Li, Miaosi; Shen, Wei

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a new application of superhydrophobic surfaces in conducting biological assays for human blood typing using a liquid drop micro reactor. The superhydrophobic substrate was fabricated by a simple printing technique with Teflon powder. The non-wetting and weak hysteresis characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces enable the blood and antibody droplets to have a near-spherical shape, making it easy for the haemagglutination reaction inside the droplet to be photographed or recorded by a digital camera and then analyzed by image analysis software. This novel blood typing method requires only a small amount of blood sample. The evaluation of assay results using image analysis techniques offers potential to develop high throughput operations of rapid blood typing assays for pathological laboratories. With the capability of identifying detailed red blood cell agglutination patterns and intensities, this method is also useful for confirming blood samples that have weak red blood cell antigens.

  14. Occurrence of Diverse AbGRI1-Type Genomic Islands in Acinetobacter baumannii Global Clone 2 Isolates from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Ki Tae; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the frequency of the AbGRI1-type genomic island (GI) and its association with genotypes. We obtained 130 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates causing bloodstream infections from patients in South Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing were performed. The presence of AbGRI1-type GIs and their structures were determined by sequential PCR and sequencing. Ninety-eight isolates (75.3%) representing 14 sequence types (STs) belonged to clonal complex 208 (CC208), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2). AbGRI1-type GIs interrupted the comM gene in 107 isolates (82.4%). Four types of GIs were identified: Tn6022 (50 isolates; 46.7%), AbaR4 (23 isolates; 21.5%), Tn6166 (10 isolates; 9.3%), and Tn6166/Tn2006 (24 isolates; 22.4%). In the 50 isolates with Tn6022, Tn2006 or Tn2008B, both containing ISAba1-blaOXA-23, was present in sites other than GIs in 3 or 28 isolates, respectively. In the 10 isolates with Tn6166, Tn2008B was identified in one isolate. AbGRI1-type GIs were identified nearly exclusively in CC208 isolates, with the exception of nine non-CC208 isolates (AbaR4 in eight ST229 isolates and Tn6022 in one ST1244 isolate). Within CC208 isolates, there was evidence of frequent recombination events, in both housekeeping genes and AbGRI1-type GIs, contributing to genotype diversification and the emergence of carbapenem resistance.

  15. A novel method for blood-typing using nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Parastoo; Abolfathi, Nabiollah

    2016-12-07

    Blood wicking in its steady-state form, i.e. the uniform distribution of blood cells in plasma, is completely different from that in its coagulated form on a porous surface like paper. The hydrophilic property of the cellulose leads to a significant wicking of the blood cells on paper fibers after rinsing with isotonic solution. The difference in the wicking length of the blood cells in steady state and that in the coagulated form could be considered as a criterion to recognize the blood type in a paper-based kit. However, owing to the molecular structure of the nitrocellulose, a better process occurs while separating the coagulated blood from the steady-state form of cells. Therefore, it is possible to use the nitrocellulose for the blood-typing kit which leads to a simpler way to diagnose a blood type. Two series of experiments were performed on nitrocellulose membrane. First, antibody solutions and blood samples were sequentially absorbed on nitrocellulose strips, allowed to interact, rinsed with an isotonic solution and distilled water, and image processing performed on a digital picture of the remaining blood cells. The efficiency of the agglutinated blood cell fixation was quantified by red color intensity. Then, it was demonstrated that there is no considerable difference in fixation of agglutinated blood cells with rinsing using isotonic and nonisotonic solutions. This fact can be a considerable advantage over paper since it can eliminate the probable mistake from using unisotonic solution for rinsing. Second, owing to the nonwicking property of the blood cells on the hydrophobic nitrocellulose fibers, we employed another diagnostic criterion and investigated nitrocellulose blood-typing prototypes. The nitrocellulose blood-typing kit provides more simple, sensitive and trustworthy assay for rapid blood typing in situations with no access to laboratory facilities.

  16. A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Noiphung, Julaluk; Talalak, Kwanrutai; Hongwarittorrn, Irin; Pupinyo, Naricha; Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-05-15

    We propose a new, paper-based analytical device (PAD) for blood typing that allows for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups on the same device. The device was successfully fabricated by using a combination of wax printing and wax dipping methods. A 1:2 blood dilution was used for forward grouping, whereas whole blood could be used for reverse grouping. A 30% cell suspension of A-cells or B-cells was used for haemagglutination on the reverse grouping side. The total assay time was 10 min. The ratio between the distance of red blood cell movement and plasma separation is the criterion for agglutination and indicates the presence of the corresponding antigen or antibody. The proposed PAD has excellent reproducibility in that the same blood groups, namely A, AB, and O, were reported by using different PADs that were fabricated on the same day (n=10). The accuracy for detecting blood group A (n=12), B (n=13), AB (n=9), O (n=14), and Rh (n=48) typing were 92%, 85%, 89%, 93%, and 96%, respectively, in comparison with the conventional slide test method. The haematocrit of the sample affects the accuracy of the results, and appropriate dilution is suggested before typing. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel method that is straightforward, time-saving, and inexpensive for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups, which is promising for use in developing countries.

  17. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Taeyun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Gyoo-Whung; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2010-01-01

    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis.

  18. How-to-Do-It: Infection Control Guidelines for Blood Typing & Blood Smear Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Edwin A.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a set of guidelines for infection control of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the serum hepatitis viruses during blood typing procedures. Emphasizes that disposal of blood contaminated materials should comply with local health department recommendations. (RT)

  19. How-to-Do-It: Infection Control Guidelines for Blood Typing & Blood Smear Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Edwin A.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a set of guidelines for infection control of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the serum hepatitis viruses during blood typing procedures. Emphasizes that disposal of blood contaminated materials should comply with local health department recommendations. (RT)

  20. An unusual combined thymic carcinoma composed of squamous cell carcinoma and type AB thymoma: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Liu, Yang; Shi, Xiuying; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yang; Fan, Chuifeng

    2017-01-17

    Combined thymic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of the thymus recently added to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. It involves at least one type of thymic carcinoma and another thymic epithelial tumor. The previously used term "combined thymic epithelial tumor" has been abandoned. Here, we present an unusual case of combined thymic carcinoma of the thymus in a 44-year-old male who had suffered from fever, chest pain, chest tightness and shortness of breath. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a mass approximately 6.4 cm × 4.2 cm in the anterior mediastinum, and a nonencapsulated tumor approximately 5.0 cm × 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm with an irregular shape was resected. The morphological features and the immunostaining pattern of the tumor revealed it to be an unusual combined thymic carcinoma consisting of type AB thymoma and squamous cell carcinoma. There were cysts of various sizes, some of which had crack-like structures, in the type AB thymoma area. A gradual transition could be seen between these structures and the squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that the carcinoma portion may have originated from the composition of the thymoma. Combined thymic carcinoma composed of type AB thymoma and squamous cell carcinoma is rare, and the carcinoma portion may have originated from epithelial structures in the type AB thymoma.

  1. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  2. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  3. ABO blood type correlates with survival on prostate cancer vaccine therapy.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Saddam M; Gulley, James L; Hodge, James W; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-13

    Immunotherapies for cancer are transforming patient care, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Simple, inexpensive strategies to target treatment to likely responders could substantially improve efficacy while simultaneously reducing health care costs, but identification of reliable biomarkers has proven challenging. Previously, we found that pre-treatment serum IgM to blood group A (BG-A) correlated with survival for patients treated with PROSTVAC-VF, a therapeutic cancer vaccine in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. These results suggested that ABO blood type might influence efficacy. Unfortunately, blood types were not available in the clinical records for all but 8 patients and insufficient amounts of sera were left for standard blood typing methods. To test the hypothesis, therefore, we developed a new glycan microarray-based method for determining ABO blood type. The method requires only 4 μL of serum, provides 97% accuracy, and allows simultaneous profiling of many other serum anti-glycan antibodies. After validation with 220 healthy subjects of known blood type, the method was then applied to 74 PROSTVAC-VF patients and 37 control patients from a phase II trial. In this retrospective study, we found that type B and O PROSTVAC-VF patients demonstrated markedly improved clinical outcomes relative to A and AB patients, including longer median survival, longer median survival relative to Halabi predicted survival, and improved overall survival via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006). Consequently, blood type may provide an inexpensive screen to pre-select patients likely to benefit from PROSTVAC-VF therapy.

  4. ABO blood type correlates with survival on prostate cancer vaccine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Gulley, James L.; Hodge, James W.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapies for cancer are transforming patient care, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Simple, inexpensive strategies to target treatment to likely responders could substantially improve efficacy while simultaneously reducing health care costs, but identification of reliable biomarkers has proven challenging. Previously, we found that pre-treatment serum IgM to blood group A (BG-A) correlated with survival for patients treated with PROSTVAC-VF, a therapeutic cancer vaccine in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. These results suggested that ABO blood type might influence efficacy. Unfortunately, blood types were not available in the clinical records for all but 8 patients and insufficient amounts of sera were left for standard blood typing methods. To test the hypothesis, therefore, we developed a new glycan microarray-based method for determining ABO blood type. The method requires only 4 μL of serum, provides 97% accuracy, and allows simultaneous profiling of many other serum anti-glycan antibodies. After validation with 220 healthy subjects of known blood type, the method was then applied to 74 PROSTVAC-VF patients and 37 control patients from a phase II trial. In this retrospective study, we found that type B and O PROSTVAC-VF patients demonstrated markedly improved clinical outcomes relative to A and AB patients, including longer median survival, longer median survival relative to Halabi predicted survival, and improved overall survival via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006). Consequently, blood type may provide an inexpensive screen to pre-select patients likely to benefit from PROSTVAC-VF therapy. PMID:26338967

  5. The Equivalence between (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger] and Other Mixed-Type Reverse-Order Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Yongge

    2006-01-01

    The standard reverse-order law for the Moore-Penrose inverse of a matrix product is (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger]. The purpose of this article is to give a set of equivalences of this reverse-order law and other mixed-type reverse-order laws for the Moore-Penrose inverse of matrix products.

  6. The Equivalence between (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger] and Other Mixed-Type Reverse-Order Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Yongge

    2006-01-01

    The standard reverse-order law for the Moore-Penrose inverse of a matrix product is (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger]. The purpose of this article is to give a set of equivalences of this reverse-order law and other mixed-type reverse-order laws for the Moore-Penrose inverse of matrix products.

  7. Decline in Titers of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab) Precedes Development of GAD65Ab and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Helena Elding; Jönsson, Ida; Lernmark, Åke; Ivarsson, Sten; Radtke, Jared R.; Hampe, Christiane S.

    2013-01-01

    The humoral Idiotypic Network consisting of antibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) can be temporarily upset by antigen exposure. In the healthy immune response the original equilibrium is eventually restored through counter-regulatory mechanisms. In certain autoimmune diseases however, autoantibody levels exceed those of their respective anti-Id, indicating a permanent disturbance in the respective humoral Idiotypic Network. We investigated anti-Id directed to a major Type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated autoantibody (GAD65Ab) in two independent cohorts during progression to disease. Samples taken from participants of the Natural History Study showed significantly lower anti-Id levels in individuals that later progressed to T1D compared to non-progressors (anti-Id antibody index of 0.06 vs. 0.08, respectively, p = 0.02). We also observed a significant inverse correlation between anti-Id levels and age at sampling, but only in progressors (p = 0.014). Finally, anti-Id levels in progressors showed a significant decline during progression as compared to longitudinal anti-Id levels in non-progressors (median rate of change: −0.0004 vs. +0.0004, respectively, p = 0.003), suggesting a loss of anti-Id during progression. Our analysis of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne cohort showed that early in life (age 2) individuals at risk have anti-Id levels indistinguishable from those in healthy controls, indicating that low anti-Id levels are not an innate characteristic of the immune response in individuals at risk. Notably, anti-Id levels declined significantly in individuals that later developed GAD65Ab suggesting that the decline in anti-Id levels precedes the emergence of GAD65Ab (median rate of change: −0.005) compared to matched controls (median rate of change: +0.001) (p = 0.0016). We conclude that while anti-Id are present early in life, their levels decrease prior to the appearance of GAD65Ab and to the development of T1D. PMID

  8. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-Tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju; Park, Wanje

    2016-03-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research.

  9. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Blood Type Transmutation Induced by Multiple Ultrashort Wavelength Laser Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multi laser beams with the flowing blood thin films leads to the transmutation of the blood types A, B, and AB into O type. This is a novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine. Laser radiation is in resonance with the eigen-frequency modes of the antigen proteins and forces the proteins to parametrically oscillate until they get kicked out from the surface. The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation), upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. The scanning laser beam is partially reflected as long as the antigen(s) is not eliminated. The process of the protein detachment can last a few minutes. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., Stefan University.

  10. Disposable integrated microfluidic biochip for blood typing by plastic microinjection moulding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Sung; Lee, Se Hwan; Ahn, Chong H; Lee, Jae Y; Kwon, Tai Hun

    2006-06-01

    Blood typing is the most important test for both transfusion recipients and blood donors. In this paper, a low cost disposable blood typing integrated microfluidic biochip has been designed, fabricated and characterized. In the biochip, flow splitting microchannels, chaotic micromixers, reaction microchambers and detection microfilters are fully integrated. The loaded sample blood can be divided by 2 or 4 equal volumes through the flow splitting microchannel so that one can perform 2 or 4 blood agglutination tests in parallel. For the purpose of obtaining efficient reaction of agglutinogens on red blood cells (RBCs) and agglutinins in serum, we incorporated a serpentine laminating micromixer into the biochip, which combines two chaotic mixing mechanisms of splitting/recombination and chaotic advection. Relatively large area reaction microchambers were also introduced for the sake of keeping the mixture of the sample blood and serum during the reaction time before filtering. The gradually decreasing multi-step detection microfilters were designed in order to effectively filter the reacted agglutinated RBCs, which show the corresponding blood group. To achieve the cost-effectiveness of the microfluidic biochip for disposability, the biochip was realized by the microinjection moulding of COC (cyclic olefin copolymer) and thermal bonding of two injection moulded COC substrates in mass production with a total fabrication time of less than 20 min. Mould inserts of the biochip for the microinjection moulding were fabricated by SU-8 photolithography and the subsequent nickel electroplating process. Human blood groups of A, B and AB have been successfully determined with the naked eye, with 3 microl of the whole sample bloods, by means of the fabricated biochip within 3 min.

  11. ABO blood type/Rh factor and the incidence and outcomes for patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jennifer; Gao, Feng; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Margenthaler, Julie A

    2012-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poorer prognosis; the factors that contribute to this remain unclear. We hypothesized that TNBC is associated with ABO blood type/Rh factors that account for differences in survival. We identified 468 patients with stage I-III TNBC [estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2 nonamplified]. Patient/tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were obtained. Data were examined for associations with specific ABO blood type/Rh factors. Descriptive statistics and χ (2) analysis were utilized for data summary and comparisons. Of 468 TNBC patients, 283 had known ABO blood type [122 (43 %) O, 108 (38 %) A, 39 (14 %) B, and 14 (5 %) AB] and Rh factor [253 (89 %) positive and 30 (11 %) negative]. Mean patient age was 53.7 ± 12.5 years, and median follow-up was 30.2 ± 20.5 months. The incidence of each ABO blood type/Rh factor in our TNBC cohort was not different from the general population or a cohort of ER-positive breast cancers (P > 0.05). Compared with patients with blood type O, there was no difference in breast cancer-specific mortality for type A [hazard ratio (HR) 0.906; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.554-1.481], type B (HR 1.534; 95 % CI 0.792-2.972), or type AB (HR 0.488; 95 % CI 0.113-2.106). Compared with women with negative Rh, there was no difference in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with positive Rh (HR 1.161; 95 % CI 0.568-2.374). TNBC was not associated with a specific ABO blood type or Rh factor. Our results failed to demonstrate an association between ABO blood type/Rh factor and breast cancer mortality in patients with TNBC.

  12. Current status of liver transplantation across ABO blood-type barrier.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiroto; Ohdan, Hideki; Haga, Hironori; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Oike, Fumitaka; Uemoto, Shinji; Ozawa, Kazue

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes of ABO-blood type incompatible liver transplantation have recently improved owing to various treatments. The typical clinical manifestations of antibody mediated rejection (AMR) are hepatic necrosis and intrahepatic biliary complication (IHBC). The prognosis of AMR is poor. AMR is the result of circulatory disturbance which is caused by injury to the endothelium due to an antibody-antigen-complement reaction. Diffuse C4d staining in the portal capillaries and periportal areas in severe AMR. Since natural antibodies against A/B carbohydrate determinants are likely to develop as a result of exposure to environmental bacteria that express similar determinants, the B-1 lineage has been speculated to be the major population of B-cell types responding to A/B determinants. Calcineurin inhibitors block B-1 cell differentiation. Rituximab can be used to deplete both cells that are producing IgM antibodies and those that have already differentiated into B-1 cells. Mycophenolate mofetil is required to inhibit the production of IgG subclass of antibodies. The outcome is now similar to that of blood-type-matched transplantation. However, there are still issues to be solved in order to further improve the outcome via a decrease of infection.

  13. Relationship between serum GAD-Ab and the genetic polymorphisms of GAD2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Qiao, Z R; Liu, D B; Zeng, J T; Zhang, J; Bo, Y; Zu, H Y; Hu, Q; Wu, X; Dong, S S

    2015-04-10

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody (Ab) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the glutamic acid de-carboxylase 2 (GAD2) 5'-untranslated region and the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Han population. The distributions of patients with SNPs in the GAD2 5'-untranslated region (rs2236418, rs185649317, and rs8190590) and type 2 diabetes and that of the healthy group were genotyped and analyzed using Sequenom MassArray SNP genotyp-ing. GAD-Ab levels were also detected. The frequency distributions of the AA, AG, and GG genotypes in the polymorphic site rs2236418 in the diabetes GAD-Ab-positive group were 45.9, 42.8, and 11.4%, respectively, whereas those in the control group were 36.6, 43.7, and 19.8%, respectively. The difference between the 2 groups was statis-tically significant (P < 0.05). Unlike the GG genotype, the AA and AA + AG genotypes increased the risk of GAD-Ab (odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) = 2.623 (1.351-4.937) and 2.152 (1.375-4.202), respectively). The associations of the 3 SNPs of the GAD2 gene 5'-un-translated region polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabe-tes in the Chongqing Han population were significant. The SNP of rs2236418 in the Chongqing Han population of diabetic patients with serum GAD-Ab levels was significantly correlated with the SNPs rs185649317 and rs8190590.

  14. Transfusion of type-A and type-B blood to cats.

    PubMed

    Giger, U; Bücheler, J

    1991-02-01

    Although nearly all domestic shorthair and longhair cats have type-A blood (greater than 99%), the frequency of blood type B in various feline breeds ranges from 0 to 59%. All blood-type-B cats have strong natural alloantibodies, predominantly of the IgM class, whereas blood-type-A cats have low alloantibody titers of the IgG and IgM classes. We therefore studied the efficacy and safety of transfusing 20 ml of matched and mismatched 14C-potassium cyanate-labeled blood to cats. In autologous and allogeneic matched transfusions of blood-type-A and type-B cats, the half-life of labeled erythrocytes proved to be similar (29 to 39 days). In contrast, type-B erythrocytes transfused into 5 blood-type-A cats had a mean (+/- SD) half-life of only 2.1 +/- 0.2 days and induced minor transfusion reactions. Half of the type-A blood given to 4 blood-type-B cats was destroyed within minutes to 6 hours (mean +/- SD = 1.3 +/- 2.3 hours), depending on the alloantibody titer. After 1 day, none of the labeled erythrocytes were detected. Mismatched transfusions in blood-type-B cats caused marked transient reactions including systemic anaphylactic signs (hypotension, bradycardia, apnea, urination, defecation, vomiting, and severe neurologic depression) and hemolytic signs (hemoglobinemia and pigmenturia) associated with severe reduction in plasma alloantibody titer and complement activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Mitochondria single nucleotide variation across six blood cell types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan; Samuels, David C; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Shilin; Shyr, Yu; Guo, Yan

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown that heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA variants can be tissue specific. However, whether mitochondrial DNA variants are specific by blood cell types has not been investigated. Motivated by this question and using mitochondria sequences extracted from RNAseq data from six distinct blood cell types (neutrophil, monocyte, myeloid dendritic, natural killer, T and B), we thoroughly compared SNPs and heteroplasmies among these cell types. Each cell type from each subject was sequenced at four time points used as biological replicates. We found that mitochondria content is low in neutrophil compared to the other five blood cell types. Subsequent analysis on the other five blood cell types showed that at the SNP level, there was no discrepancy. At the heteroplasmy level, we observed good concordances among all blood cell types. However, the allele frequencies of the heteroplasmy differed between blood cell types for certain heteroplasmic sites. Furthermore, we identified five tri-allelic sites (1610, 2617, 8303, 12146, 13710) that are likely caused by RNA editing. Three out of these five sites are located at the ninth position of tRNA genes, and are likely resulting from post-transcriptional methylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid and inexpensive blood typing on thermoplastic chips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-You; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chou, Hsin-Hao; Wang, Cheng-Po; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2015-12-21

    A portable and cost-effective colorimetric diagnostic device was fabricated for rapid ABO and Rh blood typing. Using microfluidic construction on a thermoplastic chip, blood antibodies were preloaded into a reaction channel and exposed to blood samples to initiate a haemagglutination reaction. Downstream high-aspect ratio filters, composed of 2 μm high microslits, block agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) to turn the reaction channel red, indicating the presence of the corresponding blood antigen. Users manually actuate the blood sample using a simple screw pump that drives the solution through serpentine reaction channels and chaotic micromixers for maximum interaction of the preloaded antibodies with the blood sample antigens. Mismatched RBCs and antibodies elute from the channel into an outlet reservoir based on the rheological properties of RBCs with no colorimetric change. As a result, unambiguous blood typing tests can be distinguished by the naked eye in as little as 1 min. Blood disorders, such as thalassemia, can also be distinguished using the device. The required blood volume for the test is just 1 μL, which can be obtained by the less invasive finger pricking method. The low reagent consumption, manual driving force, low-cost of parts, high yield, and robust fabrication process make this device sensitive, accurate, and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings.

  17. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  18. Relationship of ABO Blood Type on Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Han-Dong; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with various diseases. A relationship between Achilles tendon ruptures and blood type O has been reported, although its pathogenesis was not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study describing the relationship between blood type and rotator cuff tendon tears. To determine whether patients with rotator cuff tear had a greater prevalence of blood type O than those without rotator cuff tear. A cross-sectional study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. A total of 316 subjects with shoulder pain were included and divided into "tear" and "no-tear" groups according to ultrasonographic examination. ABO blood group, gender, dominant arm, smoking history, trauma history, and age were compared between the 2 groups and the odds ratios of these factors were evaluated by logistic regression. The tear group (38.6%) had more instances of blood type O than the healthy population (27.2%; P = .002). The adjusted odds ratio for rotator cuff tear for blood type O to non-O was 2.38 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.42). The odds ratios for rotator cuff tears for smoking, major trauma history, minor trauma history, and age were 2.08, 3.11, 2.29, and 1.06, respectively. Patients with rotator cuff tears were more likely to have blood type O. The odds ratios of factors for rotator cuff tears were high in the following order: major trauma history, blood type O, minor trauma history, and age. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance evaluation of the FDA-approved Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo assay using plasma and whole blood specimens.

    PubMed

    Masciotra, Silvina; Luo, Wei; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie E; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Pan, Yi; Peters, Philip J; Owen, S Michele

    2017-06-01

    The Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo (DC) rapid test can identify HIV-1 infection earlier than rapid antibody-only tests in plasma specimens. We compared the performance of DC with a laboratory-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combo assay in plasma and evaluated antigen reactivity in whole blood specimens. We tested by DC 508 plasma specimens collected in a prospective study and 107 sequential plasma and simulated whole blood specimens from 20 seroconversion panels. Previous results using the ARCHITECT (ARC) Ag/Ab combo assay were compared to DC results. In seroconversion panels, the days from the first HIV1 RNA-positive test to first DC-reactive in plasma and whole blood was compared. McNemar's and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Of 415 HIV-positive samples, ARC detected 396 (95.4%) and DC 337 (81.2%) (p<0.0001). DC was reactive in 50.0% of ARC-reactive/MS-negative, 78.6% of ARC-reactive/MS-indeterminate, and 99.6% of ARC-reactive/MS-HIV-1-positive or -undifferentiated specimens. DC antigen reactivity was higher among ARC-reactive/MS-negative than MS-indeterminate samples. In 20 HIV-1 seroconversion panels, there was a significant difference between DC reactivity in plasma (91.1%) and whole blood (56.4%) (p<0.0001). DC with whole blood showed a significant delay in reactivity compared to plasma (p=0.008). In plasma, DC was significantly less sensitive than an instrumented laboratory-based Ag/Ab combo assay. DC in plasma was significantly more sensitive compared to whole blood in early HIV-1 infections. With the U.S. laboratory-based diagnostic algorithm, DC as the first step would likely miss a high proportion of HIV-1 infections in early stages of seroconversion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  1. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis.

  2. ABO blood-typing using an antibody array technique based on surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Houngkamhang, Nongluck; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2013-09-09

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow cell that was orthogonal to the detection line arrays for blood group typing. We found that the blood samples were correctly grouped in less than 12 min by the SPR imaging technique, and the results were consistent with those of the standard agglutination technique for all 60 samples. We found that mixed clones of antibodies provided 33%-68% greater change in the SPR signal than the single-clone antibodies. Applying the SPR imaging technique using readily available antibodies may reduce the costs of the antibodies, shorten the measurement time, and increase the throughput.

  3. Effect of acute poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition by 3-AB on blood-brain barrier permeability and edema formation after focal traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lescot, Thomas; Fulla-Oller, Laurence; Palmier, Bruno; Po, Christelle; Beziaud, Tiphaine; Puybasset, Louis; Plotkine, Michel; Gillet, Brigitte; Meric, Philippe; Marchand-Leroux, Catherine

    2010-06-01

    Recent evidence supports a crucial role for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and vasogenic edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the exact causes of MMP-9 upregulation after TBI are not fully understood, several arguments suggest a contribution of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) in the neuroinflammatory response leading to MMP-9 activation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of PARP inhibition by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) (1) on MMP-9 upregulation and BBB integrity, (2) on edema formation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (3) on neuron survival as assessed by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), and (4) on neurological deficits at the acute phase of TBI. Western blots and zymograms showed blunting of MMP-9 upregulation 6 h after TBI. BBB permeability was decreased at the same time point in 3-AB-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Cerebral MRI showed less "free" water in 3-AB-treated than in vehicle-treated rats 6 h after TBI. MRI findings 24 h after TBI indicated predominant cytotoxic edema, and at this time point no significant differences were found between 3-AB- and vehicle-treated rats with regard to MMP-9 upregulation, BBB permeability, or MRI changes. At both 6 and 24 h, neurological function was better in the 3-AB-treated than in the vehicle-treated rats. These data suggest that PARP inhibition by 3-AB protected the BBB against hyperpermeability induced by MMP-9 upregulation, thereby decreasing vasogenic edema formation 6 h after TBI. Furthermore, our data confirm the neuroprotective effect of 3-AB at the very acute phase of TBI.

  4. Extended blood group molecular typing and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhugong; Liu, Meihong; Mercado, Teresita; Illoh, Orieji; Davey, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Several high-throughput multiplex blood group molecular typing platforms have been developed to predict blood group antigen phenotypes. These molecular systems support extended donor/patient matching by detecting commonly encountered blood group polymorphisms as well as rare alleles that determine the expression of blood group antigens. Extended molecular typing of a large number of blood donors by high-throughput platforms can increase the likelihood of identifying donor red blood cells that match those of recipients. This is especially important in the management of multiply-transfused patients who may have developed several alloantibodies. Nevertheless, current molecular techniques have limitations. For example, they detect only predefined genetic variants. In contrast, target enrichment next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology that provides comprehensive sequence information, focusing on specified genomic regions. Target enrichment NGS is able to assess genetic variations that cannot be achieved by traditional Sanger sequencing or other genotyping platforms. Target enrichment NGS has been used to detect both known and de novo genetic polymorphisms, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels (insertions/deletions), and structural variations. This review discusses the methodology, advantages, and limitations of the current blood group genotyping techniques and describes various target enrichment NGS approaches that can be used to develop an extended blood group genotyping assay system.

  5. Red blood cell damage by shear stress for different blood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arwatz, Gilad; Bedkowski, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    In surgical practice, blood damage caused by medical devices is often a limiting factor in the duration of an acute procedure or in chronic exposures such as hemodialysis. In order to establish guidelines for designing medical devices, a study was conducted to determine the relationship between shear stress and damage to red blood cells using a concentric Couette device. By measuring the hemolysis level for various shear stresses and exposure times, a non-dimensional relationship between shear stress and blood damage for different blood types was established. Funding provided by Princeton University's Project X.

  6. A micro-rheological method for determination of blood type.

    PubMed

    Makulska, Sylwia; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr

    2013-07-21

    The measurement of time and distance can be used for determining agglutination in small (nL) samples of liquid. We demonstrate the use of this new scheme of detection in typing and subtyping blood in a simple microfluidic system that monitors the speed of flow of microdroplets. The system (i) accepts small samples of liquids deposited directly onto the chip, (ii) forms droplets on demand from these samples, (iii) merges the droplets, and (iv) measures their speed in a microchannel. A sequence of measurements on different combinations of blood and antibodies can thus be used to determine blood type with the estimated probability of mistyping being less than 1 in a million tests. In addition, in the agglutinated samples, red blood cells concentrate at the rear of the droplets yielding an additional vista for detection and suggesting a possible mechanism for separations.

  7. Negative regulation of HLA-DR expression on endothelial cells by anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Miwa, Yuko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    Donor-specific antibody (DSA), particularly against HLA class II, is a major cause of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) after transplantation, although ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation has recently demonstrated favorable graft outcomes. The condition of no injury even in the presence of anti-donor antibody has been referred to as "accommodation", which would be one of the key factors for successful long-term graft survival. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effect of anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation on endothelial cells against HLA-DR antibody-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Blood group A/B-expressing endothelial cells EA.hy926 or Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells (HUVEC) were incubated with IFNγ in the presence or absence of anti-blood group A/B antibody or mTOR inhibitor (mTOR-i) for 48h. The effects on signaling pathway, HLA expression, complement regulatory factors, and CDC were investigated. Expression of HLA-DR on EA.hy926 or HUVEC were successfully elicited by IFNγ treatment, although little or no expression was observed in quiescent cells. Pre-incubation with anti-blood group A/B antibody had resistance to HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC against IFNγ-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This finding was ascribed to decreased expression of HLA-DR by post-translational regulation and increased expression of CD55/59, which was related to ERK and mTOR pathway inhibition. mTOR-i also inhibited HLA-DR expression by itself. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR-I and anti-blood group A/B ligation had an additive effect in preventing HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC. Anti-blood group A/B antibody might play a preventive role in CAMR. Inhibition of the ERK and mTOR pathways may contribute to the development of a novel treatment in the maintenance period after transplantation.

  8. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Here’s a rundown on the main types ...

  9. An enzymatic basis for Lewis blood Types in man

    PubMed Central

    Grollman, Evelyn F.; Kobata, Akira; Ginsburg, Victor

    1969-01-01

    Milk from women with blood type Le(a+) or Le(b+) contains a specific fucosyltransferase not found in the milk of women with blood type Le(a- b-). The enzyme, a guanosine diphosphate L-fucose: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylsaccharide α-4-L-fucosyltransferase is apparently required for the synthesis of the structural determinants of Lea and Leb specificity, both of which contain fucose in an α-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine. The same enzyme is also involved in the synthesis of milk oligosaccharides, as two oligosaccharides which contain this linkage are absent from the milk of women with Le(a- b-) blood type. PMID:5796361

  10. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for surveillance of Cry1Ab toxin in bovine blood plasma of cows fed Bt-maize (MON810).

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Steinke, Kerstin; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2008-01-21

    The increasing global adoption of genetically modified (GM) plant derivatives in animal feed has provoked a strong demand for an appropriate detection method to evaluate the existence of transgenic protein in animal tissues and animal by-products derived from GM plant fed animals. A highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the surveillance of transgenic Cry1Ab protein from Bt-maize in the blood plasma of cows fed on Bt-maize was developed and validated according to the criteria of EU-Decision 2002/657/EC. The sandwich assay is based on immuno-affinity purified polyclonal antibody raised against Cry1Ab protein in rabbits. Native and biotinylated forms of this antibody served as capture antibody and detection antibody for the ELISA, respectively. Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and TMB substrate provided the means for enzymatic colour development. The immunoassay allowed Cry1Ab protein determination in bovine blood plasma in an analytical range of 0.4-100 ng mL(-1) with a decision limit (CCalpha) of 1.5 ng mL(-1) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 2.3 ng mL(-1). Recoveries ranged from 89 to 106% (mean value of 98%) in spiked plasma. In total, 20 plasma samples from cows (n=7) fed non-transgenic maize and 24 samples from cows (n=8) fed transgenic maize (collected before and, after 1 and 2 months of feeding) were investigated for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein. There was no difference amongst both groups (all the samples were below 1.5 ng mL(-1); CCalpha). No plasma sample was positive for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein at CCalpha and CCbeta of the assay.

  11. Heat capacities of xenotime-type ceramics: An accurate ab initio prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yaqi; Beridze, George; Bosbach, Dirk; Kowalski, Piotr M.

    2017-10-01

    Because of ability to incorporate actinides into their structure, the lanthanide phosphate ceramics (LnPO4) are considered as potential matrices for the disposal of nuclear waste. Here we present highly reliable ab initio prediction of the variation of heat capacities and the standard entropies of these compounds in zircon structure along lanthanide series (Ln = Dy, …,Lu) and validate them against the existing experimental data. These data are helpful for assessment of thermodynamic parameters of these materials in the context of using them as matrices for immobilization of radionuclides for the purpose of nuclear waste management.

  12. Sequence-Based Typing of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Seltsam, Axel; Doescher, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Summary In the last two decades, all but one of the genes encoding the 30 blood group systems present on red blood cells have been identified. This body of knowledge has permitted the application of molecular techniques to characterize the common blood group antigens and to elucidate the background for some of the variant phenotypes. DNA sequencing methodology was developed in the late 1970s and has become one of the most widely used techniques in molecular biology. In the field of immunohematology, this method is currently used by specialized laboratories to elucidate the molecular basis of unusual blood group phenotypes that cannot be defined by serology and genotyping. Because of the heterogeneity of the blood groups on both the antigen and the genetic level, special knowledge of the biology of blood group systems is needed to design sequencing strategies and interpret sequence data. This review summarizes the technical and immunohematologic expertise that is required when applying sequence-based typing for characterization of human blood groups. PMID:21113262

  13. Red blood cell transport mechanisms in polyester thread-based blood typing devices.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Ballerini, David R; Guan, Liyun; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed blood typing diagnostic based on a polyester thread substrate has shown great promise for use in medical emergencies and in impoverished regions. The device is easy to use and transport, while also being inexpensive, accurate, and rapid. This study used a fluorescent confocal microscope to delve deeper into how red blood cells were behaving within the polyester thread-based diagnostic at the cellular level, and how plasma separation could be made to visibly occur on the thread, making it possible to identify blood type in a single step. Red blood cells were stained and the plasma phase dyed with fluorescent compounds to enable them to be visualised under the confocal microscope at high magnification. The mechanisms uncovered were in surprising contrast with those found for a similar, paper-based method. Red blood cell aggregates did not flow over each other within the thread substrate as expected, but suffered from a restriction to their flow which resulted in the chromatographic separation of the RBCs from the liquid phase of the blood. It is hoped that these results will lead to the optimisation of the method to enable more accurate and sensitive detection, increasing the range of blood systems that can be detected.

  14. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prannda; Satorius, Ashley E; Raff, Marika R; Rivera, Adriana; Newton, Duane W; Younger, John G

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates) and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor) were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

  15. Blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Chen, Yi-Guang; Hagopian, William A.; Hessner, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. It develops through autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells and results in lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin. The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes involves a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to aberrant adaptive immunity; however, there is increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Over the past decade new methodologies for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein signals have been applied to type 1 diabetes. These studies are providing a new understanding of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and have the potential to inform the development of new biomarkers for predicting diabetes onset and monitoring therapeutic interventions. In this review we will focus on blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes, with special attention to both direct transcriptomic analyses of whole blood and immunocyte subsets, as well as plasma/serum-induced transcriptional signatures. Attention will also be given to proteomics, microRNA assays and markers of beta cell death. We will also discuss the results of blood-based profiling in type 1 diabetes within the context of the genetic and environmental factors implicated in the natural history of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:26699650

  16. Blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Chen, Yi-Guang; Hagopian, William A; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. It develops through autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells and results in lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin. The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes involves a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to aberrant adaptive immunity; however, there is increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Over the past decade new methodologies for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein signals have been applied to type 1 diabetes. These studies are providing a new understanding of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and have the potential to inform the development of new biomarkers for predicting diabetes onset and monitoring therapeutic interventions. In this review we will focus on blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes, with special attention to both direct transcriptomic analyses of whole blood and immunocyte subsets, as well as plasma/serum-induced transcriptional signatures. Attention will also be given to proteomics, microRNA assays and markers of beta cell death. We will also discuss the results of blood-based profiling in type 1 diabetes within the context of the genetic and environmental factors implicated in the natural history of autoimmune diabetes.

  17. Blood type, ABO genetic variants, and ovarian cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Gabriella D; Levinson, Rebecca T; Toole, Hilary; Snyder, Malcolm-Robert; Deng, Angie; Crispens, Marta A; Khabele, Dineo; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Blood type A and the A1 allele have been associated with increased ovarian cancer risk. With only two small studies published to date, evidence for an association between ABO blood type and ovarian cancer survival is limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Tumor Registry confirmed ovarian cancer cases from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center with blood type from linked laboratory reports and ABO variants from linked Illumina Exome BeadChip data. Associations with overall survival (OS) were quantified by hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) from proportional hazards regression models; covariates included age, race, stage, grade, histologic subtype, and year of diagnosis. ABO phenotype (N = 694) and/or genotype (N = 154) data were available for 713 predominantly Caucasian (89.3%) cases. In multivariable models, blood type A had significantly better OS compared to either O (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60-0.93) or all non-A (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.94) cases. Similarly, missense rs1053878 minor allele carriers (A2) had better OS (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25-0.99). Among Caucasians, this phenotype association was strengthened, but the genotype association was attenuated; instead, four variants sharing moderate linkage disequilibrium with the O variant were associated with better OS (HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.99) in unadjusted models. Blood type A was significantly associated with longer ovarian cancer survival in the largest such study to date. This finding was supported by genetic analysis, which implicated the A2 allele, although O related variants also had suggestive associations. Further research on ABO and ovarian cancer survival is warranted.

  18. Disruption of SMIM1 causes the Vel- blood type.

    PubMed

    Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Peyrard, Thierry; Menanteau, Cécile; Saison, Carole; Lucien, Nicole; Bourgouin, Sébastien; Le Gall, Maude; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Arnaud, Lionel

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report the biochemical and genetic basis of the Vel blood group antigen, which has been a vexing mystery for decades, especially as anti-Vel regularly causes severe haemolytic transfusion reactions. The protein carrying the Vel blood group antigen was biochemically purified from red blood cell membranes. Mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing identified this protein to be small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1), a previously uncharacterized single-pass membrane protein. Expression of SMIM1 cDNA in Vel- cultured cells generated anti-Vel cell surface reactivity, confirming that SMIM1 encoded the Vel blood group antigen. A cohort of 70 Vel- individuals was found to be uniformly homozygous for a 17 nucleotide deletion in the coding sequence of SMIM1. The genetic homogeneity of the Vel- blood type, likely having a common origin, facilitated the development of two highly specific DNA-based tests for rapid Vel genotyping, which can be easily integrated into blood group genotyping platforms. These results answer a 60-year-old riddle and provide tools of immediate assistance to all clinicians involved in the care of Vel- patients.

  19. Disruption of SMIM1 causes the Vel− blood type

    PubMed Central

    Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Peyrard, Thierry; Menanteau, Cécile; Saison, Carole; Lucien, Nicole; Bourgouin, Sébastien; Le Gall, Maude; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Arnaud, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the biochemical and genetic basis of the Vel blood group antigen, which has been a vexing mystery for decades, especially as anti-Vel regularly causes severe haemolytic transfusion reactions. The protein carrying the Vel blood group antigen was biochemically purified from red blood cell membranes. Mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing identified this protein to be small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1), a previously uncharacterized single-pass membrane protein. Expression of SMIM1 cDNA in Vel− cultured cells generated anti-Vel cell surface reactivity, confirming that SMIM1 encoded the Vel blood group antigen. A cohort of 70 Vel− individuals was found to be uniformly homozygous for a 17 nucleotide deletion in the coding sequence of SMIM1. The genetic homogeneity of the Vel− blood type, likely having a common origin, facilitated the development of two highly specific DNA-based tests for rapid Vel genotyping, which can be easily integrated into blood group genotyping platforms. These results answer a 60-year-old riddle and provide tools of immediate assistance to all clinicians involved in the care of Vel− patients. PMID:23505126

  20. Determination of blood types using a chirped photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinin, A. V.; Zanishevskaja, A. A.; Skibina, Yu. S.; Silokhin, I. Yu.; Tuchin, V. V.; Dubrovskiy, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    A new type of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) that can be used as sensitive elements of chemical and biological sensors is presented. Hollow core photonic crystal fibers refer to a type of optical waveguides, showing unique optical properties such as photonic band gap formation and high sensitivity for refraction index, absorption and scattering coefficient of a medium within a hollow core. A significant influence of internal medium scattering coefficient on a PCF's guiding properties becomes basis for design of blood typing automatization technique specifically. Recently obtained experimental results, regarding PCF's sensitivity for internal medium optical properties changing, are presented as well.

  1. Understanding thread properties for red blood cell antigen assays: weak ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Miaosi; Ballerini, David R; Shen, Wei

    2014-12-24

    "Thread-based microfluidics" research has so far focused on utilizing and manipulating the wicking properties of threads to form controllable microfluidic channels. In this study we aim to understand the separation properties of threads, which are important to their microfluidic detection applications for blood analysis. Confocal microscopy was utilized to investigate the effect of the microscale surface morphologies of fibers on the thread's separation efficiency of red blood cells. We demonstrated the remarkably different separation properties of threads made using silk and cotton fibers. Thread separation properties dominate the clarity of blood typing assays of the ABO groups and some of their weak subgroups (Ax and A3). The microfluidic thread-based analytical devices (μTADs) designed in this work were used to accurately type different blood samples, including 89 normal ABO and 6 weak A subgroups. By selecting thread with the right surface morphology, we were able to build μTADs capable of providing rapid and accurate typing of the weak blood groups with high clarity.

  2. Intragenic GNAS deletion involving exon A/B in pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A resulting in an apparent loss of exon A/B methylation: potential for misdiagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; García-Cuartero, Beatriz; Garin, Intza; Largo, Cristina; Martínez, Francisco; Garcia-Lacalle, Concepcion; Castaño, Luis; Bastepe, Murat; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar

    2010-02-01

    Several endocrine diseases that share resistance to PTH are grouped under the term pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). Patients with PHP type Ia show additional hormone resistance, defective erythrocyte G(s)alpha activity, and dysmorphic features termed Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Patients with PHP-Ib show less diverse hormone resistance and normal G(s)alpha activity; AHO features are typically absent in PHP-Ib. Mutations affecting G(s)alpha coding exons of GNAS and epigenetic alterations in the same gene are associated with PHP-Ia and -Ib, respectively. The epigenetic GNAS changes in familial PHP-Ib are caused by microdeletions near or within GNAS but without involving G(s)alpha coding exons. We sought to identify the molecular defect in a patient who was diagnosed with PHP-Ia based on clinical presentation (hormone resistance and AHO) but displayed the molecular features typically associated with PHP-Ib (loss of methylation at exon A/B) without previously described genetic mutations. Microsatellite typing, comparative genome hybridization, and allelic dosage were performed for proband and her parents. Comparative genome hybridization revealed a deletion of 30,431 bp extending from the intronic region between exons XL and A/B to intron 5. The same mutation was also demonstrated, by PCR, in the patient's mother, but polymorphism and allele dosage analyses indicated that she had this mutation in a mosaic manner. We discovered a novel multiexonic GNAS deletion transmitted to our patient from her mother who is mosaic for this mutation. The deletion led to different phenotypic manifestations in the two generation and appeared, in the patient, as loss of GNAS imprinting.

  3. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide.

  4. [Relationship between serum blood serotonin and tension--type headache].

    PubMed

    Vashadze, Sh V; Sardzhveladze, N M

    2009-06-01

    Tension - type headache is one of the widely spread types of idiopathic headaches. The pathogenesis of the disease includes depression and change in brain serotonin level. The aim of the research is to study the characteristics of ache and the level of serotonin in blood serum in tension-type headache. The intensity of ache, complex psychometric parameters and the level of serotonin in blood serum were investigated in 100 patients (75% females and 25% males from 17 to 55 years old) with tension-type headache. The average period of the illness was 6-5 years. The diagnosis has been determined according to MKGB (2003) criteria. According to the duration of anamnesis of ache the patients were divided into 3 groups: the first - 66 patients, the second - 24 patients, the third - 10 patients with tension-type headache and migraine. Ache status and its impact on different spheres of activity were assessed according to international 150 millimeters visual analogous scale. The research showed that all patients with tension-type headache had moderate ache syndrome, depression and anxiety of the middle or high rate which were in inverse dependence on serotonin rate in the blood. Intensity of episodic tension-type headache (n=24) was 52 mm according to visual analogous scale, the high rate of anxiety (51,08+/-4,2 scores), moderate rate of depression (12,9 scores according to Bek scale) and tendency of serotonin decreasing in blood (205,72+/-6,74 ng ml) was noted. The research of 76 patients with chronic tension-type headache with cephalgy intensity according to VASH 62 mm the high indicators of reactive (46,81+/-2,68 scores) and personal anxiety, the rate of depression (22,4+/-1,64 according to Bek scale) were associated with the displayed decreasing of serotonin amount in blood (119,38+/-9,42 ng/ml). It was concluded that, tension-type headache and moderate ache syndrome leads to depression decreased self-control of pain and life quality. The quality of serotonin in blood

  5. [Quality control for ABO blood group typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan-Ting; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui; Yu, Li-Jia; Sun, Le-Jing; DU, Ying

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate a quality control method for ABO typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood(UCB). The routine serology method was used to identify the ABO type of UCB samples. These samples with questions were further detected by sequence specific primer PCR (PCR-SSP). The results showed that among total of 76120 UCB samples identified by positive ABO typing, there were 78 samples (1 per thousand) which could not be determined. Of these 78 samples, 30 (56.92%) samples with a weak agglutination reaction were excluded by reverse ABO typing. Out of 260 samples in reverse ABO typing, 148 samples were consistent with positive ABO typing, 112 samples (43.08%) were inconsistent with the positive ABO typing. 58 undetermined samples were detected by PCR-SSP. Out of them the genotyping results of 45 samples confirmed the serological typing, the phenotyping results in 3 cases were inconsistent to that of genotyping. 10 cases showed the unconformity between positive and reverse typing, but the genotyping results were fully consistent with the positive typing. In conclusion, positive typing for red cell antigens combined with PCR-SSP is efficient and sensitive for quality control of ABO typing for neonatal UCB.

  6. Automatic recognition of five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Rezatofighi, Seyed Hamid; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes image processing algorithms to recognize five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood automatically. First, a method based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is proposed along with a snake algorithm to segment nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells. Then, a variety of features are extracted from the segmented regions. Next, most discriminative features are selected using a Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm and performances of two classifiers, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), are compared. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are accurate and sufficiently fast to be used in hematological laboratories.

  7. Theoretical study of B2 type technetium AB (A=Tc, B=Ti, V, Nb and Ta) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Nikita; Fatima, Bushra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic and thermal properties of the cubic AB type (A=Tc, B=Ti, V, Nb and Ta) technetium intermetallic compounds have been studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) used for the exchange-correlation potential. The calculated lattice parameters agree well with the experimental results. The calculated electronic properties reveal that these compounds are metallic in nature with partial ionic bonding. The elastic constants obey the stability criteria for cubic system. Ductility for these compounds has been analyzed using the Pugh's rule and Cauchy's pressure revealing ductile in nature of all the compounds. Bonding nature is discussed using Fermi surface, band structure and charge density difference plots.

  8. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  9. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  10. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P < 0.025). In eight sera, the antibody titres measured against CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We

  11. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  1. Four types of cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives, ADB-BINACA, AB-FUBICA, ADB-FUBICA, and AB-BICA, identified as new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenhua; Hua, Zhendong; Liu, Cuimei; Jia, Wei

    We identified four cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives in new illegal psychoactive substances seized from a clandestine laboratory in China. These four derivatives included N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-BINACA, 1), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBICA, 2), N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (ADB-FUBICA, 3), and N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-BICA, 4). These compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. No chemical or pharmacological data about compound 4 has appeared until now, making this the first report on this compound. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 have previously been reported to have a high affinity for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, but this is the first report of their presence in illegal products.

  2. 'O' blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Matteo; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non-'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, 'O' (n=76) and 'A' adults (n=65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-'O' (n=113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables. In Model 1, 'O' adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-'O' adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus. The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-'O' adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a 'O' blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer

  3. Pretransplant Tacrolimus Dose Requirements Predict Early Posttransplant Dose Requirements in Blood Group AB0-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Nauras; de Man, Femke M; de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements of patients scheduled to undergo living donor kidney transplantation correlate with posttransplantation dose requirements. The predictive value of Tac dose requirements (defined as the ratio of the Tac predose concentration, C0, divided by the total daily Tac dose, D) pretransplantation on this same parameter posttransplantation was assessed retrospectively in a cohort of 57 AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. These patients started immunosuppressive therapy 14 days before transplant surgery. All patients were using a stable dose of glucocorticoids and were at steady-state Tac exposure before transplantation. Tac dose requirements immediately before transplantation (C0/Dbefore) explained 63% of the Tac dose requirements on day 3 after transplantation: r = 0.633 [F (1, 44) = 75.97, P < 0.01]. No other clinical and demographic variables predicted Tac dose requirements early after transplantation. Steady-state Tac dose requirement before transplantation largely predicted posttransplantation Tac dose requirements in AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. The importance of this finding is that the posttransplantation Tac dose can be individualized based on a patient's pretransplantation Tac concentration/dose ratio. Pretransplant Tac phenotyping therefore has the potential to improve transplantation outcomes.

  4. Global methylation profiles in DNA from different blood cell types.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Flom, Julie D; Kappil, Maya; Ferris, Jennifer S; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation measured in white blood cell DNA is increasingly being used as in studies of cancer susceptibility. However, little is known about the correlation between different assays to measure global methylation and whether the source of DNA matters when examining methylation profiles in different blood cell types. Using information from 620 women, 217 and 403 women with DNA available from granulocytes (Gran), and total white blood cells (WBC), respectively, and 48 women with DNA available from four different sources (WBC, Gran, mononuclear (MN), and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL)), we compared DNA methylation for three repetitive elements (LINE1, Sat2, Alu) by MethyLight, luminometric methylation assay (LUMA), and [(3)H]-methyl acceptance assay. For four of the five assays, DNA methylation levels measured in Gran were not correlated with methylation in LBC, MN, or WBC; the exception was Sat2. DNA methylation in LCL was correlated with methylation in MN and WBC for the [(3)H]-methyl acceptance, LINE1, and Alu assays. Methylation in MN was correlated with methylation in WBC for the [(3)H]-methyl acceptance and LUMA assays. When we compared the five assays to each other by source of DNA, we observed statistically significant positive correlations ranging from 0.3-0.7 for each cell type with one exception (Sat2 and Alu in MN). Among the 620 women stratified by DNA source, correlations among assays were highest for the three repetitive elements (range 0.39-0.64). Results from the LUMA assay were modestly correlated with LINE1 (0.18-0.20). These results suggest that both assay and source of DNA are critical components in the interpretation of global DNA methylation patterns from WBC.

  5. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  6. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.

  7. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  8. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes Pair of studies found patients taking insulin injections ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 1 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood ...

  9. [Analysis on the characteristics of blood serum Ab-IgG detective result of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients in Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Qiu, Ji-chun; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Duan-hua; Liu, Xiao-ning; Gao, Yang; Liu, Yu-fei; DI, Biao; He, Li-juan; Tai, Peng-zhe; Liu, Wei-si; Zhou, Xiu-zhen; Pan, Bing-ying; Zou, Xiao-zhong; Xu, Hui-fang; Mo, Rong-sen

    2004-11-01

    To probe blood serum Ab-IgG characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients in Guangzhou and investigate the related factors. The serum of such population diagnosed as SARS convalescent patients, non-SARS patients, family consanguineous contraction persons, wild animal and vegetable salesman and community common people was collected. The lab detective method of ELISA was adopted for these serum samples. And the epidemic investigations for the SARS patients were also carried out. Of these populations, the detective rate of Ab-IgG for the clinic diagnosed SARS patients, which was 53.7%; That for the wild animal salesman and community common people were 16.7% and 0.9%, respectively. Among the clinic diagnosed SARS patients, the positive antibody detective rate was 90.4% for those which had specific contact history or infectivity, which was higher than that for other population. Among the specific contact history or infectivity cases, the antibody positive rate for the young and the old was lower than that for the adult. Meanwhile the difference did not exist among other cases. The antibody positive rate was identical between the male and the female. And the antibody detective rate was decreased by the month. As a whole SARS-CoV Ab-IgG detective rate for the clinic diagnosed SARS patients was 53.7% only. The reasons for that mainly lie in the wrong clinic diagnosis besides these factors such as age, hormone use and reagent and so on. The combination of lab detection results and epidemic investigation was propitious to the diagnosis veracity. It was impossible for the sub-clinic infection of SARS-CoV virus. The importance in the virus transmitting course need to be further studied.

  10. [Capsular types, virulence factors and DNA types of Klebsiella oxytoca strains isolated from blood and bile].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yuka; Yagi, Tetsuya; Mochizuki, Mariko; Ohta, Michio

    2012-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen and is isolated at the second highest frequency among genus Klebsiella from hospitalized patients. According to previous reports, the major virulence factors of K. pneumoniae include capsules and several kinds of pill, whereas the virulence factors of K. oxytoca have not been well investigated. We noticed an increased frequency of K. oxytoca isolates from patients who had undergone a biliary tract operation in a general hospital from May through November, 2009. We then performed a PCR analysis of the virulence factors and an epidemiological analysis with capsular typing (serotyping) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for K. oxytoca of 11 blood isolates and 10 bile isolates. As a result, serotypes of K9, K15, K26, K31, K43, K47, K55, K70, and K79 were identified in these strains, and K1 and K2 which are frequent serotypes in K. pneumoniae strains were not observed. Two blood isolates of the K55 serotype showed almost the same PFGE pattern, suggesting that these isolates were very closely related and caused cross-infection in a hospital ward. Strains of the K43 serotype were three blood isolates and 1 bile isolate, all of which showed different PFGE patterns. There were no common isolates among the blood and bile isolates. A PCR search revealed that fimH and mrkD genes which are relevant to type 1 and type 2 pili, respectively, were present in all strains, whereas kfuBC, an iron uptake gene, and cf29a were detected in only a few strains. Neither of the mucoid phenotype-related genes magA and rmpA was present in any strains. These results strongly suggest that type 1 and/or type 3 pili would have important roles in the pathogenesis of blood infection and bile infection caused by K. oxytoca.

  11. An application of the interpersonal models developed by Karen Horney and Timothy Leary to type A-B behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Roemer, W W

    1987-01-01

    Using Horney's clinical concepts and Leary's circle matrix procedures, this study investigated the Type A and B patterns of personality. Significant findings showed the Type A-B continuum to represent two distinct poles, with the Type A direction reflecting the expansive personality pattern (power and aggressiveness) and the Type B direction reflecting the self-effacing pattern (helplessness and affiliation) for self-perceived roles. For behavioral roles, the power-versus-helplessness traits described the two contrasting directions of personality involvement. Three subgroups were identified for behavioral role in each A and B extreme group. The shift in affect between the ACL and MMPI instruments may reflect two factors: the degree of ambiguity set up by the nature of the tests and the responding "pull" of the individual, which was described as an "active" or "quiescent" form of the A and B patterns. Hence, it may be more effective to diagnose individuals in terms of a specific behavioral subtype and active or quiescent enactments. Three maladjustment indicators were investigated. Significant findings showed the A2 group as exhibiting increasing rigidity of behavioral role with lower Type A scores and the A1 group as exhibiting greater discrepancies with increasing Type A scores. The lack of discrepancy for the Type B groups may reflect a dysfunction in that these individuals may be stagnated in their work situations and complacent in the docile-dependent role. The three findings of behavioral subgroups, rigidity of role, and discrepancy were discussed as possible mediating psychosocial factors associated with coronary heart disease. Since this was the first major examination and use of Leary's model (to the author's knowledge) since the late 1950s, it is important to consider these results tentative and heuristic, until replications can be conducted. It is hoped that representative norms from diverse samples can be obtained for developing standard scores on Leary

  12. Synthesis of biobased polyurethane from oleic and ricinoleic acids as the renewable resources via the AB-type self-condensation approach.

    PubMed

    Palaskar, Dnyaneshwar V; Boyer, Aurélie; Cloutet, Eric; Alfos, Carine; Cramail, Henri

    2010-05-10

    Polyurethane (PU) from methyl oleate (derived from sunflower oil) and ricinoleic acid (derived from castor oil) was synthesized using the AB-type self-polycondensation approach for the first time. In the present work, three novel AB-type monomers, namely, a mixture of 10-hydroxy-9-methoxyoctadecanoyl azide/9-hydroxy-10-methoxyoctadecanoyl azide (HMODAz), 12-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoyl azide (HODEAz) and methyl-N-11-hydroxy-9-cis-heptadecen carbamate (MHHDC) were synthesized from methyl oleate and ricinoleic acid using simple reaction steps. Out of these, HMODAz and HODEAz monomers were polymerized by the acyl-azido and hydroxyl AB-type self-condensation approach, while MHHDC monomer was polymerized through AB-type self-condensation via transurethane reaction. The acyl-azido and hydroxyl self-condensations were carried out at various temperatures (50, 60, 80. and 110 degrees C) in bulk with and without catalyst. A FTIR study of the polymerization, using HMODAz at 80 degrees C without catalyst, indicates in situ formation of an intermediate isocyanate group in the first 15-30 min, and further onward, the molar mass increases as observed by SEC analysis. In the case of the MHHDC monomer, a transurethane reaction was used to obtain a similar PU (which was obtained by AB-type acyl-azido and hydroxyl self-condensation of HODEAz) in the presence of titanium tetrabutoxide as a catalyst at 130 degrees C. HMODAz, HODEAz, MHHDC, and corresponding polyurethanes were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of polyurethanes derived from HMODAz, HODEAz, and MHHDC showed two different glass transition temperatures for soft segments (at lower temperature) and hard segments (at higher temperature), indicating phase-separated morphology.

  13. Stellar Origin of 15N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB: Supernovae with Explosive Hydrogen Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Nittler, Larry R.; Pignatari, Marco; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-06-01

    We report C, N, and Si isotopic data for 59 highly 13C-enriched presolar submicron- to micron-sized SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite, including eight putative nova grains (PNGs) and 29 15N-rich (14N/15N ≤ solar) AB grains, and their Mg-Al, S, and Ca-Ti isotope data when available. These 37 grains are enriched in 13C, 15N, and 26Al with the PNGs showing more extreme enhancements. The 15N-rich AB grains show systematically higher 26Al and 30Si excesses than the 14N-rich AB grains. Thus, we propose to divide the AB grains into groups 1 (14N/15N < solar) and 2 (14N/15N ≥ solar). For the first time, we have obtained both S and Ti isotopic data for five AB1 grains and one PNG and found 32S and/or 50Ti enhancements. Interestingly, one AB1 grain had the largest 32S and 50Ti excesses, strongly suggesting a neutron-capture nucleosynthetic origin of the 32S excess and thus the initial presence of radiogenic 32Si (t 1/2 = 153 years). More importantly, we found that the 15N and 26Al excesses of AB1 grains form a trend that extends to the region in the N-Al isotope plot occupied by C2 grains, strongly indicating a common stellar origin for both AB1 and C2 grains. Comparison of supernova models with the AB1 and C2 grain data indicates that these grains came from supernovae that experienced H ingestion into the He/C zones of their progenitors.

  14. a Nonthermal Model for Catalytic Surface Reaction of the Type A2+B2→2AB:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Ahmad, W.; Iqbal, K.

    The kinetics of irreversible dimer-dimer reaction of the type A2+B2→2AB has already been studied through Monte Carlo simulation via a model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood (thermal) mechanism. The results of this study are well known. There is single transition point (yC) at yB=0.5 (where yB is partial pressure of B2 dimer in gas phase), which separates the two poisoned states from each other. Here, we have studied this reaction on the basis of a nonthermal model, which involves the precursor motion of B2 molecule. The most interesting feature of this model is that it yields a steady reactive window. The phase diagram is similar to the ZGB model. The reactive window is separated by continuous and discontinuous irreversible phase transitions. The width of the reactive window depends upon the mobility of the precursors. The dependence of production rate on partial pressure of B2 is shown by simple mathematical equations in our model. Some interesting results are observed when reaction between precursors and chemisorbed B atoms is considered.

  15. Extreme Poisson's ratios and their electronic origin in B2 CsCl-type AB intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. F.; Jones, Travis E.; Li, W.; Zhou, Y. C.

    2012-04-01

    Negative Poisson's ratios have been observed in a variety of metals and alloys. However, the electronic origin of this effect remains unclear, as is evident by our limited knowledge about intermetallics showing this behavior. In an effort to clarify the electronic origin of a negative Poisson's ratio, we have performed a systematic and comprehensive study of extreme (both positive and negative) Poisson's ratios behavior in the B2 CsCl-type AB intermetallic family (including 14 common intermetallics and 128 rare-earth-metal transition or main-group-metal intermetallics) by way of density functional theory calculations. We found a pronounced correlation between the extreme Poisson's ratios and the elastic anisotropy, with approximately 70% of the B2 intermetallics showing intrinsic auxetic behavior. We went on to examine the topology and geometry of the electron charge density and found that the extreme Poisson's ratios are attributable to the directionality of the bonds of the material. Auxetic materials were found to have nondirectional bonds, and nonauxetic compounds had directional bonds. Our findings provide an essential electronic perspective to forecast the auxetic behavior, and suggest a new application for intermetallic compounds.

  16. Characterization of corrosion products of AB{sub 5}-type hydrogen storage alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, F.; Knosp, B.; Backhaus-Ricoult, M.

    2000-01-01

    To better understand the decrease in storage capacity of AB{sub 5}-type alloys in rechargeable Ni/MH batteries undergoing repeated charge/discharge cycles, the corrosion of a MnNi{sub 3.55}Co{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.3} alloy in aqueous KOH electrolyte was studied. The crystal structure, chemical composition, and distribution of corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hollow and filed needles of a mixed rare earth hydroxide Mn(OH){sub 3} were found to cover a continuous nanocrystalline corrosion scale composed of metal (Ni, Co) solid solution, oxide (Ni,Co)O solid solution and rare earth hydroxide, and a Mn-depleted alloy subscale. Corrosion kinetics were measured for three different temperatures. Growth kinetics of the continuous corrosion scale and of the Mm(OH){sub 3} needles obeyed linear and parabolic rate laws, respectively. Models for the corrosion mechanism were developed on the basis of diffusional transport of Mn and OH through the hydroxide needles and subsequent diffusion along grain boundaries through the nanocrystalline scale.

  17. Anti-CD13 Abs in children with extensive chronic GVHD and their relation to soluble CD13 after allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation from a Children's Oncology Groups Study, ASCT0031.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, G D E; Kariminia, A; Fujii, H; Aslanian, S; Wall, D; Goldman, F; Grupp, S A; Dunn, S E; Krailo, M; Shapiro, L H; Gilman, A; Schultz, K R

    2010-11-01

    Our group previously demonstrated a strong association between elevated plasma soluble CD13 enzyme activity and newly diagnosed extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in children. As cytotoxic anti-CD13 Abs have been documented after blood and marrow transplant (BMT) in association with CMV infection and cGVHD, we hypothesized that soluble CD13 contributes to cGVHD pathogenesis by induction of CD13 reactive Abs and that anti-CD13 Abs could be additional biomarkers for newly diagnosed pediatric extensive cGVHD. Using prospectively collected plasma samples from pediatric allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT) subjects with cGVHD and controls without cGVHD enrolled in a large multi-institution Children's Oncology Group cGVHD therapeutic trial, we evaluated whether soluble CD13 correlates with induction of anti-CD13 Abs. We found that CD13 reactive Abs are present in a proportion of patients after allo-BMT, but did not seem to correlate with the presence of soluble CD13. Anti-CD13 Abs also did not meet our criteria as a diagnostic biomarker for cGVHD. These data do not confirm that induction of CD13 reactive Abs is a mechanism for cGVHD in children nor are part of the pathogenesis of cGVHD associated with elevated soluble CD13. The exact role of CD13 in cGVHD remains to be determined.

  18. Ab initio and experimental pre-edge investigations of the Mn K -edge XANES in oxide-type materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, François

    2005-04-01

    Mn K edge ab initio FEFF8.2 calculations of the pre-edge features of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region were undertaken for a series of Mn-bearing oxide-type compounds. The aim of the study is to provide a reliable method for determining quantitative and accurate redox and symmetry information for manganese. In agreement with multiplet calculations by Glatzel and co-workers, FEFF8.2 predicts a doublet and a triplet for Mn(II) and Mn(III) in octahedral symmetry, respectively, in agreement with high-resolution XANES experiments. Site distortion increases notably the contribution from dipolar transitions and, consequently, the pre-edge feature integrated area. An even more intense pre-edge feature is calculated and measured for the Td symmetry (singletlike). For Mn(IV), a triplet is predicted and measured for the Oh symmetry. However, additional transitions are found in Mn(IV)-rich compounds, that are related to metal-metal transitions. These transitions overlap strongly with the “true pre-edge,” making extraction of redox and symmetry information for Mn(IV) more challenging. However, a model of the pre-edge with pseudo-Voigt functions of fixed calculated width (based on core-hole lifetime and experimental resolution) helps to separate the contributions related to first-neighbor symmetry from those of the metal-metal pairs. Application to multivalent defective manganese oxide materials suggests that the pre-edge information varies linearly as a function of Mn redox state or symmetry but varies nonlinearly as a function of both parameters. Finally, the polymerization of the manganese networks can be estimated from the metal-metal transitions found in the pre-edge region.

  19. Ab initio and experimental pre-edge investigations of the Mn K-edge XANES in oxide-type materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farges, Francois

    2005-04-15

    Mn K edge ab initio FEFF8.2 calculations of the pre-edge features of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region were undertaken for a series of Mn-bearing oxide-type compounds. The aim of the study is to provide a reliable method for determining quantitative and accurate redox and symmetry information for manganese. In agreement with multiplet calculations by Glatzel and co-workers, FEFF8.2 predicts a doublet and a triplet for Mn(II) and Mn(III) in octahedral symmetry, respectively, in agreement with high-resolution XANES experiments. Site distortion increases notably the contribution from dipolar transitions and, consequently, the pre-edge feature integrated area. An even more intense pre-edge feature is calculated and measured for the T{sub d} symmetry (singletlike). For Mn(IV), a triplet is predicted and measured for the O{sub h} symmetry. However, additional transitions are found in Mn(IV)-rich compounds, that are related to metal-metal transitions. These transitions overlap strongly with the 'true pre-edge', making extraction of redox and symmetry information for Mn(IV) more challenging. However, a model of the pre-edge with pseudo-Voigt functions of fixed calculated width (based on core-hole lifetime and experimental resolution) helps to separate the contributions related to first-neighbor symmetry from those of the metal-metal pairs. Application to multivalent defective manganese oxide materials suggests that the pre-edge information varies linearly as a function of Mn redox state or symmetry but varies nonlinearly as a function of both parameters. Finally, the polymerization of the manganese networks can be estimated from the metal-metal transitions found in the pre-edge region.

  20. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  1. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  2. Structural and biochemical characterization of the wild type PCSK9-EGF(AB) complex and natural familial hypercholesterolemia mutants.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Matthew J; Cirillo, Agostino; Orsatti, Laura; Ruggeri, Lionello; Fisher, Timothy S; Santoro, Joseph C; Cummings, Richard T; Cubbon, Rose M; Lo Surdo, Paola; Calzetta, Alessandra; Noto, Alessia; Baysarowich, Jennifer; Mattu, Marco; Talamo, Fabio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Sparrow, Carl P; Sitlani, Ayesha; Carfí, Andrea

    2009-01-09

    PCSK9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels and consequently is a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Here we studied the interaction, of LDLR EGF(A/AB) repeats with PCSK9. We show that PCSK9 binds the EGF(AB) repeats in a pH-dependent manner. Although the PCSK9 C-terminal domain is not involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 autocleavage is required. Moreover, we report the x-ray structure of the PCSK9DeltaC-EGF(AB) complex at neutral pH. Compared with the low pH PCSK9-EGF(A) structure, the new structure revealed rearrangement of the EGF(A) His-306 side chain and disruption of the salt bridge with PCSK9 Asp-374, thus suggesting the basis for enhanced interaction at low pH. In addition, the structure of PCSK9DeltaC bound to EGF(AB)(H306Y), a mutant associated with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reveals that the Tyr-306 side chain forms a hydrogen bond with PCSK9 Asp-374, thus mimicking His-306 in the low pH conformation. Consistently, Tyr-306 confers increased affinity for PCSK9. Importantly, we found that although the EGF(AB)(H306Y)-PCSK9 interaction is pH-independent, LDLR(H306Y) binds PCSK9 50-fold better at low pH, suggesting that factors other than His-306 contribute to the pH dependence of PCSK9-LDLR binding. Further, we determined the structures of EGF(AB) bound to PCSK9DeltaC containing the FH-associated D374Y and D374H mutations, revealing additional interactions with EGF(A) mediated by Tyr-374/His-374 and providing a rationale for their disease phenotypes. Finally, we report the inhibitory properties of EGF repeats in a cellular assay measuring LDL uptake.

  3. Isotopic Composition of Molybdenum and Barium in Single Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains of Type A+B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savina, M. R.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2003-01-01

    Presolar SiC grains fall into several groups based on C, N, and Si isotopic compositions. Approximately 93% are defined as mainstream, having 10 less than C-12/C-13 less than 100 and N-14/N-15 ranging from 50 to 20,000. A number of studies have shown that the most likely sources of mainstream grains are low mass asymptotic giant branch stars. Models of nucleosynthesis in AGB stars reproduce the s-process enhancements seen in the heavy elements in mainstream SiC grains. Among the less common grains, A+B grains, which comprise approximately 3-4% of presolar SiC, are perhaps the least well understood. Recent studies by Amari et al. show that A+B grains can be divided into at least 4 groups based on their trace element concentration patterns. Of 20 grains studied, 7 showed trace element patterns consistent with condensation from a gas of solar system composition, while the rest had varying degrees of process enhancements. Our previous measurements on 3 A+B grains showed Mo of solar isotopic composition, but Zr with a strong enhancement in 96Zr, which is an r-process isotope but can be made in an sprocess if the neutron density is high enough to bridge the unstable Zr-95 (T(sub 1/2)= 64 d). The observation of Mo with solar system isotopic composition in the same grains is puzzling however. Meyer et al. have recently shown that a neutron burst mechanism can produce a high Zr-96/Zr-94 without enhancing Mo-100, however this model leads to enhancements in Mo-95 and Mo-97 not observed in A+B grains. We report here results of Mo measurements on 7 additional A+B grains, and Ba measurements on 2 A+B grains, and compare these to the previous studies.

  4. Isotopic Composition of Molybdenum and Barium in Single Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains of Type A+B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savina, M. R.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2003-01-01

    Presolar SiC grains fall into several groups based on C, N, and Si isotopic compositions. Approximately 93% are defined as mainstream, having 10 less than C-12/C-13 less than 100 and N-14/N-15 ranging from 50 to 20,000. A number of studies have shown that the most likely sources of mainstream grains are low mass asymptotic giant branch stars. Models of nucleosynthesis in AGB stars reproduce the s-process enhancements seen in the heavy elements in mainstream SiC grains. Among the less common grains, A+B grains, which comprise approximately 3-4% of presolar SiC, are perhaps the least well understood. Recent studies by Amari et al. show that A+B grains can be divided into at least 4 groups based on their trace element concentration patterns. Of 20 grains studied, 7 showed trace element patterns consistent with condensation from a gas of solar system composition, while the rest had varying degrees of process enhancements. Our previous measurements on 3 A+B grains showed Mo of solar isotopic composition, but Zr with a strong enhancement in 96Zr, which is an r-process isotope but can be made in an sprocess if the neutron density is high enough to bridge the unstable Zr-95 (T(sub 1/2)= 64 d). The observation of Mo with solar system isotopic composition in the same grains is puzzling however. Meyer et al. have recently shown that a neutron burst mechanism can produce a high Zr-96/Zr-94 without enhancing Mo-100, however this model leads to enhancements in Mo-95 and Mo-97 not observed in A+B grains. We report here results of Mo measurements on 7 additional A+B grains, and Ba measurements on 2 A+B grains, and compare these to the previous studies.

  5. Modulation instability and two types of non-autonomous rogue waves for the variable-coefficient AB system in fluid mechanics and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Qi, Feng-Hua; Tang, Bing; Shi, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient AB (vcAB) system, which describes marginally unstable baroclinic wave packets in geophysical fluids and ultra-short pulses in nonlinear optics. The modulation instability analysis of solutions with variable coefficients in the presence of a small perturbation is studied. The modified Darboux transformation (mDT) of the vcAB system is constructed via a gauge transformation. The first-order non-autonomous rogue wave solutions of the vcAB system are presented based on the mDT. It is found that the wave amplitude of B exhibits two types of structures, i.e. the double-peak structure appears if the plane-wave solution parameter ω is equal to zero, while selecting ω≠0 yields a single-peak one. Effects of the variable coefficients on the rogue waves are graphically discussed in detail. The periodic rogue wave and composite rogue wave are obtained with different inhomogeneous parameters. Additionally, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves through a conventional hyperbolic nonlinear well and barrier are investigated.

  6. Prognostic value of ABO blood group in patients with surgically resected colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Wen, Z-S; Sun, Y-J; Li, Y; Zhang, L; Han, Y-J

    2014-07-08

    Previous studies supported a link between the ABO blood type and survival for several types of malignancies. Nonetheless, the relationship between ABO blood type and survival in colon cancer patients has not been rigorously evaluated. The goal of this retrospective analysis was to discern the correlations between ABO blood group and colon cancer survival. A total of 1555 colon cancer patients that underwent curative-intent surgery between October 1995 and June 2002 were eligible for this study. The primary outcomes measured were the association between ABO blood group and patient survival. Compared with patients with non-AB blood types (blood types A, B, and O), patients with blood type AB were more likely to have better survival. The mean overall survival (OS) of the blood type AB patients was 113.9 months, whereas the mean OS of the non-AB blood type patients was significantly lower, 106.1 months (P<0.001, log-rank test). Compared with patients with blood type AB, the hazard ratios for patients with A, B, and O were 4.37 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.65-7.20), 2.99 (95% CI, 1.81-4.96), and 2.78 (95% CI, 1.69-4.56), respectively. Blood type AB is a favourable prognostic factor for patients with colon cancer.

  7. Ab initio study of electron-ion structure factors in binary liquids with different types of chemical bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Klevets, Ivan; Bryk, Taras

    2014-12-07

    Electron-ion structure factors, calculated in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, are reported for several binary liquids with different kinds of chemical bonding: metallic liquid alloy Bi–Pb, molten salt RbF, and liquid water. We derive analytical expressions for the long-wavelength asymptotes of the partial electron-ion structure factors of binary systems and show that the analytical results are in good agreement with the ab initio simulation data. The long-wavelength behaviour of the total charge structure factors for the three binary liquids is discussed.

  8. The association of ABO blood type with disease recurrence and mortality among patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Boris; Moreira, Daniel M; Tollefson, Matthew K; Frank, Igor; Cheville, John C; Thapa, Prabin; Tarrell, Robert F; Thompson, Robert Houston; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association of ABO blood type with clinicopathologic outcomes and mortality among patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy (RC). We identified 2,086 consecutive patients who underwent RC between 1980 and 2008. Postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of ABO blood type with outcomes. A total of 913 (44%), 881 (42%), 216 (10%), and 76 (4%) patients had blood type O, A, B, and AB, respectively. Median postoperative follow-up among survivors was 11.0 years (interquartile range: 7.7-15.9y). Overall, 1,561 patients died, with 770 deaths attributable to bladder cancer. Non-O blood type was associated with significantly worse 5-year RFS (65% vs. 69%; P = 0.04) and/or CSS (64% vs. 70%; P = 0.02). In particular, among patients with≤pT2N0 disease, the 5-year RFS for those with non-O vs. O blood type was 75% vs. 82%, respectively (P = 0.002), whereas the 5-year CSS was 77% vs. 85%, respectively (P = 0.001). Moreover, on multivariable analysis, blood type A remained independently associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio = 1.22; P = 0.01). Non-O blood type, particularly blood type A, is associated with a significantly increased risk of death from bladder cancer among patients undergoing RC. If validated, the utility of a multimodal therapy approach, including perioperative chemotherapy, or more frequent postoperative surveillance in this cohort warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of ABO blood types by combining membrane electrophoresis with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Sun, Liqing; Shao, Yonghong; Lu, Peng; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    The molecular characterization of ABO blood types, which is clinically significant in blood transfusion, has clinical and anthropological importance. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) is one of the most commonly used methods for the analysis of genetic bases of ABO blood types. However, such methods as PCR-SBT are time-consuming and are high in demand of equipments and manipulative skill. Here we showed that membrane electrophoresis based SERS method employed for studying the molecular bases of ABO blood types can provide rapidand easy-operation with high sensitivity and specificity. The plasma proteins were firstly purified by membrane electrophoresis and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS detection. We use this method to classify different blood types, including blood type A (n=13), blood type B (n=9) and blood type O (n=10). Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discriminant analysis (LDA) was then performed on the SERS spectra of purified albumin, showing good classification results among different blood types. Our experimental outcomes represent a critical step towards the rapid, convenient and accurate identification of ABO blood types.

  10. Characterization of H type 1 and type 1 N-acetyllactosamine glycan epitopes on ovarian cancer specifically recognized by the anti-glycan monoclonal antibody mAb-A4.

    PubMed

    Choo, Matthew; Tan, Heng Liang; Ding, Vanessa; Castangia, Roberto; Belgacem, Omar; Liau, Brian; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Choo, Andre

    2017-04-14

    Cancer-specific glycans of ovarian cancer are promising epitopes for targeting with monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Despite their potential, structural characterization of these glycan epitopes remains a significant challenge in mAb preclinical development. Our group generated the monoclonal antibody mAb-A4 against human embryonic stem cells (hESC), which also bound specifically to N-glycans present on 11 of 19 ovarian cancer (OC) and 8 of 14 breast cancer cell lines tested. Normal cell lines and tissue were unstained by mAb-A4. To characterize the N-linked glycan epitopes on OC cell lines targeted by mAb-A4, we used glycosidases, glycan microarray, siRNA, and advanced high sensitivity matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The mAb-A4 epitopes were found to be Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ (H type 1) and Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ (type 1 LacNAc). These structures were found to be present on multiple proteins from hESC and OC. Importantly, endo-β-galactosidase coupled with MALDI-MS allowed these two epitopes, for the first time, to be directly identified on the polylactosamines of N-glycans of SKOV3, IGROV1, OV90, and OVCA433. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of B3GALT5 expression in SKOV3 demonstrated that mAb-A4 binding was dependent on B3GALT5, providing orthogonal evidence of the epitopes' structures. The recognition of oncofetal H type 1 and type 1 LacNAc on OC by mAb-A4 is a novel and promising way to target OC and supports the theory that cancer can acquire stem-like phenotypes. We propose that the orthogonal framework used in this work could be the basis for advancing anti-glycan mAb characterization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Characterization of H type 1 and type 1 N-acetyllactosamine glycan epitopes on ovarian cancer specifically recognized by the anti-glycan monoclonal antibody mAb-A4

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Matthew; Tan, Heng Liang; Ding, Vanessa; Castangia, Roberto; Belgacem, Omar; Liau, Brian; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne; Choo, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Cancer-specific glycans of ovarian cancer are promising epitopes for targeting with monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Despite their potential, structural characterization of these glycan epitopes remains a significant challenge in mAb preclinical development. Our group generated the monoclonal antibody mAb-A4 against human embryonic stem cells (hESC), which also bound specifically to N-glycans present on 11 of 19 ovarian cancer (OC) and 8 of 14 breast cancer cell lines tested. Normal cell lines and tissue were unstained by mAb-A4. To characterize the N-linked glycan epitopes on OC cell lines targeted by mAb-A4, we used glycosidases, glycan microarray, siRNA, and advanced high sensitivity matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The mAb-A4 epitopes were found to be Fucα1–2Galβ1–3GlcNAcβ (H type 1) and Galβ1–3GlcNAcβ (type 1 LacNAc). These structures were found to be present on multiple proteins from hESC and OC. Importantly, endo-β-galactosidase coupled with MALDI-MS allowed these two epitopes, for the first time, to be directly identified on the polylactosamines of N-glycans of SKOV3, IGROV1, OV90, and OVCA433. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of B3GALT5 expression in SKOV3 demonstrated that mAb-A4 binding was dependent on B3GALT5, providing orthogonal evidence of the epitopes' structures. The recognition of oncofetal H type 1 and type 1 LacNAc on OC by mAb-A4 is a novel and promising way to target OC and supports the theory that cancer can acquire stem-like phenotypes. We propose that the orthogonal framework used in this work could be the basis for advancing anti-glycan mAb characterization. PMID:28167527

  12. Measurement of blood glucose: comparison between different types of specimens.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Bendix; Lindström, J; Sundvall, J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Tuomilehto, J

    2008-03-01

    To provide conversion formulae between measurements based on different specimens in use in epidemiological studies and clinical practice, and to evaluate the relative precision for the different methods. The current guidelines emphasize the use of venous plasma for determining glucose concentration. Nevertheless, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines provide cut-off points for different specimens for the determination of the glucose concentration in circulating blood (venous plasma, whole blood, serum and capillary blood). There is a lack of data about the comparability between the values obtained by using different specimens. Eleven different combinations of specimens and methods of measurement of blood glucose were used in 294 blood samples from 74 subjects. The methods were grouped by the specimen used for analysis (venous plasma, whole blood, serum and capillary blood). The result of the analysis is a set of linear equations allowing conversion of the result from one specimen or method to another. Furthermore, it was estimated how much of the variation for each method can be attributed to laboratory variance. Measurements based on capillary blood had a very large variability compared with other methods. Measurements based on venous whole blood tended to give results 0.5 mmol/L lower than other methods. Our data indicate that the current diagnostic cut-off points, as recommended by WHO for non-plasma specimens, are not fully compatible and may differ as much as 0.5 mmol/L between specimens.

  13. Characteristics of pulsatile blood flow through the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve installed in two different types of blood vessels: velocity and pressure of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Seok; Yoo, Song Min; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flow fields of blood flowing through the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. A numerical analysis was carried out with the fluid-structure interaction between the blood flow and the motion of leaflets in two different types of blood vessels (type A, with sinus blood vessel, and type B, without sinus blood vessel). When the leaflet was fully opened, a fluttering phenomenon was detected in association with the blood flow, and recirculation flows were observed in the sinus region of the blood vessel for type A. During the closing phase, regurgitation was formed between the ring and the edge of the each leaflet for both types. When the leaflet came into contact with the valve ring at the end of the closing phase, rebound of the leaflet occurred. In consideration of the entire domain, the pressure drop occurs mainly in the valve region. The present results showed tendencies similar to those obtained by previous experiments for blood flow and contribute to the development of the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses.

  14. [MLST types of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from blood cultures].

    PubMed

    Arslan, Uğur; Demir, Esra; Oryaşin, Erman; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Tuncer, Inci; Fındık, Duygu; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2013-07-01

    Enterococci, particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are important nosocomial pathogens with limited treatment options. Enterococci have low-level resistance to penicillins and aminoglycosides and are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins. In addition, they can acquire high-level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to determine glycopeptide resistance mechanisms and genetic relationships of vancomycin-resistant E.faecium strains isolated from blood cultures between 2003-2009 years by molecular epidemiologic methods. A total of 38 VRE strains isolated from blood cultures were included in this study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 BD automated system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems, USA) and confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method accor-ding to the CLSI standards. MIC values of vancomycin were determined in vancomycin resistant strains by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) method. Vancomycin resistance genes included vanA, vanB, vanC, and vanD were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Clonal relationship between strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sequence analysis was performed for examples selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of each pulsotype and subtype. Thirty eight strains of enterococci isolated from blood cultures were defined as E.faecium by phenotypic methods and confirmed by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Vancomycin MIC values of strains were determined as > 256 µg/ml by E test. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Clonal relationship of 38 isolates E.faecium carrying the vanA gene was determined by PFGE and MLST methods. PFGE detected four pulsotypes (A-D) and one sporadic isolate. Twenty nine strains belonged to A pulsotype, three strains belonged to B pulsotype, two strains

  15. Low agreement between radio binding assays in analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) autoantibodies in patients classified with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Daka, Bledar; Svensson, Maria K; Lernmark, Ke; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia; Hallmans, Goran; Rolandsson, Olov

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) are used in the classification of diabetes in adults. We assessed the concordance in GAD65 autoantibody levels within subjects between three different GAD65Ab radio binding assays (RBA). Plasma samples from 112 diabetes patients (median age 50 years) initially classified with type 2 diabetes was randomly selected from a local diabetes registry. Coded samples were analyzed with two RBA employing (35)S-labeled GAD65. The first used the pEx9 plasmid (pEx9 RBA), the second employed the pThGAD65 plasmid (pThGAD65 RBA) to label GAD65 by in vitro transcription translation. We also used a commercial kit employing plasmid pGAD17 labelled with (125)I (pGAD17 RBA). Subsequent analyses followed standard procedures. Two different cut-offs for GAD65Ab positivity were used in all three assays. We calculated the correlation, concordance, and agreement between the assays. The proportion of GAD65Ab positivity differed between assays when low cut-offs were used (pEx9 RBA 25%, pThGAD65 RBA 17.9%, and pGAD17 RBA 12.5%, respectively). When high cut-offs were applied, the concordance between the pEx9 RBA and the pThGAD65 RBA was 97.3 while their concordance to the pGAD17 RBA was lower (88.4 and 87.4, respectively). There was a low agreement between both pEx9 RBA and pGAD17 RBA (0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.70) and between pThGAD65 RBA and pGAD17 RBA (0.43, 95% CI 0.18-0.68). We found discrepancies in determining the GAD65Ab positivity, which constitutes a problem when GAD65Ab are used clinically. Further methodological GAD65Ab assays studies are warranted.

  16. How-to-Do-It: A Simulation of the Blood Type Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John D., Sr.; Smailes, Deborah L.

    1989-01-01

    Explains an activity that allows students to visualize antigen-antibody type reactions and learn about antibodies and antigens without performing blood typing tests. Provides directions for students and a comparison chart of a blood typing simulation with procedure which is based on the reactions of certain ionic solutions when mixed. (RT)

  17. How-to-Do-It: A Simulation of the Blood Type Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John D., Sr.; Smailes, Deborah L.

    1989-01-01

    Explains an activity that allows students to visualize antigen-antibody type reactions and learn about antibodies and antigens without performing blood typing tests. Provides directions for students and a comparison chart of a blood typing simulation with procedure which is based on the reactions of certain ionic solutions when mixed. (RT)

  18. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35–74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56–127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85–146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067–0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  19. Host-specific symbiotic requirement of BdeAB, a RegR-controlled RND-type efflux system in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Andrea; Koch, Marion; Pessi, Gabriella; Müller, Andreas J; Balsiger, Sylvia; Hennecke, Hauke; Fischer, Hans-Martin

    2010-11-01

    Multidrug efflux systems not only cause resistance against antibiotics and toxic compounds but also mediate successful host colonization by certain plant-associated bacteria. The genome of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum encodes 24 members of the family of resistance/nodulation/cell division (RND) multidrug efflux systems, of which BdeAB is genetically controlled by the RegSR two-component regulatory system. Phylogenetic analysis of the membrane components of these 24 RND-type transporters revealed that BdeB is more closely related to functionally characterized orthologs in other bacteria, including those associated with plants, than to any of the other 23 paralogs in B. japonicum. A mutant with a deletion of the bdeAB genes was more susceptible to inhibition by the aminoglycosides kanamycin and gentamicin than the wild type, and had a strongly decreased symbiotic nitrogen-fixation activity on soybean, but not on the alternative host plants mungbean and cowpea, and only very marginally on siratro. The host-specific role of a multidrug efflux pump is a novel feature in the rhizobia-legume symbioses. Consistent with the RegSR dependency of bdeAB, a B. japonicum regR mutant was found to have a greater sensitivity against the two tested antibiotics and a symbiotic defect that is most pronounced for soybean.

  20. RND type efflux pump system MexAB-OprM of pseudomonas aeruginosa selects bacterial languages, 3-oxo-acyl-homoserine lactones, for cell-to-cell communication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria release a wide variety of small molecules including cell-to-cell signaling compounds. Gram-negative bacteria use a variety of self-produced autoinducers such as acylated homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) as signal compounds for quorum sensing (QS) within and between bacterial species. QS plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and in beneficial symbiosis by responding to acyl-HSLs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is considered that the selection of bacterial languages is necessary to regulate gene expression and thus it leads to the regulation of virulence and provides a growth advantage in several environments. In this study, we hypothesized that RND-type efflux pump system MexAB-OprM of P. aeruginosa might function in the selection of acyl-HSLs, and we provide evidence to support this hypothesis. Results Loss of MexAB-OprM due to deletion of mexB caused increases in QS responses, as shown by the expression of gfp located downstream of the lasB promoter and LasB elastase activity, which is regulated by a LasR-3-oxo-C12-HSL complex. Either complementation with a plasmid containing wild-type mexB or the addition of a LasR-specific inhibitor, patulin, repressed these high responses to 3-oxo-acyl-HSLs. Furthermore, it was shown that the acyl-HSLs-dependent response of P. aeruginosa was affected by the inhibition of MexB transport activity and the mexB mutant. The P. aeruginosa MexAB-OprM deletion mutant showed a strong QS response to 3-oxo-C10-HSL produced by Vibrio anguillarum in a bacterial cross-talk experiment. Conclusion This work demonstrated that MexAB-OprM does not control the binding of LasR to 3-oxo-Cn-HSLs but rather accessibility of non-cognate acyl-HSLs to LasR in P. aeruginosa. MexAB-OprM not only influences multidrug resistance, but also selects acyl-HSLs and regulates QS in P. aeruginosa. The results demonstrate a new QS regulation mechanism via the efflux system MexAB-OprM in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22574700

  1. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  2. Ab initio study of MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) rutile-type compounds using the periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. R. Moreira, Ibério; Dovesi, Roberto; Roetti, Carla; Saunders, Victor R.; Orlando, Roberto

    2000-09-01

    The ab initio periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock method has been applied in the investigation of the ground-state structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the rutile-type compounds MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). All electron Gaussian basis sets have been used. The systems turn out to be large band-gap antiferromagnetic insulators; the optimized geometrical parameters are in good agreement with experiment. The calculated most stable electronic state shows an antiferromagnetic order in agreement with that resulting from neutron scattering experiments. The magnetic coupling constants between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions along the [001], [111], and [100] (or [010]) directions have been calculated using several supercells. The resulting ab initio magnetic coupling constants are reasonably satisfactory when compared with available experimental data. The importance of the Jahn-Teller effect in FeF2 and CoF2 is also discussed.

  3. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  4. ABO and Rh Blood Type Relationship in Parents with more than One Disabled Child

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohammadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental blood variables are one of the most important medical-biological causes of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between parents’ blood variables (ABO and Rh blood type) and their relationship with frequency of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities in Isfahan province. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive-analytical study and 494 samples were selected from mothers with more than one disabled child and mothers with normal child using simple and multistage random methods. The data collection was done through questionnaire. Based on Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20), the reliability of questionnaire was 0.88. The statistical model in this study was a hierarchical log-linear method. Results There was a significant relationship between mother’s Rh blood and having disabled child (P=0.002). However no significant relationship between having disabled children and the following variables was found: the father’s Rh blood (p=0.2), father and mother’s Rh blood together (P=0.5), father blood type (P=0.56), mother blood type (P=0.42), and mother and father blood types together (P=0.7). Conclusion Maternal and fetal blood incompatibility (motherwith negative Rh blood and fetus with positive Rh blood) increased the likelihood of being born with disabilities. PMID:26985351

  5. ABO and Rh Blood Type Relationship in Parents with more than One Disabled Child.

    PubMed

    Mehrmohammadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Parental blood variables are one of the most important medical-biological causes of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between parents' blood variables (ABO and Rh blood type) and their relationship with frequency of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities in Isfahan province. This was a descriptive-analytical study and 494 samples were selected from mothers with more than one disabled child and mothers with normal child using simple and multistage random methods. The data collection was done through questionnaire. Based on Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20), the reliability of questionnaire was 0.88. The statistical model in this study was a hierarchical log-linear method. There was a significant relationship between mother's Rh blood and having disabled child (P=0.002). However no significant relationship between having disabled children and the following variables was found: the father's Rh blood (p=0.2), father and mother's Rh blood together (P=0.5), father blood type (P=0.56), mother blood type (P=0.42), and mother and father blood types together (P=0.7). Maternal and fetal blood incompatibility (motherwith negative Rh blood and fetus with positive Rh blood) increased the likelihood of being born with disabilities.

  6. Rapid and preferential distribution of blood-borne αCD3εAb to the liver is followed by local stimulation of T cells and natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wingender, Gerhard; Schumak, Beatrix; Schurich, Anna; Gessner, J Engelbert; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A

    2006-01-01

    Dissemination of soluble molecules or antigens via the blood stream is considered to lead to a uniform distribution in the various organs of the body, but organ-specific microarchitecture and vascularization may influence this. Following intravenous injection of αCD3ε antibody (αCD3εAb) we observed clear differences in antibody binding to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or T lymphocytes in different organs. Significant binding of blood-borne αCD3εAb was only detected in the spleen and liver and not in the thymus or lymph node. In the spleen, only 10% of dendritic cells/macrophages and 40% of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β+ cells were positive for αCD3εAb, and, dependent on FcγR-mediated cross-linking of αCD3εAb, a similar percentage of splenic TCR-β+ cells were stimulated and became CD69+. Stimulation of TCR-β+ cells in the liver was at least as efficient as in the spleen, but almost all T cells and all scavenger liver sinusoidal endothelial cells bound αCD3εAb. In contrast to CD69 up-regulation, only CD4+ natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD11ahigh CD8+ T cells were activated by αCD3εAb and expressed interferon (IFN)-γ. Again, IFN-γ release from NKT/T cells was at least as efficient in the liver as in the spleen. Taken together, our results support the notion that the combination of extensive hepatic vascularization and very high scavenger activity allows the liver to fulfill its metabolic tasks and to promote stimulation of the large but widely distributed hepatic population of NKT/T cells. PMID:16423047

  7. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  8. Clinical significance of hepatocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, and transforming growth factor-alpha in bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ismail Oguz; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunesacar, Ramazan; Unsal, Cagatay

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that plays an important role in the growth and progression of cancer; growing evidence suggests that neovascularization is important in hematologic malignancies. Increased angiogenic potential has been identified in multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, investigators simultaneously measured the levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGFAB), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of 30 patients with MM and 10 healthy controls. Differences in HGF values in BM sera were significant (P=.001) between patients and controls. In detailed analyses of HGF, PDGF-AB, and TGF-alpha, according to disease stage, a significant correlation was found between disease stage and BM HGF (P=.047), BM TGF-alpha (P=.021), and PB PDGF-AB (P=.006), respectively. When correlations between all other parameters were analyzed, significance was noted between PB TGF-alpha and lactate dehydrogenase (P=.02), PB TGF-alpha and PB HGF (P=.002), BM TGF-alpha and CD38 (P=.046), BM TGF-alpha and BM HGF (P=.000), BM TGF-alpha and BM PDGF-AB (P=.048), BM HGF and PB HGF (P=.044), and BM PDGF-AB and PB PDGF-AB (P=.000). BM HGF levels had a significant effect on overall survival, with disease severity assessed in terms of disease stage (P=.0018, log-rank test). These data show that in patients with MM, high levels of BM HGF, BM TGF-alpha, and PB PDGF-AB were associated with advanced disease stage; in addition, HGF played a significant role in disease processing and was related to disease severity. These findings have also led to the concept of a symbiotic relationship between the growth of myeloma cells and HGF, TGF-alpha, and PDGFAB in BM.

  9. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marianne B; Keck, Martin E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kresse, Adelheid E; Hagemeyer, Thomas P; Landgraf, Rainer; Holsboer, Florian; Uhr, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated HPA system activity in abcb1ab (-/-) mice under basal conditions and following stress. Abcb1ab (-/-) mice showed consistently lower plasma ACTH levels and lower evening plasma corticosterone levels. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was decreased and pituitary POMC mRNA expressing cells were significantly reduced in number in abcb1ab (-/-) mutants; however, they showed a normal activation of the HPA system following CRH stimulation. Lower doses of dexamethasone were required to suppress plasma corticosterone levels in mutants. Our data thus provide evidence for a sustained suppression of the HPA system at the hypothalamic level in abcb1ab (-/-) mice, suggesting that BBB function significantly regulates HPA system activity. Whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene might result in persistent changes in the responsiveness and regulation of the HPA system will be the subject of future investigations, correlating both genetic information with individual characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype.

  10. Ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on CdSe sensitized La-TiO2 matrix and signal amplification of polystyrene@Ab2 composites.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dawei; Ren, Xiang; Wang, Haoyuan; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Di; Chen, Yucheng; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2017-01-15

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor was fabricated using signal amplification strategy for the quantitative detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA). CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) sensitized lanthanum-doped titanium dioxide (La-TiO2) composites were used to bind the primary antibodies (Ab1). The doping of lanthanum promoted the visible light absorption of TiO2 and remarkably enhanced the photocurrent. Moreover, 0.3%La-TiO2 displayed the highest photocurrent in the La-TiO2 composites, which was twice as much as that of undoped TiO2. Carboxyl modified CdSe NPs were assembled onto La-TiO2 composites via the dentate binding between -COOH and Ti atom in TiO2 NPs, which dramatically promoted the photocurrent intensity by approximately 2.1 times. Carboxyl functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres were coated with the secondary antibodies (Ab2). Owing to the better insulation property and steric hindrance of the prepared polystyrene@Ab2 (PS@Ab2) composites, the significant reduction of the photocurrent signal was achieved after the specific immune recognition. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated PEC sensor realized ultrasensitive detection of PSA in the range of 0.05-100pgmL(-1) with a detection limit of 17fgmL(-1). Moreover, this well-designed PEC immunoassay exhibited ideal reproducibility, stability, and selectivity, which is a promising platform for the detection of other important tumor targets.

  11. A Large Inversion Involving GNAS Exon A/B and All Exons Encoding Gsα Is Associated With Autosomal Dominant Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B).

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Nevalainen, Pasi I; Reyes, Monica; Thiele, Susanne; Tafaj, Olta; Molinaro, Angelo; Takatani, Rieko; Ala-Houhala, Marja; Nilsson, Daniel; Eisfeldt, Jesper; Lindstrand, Anna; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Mäkitie, Outi; Jüppner, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized primarily by resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thus hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, in most cases without evidence for Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). PHP1B is associated with epigenetic changes at one or several differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, which encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) and splice variants thereof. Heterozygous, maternally inherited STX16 or GNAS deletions leading to isolated loss-of-methylation (LOM) at exon A/B alone or at all maternal DMRs are the cause of autosomal dominant PHP1B (AD-PHP1B). In this study, we analyzed three affected individuals, the female proband and her two sons. All three revealed isolated LOM at GNAS exon A/B, whereas the proband's healthy maternal grandmother and uncle showed normal methylation at this locus. Haplotype analysis was consistent with linkage to the STX16/GNAS region, yet no deletion could be identified. Whole-genome sequencing of one of the patients revealed a large heterozygous inversion (1,882,433 bp). The centromeric breakpoint of the inversion is located 7,225 bp downstream of GNAS exon XL, but its DMR showed no methylation abnormality, raising the possibility that the inversion disrupts a regulatory element required only for establishing or maintaining exon A/B methylation. Because our three patients presented phenotypes consistent with PHP1B, and not with PHP1A, the Gsα promoter is probably unaffected by the inversion. Our findings expand the spectrum of genetic mutations that lead to LOM at exon A/B alone and thus biallelic expression of the transcript derived from this alternative first GNAS exon. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Association of Ocular Toxoplasmosis with Type I Toxoplasma gondii Strains: Direct Genotyping from Peripheral Blood Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Switaj, Karolina; Master, Adam; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Zaborowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii strains were genotyped directly from blood samples of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Analysis of nontranscribed spacer 2 revealed that all detected strains belonged to type I, suggesting an association of ocular toxoplasmosis with this type. The method shows the usefulness of blood samples for genotyping in ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:17005742

  13. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  14. Development of new composite materials for hydrogen storage. The AB5 type hydride alloy with silica glass support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberga, L.; Kleperis, J.

    2007-12-01

    Use of the spill-over effect to enhance catalytic activity and the amount of absorbed hydrogen in a new composite material is reported. An AB5 lanthanum nickel alloy with a small number of additives serves as the catalyst and the bulk material for hydrogen storage and a silica glass powder with a developed surface serves as the support material. The amount of absorbed hydrogen in the alloy and composite is determined from thermo-gravimetric data. Structural changes in the developed composite during hydrogenation are found to confirm the synergy between the alloy and the support material.

  15. The Effect of ABO Blood Types on Periodontal Status

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Turgut; Tezel, Adnan; Orbak, Recep; Eltas, Abubekir; Kara, Cankat; Kavrut, Fahri

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a relationship between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Methods This epidemiological study was carried out on 1351 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred to the Faculty of Dentistry clinics for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding dental health. The study based on periodontal condition, blood group, and medical history. The subjects were divided into three groups as those with gingivitis, periodontitis, and the healthy ones. The effects of blood subgroups on periodontal health, gingivitis and periodontitis were investigated separately. Results A relatively higher percentage of A group patients was found in gingivitis group and relatively higher percentage of O group patients was found in periodontitis group. A significant relationship was also determined between Rh factor and gingivitis. Conclusions ABO blood subgroups and Rh factor may constitute a risk factor on the development of periodontal disease. However, long-term studies are needed to make a more comprehensive assessment of the effects of ABO group on periodontal diseases. PMID:19212557

  16. Effects of blood type and blood handling on feeding success, longevity and egg production in the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Danilevich, M; Zelig, O; Grinbaum, H; Friger, M; Meinking, T L

    2011-03-01

    The effects of feeding different types of human blood to human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), on feeding success, longevity and numbers of eggs laid were investigated using an artificial blood-feeding system in the laboratory. No significant differences were found between lice fed on different human blood types for any of the parameters tested. However, when lice were fed on human blood of one blood type followed immediately by a different blood type, they took significantly smaller bloodmeals, their longevity was reduced and they laid fewer eggs per female than control lice that had been fed twice on the same human blood type. When lice were fed human blood that had been stored for 1-26 weeks, the quantity of blood taken, the proportion of lice that became fully engorged and lice longevity diminished gradually as the storage time of the blood increased, but there was no effect of storage time on the mean number of eggs laid per female. However, lice would not feed on 26-week-old blood. The type of anticoagulant used had a significant effect on the proportion fed, longevity and number of eggs laid per female. Generally, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)-treated blood reduced longevity and the number of eggs laid per female to a greater degree than heparinized or citrated blood. Lice fed on rabbit blood took significantly larger amounts of blood, lived longer and laid a higher mean number of eggs per female than lice fed on human blood.

  17. [Exploration on human blood type case in teaching practice of genetics].

    PubMed

    Pi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Ying; Huai, Cong; Wang, Shi-Ming; Qiao, Shou-Yi; Lu, Da-Ru

    2013-08-01

    Blood type, which harbors abundant genetics meaning, is one of the most common phenotypes in human life. With the development of science and technology, its significance is unceasingly updated and new finding is increasingly emerging, which constantly attracts people to decipher the heredity mechanism of blood type. In addition to four main associated contents, i.e., Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, gene mutations, and chromosome abnormalities, the blood type case also covers many other aspects of the genetics knowledge. Based on the genetic knowledge context, we can interest the students and improve the teaching output in genetic teaching practice by combining with explaining ABO blood type case and heredity mechanism, expanding leucocyte groups, and introducing infrequent blood type such as Bombay blood, Rh and MN. By carrying out the related experimental teaching, we could drive the student to integrate theory with practice. In genetic experimental teaching, 80% of the students chose this optional experiment, molecular identification of ABO blood type, and it greatly interested them. Using appropriate blood type case in teaching related knowledge, organizing PPT exhi-bition and the debating discussion activities, it could provide opportunities for student to propose their own opinions, guide the student to thinking deeply, and develop their abilities to analyze and solve problem. Afterwards, students will gain in-depth comprehension about the fundamental knowledge of genetics.

  18. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth K; Laumann, Anne E

    2008-03-01

    We have seen a number of individuals who received blood-type tattoos on the left side of the chest as schoolchildren in northwest Indiana during the 1950s. To investigate the history of blood-type tattooing. Historical research was conducted using newspaper and journal articles found in medical libraries, online archives, American Medical Association archives, Chicago Historical Society records, local medical society documents, in addition to personal interviews. Blood-type tattoos were used during the Cold War to enable rapid transfusions as part of a "walking blood bank" in case of atomic attack. Nationwide blood-typing programs occurred to inform individuals of their own blood types and to provide local communities with lists of possible donors. The blood-type tattooing program was part of this effort, but community-wide tattooing occurred only in two parts of the United States: Lake County, Indiana, and Cache and Rich counties, Utah. In these communities, during 1951 and 1952, schoolchildren were tattooed to facilitate emergency transfusions. Events occurred more than 50 years ago, so we relied on original documents and interviews from individuals involved in the program who are still alive. The use of blood-type tattoos was short lived, lasting less than a year, and ultimately failed because physicians did not trust tattoos for medical information.

  19. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Elicits IgG Anti-A/B Blood Group Antibodies in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Wendelin; Sauerwein, Kai M T; Binder, Christoph J; Eibl-Musil, Nicole; Wolf, Hermann M; Fischer, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype, and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We addressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP) vaccine Pneumo 23 Vaccine "Pasteur Merieux" (Pn23) could have such an effect in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I), an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role. Anti-PnP IgM and IgG responses were determined by ELISA, and the DiaMed-ID Micro Typing System was used to screen anti-A/B antibody titer before and after Pn23 immunization in 28 healthy individuals and 16 patients with DM I. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology using the Biacore(®) device and a synthetic blood group A/B trisaccharide as the antigen was applied to investigate IgM and IgG anti-A/B antibodies and to measure antibody binding dynamics. All healthy individuals and DM I patients responded with anti-PnP IgM and IgG antibody production 4-6 weeks after Pn23 immunization, while no increase in blood group anti-A/B antibody titer was observed when measured by the DiaMed-ID Micro Typing System. Interestingly, isotype-specific testing by SPR technology revealed an increase in blood group anti-A/B IgG, but not IgM, following Pn23 immunization in both patients and controls. No change in binding characteristics of blood group anti-A/B antibodies could be detected following Pn23 vaccination, supporting the assumption of an increase in IgG antibody titer with no or very little affinity maturation. The study provides evidence for epitope sharing between pneumococcal polysaccharides and blood group ABO

  20. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-08-03

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool.

  1. Helium-neon laser preirradiation induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157.

    PubMed

    Kohli, R; Gupta, P K; Dube, A

    2000-02-01

    We have observed that preirradiation with a helium-neon laser (632.8 nm) induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157. The magnitude of protection was found to depend on the helium-neon laser irradiance, exposure time, and period of incubation between helium-neon laser exposure and subsequent UVC irradiation. The optimum values for dose, irradiance and interval between the two exposures were found to be 7 kJ/m(2), 100 W/m(2) and 1 h, respectively. The possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the helium-neon laser-induced protection is also discussed.

  2. Accurate prediction of the blood-brain partitioning of a large set of solutes using ab initio calculations and genetic neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Miri, Ramin; Safarpour, Mohammad A; Mehdipour, Ahmad R

    2006-08-01

    A genetic algorithm-based artificial neural network model has been developed for the accurate prediction of the blood-brain barrier partitioning (in logBB scale) of chemicals. A data set of 123 logBB (115 old molecules and 8 new molecules) of a diverse set of chemicals was chosen in this study. The optimum 3D geometry of the molecules was estimated by the ab initio calculations at the level of RHF/STO-3G, and consequently, different electronic descriptors were calculated for each molecule. Indeed, logP as a measure of hydrophobicity and different topological indices were also calculated. A three-layered artificial neural network with backpropagation of an error-learning algorithm was employed to process the nonlinear relationship between the calculated descriptors and logBB data. Genetic algorithm was used as a feature selection method to select the most relevant set of descriptors as the input of the network. Modeling of the logBB data by the only quantum descriptors produced a 5:4:1 ANN structure with RMS error of validation and crossvalidation equal to 0.224 and 0.227, respectively. Better nonlinear model (RMS(V) and RMS(CV) equals to 0.097 and 0.099, respectively) was obtained by the incorporation of the logP and the principal components of the topological indices to electronic descriptors. The ultimate performances of the models were obtained by the application of the models to predict the logBB of 23 molecules that did not have contribution in the steps of model development. The best model produced RMS error of prediction 0.140, and could predict about 98% of variances in the logBB data. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prognostic role of the ABO blood types in Chinese patients with curatively resected non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective analysis of 1601 cases at a single cancer center.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Xu, Miao; Li, Chao-Feng; Ou, Wei; Wang, Bao-Xiao; Zhang, Song-Liang; Xu, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Cheng; Huang, Qun-Ai; Wang, Si-Yu

    2015-09-28

    A positive association between the ABO blood types and survival has been suggested in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the ABO blood types in predicting the prognosis of Chinese patients with curatively resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analyzed 1601 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent curative surgery for NSCLC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The relationship between the ABO blood types and survival was investigated. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Group 1 (patients with the blood type O or B) had significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) compared with group 2 (patients with the blood type A or AB), with a median OS of 74.9 months versus 61.5 months [hazard ratio (HR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.96; P = 0.015]. Additionally, group 1 had significantly longer disease-free survival (DFS; HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76-0.98; P = 0.022) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS; HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.64-0.98; P = 0.024) than group 2. The association was not significantly modified by other risk factors for NSCLC, including smoking status, pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage, pT category, pN category, and chemotherapy. There is an association between the ABO blood types and the survival of Chinese patients with resected NSCLC. Patients with the blood type O or B had significantly prolonged OS, DFS, and LRFS compared with those with the blood type A or AB.

  4. INDIVIDUAL BLOOD DIFFERENCES IN MEXICAN INDIANS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE Rh BLOOD TYPES AND Hr FACTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Alexander S.; Zepeda, J. Preciado; Sonn, Eve B.; Polivka, H. R.

    1945-01-01

    98 Mexican Indians were tested for the blood properties A-B-O, A1-A2, M-N, P, Rh'-Rh''-Rh0-rh, and Hr. Of the 98 Indians, 90.8 per cent belonged to group 0, 6.1 per cent belonged to A1, and 3.1 per cent to group B. There were 61.2 per cent of type M, 3.1 per cent of type N, and 35.7 per cent of type MN. Of the 95 Mexican Indians tested with anti-P serum, 21.1 per cent were found to lack the P agglutinogen. In tests for the Rh blood types, 48.0 per cent of the Indians were found to belong to type Rh1, 9.2 per cent to type Rh2, 41.8 per cent to type Rh1Rh2, and 1 per cent to type Rh0. There were no bloods giving intermediate reactions. Of the 95 Indians tested for the Hr factor 44.2 per cent were found to lack this property. The reactions for the Rh blood types and Hr factor were correlated with each other and the results supported the conclusion of Race et al. that in addition to the six standard allelic genes and the so called intermediate genes, there is one or possibly two genes having the property of determining agglutinogens which react with anti-Rh' and anti-Rh'' sera, but not with anti-Hr serum. This gene (or genes) appears to be relatively common among Mexican Indians (approximately 3.3 per cent) in contrast to its rareness in white individuals. PMID:19871476

  5. Testing versus guessing blood glucose values: impact on self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Jeremy; Stenger, Patricia; Schachner, Holly C; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee; Pardo, Scott; Edelman, Steven V

    2014-09-01

    To assess differences between estimated blood glucose values and those measured on a blood glucose meter and the impact on self-care behavior in type 2 diabetes. Subjects ≥18 years with type 2 diabetes (N = 297) attending a Taking Control of Your Diabetes conference were asked questions about diabetes management and to estimate their current blood glucose. Study staff tested subjects' blood glucose on a meter. After seeing the result, subjects were again asked questions on diabetes management. NCT01453413. The percentage of subject blood glucose estimations that were outside ISO 15197:2003 accuracy criteria (>±15 mg/dL or >±20% of meter glucose values). Nearly half (46%) of subjects estimated blood glucose values outside ISO 15197:2003 accuracy criteria. Time since last blood glucose test, time since last meal, testing frequency, and A1C did not have an effect on differences between estimated blood glucose values and meter results. In the questionnaire before blood glucose testing, most subjects strongly agreed, agreed, or neither agreed nor disagreed that 'I make decisions about my diabetes, such as my food intake or my insulin dose even when I do not test my blood sugar' (71%) and 'My body tells me without testing if my blood sugar is low or high' (77%). After blood glucose testing, 99% of subjects strongly agreed, agreed, or neither agreed nor disagreed that 'Knowing my blood sugar by checking could help me make different diabetes decisions'. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an important component of diabetes self-management. Testing rather than guessing blood glucose values is important to obtain accurate results and inform people with type 2 diabetes to make effective, appropriate diabetes management decisions. A potential limitation of this study is that the subject population may not be representative of the general population of people with diabetes; however, the conference setting may attract a more motivated population, which could

  6. Faulty blood typing misled by auto anti-D in AIHA.

    PubMed

    Li, Guining; Chen, Fenghua; Rao, Shenzong; Hu, Lihua

    2014-04-01

    Pre-transfusion testing is a vital link to enhance patients' safety but may be influenced by heterotypic blood transfusion and disease. Previous history of blood transfusion most of time help us determine the blood type. On the other hand, it can also mislead technicians to a wrong conclusion. Anti-D, which is clinically important in hemolytic transfusion reaction, is either alloimmunized by transfusion, pregnancy or induced in certain diseases. Here, we reported a rare case with false blood identification interfered by heterotypic blood transfusion and auto anti-D in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).

  7. Autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib: a novel inherited deletion ablating STX16 causes loss of imprinting at the A/B DMR.

    PubMed

    Elli, Francesca M; de Sanctis, Luisa; Peverelli, Erika; Bordogna, Paolo; Pivetta, Barbara; Miolo, Gianmaria; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna

    2014-04-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare imprinting disorder characterized by end-organ resistance to PTH and, frequently, to thyroid-stimulating hormone. PHP-Ib familial form, with an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission (autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib [AD-PHP-Ib]), is typically characterized by an isolated loss of methylation at the guanine nucleotide-binding protein α-stimulating activity polypeptide 1 A/B differentially methylated region (DMR), secondary to genetic deletions disrupting the upstream imprinting control region in the syntaxin-16 (STX16) locus. However, deletions described up to now failed to account some cases of patients with a methylation defect limited to the A/B DMR; thus, it is expected the existence of other still unknown rearrangements, undetectable with conventional molecular diagnostic methods. We investigated a PHP-Ib patient with a methylation defect limited to the A/B DMR and no known STX16 deletions to find the underlying primary genetic defect. A PHP-Ib patient (hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia, raised serum PTH levels, no vitamin D deficiency) and his unaffected relatives were investigated by methylation specific-multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification to search for novel pathogenetic defects affecting the guanine nucleotide-binding protein α-stimulating activity polypeptide 1 and STX16 loci. We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular analysis of an AD-PHP-Ib patient with a novel STX16 deletion overlapping with previously identified STX16 deletions but that, unlike these genetic defects associated with AD-PHP-Ib, goes unnoticed with commonly used first-level diagnostic techniques. Our work highlights the importance of performing accurate investigations in PHP-Ib patients with methylation defects to allow precise genetic counseling because, in case of deletions, the segregation ratio is about 50% and the disease phenotype is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion via the

  8. How do we use molecular red blood cell antigen typing to supplement pretransfusion testing?

    PubMed

    Sapatnekar, Suneeti; Figueroa, Priscilla I

    2014-06-01

    The molecular basis of many blood group antigens is known, and it provides a means for predicting the red blood cell phenotype. Molecular typing methods are useful when serologic typing cannot be performed, due to sample or reagent limitations. We discuss the implementation of a commercial molecular typing assay at our Transfusion Service, the indications for testing, and the advantages and drawbacks of the assay. We also present our algorithm for selecting candidates for testing.

  9. DNA methylation of cord blood cell types: Applications for mixed cell birth studies.

    PubMed

    Bakulski, Kelly M; Feinberg, Jason I; Andrews, Shan V; Yang, Jack; Brown, Shannon; L McKenney, Stephanie; Witter, Frank; Walston, Jeremy; Feinberg, Andrew P; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-05-03

    Epigenome-wide association studies of disease widely use DNA methylation measured in blood as a surrogate tissue. Cell proportions can vary between people and confound associations of exposure or outcome. An adequate reference panel for estimating cell proportions from adult whole blood for DNA methylation studies is available, but an analogous cord blood cell reference panel is not yet available. Cord blood has unique cell types and the epigenetic signatures of standard cell types may not be consistent throughout the life course. Using magnetic bead sorting, we isolated cord blood cell types (nucleated red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4(+)T cells, and CD8(+)T cells) from 17 live births at Johns Hopkins Hospital. We confirmed enrichment of the cell types using fluorescence assisted cell sorting and ran DNA from the separated cell types on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. After filtering, the final analysis was on 104 samples at 429,794 probes. We compared cell type specific signatures in cord to each other and methylation at 49.2% of CpG sites on the array differed by cell type (F-test P < 10(-8)). Differences between nucleated red blood cells and the remainder of the cell types were most pronounced (36.9% of CpG sites at P < 10(-8)) and 99.5% of these sites were hypomethylated relative to the other cell types. We also compared the mean-centered sorted cord profiles to the available adult reference panel and observed high correlation between the overlapping cell types for granulocytes and monocytes (both r=0.74), and poor correlation for CD8(+)T cells and NK cells (both r=0.08). We further provide an algorithm for estimating cell proportions in cord blood using the newly developed cord reference panel, which estimates biologically plausible cell proportions in whole cord blood samples.

  10. DNA methylation of cord blood cell types: Applications for mixed cell birth studies

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Feinberg, Jason I.; Andrews, Shan V.; Yang, Jack; Brown, Shannon; L. McKenney, Stephanie; Witter, Frank; Walston, Jeremy; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenome-wide association studies of disease widely use DNA methylation measured in blood as a surrogate tissue. Cell proportions can vary between people and confound associations of exposure or outcome. An adequate reference panel for estimating cell proportions from adult whole blood for DNA methylation studies is available, but an analogous cord blood cell reference panel is not yet available. Cord blood has unique cell types and the epigenetic signatures of standard cell types may not be consistent throughout the life course. Using magnetic bead sorting, we isolated cord blood cell types (nucleated red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4+T cells, and CD8+T cells) from 17 live births at Johns Hopkins Hospital. We confirmed enrichment of the cell types using fluorescence assisted cell sorting and ran DNA from the separated cell types on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. After filtering, the final analysis was on 104 samples at 429,794 probes. We compared cell type specific signatures in cord to each other and methylation at 49.2% of CpG sites on the array differed by cell type (F-test P < 10−8). Differences between nucleated red blood cells and the remainder of the cell types were most pronounced (36.9% of CpG sites at P < 10−8) and 99.5% of these sites were hypomethylated relative to the other cell types. We also compared the mean-centered sorted cord profiles to the available adult reference panel and observed high correlation between the overlapping cell types for granulocytes and monocytes (both r=0.74), and poor correlation for CD8+T cells and NK cells (both r=0.08). We further provide an algorithm for estimating cell proportions in cord blood using the newly developed cord reference panel, which estimates biologically plausible cell proportions in whole cord blood samples. PMID:27019159

  11. Remembering AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyayev, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    In 1947 I became a second-year student at Moscow State University's Physics and Engineering Department, where a part of the week's classes were taught at base organizations. Our group's base was the future Kurchatov Institute, at that time known as the mysterious "Laboratory N^circ 2," and later as LIPAN. . Besides group lectures and practical work at the experimental laboratories, we also had access to the general seminars which Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov tried to hold, with Leonid Vasilyevich Groshev filling in when he was absent. At the seminar, theorists spoke as welcome co-presenters and commentators. In 1949 I felt ready to approach A. B. Migdal to ask if I could transfer to his theoretical sector. In response, he suggested a number of simple qualitative problems, which I then successfully solved. (Incidentally, AB used the very same "introductory problems" for screening many generations of students.) So I wound up among AB's students. From 1952 on (for 10 years) I also served as an employee of the Migdal Sector. My memoirs here are mainly inspired by these years of constant communication with AB. After my departure for Novosibirsk in 1962, although our meetings still took place, they became occasional....

  12. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for H type 2 structure of ABO blood group, and its use for measuring H type 2 on human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Akiyama, K; Jia, J; Kimura, H

    1996-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody 3A5 specific for the human red blood cells was produced by immunizing BALB/c mouse with human erythrocyte membranes of group O following the immunization protocol of selectively killing the antigen-stimulated lymphocytes. The monoclonal antibody 3A5 we obtained agglutinated red blood cells regardless of individuals of blood group A, B, or O types, but not those from a person with a rare para-Bombay type which is the H-deficient phenotype. The hemagglutination reaction of 3A5 was not inhibited by saliva from either secretor or nonsecretor individuals. The specificity of 3A5 was studied by adsorption with and elution from synthetic oligosaccharide immunoadsorbents including H disaccharide, and H type 1, 2, 3, and 4 structures. Also, the reactivity of 3A5 with synthetic oligosaccharide-BSA complexes for H type 1, H type 2, Le(a), Le(b), A, and B was determined by an immunoassay. We found that 3A5 did not react with any of these synthetic oligosaccharides except H type 2. From these results, the antigenic epitope recognized by 3A5 was demonstrated to be the H type 2 structure. Additionally, the H type 2 substance on erythrocytes was quantitatively analyzed using 3A5.

  13. A simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine ABO blood types of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S; Satkoski, J; Smith, D G

    2011-06-01

    Rhesus macaques are the most common nonhuman primate model organism used in biomedical research. Their increasingly frequent use as subjects in studies involving transplantation requires that blood and other tissue antigens of donors and recipients be compatible. We report here an easy and rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the ABO blood group phenotypes of rhesus macaques that can be performed with only small amounts of DNA. We phenotyped 78 individuals and found this species to exhibit the A, B and AB phenotypes in frequencies that vary by geographic region. The probability of randomly pairing rhesus macaque donors and recipients that exhibit major ABO phenotype incompatibility is approximately 0.35 and 0.45 for Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques, respectively.

  14. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  15. Canine Dal Blood Type: A Red Cell Antigen Lacking in Some Dalmatians

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Marie-Claude; Berman, Lisa; Oakley, Donna A.; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Background Based upon alloantibodies produced after sensitizing dogs with transfused blood, more than a dozen blood group systems have been recognized thus far, and some have been classified as dog erythrocyte antigens (DEA). Hypothesis A new canine red cell antigen was suspected, based on the development of specific alloantibodies in a Dalmatian previously sensitized by blood transfusions. Animals Twenty-six Dalmatians (including 1 Dalmatian in need of blood compatibility studies); 55 canine blood donors. Methods Serologic tests, including blood typing, crossmatching, and direct Coombs’ test were performed by standard tube techniques and a novel gel column technology adapted from human blood banking. Results By day 40 after transfusion of an anemic Dalmatian, all major crossmatch tests to 55 non-Dalmatian dogs were incompatible. The 2 initial donors, who were compatible before transfusion, were also now incompatible, suggesting the development of an alloantibody to a common red cell antigen. No siblings were available, but 4 of 25 unrelated Dalmatians were crossmatch compatible, suggesting that they were missing the same red cell antigen. The patient was blood typed DEA 1.1, 3, 4, and 5 positive, but DEA 7 negative. Further blood typing and crossmatching results did not support an association to any of these known blood types. The alloantibodies produced were determined to be of the immunoglobulin G class. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Based upon the identification of an acquired alloantibody in a Dalmatian, a presumably new common blood type named Dal was identified. Dalmatians lacking the Dal antigen are likely at risk of delayed and acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. PMID:17427389

  16. A combined study of the equation of state of monazite-type lanthanum orthovanadate using in situ high-pressure diffraction and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Olga; López-Solano, Javier; Minikayev, Roman; Carlson, Stefan; Kamińska, Agata; Głowacki, Michał; Berkowski, Marek; Mujica, Andrés; Muñoz, Alfonso; Paszkowicz, Wojciech

    2014-06-01

    Lanthanum orthovanadate (LaVO4) is the only stable monazite-type rare-earth orthovanadate. In the present paper the equation of state of LaVO4 is studied using in situ high-pressure powder diffraction at room temperature, and ab initio calculations within the framework of the density functional theory. The parameters of a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, i.e. those fitted to the experimental and theoretical data, are found to be in perfect agreement - in particular, the bulk moduli are almost identical, with values of 106 (1) and 105.8 (5) GPa, respectively. In agreement with recent reported experimental data, the compression is shown to be anisotropic. Its nature is comparable to that of some other monazite-type compounds. The softest compression direction is determined.

  17. The N-terminal Region of Nisin Is Important for the BceAB-Type ABC Transporter NsrFP from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Jens; Lagedroste, Marcel; Ehlen, Katja; Leusch, Selina; Zaschke-Kriesche, Julia; Smits, Sander H J

    2017-01-01

    Lantibiotics are (methyl)-lanthionine-containing antimicrobial peptides produced by several Gram-positive bacteria. Some human pathogenic bacteria express specific resistance proteins that counteract this antimicrobial activity of lantibiotics. In Streptococcus agalactiae COH1 resistance against the well-known lantibiotic nisin is conferred by, the nisin resistance protein (NSR), a two-component system (NsrRK) and a BceAB-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (NsrFP). The present study focuses on elucidating the function of NsrFP via its heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis. NsrFP is able to confer a 16-fold resistance against wild type nisin as determined by growth inhibition experiments and functions as a lantibiotic exporter. Several C-terminal nisin mutants indicated that NsrFP recognizes the N-terminal region of nisin. The N-terminus harbors three (methyl)-lanthionine rings, which are conserved in other lantibiotics.

  18. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  19. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  20. Accuracy of user-friendly blood typing kits tested under simulated military field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Charlton, David G

    2011-04-01

    Rapid user-friendly ABO-Rh blood typing kits (Eldon Home Kit 2511, ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit) were evaluated to determine their accuracy when used under simulated military field conditions and after long-term storage at various temperatures and humidities. Rates of positive tests between control groups, experimental groups, and industry standards were measured and analyzed using the Fisher's exact chi-square method to identify significant differences (p < or = 0.05). When Eldon Home Kits 2511 were used in various operational conditions, the results were comparable to those obtained with the control group and with the industry standard. The performance of the ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit was adversely affected by prolonged storage in temperatures above 37 degrees C. The diagnostic performance of commercial blood typing kits varies according to product and environmental storage conditions.

  1. Stability of user-friendly blood typing kits stored under typical military field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Chang, Cheow K; Charlton, David G

    2009-10-01

    To help preserve in-theater strength within deployed military units, commercially available, rapid, user-friendly ABO-Rh blood typing kits were evaluated to determine their stability in storage conditions commonly encountered by the warfighter. Methods for environmental exposure testing were based on MIL-STD-810F. When Eldon Home Kits 2511 were exposed to various temperature/relative humidity conditions, the results were comparable to those obtained with the control group and those obtained with industry-standard methods. For the ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kits, 2 of the exposure treatments rendered them unusable. In addition, a third set of exposure treatments adversely affected the kits, resulting in approximately 30% blood type misclassifications. Collectively, this evaluation of commercial blood typing kits revealed that diagnostic performance can vary between products, lots, and environmental storage conditions.

  2. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

  3. [Study on serological blood group conversion rule and clinical blood transfusion in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-qing; Gao, Zhi-feng; Li, Hui-yu

    2012-08-01

    To explore the conversion rule of serological blood group and blood group substance after successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to provide theory for clinical special blood type identification and blood transfusion. The growth cycle of recipient WBC and RBC, RBC chimera, blood group antibody production and remaining in full transition were observed. Conversion rule of blood group substance, contradiction between cells typing and sera typing were detected by saline medium tube method and microcolumn gel method after stem cells transplantation. The average time of engraftment in 21 recipients was about 18.6 days, RBC growth cycle in 8 major blood type incompatibility was 56.6 days, 25.9 days in 9 minor blood type incompatibility, 67 days in 4 bidirectional blood type incompatibility (P < 0.01). The ratio of RBC chimeric growth was 1:9, gradually converse to donor's blood group. Residue of recipient anti-A(B) was left after conditioning regimen, disappeared after full transformation, and recipient anti-A(B) was converse to donor's blood type in major blood type incompatibility. 5 A blood type recipient donated by O blood type blood generated anti-B instead of anti-A, 3 B blood type recipient generated only anti-A instead of B in minor blood type incompatibility, and 1 AB blood type recipient donated by A did not generate anti-B. Among 4 bidirectional blood type incompatibility, 2 B blood type recipient donated by A blood type blood did not generate anti-B, 2 A recipient by B could not produce anti-A. Recipient blood group substance helped original ABO blood type substance remain unchanged. Among patient with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, recipient's ABO and RBC blood type can be converse to donor's, but there is significant difference between patients of serological blood group and of normal people (P < 0.01). Recipient blood group substance helps original ABO blood type substance remain unchanged (P > 0.01).

  4. Lattice dynamics of the model percolation-type (Zn,Be)Se alloy: Inelastic neutron scattering, ab initio study, and shell-model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mala N.; Lamago, D.; Ivanov, A.; d'Astuto, M.; Postnikov, A. V.; Hussein, R. Hajj; Basak, Tista; Chaplot, S. L.; Firszt, F.; Paszkowicz, W.; Deb, S. K.; Pagès, O.

    2014-04-01

    The random Zn1-xBexSe zincblende alloy is known to exhibit a peculiar three-mode [1×(Zn-Se),2×(Be-Se)] vibration pattern near the Brillouin zone (BZ) center, of the so-called percolation type, apparent in its Raman spectra. This is due to an unusually large contrast between the physical properties (length, ionicity) of the constituting bonds. In the present work, the inelastic neutron scattering is applied to study the dispersion of modes away from the BZ center, with special attention to the q⃗ dependence of the BeSe-like transverse optic doublet. The discussion is supported by calculations of lattice dynamics done both ab initio (using the siesta code) and within the shell model. The BeSe-like doublet is found to survive nearly unchanged throughout the BZ up to the zone edge, indicating that its origin is at the ultimate bond scale. The microscopic mechanism of splitting is clarified by ab initio calculations. Namely, the local lattice relaxation needed to accommodate the contrast in physical properties of the Zn-Se and Be-Se bonds splits the stretching and bending modes of connected, i.e., percolativelike, (Be-Se) bonds.

  5. Blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-01-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and essential hypertension are common conditions that are frequently present together. Both are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications and therefore treatment of both conditions is essential. Many papers were published on blood pressure (BP) targets in diabetic patients, including several works published in the last 2 years. As a result, guidelines differ in their recommendations on BP targets in diabetic patients. The method by which to control hypertension, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological, is also a matter of debate and has been extensively studied in the literature. In recent years, new medications were introduced for the treatment of DM, some of which also affect BP and the clinician treating hypertensive and diabetic patients should be familiar with these medications and their effect on BP. In this manuscript, we discuss the evidence supporting different BP targets in diabetics and review the various guidelines on this topic. In addition, we discuss the various options available for the treatment of hypertension in diabetics and the recommendations for a specific treatment over the other. Finally we briefly discuss the new diabetic drug classes and their influence on BP.

  6. Decreased cord-blood phospholipids in young age-at-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Daria; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Larsson, Helena E; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ivarsson, Sten A; Lernmark, Ake; Oresic, Matej

    2013-11-01

    Children developing type 1 diabetes may have risk markers already in their umbilical cord blood. It is hypothesized that the risk for type 1 diabetes at an early age may be increased by a pathogenic pregnancy and be reflected in altered cord-blood composition. This study used metabolomics to test if the cord-blood lipidome was affected in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age. The present case-control study of 76 index children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age and 76 healthy control subjects matched for HLA risk, sex, and date of birth, as well as the mother's age and gestational age, revealed that cord-blood phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were significantly decreased in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 4 years of age. Reduced levels of triglycerides correlated to gestational age in index and control children and to age at diagnosis only in the index children. Finally, gestational infection during the first trimester was associated with lower cord-blood total lysophosphatidylcholines in index and control children. In conclusion, metabolomics of umbilical cord blood may identify children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Low phospholipid levels at birth may represent key mediators of the immune system and contribute to early induction of islet autoimmunity.

  7. A novel antihypertension agent, sargachromenol D from marine brown algae, Sargassum siliquastrum, exerts dual action as an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker and endothelin A/B2 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Gon; Shin, Woon-Seob; Oh, Sangtae; Park, Gab-Man; Kim, Nam Ik; Lee, Seokjoon

    2017-09-01

    We isolated the novel vasoactive marine natural products, (5E,10E)-14-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethylpentadeca-5,10-dien-4-one (4) and sargachromenol D (5), from Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in South Korea by using activity-guided HPLC purification. The compounds effectively dilated depolarization (50mMK(+))-induced basilar artery contraction with EC50 values of 3.52±0.42 and 1.62±0.63μM, respectively, but only sargachromenol D (5) showed a vasodilatory effect on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced basilar artery contraction (EC50=9.8±0.6μM). These results indicated that sargachromenol D (5) could act as a dual antagonist of l-type Ca(2+) channel and endothelin A/B2 receptors. Moreover, sargachromenol D (5) lowered blood pressure in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) 2h after oral treatment at a dose of 80mg/kg dose and the effect was maintained for 24h. Based on our ex vivo and in vivo experiments, we propose that sargachromenol D (5) is a strong candidate for the treatment of hypertension that is not controlled by conventional drugs, in particular, severe-, type II diabetes-, salt-sensitive, and metabolic disease-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rotary piston blood pumps: past developments and future potential of a unique pump type.

    PubMed

    Wappenschmidt, Johannes; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Margreiter, Raimund; Klima, Günter; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The design of implantable blood pumps is either based on displacement pumps with membranes or rotary pumps. Both pump types have limitations to meet the clinical requirements. Rotary piston blood pumps have the potential to overcome these limitations and to merge the benefits. Compared to membrane pumps, they are smaller and with no need for wear-affected membranes and valves. Compared to rotary pumps, the blood flow is pulsatile instead of a non-physiological continuous flow. Furthermore, the risk of flow-induced blood damage and platelet activation may be reduced due to low shear stress to the blood. The past developments of rotary piston blood pumps are summarized and the main problem for long-term application is identified: insufficient seals. A new approach with seal-less drives is proposed and current research on a simplified rotary piston design is presented. Expert commentary: The development of blood pumps focuses mainly on the improvement of rotary pumps. However, medical complications indicate that inherent limitations of this pump type remain and restrict the next substantial step forward in the therapy of heart failure patients. Thus, research on different pump types is reasonable. If the development of reliable drives and bearings succeeds, rotary piston blood pumps become a promising alternative.

  9. Type A-B scores and insomnia among college students: a replication and extension of earlier studies.

    PubMed

    Hayer, C A; Hicks, R A

    1993-12-01

    In an attempt to rationalize conflicting sets of data from earlier studies, groups of Type A- and Type B-classified university students were asked to respond to a sleep habits questionnaire that included the items of the Coren Insomnia Scale. As was the case in two earlier studies, we found significant but weak evidence from the Coren scale only that Type A-scoring students experience more sleep problems than Type B scorers. We also found, as in a recent study, a sharp increase in sleep problems among all the students sampled from the frequencies reported by similar groups in 1982.

  10. Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V.

    2005-12-01

    Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. Type O individuals have α-fucose(1→2)galactose disaccharides [O(H) structures] on their cell surfaces while in type A or B individuals, the O antigen is capped by the addition of an α- N -acetylgalactosamine or α-galactose residue, respectively. The addition of these monosaccharides is catalyzed by glycosyltransferase A (GTA) or glycosyltransferase B (GTB). These are homologous enzymes differing by only 4 amino acids out of 354 that change the specificity from GTA to GTB. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of GTA, GTB, and the four critical amino acids in determining blood group status are discussed. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  12. Barcode-like paper sensor for smartphone diagnostics: an application of blood typing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Liyun; Tian, Junfei; Cao, Rong; Li, Miaosi; Cai, Zhaoxiang; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-18

    This study introduced a barcode-like design into a paper-based blood typing device by integrating with smartphone-based technology. The concept of presenting a paper-based blood typing assay in a barcode-like pattern significantly enhanced the adaptability of the assay to the smartphone technology. The fabrication of this device involved the use of a printing technique to define hydrophilic bar channels which were, respectively, treated with Anti-A, -B, and -D antibodies. These channels were then used to perform blood typing assays by introducing a blood sample. Blood type can be visually identified from eluting lengths in bar channels. A smartphone-based analytical application was designed to read the bar channels, analogous to scanning a barcode, interpret this information, and then report results to users. The proposed paper-based blood typing device is rapidly read by smartphones and easy for the user to operate. We envisage that the adaptation of paper-based devices to the widely accepted smartphone technology will increase the capability of paper-based diagnostics with rapid assay result interpretation, data storage, and transmission.

  13. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  14. Toxin Transport by A-B Type of Toxins in Eukaryotic Target Cells and Its Inhibition by Positively Charged Heterocyclic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Benz, Roland; Barth, Holger

    2017-07-04

    A-B types of toxins are among the most potent bacterial protein toxins produced by gram-positive bacteria. Prominent examples are the tripartite anthrax toxin of Bacillus anthracis and the different A-B type clostridial toxins that are the causative agents of severe human and animal diseases and could serve as biological weapons. The components of all these toxins comprise one binding/transport (B) subunit and one or two separate, non-linked enzymatically active (A) subunits. The A and B subunits are separately produced and secreted by the pathogenic gram-positive bacteria and must assemble on the surface of eukaryotic target cells to form biologically active toxin complexes. The B components are cleaved by proteases to generate the biologically active species that binds to receptors on the surface of the target cells and form there oligomers which bind the A subunits. The AB complexes are internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis and reach early or late endosomes that become acidified. Subsequently, the B components form channels in endosomal membranes that are indispensable for the transport of the enzymatic subunits across these membranes into the cytosol of target cells via the trans-membrane channels. In addition to the channels formed by the B components, host cell factors including chaperones and further folding helper enzymes are involved in the import of the enzymatic subunits into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Positively charged heterocyclic molecules, such as chloroquine and related aminoquinolinium and azolopyridinium salts have been shown in recent years to bind with high affinity to the channels formed by the B components of binary toxins. Since binding to the B components is also a prerequisite for transport of the A components across the endosomal membranes the channel blockers also prevent transport of the A subunits into the host cell cytosol. The inhibition of toxin uptake into cells by such pharmacological compounds should also be of

  15. Nocturnal blood glucose control in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bolli, G B; Perriello, G; Fanelli, C G; De Feo, P

    1993-12-01

    A major problem in replacing insulin in type I diabetes mellitus is that currently no depot preparation exists that is capable of mimicking the background insulin secretion of the healthy pancreas. Because all of the currently available intermediate- or long-acting insulin preparations have a peaked-action profile, excess insulin action at midnight and insulin waning at dawn occur whenever such an insulin preparation is given at supper time. If the target fasting plasma glucose is the ambitious near-normoglycemia of intensive insulin therapy, intermediate-acting insulin at suppertime easily results in hypoglycemia in the early evening hours and hyperglycemia in the fasting state. The problems of overnight glycemia in type I diabetes are further complicated by the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi phenomenon. The dawn phenomenon is the combination of an initial decrease in insulin requirements between approximately 2400 and approximately 0300, followed by an increase in the insulin needs between approximately 0500 and approximately 0800. The dawn phenomenon is the result of changes in hepatic (and extrahepatic) insulin sensitivity, which are best attributed to nocturnal growth hormone secretion. The dawn phenomenon is a day-to-day reproducible event that occurs in nearly all diabetic patients. Its contribution to fasting hyperglycemia correlates with diabetes duration (inversely) and the HbA1c percentage (directly). Overall, it is estimated that the specific contribution of the dawn phenomenon to fasting hyperglycemia is approximately 2 mM (approximately 35 mg/dl), but it may be much greater because of the warning of the depot-insulin preparation injected the previous evening. The Somogyi phenomenon, strictly speaking, refers to fasting hyperglycemia that occurs after inducement of nocturnal hypoglycemia by regular insulin. Because the present therapeutic regimens of NPH/Lente insulin given at suppertime cause overnight hyperinsulinemia, excessive fasting

  16. Understanding of blood pressure by people with type 2 diabetes: a primary care focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jane; Brown, Ken; Kendrick, Denise; Dyas, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Background For many people with type 2 diabetes most care is provided in primary care. While people with both diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of complications, little is known about their understanding of blood pressure. Aim To explore the understanding and beliefs about the importance of blood pressure held by people with type 2 diabetes. Design of study Framework analysis of qualitative research using focus groups. Setting Thirty-two participants were recruited from four general practices and a religious meeting group in Nottingham. Discussions took place in five community centres providing familiar surroundings for participants. Method In order to get views expressed fully, white, Asian, and African–Caribbean participants met in five separate groups. Facilitators were fluent in the appropriate language and one member of the research team was present at all focus groups. Results Some participants, including those with raised blood pressure, were not aware of the increased importance of achieving good blood pressure control. No participants mentioned the increased risk of eye or kidney disease as a result of the combination of diabetes and raised blood pressure. Participants' perceptions regarding the control of blood sugar and blood pressure were different: blood sugar control was seen as their responsibility but blood pressure control was seen as the responsibility of the doctor. There was scepticism regarding the diagnosis of raised blood pressure, of targets and the management of blood pressure. There was also scepticism about the advice and education about diabetes given in primary care. Conclusions People with type 2 diabetes require more knowledge of the increased risks they have from raised blood pressure, although this alone is unlikely to improve blood-pressure control. Strategies to increase the degree of control over and responsibility taken for the control of blood pressure need development and may require the specific development of

  17. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luciana Cayres; Castilho, Lilian; Vieira, Otavio Vinicius Neves; Sippert, Emília; Gaspardi, Ane Caroline; Martins, Marina Lobato; da Silva Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Background The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated. Methods One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique) were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples). Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis. Results The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1) presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43%) previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected. Conclusion The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks. PMID:26408363

  18. SERS spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of globulin in human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zeng, Y. Y.; Lin, J. Q.; Lin, L.; Wang, X. C.; Chen, G. N.; Huang, Z. F.; Li, B. H.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.

    2014-06-01

    Globulin plays a significant role in body processes, acts as an important marker for disease diagnosis and determines blood type. Moreover, recent reports about the strong association between cancer risk and blood type imply that further studying these relationships may yield new findings on the biological mechanisms of tumorigenesis. In this paper, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the determination of this important globulin derived from human blood. Comparing globulins from different blood types by utilizing SERS spectroscopy and multivariate analysis, we show that primary structures of globulins from different blood types are similar to each other, but subtle differences in structures which may be vital for determining blood type are still observed. The abilities of globulins from different blood types to approach silver surfaces seem to differ, which also indicates that there are structural differences in blood type related globulins. Furthermore, this method differentiates blood type A from type B, type A from type O, type B from type O, type AB from type A, type AB from type B, and type AB from type O with sensitivities and specificities as follows: (90.0%, 95.0%), (80.0%, 83.9%), (95.0%, 90.3%), (97.3%, 96.7%), (94.6%, 95.5%), (100%, 100%), suggesting a potential feasibility for use in blood type identification. Our method sheds new light on blood type analysis, paves the way for the study of relationships between cancer risk and blood types, and expands the flexibility of SERS for useful applications in the life sciences.

  19. Simplification of genotyping techniques of the ABO blood type experiment and exploration of population genetics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Zhou, Yi-ren; Ding, Jia-lin; Wang, Zhi-yuan; Liu, Ling; Wang, Ye-kai; Lou, Hui-ling; Qiao, Shou-yi; Wu, Yan-hua

    2017-05-20

    The ABO blood type is one of the most common and widely used genetic traits in humans. Three glycosyltransferase-encoding gene alleles, I(A), I(B) and i, produce three red blood cell surface antigens, by which the ABO blood type is classified. By using the ABO blood type experiment as an ideal case for genetics teaching, we can easily introduce to the students several genetic concepts, including multiple alleles, gene interaction, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene evolution. Herein we have innovated and integrated our ABO blood type genetics experiments. First, in the section of Molecular Genetics, a new method of ABO blood genotyping was established: specific primers based on SNP sites were designed to distinguish three alleles through quantitative real-time PCR. Next, the experimental teaching method of Gene Evolution was innovated in the Population Genetics section: a gene-evolution software was developed to simulate the evolutionary tendency of the ABO genotype encoding alleles under diverse conditions. Our reform aims to extend the contents of genetics experiments, to provide additional teaching approaches, and to improve the learning efficiency of our students eventually.

  20. Association of ABO blood types with the risk of in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Pourafkari, L; Ghaffari, S; Ahmadi, M; Tajlil, A; Nader, N D

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patients with various ABO blood types. Clinical information from 150 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of ISR and 150 patients with a diagnosis of patent coronary stents in the secondary angiography was collected. Comprehensive demographic and laboratory data, including ABO and Rhesus blood groups, as well as comorbid conditions and vessel and stent characteristics, were recorded for each patient. The association of ABO blood groups with the risk of ISR before and after controlling for coronary risk factors was determined. Categorical data were analyzed with the Chi-square test and numerical values were analyzed with t-tests. Binary logistic regression models were constructed to compare type A and non-A for the frequency of risk factors. A total of 392 stents were implanted in 300 patients. Two hundred and fourteen stents (54.6%) were patent and 178 stents (45.4%) were stenosed. Blood group A was significantly more common in the ISR group (43.3% vs. 28.7%, p=0.03). However, the frequencies of other blood types, as well as Rh antigen, were similar between the two groups. Triglyceride and low-density lipoproteins were the only significantly different variables (221 ± 198 mg/dL vs. 138 ± 76 mg/dL, p<0.001 and 108 ± 36 mg/dL vs. 96 ± 73 mg/dL, p=0.04, in type-A vs. non-A, respectively). After matching for coronary risk factors, there was no difference between A blood type patients and their controls. ISR is significantly more prevalent in individuals with the type A blood group. However, this higher association is most likely due to higher atherogenic conditions in patients within this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Choosing the Type of Ownership. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 5. Research & Development Series No. 240AB5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on choosing the type of ownership, the fifth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  2. [Investigation of uninterpretative HLA typing in 311 umbilical cord blood samples].

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing-Xin; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors which affect HLA typing in 311 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples. The HLA low resolution typing of UCB samples with misinterpreted HLA types from 311 UCB samples analyzed by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP was performed. 7 samples difficult to determine their HLA genotype were sequenced directly and the reason leading to misinterpret HLA typing was analyzed. The results indicated that 99.4% of misinterpreted samples resulted from the restriction of HLA typing method itself and 0.6% of misinterpreted samples were suspected to be contaminated with maternal blood in UCB. It is concluded that HLA typing is mainly affected by the shortcomings of oligonucleotide probe design for PCR-SSO and lack of allele specific primers of PCR-SSP.

  3. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-12-31

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies.

  4. Relative stability of major types of beta-turns as a function of amino acid composition: a study based on Ab initio energetic and natural abundance data.

    PubMed

    Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G

    2003-06-06

    Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly.

  5. The hybrid A/B type ν12 band of trans-ethylene-1,2-d2 by high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Ng, L. L.; Gabona, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The FTIR absorption spectrum of the hybrid A/B type ν12 band of trans-ethylene-1,2-d2 (trans-C2H2D2) centered at 1298.038145(19) cm-1 in the 1220-1420 cm-1 region was recorded at an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm-1. Using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation, a total of 2892 a- and b-type transitions was assigned and fitted to upper state (ν12 = 1) rovibrational constants up to three sextic terms. The b-type feature of the band was analyzed for the first time. The root-mean-square deviation of the upper state ν12 = 1 fit was 0.00037 cm-1 while the accuracy of the measurements of the line frequencies was limited to ±0.00065 cm-1. A set of ground state rovibrational constants up to three sextic terms was also derived from the simultaneous fit of 4597 ground state combination differences from the present analysis and those of the ν4 + ν8 and ν4 bands of trans-C2H2D2 with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.00039 cm-1. The transition dipole moment ratio |μa/μb | of the ν12 band of trans-C2H2D2 was found to be 5.0 ± 0.3.

  6. Contribution of autonomic dysfunction to abnormal exercise blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Weston, Kassia S; Sacre, Julian W; Jellis, Christine L; Coombes, Jeff S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the presence and severity of autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with and without exaggerated blood pressure responses to exercise. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 98 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 59±9). Both time (standard deviation of RR intervals, root-mean-square of successive RR interval differences) and frequency (total spectral power, high frequency, low frequency, very low frequency) domains of heart rate variability were analysed in a 5 min recording at rest and 20 min after a maximal treadmill test. An exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise was identified by peak blood pressure ≥190/105 mmHg (women) or ≥210/105 mmHg (men). Each group of either exaggerated exercise blood pressure response or normal blood pressure response consisted of 49 patients. At rest there were no significant differences between groups for all time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability. Post-exercise, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the SDNN, RMSSD and TP in the exaggerated exercise blood pressure group. Independent correlates (p<0.01) of exercise systolic blood pressure included post-exercise TP, resting systolic blood pressure, cardiac autonomic neuropathy and beta-blockers (beta=-0.28, adj. R² = 0.32, p<0.001). Reduced post-exercise heart rate variability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an exaggerated exercise blood pressure response suggests preclinical autonomic dysfunction characterized by impaired vagal modulation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unconventional diagnosis of Normandy-type von Willebrand's disease in a blood donor.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, S; Nesbitt, I M; Makris, M

    2004-04-01

    We report the case of a long-standing female blood donor whose blood donation was processed for cryoprecipitate. The cryoprecipitate unit was chosen at random for FVIII:C estimation as part of the quality control, and a low FVIII:C level was identified. The cause of this was subsequently shown to be the Normandy variant of type-2 von Willebrand's disease due to a homozygous Arg854Gln mutation in the von Willebrand factor gene.

  8. Inter-arm blood pressure difference in type 2 diabetes: a barrier to effective management?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher E; Greaves, Colin J; Evans, Philip H; Dickens, Andy; Campbell, John L

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified a substantial prevalence of a blood pressure difference between arms in various populations, but not patients with type 2 diabetes. Recognition of such a difference would be important as a potential cause of underestimation of blood pressure. Aim To measure prevalence of an inter-arm blood pressure difference in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to estimate how frequently blood pressure measurements could be erroneously underestimated if an inter-arm difference is unrecognised. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting Five surgeries covered by three general practices, Devon, England. Method Patients with type 2 diabetes underwent bilateral simultaneous blood pressure measurements using a validated protocol. Mean blood pressures were calculated for each arm to derive mean systolic and diastolic differences, and to estimate point prevalence of predefined magnitudes of difference. Results A total of 101 participants were recruited. Mean age was 66 years (standard deviation [SD] = 13.9 years); 59% were male, and mean blood pressure was 138/79 mmHg (SD = 15/10 mmHg). Ten participants (10%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4 to 16) had a systolic inter-arm difference ≥10 mmHg; 29 (29%; 95% CI = 20 to 38) had a diastolic difference ≥5 mmHg; and three (3%; 95% CI = 0 to 6) a diastolic difference ≥10 mmHg. No confounding variable was observed to account for the magnitude of an inter-arm difference. Conclusion A systolic inter-arm difference ≥10 mmHg was observed in 10% of patients with diabetes. Failure to recognise this would misclassify half of these as normotensive rather than hypertensive using the lower-reading arm. New patients with type 2 diabetes should be screened for an inter-arm blood pressure difference. PMID:19520026

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care blood typing kit conducted by potential end users.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Perez, Nora M

    2013-05-01

    The usability of a rapid point-of-care ABO-Rh blood typing kit was determined by comparing the performance of individuals with extensive medical training/experience to those with a lesser extent. Subjects were asked to use the blood typing kit with their own blood. These outcomes were compared to that listed in the subject's medical record, stamped on their dog tag, and the result interpreted by a laboratorian. For all participants, there was ∼80% consistency between the result interpreted by the subject and that stated in their medical record. The participant's level of formal education (P ≤ 0.05) affected the accuracy of the blood typing kit. When comparing the subject's outcome to that stated in their medical record, the performance of individuals in the Medical Corps was approximately 10% and 25% higher (P < 0.05) than that observed with Hospital Corpsman or Medical Service Corps members, respectively. To remove bias that can occur when interpreting the blood type of oneself, the subjects also interpreted the result from cards prepared by the investigator. Taken together, a discrepancy between the potential diagnostic accuracy of the kit and that observed with potential end users was identified.

  10. The Effect of Walnut Oil Consumption on Blood Sugar in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Zibaeenezhad, Mohammadjavad; Aghasadeghi, Kamran; Hakimi, Hossein; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Nikaein, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) is increasing globally. Considering the potential role of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in prevention of DM type 2 and lipid profiles improvement, some studies have been carried out on walnut. However, there are no studies on control of blood sugar in DM type 2 patients using walnut. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of walnut oil on blood sugar in DM type 2 patients. Methods This randomized control clinical trial was performed on 100 patients with DM type 2. For the experiment group (n = 50), walnut oil (15 g/day for three months) was added to their diet, while the control group (n = 50) did not undergo any interventions. Before initiation of the experiment and after the experiment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c were measured. Results The two groups were not significantly different for SBP, DBP, body weight, and Body Mass Index. HbA1c level decreased significantly in the experiment group by 7.86% ± 21.97 (P = 0.005) from 7.00 ± 1.08 before the intervention to 6.37 ± 1.29 after the intervention. Also, FBS level decreased significantly by 8.24% ± 16.77 (P = 0.001); from 158.37 ± 48.16 before the intervention to 137.91 ± 23.24 after the intervention in the experimental group. These changes in the control group were not significant. Conclusions Consumption of walnut oil (15 g/day for three months) was shown to improve blood glucose level but, no changes were noted for bodyweight and blood pressure in type two diabetic patients. PMID:28115966

  11. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  12. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  14. AB023. Penile rehabilitation with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in men after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a challenge for the urologist. Despite the improvements in surgical technique, ED occurs between 20% and 90% in patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing RP. Patient factors, cancer selection, type of surgery, surgical techniques, and surgeon factors represent the key significant contributors to erectile function recovery. The aim of a penile rehabilitation program is to preserve the functional smooth-muscle content of the corpus cavernosum during the neuropraxia period. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in rehabilitation programs. In animal models, such an approach could promote erectile function recovery, improve smooth muscle-to-collagen penile ration, reduce penile apoptotic index, preserve penile endothelial function and promote neuroprotection during nerve damage. Despite the strong basic science support from animal studies, discordant results have been reached in humans. The previous randomized trials comparing chronic versus on-demand PDE-5 inhibitors use after RP may be affected by improper patients’ selection in that only men at low risk of postoperative ED were included. These patients would recover erectile function regardless of the type of PDE5 inhibitor administration because of their excellent baseline profile. Prospective, randomized trials have shown a significant benefit of daily PDE5-I administration as compared with placebo in terms of postoperative EF recovery. Patients with intermediate risk of ED after surgery are the best candidates for daily treatment with PDE5 inhibitor after bilateral nerve-sparing RP. The maximal effect of penile rehabilitation may be found in those men with a certain (but not high) degree of systemic and erectile impairment preoperatively. In conclusion, penile rehabilitation could achieve faster and better natural erectile function after RP and should be started as early as possible. Chronic use of PDE5-I may confer the

  15. Polymorphic transformation of dense ZnO nanoparticles: Implications for chair/boat-type Peierls distortions of AB semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-Y.; Shen Pouyan; Jiang Jianzhong

    2004-12-08

    Peierls distortion path was proved experimentally for dense ZnO nanoparticles prepared by static compression. Electron irradiation caused rock salt (R) to wurtzite (W) transition, following preferential (11-bar1){sub R}//(01-bar11){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[1-bar21-bar3]{sub W} and then transformation strain induced (111-bar){sub R}//(1-bar011){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[011-bar1]{sub W}. The two relationships can be rationalized by specified extent of chair- and boat-type Peierls distortions accompanied with band gap opening and intermediate {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R} slip for energetically favorable {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R}/(01-bar11){sub W} match.

  16. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  17. Integrating molecular technologies for red blood cell typing and compatibility testing into blood centers and transfusion services.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Christopher D; Shaz, Beth H; Winkler, Anne M; Reid, Marion

    2008-04-01

    Nucleic acid-based technology is now at a point where the field of transfusion medicine is ready for its widespread application. In the donor center, genotyping of red blood cell (RBC) products provides phenotype-matched products for special patient populations or antigen-negative products for patients with alloantibodies. In the immunohematology reference laboratory, molecular technologies aid in discerning blood types in the situation of a typing discrepancy and improve pretransfusion RBC testing reagents. In the hospital transfusion service, genotyping patients aids in providing phenotype-matched RBC products. In prenatal testing, genotyping for RHD aids in the decision for Rh immune globulin prophylaxis and predicting risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Before genotyping is accepted as the universal standard for pretransfusion and donor testing, important limitations of this technology must be addressed, including the fact that the genotype does not always predict the phenotype and the need for creating the ideal high-throughput platform. Clinical trials are needed to answer important questions, and a donor and patient database is needed. A stepwise plan for progressive introduction into the donor centers and transfusion services must be established. In conclusion, the field of transfusion medicine is ready to expand the use of molecular diagnostics.

  18. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh -ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. The knowledge of distribution of blood group is very important for blood banks and transfusion services

  19. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S.; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of distribution of

  20. New laboratory procedures and Rh blood type changes in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S Gerald; Li, Wenping; Langeberg, Al; Landy, Helain J

    2012-02-01

    A woman's candidacy for Rh immune globulin depends on whether her blood type is Rh-positive (D antigen-positive) or Rh-negative (D antigen-negative). New molecular blood-typing methods have identified variant D antigens, which may be reported as Rh-positive or Rh-negative depending on the laboratory method. We describe a case illustrating the effect of the new laboratory methods on a woman's candidacy for Rh immune globulin and present recommendations for interpreting the new test results. A 40-year-old woman presented for management of her third pregnancy. During her first pregnancy, she was typed as Rh-positive ("D") and did not receive Rh immune globulin. During her second pregnancy, she was typed as Rh-negative, in accordance with revised Rh-typing procedures. Anti-D antibody was detected. During her third pregnancy, she was genotyped as a partial D antigen, which was reported as Rh-negative. Revisions in laboratory procedures for Rh typing may present as a change in the Rh blood type of pregnant women-and as a change in their eligibility for Rh immune globulin.

  1. An efficient ab initio DFT and PCM assessment of the potentiometric selectivity of a salophen type Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Demir, Serkan; Yilmaz, Hakan; Dilimulati, Maowulidan; Andaç, Müberra

    2014-06-01

    As a neutral carrier component for the preparation of a potentiometric membrane sensor, the affinity and selectivity of the salophen type Schiff base ligand obtained by 1:2 condensation of 2.3-diaminopyridine with salicylaldehyde toward a series of common cations has been fully examined by DFT/B3LYP and integral equation formalism polarizable continum model (IEF-PCM or only given with PCM as default input in the computations) in combination with the experimental data. Both the potentiometric measurements and DFT calculations have exhibited that the ionophore shows appreciable selectivity for Cu(2+) ion over other cations. Four different approaches where the last three are the modified version of each other have been evaluated and compared with potentiometric data. Based upon the results of comparison among the approaches suggested to verify the selective behavior of ionophore toward Cu(2+), PCM implemented approach having a whole computational groundwork has given well-matched results with the observed data and with the method augmented with experimental hydration energies. The foremost interferences were detected by determining potentiometric selectivity coefficients for each metal ion relative to Cu(2+) and compared to the results obtained by the DFT calculations.

  2. Blood transfusion in cardiac surgery--does the choice of anesthesia or type of surgery matter?

    PubMed

    Nesković, Vojislava; Milojević, Predrag; Unić-Stojanović, Dragana; Slavković, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    In spite of the evidence suggesting a significant morbidity associated with blood transfusions, the use of blood and blood products remain high in cardiac surgery. To successfully minimize the need for blood transfusion, a systematic approach is needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different anesthetic techniques, general vs combine epidural and general anesthesia, as well as different surgery strategies, on-pump vs off-pump, on postoperative bleeding complications and the need for blood transfusions during perioperative period. Eighty-two consecutive patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized according to surgical and anesthetic techniques into 4 different groups: group 1 (patients operated on off-pump, under general anesthesia); group 2 (patients operated on off-pump, with combined general and high thoracic epidural anesthesia); group 3 (patients operated on using standard revascularization technique, with the use of extracorporeal circulation, under general anesthesia), and group 4 (patients operated on using standard revascularization technique, with the use of extracorporeal circulation, with combined general and high thoracic epidural anesthesia). Indications for transfusion were based on clinical judgment, but a restrictive policy was encouraged. Bleeding was considered significant if it required transfusion of blood or blood products, or reopening of the chest. The quantity of transfused blood or blood products was specifically noted. None of the patients was transfused blood or blood products during the surgery, and as many as 70/81 (86.4%) patients were not transfused at all during hospital stay. No difference in postoperative bleeding or blood transfusion was noted in relation to the type of surgery and anesthetic technique applied. If red blood cells were transfused, postoperative bleeding was the most influential parameter for making clinical decision. No influence of off-pump surgery or epidural

  3. Office and ambulatory blood pressure are independently associated with albuminuria in older subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Andrew; Palmas, Walter; Pickering, Thomas G; Schwartz, Joseph E; Field, Lesley; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Blood pressure strongly predicts microalbuminuria and later progression to renal failure in people with diabetes. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seems to be superior to office blood pressure in predicting progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. The associations of ambulatory blood pressure with office blood pressure and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. We studied the association of office blood pressure taken with an automated device and ambulatory blood pressure with spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio in 1180 older people with type 2 diabetes participating in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine Study. Office and awake systolic blood pressure were independently associated with albuminuria (P<0.001 for both) in a multivariate linear regression analysis that adjusted for age, gender, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, number of antihypertensive medications, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Twelve percent of participants had well-controlled office blood pressure but not ambulatory blood pressure, whereas 14% had well-controlled ambulatory but not office blood pressure. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in these subgroups was intermediate between those with well-controlled or uncontrolled blood pressure by both methods. We found, in a multiethnic group of older subjects with type 2 diabetes, that office systolic blood pressure and awake systolic ambulatory blood pressure exhibited independent associations with degree of albuminuria.

  4. Effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on the performance of paper diagnostics for blood typing.

    PubMed

    McLiesh, Heather; Sharman, Scot; Garnier, Gil

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect that two common types of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking might have on the performance of paper diagnostics using blood typing as an example. The results were analyzed in terms of red blood cells (RBC) retention and antibody-antigen specificity. Two questions were addressed: (1) can poly(amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) typically used for paper wet strength affect the diagnostic performance? (2) can high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) employed as retention aid enhance or affect the selectivity and sensitivity of paper diagnostics? A series of paper varying in type of fibers and drying process were constructed with PAE and tested for blood typing performance. Residual PAE has no significant effect on blood typing paper diagnostics under normal conditions. Positives are unaffected with PAE, while negatives lose slight sharpness as some RBCs are unselectively retained. CPAM, the most common retention aid, can also be used to retain cells and biomolecules on paper. Paper towel was treated with CPAM solutions varying in polymer concentration and charge density and tested for blood typing. We found that CPAM dried on paper can retain RBC. CPAM affects the negative tests by retaining non-specifically individual RBC on fibers. RBC retention increases non-linearly with the CPAM charge density and concentration. As expected, wet CPAM retain RBCs at concentrations higher than 0.1wt%. As paper diagnostics are becoming a reality, more realistic papers than the Whatman filter paper will be engineered. This study provides guidance on how best use the required polymeric wet-strength and retention agents.

  5. Current status of achieving blood pressure target and its clinical correlates in Japanese type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Kawai, Koichi; Hirao, Koichi; Kurihara, Yoshio; Seino, Hiroaki; Takamura, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Okada, Akira; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-21

    To investigate the current status of achieved blood pressure levels in association with the number of antihypertensive drug classes as of 2013, and to explore the clinical correlates with achievement of target blood pressure in a large-scale cohort of Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. A nationwide survey was conducted including 12,811 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects were divided by achieved blood pressure, <130/80 or 140/90 mmHg, and the number of drug classes taken. The percentages achieving a blood pressure of <130/80 or 140/90 mmHg were 52.0% and 86.1%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, if defined as ≥130/80 mmHg or treated, became 67.9%. Among subjects taking antihypertensive drugs, a blood pressure of <130/80 or <140/90 mmHg was 46.7% and 83.2%, respectively. The percentages of <130/80 mmHg were 55.9% without drugs, 47.1% on 1, 42.5% on 2, 47.2% on 3, and 56.8% on ≥4 drugs, respectively. The most prescribed drugs were renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, followed by calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and β-blockers. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that a blood pressure <130/80 mmHg was associated with lower values in age, body mass index, albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate, higher proportions on targets for HbA1C and lipids, and less retinopathy. In type 2 diabetes, hypertension is common and only 52% achieved <130/80 mmHg, indicating a difficulty in blood pressure lowering. This was correlated with difficulties in glycemic and lipid management, obesity, and vascular complications, implying these clustering to be a serious problem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-OO blood type influences the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism. A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Esteban; Kovacs, Michael J; Kahn, Susan R; Wells, Philip S; Anderson, David A; Chagnon, Isabelle; Le Gal, Grégoire; Solymoss, Susan; Crowther, Mark; Carrier, Marc; Langlois, Nicole; Kovacs, Judy; Little Ma, Julian; Carson, Nancy; Ramsay, Tim; Rodger, Marc A

    2013-12-01

    The role of ABO blood type as a risk factor for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who complete oral anticoagulation therapy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if non-OO blood type is a risk factor for recurrent VTE in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who completed 5-7 months of anticoagulant therapy. In an ongoing cohort study of patients with unprovoked VTE who discontinued oral anticoagulation after 5-7 months of therapy, six single nucleotide polymorphisms sites were tested to determine ABO blood type using banked DNA. The main outcome was objectively proven recurrent VTE. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.19 years (SD 2.16). During 1,553 patient-years of follow-up, 101 events occurred in 380 non-OO patients (6.5 events per 100 patient years; 95% CI 5.3-7.7) compared to 14 events during 560 patient years of follow-up in 129 OO patients (2.5 per 100 patient years; 95% CI 1.2-3.7), the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.98 (1.2-3.8). In conclusion, non-OO blood type is associated with a statistically significant and clinically relevant increased risk of recurrent VTE following discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy for a first episode of unprovoked VTE.

  7. Immunization by blood-type antigen in human immunoglobulin products before ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tokihiko; Ando, Tetsuo; Sato, Sumihiko; Kubota, Keiichi; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Teraoka, Satoshi

    2004-04-01

    A 29-year-old man wanted to receive an ABO-incompatible kidney transplant. His blood type was O, and the donor, his father, was A1. After endoscopic splenectomy performed before kidney transplantation, the recipient developed a high fever and leukocytosis, and he was treated with antibiotics and 5 g of human immunoglobulin products by intravenous infusion for 3 d. Soon after the infusions, his anti-blood type A antibody titer (anti-A titer) rose, and several sessions of plasma-exchange (PEX) and double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) failed to lower it. Three courses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered to suppress the antibody production more specifically, and the rituximab infusions and repeated PEX and DFPP session lowered the anti-A titer and enabled kidney transplantation. Mild humoral rejection was observed 16 d after transplantation, but the recipient's serum creatinine was 1.5 mg/dL when discharged from the hospital. The increased anti-A titer may have been due to immunization by blood-type A antigen, with the human immunoglobulin products given to the patient being the source of the antigen. Administration of human immunoglobulin products to recipients of ABO-incompatible kidney transplants should be avoided, because it may cause an unexpected increase in anti-blood-type antibody titer.

  8. Changes in T cell subsets identify responders to FcR non-binding anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab) in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, James E; Vudattu, Nalini; Choi, Jinmyung; Cotsapas, Chris; Devine, Lesley; Raddassi, Khadir; Ehlers, Mario R; McNamara, James G; Harris, Kristina M; Kanaparthi, Sai; Phippard, Deborah; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby immune therapies affect progression of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not well understood. Teplizumab, an FcR non-binding anti-CD3 mAb, has shown efficacy in multiple randomized clinical trials. We previously reported an increase in the frequency of circulating CD8+ central memory (CD8CM) T cells in clinical responders, but the generalizability of this finding and the molecular effects of teplizumab on these T cells have not been evaluated. We analyzed data from 2 randomized clinical studies of teplizumab in patients with new and recent onset T1D. At the conclusion of therapy clinical responders showed a significant reduction in circulating CD4+ effector memory (CD4EM) T cells. Afterwards, there was an increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD8CM T cells. In vitro, teplizumab expanded CD8CM T cells by proliferation and conversion of non-CM T cells. Nanostring analysis of gene expression of CD8CM T cells from responders and non-responders vs placebo-treated control subjects identified decreases in expression of genes associated with immune activation and increases in expression of genes associated with T cell differentiation and regulation. We conclude that CD8CM T cells with decreased activation and regulatory gene expression are associated with clinical responses to teplizumab in patients with T1D. PMID:26518356

  9. Changes in T-cell subsets identify responders to FcR-nonbinding anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab) in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tooley, James E; Vudattu, Nalini; Choi, Jinmyung; Cotsapas, Chris; Devine, Lesley; Raddassi, Khadir; Ehlers, Mario R; McNamara, James G; Harris, Kristina M; Kanaparthi, Sai; Phippard, Deborah; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby immune therapies affect progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not well understood. Teplizumab, an FcR nonbinding anti-CD3 mAb, has shown efficacy in multiple randomized clinical trials. We previously reported an increase in the frequency of circulating CD8(+) central memory (CD8CM) T cells in clinical responders, but the generalizability of this finding and the molecular effects of teplizumab on these T cells have not been evaluated. We analyzed data from two randomized clinical studies of teplizumab in patients with new- and recent-onset T1D. At the conclusion of therapy, clinical responders showed a significant reduction in circulating CD4(+) effector memory T cells. Afterward, there was an increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD8CM T cells. In vitro, teplizumab expanded CD8CM T cells by proliferation and conversion of non-CM T cells. Nanostring analysis of gene expression of CD8CM T cells from responders and nonresponders versus placebo-treated control subjects identified decreases in expression of genes associated with immune activation and increases in expression of genes associated with T-cell differentiation and regulation. We conclude that CD8CM T cells with decreased activation and regulatory gene expression are associated with clinical responses to teplizumab in patients with T1D.

  10. Ab initio calculations on elastic properties in L12 structure Al3X and X3Al-type (X=transition or main group metal) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, T.; Wang, X. F.; Li, W.

    2013-03-01

    As high-temperature structural materials, L12 intermetallic compounds have attracted the strong interest from both fundamental and industrial aspects. Understanding of elastic property is a basis for the complete investigations of mechanical behavior of L12 alloys. In an effort to explore the electronic origin of elastic properties of L12 intermetallics, we have performed a systematic study on elastic constants for single crystals, and Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio for poly-crystals of 22 known Al3X and X3Al-type (X=transition or main group metal) intermetallics using the ab initio calculations. Based on the calculations of elastic constants and extreme (both positive and negative) Poisson's ratios, we found a pronounced correlation between the extreme Poisson's ratio and the elastic anisotropy, i.e., approximate 40% of the investigated L12 intermetallics exhibit intrinsic auxetic behavior. Furthermore, based on the distribution of bonding charge densities, we revealed that the ductility and extreme Poisson's ratios were attributable to the directionality of bonds of these alloys. Our findings provide a new method to predict mechanical behavior of intermetallics.

  11. Gevokizumab, an anti-IL-1β mAb for the potential treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Geiler, Janina; McDermott, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β has an essential role in the innate immune response. High levels of IL-1β have been implicated in the development of many diseases, including type 1 and 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cardiovascular disease. XOMA is developing gevokizumab (XOMA-052), an IgG2 humanized mAb against human IL-1β, for the potential treatment of these diseases. Gevokizumab has a high affinity for IL-1β and a long t1/2, which would allow for once-monthly dosing and offer a considerable advantage for patients over agents requiring more frequent dosing. Data from preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that gevokizumab is a potentially effective and well-tolerated treatment for the indicated diseases. At the time of publication, phase II clinical trials were ongoing in patients with T1D, T2D and RA, with the T2D trials assessing key cardiovascular markers. Following promising data from a recent pilot trial, XOMA was also planning a phase I/II trial of gevokizumab for the potential treatment of uveitis in patients with the vasculitic inflammatory disorder Behçet's disease and the autoinflammatory conditions familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome and Muckle-Wells syndrome.

  12. Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood cells for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    He, Binbin; Li, Xia; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, to date, no conventional intervention has successfully treated the disease. The optimal therapeutic method for T1DM should effectively control the autoimmunity, restore immune homeostasis, preserve residual β-cells, reverse β-cell destruction, and protect the regenerated insulin-producing cells against re-attack. Umbilical cord blood is rich in regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and multiple types of stem cells that exhibit immunomodulating potential and hold promise in their ability to restore peripheral tolerance towards pancreatic islet β-cells through remodeling of immune responses and suppression of autoreactive T cells. Recently, reinfusion of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood has been proposed as a novel therapy for T1DM, with the advantages of no risk to the donors, minimal ethical concerns, a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and easy accessibility. In this review, we revisit the role of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood-based applications for the treatment of T1DM.

  13. Early human herpes virus type 6 reactivation in umbilical cord blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cirrone, Frank; Ippoliti, Cindy; Wang, Hanhan; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; van Besien, Koen

    2016-11-01

    Human herpes virus type 6 can reactivate in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and has been associated with serious sequelae such as delayed engraftment and an increased risk of developing acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This study investigated human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) reactivation within 60 days of transplantation in stem cell transplants utilizing single umbilical cord blood, double umbilical cord blood, or umbilical cord blood plus haploidentical stem cells. Of 92 patients, 60 (65%) had HHV-6 reactivation. Reactivation was not significantly influenced by any patient characteristics, disease characteristics, or by stem cell source (umbilical cord blood only versus haploidentical plus umbilical cord blood). We did not observe any impact of HHV-6 reactivation on neutrophil or platelet count recovery or on relapse-free survival. HHV-6 reactivation was associated with subsequent development of prerelapse acute GVHD (HR = 3.00; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.4; p = 0.004).

  14. The effects of botulinum toxin type A on muscle blood perfusion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Matic, Damir B; Lee, Ting Y; Wells, R Glenn; Gan, Bing S

    2007-12-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of facial rhytides. However, the complete spectrum of action of botulinum toxin A has not yet been completely defined. Little is known about the metabolism of muscle after botulinum toxin A injection. This information may give insight into the additional effects botulinum toxin A may have on muscle. The authors assessed the influence of botulinum toxin A on the metabolism of muscle using dynamic investigative techniques. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were divided into control, paralysis, and sham groups. Masseter muscle paralysis was achieved with botulinum toxin A. Dynamic computed tomographic and positron emission tomographic scans were obtained. Masseter muscle blood flow, blood volume, permeability surface, and mean transit time and glucose uptake were measured. Eighteen animals completed the study. Masseter blood perfusion showed consistent results across all parameters. Blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface were significantly increased at weeks 4 and 8 on the paralyzed side. Mean transit time at week 4 was decreased on the paralyzed side. Positron emission tomographic scans showed that injected muscles in the botulinum toxin A group tended to have increased glucose uptake compared with untreated muscles. Botulinum toxin A injection increases muscle blood perfusion parameters and glucose uptake for a transient period. This increase is similar in duration to the known interval of botulinum toxin A-induced paralysis. These changes have been identified in a dynamic fashion and may represent changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide release.

  15. Cytokine release assays for the prediction of therapeutic mAb safety in first-in man trials — Whole blood cytokine release assays are poorly predictive for TGN1412 cytokine storm

    PubMed Central

    Vessillier, S.; Eastwood, D.; Fox, B.; Sathish, J.; Sethu, S.; Dougall, T.; Thorpe, S.J.; Thorpe, R.; Stebbings, R.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) TGN1412 (anti-CD28 superagonist) caused near-fatal cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in all six volunteers during a phase-I clinical trial. Several cytokine release assays (CRAs) with reported predictivity for TGN1412-induced CRS have since been developed for the preclinical safety testing of new therapeutic mAbs. The whole blood (WB) CRA is the most widely used, but its sensitivity for TGN1412-like cytokine release was recently criticized. In a comparative study, using group size required for 90% power with 5% significance as a measure of sensitivity, we found that WB and 10% (v/v) WB CRAs were the least sensitive for TGN1412 as these required the largest group sizes (n = 52 and 79, respectively). In contrast, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) solid phase (SP) CRA was the most sensitive for TGN1412 as it required the smallest group size (n = 4). Similarly, the PBMC SP CRA was more sensitive than the WB CRA for muromonab-CD3 (anti-CD3) which stimulates TGN1412-like cytokine release (n = 4 and 4519, respectively). Conversely, the WB CRA was far more sensitive than the PBMC SP CRA for alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) which stimulates FcγRI-mediated cytokine release (n = 8 and 180, respectively). Investigation of potential factors contributing to the different sensitivities revealed that removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from WB permitted PBMC-like TGN1412 responses in a SP CRA, which in turn could be inhibited by the addition of the RBC membrane protein glycophorin A (GYPA); this observation likely underlies, at least in part, the poor sensitivity of WB CRA for TGN1412. The use of PBMC SP CRA for the detection of TGN1412-like cytokine release is recommended in conjunction with adequately powered group sizes for dependable preclinical safety testing of new therapeutic mAbs. PMID:25960173

  16. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security has been defined as the “availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods”. Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of <0.05. Results Most subjects were female (68.7%). There was no significant relationship between gender and food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). Conclusions According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice. PMID:28163854

  17. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-12-01

    Food security has been defined as the "availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods". Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of <0.05. Most subjects were female (68.7%). There was no significant relationship between gender and food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice.

  18. Effect of flaxseed gum on reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Goutam; Mitra, Analava; Pal, Kunal; Rousseau, Dérick

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ingestion of flaxseed gum on blood glucose and cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Flaxseed gum was incorporated in wheat flour chapattis. Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes were fed a daily diet for 3 months, along with six wheat flour chapattis containing flaxseed gum (5 g), as per the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association. The control group (60 individuals) consumed an identical diet but the chapattis were without gum. The blood biochemistry profiles monitored before starting the study and at monthly intervals showed fasting blood sugar in the experimental group decreased from 154 ± 8 mg/dl to 136 ± 7 mg/dl (P=0.03) while the total cholesterol reduced from 182 ± 11 mg/dl to 163 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.03). Results showed a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 110 ± 8 mg/dl to 92 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.02). The study demonstrated the efficacy of flax gum in the blood biochemistry profiles of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Pinitol from soybeans reduces postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Jung-In; Yoon, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jae Cherl; Cha, In-June

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol (D-pinitol), purified from soybean, on the postprandial blood glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was examined. Fifteen Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men, eight women; 60.3 +/- 3.1 years old) ingested cooked white rice containing 50 g of available carbohydrate with or without prior ingestion of soy pinitol. Pinitol was given either as a 1.2 g dose at 0, 60, 120, or 180 minutes prior to rice ingestion, or as a 0.6 g dose at 60 minutes prior to rice ingestion. Capillary blood glucose levels were monitored for 4 hours after rice consumption. The ingestion of 1.2 g of pinitol 60 minutes prior to rice consumption controlled postprandial capillary blood glucose most effectively, significantly diminishing the postprandial increase in plasma glucose levels measured at 90 and 120 minutes after rice consumption (P < .05). The incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve for subjects who consumed both pinitol and rice was significantly lower than that for subjects who consumed only rice (P < .05), but pinitol had no apparent effect on postprandial insulin levels. Therefore, soybean-derived pinitol may be useful in controlling postprandial increases in blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Effect of blood type on anti-α-Gal immunity and the incidence of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Alberdi, Pilar; Villar, Margarita; Riveau, Gilles; Hermann, Emmanuel; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Khalife, Jamal; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2017-01-01

    The identification of factors affecting the susceptibility to infectious diseases is essential toward reducing their burden on the human population. The ABO blood type correlates with susceptibility to malaria and other infectious diseases. Due to the structural similarity between blood antigen B and Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal), we hypothesized that self-tolerance to antigen B affects the immune response to α-Gal, which in turn affects the susceptibility to infectious diseases caused by pathogens carrying α-Gal on their surface. Here we found that the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis, caused by pathogens with α-Gal on their surface, positively correlates with the frequency of blood type B in endemic regions. However, the incidence of dengue fever, caused by a pathogen without α-Gal, was not related to the frequency of blood type B in these populations. Furthermore, the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis was negatively correlated with the anti-α-Gal antibody protective response. These results have implications for disease control and prevention. PMID:28280265

  1. Assessment of the Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Female mdr 1a/b Knockout versus Wild-type Mice Using Multivariate Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures, which make it challenging to identify PCB congeners that may be subject to active transport processes. Here we employ a transgenic mouse model in combination with multivariate analyses to investigate if chiral PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, 176 and 183 are subject to active (enantioselective) transport by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. A synthetic PCB mixture containing these congeners was administered orally to female FVB or mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Due to the short half-life of chiral PCB congeners, mice were euthanized after 24 hours and PCB concentrations and enantiomeric fractions were determined in selected tissues and excreta. Principal component analysis did not reveal differences between wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. However, Hotelling T2-test revealed significantly lower PCB concentrations and a more pronounced enantiomeric enrichment in the adipose tissue of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. These differences are due to higher body weights and higher fecal fat contents of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Analysis of the enantiomeric fractions of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 showed a significant enantiomeric enrichment for all five congeners in wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Overall, by studying a PCB mixture in a transgenic mouse model in combination with a multivariate data reduction approach, PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 could be excluded as substrates of multidrug resistance transporters 1a/b. PMID:19923000

  2. Capturing the interaction types of two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab on suppressing the cotton bollworm by using multi-exponential equations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Wei, Ji-Zhen; Sandhu, Hardev S; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic crops are increasingly promoted for their practical effects on suppressing certain insect pests, but all transgenic crops are not equally successful. The insect pests can easily develop resistance against single Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin transgenic crops. Therefore, transgenic crops including two or more mixed Bt-toxins can solve this problem by delaying the resistance development and killing the majority of targeted pests before the evolution of resistance. It is important to test the controlling effects of transgenic crops including multiple mixed toxins on a particular insect pest. Previous research has checked the cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against one susceptible and four resistant strains of cotton bollworm. The results showed that independence was the main interaction type between two toxins for the susceptible strain, whereas synergism was the main interaction type for any one resistant strain. However, the optimal combinations of two toxins were not obtained. In the present study, we developed two multi-exponential equations (namely bi- and tri-exponential equations) to describe the combination effects of two Bt toxins. Importantly, the equations can provide predictions of combination effects of different continuous concentrations of two toxins. We compared these two multi-exponential equations with the generalized linear model (GLM) in describing the combination effects, and found that the bi- and tri-exponential equations are better than GLM. Moreover, the bi-exponential equation can also provide the optimal dose combinations for two toxins. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health.

  4. Retinal blood flow is increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced stages of retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang-Ton; van Duinkerken, Eelco; Verbraak, Frank D; Polak, Bettine C P; Ringens, Peter J; Diamant, Michaela; Moll, Annette C

    2016-05-26

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common microvascular complication seen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effects of T1DM and concomitant (proliferative) DRP on retinal blood flow are currently unclear. Therefore, we measured retinal vascular blood flow in T1DM patients with and without DRP and non-diabetic controls. We further assessed the acute effects of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal microvascular bloodflow in eight patients with diabetes. Thirty-three T1DM patients with proliferative DRP, previously treated with panretinal photocoagulation (pDRP), 11 T1DM patients with untreated non-proliferative retinopathy (npDRP) and 32 T1DM patients without DRP (nDRP) were compared with 44 non-diabetic gender-matched controls. Using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (HRF, Heidelberg) blood flow in the retinal microvasculature was measured temporal and nasal of the optic disc and averaged into one flow value per eye. The right eye was used as a default for further analyses. Eight patients with novel proliferative retinopathy (4 T1DM and 4 with type 2 diabetes) were measured before and several months after photocoagulation. Between-group differences in retinal blood flow were assessed using ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni). Retinal blood flow was higher in the treated pDRP compared with the nDRP group and controls (all P Bonferroni < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a positive linear trend for blood flow with lowest blood flow in the control group and highest in the pDRP group (P-for-trend < 0.01). In the eight patients with novel proliferative retinopathy, blood flow did not significantly change before and after panretinal photocoagulation (P > 0.05). Using regression analysis, no variables were found as predictors of retinal blood flow. In comparison with controls and nDRP patients, retinal blood flow significantly increased in the pDRP group, which previously underwent photocoagulation treatment, but not in the np

  5. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition.

    PubMed

    Gervin, Kristina; Page, Christian Magnus; Aass, Hans Christian D; Jansen, Michelle A; Fjeldstad, Heidi Elisabeth; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B; van Zelm, Menno C; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Nordeng, Hedvig; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Magnus, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Felix, Janine F; Lyle, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused by cellular heterogeneity is a major concern. This can be adjusted for using reference data consisting of DNA methylation signatures in cell types isolated from blood. However, the most commonly used reference data set is based on blood samples from adult males and is not representative of the cell type composition in neonatal cord blood. The aim of this study was to generate a reference data set from cord blood to enable correct adjustment of the cell type composition in samples collected at birth. The purity of the isolated cell types was very high for all samples (>97.1%), and clustering analyses showed distinct grouping of the cell types according to hematopoietic lineage. We explored whether this cord blood and the adult peripheral blood reference data sets impact the estimation of cell type composition in cord blood samples from an independent birth cohort (MoBa, n = 1092). This revealed significant differences for all cell types. Importantly, comparison of the cell type estimates against matched cell counts both in the cord blood reference samples (n = 11) and in another independent birth cohort (Generation R, n = 195), demonstrated moderate to high correlation of the data. This is the first cord blood reference data set with a comprehensive examination of the downstream application of the data through validation of estimated cell types against matched cell counts.

  6. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition

    PubMed Central

    Gervin, Kristina; Page, Christian Magnus; Aass, Hans Christian D.; Jansen, Michelle A.; Fjeldstad, Heidi Elisabeth; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B.; van Zelm, Menno C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Nordeng, Hedvig; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Magnus, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Felix, Janine F.; Lyle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused by cellular heterogeneity is a major concern. This can be adjusted for using reference data consisting of DNA methylation signatures in cell types isolated from blood. However, the most commonly used reference data set is based on blood samples from adult males and is not representative of the cell type composition in neonatal cord blood. The aim of this study was to generate a reference data set from cord blood to enable correct adjustment of the cell type composition in samples collected at birth. The purity of the isolated cell types was very high for all samples (>97.1%), and clustering analyses showed distinct grouping of the cell types according to hematopoietic lineage. We explored whether this cord blood and the adult peripheral blood reference data sets impact the estimation of cell type composition in cord blood samples from an independent birth cohort (MoBa, n = 1092). This revealed significant differences for all cell types. Importantly, comparison of the cell type estimates against matched cell counts both in the cord blood reference samples (n = 11) and in another independent birth cohort (Generation R, n = 195), demonstrated moderate to high correlation of the data. This is the first cord blood reference data set with a comprehensive examination of the downstream application of the data through validation of estimated cell types against matched cell counts. PMID:27494297

  7. Charge carrier transport and lifetimes in n-type and p-type phosphorene as 2D device active materials: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Tea, E; Hin, C

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we provide a detailed analysis of phosphorene's performance as an n-type and p-type active material. This study is based on first principles calculations of the phosphorene electronic structure, and the resulting electron and hole scattering rates and lifetimes. Emphasis is put on extreme regimes commonly found in semiconductor devices, i.e. high electric fields and heavy doping, where impact ionization and Auger recombination can occur. We found that electron-initiated impact ionization is weaker than the hole-initiated process, when compared to carrier-phonon interaction rates, suggesting resilience to impact ionization initiated breakdown. Moreover, calculated minority electron lifetimes are limited by radiative recombination only, not by Auger processes, suggesting that phosphorene could achieve good quantum efficiencies in optoelectronic devices. The provided scattering rates and lifetimes are critical input data for the modeling and understanding of phosphorene-based device physics.

  8. Type I (CD64) and type II (CD32) Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human blood dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fanger, N A; Wardwell, K; Shen, L; Tedder, T F; Guyre, P M

    1996-07-15

    Three classes of Fc receptors for IgG, Fc gamma RI (CD64), Fc gamma RII (CD32), and Fc gamma RIII (CD16), are expressed on blood leukocytes. Although Fc gamma R are important phagocytic receptors on phagocytes, most reports suggest that dendritic cells lack Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis and express significant levels of only CD32. We now report that phagocytically active forms of both CD64 and CD32 are expressed significantly on at least one subset of human blood dendritic cells. Countercurrent elutriation and magnetic bead selection were used to rapidly enrich subsets of blood dendritic cells (CD33brightCD14-HLA-DRbrightCD83-) and monocytes (CD33brightCD14brightHLA-DRdimCD83-). Upon culture for 2 days, dendritic cells became CD83-positive and markedly increased HLA-DR expression, whereas monocytes did not express CD83 and exhibited reduced levels of HLA-DR. Constitutive CD64 expression was identified on this circulating dendritic cell population, but at a lower level than on monocytes. CD64 expression by dendritic cells and monocytes did not decrease during 2 days in culture, and was up-regulated on both cell types following incubation with IFN-gamma. Freshly isolated blood dendritic cells performed CD64- and CD32-mediated phagocytosis, although at a lower level than monocytes. Dendritic cells generated by culture of adherent mononuclear cells in granulocyte-macrophage CSF and IL-4 also up-regulated CD64 following IFN-gamma stimulation, and mediated CD64-dependent phagocytosis. These results indicate that both CD64 and CD32 expressed on blood dendritic cells may play a role in uptake of foreign particles and macromolecules through a phagocytic mechanism before trafficking to T cell-reactive areas.

  9. Treatment of acute myeloblastic leukaemia in a patient with Bombay blood type: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Tsuda, T; Matsunami, M; Hirose, T; Sakaguchi, R; Katayama, N; Ota, K

    2001-01-01

    A 62-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with suspected acute leukaemia and after investigation we diagnosed acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML-M1). The patient's blood type was found to be the very rare Bombay type and surveillance of her relatives showed the same blood type in her male cousin on her mother's side. Alongside chemotherapy the patient received 4000 ml of frozen Bombay-type red cells, 1400 ml of concentrated red cells in manitol adenine phosphate solutions and 360 units of type O concentrated platelets without marked effects. The anti-H antibody was initially at 128 dilution but for unknown reasons increased to 2048 dilution after remission of AML-M1. About 3 months after hospitalization the patient died of Cryptococcus neoformans pneumonia despite strict precautions against infection. Although AML-M1 is a common adult leukaemia and is chemosensitive to anti-leukaemic drugs, neither AML-M1 in a patient with Bombay-type red cells nor its treatment with chemotherapy and transfusion with type Oh frozen red cells have previously been reported.

  10. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  11. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  12. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  13. Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity and Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Vera; Last, David; Alsop, David C.; Abduljalil, Amir M.; Hu, Kun; Lepicovsky, Lukas; Cavallerano, Jerry; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes increases the risk for cerebromicrovascular disease, possibly through its effects on blood flow regulation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of type 2 diabetes on blood flow velocities (BFVs) in the middle cerebral arteries and to determine the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and BFVs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured BFVs in 28 type 2 diabetic and 22 control subjects (aged 62.3 ± 7.2 years) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during baseline, hyperventilation, and CO2 rebreathing. WMHs were graded, and their volume was quantified from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on a 3.0 Tesla MRI. RESULTS The diabetic group demonstrated decreased mean BFVs and increased cerebrovascular resistance during baseline, hypo- and hypercapnia (P < 0.0001), and impaired CO2 reactivity (P = 0.05). WMH volume was negatively correlated with baseline BFV (P < 0.0001). A regression model revealed that baseline BFVs were negatively associated with periventricular WMHs, HbA1c (A1C), and inflammatory markers and positively associated with systolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.86, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Microvascular disease in type 2 diabetes, which manifests as white matter abnormalities on MRI, is associated with reduced cerebral BFVs, increased resistance in middle cerebral arteries, and inflammation. These findings are clinically relevant as a potential mechanism for cerebrovascular disease in elderly with type 2 diabetes. PMID:16801574

  14. Long-term follow-up after tight control of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holman, Rury R; Paul, Sanjoy K; Bethel, M Angelyn; Neil, H Andrew W; Matthews, David R

    2008-10-09

    Post-trial monitoring of patients in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) examined whether risk reductions for microvascular and macrovascular disease, achieved with the use of improved blood-pressure control during the trial, would be sustained. Among 5102 UKPDS patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, we randomly assigned, over a 4-year period beginning in 1987, 1148 patients with hypertension to tight or less-tight blood-pressure control regimens. The 884 patients who underwent post-trial monitoring were asked to attend annual UKPDS clinics for the first 5 years, but no attempt was made to maintain their previously assigned therapies. Annual questionnaires completed by patients and general practitioners were used to follow patients who were unable to attend the clinic in years 1 through 5, and questionnaires were used for all patients in years 6 to 10. Seven prespecified aggregate clinical end points were examined on an intention-to-treat basis, according to the previous randomization categories. Differences in blood pressure between the two groups during the trial disappeared within 2 years after termination of the trial. Significant relative risk reductions found during the trial for any diabetes-related end point, diabetes-related death, microvascular disease, and stroke in the group receiving tight, as compared with less tight, blood-pressure control were not sustained during the post-trial follow-up. No risk reductions were seen during or after the trial for myocardial infarction or death from any cause, but a risk reduction for peripheral vascular disease associated with tight blood-pressure control became significant (P=0.02). The benefits of previously improved blood-pressure control were not sustained when between-group differences in blood pressure were lost. Early improvement in blood-pressure control in patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension was associated with a reduced risk of complications, but it

  15. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

    PubMed Central

    Tangkawsakul, Wanida; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing. PMID:28101104

  16. Wasted health care dollars. Routine cord blood type and Coombs' testing.

    PubMed

    Leistikow, E A; Collin, M F; Savastano, G D; de Sierra, T M; Leistikow, B N

    1995-10-01

    To determine if selective newborn cord blood testing (NCBT) could contain costs without increasing morbidity of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). A national telephone survey confirmed the common practice of routine blood type and Coombs' NCBT. Two 12-month study arms, retrospective and prospective, were conducted. Hemolytic disease of the newborn was studied retrospectively under an unrestricted NCBT policy. Then, HDN was studied after a policy change that restricted NCBT to patients in newborn intensive care units and normal newborns with clinical jaundice or Rh-negative mothers, and/or positive maternal antibody screenings, or unavailable maternal blood testing. All newborns (N = 8501) at the Metro-Health Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, were studied (retrospective arm, all 1989 admissions; prospective arm, all July 1990 to June 1991 admissions). Blood type and Coombs' NCBT, maternal blood type and antibody screening, Hobel risk scores for clinical severity of newborn hospitalization, duration of hospitalizations, and peak serum bilirubin levels. No quantitative or qualitative increases in morbidity from jaundice were detected by retrospective analysis with unrestricted NCBT, or prospectively after selective testing on 4498 newborns. Each study arm resulted in 15 readmissions for jaundice; these included two patients with ABO HDN. Furthermore, selective testing resulted in performance of NCBTs on only 390 infants in the "normal" nursery (24% of the original sample). Estimates projected on 1991 US births (4,111,000) showed that selective NCBT offers potential yearly savings above $30.8 million of patient charges, savings above $11.3 million of hospital costs, and the reassignment of more than 112 personnel full-time equivalents. Selective NCBT decreases the use of resources and costs without apparent additional patient morbidity from HDN.

  17. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Tangkawsakul, Wanida; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Baba, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 10(5) cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 10(5) cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 10(8) cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.

  18. Pediatric preoperative blood ordering: when is a type and screen or crossmatch really needed?

    PubMed

    Fernández, Allison M; Cronin, Jessica; Greenberg, Robert S; Heitmiller, Eugenie S

    2014-02-01

    Unnecessary testing for and ordering of blood products adds to overall healthcare costs. Determine intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) product utilization for pediatric procedures and costs associated with perioperative testing and ordering. A retrospective chart review captured perioperative blood testing and intraoperative transfusion data for patients <19 years of age who underwent noncardiac surgery over a 13-month period at one tertiary care hospital. The main outcome measure was cost associated with testing for blood products in patients undergoing procedures that had a zero rate of transfusion. The intraoperative transfusion rate for 8620 noncardiac pediatric procedures was 2.78%. Of 8380 nontransfused patients, 707 (8.4%) had type and screen, and of those, 420 (5%) were crossmatched for RBC products in preparation for surgery. The 10 surgical procedures that had the highest perioperative blood testing but no instances of transfusion were as follows: colostomy or ileostomy takedown, spinal cord untethering, tunneled catheter placement, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, elbow reduction and fixation, lumbar puncture, suboccipital craniectomy, hip arthrogram, percutaneous intravascular central line, and tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Procedures with low transfusion probability and high crossmatch testing were ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision and growing rod distraction. For all nontransfused patients, the cost of obtaining type and screen was $31,815, and the cost for crossmatch was $25,200. Patients may undergo preoperative type and screen or crossmatch for procedures rarely associated with transfusion. Historic transfusion probability may be used to predict need for transfusion for specific surgical procedures and reduce unnecessary perioperative testing and associated costs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  20. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis(b) motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions of human blood and tissue cell types with 95-nm-high nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Matthew J; Marshall, George E; Johnstone, Heather J H; Affrossman, Stanley; Riehle, Mathis O

    2002-03-01

    Two of the major concerns for tissue engineering materials are inflammatory responses from blood cells and fibrous encapsulation by the body in order to shield the implant from blood reaction. A further hurdle is that of vascularization. In order to develop new tissues, or to repair parts of the vascular system, nutrients need to be carried to the basal cell layers. If a material promotes tissue formation, but not vascularization, necrosis will be observed as multilayered cells develop. In this paper, polymer demixed island topography with a 95-nm Z axis was tested using human mononuclear blood cells, platelets, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The results showed no difference in blood response between the islands and the flat controls, suggesting that in vivo there would be negligible immunological difference. Fibroblasts reacted by changing morphology into a rounded shape with thick processes and poorly developed cytoskeleton. Retardation of fibroblast growth may be an advantageous, as it is this cell type that forms the fibrous capsule, preventing growth of the required tissue type. Finally, endothelial cells were seen to form arcuate, or curved, morphologies in response to the islands. This is the normal, in vivo, morphology for vascular endothelium. This result suggests that the nano-features are promoting a more phenotypically correct morphology.

  2. Increased expression of blood mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    St Clair, E W; Wilkinson, W E; Lang, T; Sanders, L; Misukonis, M A; Gilkeson, G S; Pisetsky, D S; Granger, D I; Weinberg, J B

    1996-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inflammatory mediator in nonhuman animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether blood mononuclear cells from patients with active RA (as compared to control subjects) have higher levels of NO synthase type 2 (NOS2) and produce more NO in vitro. Leukocytes from 25 RA patients and 20 normal subjects were examined. Arthritis activity was assessed by tender and swollen joint counts, duration of morning stiffness, patient assessment of pain, physician and patient global assessment of disease activity, the modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, and by blood levels of acute phase reactants. Blood mononuclear cell NOS enzyme activity/antigen content and nitrite/nitrate formation in vitro were measured. Blood mononuclear cells from RA patients had increased NOS activity and increased NOS2 antigen content as compared to those from normal subjects, and responded to interferon-gamma with increased NOS expression and nitrite/nitrate production in vitro. NOS activity of freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells correlated significantly with disease activity, as assessed by render and swollen joint counts. Our results demonstrate that patients with RA have systemic activation for NOS2 expression, and that the degree of activation correlates with disease activity. Increased NOS2 expression and NO generation may be important in the pathogenesis of RA.

  3. Insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes: The significance of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lambadiari, Vaia; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Dimitriadis, George D

    2015-05-15

    Under normal metabolic conditions insulin stimulates microvascular perfusion (capillary recruitment) of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue and thus increases blood flow mainly after meal ingestion or physical exercise. This helps the delivery of insulin itself but also that of substrates and of other signalling molecules to multiple tissues beds and facilitates glucose disposal and lipid kinetics. This effect is impaired in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes early in the development of metabolic dysregulation and reflects early-onset endothelial dysfunction. Failure of insulin to increase muscle and adipose tissue blood flow results in decreased glucose handling. In fat depots, a blunted postprandial blood flow response will result in an insufficient suppression of lipolysis and an increased spill over of fatty acids in the circulation, leading to a more pronounced insulin resistant state in skeletal muscle. This defect in blood flow response is apparent even in the prediabetic state, implying that it is a facet of insulin resistance and exists long before overt hyperglycaemia develops. The following review intends to summarize the contribution of blood flow impairment to the development of the atherogenic dysglycemia and dyslipidaemia.

  4. Immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in blood from type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Raposo-García, Sara; Guerra-Laso, José Manuel; García-García, Silvia; Juan-García, Javier; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Nebreda-Mayoral, Teresa; López-Medrano, Ramiro; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of tuberculosis and diabetes represents a co-epidemic that threatens progress against tuberculosis. We have investigated type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for tuberculosis susceptibility, and have used as experimental model whole blood infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Blood samples from diabetic patients were found to have a higher absolute neutrophil count that non-diabetic controls, but their immune functionality seemed impaired because they displayed a lower capacity to phagocytose M. tuberculosis, a finding that had been previously reported only for monocytes. In contrast, an increased production of TNFα was detected in infected blood from diabetic patients. Despite the altered phagocytic capacity showed by cells from these patients, the antimicrobial activity measured in both whole blood and monocyte derived macrophages was similar to that of controls. This unexpected result prompts further improvements in the whole blood model to analyze the immune response of diabetes patients to tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated glycated hemoglobin levels impair blood pressure in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sandra; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; de Oliveira, Samuel Lima; de Sousa Neto, Ivo Vieira; Falleiros, Roberta Kelly Menezes Maciel; Miranda, Leonardo Garcia; Pedrosa, Hermelinda Cordeiro; Navalta, James Wilfred; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1) levels accelerate the progression of cardiovascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HbA1 and changes in blood pressure of children and adolescents with T1DM. A total of 60 children and adolescents were recruited and allocated into two groups (prehypertension and control group). Blood pressure and HbA1 were measured by the oscillometric method and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The prehypertensive group had (P < 0.05) higher disease duration, body weight, Z score for body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and a higher HbA1 when compared with the control children and adolescents. Multiple regression to predict alterations in DBP from HbA1 adjusted for age, disease duration, and body mass index demonstrated a positive relationship with DBP (P < 0.05). A 1 % increase in HbA1 was associated with 1.73 mmHg increase in DBP. High levels of HbA1 may be associated with increased blood pressure in T1DM. A tight control of HbA1 levels may provide long-term cardiovascular protection in children and adolescents with T1DM.

  6. Determination of Both Fetus' and Mother's Blood Type from an Autopsy Case Immersed in Formalin for Over 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Uno, Akari Takaya; Morita, Satomu; Furukawa, Satoshi; Nishi, Katsuji; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    A female fetus which had been immersed in formalin for more than 50 years was found in Japan. Because no liquid blood could be obtained, we tried to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods to tissue samples obtained at autopsy to identify both the fetal and mother's blood type. We detected B antigens on endothelial cells in paraffin sections of the fetal organs. Furthermore, we observed both anti-A- and anti-B-positive red blood cells in the intervillous space, which is indicative of the mother's blood type. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on determining the blood type of both the fetus and the mother from tissue immersed in formalin for such a long time. The results suggest that IHC is valuable for the determination of ABO blood type in circumstances of long postmortem duration and unfavorable storage conditions.

  7. Comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward ABO blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hamako, J; Ozeki, Y; Titani, K

    2001-02-16

    Binding specificities of ABO blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. Human serum albumin conjugated with A- and B-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus, Dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin B(4), respectively. Almost the same results were obtained for human group A and B ovarian cyst and A-active hog gastric mucins, but Glycine max agglutinin only reacted to the group A hog mucin. When human plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), having Asn-linked blood group antigens, was tested, HPA was highly sensitive to blood group A antigen on the vWF. Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) preferentially bound to the vWF from blood group O plasma. Within the GalNAc-recognizing lectins examined, a biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide having the blood group A structure retarded on an HPA-agarose column, and the affinity was diminished after digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. This product bound to UEA-I agarose column. These results indicate that HPA and UEA-I are most sensitive for detection of glycoproteins possessing small amounts of blood group A and H antigens and also useful for fractionation of complex-type oligosaccharides with blood group A and H antigens, respectively.

  8. A case of tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy after ABO-blood-type-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Asami; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keij; Inaguma, Daizyo; Goto, Norihiko; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Morozumi, Kunio

    2011-07-01

    De novo thrombotic microangiopathy(TMA) is most commonly triggered by calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and the prognosis is less severe than with recurrent TMA. However, it is difficult to distinguish de novo TMA from CNI toxicity and acute antibody-mediated rejection(AMR) soon after renal transplantation. We present a case of tacrolimus-associated TMA soon after ABO blood type incompatible renal transplantation that was difficult to differentiate from acute AMR. On day 9 his urine output decreased dramatically and the Scr level increased. His anti-blood type A antibody titer increased to ×16 postopratively and the tacrolimus trough level was higher than in our immunosuppressive regimen. Although we gave priority to anti-AMR treatment, adequate dose adjustment of tacrolimus after tacrolimus nephrotoxicity was diagnosed from graft biopsy could correct allograft dysfunction.

  9. Microstructural characterization of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Mn-V-Cr based AB2-type battery alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhan

    1999-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), combined with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was employed to investigate a proprietary and multicomponent AB2 type Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery alloy. This material was prepared by High Pressure Gas Atomization (HPGA) and examined in both the as-atomized and heat treated condition. TEM examination showed a heavily faulted dendritic growth structure in as-atomized powder. Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) showed that this region consisted of both a cubic C15 structure with lattice constant a=7.03 and a hexagonal C14 structure with lattice parameter a=4.97 Å, c=8.11 Å. The Orientation Relationship (OR) between the C14 and C15 structures was determined to be (111)[1$\\bar{1}$0]C15//(0001)[11$\\bar{2}$0]C14. An interdendritic phase possessing the C14 structure was also seen. There was also a very fine grain region consisting of the C14 structure. Upon heat treatment, the faulted structure became more defined and appeared as intercalation layers within the grains. Spherical particles rich in Zr and Ni appeared scattered at the grain boundaries instead of the C14 interdendritic phase. The polycrystalline region also changed to a mixture of C14 and C15 structures. These results as well as phase stability of the C15 and C14 structures based on a consideration of atomic size factor and the average electron concentration are discussed.

  10. An air-breathing single cell small proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with AB5-type metal hydride and an ultra-low voltage input boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Akihiro; Shodai, Takahisa

    A new strategy for increasing the power density of an air-breathing small proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for the main energy source of portable consumer electronics is presented. The small PEMFC system is composed of a single cell. Utilizing the output voltage of the single cell, we introduce a newly designed ultra-low voltage input boost converter. The boost converter can generate 4.1 V output from input sources with low voltage ranges, such as under 1.0 V. The cathode plate is made from a thin SUS 316L stainless steel plate and has ribs that prevent the cathode from bending. The hydrogen is supplied by a metal hydride (MH) tank cartridge. The MH tank contains highly packed AB5-type MH. The MH tank cartridge has a volume of 13.2 cm 3 and can absorb 6.7 L of hydrogen. The maximum power of the small PEMFC is 4.42 W at room temperature. Using 6.7 L of hydrogen, the small PEMFC can generate 11 Wh of electricity. The power density of the small PEMFC reaches 0.51 Wh cm -3. And the power density of the whole small PEMFC system, which contains the boost converter, a small Li-ion battery for a load absorber, and a case for the system, reaches 0.14 Wh cm -3. This value matches that of external Li-ion battery chargers for cell phones. We installed the small PEMFC system in a cell phone and confirmed the operations of calling, receiving, videophone, connecting to the Internet, and watching digital TV. And also confirmed that the small PEMFC system provides approximately 8.25 h of talk time, which is about three times as long as that for the original Li-ion battery.

  11. [Teaching design and practice of human blood type traits in genetics comprehensive laboratory course].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Hu, Dongmei; Yu, Dade; Dong, Mingliang; Li, Yun; Fan, Yingming; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Comprehensive laboratory courses, which enable students to aptly apply theoretic knowledge and master experiment skills, play an important role in the present educational reform of laboratory courses. We utilized human ABO blood type as the experimental subject, and designed the experiment--"Molecular Genotyping of Human ABO Blood Type and Analysis of Population Genetic Equilibrium". In the experiment, DNA in mucosal cells is extracted from students' saliva, and each student's genotype is identified using a series of molecular genetics technologies, including PCR amplification of target fragments, enzymatic digestion, and electrophoretic separation. Then, taking the whole class as an analogous Mendel population, a survey of genotype frequency of ABO blood type is conducted, followed with analyses of various population genetic parameters using Popgene. Through the open laboratory course, students can not only master molecular genetic experimental skills, but also improve their understanding of theoretic knowledge through independent design and optimization of molecular techniques. After five years of research and practice, a stable experimental system of molecular genetics has been established to identify six genotypes of ABO blood types, namely I(A)I(A), I(A)i, I(B)I(B), I(B)i, I(A)I(B) and ii. Laboratory courses of molecular and population genetics have been integrated by calculating the frequencies of the six genotypes and three multiple alleles and testing population genetic equilibrium. The goal of the open laboratory course with independent design and implementation by the students has been achieved. This laboratory course has proved effective and received good reviews from the students. It could be applied as a genetics laboratory course for the biology majors directly, and its ideas and methods could be promoted and applied to other biological laboratory courses.

  12. Effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Adele; Kashi, Zahra; Daneshpour, Ezzatossadat; Akha, Ozra; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM. The patients received treatments of a placebo (control group; n = 20) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (cabergoline group; n = 20) using the sequential method, once per week for 3 months, while using previously prescribed glucose-lowering drugs. All tests, such as levels of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-prandial glucose, complete lipid profile, prolactin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results: The fasting blood sugar levels were significantly different between placebo and cabergoline groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.004). The prolactin levels were significantly different from beginning of the treatment to 6 months later (P = 0.001). In the cabergoline group, there was a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels after 3 months (P = 0.003). Overall, 65%and 45% patients in the cabergoline and control groups, respectively, responded to treatment (HbA1C<7%). Conclusion: Cabergoline may be useful as a long-acting antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27749534

  13. limited potentiation of blood pressure in response to oral tyramine by the anti-Parkinson brain selective multifunctional monoamine oxidase-AB inhibitor, M30.

    PubMed

    Gal, Shunit; Abassi, Zaid A; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2010-08-01

    One of the limitations of non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors as anti-depressant or anti-Parkinson drugs is their ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine, resulting from inhibition of systemic MAO-A and release of noradrenaline. We have investigated the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional, brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor, M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline], and compared it to the classical non-selective inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) in rats. We also measured MAO-A and B in the striatum, hippocampus, liver, and small intestine and determined brain levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. At the doses employed, intraperitoneal (i.p.) M30 (5 and 10 mg/kg) selectively inhibited brain MAO-A and B by more than 85%, with little inhibition of liver and small intestine enzymes while raising striatal levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. In contrast to TCP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which fully inhibits both enzymes in the brain and systemic organs and significantly potentiates the tyramine pressor effect, M30 had a limited pressor effect as compared to it and controls. The limited potentiation of tyramine pressor effect by M30, its ability to raise brain levels of aminergic neurotransmitters together with its neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities make this drug potentially important as an anti-depressant and anti-Parkinsonian agent, for which it is being developed.

  14. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  15. Alterations of blood pressure in type 1 diabetic children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Darcan, Sukran; Goksen, Damla; Mir, Sevgi; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Buyukinan, Muammer; Coker, Mahmut; Berdeli, Afig; Köse, Timur; Cura, Alphan

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between metabolic control, microalbuminuria, and diabetic nephropathy with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in normotensive individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). ABPM was undertaken in 68 normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with a mean age of 14.4+/-4.2 years. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed on the basis of a urinary albumin excretion rate grater than 20 microg/min in two of the three 24-h urine collections. Hypertension (HT) frequency was greater in the microalbuminuric patients than normoalbuminuric patients (54 vs 17.54%, p=0.05) with ABPM. Microalbuminuric patients had a higher diastolic pressure burden than normoalbuminuric patients. There were no differences in systolic and diastolic dips between the two groups. Diastolic pressure loads in all periods showed a significant correlation with duration of diabetes, mean HbA1c from the onset of diabetes, and level of microalbuminuria. Nocturnal dipping was reduced in 41.2% of the patients. In the normoalbuminuric group 41.1% and in the microalbuminuric group 63.6% were nondippers. Our data demonstrate higher 24-h and daytime diastolic blood pressure load and loss of nocturnal dip in type 1 diabetic adolescents and children. High diastolic blood pressure burden in diabetic patients could represent a risk for nephropathy.

  16. Blood glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II patients to some local fruits.

    PubMed

    Guevarra, M T; Panlasigui, L N

    2000-12-01

    To determine the glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II subjects to fruits, four locally available fruits (containing 25 g of available carbohydrates per serving portion) of chico, mango, pineapple, and papaya were tested among ten type II diabetic subjects, using wheat bread as the control. Results of the in vivo test indicated that chico and mango had significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) blood glucose areas compared to wheat bread. Chico and mango also had a much lower glycemic index (GI), 57 and 59, respectively, compared to pineapple, 73 and papaya, 86. Differences in glucose responses to fruits and their varying GI are attributed to the amount of fiber, type and amount of sugars found, presence of antinutrients, acidity and physical characteristics of the fruits when chewed. The high fiber content of chico (7.9%), its fructose content (5.3%), its grainy texture when chewed and the presence of antinutrients (saponin, sapotin and achrasaponin) may contribute to its slow digestion and absorption. The low GI and blood glucose response of mango may be because of its fructose content (3.0%), acidity content (malic, citric and tartaric) and its phytic acid content (0.03%). Furthermore, starch, which is a possible factor contributing to low GI, is present in chico (0.8%) and mango (0.3%). Pineapple and papaya, the test fruits that elicited higher blood glucose responses and GI, have much lower fiber contents, less acids and contain glucose and sucrose sugars.

  17. CpxR Activates MexAB-OprM Efflux Pump Expression and Enhances Antibiotic Resistance in Both Laboratory and Clinical nalB-Type Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xue-Xian; O’Gara, Fergal; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) efflux pumps are responsible for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we demonstrate that CpxR, previously identified as a regulator of the cell envelope stress response in Escherichia coli, is directly involved in activation of expression of RND efflux pump MexAB-OprM in P. aeruginosa. A conserved CpxR binding site was identified upstream of the mexA promoter in all genome-sequenced P. aeruginosa strains. CpxR is required to enhance mexAB-oprM expression and drug resistance, in the absence of repressor MexR, in P. aeruginosa strains PA14. As defective mexR is a genetic trait associated with the clinical emergence of nalB-type multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa during antibiotic treatment, we investigated the involvement of CpxR in regulating multidrug resistance among resistant isolates generated in the laboratory via antibiotic treatment and collected in clinical settings. CpxR is required to activate expression of mexAB-oprM and enhances drug resistance, in the absence or presence of MexR, in ofloxacin-cefsulodin-resistant isolates generated in the laboratory. Furthermore, CpxR was also important in the mexR-defective clinical isolates. The newly identified regulatory linkage between CpxR and the MexAB-OprM efflux pump highlights the presence of a complex regulatory network modulating multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27736975

  18. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor interaction with β1 integrin is required for platelet-derived growth factor-AB-induced human mesenchymal stem/stromal cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Valérie; Dromard, Cécile; Rico, Angélique; Langonné, Alain; Gaillard, Julien; Guilloton, Fabien; Casteilla, Louis; Sensebé, Luc

    2015-09-29

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are well described for their role in tissue regeneration following injury. Migratory properties of endogenous or administrated MSC are critical for tissue repair processes. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a chemotactic growth factor that elicits mesenchymal cell migration. However, it is yet to be elucidated if signaling pathways other than direct activation of PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) are involved in PDGF-induced cell migration. Knocking down and co-immunoprecipitation approaches were used to evaluate urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) requirement and its interactions with proteins involved in migration mechanisms, in human MSC induced to migrate under PDGF-AB effect. We demonstrated that uPAR activation and its association with β1-integrin are required for PDGF-AB-induced migration. This phenomenon takes place in MSC derived from bone marrow and from adipose tissue. We showed that PDGF-AB downstream signaling requires other effector molecules in MSC such as the uPA/uPAR system and β1 integrin signaling pathway known for their role in migration. These findings provide new insights in molecular mechanisms of PDGF-AB-induced migration of human MSC that may be relevant to control MSC function and tissue remodeling after injury.

  19. Blood-based profiles of DNA methylation predict the underlying distribution of cell types

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Devin C; Christensen, Brock C; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J; Langevin, Scott M; Kelsey, Karl T; Wiencke, John K; Houseman, E Andres

    2013-01-01

    The potential influence of underlying differences in relative leukocyte distributions in studies involving blood-based profiling of DNA methylation is well recognized and has prompted development of a set of statistical methods for inferring changes in the distribution of white blood cells using DNA methylation signatures. However, the extent to which this methodology can accurately predict cell-type proportions based on blood-derived DNA methylation data in a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) has yet to be examined. We used publicly available data deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (accession number GSE37008), which consisted of both blood-derived epigenome-wide DNA methylation data assayed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray and complete blood cell (CBC) counts among a community cohort of 94 non-diseased individuals. Constrained projection (CP) was used to obtain predictions of the proportions of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes for each of the study samples based on their DNA methylation signatures. Our findings demonstrated high consistency between the average CBC-derived and predicted percentage of monocytes and lymphocytes (17.9% and 17.6% for monocytes and 82.1% and 81.4% for lymphocytes), with root mean squared error (rMSE) of 5% and 6%, for monocytes and lymphocytes, respectively. Similarly, there was moderate-high correlation between the CP-predicted and CBC-derived percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes (0.60 and 0.61, respectively), and these results were robust to the number of leukocyte differentially methylated regions (L-DMRs) used for CP prediction. These results serve as further validation of the CP approach and highlight the promise of this technique for EWAS where DNA methylation is profiled using whole-blood genomic DNA. PMID:23903776

  20. Myocardial blood flow under general anaesthesia with sevoflurane in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetic patients, cardiac events in the perioperative period may be associated with diminished myocardial vasomotor function and endothelial dysfunction. The influence of sevoflurane anaesthesia on myocardial endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mellitus is investigated in this pilot study. Methods Six males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and eight healthy controls were included. Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest, during adenosine-induced hyperaemia (endothelium-independent vasodilation) and after sympathetic stimulation by the cold pressor test (endothelium-dependent vasodilation). Measurements were performed before and after induction of sevoflurane anaesthesia. Results Sevoflurane anaesthesia decreased resting MBF in diabetics but not in controls (P = 0.03), while baseline MBF did not differ between diabetics and controls. Without anaesthesia, adenosine-induced hyperaemia increased MBF in both groups compared to resting values. Adenosine combined with sevoflurane resulted in a lower hyperaemic MBF in both groups compared to no anaesthesia. Differences in MBF in response to adenosine before and after sevoflurane administration were larger in diabetic patients, however not statistically significant in this pilot group (P = 0.08). Myocardial blood flow parameters after the cold pressor test were not different between groups. Conclusion These pilot data in type 2 diabetic patients show that sevoflurane anaesthesia decreases resting myocardial blood flow compared to healthy controls. Further, we observed a trend towards a lower endothelium-independent vasodilation capacity in diabetic patients under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not affected by sevoflurane in diabetic patients. These data provide preliminary insight into myocardial responses in type 2 diabetic patients under general anaesthesia. Trial registration http

  1. Indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies (Ab): The effect of DTPA conjugation on the Ab activity and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Ohmomo, Y.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to human ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) were conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using cyclic DTPA anhydride and the obtained conjugates, DTPA-Ab, were labeled with In-111. The effect of DTPA conjugation on the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity of Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay and Scatchard plot analysis and In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were used for the radioimmunodetection of tumor. Ab containing 1.0 DTPA molecule per Ab showed almost full retention of both the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity. Then, 40 ..mu..Ci of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were injected intravenously to nude mice bearing AFP-producing human testicular tumor and the resulted were compared with I-131 labeled Ab. Scintigraphy clearly revealed transplanted tumor. Localization of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab was significantly higher than I-131 labeled Ab. Tumor to blood ratio obtained at 4 days after injection was 2.59 with In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab compared to 0.99 with I-131 labeled Ab. When more than 1.9 DTPA molecules were incorporated per Ab, the maximum binding capacity decreased, although the affinity constant was less affected. These In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab caused significantly higher liver accumulation. These results indicate that In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab at a cojugated DTPA to Ab molar ratio of 1.0 may be superior to I-131 labeled Ab for tumor imaging, but the maximum binding capacity and tissue distribution of In-111 labeled DTPA-AB are greatly dependent upon the number of DTPA molecules incorporated per Ab molecule.

  2. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    PubMed

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  3. Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure Associates With Cardiovascular Complications Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Forman, John P.; Jensen, Majken K.; Flint, Alan; Curhan, Gary C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) commonly coexist, and both conditions are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to high blood pressure and risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. The current study included 1,005 men and 1,299 women with T2D from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study, of whom 732 developed CVD. A genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 29 established blood pressure–associated variants. The genetic predisposition score showed consistent associations with risk of CVD in men and women. In the combined results, each additional blood pressure–increasing allele was associated with a 6% increased risk of CVD (odds ratio [OR] 1.06 [95% CI 1.03–1.10]). The OR was 1.62 (1.22–2.14) for risk of CVD comparing the extreme quartiles of the genetic predisposition score. The genetic association for CVD risk was significantly stronger in patients with T2D than that estimated in the general populations by a meta-analysis (OR per SD of genetic score 1.22 [95% CI 1.10–1.35] vs. 1.10 [1.08–1.12]; I2 = 71%). Our data indicate that genetic predisposition to high blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. PMID:22829449

  4. Rosiglitazone reduces microalbuminuria and blood pressure independently of glycemia in type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L; Ruilope, Luis M; McMorn, Stephen O; Weston, Wayde M; Heise, Mark A; Freed, Martin I; Porter, Lisa E

    2006-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that rosiglitazone combined with metformin provides a greater reduction in microalbuminuria and blood pressure than metformin and glyburide at comparable levels of glycemic control. In a double-blind, parallel-group design 389 participants with type 2 diabetes were followed for 32 weeks. Urinary albumin: creatinine ratio was significantly reduced at 32 weeks compared with baseline in the rosiglitazone plus metformin group (-22.7%; P < 0.01) but not in the glyburide plus metformin comparator group (-7.1%; P = 0.32). Patients who completed the study (81.5%) demonstrated a treatment difference of -19.5% (P = 0.03), favoring the rosiglitazone group. Rosiglitazone plus metformin reduced both mean 24-h systolic (-3.4 mmHg; P = 0.01) and diastolic (-2.5 mmHg; P < 0.01) ambulatory blood pressure compared with glyburide plus metformin. Addition of rosiglitazone to metformin also reduced levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen and activity, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen compared with addition of glyburide. Rosiglitazone added to background therapy with metformin provides greater reductions in microalbuminuria and blood pressure as compared with glyburide. These additional improvements in microalbuminuria, blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers were observed despite comparable improvements in glycemic control in both groups and may be related to the anti-inflammatory properties of rosiglitazone.

  5. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood samples stored as high-salt lysates.

    PubMed

    Zolg, J W; Lanciotti, R S; Wendlinger, M; Meyer, W A

    1990-09-01

    Blood samples to be tested for the presence of parasite DNA by using specific DNA probes are routinely stored in our laboratory as high-salt lysates (HSL). To safeguard against the risk of accidental infection with etiological agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) while manipulating large numbers of blood samples in preparation for DNA probing, we determined the residual infectivity of HIV-1 after exposure to HSL components. Both high-titer virus stocks or provirus-carrying cells, suspended either in tissue culture medium or freshly drawn blood, were completely inactivated upon contact with the HSL components. This was verified by the absence of any detectable HIV-1-specific antigen in the supernatants of long-term cultures and the absence of virus-specific DNA fragments after amplification by polymerase chain reaction with DNA from such cultures as target DNA. These results support the conclusion that the virus is in fact completely inactivated by contact with the HSL components, rendering blood specimens stored as HSL noninfectious in regard to HIV-1.

  6. Association between day-by-day and ambulatory blood pressure variability in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Masaya; Matsutani, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Kayama, Yosuke; Takeda, Norihiko; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-09-18

    It remains unclear whether ambulatory blood pressure variability (BPV) contributes toward day-by-day BPV, despite the fact that not only day-by-day but also ambulatory BPV is reported to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes patients. This study aimed to determine the association between day-by-day BPV and ambulatory BPV, which is especially distinguished between diurnal and nocturnal BPV, in type 2 diabetes patients. Day-by-day and ambulatory BPV were assessed in 30 type 2 diabetes patients (aged 54±15 years; 87% men; glycated hemoglobin: 9.1±1.9%) in inpatient settings. Day-by-day systolic BPV was correlated significantly with diurnal systolic BPV (r=0.426, P=0.019), but not nocturnal systolic BPV (r=0.175, P=0.354). Multiple regression analysis showed that diurnal systolic BPV and diurnal mean systolic blood pressure were associated independently with day-by-day systolic BPV. With respect to type 2 diabetes, these findings suggest that day-by-day BPV is reflected in diurnal BPV rather than nocturnal BPV.

  7. Relationship of Early Spontaneous Type V Blood Pressure Fluctuation after Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients and the Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lian; Wan, Ting; Xu, Xiahong; Liu, Feifeng; Li, Changsong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Huan; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between an early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation and the post-thrombolysis prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were admitted consecutively. All patients were categorized into the type V blood pressure fluctuation group or non-type V blood pressure group. Their blood pressure was monitored before thrombolysis and until 6 h after thrombolysis. Baseline data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 170 patients, 43 (25.2%) had an early type V blood pressure fluctuation. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis and 24 h after thrombolysis, and the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an unfavorable prognosis at 3 months was associated with the NIHSS score before thrombolysis (P = 0.000) but probably not with this blood pressure fluctuation (P = 0.058). An early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation is common in patients with acute cerebral infarction who received venous thrombolysis, especially if they have a higher NIHSS score before thrombolysis. The type V blood pressure fluctuation may not influence patients’ prognosis; however, this needs to be confirmed in future trials. PMID:27278121

  8. Relationship of Early Spontaneous Type V Blood Pressure Fluctuation after Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients and the Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lian; Wan, Ting; Xu, Xiahong; Liu, Feifeng; Li, Changsong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Huan; Li, Gang

    2016-06-09

    We examined the relationship between an early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation and the post-thrombolysis prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were admitted consecutively. All patients were categorized into the type V blood pressure fluctuation group or non-type V blood pressure group. Their blood pressure was monitored before thrombolysis and until 6 h after thrombolysis. Baseline data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 170 patients, 43 (25.2%) had an early type V blood pressure fluctuation. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis and 24 h after thrombolysis, and the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an unfavorable prognosis at 3 months was associated with the NIHSS score before thrombolysis (P = 0.000) but probably not with this blood pressure fluctuation (P = 0.058). An early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation is common in patients with acute cerebral infarction who received venous thrombolysis, especially if they have a higher NIHSS score before thrombolysis. The type V blood pressure fluctuation may not influence patients' prognosis; however, this needs to be confirmed in future trials.

  9. Blood methylomic signatures of presymptomatic dementia in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lunnon, Katie; Smith, Rebecca G; Cooper, Itzik; Greenbaum, Lior; Mill, Jonathan; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2015-03-01

    Due to an aging population, the incidence of dementia is steadily rising. The ability to identify early markers in blood, which appear before the onset of clinical symptoms is of considerable interest to allow early intervention, particularly in "high risk" groups such as those with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present a longitudinal study of genome-wide DNA methylation in whole blood from 18 elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes who developed presymptomatic dementia within an 18-month period following baseline assessment and 18 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls who maintained normal cognitive function. We identified a significant overlap in methylomic differences between groups at baseline and follow-up, with 8 CpG sites being consistently differentially methylated above our nominal significance threshold before symptoms at baseline and at 18 months follow up, after a diagnosis of presymptomatic dementia. Finally, we report a significant overlap between DNA methylation differences identified in converters, only after they develop symptoms of dementia, with differences at the same loci in blood samples from patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease compared with unaffected control subjects.

  10. Hemolysis and heat generation in six different types of centrifugal blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Araki, K; Taenaka, Y; Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Wakisaka, Y; Watari, M; Nakatani, T; Akagi, H; Baba, Y; Anai, H

    1995-09-01

    What the most causative factor affecting hemolysis is still controversial. To resolve this problem, we investigated the relationship between hemolysis and heat generation in six types of centrifugal blood pumps (Bio-Pump, Delphin, Capiox, Nikkiso, Isoflow, and Toyobo). The analyzed parameters were index of hemolysis in fresh goat blood, pumping performance, and heat generation in a thermally isolated mock circuit. These parameters were analyzed at a flow rate of 5 L/min by changing the pressure head (100 mm Hg and 500 mm Hg). At 500 mm Hg of pressure head, the Bio-Pump needed the highest rotation number and showed the highest hemolytic rate and heat generation. The index of hemolysis is well correlated to heat generation (r2 = 0.721). Heat may originate from the motor by conduction, hydraulic energy loss, and mechanical friction between the shaft and seal. We strongly suspect that hemolysis was caused by a factor such as mechanical friction which generates heat locally.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Blood Pressure in 162,135 Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Julia M; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Dost, Axel; Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Kiess, Wieland; Schöfl, Christof; Holl, Reinhard W

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variation in blood pressure (BP) has been observed in different populations. However, only few studies have focused on BP seasonality in diabetic patients. This study examined the seasonal patterns in BP in 62,589 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in 99,546 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the German/Austrian Diabetes Follow-up Registry. Adjusted mean BP values revealed seasonal cycles of 12 months, with higher BP in colder months. Using harmonic regression models, the estimated systolic BP difference throughout the year was 2.28/2.48 mm Hg in T1DM/T2DM (both P<.001). Interestingly, seasonal variation in diastolic BP was larger in T1DM than in T2DM (1.24/0.64 mm Hg, P<.001). A sex difference was observed in T1DM only, while age differences occurred in both types of diabetes. Correlations between BP and potentially related factors such as outdoor temperature indicated that reasons underlying BP seasonality are likely to be complex and vary by subgroup.

  12. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  13. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl β-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-β-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes.

  14. Effects of syringe type and storage conditions on results of equine blood gas and acid-base analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sarah A; Constable, Peter D; Sen, Ismail; Couëtil, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    To determine effects of syringe type and storage conditions on blood gas and acid-base values for equine blood samples. Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy horses. Heparinized jugular venous blood was equilibrated via a tonometer at 37°C with 12% O(2) and 5% CO(2). Aliquots (3 mL) of tonometer-equilibrated blood were collected in random order by use of a glass syringe (GS), general-purpose polypropylene syringe (GPPS), or polypropylene syringe designed for blood gas analysis (PSBGA) and stored in ice water (0°C) or at room temperature (22°C) for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes. Blood pH was measured, and blood gas analysis was performed; data were analyzed by use of multivariable regression analysis. Blood Po(2) remained constant for the reference method (GS stored at 0°C) but decreased linearly at a rate of 7.3 mm Hg/h when stored in a GS at 22°C. In contrast, Po(2) increased when blood was stored at 0°C in a GPPS and PSBGA or at 22°C in a GPPS; however, Po(2) did not change when blood was stored at 22°C in a PSBGA. Calculated values for plasma concentration of HCO(3) and total CO(2) concentration remained constant in the 3 syringe types when blood was stored at 22°C for 2 hours but increased when blood was stored in a GS or GPPS at 0°C. Blood samples for blood gas and acid-base analysis should be collected into a GS and stored at 0°C or collected into a PSBGA and stored at room temperature.

  15. Systolic Blood Pressure and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    PubMed

    Aikens, Rachael C; Zhao, Wei; Saleheen, Danish; Reilly, Muredach P; Epstein, Stephen E; Tikkanen, Emmi; Salomaa, Veikko; Voight, Benjamin F

    2017-02-01

    Observational studies have shown that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) is associated with future onset of type 2 diabetes, but whether this association is causal is not known. We applied the Mendelian randomization framework to evaluate the causal hypothesis that elevated SBP increases risk for type 2 diabetes. We used 28 genetic variants associated with SBP and evaluated their impact on type 2 diabetes using a European-centric meta-analysis comprising 37,293 case and 125,686 control subjects. We found that elevation of SBP levels by 1 mmHg due to our genetic score was associated with a 2% increase in risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, P = 9.05 × 10(-5)). To limit confounding, we constructed a second score based on 13 variants exclusively associated with SBP and found a similar increase in type 2 diabetes risk per 1 mmHg of genetic elevation in SBP (odds ratio 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, P = 1.48 × 10(-3)). Sensitivity analyses using multiple, alternative causal inference measures and simulation studies demonstrated consistent association, suggesting robustness of our primary observation. In line with previous reports from observational studies, we found that genetically elevated SBP was associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Further work will be required to elucidate the biological mechanism and translational implications. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Automated ABO Rh-D blood type detection using smartphone imaging for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya; Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya; Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel methodology for automated ABO Rh-D blood typing using simple morphological image processing algorithms to be used in conjunction with a fabric strip based rapid diagnostic test. Images of the fabric strip post testing are acquired using low cost mobile phones and the proposed algorithm proceeds to automatically identify the blood type by processing the images using steps comprising of noise reduction, range filtering and empirically derived heuristics. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple mobile phone application to enable automated, rapid and accessible blood type detection at the point-of-care.

  17. The binding effectiveness of anti-r-disintegrin polyclonal antibodies against disintegrins and PII and PIII metalloproteases: An immunological survey of type A, B and A+B venoms from Mohave rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Esteban; Mallela, Sahiti; Nyguen, Matthew; Báez, Raúl; Parra, Victoria; Johnson, Rachel; Wilson, Kyle; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E

    2017-01-01

    Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). Also, type A+B venom contains a combination of Mojave toxin and SVMP. The use of an anti-disintegrin antibody in a simple Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) can be used to identify the difference between the venoms of the type A, B, and A+B Mohave rattlesnakes. This study implements the use of an anti-recombinant disintegrin polyclonal antibody (ARDPA) for the detection of disintegrins and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) in individual crude snake venoms of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) of varying geographical locations. After correlation with Western blots, coagulation activity and LD50 data, it was determined that the antibody allows for a quick and cost-efficient identification of venom types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-02-20

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications.

  19. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications. PMID:23429024

  20. Cell-type specific gene expression profiles of leukocytes in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Chana; Diehn, Maximilian; Alizadeh, Ash A; Brown, Patrick O

    2006-01-01

    Background Blood is a complex tissue comprising numerous cell types with distinct functions and corresponding gene expression profiles. We attempted to define the cell type specific gene expression patterns for the major constituent cells of blood, including B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes. We did this by comparing the global gene expression profiles of purified B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, granulocytes, and lymphocytes using cDNA microarrays. Results Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that similar cell populations from different donors share common gene expression profiles. Supervised analyses identified gene expression signatures for B-cells (427 genes), T-cells (222 genes), CD8+ T-cells (23 genes), granulocytes (411 genes), and lymphocytes (67 genes). No statistically significant gene expression signature was identified for CD4+ cells. Genes encoding cell surface proteins were disproportionately represented among the genes that distinguished among the lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocytes were distinguishable from granulocytes based on their higher levels of expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, while granulocytes exhibited characteristic expression of various cell surface and inflammatory proteins. Conclusion The genes comprising the cell-type specific signatures encompassed many of the genes already known to be involved in cell-type specific processes, and provided clues that may prove useful in discovering the functions of many still unannotated genes. The most prominent feature of the cell type signature genes was the enrichment of genes encoding cell surface proteins, perhaps reflecting the importance of specialized systems for sensing the environment to the physiology of resting leukocytes. PMID:16704732

  1. Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer's disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ryzhikova, Elena; Kazakov, Oleksandr; Halamkova, Lenka; Celmins, Dzintra; Malone, Paula; Molho, Eric; Zimmerman, Earl A; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-07-01

    The key moment for efficiently and accurately diagnosing dementia occurs during the early stages. This is particularly true for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this proof-of-concept study, we applied near infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy of blood serum together with advanced multivariate statistics for the selective identification of AD. We analyzed data from 20 AD patients, 18 patients with other neurodegenerative dementias (OD) and 10 healthy control (HC) subjects. NIR Raman microspectroscopy differentiated patients with more than 95% sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrated the high discriminative power of artificial neural network (ANN) classification models, thus revealing the high potential of this developed methodology for the differential diagnosis of AD. Raman spectroscopic, blood-based tests may aid clinical assessments for the effective and accurate differential diagnosis of AD, decrease the labor, time and cost of diagnosis, and be useful for screening patient populations for AD development and progression. Multivariate data analysis of blood serum Raman spectra allows for the differentiation between patients with Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia and healthy individuals.

  2. Expression of ABH blood group antigens, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, and type IV collagen in the sinusoids of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Nakanuma, Y

    1991-01-01

    The expression of blood group antigens (A, B, H, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen on the sinusoids was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 11 cases of cirrhosis, 12 cases of chronic active hepatitis, and in a control sample of 16 normal livers. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC characteristically showed a diffuse and strong immunoreactivity to ABH blood group antigens in the specimen with a comparable ABO blood group. The sinusoidal endothelial cells were also diffusely and strongly positive for UEA-I receptors. In contrast, in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-I receptors. In normal livers, only a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-1 receptors. Tests for factor VIII-related antigen and Lewis blood group antigens were almost negative on sinusoidal endothelial cells. Although type IV collagen was distributed diffusely in the space of Disse in these four groups, its expression was strongest in HCC. Blood vessels of portal tracts and fibrous septa were positive for ABH blood group antigens, UEA-1 receptors, factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen, but negative for Lewis blood group antigens. These findings suggest that some sinusoidal endothelial cells undergo "capillarization" in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis, and that the majority of sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC have phenotypic characteristics of capillaries.

  3. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  4. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  5. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  6. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  7. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A R; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C G; Espina, Luz M; Souza, Kátia P R; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Krysztof, David E; Foster, Gregory A; Stramer, Susan L; Rios, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. We used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3-8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma.

  8. Estimation of size of cord blood inventory based on high-resolution typing of HLAs.

    PubMed

    Song, E Y; Huh, J Y; Kim, S Y; Kim, T G; Oh, S; Yoon, J H; Roh, E Y; Park, M H; Kang, M S; Shin, S

    2014-07-01

    Methods for estimating the cord blood (CB) inventory size required vary according to the ethnic diversity of the HLA, degree of HLA matching and HLA-typing resolution. We estimated the CB inventory size required using 7190 stored CB units (CBU) and 2450 patients who were awaiting or underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With high-resolution typing of HLA-A, B and DRB1, 94.6% of Korean patients could find CBUs in 100 000 CBUs with a 5/6 match, and 95.7% could find CBUs in 5000 CBUs with a 4/6 match. With low-resolution typing of HLA-A and B and high-resolution typing of leukocyte antigen-DRB1, 95% of patients could find CBUs in 50 000 CBUs with a 5/6 match, and 96.7% could find CBUs in 3000 CBUs  with a 4/6 match. With additional high-resolution typing for HLA-A and B, which could improve transplantation outcome, the size of the CB inventory would need to increase twofold for Koreans.

  9. Is there association between ABO blood group and the risk factors of unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Yousefi, Bahman; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Majidinia, Maryam; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Jahani, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    There are four major blood groups in human based on the presence of A and B antigens. ABO gene encodes A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells and there are reported relations between this blood phenotype and pregnancy outcomes in the women. In this study, medical records of 792 healthy pregnant women were investigated and their age and blood test results including blood group with fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, creatinine and red blood cell counts were analyzed in statistical package for the social sciences. The RBC count in AB blood type was significantly higher than A and O blood group, also FBS level in the people with AB blood group was meaningfully higher than A group. But the mean of HGB and HCT were not significantly different between groups. The serum urea in the AB group was higher than the three other groups and also it was significantly higher in B compared to O and A blood groups. The serum creatinine in the AB group was higher than the three other groups too. Also it was significantly higher in the B group compared to A blood groups. These results indicate that the ABO blood group may have association with some of the risk factors of the unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy and it may be one of the prognostic tools, also it addresses more extensive studies.

  10. Survival of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258 in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Scott D.; Porter, Adeline R.; Freedman, Brett; Dorward, David W.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is a prominent cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Bloodstream infections caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, including the epidemic lineage known as multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258), are difficult to treat, and the rate of mortality from such infections is high. Thus, it is imperative that we gain a better understanding of host defense against this pathogen as a step toward developing novel therapies. Here we tested the hypothesis that the resistance of ST258 to bactericidal components of human blood, such as serum complement, is linked to virulence capacity in the context of bacteremia. There was significant variance in the survival of ST258 clinical isolates in heparinized human blood or normal human serum. The rate of survival of ST258 isolates in human blood was, in general, similar to that in normal human serum, suggesting a prominent role for complement (rather than leukocytes) in the healthy host defense against ST258 isolates and related organisms. Indeed, deposition of serum complement—the C5b to C9 (C5b-C9) membrane attack complex—onto the surface of ST258 isolates accompanied serum bactericidal activity. Human serum treated with pharmacological inhibitors of complement, depleted of antibody, or heated at 56°C for 30 min had significantly reduced or absent bactericidal activity. In contrast to heparinized blood from humans, that from BALB/c mice lacked bactericidal activity toward the ST258 isolates tested, but the virulence of these ST258 isolates in a mouse bacteremia model was inexplicably limited. Our data highlight the importance of the complement system in host defense against ST258 bacteremia, and we propose that there is the potential to enhance complement-mediated bactericidal activity using an antibody-based approach. PMID:28115349

  11. Evaluation of vitamin D relationship with type 2 diabetes and systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Shivananda Bijoor

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether relationships exist among vitamin D, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and blood pressure in Trinidadian subjects with T2DM. Research design and methods This was a case–controlled study to determine if vitamin D levels were lower in patients with T2DM. After data analysis, an exploratory hypothesis of vitamin D relationship to systolic blood pressure (SBP) was developed. Plasma calcifediol (25(OH)D) concentrations were used as a measurement for vitamin D levels and were determined by ELISA. Cholesterol levels were measured by an automated dry chemistry analyzer and blood pressure was measured using an automatic blood pressure monitor. Results There was no significant difference (p=0.139, n=76) in 25(OH)D levels between patients with T2DM and controls. Subjects with SBP above 130 mm Hg were 8 times more likely to have a 25(OH)D plasma concentration above 25 ng/mL (OR 7.9 (2.2 to 28.7)), and were 5 times (OR 4.7 (1.7 to 15.1)) more likely to have a 25(OH)D plasma concentration above 30 ng/mL (OR 7.5 (2.3–24.2)). Vitamin D levels moderately and positively correlated with SBP (rs=0.38, p=0.001). Conclusions There was no significant difference in the 25(OH)D levels between patients with T2DM and controls (p=0.139). Patients with SBP under 130 mm Hg were 8 times more likely to have a vitamin D level above 25 ng/mL (OR 7.9 (2.2 to 28.7)). Further investigations are required to examine the relationship between vitamin D and SBP. PMID:27843555

  12. Systolic blood pressure control among individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A comparative effectiveness analysis of three interventions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intensive lifestyle management or frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes....

  13. Normalization of Phenotypic Data from a Clinical Data Warehouse: Case Study of Heterogeneous Blood Type Data with Surprising Results.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses often contain analogous data from disparate sources, resulting in heterogeneous formats and semantics. We have developed an approach that attempts to represent such phenotypic data in its most atomic form to facilitate aggregation. We illustrate this approach with human blood antigen typing (ABO-Rh) data drawn from the National Institutes of Health's Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS). In applying the method to actual patient data, we discovered a 2% incidence of changed blood types. We believe our approach can be applied to any institution's data to obtain comparable patient phenotypes. The actual discrepant blood type data will form the basis for a future study of the reasons for blood typing variation.

  14. Accuracy of self-monitored blood glucose in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Soni, Sonia; Evans, Arthur T; Graham, Kelly; Fisher, Betty

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence and predictors of inaccurate self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) diaries in type 2 diabetes are not well defined. This was a cross-sectional study of adults with type 2 diabetes in a diabetes clinic at a large urban public hospital. We collected copies of SMBG diaries and downloaded data from their glucose meters if patients brought them to their clinic appointment. Trained interviewers used standard tests to assess literacy, depression, and cognitive function. The main outcome measure was accuracy of the glucose diary assessed by comparing reported values to meter memory readings and to results of hemoglobin A(1c). Blood glucose self-monitoring was either missing or misleading for 48% (55 of 115) because (1) patients brought neither meter nor the SMBG diary (n = 26) or (2) the diary was inaccurate (n = 29). An inaccurate glucose diary (by comparison with meter readings) was predicted by normotension (odd ratio 5.6, P = 0.02) and one measure of cognitive impairment, slow Digit Symbol Coding (odds ratio 2.2, P = 0.02). A patient's self-assessment of his or her diary's accuracy was unreliable (sensitivity 63%, specificity 56%). SMBG diaries are frequently either not accurate or not brought to clinic visit. Some inaccuracy might be due to cognitive impairment. To achieve maximum benefit from glucose self-monitoring, glucose meter memory analysis is crucial before making therapy adjustments based on SMBG.

  15. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  16. AB108. The appliance of Bio-Plex immunoassay using dried blood spots for mucopolysaccharidosis IVA newborn screening in Taiwan—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Wang, Tuen-Jen; Tsai, Chia-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) resulting in excessive lysosomal storage of keratan sulfate. This excessive storage causes a systemic skeletal dysplasia, short stature, and joint abnormalities. Treatments for MPS IVA are available. Better outcomes are associated with early treatment, which highlights a need for newborn screening for MPS IVA. Methods We have conducted a newborn screening pilot program for MPS IVA since December 1, 2013. Screening involved measuring the quantity of GALNS in dried blood spots on filter paper (DBFP) from newborns using a Bio-Plex immunoassay. The amounts of fluorescence sorting detected by YAG laser with wavelengths of 532 (exciting) and 580 nm (emission) is proportional to the quantity of GALNS protein. Results More than 5,657 neonates have been analyzed, in those, 132 newborns had GALNS quantification less than the cut-off value (48.64 ρg/mL) at the first screening test. Most of them (n=124) were exclusive and only eight had been recalled for a second DBFP collection and GALNS quantity rechecked. The reference values were 48.64-552.4 ρg/mL. For the confirmed MPS IV patients without enzyme replacement therapy (n=11), the GALNS quantities were far less than 5% of the normal population, and ranged from 0.00 to 4.02 ρg/mL. The GALNS quantities of the carriers (n=2) were significantly reduced comparing with those of the normal values. Conclusions The Bio-Plex immunoassay has the potential to be adopted for newborn screening of MPS IVA. This method is reliable, sensitive, validated, simple, and cost-effective in measuring GALNS enzyme in DBFP.

  17. A study of the transport and immobilisation mechanisms of human red blood cells in a paper-based blood typing device using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lizi; Tian, Junfei; Ballerini, David; Li, Miaosi; Shen, Wei

    2013-09-07

    Recent research on the use of bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying the haemagglutination of red blood cells (RBCs). When a blood sample is introduced onto paper treated with the grouping antibodies, RBCs undergo haemagglutination with the corresponding grouping antibodies, forming agglutinated cell aggregates in the paper. A subsequent washing of the paper with saline buffer could not remove these aggregates from the paper; this phenomenon provides a new method for rapid, visual identification of the antibody-specific haemagglutination reactions and thus the determination of the blood type. This study aims to understand the mechanism of RBC immobilization inside the paper which follows haemagglutination reactions. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the morphology of the free and agglutinated RBCs that are labelled with FITC. Chromatographic elution patterns of both agglutinated and non-agglutinated RBCs are studied to gain insight into the transport behaviour of free RBCs and agglutinated aggregates. This work provides new information about RBC haemagglutination inside the fibre network of paper on a microscopic level, which is important for the future design of paper-based blood typing devices with high sensitivity and assaying speed.

  18. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion

    PubMed Central

    THENGCHAISRI, Naris; SINTHUSINGHA, Chayakrit; ARTHITWONG, Surapong; SATTASATHUCHANA, Panpicha

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers’ red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers. PMID:28450662

  19. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Evans, Gregory W; Byington, Robert P; Goff, David C; Grimm, Richard H; Cutler, Jeffrey A; Simons-Morton, Denise G; Basile, Jan N; Corson, Marshall A; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Katz, Lois; Peterson, Kevin A; Friedewald, William T; Buse, John B; Bigger, J Thomas; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2010-04-29

    There is no evidence from randomized trials to support a strategy of lowering systolic blood pressure below 135 to 140 mm Hg in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether therapy targeting normal systolic pressure (i.e., <120 mm Hg) reduces major cardiovascular events in participants with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. A total of 4733 participants with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to intensive therapy, targeting a systolic pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, or standard therapy, targeting a systolic pressure of less than 140 mm Hg. The primary composite outcome was nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The mean follow-up was 4.7 years. After 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure was 119.3 mm Hg in the intensive-therapy group and 133.5 mm Hg in the standard-therapy group. The annual rate of the primary outcome was 1.87% in the intensive-therapy group and 2.09% in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio with intensive therapy, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 1.06; P=0.20). The annual rates of death from any cause were 1.28% and 1.19% in the two groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.35; P=0.55). The annual rates of stroke, a prespecified secondary outcome, were 0.32% and 0.53% in the two groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.89; P=0.01). Serious adverse events attributed to antihypertensive treatment occurred in 77 of the 2362 participants in the intensive-therapy group (3.3%) and 30 of the 2371 participants in the standard-therapy group (1.3%) (P<0.001). In patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events, targeting a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, as compared with less than 140 mm Hg, did not reduce the rate of a composite outcome of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000620.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  20. Type I Interferons Regulate Immune Responses in Humans with Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H.; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Bunn, Patrick T.; Best, Shannon E.; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S.; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Loughland, Jessica R.; Burel, Julie; Doolan, Denise L.; Haque, Ashraful; McCarthy, James S.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The development of immunoregulatory networks is important to prevent disease. However, these same networks allow pathogens to persist and reduce vaccine efficacy. Here, we identify type I interferons (IFNs) as important regulators in developing anti-parasitic immunity in healthy volunteers infected for the first time with Plasmodium falciparum. Type I IFNs suppressed innate immune cell function and parasitic-specific CD4+ T cell IFNγ production, and they promoted the development of parasitic-specific IL-10-producing Th1 (Tr1) cells. Type I IFN-dependent, parasite-specific IL-10 production was also observed in P. falciparum malaria patients in the field following chemoprophylaxis. Parasite-induced IL-10 suppressed inflammatory cytokine production, and IL-10 levels after drug treatment were positively associated with parasite burdens before anti-parasitic drug administration. These findings have important implications for understanding the development of host immune responses following blood-stage P. falciparum infection, and they identify type I IFNs and related signaling pathways as potential targets for therapies or vaccine efficacy improvement. PMID:27705789

  1. Conformational analysis of thioglycoside derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens using an ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4: implications for design of non-hydrolysable mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2009-12-01

    Histo-blood group ABH antigens serve as recognition sites for infectious microorganisms and tissue lectins in intercellular communication, e.g. in tumor progression. Thus, they are of interest as a starting point for drug design. In this respect, potent non-hydrolysable derivatives such as thioglycosides are of special interest. As prerequisite to enable estimations of ligand properties relative to their natural counterparts, conformational properties of the thioglycosidic derivatives of ABH trisaccharides and their disaccharide units were calculated using systematic and filtered systematic searches with the MM4 force field. Parameters for the glycosidic torsions of thioglycosides were independently derived from ab initio calculations. The resulting energy deviations required a reparameterization of MM4 to a new parameter set called MM4R. The data sets obtained using MM4R reveal that the thioglycosides have somewhat increased levels of flexibility about the major low-energy conformations shared with the corresponding O-glycosides. In the trisaccharides, the thiosubstitution of the Gal[NAc]α1-3Gal linkage leads to a preference for a conformation which is the secondary minimum of the natural counterparts. This conformation also generates contacts between the N-acetyl group and the fucose moiety in the blood group A derivative. Calculations further indicate that thiosubstitution of only the Fucα1-2Gal linkage does not affect the conformational preferences compared to the natural trisaccharide. Thiosubstitution of both linkages in the trisaccharide results in increased flexibility but the favored conformation of the natural trisaccharides is preferred. The study suggests that thioglycoside derivatives of ABH antigens could have pharmaceutical interest as ligands of lectins and other carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  2. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b+CD5+ B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d−/− mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γcnull) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:23943651

  3. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in tablet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (ZODIAC).

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Hortensius, J; Logtenberg, S J J; Slingerland, R J; Groenier, K H; Houweling, S T; Gans, R O B; van Ballegooie, E; Bilo, H J G

    2010-08-01

    Whether self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using insulin is questionable. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SMBG in patients with T2DM who were in persistent moderate glycaemic control whilst not using insulin. Patients were eligible when between 18 and 70 years of age, with an HbA1c between 7 and 8.5%, using one or two oral blood glucose lowering agents. Forty-one of the anticipated 52 patients were randomly assigned to receive either SMBG added to usual care, or to continue with usual care for one year. A fasting glucose value and three postprandial glucose values were measured twice weekly (including a Saturday or a Sunday). The primary efficacy parameter was HbA1c. Furthermore, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction were assessed using the Short-form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), the Type 2 Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC-r), the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) and the WHO -Wellbeing Index (WHO-5). Change in HbA1c between groups was -0.05% (95% CI: -0.51, 0.41; p=0.507). Also, there were no significant changes between groups on the DTSQ , DSC type 2, WHO-5 or SF -36, except for the SF -36 dimension 'health change' which was lower in the SBMG group (mean difference: -12 (95% CI: -20.9, -3.1). On top of the absence of a clinical benefit, tablet-treated T2DM patients experienced some worsening of their health perception. We therefore argue that the use of SMBG in this patient group is questionable, and its unlimited use and promotion should be reconsidered.

  4. Racial and ethnic differences in longitudinal blood pressure control in veterans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Axon, R Neal; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Echols, Carrae; Msph, Gregory Gilbert; Egede, Leonard E

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences in blood pressure (BP) control over time, especially in an equal access system. We examined racial/ethnic differences in longitudinal BP control in Veterans with type 2 diabetes. We collected data on a retrospective cohort of 5,319 Veterans with type 2 diabetes and initially uncontrolled BP followed from 1996 to 2006 at a Veterans Administration (VA) facility in the southeastern United States. The mean blood pressure value for each subject for each year was used for the analysis with BP control defined as <140/<90 mmHg. The primary outcome measure was proportion with controlled BP. The main predictor variable was race/ethnicity categorized as non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), or Hispanic/Other (H/O). Other covariates included age, gender, employment, marital status, service connectedness, and ICD-9 coded medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and BP control after adjusting for covariates. Mean follow-up was 5.0 years. The sample was 46% NHW, 26% NHB, 19% H/O, and 9% unknown. The average age was 68 years. In the final model, after adjusting for covariates, NHB race (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.2, 1.6) and H/O race (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8) were associated with increased likelihood of poor BP control (>140/>90 mmHg) over time compared to NHW patients. Ethnic minority Veterans with type 2 diabetes have significantly increased odds of poor BP control over ∼5 years of follow-up compared to their non-Hispanic White counterparts independent of sociodemographic factors and comorbidity patterns.

  5. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Anez, German; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Espina, Luz M.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Krysztof, David E.; Foster, Gregory A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria; Gubler, Duane J.

    2016-02-12

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Here, we used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. As a result, DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. In conclusion, DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma.

  6. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    DOE PAGES

    Anez, German; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; ...

    2016-02-12

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Here, we used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples wasmore » determined by culture in mosquito cells. As a result, DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. In conclusion, DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma.« less

  7. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Espina, Luz M.; Souza, Kátia P. R.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Krysztof, David E.; Foster, Gregory A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Methods We used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. Results DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. Conclusions DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma. PMID:26871560

  8. Tulane Virus Recognizes the A Type 3 and B Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Huang, Pengwei; Zou, Lu; Lowary, Todd L.; Tan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tulane virus (TV), the prototype of the Recovirus genus in the calicivirus family, was isolated from the stools of rhesus monkeys and can be cultivated in vitro in monkey kidney cells. TV is genetically closely related to the genus Norovirus and recognizes the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), similarly to human noroviruses (NoVs), making it a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, the precise structures of HBGAs recognized by TV remain elusive. In this study, we performed binding and blocking experiments on TV with extended HBGA types and showed that, while TV binds all four types (types 1 to 4) of the B antigens, it recognizes only the A type 3 antigen among four types of A antigens tested. The requirements for HBGAs in TV replication were demonstrated by blocking of TV replication in cell culture using the A type 3/4 and B saliva samples. Similar results were also observed in oligosaccharide-based blocking assays. Importantly, the previously reported, unexplained increase in TV replication by oligosaccharide in cell-based blocking assays has been clarified, which will facilitate the application of TV as a surrogate for human NoVs. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of the role of HBGAs in NoV infection has been significantly advanced in the past decade, but direct evidence for HBGAs as receptors for human NoVs remains lacking due to a lack of a cell culture method. TV recognizes HBGAs and can replicate in vitro, providing a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, TV binds to some but not all saliva samples from A-positive individuals, and an unexplained observation of synthetic oligosaccharide blocking of TV binding has been reported. These issues have been resolved in this study. PMID:25392226

  9. Cerebral blood flow response to hypoglycemia is altered in patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wiegers, Evita C; Becker, Kirsten M; Rooijackers, Hanne M; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Tack, Cees J; Heerschap, Arend; de Galan, Bastiaan E; van der Graaf, Marinette

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether cerebral blood flow responses to hypoglycemia are altered in people with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoglycemia on both global and regional cerebral blood flow in type 1 diabetes patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, type 1 diabetes patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls ( n = 7 per group). The subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp in a 3 T MR system. Global and regional changes in cerebral blood flow were determined by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, at the end of both glycemic phases. Hypoglycemia generated typical symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, but not in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Conversely, hypoglycemia increased global cerebral blood flow in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, which was not observed in the other two groups. Regionally, hypoglycemia caused a redistribution of cerebral blood flow towards the thalamus of both patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, consistent with activation of brain regions associated with the autonomic response to hypoglycemia. No such redistribution was found in the patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. An increase in global cerebral blood flow may enhance nutrient supply to the brain, hence suppressing symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia. Altogether these results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia contribute to impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

  10. Positional dissociation between the genetic mutation responsible for pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib and the associated methylation defect at exon A/B: evidence for a long-range regulatory element within the imprinted GNAS1 locus.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, M; Pincus, J E; Sugimoto, T; Tojo, K; Kanatani, M; Azuma, Y; Kruse, K; Rosenbloom, A L; Koshiyama, H; Jüppner, H

    2001-06-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a paternally imprinted disorder which maps to a region on chromosome 20q13.3 that comprises GNAS1 at its telomeric boundary. Exon A/B of this gene was recently shown to display a loss of methylation in several PHP-Ib patients. In nine unrelated PHP-Ib kindreds, in whom haplotype analysis and mode of inheritance provided no evidence against linkage to this chromosomal region, we confirmed lack of exon A/B methylation for affected individuals, while unaffected carriers showed no epigenetic abnormality at this locus. However, affected individuals in one kindred (Y2) displayed additional methylation defects involving exons NESP55, AS and XL, and unaffected carriers in this family showed an abnormal methylation at exon NESP55, but not at other exons. Taken together, current evidence thus suggests that distinct mutations within or close to GNAS1 can lead to PHP-Ib and the associated epigenetic changes. To further delineate the telomeric boundary of the PHP-Ib locus, the previously reported kindred F, in which patient F-V/51 is recombinant within GNAS1, was investigated with several new markers and direct nucleotide sequence analysis. These studies revealed that F-V/51 remains recombinant at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located 1.2 kb upstream of XL. No heterozygous mutation was identified between exon XL and an SNP approximately 8 kb upstream of NESP55, where this affected individual becomes linked, suggesting that the genetic defect responsible for parathyroid hormone resistance in kindred F, and probably other PHP-Ib patients, is located >or=56 kb centromeric of the abnormally methylated exon A/B. A region upstream of the known coding exons of GNAS1 is therefore predicted to exert, presumably through imprinting of exon A/B, long-range effects on G(s)alpha expression.

  11. Concept designs of nonrotating-type centrifugal blood pump and basic study on output characteristics of the oscillating disk-type centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Kabei, N; Tuichiya, K; Sakurai, Y

    1994-09-01

    When designing a turbo-type blood pump as an artificial heart, the gap between a rotating shaft and a pump housing should be perfectly sealed to prevent any leakage or contamination through a seal. In addition, blood coagulation in a blood chamber must be avoided. To overcome these problems, we proposed five different nonrotating-type turbo pumps: a caudal-fin-type axial-flow pump, a caudal-fin-type centrifugal pump, a nutating-column-type centrifugal pump, a nutating-collapsible-tube-type centrifugal pump, and an oscillating-disk-type centrifugal pump. We selected and developed the oscillating-disk-type centrifugal pump that consists of a disk, a driving rod, a seal, an oscillation mechanism, and a pump housing. The disk is mounted on the end of the rod, which is connected to a high-speed DC motor through an oscillation mechanism. The rod and the disk do not rotate, but they oscillate in the pump housing. This movement of the disk generates forward fluid flow around the axis (i.e., the rotational fluid flow). Centrifugal force due to fluid rotation supports the pressure difference between the outlet and the inlet. The diameter of the disk is 39 mm, the maximum inner diameter of the pump housing is 40 mm, and the volume of the blood chamber for 25 degrees' oscillation is 16.9 ml. The performance of the pump was tested in a mock circulatory system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Clinical evaluation of the QuickVet/RapidVet canine dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood-typing test.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Barbara; Classe, Gabriele; Weingart, Christiane

    2012-05-01

    In transfusion medicine, blood typing is an integral part of pretransfusion testing. The objective of the current study was the clinical evaluation of an automated canine cartridge dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 blood-typing method (QuickVet/RapidVet) and comparison of the results with a gel column-based method (ID-Gel Test Canine DEA 1.1). Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-anticoagulated blood samples from 11 healthy and 85 sick dogs were available for typing. Before blood typing, all samples were tested for agglutination and hemolysis. All samples were tested once or multiple times with both methods according to the manufacturer's guidelines. With the gel method, 53 dogs tested DEA 1.1 positive and 42 dogs DEA 1.1 negative; blood typing was not possible due to erythrocyte autoagglutination in 1 dog. With the cartridge test, 53 samples tested DEA 1.1 positive, 34 samples tested DEA 1.1 negative, and 6 results were inconclusive (3 samples were not included due to autoagglutination or severe hemolysis). Without taking the inconclusive samples into account, the agreement between both methods was 96.5%. The sensitivity and specificity for samples that were definitively typed by both methods were 100% and 91.9%, respectively. The cartridge test was suitable for in-clinic canine DEA 1.1 blood typing, although some discrepancies compared to the gel method existed. The cartridge test is software-directed, is easy to use, and does not require user interpretation, but preanalytical guidelines (sample evaluation for agglutination and hemolysis) have to be followed. For inconclusive results, an alternate blood-typing method should be performed.

  13. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats.

    PubMed

    Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-09-01

    Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (p< 0.001), creatinine (55.87 μmol/L) (p<0.05), total protein (64.60 g/L) (p<0.01), and globulin (49.79 g/L) (p<0.001), whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L) (p<0.001), albumin (15.33 g/L) (p<0.05), albumin/globulin ratio (0.34) (p<0.01), and body weight (24.87 kg) (p< 0.001). Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01) albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01) and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01). The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05) dressing percentage (45.26%) was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.

  14. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats

    PubMed Central

    Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    Objective Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Methods Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Results Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (p< 0.001), creatinine (55.87 μmol/L) (p<0.05), total protein (64.60 g/L) (p<0.01), and globulin (49.79 g/L) (p<0.001), whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L) (p<0.001), albumin (15.33 g/L) (p<0.05), albumin/globulin ratio (0.34) (p<0.01), and body weight (24.87 kg) (p< 0.001). Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01) albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01) and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01). The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05) dressing percentage (45.26%) was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Conclusion Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections. PMID:28002930

  15. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  17. Changes in glycosylation of human blood plasma chitotriosidase in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Żurawska-Płaksej, Ewa; Kratz, Ewa Maria; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława; Knapik-Kordecka, Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Human blood plasma chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a glycoprotein with chitinolytic activity with not fully elucidated biological function. Its increased level is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with development of diabetic complications. The CHIT1 glycosylation profile and degree is still poorly studied and never investigated in T2DM. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the association between glycosylation profile and degree and diabetes with accompanying nephropathy. In blood plasma of 28 patients with T2DM and 11 healthy subjects the CHIT1 concentration and specific activity were examined. The profile and degree of CHIT1 glycosylation were determined by lectin-ELISA using lectins specific to O-glycans (Jacalin, MPL, VVL) and sialo-specific SNA and MAA. We revealed that both concentration and specific activity of CHIT1 significantly increased in T2DM, especially in nephropathy with elevated albuminuria. The relative reactivities with lectins, except Jacalin, decreased progressively with T2DM occurrence and albuminuria progression. The most significant differences were observed between control vs. albuminuric group (Micro and Macro). It is also possible that the observed differences in immunoblotting pattern in molecular masses of CHIT1 bands between T2DM patients and healthy subjects may be caused by the differences in degree of CHIT1 glycosylation. The analysis of CHIT1 glycosylation status and the determination of CHIT1 concentration together with its enzymatic activity in blood plasma might constitute additional valuable diagnosis tools for the evaluation the T2DM patients with accompanying nephropathy. Extension of the lectin panel specific to O-glycans occurs useful for the further research using microarray formats, which are expected to accelerate “lectin-based glycan profiling” of glycoproteins.

  18. Modeling of Biomechanics and Biorheology of Red Blood Cells in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Li, Xuejin; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-07-25

    Erythrocytes in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with reduced cell deformability and elevated blood viscosity, which contribute to impaired blood flow and other pathophysiological aspects of diabetes-related vascular complications. In this study, by using a two-component red blood cell (RBC) model and systematic parameter variation, we perform detailed computational simulations to probe the alteration of the biomechanical, rheological, and dynamic behavior of T2DM RBCs in response to morphological change and membrane stiffening. First, we examine the elastic response of T2DM RBCs subject to static tensile forcing and their viscoelastic relaxation response upon release of the stretching force. Second, we investigate the membrane fluctuations of T2DM RBCs and explore the effect of cell shape on the fluctuation amplitudes. Third, we subject the T2DM RBCs to shear flow and probe the effects of cell shape and effective membrane viscosity on their tank-treading movement. In addition, we model the cell dynamic behavior in a microfluidic channel with constriction and quantify the biorheological properties of individual T2DM RBCs. Finally, we simulate T2DM RBC suspensions under shear and compare the predicted viscosity with experimental measurements. Taken together, these simulation results and their comparison with currently available experimental data are helpful in identifying a specific parametric model-the first of its kind, to our knowledge-that best describes the main hallmarks of T2DM RBCs, which can be used in future simulation studies of hematologic complications of T2DM patients. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole Blood Profiling of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Trained Innate Immunity in Infants Identifies Epidermal Growth Factor, IL-6, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AB/BB, and Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven G; Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Netea, Mihai G; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli. Our aim was to examine an extensive panel of secreted immune biomarkers to characterize the profile of trained innate immunity in infants. Stimulation of whole blood for 48 h was performed 4 months after BCG vaccination, or in control unvaccinated infants. Stimulants were lipopolysaccharide; Pam3Cys (P3C); heat-killed Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and a lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Culture supernatants were tested for secreted cytokines and chemokines by 42-plex bead array and monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells assessed for expression of activation markers by flow cytometry. BCG-vaccinated infants displayed increases in 11 cytokines and chemokines in response to different non-specific innate immunity stimuli: epidermal growth factor (EGF); eotaxin; IL-6; IL-7; IL-8; IL-10; IL-12p40; monocyte chemotactic protein-3; macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; soluble CD40 ligand and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB/BB. Although each stimulant induced a distinct response profile, three analytes, EGF, IL-6, and PDGF-AB/BB, were commonly higher after stimulation with Pam3Cys, C. albicans, and S. aureus. Conversely, certain cytokines such as interferon gamma-inducible protein-10, IL-2, IL-13, IL-17, GM-CSF, and GRO were suppressed in BCG-vaccinated infants, while no increases in TNFα or IL-1β production

  20. Whole Blood Profiling of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin-Induced Trained Innate Immunity in Infants Identifies Epidermal Growth Factor, IL-6, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AB/BB, and Natural Killer Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven G.; Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Netea, Mihai G.; Dockrell, Hazel M.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli. Our aim was to examine an extensive panel of secreted immune biomarkers to characterize the profile of trained innate immunity in infants. Stimulation of whole blood for 48 h was performed 4 months after BCG vaccination, or in control unvaccinated infants. Stimulants were lipopolysaccharide; Pam3Cys (P3C); heat-killed Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and a lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Culture supernatants were tested for secreted cytokines and chemokines by 42-plex bead array and monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells assessed for expression of activation markers by flow cytometry. BCG-vaccinated infants displayed increases in 11 cytokines and chemokines in response to different non-specific innate immunity stimuli: epidermal growth factor (EGF); eotaxin; IL-6; IL-7; IL-8; IL-10; IL-12p40; monocyte chemotactic protein-3; macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; soluble CD40 ligand and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB/BB. Although each stimulant induced a distinct response profile, three analytes, EGF, IL-6, and PDGF-AB/BB, were commonly higher after stimulation with Pam3Cys, C. albicans, and S. aureus. Conversely, certain cytokines such as interferon gamma-inducible protein-10, IL-2, IL-13, IL-17, GM-CSF, and GRO were suppressed in BCG-vaccinated infants, while no increases in TNFα or IL-1β production

  1. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells benefits an animal model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Desjarlais, Tammy; Davis Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul R

    2005-08-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B is caused by alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme deficiency leading to an accumulation of undegraded heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Cell therapy is a promising new treatment and human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cell transplantation may be preferred for delivery of the missing enzyme. We investigated the ability of mononuclear hUCB cells administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle to ameliorate/prevent histopathological changes in mice modeling Sanfilippo syndrome type B. These are the first results supporting enzyme replacement by administered hUCB cells. In vivo, transplanted hUCB cells survived long-term (7 months), migrated into the parenchyma of the brain and peripheral organs, expressed neural antigens, and exhibited neuron and astrocyte-like morphology. Transplant benefits were also demonstrated by stable cytoarchitecture in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and by reduced GAGs in the livers of treated mutant mice. A hUCB cell transplant may be an effective therapeutic strategy for enzyme delivery in Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

  2. Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Association with Blood Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their association with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods 276 adolescents and their caregivers completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Adolescents completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Demographic and family characteristics were obtained from caregiver report. Diabetes duration, regimen type, BGM frequency, and glycemic control were also collected. Results Trait anxiety symptoms that suggest further clinical assessment is needed were present in 17% of adolescents; the rate was 13% for state anxiety symptoms. Higher levels of state anxiety symptoms were associated with less frequent BGM F(14, 261) = 6.35, p < .0001, R2 = .25, and suboptimal glycemic control, F(15, 260) = 7.97, p < .0001, R2 = .32. State anxiety symptoms were correlates of BGM frequency and glycemic control independent of depressive symptoms. Conclusions State anxiety symptoms are associated with less frequent BGM and suboptimal glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19684117

  3. Peripheral blood monocyte gene expression profile clinically stratifies patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katharine M; Gallego, Patricia; An, Xiaoyu; Best, Shannon E; Thomas, Gethin; Wells, Christine; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2012-05-01

    Novel biomarkers of disease progression after type 1 diabetes onset are needed. We profiled peripheral blood (PB) monocyte gene expression in six healthy subjects and 16 children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed ∼3 months previously and analyzed clinical features from diagnosis to 1 year. Monocyte expression profiles clustered into two distinct subgroups, representing mild and severe deviation from healthy control subjects, along the same continuum. Patients with strongly divergent monocyte gene expression had significantly higher insulin dose-adjusted HbA(1c) levels during the first year, compared with patients with mild deviation. The diabetes-associated expression signature identified multiple perturbations in pathways controlling cellular metabolism and survival, including endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress (e.g., induction of HIF1A, DDIT3, DDIT4, and GRP78). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) of a 9-gene panel correlated with glycemic control in 12 additional recent-onset patients. The qPCR signature was also detected in PB from healthy first-degree relatives. A PB gene expression signature correlates with glycemic control in the first year after diabetes diagnosis and is present in at-risk subjects. These findings implicate monocyte phenotype as a candidate biomarker for disease progression pre- and postonset and systemic stresses as contributors to innate immune function in type 1 diabetes.

  4. Obesity, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure amongst recently arrived Sudanese refugees in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, A M N; Bilal, P; Marks, G C

    2014-02-01

    The study assessed the prevalence of obesity and related conditions among Sudanese adult migrants living in Brisbane, Australia. Data were obtained on 314 Sudanese immigrants aged 18-70 years. Measured body mass index (BMI) and self-reported diabetes and hypertension were obtained. More than half (51%) of participants were overweight or obese, 6.4% reported having type 2 diabetes while 12.4% had hypertension. The full adjusted regression model explained 28.1% of the variance in BMI. Odds of reporting type 2 diabetes increased with age, BMI and were greater among participants rating health as poor/fair than those rating as good/very good/excellent. Odds of high blood pressure increased with age, BMI, and were higher among participants rating health as poor/fair than those as good/very good/excellent. Health promotion programs to prevent weight gain in this subpopulation will significantly reduce inequalities related to type 2 diabetes and improve cardio-vascular outcomes.

  5. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Noninsulin-Using Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Sandra D.; Nijpels, G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of glycemic control in the development of diabetes complications, the plethora of tools now available to monitor the day-to-day trends in glycemia is remarkable. In this regard, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been considered a key component of patient management. Arguably, there remains almost universal agreement that SMBG should be available to all diabetic patients regardless of current treatment strategy. However, recently there have been reports that have challenged the current paradigm that all patients should use SMBG and concluded that SMBG for type 2 diabetic patients not on insulin may not be beneficial on glycemic control and must be weighed against the expense and inconvenience. In this two-part point-counterpoint narrative, Malanda et al. and Polonsky and Fisher take opposing views on the utility of SMBG to be valuable for individuals with type 2 diabetes not using insulin. In the narrative below, Malanda et al. suggest that the evidence for potentially beneficial SMBG-induced effects on glycemic control, hypoglycemic periods, and potential harms in type 2 diabetic patients who are not treated with insulin does not justify the use of SMBG. Moreover, the use of SMBG is associated with huge costs, which should be better redirected to effective strategies to improve health for this category of patients. —William T. Cefalu, md Editor in Chief, Diabetes Care PMID:23264289

  6. Transfer of liraglutide from blood to cerebrospinal fluid is minimal in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M; Sparre-Ulrich, A H; Hartmann, B; Grevstad, U; Rosenkilde, M M; Holst, J J; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, F K

    2015-11-01

    Treatment with liraglutide leads to weight loss. We investigated whether blood-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transfer of liraglutide occurs, and if so, whether it associates with clinical weight loss following liraglutide treatment in humans. We performed lumbar puncture and blood sampling in eight patients with type 2 diabetes (mean (range)): age 63 (54-79) years; actual body weight: 90 (75-118) kg treated with 1.8 mg liraglutide for 14 (5-22) months and with a treatment-induced weight loss of 8.4 (7-11) kg. We measured liraglutide in plasma and CSF with a radioimmunoassay specific for the N-terminus of the GLP-1 moiety of liraglutide. Mean plasma liraglutide was 31 (range: 21-63) nmol l(-1). The mean CSF-liraglutide concentration was 6.5 (range: 0.9-13.9) pmol l(-1). Ratio of CSF: plasma-liraglutide concentrations was 0.02 (range: 0.07-0.002)% and plasma liraglutide did not correlate with CSF-liraglutide levels (P=0.67). Body weight loss tended to correlate with plasma-liraglutide levels (P=0.06), but not with CSF-liraglutide levels (P=0.69). In conclusion, we measured very low concentrations of liraglutide in CSF, and the levels of CSF liraglutide did not correlate with the actual clinical weight loss in these patients. The amount of liraglutide in plasma tended to correlate with the clinical weight loss.

  7. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG) elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO). Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (P < .05), as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety. PMID:21773021

  8. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Intaglietta, Marcos; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test. Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation) showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05), when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05). Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be associated with a level of endothelial dysfunction that interferes with the antihypertensive effect of HbA1c. PMID:19066010

  9. Comparison of intracellular methotrexate kinetics in red blood cells with the kinetics in other cell types

    PubMed Central

    Korell, Julia; Duffull, Stephen B; Dalrymple, Judith M; Drake, Jill; Zhang, Mei; Barclay, Murray L; Stamp, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    AIM To assess the similarities in intracellular pharmacokinetics (PK) of methotrexate (MTX) in red blood cells (RBCs) and other cell lines. METHODS Three previously published PK models for intracellular MTX and MTX polyglutamate (MTXGlu2–5) concentrations were used: (i) a model for the kinetics in RBCs, (ii) a model for the kinetics in human breast cancer cells (HBCCs) and (iii) a model for the kinetics in various white blood cell (WBC) lines. All three models were used to simulate the response in a typical individual receiving 10 mg oral MTX once weekly and the predicted steady-state concentrations (Css) and time to Css (tss) were compared. RESULTS The HBCC model showed a lower Css for MTXGlu2 and 3 and higher Css for MTXGlu4 and 5 compared with the RBC PK model, while tss and overall intracellular MTX exposure appeared similar. The WBC PK model showed much lower Css for the parent MTXGlu1 and of tssfor all MTXGlun, as well as a much lower cumulative Css for MTXGlu2–7 for the majority of the WBC cell lines. CONCLUSION RBC kinetics of MTX differ from the kinetics in other cell types such as WBCs and HBCCs to a variable degree. It is possible that similarly diverse profiles may exist across other cell lines, including those on the causal path in rheumatoid arthritis. Hence, there may not necessarily be a clear link between RBC MTX concentrations and disease control in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23844933

  10. Expression profiling feline peripheral blood monocytes identifies a transcriptional signature associated with type two diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Caroline A; Sedhom, Mamdouh; Reeve-Johnson, Mia; Mallyon, John; Irvine, Katharine M

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. PBM may thus provide a useful window to study the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in cats, however feline monocytes are poorly characterised. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Feline 1.0ST array to profile peripheral blood monocytes from 3 domestic cats with T2D and 3 cats with normal glucose tolerance. Feline monocytes were enriched for genes expressed in human monocytes, and, despite heterogeneous gene expression, we identified a T2D-associated expression signature associated with cell cycle perturbations, DNA repair and the unfolded protein response, oxidative phosphorylation and inflammatory responses. Our data provide novel insights into the feline monocyte transcriptome, and support the hypothesis that inflammatory monocytes contribute to T2D pathogenesis in cats as well as in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered Phase Interactions between Spontaneous Blood Pressure and Flow Fluctuations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Nonlinear Assessment of Cerebral Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C.K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is an important mechanism that involves dilation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively s cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of CA focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique—the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses CA by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that CA in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of CA (<0.1Hz), but also over the higher frequency range from ~0.1 to 0.4Hz. These findings indicate that Type 2 diabetes alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more sui for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow. PMID:18432311

  12. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (<0.1 Hz), but also over the higher frequency range from ˜0.1 to 0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  13. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well.

  14. [Social psychological factors of interest in lay personality theories: why is ABO blood-typing popular?].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Y

    2000-12-01

    We hypothesized that one of the reasons that not a few Japanese are interested in lay personality theories of ABO blood-typing and similar unsupported beliefs on human nature, was unsatisfied needs of having clear collective and personal identities. To test the hypothesis, we asked 149 married women, 34 to 62 years of age, to describe themselves as in self introduction to strangers, and then separately indicate the degree of interest in lay personality theories. We then counted the number of references to personal/private aspects (an index of personal identity) and the number to social groups whose membership was known to be exclusive and limited (an index of collective one). Results showed that those who were high on both indices were less interested in lay theories than those low on one or both of personal and collective indices.

  15. Elucidating the Weak Protein-Protein Interaction Mechanisms behind the Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of a mAb Solution by Different Types of Additives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoliang; Wang Co-First, Shujing; Tian, Zhou; Zhang, Ning; Sheng, Han; Dai, Weiguo; Qian, Feng

    2017-07-25

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has long been observed during the physical stability investigation of therapeutic protein formulations. The buffer conditions and the presence of various excipients are thought to play important roles in the formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, the effects of several small-molecule excipients (histidine, alanine, glycine, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sorbitol and sucrose) with diverse physical-chemical properties on LLPS of a model IgG1 (JM2) solutions were investigated by multiple techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry/fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The LLPS of JM2 was confirmed to be a thermodynamic equilibrium process with no structural changes or irreversible aggregation of proteins. Phase diagrams of various JM2 formulations were constructed, suggesting that the phase behavior of JM2 was dependent on the solution pH, ionic strength and the presence of other excipients such as glycine, alanine, sorbitol and sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrated that for this mAb, the interaction parameter (kD) determined at low protein concentration appeared to be a good predictor for the occurrence of LLPS at high concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Typing of blood-group antigens on neutral oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-06-18

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, for example, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report, we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B-, and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2 and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established, we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and (0,2)A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions.

  17. Follow-up of blood-pressure lowering and glucose control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zoungas, Sophia; Chalmers, John; Neal, Bruce; Billot, Laurent; Li, Qiang; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Arima, Hisatomi; Monaghan, Helen; Joshi, Rohina; Colagiuri, Stephen; Cooper, Mark E; Glasziou, Paul; Grobbee, Diederick; Hamet, Pavel; Harrap, Stephen; Heller, Simon; Lisheng, Liu; Mancia, Giuseppe; Marre, Michel; Matthews, David R; Mogensen, Carl E; Perkovic, Vlado; Poulter, Neil; Rodgers, Anthony; Williams, Bryan; MacMahon, Stephen; Patel, Anushka; Woodward, Mark

    2014-10-09

    In the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) factorial trial, the combination of perindopril and indapamide reduced mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes, but intensive glucose control, targeting a glycated hemoglobin level of less than 6.5%, did not. We now report results of the 6-year post-trial follow-up. We invited surviving participants, who had previously been assigned to perindopril-indapamide or placebo and to intensive or standard glucose control (with the glucose-control comparison extending for an additional 6 months), to participate in a post-trial follow-up evaluation. The primary end points were death from any cause and major macrovascular events. The baseline characteristics were similar among the 11,140 patients who originally underwent randomization and the 8494 patients who participated in the post-trial follow-up for a median of 5.9 years (blood-pressure-lowering comparison) or 5.4 years (glucose-control comparison). Between-group differences in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin levels during the trial were no longer evident by the first post-trial visit. The reductions in the risk of death from any cause and of death from cardiovascular causes that had been observed in the group receiving active blood-pressure-lowering treatment during the trial were attenuated but significant at the end of the post-trial follow-up; the hazard ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99; P=0.03) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.99; P=0.04), respectively. No differences were observed during follow-up in the risk of death from any cause or major macrovascular events between the intensive-glucose-control group and the standard-glucose-control group; the hazard ratios were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08), respectively. The benefits with respect to mortality that had been observed among patients originally assigned to blood

  18. Exercise-induced albuminuria vs circadian variations in blood pressure in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tadida Meli, Isabelle Hota; Tankeu, Aurel T; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Chelo, David; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationship between exercise-induced ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adolescents. METHODS We conducted a case-control at the National Obesity Center of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We compared 24 h ABPM and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise between 20 Cameroonian T1DM patients and 20 matched controls. T1DM adolescents were aged 12-18 years, with diabetes for at least one year, without proteinuria, with normal office blood pressure (BP) and renal function according to the general reference population. Non-diabetic controls were adolescents of general population matched for sex, age and BMI. RESULTS Mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 ± 2.8 years. The mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 116 ± 9 mmHg in the diabetic group vs 111 ± 8 mmHg in the non-diabetic (P = 0.06), and 69 ± 7 mm Hg vs 66 ± 5 mm Hg (P = 0.19). There was no difference in the diurnal pattern of BP in diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (SBP: 118 ± 10 mmHg vs 114 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.11; DBP: 71 ± 7 mmHg vs 68 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.22). Nighttime BP was higher in the diabetic group with respect to SBP (112 ± 11 mmHg vs 106 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.06) and to the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (89 ± 9 mmHg vs 81 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.06). ACR at rest was similar in both groups (5.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.74), but significantly higher in diabetes patients after exercise (10.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.03). SBP was higher in patients having exercise-induced albuminuria (116 ± 10 mmHg vs 108 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION Exercise-induced albuminuria could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney damage in adolescents with T1DM. PMID:28265345

  19. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (P<0.001). However, Rh type was not associated with brucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  20. Heterogeneous Effects of Fructose on Blood Lipids in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Carleton, Amanda J.; Chatha, Sheena; Jiang, Henry Y.; de Souza, Russell J.; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of blood lipid concerns, diabetes associations discourage fructose at high intakes. To quantify the effect of fructose on blood lipids in diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental clinical trials investigating the effect of isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate on triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol in type 1 and 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials of ≥7 days. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as standardized mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ2 tests and quantified by I2. Meta-regression models identified dose threshold and independent predictors of effects. RESULTS Sixteen trials (236 subjects) met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate raised triglycerides and lowered total cholesterol under specific conditions without affecting LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol. A triglyceride-raising effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes when the reference carbohydrate was starch (mean difference 0.24 [95% CI 0.05–0.44]), dose was >60 g/day (0.18 [0.00–0.37]), or follow-up was ≤4 weeks (0.18 [0.00–0.35]). Piecewise meta-regression confirmed a dose threshold of 60 g/day (R2 = 0.13)/10% energy (R2 = 0.36). A total cholesterol–lowering effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes under the following conditions: no randomization and poor study quality (−0.19 [−0.34 to −0.05]), dietary fat >30% energy (−0.33 [−0.52 to −0.15]), or crystalline fructose (−0.28 [−0.47 to −0.09]). Multivariate meta-regression analyses were largely in agreement. CONCLUSIONS Pooled analyses demonstrated conditional triglyceride-raising and total cholesterol–lowering effects of isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes. Recommendations

  1. Significance of prenatal joint detection of ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies in pregnant women with type O blood.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W Y; Li, H X; Liang, Y

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of blood transfusion and number of pregnancies on ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies in pregnant women with type O blood. The study included 4,200 pregnant women with type O blood (their husbands were with non-O type blood) that were divided into transfusion group and non-transfusion group, according to whether they had a history of blood transfusion. The both groups were respectively divided into three subgroups (the number of pregnancies was one, two, and > or = three). The ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies were detected at the same time. The effects ofABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies on hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) were discussed. There was no consistency of ABO antibody titers and existence of irregular antibody. The positive rates of irregular antibody of transfusion group and of the subgroup (number of pregnancies > or = three) were far higher than that of non-transfusion group and of the subgroups (number of pregnancies < three), respectively. All pregnant women with positive irregular antibody in non-transfusion group were with HDN. For pregnant women with number of pregnancies > or = three or with history of blood transfusion, the prenatal joint detection of ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies is helpful for accurately reflecting the in vivo antibody type and level.

  2. The Association Between Food Prices and the Blood Glucose Level of US Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Anekwe, Tobenna D.; Rahkovsky, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between the price of healthy and less-healthy food groups and blood sugar among US adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods. We linked 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey health information to food prices contained in the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. We regressed blood sugar levels on food prices from the previous calendar quarter, controlling for market region and a range of other covariates. We also examined whether the association between food prices and blood sugar varies among different income groups. Results. The prices of produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Specifically, higher prices for produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose 3 months later. Food prices had a greater association with blood sugar for low-income people than for higher-income people, and in the expected direction. Conclusions. Higher prices of healthy foods were associated with increased blood sugar among people with type 2 diabetes. The association was especially pronounced among low-income people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24524504

  3. Validation of a DNA methylation reference panel for the estimation of nucleated cells types in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Andres; Allard, Catherine; Doyon, Myriam; Houseman, E Andres; Bakulski, Kelly M; Perron, Patrice; Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-11-01

    Cord blood is widely used as surrogate tissue in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal conditions. Cell type composition variation across samples can be an important confounder of epigenome-wide association studies in blood that constitute a mixture of cells. We evaluated a newly developed cord blood reference panel to impute cell type composition from DNA methylation levels, including nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs). We estimated cell type composition from 154 unique cord blood samples with available DNA methylation data as well as direct measurements of nucleated cell types. We observed high correlations between the estimated and measured composition for nRBCs (r = 0.92, R(2) = 0.85), lymphocytes (r = 0.77, R(2) = 0.58), and granulocytes (r = 0.72, R(2) = 0.52), and a moderate correlation for monocytes (r = 0.51, R(2) = 0.25) as well as relatively low root mean square errors from the residuals ranging from 1.4 to 5.4%. These results validate the use of the cord blood reference panel and highlight its utility and limitations for epidemiological studies.

  4. Validation of a DNA methylation reference panel for the estimation of nucleated cells types in cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Catherine; Doyon, Myriam; Houseman, E. Andres; Perron, Patrice; Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cord blood is widely used as surrogate tissue in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal conditions. Cell type composition variation across samples can be an important confounder of epigenome-wide association studies in blood that constitute a mixture of cells. We evaluated a newly developed cord blood reference panel to impute cell type composition from DNA methylation levels, including nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs). We estimated cell type composition from 154 unique cord blood samples with available DNA methylation data as well as direct measurements of nucleated cell types. We observed high correlations between the estimated and measured composition for nRBCs (r = 0.92, R2 = 0.85), lymphocytes (r = 0.77, R2 = 0.58), and granulocytes (r = 0.72, R2 = 0.52), and a moderate correlation for monocytes (r = 0.51, R2 = 0.25) as well as relatively low root mean square errors from the residuals ranging from 1.4 to 5.4%. These results validate the use of the cord blood reference panel and highlight its utility and limitations for epidemiological studies. PMID:27668573

  5. ABO-blood type incompatible living donor liver transplantation in a patient with Budd-Chiari Syndrome secondary to essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Amano, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Igarashi, Yuki; Ide, Kentarou; Oshita, Akihiko; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) results from diverse causative factors. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) account for a minority of BCS cases in Japan. ABO-blood-type incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adults has become an acceptable procedure owing to the development of new strategies for preventing antibody-mediated rejection. This report presents a rare case of BCS secondary to ET, which was cured by an ABO-incompatible (AB to A) LDLT. In this case, prostaglandin E(1) and gabexate mesilate were administered into portal vein and rituximab prophylaxis was applied. No splenectomy was performed as it is in most ABO-incompatible cases, since a flow cytometry showed no anti-B antibodies in the splenocytes collected by a wedge biopsy during the LDLT. The postoperative course was uneventful. Anti-coagulation therapy was initiated with aspirin and warfarin instead of hydroxyurea. This report describes an ABO-incompatible LDLT without a splenectomy for BCS secondary to ET.

  6. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type.

    PubMed

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-03-19

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0-2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8-10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2-1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8-44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, p<0.001). The population attributable risk of venous thromboembolism was 20% for ABO blood type, 10% for factor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in the general population.

  7. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    PubMed Central

    Sode, Birgitte F.; Allin, Kristine H.; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. Methods: We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. Results: The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0–2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8–10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2–1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8–44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, p < 0.001). The population attributable risk of venous thromboembolism was 20% for ABO blood type, 10% for factor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. Interpretation: ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in

  8. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  9. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  10. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  11. Exposure to Racial Discrimination and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick; Feinn, Richard; Burg, Matthew M; Seawell, Asani; White, William B

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is the only disorder in which women's risk for heart disease exceeds men's. Elevated blood pressure (BP) increases cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Racial discrimination and neuroticism are both associated with BP levels but have not been examined in concert. This study investigated self-reported racial discrimination, neuroticism and ambulatory BP in women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine Black and 38 White women completed a race-neutral version of the Schedule of Racist Events; BP was evaluated using ambulatory monitoring devices. Actigraphy and diaries were used to document times of sleep and wakefulness. Racial discrimination interacted with neuroticism to predict systolic and diastolic BP both while awake and during sleep, after adjustment for covariates. For each, the influence of racist events was stronger at lower levels of neuroticism. Racial discrimination is associated with higher levels of 24-h BP in diabetic women who are low in neuroticism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Adjustable bioadhesive control of PEGylated hyperbranch brushes on polystyrene microplate interface for the improved sensitivity of human blood typing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Wen; Chang, Yung; Lee, Rong-Ho; Li, Wen-Tyng; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2014-08-05

    A PEGylated 96-well polystyrene (PS) microplate was first introduced for applications in high-throughput screening for selective blood typing to minimize the risks in blood transfusions. Herein, we present a hemocompatible PS 96-well microplate with adjustable PEGylated hyperbranch brush coverage prepared by ozone pretreated activation and thermally induced surface PEGylation. The grafting properties, hydration capacity, and blood compatibility of the PEGylated hyperbrush immobilized PS surfaces in human blood were illustrated by the combined chemical and physical properties of the surface, and the dependence of the specific absorption of human plasma fibrinogen onto the PEGylated surfaces on the grafting density was analyzed by monoclonal antibodies. The surface coverage of PEGylated brushes plays a major role in the bioadhesive properties of modified PS microplates, which in turn control the level of agglutination sensitivity in blood typing. The bioadhesive resistance toward proteins, platelets, and erythrocytes in human whole blood showed a correlation to the controlled hydration properties of the PEGylated hyperbrush-modified surfaces. Therefore, we suggested that the surface coverage of PEGylated hyperbrushes on PS surfaces can increase the sensitivity of cross-matching blood agglutination by up to 16-fold compared to that of the conventional 96-well virgin PS due to the regulated biorecognition of hematocrit and antibodies of the PEGylated hyperbrush-modified surfaces.

  13. Insulin Receptor Antibody-α-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Fusion Protein Penetrates the Primate Blood-Brain Barrier and Reduces Glycosoaminoglycans in Sanfilippo Type B Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boado, Ruben J; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Lin, Huilan; Pardridge, William M

    2016-04-04

    Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPSIIIB) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). MPSIIIB presents with severe disease of the central nervous system, but intravenous NAGLU enzyme replacement therapy has not been developed because the NAGLU enzyme does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating form of the enzyme was produced by re-engineering NAGLU as an IgG-enzyme fusion protein, where the IgG domain is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb traverses the BBB via transport on the endogenous insulin receptor and acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused NAGLU across the BBB from blood. The NAGLU was fused to the carboxyl terminus of each heavy chain of the HIRMAb via an extended 31-amino acid linker, and the fusion protein is designated HIRMAb-LL-NAGLU. The fusion protein retains high affinity binding to the HIR, and on a molar basis has an enzyme activity equal to that of recombinant human NAGLU. Treatment of MPSIIIB fibroblasts with the fusion protein normalizes intracellular NAGLU enzyme activity and reduces sulfate incorporation into intracellular glycosoaminoglycan. The fusion protein is targeted to the lysosomal compartment of the cells as shown by confocal microscopy. The fusion protein was radiolabeled with the [(125)I]-Bolton-Hunter reagent and injected intravenously in the adult Rhesus monkey. The fusion protein was rapidly cleared from plasma by all major peripheral organs. The high brain uptake of the fusion protein, 1% injected dose/brain, enables normalization of brain NAGLU enzyme activity with a therapeutic dose of 1 mg/kg. The HIRMAb-LL-NAGLU fusion protein is a new treatment of the brain in MPSIIIB, which can be administered by noninvasive intravenous infusion.

  14. Changes in dental pulp blood flow of