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Sample records for ab blood types

  1. Evaluation of a novel feline AB blood typing device.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Layla; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    This prospective study evaluated a novel immunochromatographic (IC) blood typing test for the AB blood group system. Typing was conducted comparatively on ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-anticoagulated blood samples from 89 sick and 16 healthy cats with the IC test, as well as two tests as reference methods, a tube agglutination and a gel column test. The samples were between 0 and 10 days old (median 3 days) and were tested for haemolysis and agglutination; the packed cell volume ranged from 0.07 to 0.57 l/l (median 0.40 l/l). The reference methods agreed with each other in 100% of the test runs. Of the 85 samples tested as blood type A by the two reference methods, 80 were correctly identified by the IC test, four were misidentified as AB and one was rated inconclusive. All B samples were correctly typed. Two of the three AB samples were correctly identified by the IC test and one was rated inconclusive. The sample quality had no influence on test performance. Of 30 repeats, 28 were readable and showed agreement in 27 cases. The agreement of the IC test with the control methods was 96.1% for the 103 conclusive tests, and it showed high sensitivity and specificity for A and B antigen detection. It is suggested that AB results be reconfirmed with a laboratory method and that a 'back-typing' be performed with plasma from B samples to detect the presence of alloantibodies. Given its very good performance and ease of use, the IC test can be recommended for clinical settings.

  2. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  3. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V; Giger, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Objective-To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population-490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results-Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.

  4. A Novel Variant in CMAH Is Associated with Blood Type AB in Ragdoll Cats.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Barbara; Grahn, Robert A; Gustafson, Nicholas A; Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Adhikari, Badri; Cheng, Janling; Andrews, Gordon; Lyons, Leslie A; Helps, Chris R

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase is associated with the production of sialic acids on cat red blood cells. The cat has one major blood group with three serotypes; the most common blood type A being dominant to type B. A third rare blood type is known as AB and has an unclear mode of inheritance. Cat blood type antigens are defined, with N-glycolylneuraminic acid being associated with type A and N-acetylneuraminic acid with type B. Blood type AB is serologically characterized by agglutination using typing reagents directed against both A and B epitopes. While a genetic characterization of blood type B has been achieved, the rare type AB serotype remains genetically uncharacterized. A genome-wide association study in Ragdoll cats (22 cases and 15 controls) detected a significant association between blood type AB and SNPs on cat chromosome B2, with the most highly associated SNP being at position 4,487,432 near the candidate gene cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase. A novel variant, c.364C>T, was identified that is highly associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats and, to a lesser degree, with type AB in random bred cats. The newly identified variant is probably linked with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats, and is associated with the expression of both antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid) on the red blood cell membrane. Other variants, not identified by this work, are likely to be associated with blood type AB in other breeds of cat.

  5. A Novel Variant in CMAH Is Associated with Blood Type AB in Ragdoll Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Barbara; Grahn, Robert A.; Gustafson, Nicholas A.; Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Adhikari, Badri; Cheng, Janling; Andrews, Gordon; Lyons, Leslie A.; Helps, Chris R.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase is associated with the production of sialic acids on cat red blood cells. The cat has one major blood group with three serotypes; the most common blood type A being dominant to type B. A third rare blood type is known as AB and has an unclear mode of inheritance. Cat blood type antigens are defined, with N-glycolylneuraminic acid being associated with type A and N-acetylneuraminic acid with type B. Blood type AB is serologically characterized by agglutination using typing reagents directed against both A and B epitopes. While a genetic characterization of blood type B has been achieved, the rare type AB serotype remains genetically uncharacterized. A genome-wide association study in Ragdoll cats (22 cases and 15 controls) detected a significant association between blood type AB and SNPs on cat chromosome B2, with the most highly associated SNP being at position 4,487,432 near the candidate gene cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase. A novel variant, c.364C>T, was identified that is highly associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats and, to a lesser degree, with type AB in random bred cats. The newly identified variant is probably linked with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats, and is associated with the expression of both antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid) on the red blood cell membrane. Other variants, not identified by this work, are likely to be associated with blood type AB in other breeds of cat. PMID:27171395

  6. [The identification of the AB0 blood type system by means of the single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis].

    PubMed

    Lapenkov, M I; Plakhina, N V; Aleksandrova, V Yu; Kuklev, M Yu; Nikolaeva, T L; Konovalova, N V

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a domestically produced test-system for the determination of the AB0 blood type by means of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis. The results of the trials indicate that the proposed test-system can be employed for the investigation of DNA specimens of individual origin obtained from any objects of expertise including micro-objects containing human nuclear DNA.

  7. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  8. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity. ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron ...

  9. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  10. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  11. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  12. Treatment effect with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 antibody improves hind limb angiogenesis and blood flow in Type 1 diabetic mice with left femoral artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Tekabe, Yared; Anthony, Tamykah; Li, Qing; Ray, Rashmi; Rai, Vivek; Zhang, Geping; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Johnson, Lynne L

    2015-06-01

    We investigated treatment with a receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) blocking antibody on angiogenic response to hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin treated C57BL/6 mice received either murine monoclonal anti-RAGE F(ab')2 intraperitoneally (n=10) or saline (n=9) for 9 weeks. Diabetic plus 10 non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice underwent left femoral artery ligation and 5 days later angiogenesis imaging with (99m)Tc-Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) nanoSPECT/CT. Twenty-four days later, hind limb blood flow was measured with ultrasound, the mice were euthanized, and tissue was taken for immunohistochemistry. The angiogenic imaging signal in ischemic limbs was higher in RAGE-ab treated versus saline treated mice at day 5 (3.1±1.4 vs 1.68±0.35, p=0.02) and blood flow was higher at day 24 (1.49±0.5 vs 0.61±0.39, p=0.04). Immunohistochemistry of ischemic muscles showed greater capillary density in the RAGE-ab treated group versus the vehicle-treated group (p<0.001) (NS from non-diabetic mice). In conclusion, treatment with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 in diabetic mice improves neovascularization in the ischemic leg.

  13. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  14. Advances in Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  15. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing.

    PubMed

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25484059

  18. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  19. Blood Typing--Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, W. T., Jr.

    This instructional packet deals with the study of hematology. It is recommended for all high school students of biology. A general understanding of antigen-antibody reactions is necessary before attempting this learning activity. Behavioral objectives place emphasis on the techniques of and understanding of blood typing. The equipment and…

  20. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System.

    PubMed

    Omi, Toshinori; Nakazawa, Shota; Udagawa, Chihiro; Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat's AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system.

  1. Molecular Characterization of the Cytidine Monophosphate-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase (CMAH) Gene Associated with the Feline AB Blood Group System

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Naomi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Chong, Yong Hwa; Kato, Yuiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Gin, Azusa; Oda, Hitomi; Azakami, Daigo; Tamura, Kyoichi; Sako, Toshinori; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Bonkobara, Makoto; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Cat’s AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes. Blood-typing revealed that 734 of the cats analyzed type A (95.1%), 38 cats were type B (4.9%), and none were type AB. A family of three Ragdoll cats including two type AB cats and one type A was also used in this study. CMAH sequence analyses showed that the CMAH protein was generated from two mRNA isoforms differing in exon 1. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 16 exons including the coding region of CMAH examined in the 34 type B cats and in the family of type AB cats carried the CMAH variants, and revealed multiple novel diplotypes comprising several polymorphisms. Haplotype inference, which was focused on non-synonymous SNPs revealed that eight haplotypes carried one to four mutations in CMAH, and all cats with type B (n = 34) and AB (n = 2) blood carried two alleles derived from the mutated CMAH gene. These results suggested that double haploids selected from multiple recessive alleles in the cat CMAH loci were highly associated with the expression of the Neu5Ac on erythrocyte membrane in types B and AB of the feline AB blood group system. PMID:27755584

  2. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  3. Subgrouping of A and AB blood groups in Indian blood centres: is it required?

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ranjita; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    Anti A1 antibody in the serum of A2 and A2B individuals is rare but when present can have laboratory and clinical significance. Routine subgrouping of all A and AB blood groups in blood centres in India is difficult due to economic constraints and has always been a point of debate. This study thus brings out the prevalence of anti A1 antibody and the clinical significance related to its presence. The results of the study showed a low prevalence of anti A1 antibody and when present, it had a low thermal amplitude and titre. Further, no blood group discrepancy or problems during compatibility testing were encountered with these (A1 antibody positive) blood units. Thus, it may be concluded that in India and other developing countries where resources are scarce, routine subgrouping of A and AB may not be really worthwhile unless there is a group discrepancy, problem during compatibility testing or history of a transfusion reaction.

  4. Dielectrophoretic characterization of erythrocytes: positive ABO blood types.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Soumya K; Daggolu, Prashant R; Burgess, Shane C; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2008-12-01

    Dielectrophoretic manipulation of erythrocytes/red blood cells is investigated as a tool to identify blood type for medical diagnostic applications. Positive blood types of the ABO typing system (A+, B+, AB+ and O+) were tested and cell responses quantified. The dielectrophoretic response of each blood type was observed in a platinum electrode microdevice, delivering a field of 0.025V(pp)/microm at 1 MHz. Responses were recorded via video microscopy for 120 s and erythrocyte positions were tabulated at 20-30 s intervals. Both vertical and horizontal motions of erythrocytes were quantified via image object recognition, object tracking in MATLAB, binning into appropriate electric field contoured regions (wedges) and statistical analysis. Cells of O+ type showed relatively attenuated response to the dielectrophoretic field and were distinguished with greater than 95% confidence from all the other three blood types. AB+ cell responses differed from A+ and B+ blood types likely because AB+ erythrocytes express both the A and B glycoforms on their membrane. This research suggests that dielectrophoresis of untreated erythrocytes beyond simple dilution depends on blood type and could be used in portable blood typing devices.

  5. Pseudosymmetric features of non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gazhulina, A.P. Marychev, M.O.

    2016-07-15

    This work is supplement to our previous investigation (Gazhulina and Marychev, 2015) [1]. We have considered pseudosymmetric features with respect to the operation of inversion (pseudoinversion) for 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals. Analysis of the features of particular structure types allowed us to determine the positions of pseudoinversion centers, subdivide them into separate types, and classify the entire set of crystals studied with respect to the types of pseudoinversion centers and peculiarities of the behavior of the degree of pseudoinversion depending on the ratio of atomic numbers of A and B components. For each group of crystals, average values and lower boundaries of the maximum pseudoinversion are determined and distribution with respect to the degree of pseudoinversion is constructed. - Graphical abstract: A group of 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals have been considered for their pseudosymmetry features with respect to the operation of inversion. Positions of pseudoinversion centers, subdivision of them into separate types, classification of the entire set of crystals studied with respect to the types of pseudoinversion centers and peculiarities of the behavior of the degree of pseudoinversion are established and discussed. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We consider pseudoinversion of 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals. • AB type crystals are divided into three groups with respect to pseudoinversion. • Positions and types of pseudoinversion centers are determined. • Lower boundaries of the maximum pseudoinversion are determined.

  6. Interaction between haptoglobin subtypes and AB0 blood groups in a Bengalee population.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan; Roy, Jayita Ghoshal

    2005-09-01

    Blood samples from 621 individuals of a Caste Hindu Population from West Bengal (India) were investigated in an attempt to find out an association between the AB0 blood groups and Haptoglobin (HP) subtypes. AB0 blood grouping was done on the basis of the agglutination test with standard anti-sera. Haptoglobin subtyping only for the HP*1 allele was done by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). A significant association was found with a significantly lower HP*1S allele frequency in blood group 0 versus other AB0 blood groups. A comparatively higher allele frequency of HP*1S was found in this population sample. An inverse relationship between HP*1S and HP*2 has been revealed in each blood group. It appears that the major portion of HP*1 alleles in the A, B, and AB blood groups belongs to the HP*1S allele compared to that of the 0 blood group.

  7. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Leaders Save Lives High school and college students can earn a scholarship and help save lives. ...

  8. Types of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially in the joints (knees, ankles, and elbows). Plasma Transfusions Plasma is the liquid part of your blood. It's ... or a severe infection, you may need a plasma transfusion. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: January 30, ...

  9. Signalment and blood types in cats being evaluated as blood donors at two italian university blood banks.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Miglio, Arianna; Proverbio, Daniela; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta; Mangili, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Data from potential feline blood donors presented at two university blood banks in Italy were recorded. Blood typing was performed using an immunochromatographic method. Over the three years of the study 357 cats representing 15 breeds, 45.3% female and 54.7% male, with a mean age of 3.8 years were evaluated. Of these 90.5% were blood type A, 5.6% type B, and 3.9% type AB. The majority of the cats (54.6%) were European DSH (92.3% were type A, 5.1% type B, and 2.6% type AB), and 21% were Maine Coon (MCO) cats (100% blood type A). The estimated frequencies of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between DSH (donors and recipients), MCO (donor and recipients), DSH donors and MCO recipients, and MCO donors and DSH recipients were 4.8%, 0%, 0%, and 5.1% for major reactions and 7.2%, 0%, 7.7%, and 0% for minor transfusions reactions, respectively. In a population of blood donors that includes DSH and MCO the risk of transfusion reaction is between 5% and 8% if typing is not performed on donor and recipient blood. Blood typing should therefore be performed before transfusion to remove the risk of transfusion reactions due to blood type incompatibilities.

  10. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liangshan; Jin, Wumin; Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms.

  11. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27462770

  12. How we manage AB plasma inventory in the blood center and transfusion service.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark; Eder, Anne F; Land, Kevin J

    2013-08-01

    The growing use of group AB plasma in the United States in recent years poses unique challenges to blood centers and transfusion services. Blood centers must collect sufficient plasma components from a limited pool of group AB donors while taking steps to improve transfusion safety that further restricts the available supply. Transfusion services, on the other hand, must use the finite resource in the most conscientious and medically appropriate manner. Recently, many investigations have challenged long-held beliefs about transfusion practice and appropriate indications for blood components across a variety of specialties. Balancing supply and demand of group AB plasma requires collaboration between blood suppliers and transfusion services, and opportunities for improvement exist on both sides of the equation.

  13. The cis-AB blood group phenotype: fundamental lessons in glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Olsson, Martin L; Palcic, Monica M

    2006-07-01

    The cis-AB phenotype can raise questions about an apparently paradoxical inheritance of the ABO blood group, such as the birth of an O child from an AB mother. These subtype ABO alleles confer the ability to create both A and B antigens with a single enzyme. A variety of different cis-AB enzymes have been reported and many feature an interchange of amino acids between the normal A enzyme sequence and its B counterpart, rendering the mutant enzyme capable of creating both antigens. The resulting red blood cells do not usually express A or B antigen at the same level that would be expected on common group A(1) or B red blood cells, and the results of investigations into the kinetics of the cis-AB enzyme more clearly predict the extent of antigen expression. By correctly identifying the cis-AB phenotype, the blood bank can be of assistance to a clinician faced with a patient with what appears to be a genetically impossible ABO blood group.

  14. Rapid direct PCR for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Many different molecular typing methods have been reported to complement routine serological ABO blood typing in forensics. However, these ABO genotyping methods are often time-consuming and call for an initial DNA isolation step that requires the use of expensive kits or reagents. We report here a rapid direct ABO genotyping method that eliminates the need for DNA extraction from fresh blood, hair, and body fluid stains before PCR. Using a fast PCR instrument and an optimized polymerase, the genotyping method-which employs a multiplex allele-specific primer set for the simultaneous detection of three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (nucleotides 261, 526, and 803)-identifies A, B, O01/O02, O03, and cis-AB01 alleles in around 70 min from sample collection to electropherogram. Not only will this ABO genotyping method be efficiently used in forensic practice for rapid screening of samples before full-blown multilocus short tandem repeat profiling, but it will also demonstrate an example of rapid direct genotyping of SNPs that offers the advantages of time- and cost-efficiency, convenience, and reduced contamination during DNA analysis.

  15. Possible association between human blood types and opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Meymandi, Manzumeh Shamsi; Divsalar, Kouros; Mahmoudi, Minoo; Heravi, Gioia

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder that has been shown to have a genetic component like several other diseases. Finding any factor that is associated with higher risk of addiction tendency may influence the strategies of prevention and treatment of drug abuse and also provide an avenue of further research in genetics, immunology, and other related fields. This case-control study aimed at finding the frequency rate of ABO blood groups and Rhesus (Rh) factor among opioid dependents. Therefore, 249 opioid dependents referred to the Drug Quit center at Bam, Iran (case group) were compared with 360 blood donors referred to the Blood Transfusion Center (control group) in regard to the frequency of blood groups and Rh factor. The two groups were matched for demographic features. The odds ratio for AB blood group in addicts was 3.98 compared to non-addicts (p < .001) and the odds ratio of negative Rh in addicts compared to non-addicts was 4.27 (p < .001). According to the findings, in this population the frequency of negative Rh and AB blood group were significantly less than the predictive values. The relationship between opioid use and blood group type requires a cohort study eliminating all extraneous factors in order to be proved.

  16. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  17. Label-free optical sensor based on red blood cells laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Duo; Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Huang, Hao; Huang, Zufang; Yu, Yun; Qiu, Sufang; Wen, Cuncheng; Cheng, Min; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-17

    The clinical significance of ABO blood typing extends beyond transfusion medicine and is demonstrated to be associated with susceptibility to various diseases, even including cancer. In this study, a home-made laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) system was applied to detect red blood cells (RBCs) with the aim to develop a label-free, simple and objective blood typing method for the first time. High-quality Raman spectra of RBCs in the fingerprint region of 420-1700 cm-1 can be obtained, meanwhile exciting blood typing results can be achieved, especially with an accuracy of 100% for identifying Type AB from other blood types with the use of multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This primary work demonstrates that the label-free RBCs LTRS analysis in conjunction with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has great potential as a biosensor for ABO blood typing.

  18. Paper diagnostic for instantaneous blood typing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Thouas, George; Shen, Wei; Whyte, Gordon; Garnier, Gil

    2010-05-15

    Agglutinated blood transports differently onto paper than stable blood with well dispersed red cells. This difference was investigated to develop instantaneous blood typing tests using specific antibody-antigen interactions to trigger blood agglutination. Two series of experiments were performed. The first related the level of agglutination and the fluidic properties of blood on its transport in paper. Blood samples were mixed at different ratios with specific and nonspecific antibodies; a droplet of each mixture was deposited onto a filter paper strip, and the kinetics of wicking and red cell separation were measured. Agglutinated blood phase separated, with the red blood cells (RBC) forming a distinct spot upon contact with paper while the plasma wicked; in contrast, stable blood suspensions wicked uniformly. The second study analyzed the wicking and the chromatographic separation of droplets of blood deposited onto paper strips pretreated with specific and nonspecific antibodies. Drastic differences in transport occurred. Blood agglutinated by interaction with one of its specific antibodies phase separated, causing a chromatographic separation. The red cells wicked very little while the plasma wicked at a faster rate than the original blood sample. Blood agglutination and wicking in paper followed the concepts of colloids chemistry. The immunoglobin M antibodies agglutinated the red blood cells by polymer bridging, upon selective adsorption on the specific antigen at their surface. The transport kinetics was viscosity controlled, with the viscosity of red cells drastically increasing upon blood agglutination. Three arm prototypes were investigated for single-step blood typing.

  19. Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains.

    PubMed

    Franciosa, Giovanna; Floridi, Francesca; Maugliani, Antonella; Aureli, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained.

  20. Differentiation of the Gene Clusters Encoding Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Complexes in Clostridium botulinum Type A, Ab, and A(B) Strains

    PubMed Central

    Franciosa, Giovanna; Floridi, Francesca; Maugliani, Antonella; Aureli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained. PMID:15574917

  1. Validation of paper-based assay for rapid blood typing.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Shen, Wei; Zeineddine, Rania; Tran, Huy; Garnier, Gil

    2012-02-07

    We developed and validated a new paper-based assay for the detection of human blood type. Our method involves spotting a 3 μL blood sample on a paper surface where grouping antibodies have already been introduced. A thin film chromatograph tank was used to chromatographically elute the blood spot with 0.9% NaCl buffer for 10 min by capillary absorption. Agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) were fixed on the paper substrate, resulting in a high optical density of the spot, with no visual trace in the buffer wicking path. Conversely, nonagglutinated RBCs could easily be eluted by the buffer and had low optical density of the spot and clearly visible trace of RBCs in the buffer wicking path. Different paper substrates had comparable ability to fix agglutinated blood, while a more porous substrate like Kleenex paper had enhanced ability to elute nonagglutinated blood. Using optimized conditions, a rapid assay for detection of blood groups was developed by spotting blood to antibodies absorbed to paper and eluted with 200 μL of 0.9% NaCl buffer directly by pipetting. RBCs fixation on paper accurately detected blood groups (ABO and RhD) using ascending buffer for 10 min or using a rapid elution step in 100/100 blood samples including 4 weak AB and 4 weak RhD samples. The assay has excellent reproducibility where the same blood group was obtained in 26 samples assessed in 2 different days. Agglutinated blood fixation on porous paper substrate provides a new, simple, and sensitive assay for rapid detection of blood group for point-of-care applications.

  2. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  3. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  4. Design of a sensor for the blood AB0 group antibodies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, D. V.; Kiselev, G. A.; Moiseev, M. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Yaminskiy, I. V.

    2012-02-01

    Control the content of the blood group antibodies in the plasma of the recipient is an important task in modern transplantation. In this paper we proposed to use micromechanical cantilever sensors for detection of the low concentrations of AB0 blood group antibodies in serum. The technique of chemical modification of cantilever surface to create the receptor layer was developed. The apparatus, which provides data acquisition from multiple microconsoles simultaneously was created. We carried out experiments by the detection in a solution the β antibodies with a concentration of 300 times less than the native content of antibodies in the blood. Change in surface stress due to formation of antigen-antibody complexes on the cantilever surface was 0.075 N/m. The resulting lateral strain, apparently, induced by repulsion between the complexes during the sorption of antibodies in layer of antigens, immobilized on the surface. The possibility of regeneration of sensory layer for repeated measurements was shown.

  5. The prognostic value of architectural patterns in a study of 37 type AB thymomas.

    PubMed

    Vladislav, I Tudor; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-06-01

    Spindle cell thymomas with prominent amount of lymphocytes are classified as WHO type AB tumors. However, there are architectural pattern differences in these tumors. We investigated the importance of architectural pattern in type AB thymomas in relation to prognostic value. Archival hematoxylin-eosin stained slides of 37 AB type thymomas were reviewed for the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of reticular growth pattern. Reticular growth pattern is defined as the presence of a network of elongated bland spindle cells separating nests of tumor cells admixed with lymphoid cells. The architectural patterns were correlated with tumor stage at diagnosis and presence or absence of recurrent disease. The analysis identified 18 cases of type 1 AB thymoma and 19 cases of type 2. Type 2 cases also had greater cytologic atypia within the spindle cells. Patients with type 1 tumors were more likely to have early stage disease. In contrast, type 2 pattern was associated with higher stage at diagnosis (P<0.001) and greater likelihood for recurrence (P<0.05) and metastases. Architectural features are prognostically relevant in classification of WHO AB type thymomas and may constitute a form of personalized medicine. Independent confirmation of the findings is necessary to confirm the association of architectural pattern with outcomes.

  6. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    PubMed

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests.

  7. Predictors of differences between Type A and B individuals in heart rate and blood pressure reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lyness, S A

    1993-09-01

    Past estimates of the magnitude of Type A-B differences in cardiovascular reactivity are probably overly conservative. In addition, it is unclear which situations are more likely to elicit excessive reactivity in Type As. The present meta-analysis found that, overall, Type As had greater heart rate (mean d = .22), diastolic blood pressure (d = .22), and especially systolic blood pressure responses (d = .33) than Type Bs; these effect sizes were small but relatively consistent. However, Type As showed especially greater cardiovascular reactivity in situations characterized as having (a) positive or negative feedback evaluation, (b) socially aversive elements such as verbal harassment or criticism, and (c) elements inherent in playing video games. Measures of time urgency, Type A assessment method, and gender were not found to be strongly related to A-B differences in cardiovascular reactivity. Future studies that use more "Type A-relevant" situations will probably find greater effects.

  8. Blood type biochemistry and human disease.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2016-11-01

    Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. Blood group antigens are found on red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, plasma proteins, certain tissues, and various cell surface enzymes, and also exist in soluble form in body secretions such as breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, sweat, gastric secretions, urine, and amniotic fluid. Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:517-535. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Parainfluenza virus type 3 Ab in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: factors influencing post-transplant Ab titers and associated outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Xie, H; Karron, R A; Thumar, B; Englund, J A; Leisenring, W M; Stevens-Ayers, T; Boeckh, M; Campbell, A P

    2014-09-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) can cause severe respiratory illness among hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Factors associated with PIV-3-specific Ab level, and the association between PIV-3 Ab levels and clinical outcomes in HCT recipients who acquire PIV-3 infection, are unknown. We evaluated PIV-3-specific hemagglutination inhibition Ab levels and clinical outcomes among 172 patients with PIV-3 infection following HCT. In a multivariable linear regression model, high post-transplantation Ab levels were independently associated with higher pre-transplantation recipient titer (mean difference 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26, 0.50), P<0.001). Significant associations between pre-HCT Ab titers in both patients and donors and occurrence of lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) after HCT were not observed. In conclusion, low pre-transplantation titers are associated with low Ab levels after HCT. The relationship between PIV-3 Ab levels and outcomes remain uncertain. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the dynamics of PIV-3-specific Ab responses and the relative contribution of PIV-3-specific Ab to protection from infection acquisition and progression to LRD.

  10. Stem Cell Physics. Laser Manipulation of Blood Types: Laser-Stripping-Away of Red Blood Cell Surface Antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    A novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine[2] is proposed. The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multilaser beams with the flowing blood thin films can lead to a conversion of blood types A, B, and AB into O type.[3] The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation),[4] upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, CA.

  11. On the Age, Spectral Type, Orbit, and Comparison to Evolutionary Models of AB Dor C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Nielsen, E. L.; Guirado, J. C.; Biller, B. A.; Lenzen, R.; Brandner, W.; Hartung, M.; Lidman, C.

    We expand upon the results of Close et al. 2005 regarding the young, low-mass object AB Dor C and its role as a calibration point for theoretical tracks. We argue for a new 70±30 Myr age estimate and present two additional detections of C with the Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) camera. Our improved analysis (Nielsen et al. 2005) confirms our spectral type of M8 (±1) and mass of 0.090 ±0.003 Msun for AB Dor C. However, Luhman & Potter (2006) argue for a hotter spectral type (M6±1). Here we adopt the consistent spectral range of M7±1 in this paper as a final spectral type. Plotting AB Dor C (and all other young ({ Myr), low-mass (0.3-0.05 Msun) objects with accurate dynamical masses) on the HR diagram suggests a trend where current evolutionary models tend to over-predict the temperature (or under-predict the mass) for young low-mass stars and high-mass brown dwarfs. With our uncertainties, there is a ˜90% chance that the mass of AB Dor C is underestimated by the DUSTY tracks in the HR diagram.

  12. Blood typing using microstructured waveguide smart cuvette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanishevskaya, Anastasiya A.; Shuvalov, Andrey A.; Skibina, Yulia S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a sensitive method that allows one to distinguish positive and negative agglutination reactions used for blood typing and determination of Rh affinity with a high precision. The method is based on the unique properties of photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., microstructured waveguides (MSWs). The transmission spectrum of an MSW smart cuvette filled by a specific or nonspecific agglutinating serum depends on the scattering, refractive, and absorptive properties of the blood probe. This concept was proven in the course of a laboratory clinical study. The obtained ratio of the spectral-based discrimination parameter for positive and negative reactions (I+/I-) was found to be 16 for standard analysis and around 2 for used sera with a weak activity.

  13. Blood typing using microstructured waveguide smart cuvette.

    PubMed

    Zanishevskaya, Anastasiya A; Shuvalov, Andrey A; Skibina, Yulia S; Tuchin, Valery V

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a sensitive method that allows one to distinguish positive and negative agglutination reactions used for blood typing and determination of Rh affinity with a high precision. The method is based on the unique properties of photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., microstructured waveguides (MSWs). The transmission spectrum of an MSW smart cuvette filled by a specific or nonspecific agglutinating serum depends on the scattering, refractive, and absorptive properties of the blood probe. This concept was proven in the course of a laboratory clinical study. The obtained ratio of the spectral-based discrimination parameter for positive and negative reactions (I+/I-) was found to be 16 for standard analysis and around 2 for used sera with a weak activity.

  14. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  15. ABO blood type is associated with endometrial cancer risk in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-11-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk of several malignancies. However, results are not consistent. In this population-based case-control study including 1204 incident endometrial cancer cases and 1212 population controls, we examined the association of self-reported serologic blood type with endometrial cancer risk using a logistic regression model. Women with endometrial cancer were more likely to have blood type A. Compared to women with blood type O, the adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer were 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.28] for type B, 1.24 (95% CI, 0.90-1.69) for type AB, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.19-1.90) for type A. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for cancer risk and level of antigen A (P for trend = 0.0003). The positive association of blood type A with cancer risk was observed regardless of menopausal status, body mass index, oral contraceptive use, or family cancer history. Our results suggest that ABO blood type may be involved in the development of endometrial cancer.

  16. Direct current insulator-based dielectrophoretic characterization of erythrocytes: ABO-Rh human blood typing.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Soumya K; Artemiou, Andreas; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2011-09-01

    A microfluidic platform developed for quantifying the dependence of erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) responses by ABO-Rh blood type via direct current insulator dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) is presented. The PDMS DC-iDEP device utilized a 400 x 170 μm² rectangular insulating obstacle embedded in a 1.46-cm long, 200-μm wide inlet channel to create spatial non-uniformities in direct current (DC) electric field density realized by separation into four outlet channels. The DC-iDEP flow behaviors were investigated for all eight blood types (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-) in the human ABO-Rh blood typing system. Three independent donors of each blood type, same donor reproducibility, different conductivity buffers (0.52-9.1 mS/cm), and DC electric fields (17.1-68.5 V/cm) were tested to investigate separation dependencies. The data analysis was conducted from image intensity profiles across inlet and outlet channels in the device. Individual channel fractions suggest that the dielectrophoretic force experienced by the cells is dependent on erythrocyte antigen expression. Two different statistical analysis methods were conducted to determine how distinguishable a single blood type was from the others. Results indicate that channel fraction distributions differ by ABO-Rh blood types suggesting that antigens present on the erythrocyte membrane polarize differently in DC-iDEP fields. Under optimized conductivity and field conditions, certain blind blood samples could be sorted with low misclassification rates.

  17. Implications of Blood Type for Ovarian Reserve and Infertility - Impact on Oocyte Yield in IVF Patients.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, D; Corn, C; Stadler, J; Wirleitner, B; Schuff, M; Vanderzwalmen, P; Grabher, F; Zech, N H

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) has been linked to certain subpopulations and distinct gene polymorphisms. It has even been hypothesized that the AB0 blood group system could be linked to ovarian reserve (OR) as reflected by early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Although estimation of OR is routinely done using levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), FSH, estradiol or inhibin B, the diagnostic accuracy of these markers is often limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is any correlation between IVF patients' AB0 blood group system and ART outcome. Methods: In this retrospective observational single-center study we investigated the outcome of 1889 IVF cycles carried out between 2005 and 2012 with regard to blood type and OR in different age groups (21-36 years and 37-43 years). The number of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and metaphase II oocytes obtained after ovarian stimulation, fertilization rate (FR), pregnancy rate (PR) and birth rate (BR) were evaluated with respect to maternal age (21-36 and 37-43 years, respectively). Results: We found no significant differences in the average number of COCs after ovum pick-up in either of the age groups. Moreover, the mean number of MII oocytes and 2PN stages were similar for all blood type groups. As regards IVF outcome measured in terms of PR and BR, no significant differences were observed between the different blood groups. In conclusion, no correlation was found between blood type and female fertility. Discussion: The most precise definition of OR is determining the number of competent oocytes. Based on the finding of our study, the hypothesis that there is a correlation between OR and AB0 blood group system can be dismissed for Caucasian IVF patients.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR RADIOGENIC SULFUR-32 IN TYPE AB PRESOLAR SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Zinner, Ernst; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk E-mail: peter.hoppe@mpic.de E-mail: mpignatari@gmail.com

    2013-10-20

    We report C, Si, and S isotope measurements on 34 presolar silicon carbide grains of Type AB, characterized by {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C < 10. Nitrogen, Mg-Al-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions were measured on a subset of these grains. Three grains show large {sup 32}S excesses, a signature that has been previously observed for grains from supernovae (SNe). Enrichments in {sup 32}S may be due to contributions from the Si/S zone and the result of S molecule chemistry in still unmixed SN ejecta or due to incorporation of radioactive {sup 32}Si from C-rich explosive He shell ejecta. However, a SN origin remains unlikely for the three AB grains considered here, because of missing evidence for {sup 44}Ti, relatively low {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios (a few times 10{sup –3}), and radiogenic {sup 32}S along with low {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios. Instead, we show that born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that have undergone a very-late thermal pulse (VLTP), known to have low {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios and enhanced abundances of the light s-process elements, can produce {sup 32}Si, which makes such stars attractive sources for AB grains with {sup 32}S excesses. This lends support to the proposal that at least some AB grains originate from born-again AGB stars, although uncertainties in the born-again AGB star models and possible variations of initial S-isotopic compositions in the parent stars of AB grains make it difficult to draw a definitive conclusion.

  19. Evidence for Radiogenic Sulfur-32 in Type AB Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Zinner, Ernst; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2013-10-01

    We report C, Si, and S isotope measurements on 34 presolar silicon carbide grains of Type AB, characterized by 12C/13C < 10. Nitrogen, Mg-Al-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions were measured on a subset of these grains. Three grains show large 32S excesses, a signature that has been previously observed for grains from supernovae (SNe). Enrichments in 32S may be due to contributions from the Si/S zone and the result of S molecule chemistry in still unmixed SN ejecta or due to incorporation of radioactive 32Si from C-rich explosive He shell ejecta. However, a SN origin remains unlikely for the three AB grains considered here, because of missing evidence for 44Ti, relatively low 26Al/27Al ratios (a few times 10-3), and radiogenic 32S along with low 12C/13C ratios. Instead, we show that born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that have undergone a very-late thermal pulse (VLTP), known to have low 12C/13C ratios and enhanced abundances of the light s-process elements, can produce 32Si, which makes such stars attractive sources for AB grains with 32S excesses. This lends support to the proposal that at least some AB grains originate from born-again AGB stars, although uncertainties in the born-again AGB star models and possible variations of initial S-isotopic compositions in the parent stars of AB grains make it difficult to draw a definitive conclusion.

  20. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  1. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  2. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  3. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  4. Prospective study of ABO blood type and the risk of pulmonary embolism in two large cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Brian M; Kabrhel, Christopher; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kraft, Peter; Rimm, Eric B; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Camargo, Carlos A; Fuchs, Charles S

    2010-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested an association of ABO blood type and the risk of venous thromboembolism; however, most studies were retrospective and lacked important covariates or validated endpoints. Moreover, risk estimates varied widely across studies. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association of blood type and the risk of incident pulmonary embolism (PE) in two large cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. During 1,010,378 person-years of follow-up among 77,025 women and 30,105 men, 499 participants developed PE. Compared to those with O-blood type, participants with non-O blood type had multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.35-2.57) for idiopathic PE, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.62) for non-idiopathic PE, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.22-1.76) for any PE. Hazard ratios were similar for participants with blood types A, B, and AB. Age-adjusted absolute rates of idiopathic PE over 10 years of follow-up differed by blood type: 0.11% for O, 0.20% for A, 0.19% for AB, and 0.21% for B. For idiopathic PE, the population attributable fraction was 33% for inheritance of non-O blood type. Among past and current smokers, participants with non-O vs. O-blood type had a HR for idiopathic PE of 2.56 (95% CI, 1.61-4.08). Among never smokers, the HR for idiopathic PE was 1.30 (95% CI, 0.82-2.05; P interaction=0.04). In two large, prospective cohorts, ABO blood type was significantly associated with the risk of idiopathic and non-idiopathic PE, with even greater risk for idiopathic PE among current and past smokers with non-O blood type.

  5. Human blood group typing based on digital photographs of RBC agglutination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    A method for the monitoring of the human erythrocyte agglutination reaction in vitro, which is the basis for determining the human blood type (group), is proposed. The method is based on a statistical analysis of digital photographs of the agglutination process. It is experimentally shown that this analysis of photographs makes it possible to determine the probability that the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes of the studied specimen of blood with corresponding isohemagglutinating sera does occur. To increase the rate of the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes and to improve the sensitivity of the method of monitoring, the bioobject under study is subjected to the action of ultrasonic waves, as was previously proposed by the authors, and the result of the erythrocyte agglutination reaction is read optically. It is shown that, in principle, the method of statistical processing of digital photographs can be used to develop devices for automatic human blood typing in the AB0 and Rh systems.

  6. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  7. A systematic approach to reductions of type-Q ABS equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Mike; Howes, Phil; Nakazono, Nobutaka; Shi, Yang

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of reductions of Möbius type for the lattice equations known as Q1, Q2, and Q3 from the ABS list. The deautonomized form of one particular reduction of Q3 is shown to exist on the A1(1) surface which belongs to the multiplicative type of rational surfaces in Sakai’s classification of Painlevé systems. Using the growth of degrees of iterates, all other mappings that result from the class of reductions considered here are shown to be linearizable. Any possible linearizations are calculated explicitly by constructing a birational transformation defined by invariant curves in the blown up space of initial values for each reduction.

  8. Possible efficient p-type doping of AlN using Be: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R. Q.; Shen, L.; Yang, M.; Sha, Z. D.; Cai, Y. Q.; Feng, Y. P.; Huang, Z. G.; Wu, Q. Y.

    2007-10-01

    Spin density functional theory based ab initio study is carried out to investigate the feasibility of fabricating p-type AlN using Be as an efficient dopant. It is found that substitutional BeAl is an acceptor with an activation energy of 0.34eV. To overcome the low solubility of direct incorporation of Be into AlN and self-compensation from Be interstitials, we propose a hydrogen-assisted growth scheme which improves the solubility and suppresses interstitials. Oxygen is also found to be an effective codopant to activate Be in AlN. Our results suggest the possibility of improving p-type conductivity of AlN by Be doping.

  9. Superhydrophobic surface supported bioassay--an application in blood typing.

    PubMed

    Li, Lizi; Tian, Junfei; Li, Miaosi; Shen, Wei

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a new application of superhydrophobic surfaces in conducting biological assays for human blood typing using a liquid drop micro reactor. The superhydrophobic substrate was fabricated by a simple printing technique with Teflon powder. The non-wetting and weak hysteresis characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces enable the blood and antibody droplets to have a near-spherical shape, making it easy for the haemagglutination reaction inside the droplet to be photographed or recorded by a digital camera and then analyzed by image analysis software. This novel blood typing method requires only a small amount of blood sample. The evaluation of assay results using image analysis techniques offers potential to develop high throughput operations of rapid blood typing assays for pathological laboratories. With the capability of identifying detailed red blood cell agglutination patterns and intensities, this method is also useful for confirming blood samples that have weak red blood cell antigens.

  10. How-to-Do-It: Infection Control Guidelines for Blood Typing & Blood Smear Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Edwin A.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a set of guidelines for infection control of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the serum hepatitis viruses during blood typing procedures. Emphasizes that disposal of blood contaminated materials should comply with local health department recommendations. (RT)

  11. A novel method for blood-typing using nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Parastoo; Abolfathi, Nabiollah

    2016-12-07

    Blood wicking in its steady-state form, i.e. the uniform distribution of blood cells in plasma, is completely different from that in its coagulated form on a porous surface like paper. The hydrophilic property of the cellulose leads to a significant wicking of the blood cells on paper fibers after rinsing with isotonic solution. The difference in the wicking length of the blood cells in steady state and that in the coagulated form could be considered as a criterion to recognize the blood type in a paper-based kit. However, owing to the molecular structure of the nitrocellulose, a better process occurs while separating the coagulated blood from the steady-state form of cells. Therefore, it is possible to use the nitrocellulose for the blood-typing kit which leads to a simpler way to diagnose a blood type. Two series of experiments were performed on nitrocellulose membrane. First, antibody solutions and blood samples were sequentially absorbed on nitrocellulose strips, allowed to interact, rinsed with an isotonic solution and distilled water, and image processing performed on a digital picture of the remaining blood cells. The efficiency of the agglutinated blood cell fixation was quantified by red color intensity. Then, it was demonstrated that there is no considerable difference in fixation of agglutinated blood cells with rinsing using isotonic and nonisotonic solutions. This fact can be a considerable advantage over paper since it can eliminate the probable mistake from using unisotonic solution for rinsing. Second, owing to the nonwicking property of the blood cells on the hydrophobic nitrocellulose fibers, we employed another diagnostic criterion and investigated nitrocellulose blood-typing prototypes. The nitrocellulose blood-typing kit provides more simple, sensitive and trustworthy assay for rapid blood typing in situations with no access to laboratory facilities.

  12. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Taeyun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Gyoo-Whung; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2010-01-01

    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis.

  13. TOX and CDKN2A/B Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fengjiang; Cai, Chunyou; Feng, Shuzhi; Lv, Jia; Li, Shen; Chang, Baocheng; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Wentao; Han, Hongling; Ling, Chao; Yu, Ping; Chen, Yongjun; Sun, Ning; Tian, Jianli; Jiao, Hongxiao; Yang, Fuhua; Li, Mingshan; Wang, Yuhua; Zou, Lei; Su, Long; Li, Jingbo; Li, Ran; Qiu, Huina; Shi, Jingmin; Liu, Shiying; Chang, Mingqin; Lin, Jingna; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-07-03

    To study associations between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) candidate genes and microvascular complications of diabetes (MVCDs), we performed case-control association studies for both T2DM and MVCDs in Han Chinese subjects. We recruited 1,939 unrelated Han Chinese T2DM patients and 918 individuals with normal blood glucose levels as nondiabetic controls. Among T2DM patients, 1116 have MVCDs, 266 have a history of T2DM of >10 years but never developed MVCDs. Eighty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 54 candidate genes were genotyped. Discrete association studies were performed by the PLINK program for T2DM and MVCDs. Significant associations were found among candidate gene SNPs and T2DM, including rs1526167 of the TOX gene (allele A, P = 2.85 × 10(-9), OR = 1.44). The SNP rs10811661 of the CDKN2A/B gene was also associated with T2DM (allele T, P = 4.09 × 10(-7), OR = 1.36). When we used control patients with >10 years of T2DM history without MVCD, we found that the G allele of SNP rs1526167 of the TOX gene was associated with MVCD (nominal P = 4.33 × 10(-4)). In our study, significant associations were found between TOX and CDKN2A/B gene SNPs and T2DM. The TOX polymorphism might account for the higher risk of T2DM and the lower risk of MVCDs in the Han Chinese population.

  14. A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Noiphung, Julaluk; Talalak, Kwanrutai; Hongwarittorrn, Irin; Pupinyo, Naricha; Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-05-15

    We propose a new, paper-based analytical device (PAD) for blood typing that allows for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups on the same device. The device was successfully fabricated by using a combination of wax printing and wax dipping methods. A 1:2 blood dilution was used for forward grouping, whereas whole blood could be used for reverse grouping. A 30% cell suspension of A-cells or B-cells was used for haemagglutination on the reverse grouping side. The total assay time was 10 min. The ratio between the distance of red blood cell movement and plasma separation is the criterion for agglutination and indicates the presence of the corresponding antigen or antibody. The proposed PAD has excellent reproducibility in that the same blood groups, namely A, AB, and O, were reported by using different PADs that were fabricated on the same day (n=10). The accuracy for detecting blood group A (n=12), B (n=13), AB (n=9), O (n=14), and Rh (n=48) typing were 92%, 85%, 89%, 93%, and 96%, respectively, in comparison with the conventional slide test method. The haematocrit of the sample affects the accuracy of the results, and appropriate dilution is suggested before typing. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel method that is straightforward, time-saving, and inexpensive for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups, which is promising for use in developing countries.

  15. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  16. ABO blood type correlates with survival on prostate cancer vaccine therapy.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Saddam M; Gulley, James L; Hodge, James W; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-13

    Immunotherapies for cancer are transforming patient care, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Simple, inexpensive strategies to target treatment to likely responders could substantially improve efficacy while simultaneously reducing health care costs, but identification of reliable biomarkers has proven challenging. Previously, we found that pre-treatment serum IgM to blood group A (BG-A) correlated with survival for patients treated with PROSTVAC-VF, a therapeutic cancer vaccine in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. These results suggested that ABO blood type might influence efficacy. Unfortunately, blood types were not available in the clinical records for all but 8 patients and insufficient amounts of sera were left for standard blood typing methods. To test the hypothesis, therefore, we developed a new glycan microarray-based method for determining ABO blood type. The method requires only 4 μL of serum, provides 97% accuracy, and allows simultaneous profiling of many other serum anti-glycan antibodies. After validation with 220 healthy subjects of known blood type, the method was then applied to 74 PROSTVAC-VF patients and 37 control patients from a phase II trial. In this retrospective study, we found that type B and O PROSTVAC-VF patients demonstrated markedly improved clinical outcomes relative to A and AB patients, including longer median survival, longer median survival relative to Halabi predicted survival, and improved overall survival via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006). Consequently, blood type may provide an inexpensive screen to pre-select patients likely to benefit from PROSTVAC-VF therapy.

  17. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-12-01

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp-bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Finally, we compare the out-of-sample classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously.

  18. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp–bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Finally, we compare the out-of-sample classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously. PMID:26631979

  19. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-12-03

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp–bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Lastly, we compare the out-of-samplemore » classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously.« less

  20. Classification of octet AB-type binary compounds using dynamical charges: A materials informatics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2015-12-03

    The role of dynamical (or Born effective) charges in classification of octet AB-type binary compounds between four-fold (zincblende/wurtzite crystal structures) and six-fold (rocksalt crystal structure) coordinated systems is discussed. We show that the difference in the dynamical charges of the fourfold and sixfold coordinated structures, in combination with Harrison’s polarity, serves as an excellent feature to classify the coordination of 82 sp–bonded binary octet compounds. We use a support vector machine classifier to estimate the average classification accuracy and the associated variance in our model where a decision boundary is learned in a supervised manner. Lastly, we compare the out-of-sample classification accuracy achieved by our feature pair with those reported previously.

  1. SN 2013ab: a normal Type IIP supernova in NGC 5669

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhash; Valenti, Stefano; Misra, Kuntal; Pumo, Maria Letizia; Zampieri, Luca; Sand, David; Kumar, Brijesh; Pastorello, Andrea; Sutaria, Firoza; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kumar, Brajesh; Graham, M. L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Ochner, Paolo; Chandola, H. C.; Pandey, Shashi B.

    2015-07-01

    We present densely sampled ultraviolet/optical photometric and low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of the Type IIP supernova 2013ab in the nearby (˜24 Mpc) galaxy NGC 5669, from 2 to 190 d after explosion. Continuous photometric observations, with the cadence of typically a day to one week, were acquired with the 1-2 m class telescopes in the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network, ARIES telescopes in India and various other telescopes around the globe. The light curve and spectra suggest that the supernova (SN) is a normal Type IIP event with a plateau duration of ˜80 d with mid-plateau absolute visual magnitude of -16.7, although with a steeper decline during the plateau (0.92 mag 100 d-1 in V band) relative to other archetypal SNe of similar brightness. The velocity profile of SN 2013ab shows striking resemblance with those of SNe 1999em and 2012aw. Following the Rabinak & Waxman prescription, the initial temperature evolution of the SN emission allows us to estimate the progenitor radius to be ˜800 R⊙, indicating that the SN originated from a red supergiant star. The distance to the SN host galaxy is estimated to be 24.3 Mpc from expanding photosphere method. From our observations, we estimate that 0.064 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. General relativistic, radiation hydrodynamical modelling of the SN infers an explosion energy of 0.35 × 1051 erg, a progenitor mass (at the time of explosion) of ˜9 M⊙ and an initial radius of ˜600 R⊙.

  2. Investigation into the Antigenic Properties and Contributions to Growth in Blood of the Meningococcal Haemoglobin Receptors, HpuAB and HmbR

    PubMed Central

    Bidmos, Fadil A.; Chan, Hannah; Praekelt, Uta; Tauseef, Isfahan; Ali, Youssif M.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Feavers, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of iron from host complexes is mediated by four surface-located receptors of Neisseria meningitidis. The HmbR protein and heterodimeric HpuAB complex bind to haemoglobin whilst TbpBA and LbpBA bind iron-loaded transferrin and lactoferrin complexes, respectively. The haemoglobin receptors are unevenly distributed; disease-causing meningococcal isolates encode HmbR or both receptors while strains with only HpuAB are rarely-associated with disease. Both these receptors are subject to phase variation and 70–90% of disease isolates have one or both of these receptors in an ON expression state. The surface-expression, ubiquity and association with disease indicate that these receptors could be potential virulence factors and vaccine targets. To test for a requirement during disease, an hmbR deletion mutant was constructed in a strain (MC58) lacking HpuAB and in both a wild-type and TbpBA deletion background. The hmbR mutant exhibited an identical growth pattern to wild-type in whole blood from healthy human donors whereas growth of the tbpBA mutant was impaired. These results suggest that transferrin is the major source of iron for N. meningitidis during replication in healthy human blood. To examine immune responses, polyclonal antisera were raised against His-tagged purified-recombinant variants of HmbR, HpuA and HpuB in mice using monolipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies were raised against outer membrane loops of HmbR presented on the surface of EspA, an E. coli fimbrial protein. All antisera exhibited specific reactivity in Western blots but HmbR and HpuA polyclonal sera were reactive against intact meningococcal cells. None of the sera exhibited bactericidal activity against iron-induced wild-type meningococci. These findings suggest that the HmbR protein is not required during the early stages of disease and that immune responses against these receptors may not be protective. PMID:26208277

  3. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-Tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju; Park, Wanje

    2016-03-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research.

  4. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  5. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr+2 and substitutional Fe+1 order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μB) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μB), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe+1 exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond's extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  6. Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen

  7. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Blood Type Transmutation Induced by Multiple Ultrashort Wavelength Laser Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multi laser beams with the flowing blood thin films leads to the transmutation of the blood types A, B, and AB into O type. This is a novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine. Laser radiation is in resonance with the eigen-frequency modes of the antigen proteins and forces the proteins to parametrically oscillate until they get kicked out from the surface. The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation), upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. The scanning laser beam is partially reflected as long as the antigen(s) is not eliminated. The process of the protein detachment can last a few minutes. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., Stefan University.

  8. Current status of liver transplantation across ABO blood-type barrier.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiroto; Ohdan, Hideki; Haga, Hironori; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Oike, Fumitaka; Uemoto, Shinji; Ozawa, Kazue

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes of ABO-blood type incompatible liver transplantation have recently improved owing to various treatments. The typical clinical manifestations of antibody mediated rejection (AMR) are hepatic necrosis and intrahepatic biliary complication (IHBC). The prognosis of AMR is poor. AMR is the result of circulatory disturbance which is caused by injury to the endothelium due to an antibody-antigen-complement reaction. Diffuse C4d staining in the portal capillaries and periportal areas in severe AMR. Since natural antibodies against A/B carbohydrate determinants are likely to develop as a result of exposure to environmental bacteria that express similar determinants, the B-1 lineage has been speculated to be the major population of B-cell types responding to A/B determinants. Calcineurin inhibitors block B-1 cell differentiation. Rituximab can be used to deplete both cells that are producing IgM antibodies and those that have already differentiated into B-1 cells. Mycophenolate mofetil is required to inhibit the production of IgG subclass of antibodies. The outcome is now similar to that of blood-type-matched transplantation. However, there are still issues to be solved in order to further improve the outcome via a decrease of infection.

  9. Mitochondria single nucleotide variation across six blood cell types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan; Samuels, David C; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Shilin; Shyr, Yu; Guo, Yan

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown that heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA variants can be tissue specific. However, whether mitochondrial DNA variants are specific by blood cell types has not been investigated. Motivated by this question and using mitochondria sequences extracted from RNAseq data from six distinct blood cell types (neutrophil, monocyte, myeloid dendritic, natural killer, T and B), we thoroughly compared SNPs and heteroplasmies among these cell types. Each cell type from each subject was sequenced at four time points used as biological replicates. We found that mitochondria content is low in neutrophil compared to the other five blood cell types. Subsequent analysis on the other five blood cell types showed that at the SNP level, there was no discrepancy. At the heteroplasmy level, we observed good concordances among all blood cell types. However, the allele frequencies of the heteroplasmy differed between blood cell types for certain heteroplasmic sites. Furthermore, we identified five tri-allelic sites (1610, 2617, 8303, 12146, 13710) that are likely caused by RNA editing. Three out of these five sites are located at the ninth position of tRNA genes, and are likely resulting from post-transcriptional methylation.

  10. The Equivalence between (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger] and Other Mixed-Type Reverse-Order Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Yongge

    2006-01-01

    The standard reverse-order law for the Moore-Penrose inverse of a matrix product is (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger]. The purpose of this article is to give a set of equivalences of this reverse-order law and other mixed-type reverse-order laws for the Moore-Penrose inverse of matrix products.

  11. Rapid and inexpensive blood typing on thermoplastic chips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-You; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chou, Hsin-Hao; Wang, Cheng-Po; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2015-12-21

    A portable and cost-effective colorimetric diagnostic device was fabricated for rapid ABO and Rh blood typing. Using microfluidic construction on a thermoplastic chip, blood antibodies were preloaded into a reaction channel and exposed to blood samples to initiate a haemagglutination reaction. Downstream high-aspect ratio filters, composed of 2 μm high microslits, block agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) to turn the reaction channel red, indicating the presence of the corresponding blood antigen. Users manually actuate the blood sample using a simple screw pump that drives the solution through serpentine reaction channels and chaotic micromixers for maximum interaction of the preloaded antibodies with the blood sample antigens. Mismatched RBCs and antibodies elute from the channel into an outlet reservoir based on the rheological properties of RBCs with no colorimetric change. As a result, unambiguous blood typing tests can be distinguished by the naked eye in as little as 1 min. Blood disorders, such as thalassemia, can also be distinguished using the device. The required blood volume for the test is just 1 μL, which can be obtained by the less invasive finger pricking method. The low reagent consumption, manual driving force, low-cost of parts, high yield, and robust fabrication process make this device sensitive, accurate, and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings.

  12. Decline in Titers of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab) Precedes Development of GAD65Ab and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Helena Elding; Jönsson, Ida; Lernmark, Åke; Ivarsson, Sten; Radtke, Jared R.; Hampe, Christiane S.

    2013-01-01

    The humoral Idiotypic Network consisting of antibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) can be temporarily upset by antigen exposure. In the healthy immune response the original equilibrium is eventually restored through counter-regulatory mechanisms. In certain autoimmune diseases however, autoantibody levels exceed those of their respective anti-Id, indicating a permanent disturbance in the respective humoral Idiotypic Network. We investigated anti-Id directed to a major Type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated autoantibody (GAD65Ab) in two independent cohorts during progression to disease. Samples taken from participants of the Natural History Study showed significantly lower anti-Id levels in individuals that later progressed to T1D compared to non-progressors (anti-Id antibody index of 0.06 vs. 0.08, respectively, p = 0.02). We also observed a significant inverse correlation between anti-Id levels and age at sampling, but only in progressors (p = 0.014). Finally, anti-Id levels in progressors showed a significant decline during progression as compared to longitudinal anti-Id levels in non-progressors (median rate of change: −0.0004 vs. +0.0004, respectively, p = 0.003), suggesting a loss of anti-Id during progression. Our analysis of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne cohort showed that early in life (age 2) individuals at risk have anti-Id levels indistinguishable from those in healthy controls, indicating that low anti-Id levels are not an innate characteristic of the immune response in individuals at risk. Notably, anti-Id levels declined significantly in individuals that later developed GAD65Ab suggesting that the decline in anti-Id levels precedes the emergence of GAD65Ab (median rate of change: −0.005) compared to matched controls (median rate of change: +0.001) (p = 0.0016). We conclude that while anti-Id are present early in life, their levels decrease prior to the appearance of GAD65Ab and to the development of T1D. PMID

  13. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  15. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis.

  16. Relationship between serum GAD-Ab and the genetic polymorphisms of GAD2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Qiao, Z R; Liu, D B; Zeng, J T; Zhang, J; Bo, Y; Zu, H Y; Hu, Q; Wu, X; Dong, S S

    2015-04-10

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody (Ab) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the glutamic acid de-carboxylase 2 (GAD2) 5'-untranslated region and the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Han population. The distributions of patients with SNPs in the GAD2 5'-untranslated region (rs2236418, rs185649317, and rs8190590) and type 2 diabetes and that of the healthy group were genotyped and analyzed using Sequenom MassArray SNP genotyp-ing. GAD-Ab levels were also detected. The frequency distributions of the AA, AG, and GG genotypes in the polymorphic site rs2236418 in the diabetes GAD-Ab-positive group were 45.9, 42.8, and 11.4%, respectively, whereas those in the control group were 36.6, 43.7, and 19.8%, respectively. The difference between the 2 groups was statis-tically significant (P < 0.05). Unlike the GG genotype, the AA and AA + AG genotypes increased the risk of GAD-Ab (odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) = 2.623 (1.351-4.937) and 2.152 (1.375-4.202), respectively). The associations of the 3 SNPs of the GAD2 gene 5'-un-translated region polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabe-tes in the Chongqing Han population were significant. The SNP of rs2236418 in the Chongqing Han population of diabetic patients with serum GAD-Ab levels was significantly correlated with the SNPs rs185649317 and rs8190590.

  17. Extended blood group molecular typing and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhugong; Liu, Meihong; Mercado, Teresita; Illoh, Orieji; Davey, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Several high-throughput multiplex blood group molecular typing platforms have been developed to predict blood group antigen phenotypes. These molecular systems support extended donor/patient matching by detecting commonly encountered blood group polymorphisms as well as rare alleles that determine the expression of blood group antigens. Extended molecular typing of a large number of blood donors by high-throughput platforms can increase the likelihood of identifying donor red blood cells that match those of recipients. This is especially important in the management of multiply-transfused patients who may have developed several alloantibodies. Nevertheless, current molecular techniques have limitations. For example, they detect only predefined genetic variants. In contrast, target enrichment next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology that provides comprehensive sequence information, focusing on specified genomic regions. Target enrichment NGS is able to assess genetic variations that cannot be achieved by traditional Sanger sequencing or other genotyping platforms. Target enrichment NGS has been used to detect both known and de novo genetic polymorphisms, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels (insertions/deletions), and structural variations. This review discusses the methodology, advantages, and limitations of the current blood group genotyping techniques and describes various target enrichment NGS approaches that can be used to develop an extended blood group genotyping assay system.

  18. ABO blood-typing using an antibody array technique based on surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Houngkamhang, Nongluck; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2013-09-09

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow cell that was orthogonal to the detection line arrays for blood group typing. We found that the blood samples were correctly grouped in less than 12 min by the SPR imaging technique, and the results were consistent with those of the standard agglutination technique for all 60 samples. We found that mixed clones of antibodies provided 33%-68% greater change in the SPR signal than the single-clone antibodies. Applying the SPR imaging technique using readily available antibodies may reduce the costs of the antibodies, shorten the measurement time, and increase the throughput.

  19. Red blood cell damage by shear stress for different blood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arwatz, Gilad; Bedkowski, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    In surgical practice, blood damage caused by medical devices is often a limiting factor in the duration of an acute procedure or in chronic exposures such as hemodialysis. In order to establish guidelines for designing medical devices, a study was conducted to determine the relationship between shear stress and damage to red blood cells using a concentric Couette device. By measuring the hemolysis level for various shear stresses and exposure times, a non-dimensional relationship between shear stress and blood damage for different blood types was established. Funding provided by Princeton University's Project X.

  20. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    MedlinePlus

    ... its parts) or, more often, as individual parts. Blood Types Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, or O. Also, every person's ... used in a transfusion must work with your blood type. If it doesn't, antibodies (proteins) in your ...

  1. A micro-rheological method for determination of blood type.

    PubMed

    Makulska, Sylwia; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr

    2013-07-21

    The measurement of time and distance can be used for determining agglutination in small (nL) samples of liquid. We demonstrate the use of this new scheme of detection in typing and subtyping blood in a simple microfluidic system that monitors the speed of flow of microdroplets. The system (i) accepts small samples of liquids deposited directly onto the chip, (ii) forms droplets on demand from these samples, (iii) merges the droplets, and (iv) measures their speed in a microchannel. A sequence of measurements on different combinations of blood and antibodies can thus be used to determine blood type with the estimated probability of mistyping being less than 1 in a million tests. In addition, in the agglutinated samples, red blood cells concentrate at the rear of the droplets yielding an additional vista for detection and suggesting a possible mechanism for separations.

  2. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Here’s a rundown on the main types of ...

  3. An enzymatic basis for Lewis blood Types in man

    PubMed Central

    Grollman, Evelyn F.; Kobata, Akira; Ginsburg, Victor

    1969-01-01

    Milk from women with blood type Le(a+) or Le(b+) contains a specific fucosyltransferase not found in the milk of women with blood type Le(a- b-). The enzyme, a guanosine diphosphate L-fucose: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylsaccharide α-4-L-fucosyltransferase is apparently required for the synthesis of the structural determinants of Lea and Leb specificity, both of which contain fucose in an α-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine. The same enzyme is also involved in the synthesis of milk oligosaccharides, as two oligosaccharides which contain this linkage are absent from the milk of women with Le(a- b-) blood type. PMID:5796361

  4. Effect of acute poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition by 3-AB on blood-brain barrier permeability and edema formation after focal traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lescot, Thomas; Fulla-Oller, Laurence; Palmier, Bruno; Po, Christelle; Beziaud, Tiphaine; Puybasset, Louis; Plotkine, Michel; Gillet, Brigitte; Meric, Philippe; Marchand-Leroux, Catherine

    2010-06-01

    Recent evidence supports a crucial role for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and vasogenic edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the exact causes of MMP-9 upregulation after TBI are not fully understood, several arguments suggest a contribution of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) in the neuroinflammatory response leading to MMP-9 activation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of PARP inhibition by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) (1) on MMP-9 upregulation and BBB integrity, (2) on edema formation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (3) on neuron survival as assessed by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), and (4) on neurological deficits at the acute phase of TBI. Western blots and zymograms showed blunting of MMP-9 upregulation 6 h after TBI. BBB permeability was decreased at the same time point in 3-AB-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Cerebral MRI showed less "free" water in 3-AB-treated than in vehicle-treated rats 6 h after TBI. MRI findings 24 h after TBI indicated predominant cytotoxic edema, and at this time point no significant differences were found between 3-AB- and vehicle-treated rats with regard to MMP-9 upregulation, BBB permeability, or MRI changes. At both 6 and 24 h, neurological function was better in the 3-AB-treated than in the vehicle-treated rats. These data suggest that PARP inhibition by 3-AB protected the BBB against hyperpermeability induced by MMP-9 upregulation, thereby decreasing vasogenic edema formation 6 h after TBI. Furthermore, our data confirm the neuroprotective effect of 3-AB at the very acute phase of TBI.

  5. Red blood cell transport mechanisms in polyester thread-based blood typing devices.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Ballerini, David R; Guan, Liyun; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed blood typing diagnostic based on a polyester thread substrate has shown great promise for use in medical emergencies and in impoverished regions. The device is easy to use and transport, while also being inexpensive, accurate, and rapid. This study used a fluorescent confocal microscope to delve deeper into how red blood cells were behaving within the polyester thread-based diagnostic at the cellular level, and how plasma separation could be made to visibly occur on the thread, making it possible to identify blood type in a single step. Red blood cells were stained and the plasma phase dyed with fluorescent compounds to enable them to be visualised under the confocal microscope at high magnification. The mechanisms uncovered were in surprising contrast with those found for a similar, paper-based method. Red blood cell aggregates did not flow over each other within the thread substrate as expected, but suffered from a restriction to their flow which resulted in the chromatographic separation of the RBCs from the liquid phase of the blood. It is hoped that these results will lead to the optimisation of the method to enable more accurate and sensitive detection, increasing the range of blood systems that can be detected.

  6. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prannda; Satorius, Ashley E; Raff, Marika R; Rivera, Adriana; Newton, Duane W; Younger, John G

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates) and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor) were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

  7. Negative regulation of HLA-DR expression on endothelial cells by anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Miwa, Yuko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    Donor-specific antibody (DSA), particularly against HLA class II, is a major cause of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) after transplantation, although ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation has recently demonstrated favorable graft outcomes. The condition of no injury even in the presence of anti-donor antibody has been referred to as "accommodation", which would be one of the key factors for successful long-term graft survival. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effect of anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation on endothelial cells against HLA-DR antibody-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Blood group A/B-expressing endothelial cells EA.hy926 or Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells (HUVEC) were incubated with IFNγ in the presence or absence of anti-blood group A/B antibody or mTOR inhibitor (mTOR-i) for 48h. The effects on signaling pathway, HLA expression, complement regulatory factors, and CDC were investigated. Expression of HLA-DR on EA.hy926 or HUVEC were successfully elicited by IFNγ treatment, although little or no expression was observed in quiescent cells. Pre-incubation with anti-blood group A/B antibody had resistance to HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC against IFNγ-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This finding was ascribed to decreased expression of HLA-DR by post-translational regulation and increased expression of CD55/59, which was related to ERK and mTOR pathway inhibition. mTOR-i also inhibited HLA-DR expression by itself. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR-I and anti-blood group A/B ligation had an additive effect in preventing HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC. Anti-blood group A/B antibody might play a preventive role in CAMR. Inhibition of the ERK and mTOR pathways may contribute to the development of a novel treatment in the maintenance period after transplantation.

  8. Blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Chen, Yi-Guang; Hagopian, William A; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. It develops through autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells and results in lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin. The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes involves a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to aberrant adaptive immunity; however, there is increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Over the past decade new methodologies for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein signals have been applied to type 1 diabetes. These studies are providing a new understanding of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and have the potential to inform the development of new biomarkers for predicting diabetes onset and monitoring therapeutic interventions. In this review we will focus on blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes, with special attention to both direct transcriptomic analyses of whole blood and immunocyte subsets, as well as plasma/serum-induced transcriptional signatures. Attention will also be given to proteomics, microRNA assays and markers of beta cell death. We will also discuss the results of blood-based profiling in type 1 diabetes within the context of the genetic and environmental factors implicated in the natural history of autoimmune diabetes.

  9. Blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Chen, Yi-Guang; Hagopian, William A.; Hessner, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. It develops through autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells and results in lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin. The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes involves a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to aberrant adaptive immunity; however, there is increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Over the past decade new methodologies for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein signals have been applied to type 1 diabetes. These studies are providing a new understanding of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and have the potential to inform the development of new biomarkers for predicting diabetes onset and monitoring therapeutic interventions. In this review we will focus on blood-based signatures in type 1 diabetes, with special attention to both direct transcriptomic analyses of whole blood and immunocyte subsets, as well as plasma/serum-induced transcriptional signatures. Attention will also be given to proteomics, microRNA assays and markers of beta cell death. We will also discuss the results of blood-based profiling in type 1 diabetes within the context of the genetic and environmental factors implicated in the natural history of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:26699650

  10. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for surveillance of Cry1Ab toxin in bovine blood plasma of cows fed Bt-maize (MON810).

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Steinke, Kerstin; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2008-01-21

    The increasing global adoption of genetically modified (GM) plant derivatives in animal feed has provoked a strong demand for an appropriate detection method to evaluate the existence of transgenic protein in animal tissues and animal by-products derived from GM plant fed animals. A highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the surveillance of transgenic Cry1Ab protein from Bt-maize in the blood plasma of cows fed on Bt-maize was developed and validated according to the criteria of EU-Decision 2002/657/EC. The sandwich assay is based on immuno-affinity purified polyclonal antibody raised against Cry1Ab protein in rabbits. Native and biotinylated forms of this antibody served as capture antibody and detection antibody for the ELISA, respectively. Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and TMB substrate provided the means for enzymatic colour development. The immunoassay allowed Cry1Ab protein determination in bovine blood plasma in an analytical range of 0.4-100 ng mL(-1) with a decision limit (CCalpha) of 1.5 ng mL(-1) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 2.3 ng mL(-1). Recoveries ranged from 89 to 106% (mean value of 98%) in spiked plasma. In total, 20 plasma samples from cows (n=7) fed non-transgenic maize and 24 samples from cows (n=8) fed transgenic maize (collected before and, after 1 and 2 months of feeding) were investigated for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein. There was no difference amongst both groups (all the samples were below 1.5 ng mL(-1); CCalpha). No plasma sample was positive for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein at CCalpha and CCbeta of the assay.

  11. Disruption of SMIM1 causes the Vel- blood type.

    PubMed

    Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Peyrard, Thierry; Menanteau, Cécile; Saison, Carole; Lucien, Nicole; Bourgouin, Sébastien; Le Gall, Maude; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Arnaud, Lionel

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report the biochemical and genetic basis of the Vel blood group antigen, which has been a vexing mystery for decades, especially as anti-Vel regularly causes severe haemolytic transfusion reactions. The protein carrying the Vel blood group antigen was biochemically purified from red blood cell membranes. Mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing identified this protein to be small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1), a previously uncharacterized single-pass membrane protein. Expression of SMIM1 cDNA in Vel- cultured cells generated anti-Vel cell surface reactivity, confirming that SMIM1 encoded the Vel blood group antigen. A cohort of 70 Vel- individuals was found to be uniformly homozygous for a 17 nucleotide deletion in the coding sequence of SMIM1. The genetic homogeneity of the Vel- blood type, likely having a common origin, facilitated the development of two highly specific DNA-based tests for rapid Vel genotyping, which can be easily integrated into blood group genotyping platforms. These results answer a 60-year-old riddle and provide tools of immediate assistance to all clinicians involved in the care of Vel- patients.

  12. Disruption of SMIM1 causes the Vel− blood type

    PubMed Central

    Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Peyrard, Thierry; Menanteau, Cécile; Saison, Carole; Lucien, Nicole; Bourgouin, Sébastien; Le Gall, Maude; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Arnaud, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the biochemical and genetic basis of the Vel blood group antigen, which has been a vexing mystery for decades, especially as anti-Vel regularly causes severe haemolytic transfusion reactions. The protein carrying the Vel blood group antigen was biochemically purified from red blood cell membranes. Mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing identified this protein to be small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1), a previously uncharacterized single-pass membrane protein. Expression of SMIM1 cDNA in Vel− cultured cells generated anti-Vel cell surface reactivity, confirming that SMIM1 encoded the Vel blood group antigen. A cohort of 70 Vel− individuals was found to be uniformly homozygous for a 17 nucleotide deletion in the coding sequence of SMIM1. The genetic homogeneity of the Vel− blood type, likely having a common origin, facilitated the development of two highly specific DNA-based tests for rapid Vel genotyping, which can be easily integrated into blood group genotyping platforms. These results answer a 60-year-old riddle and provide tools of immediate assistance to all clinicians involved in the care of Vel− patients. PMID:23505126

  13. Understanding thread properties for red blood cell antigen assays: weak ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Miaosi; Ballerini, David R; Shen, Wei

    2014-12-24

    "Thread-based microfluidics" research has so far focused on utilizing and manipulating the wicking properties of threads to form controllable microfluidic channels. In this study we aim to understand the separation properties of threads, which are important to their microfluidic detection applications for blood analysis. Confocal microscopy was utilized to investigate the effect of the microscale surface morphologies of fibers on the thread's separation efficiency of red blood cells. We demonstrated the remarkably different separation properties of threads made using silk and cotton fibers. Thread separation properties dominate the clarity of blood typing assays of the ABO groups and some of their weak subgroups (Ax and A3). The microfluidic thread-based analytical devices (μTADs) designed in this work were used to accurately type different blood samples, including 89 normal ABO and 6 weak A subgroups. By selecting thread with the right surface morphology, we were able to build μTADs capable of providing rapid and accurate typing of the weak blood groups with high clarity.

  14. Determination of blood types using a chirped photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinin, A. V.; Zanishevskaja, A. A.; Skibina, Yu. S.; Silokhin, I. Yu.; Tuchin, V. V.; Dubrovskiy, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    A new type of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) that can be used as sensitive elements of chemical and biological sensors is presented. Hollow core photonic crystal fibers refer to a type of optical waveguides, showing unique optical properties such as photonic band gap formation and high sensitivity for refraction index, absorption and scattering coefficient of a medium within a hollow core. A significant influence of internal medium scattering coefficient on a PCF's guiding properties becomes basis for design of blood typing automatization technique specifically. Recently obtained experimental results, regarding PCF's sensitivity for internal medium optical properties changing, are presented as well.

  15. Automatic recognition of five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Rezatofighi, Seyed Hamid; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes image processing algorithms to recognize five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood automatically. First, a method based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is proposed along with a snake algorithm to segment nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells. Then, a variety of features are extracted from the segmented regions. Next, most discriminative features are selected using a Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm and performances of two classifiers, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), are compared. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are accurate and sufficiently fast to be used in hematological laboratories.

  16. [Quality control for ABO blood group typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan-Ting; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui; Yu, Li-Jia; Sun, Le-Jing; DU, Ying

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate a quality control method for ABO typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood(UCB). The routine serology method was used to identify the ABO type of UCB samples. These samples with questions were further detected by sequence specific primer PCR (PCR-SSP). The results showed that among total of 76120 UCB samples identified by positive ABO typing, there were 78 samples (1 per thousand) which could not be determined. Of these 78 samples, 30 (56.92%) samples with a weak agglutination reaction were excluded by reverse ABO typing. Out of 260 samples in reverse ABO typing, 148 samples were consistent with positive ABO typing, 112 samples (43.08%) were inconsistent with the positive ABO typing. 58 undetermined samples were detected by PCR-SSP. Out of them the genotyping results of 45 samples confirmed the serological typing, the phenotyping results in 3 cases were inconsistent to that of genotyping. 10 cases showed the unconformity between positive and reverse typing, but the genotyping results were fully consistent with the positive typing. In conclusion, positive typing for red cell antigens combined with PCR-SSP is efficient and sensitive for quality control of ABO typing for neonatal UCB.

  17. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  18. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  19. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  9. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide.

  10. 'O' blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Matteo; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non-'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, 'O' (n=76) and 'A' adults (n=65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-'O' (n=113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables. In Model 1, 'O' adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-'O' adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus. The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-'O' adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a 'O' blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer

  11. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.

  12. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  13. Global methylation profiles in DNA from different blood cell types.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Flom, Julie D; Kappil, Maya; Ferris, Jennifer S; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation measured in white blood cell DNA is increasingly being used as in studies of cancer susceptibility. However, little is known about the correlation between different assays to measure global methylation and whether the source of DNA matters when examining methylation profiles in different blood cell types. Using information from 620 women, 217 and 403 women with DNA available from granulocytes (Gran), and total white blood cells (WBC), respectively, and 48 women with DNA available from four different sources (WBC, Gran, mononuclear (MN), and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL)), we compared DNA methylation for three repetitive elements (LINE1, Sat2, Alu) by MethyLight, luminometric methylation assay (LUMA), and [(3)H]-methyl acceptance assay. For four of the five assays, DNA methylation levels measured in Gran were not correlated with methylation in LBC, MN, or WBC; the exception was Sat2. DNA methylation in LCL was correlated with methylation in MN and WBC for the [(3)H]-methyl acceptance, LINE1, and Alu assays. Methylation in MN was correlated with methylation in WBC for the [(3)H]-methyl acceptance and LUMA assays. When we compared the five assays to each other by source of DNA, we observed statistically significant positive correlations ranging from 0.3-0.7 for each cell type with one exception (Sat2 and Alu in MN). Among the 620 women stratified by DNA source, correlations among assays were highest for the three repetitive elements (range 0.39-0.64). Results from the LUMA assay were modestly correlated with LINE1 (0.18-0.20). These results suggest that both assay and source of DNA are critical components in the interpretation of global DNA methylation patterns from WBC.

  14. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  15. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P < 0.025). In eight sera, the antibody titres measured against CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We

  16. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes Pair of studies found patients taking insulin injections ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 1 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood ...

  17. [Capsular types, virulence factors and DNA types of Klebsiella oxytoca strains isolated from blood and bile].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yuka; Yagi, Tetsuya; Mochizuki, Mariko; Ohta, Michio

    2012-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen and is isolated at the second highest frequency among genus Klebsiella from hospitalized patients. According to previous reports, the major virulence factors of K. pneumoniae include capsules and several kinds of pill, whereas the virulence factors of K. oxytoca have not been well investigated. We noticed an increased frequency of K. oxytoca isolates from patients who had undergone a biliary tract operation in a general hospital from May through November, 2009. We then performed a PCR analysis of the virulence factors and an epidemiological analysis with capsular typing (serotyping) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for K. oxytoca of 11 blood isolates and 10 bile isolates. As a result, serotypes of K9, K15, K26, K31, K43, K47, K55, K70, and K79 were identified in these strains, and K1 and K2 which are frequent serotypes in K. pneumoniae strains were not observed. Two blood isolates of the K55 serotype showed almost the same PFGE pattern, suggesting that these isolates were very closely related and caused cross-infection in a hospital ward. Strains of the K43 serotype were three blood isolates and 1 bile isolate, all of which showed different PFGE patterns. There were no common isolates among the blood and bile isolates. A PCR search revealed that fimH and mrkD genes which are relevant to type 1 and type 2 pili, respectively, were present in all strains, whereas kfuBC, an iron uptake gene, and cf29a were detected in only a few strains. Neither of the mucoid phenotype-related genes magA and rmpA was present in any strains. These results strongly suggest that type 1 and/or type 3 pili would have important roles in the pathogenesis of blood infection and bile infection caused by K. oxytoca.

  18. Four types of cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives, ADB-BINACA, AB-FUBICA, ADB-FUBICA, and AB-BICA, identified as new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenhua; Hua, Zhendong; Liu, Cuimei; Jia, Wei

    We identified four cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives in new illegal psychoactive substances seized from a clandestine laboratory in China. These four derivatives included N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-BINACA, 1), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBICA, 2), N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (ADB-FUBICA, 3), and N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-BICA, 4). These compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. No chemical or pharmacological data about compound 4 has appeared until now, making this the first report on this compound. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 have previously been reported to have a high affinity for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, but this is the first report of their presence in illegal products.

  19. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  20. An application of the interpersonal models developed by Karen Horney and Timothy Leary to type A-B behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Roemer, W W

    1987-01-01

    Using Horney's clinical concepts and Leary's circle matrix procedures, this study investigated the Type A and B patterns of personality. Significant findings showed the Type A-B continuum to represent two distinct poles, with the Type A direction reflecting the expansive personality pattern (power and aggressiveness) and the Type B direction reflecting the self-effacing pattern (helplessness and affiliation) for self-perceived roles. For behavioral roles, the power-versus-helplessness traits described the two contrasting directions of personality involvement. Three subgroups were identified for behavioral role in each A and B extreme group. The shift in affect between the ACL and MMPI instruments may reflect two factors: the degree of ambiguity set up by the nature of the tests and the responding "pull" of the individual, which was described as an "active" or "quiescent" form of the A and B patterns. Hence, it may be more effective to diagnose individuals in terms of a specific behavioral subtype and active or quiescent enactments. Three maladjustment indicators were investigated. Significant findings showed the A2 group as exhibiting increasing rigidity of behavioral role with lower Type A scores and the A1 group as exhibiting greater discrepancies with increasing Type A scores. The lack of discrepancy for the Type B groups may reflect a dysfunction in that these individuals may be stagnated in their work situations and complacent in the docile-dependent role. The three findings of behavioral subgroups, rigidity of role, and discrepancy were discussed as possible mediating psychosocial factors associated with coronary heart disease. Since this was the first major examination and use of Leary's model (to the author's knowledge) since the late 1950s, it is important to consider these results tentative and heuristic, until replications can be conducted. It is hoped that representative norms from diverse samples can be obtained for developing standard scores on Leary

  1. Synthesis of biobased polyurethane from oleic and ricinoleic acids as the renewable resources via the AB-type self-condensation approach.

    PubMed

    Palaskar, Dnyaneshwar V; Boyer, Aurélie; Cloutet, Eric; Alfos, Carine; Cramail, Henri

    2010-05-10

    Polyurethane (PU) from methyl oleate (derived from sunflower oil) and ricinoleic acid (derived from castor oil) was synthesized using the AB-type self-polycondensation approach for the first time. In the present work, three novel AB-type monomers, namely, a mixture of 10-hydroxy-9-methoxyoctadecanoyl azide/9-hydroxy-10-methoxyoctadecanoyl azide (HMODAz), 12-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoyl azide (HODEAz) and methyl-N-11-hydroxy-9-cis-heptadecen carbamate (MHHDC) were synthesized from methyl oleate and ricinoleic acid using simple reaction steps. Out of these, HMODAz and HODEAz monomers were polymerized by the acyl-azido and hydroxyl AB-type self-condensation approach, while MHHDC monomer was polymerized through AB-type self-condensation via transurethane reaction. The acyl-azido and hydroxyl self-condensations were carried out at various temperatures (50, 60, 80. and 110 degrees C) in bulk with and without catalyst. A FTIR study of the polymerization, using HMODAz at 80 degrees C without catalyst, indicates in situ formation of an intermediate isocyanate group in the first 15-30 min, and further onward, the molar mass increases as observed by SEC analysis. In the case of the MHHDC monomer, a transurethane reaction was used to obtain a similar PU (which was obtained by AB-type acyl-azido and hydroxyl self-condensation of HODEAz) in the presence of titanium tetrabutoxide as a catalyst at 130 degrees C. HMODAz, HODEAz, MHHDC, and corresponding polyurethanes were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of polyurethanes derived from HMODAz, HODEAz, and MHHDC showed two different glass transition temperatures for soft segments (at lower temperature) and hard segments (at higher temperature), indicating phase-separated morphology.

  2. a Nonthermal Model for Catalytic Surface Reaction of the Type A2+B2→2AB:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Ahmad, W.; Iqbal, K.

    The kinetics of irreversible dimer-dimer reaction of the type A2+B2→2AB has already been studied through Monte Carlo simulation via a model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood (thermal) mechanism. The results of this study are well known. There is single transition point (yC) at yB=0.5 (where yB is partial pressure of B2 dimer in gas phase), which separates the two poisoned states from each other. Here, we have studied this reaction on the basis of a nonthermal model, which involves the precursor motion of B2 molecule. The most interesting feature of this model is that it yields a steady reactive window. The phase diagram is similar to the ZGB model. The reactive window is separated by continuous and discontinuous irreversible phase transitions. The width of the reactive window depends upon the mobility of the precursors. The dependence of production rate on partial pressure of B2 is shown by simple mathematical equations in our model. Some interesting results are observed when reaction between precursors and chemisorbed B atoms is considered.

  3. Extreme Poisson's ratios and their electronic origin in B2 CsCl-type AB intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. F.; Jones, Travis E.; Li, W.; Zhou, Y. C.

    2012-04-01

    Negative Poisson's ratios have been observed in a variety of metals and alloys. However, the electronic origin of this effect remains unclear, as is evident by our limited knowledge about intermetallics showing this behavior. In an effort to clarify the electronic origin of a negative Poisson's ratio, we have performed a systematic and comprehensive study of extreme (both positive and negative) Poisson's ratios behavior in the B2 CsCl-type AB intermetallic family (including 14 common intermetallics and 128 rare-earth-metal transition or main-group-metal intermetallics) by way of density functional theory calculations. We found a pronounced correlation between the extreme Poisson's ratios and the elastic anisotropy, with approximately 70% of the B2 intermetallics showing intrinsic auxetic behavior. We went on to examine the topology and geometry of the electron charge density and found that the extreme Poisson's ratios are attributable to the directionality of the bonds of the material. Auxetic materials were found to have nondirectional bonds, and nonauxetic compounds had directional bonds. Our findings provide an essential electronic perspective to forecast the auxetic behavior, and suggest a new application for intermetallic compounds.

  4. Study of ABO blood types by combining membrane electrophoresis with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Sun, Liqing; Shao, Yonghong; Lu, Peng; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    The molecular characterization of ABO blood types, which is clinically significant in blood transfusion, has clinical and anthropological importance. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) is one of the most commonly used methods for the analysis of genetic bases of ABO blood types. However, such methods as PCR-SBT are time-consuming and are high in demand of equipments and manipulative skill. Here we showed that membrane electrophoresis based SERS method employed for studying the molecular bases of ABO blood types can provide rapidand easy-operation with high sensitivity and specificity. The plasma proteins were firstly purified by membrane electrophoresis and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS detection. We use this method to classify different blood types, including blood type A (n=13), blood type B (n=9) and blood type O (n=10). Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discriminant analysis (LDA) was then performed on the SERS spectra of purified albumin, showing good classification results among different blood types. Our experimental outcomes represent a critical step towards the rapid, convenient and accurate identification of ABO blood types.

  5. Anti-CD13 Abs in children with extensive chronic GVHD and their relation to soluble CD13 after allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation from a Children's Oncology Groups Study, ASCT0031.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, G D E; Kariminia, A; Fujii, H; Aslanian, S; Wall, D; Goldman, F; Grupp, S A; Dunn, S E; Krailo, M; Shapiro, L H; Gilman, A; Schultz, K R

    2010-11-01

    Our group previously demonstrated a strong association between elevated plasma soluble CD13 enzyme activity and newly diagnosed extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in children. As cytotoxic anti-CD13 Abs have been documented after blood and marrow transplant (BMT) in association with CMV infection and cGVHD, we hypothesized that soluble CD13 contributes to cGVHD pathogenesis by induction of CD13 reactive Abs and that anti-CD13 Abs could be additional biomarkers for newly diagnosed pediatric extensive cGVHD. Using prospectively collected plasma samples from pediatric allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT) subjects with cGVHD and controls without cGVHD enrolled in a large multi-institution Children's Oncology Group cGVHD therapeutic trial, we evaluated whether soluble CD13 correlates with induction of anti-CD13 Abs. We found that CD13 reactive Abs are present in a proportion of patients after allo-BMT, but did not seem to correlate with the presence of soluble CD13. Anti-CD13 Abs also did not meet our criteria as a diagnostic biomarker for cGVHD. These data do not confirm that induction of CD13 reactive Abs is a mechanism for cGVHD in children nor are part of the pathogenesis of cGVHD associated with elevated soluble CD13. The exact role of CD13 in cGVHD remains to be determined.

  6. How-to-Do-It: A Simulation of the Blood Type Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John D., Sr.; Smailes, Deborah L.

    1989-01-01

    Explains an activity that allows students to visualize antigen-antibody type reactions and learn about antibodies and antigens without performing blood typing tests. Provides directions for students and a comparison chart of a blood typing simulation with procedure which is based on the reactions of certain ionic solutions when mixed. (RT)

  7. [MLST types of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from blood cultures].

    PubMed

    Arslan, Uğur; Demir, Esra; Oryaşin, Erman; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Tuncer, Inci; Fındık, Duygu; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2013-07-01

    Enterococci, particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are important nosocomial pathogens with limited treatment options. Enterococci have low-level resistance to penicillins and aminoglycosides and are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins. In addition, they can acquire high-level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to determine glycopeptide resistance mechanisms and genetic relationships of vancomycin-resistant E.faecium strains isolated from blood cultures between 2003-2009 years by molecular epidemiologic methods. A total of 38 VRE strains isolated from blood cultures were included in this study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 BD automated system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems, USA) and confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method accor-ding to the CLSI standards. MIC values of vancomycin were determined in vancomycin resistant strains by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) method. Vancomycin resistance genes included vanA, vanB, vanC, and vanD were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Clonal relationship between strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sequence analysis was performed for examples selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of each pulsotype and subtype. Thirty eight strains of enterococci isolated from blood cultures were defined as E.faecium by phenotypic methods and confirmed by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Vancomycin MIC values of strains were determined as > 256 µg/ml by E test. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Clonal relationship of 38 isolates E.faecium carrying the vanA gene was determined by PFGE and MLST methods. PFGE detected four pulsotypes (A-D) and one sporadic isolate. Twenty nine strains belonged to A pulsotype, three strains belonged to B pulsotype, two strains

  8. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  9. Ab initio and experimental pre-edge investigations of the Mn K -edge XANES in oxide-type materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, François

    2005-04-01

    Mn K edge ab initio FEFF8.2 calculations of the pre-edge features of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region were undertaken for a series of Mn-bearing oxide-type compounds. The aim of the study is to provide a reliable method for determining quantitative and accurate redox and symmetry information for manganese. In agreement with multiplet calculations by Glatzel and co-workers, FEFF8.2 predicts a doublet and a triplet for Mn(II) and Mn(III) in octahedral symmetry, respectively, in agreement with high-resolution XANES experiments. Site distortion increases notably the contribution from dipolar transitions and, consequently, the pre-edge feature integrated area. An even more intense pre-edge feature is calculated and measured for the Td symmetry (singletlike). For Mn(IV), a triplet is predicted and measured for the Oh symmetry. However, additional transitions are found in Mn(IV)-rich compounds, that are related to metal-metal transitions. These transitions overlap strongly with the “true pre-edge,” making extraction of redox and symmetry information for Mn(IV) more challenging. However, a model of the pre-edge with pseudo-Voigt functions of fixed calculated width (based on core-hole lifetime and experimental resolution) helps to separate the contributions related to first-neighbor symmetry from those of the metal-metal pairs. Application to multivalent defective manganese oxide materials suggests that the pre-edge information varies linearly as a function of Mn redox state or symmetry but varies nonlinearly as a function of both parameters. Finally, the polymerization of the manganese networks can be estimated from the metal-metal transitions found in the pre-edge region.

  10. Ab initio and experimental pre-edge investigations of the Mn K-edge XANES in oxide-type materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farges, Francois

    2005-04-15

    Mn K edge ab initio FEFF8.2 calculations of the pre-edge features of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region were undertaken for a series of Mn-bearing oxide-type compounds. The aim of the study is to provide a reliable method for determining quantitative and accurate redox and symmetry information for manganese. In agreement with multiplet calculations by Glatzel and co-workers, FEFF8.2 predicts a doublet and a triplet for Mn(II) and Mn(III) in octahedral symmetry, respectively, in agreement with high-resolution XANES experiments. Site distortion increases notably the contribution from dipolar transitions and, consequently, the pre-edge feature integrated area. An even more intense pre-edge feature is calculated and measured for the T{sub d} symmetry (singletlike). For Mn(IV), a triplet is predicted and measured for the O{sub h} symmetry. However, additional transitions are found in Mn(IV)-rich compounds, that are related to metal-metal transitions. These transitions overlap strongly with the 'true pre-edge', making extraction of redox and symmetry information for Mn(IV) more challenging. However, a model of the pre-edge with pseudo-Voigt functions of fixed calculated width (based on core-hole lifetime and experimental resolution) helps to separate the contributions related to first-neighbor symmetry from those of the metal-metal pairs. Application to multivalent defective manganese oxide materials suggests that the pre-edge information varies linearly as a function of Mn redox state or symmetry but varies nonlinearly as a function of both parameters. Finally, the polymerization of the manganese networks can be estimated from the metal-metal transitions found in the pre-edge region.

  11. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  12. ABO and Rh Blood Type Relationship in Parents with more than One Disabled Child

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohammadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental blood variables are one of the most important medical-biological causes of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between parents’ blood variables (ABO and Rh blood type) and their relationship with frequency of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities in Isfahan province. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive-analytical study and 494 samples were selected from mothers with more than one disabled child and mothers with normal child using simple and multistage random methods. The data collection was done through questionnaire. Based on Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20), the reliability of questionnaire was 0.88. The statistical model in this study was a hierarchical log-linear method. Results There was a significant relationship between mother’s Rh blood and having disabled child (P=0.002). However no significant relationship between having disabled children and the following variables was found: the father’s Rh blood (p=0.2), father and mother’s Rh blood together (P=0.5), father blood type (P=0.56), mother blood type (P=0.42), and mother and father blood types together (P=0.7). Conclusion Maternal and fetal blood incompatibility (motherwith negative Rh blood and fetus with positive Rh blood) increased the likelihood of being born with disabilities. PMID:26985351

  13. Structural and biochemical characterization of the wild type PCSK9-EGF(AB) complex and natural familial hypercholesterolemia mutants.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Matthew J; Cirillo, Agostino; Orsatti, Laura; Ruggeri, Lionello; Fisher, Timothy S; Santoro, Joseph C; Cummings, Richard T; Cubbon, Rose M; Lo Surdo, Paola; Calzetta, Alessandra; Noto, Alessia; Baysarowich, Jennifer; Mattu, Marco; Talamo, Fabio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Sparrow, Carl P; Sitlani, Ayesha; Carfí, Andrea

    2009-01-09

    PCSK9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels and consequently is a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Here we studied the interaction, of LDLR EGF(A/AB) repeats with PCSK9. We show that PCSK9 binds the EGF(AB) repeats in a pH-dependent manner. Although the PCSK9 C-terminal domain is not involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 autocleavage is required. Moreover, we report the x-ray structure of the PCSK9DeltaC-EGF(AB) complex at neutral pH. Compared with the low pH PCSK9-EGF(A) structure, the new structure revealed rearrangement of the EGF(A) His-306 side chain and disruption of the salt bridge with PCSK9 Asp-374, thus suggesting the basis for enhanced interaction at low pH. In addition, the structure of PCSK9DeltaC bound to EGF(AB)(H306Y), a mutant associated with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reveals that the Tyr-306 side chain forms a hydrogen bond with PCSK9 Asp-374, thus mimicking His-306 in the low pH conformation. Consistently, Tyr-306 confers increased affinity for PCSK9. Importantly, we found that although the EGF(AB)(H306Y)-PCSK9 interaction is pH-independent, LDLR(H306Y) binds PCSK9 50-fold better at low pH, suggesting that factors other than His-306 contribute to the pH dependence of PCSK9-LDLR binding. Further, we determined the structures of EGF(AB) bound to PCSK9DeltaC containing the FH-associated D374Y and D374H mutations, revealing additional interactions with EGF(A) mediated by Tyr-374/His-374 and providing a rationale for their disease phenotypes. Finally, we report the inhibitory properties of EGF repeats in a cellular assay measuring LDL uptake.

  14. Isotopic Composition of Molybdenum and Barium in Single Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains of Type A+B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savina, M. R.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2003-01-01

    Presolar SiC grains fall into several groups based on C, N, and Si isotopic compositions. Approximately 93% are defined as mainstream, having 10 less than C-12/C-13 less than 100 and N-14/N-15 ranging from 50 to 20,000. A number of studies have shown that the most likely sources of mainstream grains are low mass asymptotic giant branch stars. Models of nucleosynthesis in AGB stars reproduce the s-process enhancements seen in the heavy elements in mainstream SiC grains. Among the less common grains, A+B grains, which comprise approximately 3-4% of presolar SiC, are perhaps the least well understood. Recent studies by Amari et al. show that A+B grains can be divided into at least 4 groups based on their trace element concentration patterns. Of 20 grains studied, 7 showed trace element patterns consistent with condensation from a gas of solar system composition, while the rest had varying degrees of process enhancements. Our previous measurements on 3 A+B grains showed Mo of solar isotopic composition, but Zr with a strong enhancement in 96Zr, which is an r-process isotope but can be made in an sprocess if the neutron density is high enough to bridge the unstable Zr-95 (T(sub 1/2)= 64 d). The observation of Mo with solar system isotopic composition in the same grains is puzzling however. Meyer et al. have recently shown that a neutron burst mechanism can produce a high Zr-96/Zr-94 without enhancing Mo-100, however this model leads to enhancements in Mo-95 and Mo-97 not observed in A+B grains. We report here results of Mo measurements on 7 additional A+B grains, and Ba measurements on 2 A+B grains, and compare these to the previous studies.

  15. Modulation instability and two types of non-autonomous rogue waves for the variable-coefficient AB system in fluid mechanics and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Qi, Feng-Hua; Tang, Bing; Shi, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient AB (vcAB) system, which describes marginally unstable baroclinic wave packets in geophysical fluids and ultra-short pulses in nonlinear optics. The modulation instability analysis of solutions with variable coefficients in the presence of a small perturbation is studied. The modified Darboux transformation (mDT) of the vcAB system is constructed via a gauge transformation. The first-order non-autonomous rogue wave solutions of the vcAB system are presented based on the mDT. It is found that the wave amplitude of B exhibits two types of structures, i.e. the double-peak structure appears if the plane-wave solution parameter ω is equal to zero, while selecting ω≠0 yields a single-peak one. Effects of the variable coefficients on the rogue waves are graphically discussed in detail. The periodic rogue wave and composite rogue wave are obtained with different inhomogeneous parameters. Additionally, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves through a conventional hyperbolic nonlinear well and barrier are investigated.

  16. Ab initio study of electron-ion structure factors in binary liquids with different types of chemical bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Klevets, Ivan; Bryk, Taras

    2014-12-07

    Electron-ion structure factors, calculated in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, are reported for several binary liquids with different kinds of chemical bonding: metallic liquid alloy Bi–Pb, molten salt RbF, and liquid water. We derive analytical expressions for the long-wavelength asymptotes of the partial electron-ion structure factors of binary systems and show that the analytical results are in good agreement with the ab initio simulation data. The long-wavelength behaviour of the total charge structure factors for the three binary liquids is discussed.

  17. Association of Ocular Toxoplasmosis with Type I Toxoplasma gondii Strains: Direct Genotyping from Peripheral Blood Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Switaj, Karolina; Master, Adam; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Zaborowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii strains were genotyped directly from blood samples of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Analysis of nontranscribed spacer 2 revealed that all detected strains belonged to type I, suggesting an association of ocular toxoplasmosis with this type. The method shows the usefulness of blood samples for genotyping in ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:17005742

  18. Effects of blood type and blood handling on feeding success, longevity and egg production in the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Danilevich, M; Zelig, O; Grinbaum, H; Friger, M; Meinking, T L

    2011-03-01

    The effects of feeding different types of human blood to human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), on feeding success, longevity and numbers of eggs laid were investigated using an artificial blood-feeding system in the laboratory. No significant differences were found between lice fed on different human blood types for any of the parameters tested. However, when lice were fed on human blood of one blood type followed immediately by a different blood type, they took significantly smaller bloodmeals, their longevity was reduced and they laid fewer eggs per female than control lice that had been fed twice on the same human blood type. When lice were fed human blood that had been stored for 1-26 weeks, the quantity of blood taken, the proportion of lice that became fully engorged and lice longevity diminished gradually as the storage time of the blood increased, but there was no effect of storage time on the mean number of eggs laid per female. However, lice would not feed on 26-week-old blood. The type of anticoagulant used had a significant effect on the proportion fed, longevity and number of eggs laid per female. Generally, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)-treated blood reduced longevity and the number of eggs laid per female to a greater degree than heparinized or citrated blood. Lice fed on rabbit blood took significantly larger amounts of blood, lived longer and laid a higher mean number of eggs per female than lice fed on human blood.

  19. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  20. Low agreement between radio binding assays in analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) autoantibodies in patients classified with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Daka, Bledar; Svensson, Maria K; Lernmark, Ke; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia; Hallmans, Goran; Rolandsson, Olov

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) are used in the classification of diabetes in adults. We assessed the concordance in GAD65 autoantibody levels within subjects between three different GAD65Ab radio binding assays (RBA). Plasma samples from 112 diabetes patients (median age 50 years) initially classified with type 2 diabetes was randomly selected from a local diabetes registry. Coded samples were analyzed with two RBA employing (35)S-labeled GAD65. The first used the pEx9 plasmid (pEx9 RBA), the second employed the pThGAD65 plasmid (pThGAD65 RBA) to label GAD65 by in vitro transcription translation. We also used a commercial kit employing plasmid pGAD17 labelled with (125)I (pGAD17 RBA). Subsequent analyses followed standard procedures. Two different cut-offs for GAD65Ab positivity were used in all three assays. We calculated the correlation, concordance, and agreement between the assays. The proportion of GAD65Ab positivity differed between assays when low cut-offs were used (pEx9 RBA 25%, pThGAD65 RBA 17.9%, and pGAD17 RBA 12.5%, respectively). When high cut-offs were applied, the concordance between the pEx9 RBA and the pThGAD65 RBA was 97.3 while their concordance to the pGAD17 RBA was lower (88.4 and 87.4, respectively). There was a low agreement between both pEx9 RBA and pGAD17 RBA (0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.70) and between pThGAD65 RBA and pGAD17 RBA (0.43, 95% CI 0.18-0.68). We found discrepancies in determining the GAD65Ab positivity, which constitutes a problem when GAD65Ab are used clinically. Further methodological GAD65Ab assays studies are warranted.

  1. [Exploration on human blood type case in teaching practice of genetics].

    PubMed

    Pi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Ying; Huai, Cong; Wang, Shi-Ming; Qiao, Shou-Yi; Lu, Da-Ru

    2013-08-01

    Blood type, which harbors abundant genetics meaning, is one of the most common phenotypes in human life. With the development of science and technology, its significance is unceasingly updated and new finding is increasingly emerging, which constantly attracts people to decipher the heredity mechanism of blood type. In addition to four main associated contents, i.e., Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, gene mutations, and chromosome abnormalities, the blood type case also covers many other aspects of the genetics knowledge. Based on the genetic knowledge context, we can interest the students and improve the teaching output in genetic teaching practice by combining with explaining ABO blood type case and heredity mechanism, expanding leucocyte groups, and introducing infrequent blood type such as Bombay blood, Rh and MN. By carrying out the related experimental teaching, we could drive the student to integrate theory with practice. In genetic experimental teaching, 80% of the students chose this optional experiment, molecular identification of ABO blood type, and it greatly interested them. Using appropriate blood type case in teaching related knowledge, organizing PPT exhi-bition and the debating discussion activities, it could provide opportunities for student to propose their own opinions, guide the student to thinking deeply, and develop their abilities to analyze and solve problem. Afterwards, students will gain in-depth comprehension about the fundamental knowledge of genetics.

  2. INDIVIDUAL BLOOD DIFFERENCES IN MEXICAN INDIANS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE Rh BLOOD TYPES AND Hr FACTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Alexander S.; Zepeda, J. Preciado; Sonn, Eve B.; Polivka, H. R.

    1945-01-01

    98 Mexican Indians were tested for the blood properties A-B-O, A1-A2, M-N, P, Rh'-Rh''-Rh0-rh, and Hr. Of the 98 Indians, 90.8 per cent belonged to group 0, 6.1 per cent belonged to A1, and 3.1 per cent to group B. There were 61.2 per cent of type M, 3.1 per cent of type N, and 35.7 per cent of type MN. Of the 95 Mexican Indians tested with anti-P serum, 21.1 per cent were found to lack the P agglutinogen. In tests for the Rh blood types, 48.0 per cent of the Indians were found to belong to type Rh1, 9.2 per cent to type Rh2, 41.8 per cent to type Rh1Rh2, and 1 per cent to type Rh0. There were no bloods giving intermediate reactions. Of the 95 Indians tested for the Hr factor 44.2 per cent were found to lack this property. The reactions for the Rh blood types and Hr factor were correlated with each other and the results supported the conclusion of Race et al. that in addition to the six standard allelic genes and the so called intermediate genes, there is one or possibly two genes having the property of determining agglutinogens which react with anti-Rh' and anti-Rh'' sera, but not with anti-Hr serum. This gene (or genes) appears to be relatively common among Mexican Indians (approximately 3.3 per cent) in contrast to its rareness in white individuals. PMID:19871476

  3. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marianne B; Keck, Martin E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kresse, Adelheid E; Hagemeyer, Thomas P; Landgraf, Rainer; Holsboer, Florian; Uhr, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated HPA system activity in abcb1ab (-/-) mice under basal conditions and following stress. Abcb1ab (-/-) mice showed consistently lower plasma ACTH levels and lower evening plasma corticosterone levels. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was decreased and pituitary POMC mRNA expressing cells were significantly reduced in number in abcb1ab (-/-) mutants; however, they showed a normal activation of the HPA system following CRH stimulation. Lower doses of dexamethasone were required to suppress plasma corticosterone levels in mutants. Our data thus provide evidence for a sustained suppression of the HPA system at the hypothalamic level in abcb1ab (-/-) mice, suggesting that BBB function significantly regulates HPA system activity. Whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene might result in persistent changes in the responsiveness and regulation of the HPA system will be the subject of future investigations, correlating both genetic information with individual characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype.

  4. Host-specific symbiotic requirement of BdeAB, a RegR-controlled RND-type efflux system in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Andrea; Koch, Marion; Pessi, Gabriella; Müller, Andreas J; Balsiger, Sylvia; Hennecke, Hauke; Fischer, Hans-Martin

    2010-11-01

    Multidrug efflux systems not only cause resistance against antibiotics and toxic compounds but also mediate successful host colonization by certain plant-associated bacteria. The genome of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum encodes 24 members of the family of resistance/nodulation/cell division (RND) multidrug efflux systems, of which BdeAB is genetically controlled by the RegSR two-component regulatory system. Phylogenetic analysis of the membrane components of these 24 RND-type transporters revealed that BdeB is more closely related to functionally characterized orthologs in other bacteria, including those associated with plants, than to any of the other 23 paralogs in B. japonicum. A mutant with a deletion of the bdeAB genes was more susceptible to inhibition by the aminoglycosides kanamycin and gentamicin than the wild type, and had a strongly decreased symbiotic nitrogen-fixation activity on soybean, but not on the alternative host plants mungbean and cowpea, and only very marginally on siratro. The host-specific role of a multidrug efflux pump is a novel feature in the rhizobia-legume symbioses. Consistent with the RegSR dependency of bdeAB, a B. japonicum regR mutant was found to have a greater sensitivity against the two tested antibiotics and a symbiotic defect that is most pronounced for soybean.

  5. RND type efflux pump system MexAB-OprM of pseudomonas aeruginosa selects bacterial languages, 3-oxo-acyl-homoserine lactones, for cell-to-cell communication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria release a wide variety of small molecules including cell-to-cell signaling compounds. Gram-negative bacteria use a variety of self-produced autoinducers such as acylated homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) as signal compounds for quorum sensing (QS) within and between bacterial species. QS plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and in beneficial symbiosis by responding to acyl-HSLs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is considered that the selection of bacterial languages is necessary to regulate gene expression and thus it leads to the regulation of virulence and provides a growth advantage in several environments. In this study, we hypothesized that RND-type efflux pump system MexAB-OprM of P. aeruginosa might function in the selection of acyl-HSLs, and we provide evidence to support this hypothesis. Results Loss of MexAB-OprM due to deletion of mexB caused increases in QS responses, as shown by the expression of gfp located downstream of the lasB promoter and LasB elastase activity, which is regulated by a LasR-3-oxo-C12-HSL complex. Either complementation with a plasmid containing wild-type mexB or the addition of a LasR-specific inhibitor, patulin, repressed these high responses to 3-oxo-acyl-HSLs. Furthermore, it was shown that the acyl-HSLs-dependent response of P. aeruginosa was affected by the inhibition of MexB transport activity and the mexB mutant. The P. aeruginosa MexAB-OprM deletion mutant showed a strong QS response to 3-oxo-C10-HSL produced by Vibrio anguillarum in a bacterial cross-talk experiment. Conclusion This work demonstrated that MexAB-OprM does not control the binding of LasR to 3-oxo-Cn-HSLs but rather accessibility of non-cognate acyl-HSLs to LasR in P. aeruginosa. MexAB-OprM not only influences multidrug resistance, but also selects acyl-HSLs and regulates QS in P. aeruginosa. The results demonstrate a new QS regulation mechanism via the efflux system MexAB-OprM in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22574700

  6. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-08-03

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool.

  7. Ab initio study of MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) rutile-type compounds using the periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. R. Moreira, Ibério; Dovesi, Roberto; Roetti, Carla; Saunders, Victor R.; Orlando, Roberto

    2000-09-01

    The ab initio periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock method has been applied in the investigation of the ground-state structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the rutile-type compounds MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). All electron Gaussian basis sets have been used. The systems turn out to be large band-gap antiferromagnetic insulators; the optimized geometrical parameters are in good agreement with experiment. The calculated most stable electronic state shows an antiferromagnetic order in agreement with that resulting from neutron scattering experiments. The magnetic coupling constants between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions along the [001], [111], and [100] (or [010]) directions have been calculated using several supercells. The resulting ab initio magnetic coupling constants are reasonably satisfactory when compared with available experimental data. The importance of the Jahn-Teller effect in FeF2 and CoF2 is also discussed.

  8. Faulty blood typing misled by auto anti-D in AIHA.

    PubMed

    Li, Guining; Chen, Fenghua; Rao, Shenzong; Hu, Lihua

    2014-04-01

    Pre-transfusion testing is a vital link to enhance patients' safety but may be influenced by heterotypic blood transfusion and disease. Previous history of blood transfusion most of time help us determine the blood type. On the other hand, it can also mislead technicians to a wrong conclusion. Anti-D, which is clinically important in hemolytic transfusion reaction, is either alloimmunized by transfusion, pregnancy or induced in certain diseases. Here, we reported a rare case with false blood identification interfered by heterotypic blood transfusion and auto anti-D in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).

  9. DNA methylation of cord blood cell types: Applications for mixed cell birth studies.

    PubMed

    Bakulski, Kelly M; Feinberg, Jason I; Andrews, Shan V; Yang, Jack; Brown, Shannon; L McKenney, Stephanie; Witter, Frank; Walston, Jeremy; Feinberg, Andrew P; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-05-03

    Epigenome-wide association studies of disease widely use DNA methylation measured in blood as a surrogate tissue. Cell proportions can vary between people and confound associations of exposure or outcome. An adequate reference panel for estimating cell proportions from adult whole blood for DNA methylation studies is available, but an analogous cord blood cell reference panel is not yet available. Cord blood has unique cell types and the epigenetic signatures of standard cell types may not be consistent throughout the life course. Using magnetic bead sorting, we isolated cord blood cell types (nucleated red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4(+)T cells, and CD8(+)T cells) from 17 live births at Johns Hopkins Hospital. We confirmed enrichment of the cell types using fluorescence assisted cell sorting and ran DNA from the separated cell types on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. After filtering, the final analysis was on 104 samples at 429,794 probes. We compared cell type specific signatures in cord to each other and methylation at 49.2% of CpG sites on the array differed by cell type (F-test P < 10(-8)). Differences between nucleated red blood cells and the remainder of the cell types were most pronounced (36.9% of CpG sites at P < 10(-8)) and 99.5% of these sites were hypomethylated relative to the other cell types. We also compared the mean-centered sorted cord profiles to the available adult reference panel and observed high correlation between the overlapping cell types for granulocytes and monocytes (both r=0.74), and poor correlation for CD8(+)T cells and NK cells (both r=0.08). We further provide an algorithm for estimating cell proportions in cord blood using the newly developed cord reference panel, which estimates biologically plausible cell proportions in whole cord blood samples.

  10. How do we use molecular red blood cell antigen typing to supplement pretransfusion testing?

    PubMed

    Sapatnekar, Suneeti; Figueroa, Priscilla I

    2014-06-01

    The molecular basis of many blood group antigens is known, and it provides a means for predicting the red blood cell phenotype. Molecular typing methods are useful when serologic typing cannot be performed, due to sample or reagent limitations. We discuss the implementation of a commercial molecular typing assay at our Transfusion Service, the indications for testing, and the advantages and drawbacks of the assay. We also present our algorithm for selecting candidates for testing.

  11. Clinical significance of hepatocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, and transforming growth factor-alpha in bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ismail Oguz; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunesacar, Ramazan; Unsal, Cagatay

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that plays an important role in the growth and progression of cancer; growing evidence suggests that neovascularization is important in hematologic malignancies. Increased angiogenic potential has been identified in multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, investigators simultaneously measured the levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGFAB), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of 30 patients with MM and 10 healthy controls. Differences in HGF values in BM sera were significant (P=.001) between patients and controls. In detailed analyses of HGF, PDGF-AB, and TGF-alpha, according to disease stage, a significant correlation was found between disease stage and BM HGF (P=.047), BM TGF-alpha (P=.021), and PB PDGF-AB (P=.006), respectively. When correlations between all other parameters were analyzed, significance was noted between PB TGF-alpha and lactate dehydrogenase (P=.02), PB TGF-alpha and PB HGF (P=.002), BM TGF-alpha and CD38 (P=.046), BM TGF-alpha and BM HGF (P=.000), BM TGF-alpha and BM PDGF-AB (P=.048), BM HGF and PB HGF (P=.044), and BM PDGF-AB and PB PDGF-AB (P=.000). BM HGF levels had a significant effect on overall survival, with disease severity assessed in terms of disease stage (P=.0018, log-rank test). These data show that in patients with MM, high levels of BM HGF, BM TGF-alpha, and PB PDGF-AB were associated with advanced disease stage; in addition, HGF played a significant role in disease processing and was related to disease severity. These findings have also led to the concept of a symbiotic relationship between the growth of myeloma cells and HGF, TGF-alpha, and PDGFAB in BM.

  12. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  13. A simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine ABO blood types of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S; Satkoski, J; Smith, D G

    2011-06-01

    Rhesus macaques are the most common nonhuman primate model organism used in biomedical research. Their increasingly frequent use as subjects in studies involving transplantation requires that blood and other tissue antigens of donors and recipients be compatible. We report here an easy and rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the ABO blood group phenotypes of rhesus macaques that can be performed with only small amounts of DNA. We phenotyped 78 individuals and found this species to exhibit the A, B and AB phenotypes in frequencies that vary by geographic region. The probability of randomly pairing rhesus macaque donors and recipients that exhibit major ABO phenotype incompatibility is approximately 0.35 and 0.45 for Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques, respectively.

  14. Canine Dal Blood Type: A Red Cell Antigen Lacking in Some Dalmatians

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Marie-Claude; Berman, Lisa; Oakley, Donna A.; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Background Based upon alloantibodies produced after sensitizing dogs with transfused blood, more than a dozen blood group systems have been recognized thus far, and some have been classified as dog erythrocyte antigens (DEA). Hypothesis A new canine red cell antigen was suspected, based on the development of specific alloantibodies in a Dalmatian previously sensitized by blood transfusions. Animals Twenty-six Dalmatians (including 1 Dalmatian in need of blood compatibility studies); 55 canine blood donors. Methods Serologic tests, including blood typing, crossmatching, and direct Coombs’ test were performed by standard tube techniques and a novel gel column technology adapted from human blood banking. Results By day 40 after transfusion of an anemic Dalmatian, all major crossmatch tests to 55 non-Dalmatian dogs were incompatible. The 2 initial donors, who were compatible before transfusion, were also now incompatible, suggesting the development of an alloantibody to a common red cell antigen. No siblings were available, but 4 of 25 unrelated Dalmatians were crossmatch compatible, suggesting that they were missing the same red cell antigen. The patient was blood typed DEA 1.1, 3, 4, and 5 positive, but DEA 7 negative. Further blood typing and crossmatching results did not support an association to any of these known blood types. The alloantibodies produced were determined to be of the immunoglobulin G class. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Based upon the identification of an acquired alloantibody in a Dalmatian, a presumably new common blood type named Dal was identified. Dalmatians lacking the Dal antigen are likely at risk of delayed and acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. PMID:17427389

  15. Ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on CdSe sensitized La-TiO2 matrix and signal amplification of polystyrene@Ab2 composites.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dawei; Ren, Xiang; Wang, Haoyuan; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Di; Chen, Yucheng; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2017-01-15

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor was fabricated using signal amplification strategy for the quantitative detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA). CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) sensitized lanthanum-doped titanium dioxide (La-TiO2) composites were used to bind the primary antibodies (Ab1). The doping of lanthanum promoted the visible light absorption of TiO2 and remarkably enhanced the photocurrent. Moreover, 0.3%La-TiO2 displayed the highest photocurrent in the La-TiO2 composites, which was twice as much as that of undoped TiO2. Carboxyl modified CdSe NPs were assembled onto La-TiO2 composites via the dentate binding between -COOH and Ti atom in TiO2 NPs, which dramatically promoted the photocurrent intensity by approximately 2.1 times. Carboxyl functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres were coated with the secondary antibodies (Ab2). Owing to the better insulation property and steric hindrance of the prepared polystyrene@Ab2 (PS@Ab2) composites, the significant reduction of the photocurrent signal was achieved after the specific immune recognition. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated PEC sensor realized ultrasensitive detection of PSA in the range of 0.05-100pgmL(-1) with a detection limit of 17fgmL(-1). Moreover, this well-designed PEC immunoassay exhibited ideal reproducibility, stability, and selectivity, which is a promising platform for the detection of other important tumor targets.

  16. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  17. Accuracy of user-friendly blood typing kits tested under simulated military field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Charlton, David G

    2011-04-01

    Rapid user-friendly ABO-Rh blood typing kits (Eldon Home Kit 2511, ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit) were evaluated to determine their accuracy when used under simulated military field conditions and after long-term storage at various temperatures and humidities. Rates of positive tests between control groups, experimental groups, and industry standards were measured and analyzed using the Fisher's exact chi-square method to identify significant differences (p < or = 0.05). When Eldon Home Kits 2511 were used in various operational conditions, the results were comparable to those obtained with the control group and with the industry standard. The performance of the ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit was adversely affected by prolonged storage in temperatures above 37 degrees C. The diagnostic performance of commercial blood typing kits varies according to product and environmental storage conditions.

  18. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

  19. Helium-neon laser preirradiation induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157.

    PubMed

    Kohli, R; Gupta, P K; Dube, A

    2000-02-01

    We have observed that preirradiation with a helium-neon laser (632.8 nm) induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157. The magnitude of protection was found to depend on the helium-neon laser irradiance, exposure time, and period of incubation between helium-neon laser exposure and subsequent UVC irradiation. The optimum values for dose, irradiance and interval between the two exposures were found to be 7 kJ/m(2), 100 W/m(2) and 1 h, respectively. The possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the helium-neon laser-induced protection is also discussed.

  20. Decreased cord-blood phospholipids in young age-at-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Daria; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Larsson, Helena E; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ivarsson, Sten A; Lernmark, Ake; Oresic, Matej

    2013-11-01

    Children developing type 1 diabetes may have risk markers already in their umbilical cord blood. It is hypothesized that the risk for type 1 diabetes at an early age may be increased by a pathogenic pregnancy and be reflected in altered cord-blood composition. This study used metabolomics to test if the cord-blood lipidome was affected in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age. The present case-control study of 76 index children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age and 76 healthy control subjects matched for HLA risk, sex, and date of birth, as well as the mother's age and gestational age, revealed that cord-blood phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were significantly decreased in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 4 years of age. Reduced levels of triglycerides correlated to gestational age in index and control children and to age at diagnosis only in the index children. Finally, gestational infection during the first trimester was associated with lower cord-blood total lysophosphatidylcholines in index and control children. In conclusion, metabolomics of umbilical cord blood may identify children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Low phospholipid levels at birth may represent key mediators of the immune system and contribute to early induction of islet autoimmunity.

  1. Blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-01-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and essential hypertension are common conditions that are frequently present together. Both are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications and therefore treatment of both conditions is essential. Many papers were published on blood pressure (BP) targets in diabetic patients, including several works published in the last 2 years. As a result, guidelines differ in their recommendations on BP targets in diabetic patients. The method by which to control hypertension, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological, is also a matter of debate and has been extensively studied in the literature. In recent years, new medications were introduced for the treatment of DM, some of which also affect BP and the clinician treating hypertensive and diabetic patients should be familiar with these medications and their effect on BP. In this manuscript, we discuss the evidence supporting different BP targets in diabetics and review the various guidelines on this topic. In addition, we discuss the various options available for the treatment of hypertension in diabetics and the recommendations for a specific treatment over the other. Finally we briefly discuss the new diabetic drug classes and their influence on BP.

  2. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  3. Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V.

    2005-12-01

    Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. Type O individuals have α-fucose(1→2)galactose disaccharides [O(H) structures] on their cell surfaces while in type A or B individuals, the O antigen is capped by the addition of an α- N -acetylgalactosamine or α-galactose residue, respectively. The addition of these monosaccharides is catalyzed by glycosyltransferase A (GTA) or glycosyltransferase B (GTB). These are homologous enzymes differing by only 4 amino acids out of 354 that change the specificity from GTA to GTB. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of GTA, GTB, and the four critical amino acids in determining blood group status are discussed. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  4. Barcode-like paper sensor for smartphone diagnostics: an application of blood typing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Liyun; Tian, Junfei; Cao, Rong; Li, Miaosi; Cai, Zhaoxiang; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-18

    This study introduced a barcode-like design into a paper-based blood typing device by integrating with smartphone-based technology. The concept of presenting a paper-based blood typing assay in a barcode-like pattern significantly enhanced the adaptability of the assay to the smartphone technology. The fabrication of this device involved the use of a printing technique to define hydrophilic bar channels which were, respectively, treated with Anti-A, -B, and -D antibodies. These channels were then used to perform blood typing assays by introducing a blood sample. Blood type can be visually identified from eluting lengths in bar channels. A smartphone-based analytical application was designed to read the bar channels, analogous to scanning a barcode, interpret this information, and then report results to users. The proposed paper-based blood typing device is rapidly read by smartphones and easy for the user to operate. We envisage that the adaptation of paper-based devices to the widely accepted smartphone technology will increase the capability of paper-based diagnostics with rapid assay result interpretation, data storage, and transmission.

  5. Remembering AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyayev, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    In 1947 I became a second-year student at Moscow State University's Physics and Engineering Department, where a part of the week's classes were taught at base organizations. Our group's base was the future Kurchatov Institute, at that time known as the mysterious "Laboratory N^circ 2," and later as LIPAN. . Besides group lectures and practical work at the experimental laboratories, we also had access to the general seminars which Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov tried to hold, with Leonid Vasilyevich Groshev filling in when he was absent. At the seminar, theorists spoke as welcome co-presenters and commentators. In 1949 I felt ready to approach A. B. Migdal to ask if I could transfer to his theoretical sector. In response, he suggested a number of simple qualitative problems, which I then successfully solved. (Incidentally, AB used the very same "introductory problems" for screening many generations of students.) So I wound up among AB's students. From 1952 on (for 10 years) I also served as an employee of the Migdal Sector. My memoirs here are mainly inspired by these years of constant communication with AB. After my departure for Novosibirsk in 1962, although our meetings still took place, they became occasional....

  6. Understanding of blood pressure by people with type 2 diabetes: a primary care focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jane; Brown, Ken; Kendrick, Denise; Dyas, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Background For many people with type 2 diabetes most care is provided in primary care. While people with both diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of complications, little is known about their understanding of blood pressure. Aim To explore the understanding and beliefs about the importance of blood pressure held by people with type 2 diabetes. Design of study Framework analysis of qualitative research using focus groups. Setting Thirty-two participants were recruited from four general practices and a religious meeting group in Nottingham. Discussions took place in five community centres providing familiar surroundings for participants. Method In order to get views expressed fully, white, Asian, and African–Caribbean participants met in five separate groups. Facilitators were fluent in the appropriate language and one member of the research team was present at all focus groups. Results Some participants, including those with raised blood pressure, were not aware of the increased importance of achieving good blood pressure control. No participants mentioned the increased risk of eye or kidney disease as a result of the combination of diabetes and raised blood pressure. Participants' perceptions regarding the control of blood sugar and blood pressure were different: blood sugar control was seen as their responsibility but blood pressure control was seen as the responsibility of the doctor. There was scepticism regarding the diagnosis of raised blood pressure, of targets and the management of blood pressure. There was also scepticism about the advice and education about diabetes given in primary care. Conclusions People with type 2 diabetes require more knowledge of the increased risks they have from raised blood pressure, although this alone is unlikely to improve blood-pressure control. Strategies to increase the degree of control over and responsibility taken for the control of blood pressure need development and may require the specific development of

  7. Nocturnal blood glucose control in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bolli, G B; Perriello, G; Fanelli, C G; De Feo, P

    1993-12-01

    A major problem in replacing insulin in type I diabetes mellitus is that currently no depot preparation exists that is capable of mimicking the background insulin secretion of the healthy pancreas. Because all of the currently available intermediate- or long-acting insulin preparations have a peaked-action profile, excess insulin action at midnight and insulin waning at dawn occur whenever such an insulin preparation is given at supper time. If the target fasting plasma glucose is the ambitious near-normoglycemia of intensive insulin therapy, intermediate-acting insulin at suppertime easily results in hypoglycemia in the early evening hours and hyperglycemia in the fasting state. The problems of overnight glycemia in type I diabetes are further complicated by the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi phenomenon. The dawn phenomenon is the combination of an initial decrease in insulin requirements between approximately 2400 and approximately 0300, followed by an increase in the insulin needs between approximately 0500 and approximately 0800. The dawn phenomenon is the result of changes in hepatic (and extrahepatic) insulin sensitivity, which are best attributed to nocturnal growth hormone secretion. The dawn phenomenon is a day-to-day reproducible event that occurs in nearly all diabetic patients. Its contribution to fasting hyperglycemia correlates with diabetes duration (inversely) and the HbA1c percentage (directly). Overall, it is estimated that the specific contribution of the dawn phenomenon to fasting hyperglycemia is approximately 2 mM (approximately 35 mg/dl), but it may be much greater because of the warning of the depot-insulin preparation injected the previous evening. The Somogyi phenomenon, strictly speaking, refers to fasting hyperglycemia that occurs after inducement of nocturnal hypoglycemia by regular insulin. Because the present therapeutic regimens of NPH/Lente insulin given at suppertime cause overnight hyperinsulinemia, excessive fasting

  8. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luciana Cayres; Castilho, Lilian; Vieira, Otavio Vinicius Neves; Sippert, Emília; Gaspardi, Ane Caroline; Martins, Marina Lobato; da Silva Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Background The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated. Methods One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique) were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples). Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis. Results The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1) presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43%) previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected. Conclusion The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks. PMID:26408363

  9. A combined study of the equation of state of monazite-type lanthanum orthovanadate using in situ high-pressure diffraction and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Olga; López-Solano, Javier; Minikayev, Roman; Carlson, Stefan; Kamińska, Agata; Głowacki, Michał; Berkowski, Marek; Mujica, Andrés; Muñoz, Alfonso; Paszkowicz, Wojciech

    2014-06-01

    Lanthanum orthovanadate (LaVO4) is the only stable monazite-type rare-earth orthovanadate. In the present paper the equation of state of LaVO4 is studied using in situ high-pressure powder diffraction at room temperature, and ab initio calculations within the framework of the density functional theory. The parameters of a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, i.e. those fitted to the experimental and theoretical data, are found to be in perfect agreement - in particular, the bulk moduli are almost identical, with values of 106 (1) and 105.8 (5) GPa, respectively. In agreement with recent reported experimental data, the compression is shown to be anisotropic. Its nature is comparable to that of some other monazite-type compounds. The softest compression direction is determined.

  10. SERS spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of globulin in human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zeng, Y. Y.; Lin, J. Q.; Lin, L.; Wang, X. C.; Chen, G. N.; Huang, Z. F.; Li, B. H.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.

    2014-06-01

    Globulin plays a significant role in body processes, acts as an important marker for disease diagnosis and determines blood type. Moreover, recent reports about the strong association between cancer risk and blood type imply that further studying these relationships may yield new findings on the biological mechanisms of tumorigenesis. In this paper, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the determination of this important globulin derived from human blood. Comparing globulins from different blood types by utilizing SERS spectroscopy and multivariate analysis, we show that primary structures of globulins from different blood types are similar to each other, but subtle differences in structures which may be vital for determining blood type are still observed. The abilities of globulins from different blood types to approach silver surfaces seem to differ, which also indicates that there are structural differences in blood type related globulins. Furthermore, this method differentiates blood type A from type B, type A from type O, type B from type O, type AB from type A, type AB from type B, and type AB from type O with sensitivities and specificities as follows: (90.0%, 95.0%), (80.0%, 83.9%), (95.0%, 90.3%), (97.3%, 96.7%), (94.6%, 95.5%), (100%, 100%), suggesting a potential feasibility for use in blood type identification. Our method sheds new light on blood type analysis, paves the way for the study of relationships between cancer risk and blood types, and expands the flexibility of SERS for useful applications in the life sciences.

  11. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-12-31

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies.

  12. [Investigation of uninterpretative HLA typing in 311 umbilical cord blood samples].

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing-Xin; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors which affect HLA typing in 311 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples. The HLA low resolution typing of UCB samples with misinterpreted HLA types from 311 UCB samples analyzed by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP was performed. 7 samples difficult to determine their HLA genotype were sequenced directly and the reason leading to misinterpret HLA typing was analyzed. The results indicated that 99.4% of misinterpreted samples resulted from the restriction of HLA typing method itself and 0.6% of misinterpreted samples were suspected to be contaminated with maternal blood in UCB. It is concluded that HLA typing is mainly affected by the shortcomings of oligonucleotide probe design for PCR-SSO and lack of allele specific primers of PCR-SSP.

  13. Inter-arm blood pressure difference in type 2 diabetes: a barrier to effective management?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher E; Greaves, Colin J; Evans, Philip H; Dickens, Andy; Campbell, John L

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified a substantial prevalence of a blood pressure difference between arms in various populations, but not patients with type 2 diabetes. Recognition of such a difference would be important as a potential cause of underestimation of blood pressure. Aim To measure prevalence of an inter-arm blood pressure difference in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to estimate how frequently blood pressure measurements could be erroneously underestimated if an inter-arm difference is unrecognised. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting Five surgeries covered by three general practices, Devon, England. Method Patients with type 2 diabetes underwent bilateral simultaneous blood pressure measurements using a validated protocol. Mean blood pressures were calculated for each arm to derive mean systolic and diastolic differences, and to estimate point prevalence of predefined magnitudes of difference. Results A total of 101 participants were recruited. Mean age was 66 years (standard deviation [SD] = 13.9 years); 59% were male, and mean blood pressure was 138/79 mmHg (SD = 15/10 mmHg). Ten participants (10%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4 to 16) had a systolic inter-arm difference ≥10 mmHg; 29 (29%; 95% CI = 20 to 38) had a diastolic difference ≥5 mmHg; and three (3%; 95% CI = 0 to 6) a diastolic difference ≥10 mmHg. No confounding variable was observed to account for the magnitude of an inter-arm difference. Conclusion A systolic inter-arm difference ≥10 mmHg was observed in 10% of patients with diabetes. Failure to recognise this would misclassify half of these as normotensive rather than hypertensive using the lower-reading arm. New patients with type 2 diabetes should be screened for an inter-arm blood pressure difference. PMID:19520026

  14. Lattice dynamics of the model percolation-type (Zn,Be)Se alloy: Inelastic neutron scattering, ab initio study, and shell-model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mala N.; Lamago, D.; Ivanov, A.; d'Astuto, M.; Postnikov, A. V.; Hussein, R. Hajj; Basak, Tista; Chaplot, S. L.; Firszt, F.; Paszkowicz, W.; Deb, S. K.; Pagès, O.

    2014-04-01

    The random Zn1-xBexSe zincblende alloy is known to exhibit a peculiar three-mode [1×(Zn-Se),2×(Be-Se)] vibration pattern near the Brillouin zone (BZ) center, of the so-called percolation type, apparent in its Raman spectra. This is due to an unusually large contrast between the physical properties (length, ionicity) of the constituting bonds. In the present work, the inelastic neutron scattering is applied to study the dispersion of modes away from the BZ center, with special attention to the q⃗ dependence of the BeSe-like transverse optic doublet. The discussion is supported by calculations of lattice dynamics done both ab initio (using the siesta code) and within the shell model. The BeSe-like doublet is found to survive nearly unchanged throughout the BZ up to the zone edge, indicating that its origin is at the ultimate bond scale. The microscopic mechanism of splitting is clarified by ab initio calculations. Namely, the local lattice relaxation needed to accommodate the contrast in physical properties of the Zn-Se and Be-Se bonds splits the stretching and bending modes of connected, i.e., percolativelike, (Be-Se) bonds.

  15. Type A-B scores and insomnia among college students: a replication and extension of earlier studies.

    PubMed

    Hayer, C A; Hicks, R A

    1993-12-01

    In an attempt to rationalize conflicting sets of data from earlier studies, groups of Type A- and Type B-classified university students were asked to respond to a sleep habits questionnaire that included the items of the Coren Insomnia Scale. As was the case in two earlier studies, we found significant but weak evidence from the Coren scale only that Type A-scoring students experience more sleep problems than Type B scorers. We also found, as in a recent study, a sharp increase in sleep problems among all the students sampled from the frequencies reported by similar groups in 1982.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care blood typing kit conducted by potential end users.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Perez, Nora M

    2013-05-01

    The usability of a rapid point-of-care ABO-Rh blood typing kit was determined by comparing the performance of individuals with extensive medical training/experience to those with a lesser extent. Subjects were asked to use the blood typing kit with their own blood. These outcomes were compared to that listed in the subject's medical record, stamped on their dog tag, and the result interpreted by a laboratorian. For all participants, there was ∼80% consistency between the result interpreted by the subject and that stated in their medical record. The participant's level of formal education (P ≤ 0.05) affected the accuracy of the blood typing kit. When comparing the subject's outcome to that stated in their medical record, the performance of individuals in the Medical Corps was approximately 10% and 25% higher (P < 0.05) than that observed with Hospital Corpsman or Medical Service Corps members, respectively. To remove bias that can occur when interpreting the blood type of oneself, the subjects also interpreted the result from cards prepared by the investigator. Taken together, a discrepancy between the potential diagnostic accuracy of the kit and that observed with potential end users was identified.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  18. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  19. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  20. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S.; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of distribution of

  1. Office and ambulatory blood pressure are independently associated with albuminuria in older subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Andrew; Palmas, Walter; Pickering, Thomas G; Schwartz, Joseph E; Field, Lesley; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Blood pressure strongly predicts microalbuminuria and later progression to renal failure in people with diabetes. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seems to be superior to office blood pressure in predicting progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. The associations of ambulatory blood pressure with office blood pressure and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. We studied the association of office blood pressure taken with an automated device and ambulatory blood pressure with spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio in 1180 older people with type 2 diabetes participating in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine Study. Office and awake systolic blood pressure were independently associated with albuminuria (P<0.001 for both) in a multivariate linear regression analysis that adjusted for age, gender, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, number of antihypertensive medications, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Twelve percent of participants had well-controlled office blood pressure but not ambulatory blood pressure, whereas 14% had well-controlled ambulatory but not office blood pressure. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in these subgroups was intermediate between those with well-controlled or uncontrolled blood pressure by both methods. We found, in a multiethnic group of older subjects with type 2 diabetes, that office systolic blood pressure and awake systolic ambulatory blood pressure exhibited independent associations with degree of albuminuria.

  2. Effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on the performance of paper diagnostics for blood typing.

    PubMed

    McLiesh, Heather; Sharman, Scot; Garnier, Gil

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect that two common types of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking might have on the performance of paper diagnostics using blood typing as an example. The results were analyzed in terms of red blood cells (RBC) retention and antibody-antigen specificity. Two questions were addressed: (1) can poly(amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) typically used for paper wet strength affect the diagnostic performance? (2) can high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) employed as retention aid enhance or affect the selectivity and sensitivity of paper diagnostics? A series of paper varying in type of fibers and drying process were constructed with PAE and tested for blood typing performance. Residual PAE has no significant effect on blood typing paper diagnostics under normal conditions. Positives are unaffected with PAE, while negatives lose slight sharpness as some RBCs are unselectively retained. CPAM, the most common retention aid, can also be used to retain cells and biomolecules on paper. Paper towel was treated with CPAM solutions varying in polymer concentration and charge density and tested for blood typing. We found that CPAM dried on paper can retain RBC. CPAM affects the negative tests by retaining non-specifically individual RBC on fibers. RBC retention increases non-linearly with the CPAM charge density and concentration. As expected, wet CPAM retain RBCs at concentrations higher than 0.1wt%. As paper diagnostics are becoming a reality, more realistic papers than the Whatman filter paper will be engineered. This study provides guidance on how best use the required polymeric wet-strength and retention agents.

  3. Non-OO blood type influences the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism. A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Esteban; Kovacs, Michael J; Kahn, Susan R; Wells, Philip S; Anderson, David A; Chagnon, Isabelle; Le Gal, Grégoire; Solymoss, Susan; Crowther, Mark; Carrier, Marc; Langlois, Nicole; Kovacs, Judy; Little Ma, Julian; Carson, Nancy; Ramsay, Tim; Rodger, Marc A

    2013-12-01

    The role of ABO blood type as a risk factor for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who complete oral anticoagulation therapy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if non-OO blood type is a risk factor for recurrent VTE in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who completed 5-7 months of anticoagulant therapy. In an ongoing cohort study of patients with unprovoked VTE who discontinued oral anticoagulation after 5-7 months of therapy, six single nucleotide polymorphisms sites were tested to determine ABO blood type using banked DNA. The main outcome was objectively proven recurrent VTE. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.19 years (SD 2.16). During 1,553 patient-years of follow-up, 101 events occurred in 380 non-OO patients (6.5 events per 100 patient years; 95% CI 5.3-7.7) compared to 14 events during 560 patient years of follow-up in 129 OO patients (2.5 per 100 patient years; 95% CI 1.2-3.7), the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.98 (1.2-3.8). In conclusion, non-OO blood type is associated with a statistically significant and clinically relevant increased risk of recurrent VTE following discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy for a first episode of unprovoked VTE.

  4. Immunization by blood-type antigen in human immunoglobulin products before ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tokihiko; Ando, Tetsuo; Sato, Sumihiko; Kubota, Keiichi; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Teraoka, Satoshi

    2004-04-01

    A 29-year-old man wanted to receive an ABO-incompatible kidney transplant. His blood type was O, and the donor, his father, was A1. After endoscopic splenectomy performed before kidney transplantation, the recipient developed a high fever and leukocytosis, and he was treated with antibiotics and 5 g of human immunoglobulin products by intravenous infusion for 3 d. Soon after the infusions, his anti-blood type A antibody titer (anti-A titer) rose, and several sessions of plasma-exchange (PEX) and double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) failed to lower it. Three courses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered to suppress the antibody production more specifically, and the rituximab infusions and repeated PEX and DFPP session lowered the anti-A titer and enabled kidney transplantation. Mild humoral rejection was observed 16 d after transplantation, but the recipient's serum creatinine was 1.5 mg/dL when discharged from the hospital. The increased anti-A titer may have been due to immunization by blood-type A antigen, with the human immunoglobulin products given to the patient being the source of the antigen. Administration of human immunoglobulin products to recipients of ABO-incompatible kidney transplants should be avoided, because it may cause an unexpected increase in anti-blood-type antibody titer.

  5. Choosing the Type of Ownership. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 5. Research & Development Series No. 240AB5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on choosing the type of ownership, the fifth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  6. The hybrid A/B type ν12 band of trans-ethylene-1,2-d2 by high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Ng, L. L.; Gabona, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The FTIR absorption spectrum of the hybrid A/B type ν12 band of trans-ethylene-1,2-d2 (trans-C2H2D2) centered at 1298.038145(19) cm-1 in the 1220-1420 cm-1 region was recorded at an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm-1. Using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation, a total of 2892 a- and b-type transitions was assigned and fitted to upper state (ν12 = 1) rovibrational constants up to three sextic terms. The b-type feature of the band was analyzed for the first time. The root-mean-square deviation of the upper state ν12 = 1 fit was 0.00037 cm-1 while the accuracy of the measurements of the line frequencies was limited to ±0.00065 cm-1. A set of ground state rovibrational constants up to three sextic terms was also derived from the simultaneous fit of 4597 ground state combination differences from the present analysis and those of the ν4 + ν8 and ν4 bands of trans-C2H2D2 with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.00039 cm-1. The transition dipole moment ratio |μa/μb | of the ν12 band of trans-C2H2D2 was found to be 5.0 ± 0.3.

  7. Relative stability of major types of beta-turns as a function of amino acid composition: a study based on Ab initio energetic and natural abundance data.

    PubMed

    Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G

    2003-06-06

    Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly.

  8. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  9. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  10. Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood cells for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    He, Binbin; Li, Xia; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, to date, no conventional intervention has successfully treated the disease. The optimal therapeutic method for T1DM should effectively control the autoimmunity, restore immune homeostasis, preserve residual β-cells, reverse β-cell destruction, and protect the regenerated insulin-producing cells against re-attack. Umbilical cord blood is rich in regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and multiple types of stem cells that exhibit immunomodulating potential and hold promise in their ability to restore peripheral tolerance towards pancreatic islet β-cells through remodeling of immune responses and suppression of autoreactive T cells. Recently, reinfusion of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood has been proposed as a novel therapy for T1DM, with the advantages of no risk to the donors, minimal ethical concerns, a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and easy accessibility. In this review, we revisit the role of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood-based applications for the treatment of T1DM.

  11. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security has been defined as the “availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods”. Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of <0.05. Results Most subjects were female (68.7%). There was no significant relationship between gender and food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). Conclusions According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice. PMID:28163854

  12. Polymorphic transformation of dense ZnO nanoparticles: implications for chair/boat-type Peierls distortions of AB semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuei-Yuan; Shen, Pouyan; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2004-12-08

    Peierls distortion path was proved experimentally for dense ZnO nanoparticles prepared by static compression. Electron irradiation caused rock salt (R) to wurtzite (W) transition, following preferential (111)(R)//(0111)(W); [011](R)//[1213](W) and then transformation strain induced (111)(R)//(1011)(W); [011](R)//[0111](W). The two relationships can be rationalized by specified extent of chair- and boat-type Peierls distortions accompanied with band gap opening and intermediate {111}R slip for energetically favorable {111}R/(0111)W match.

  13. Effect of blood type on anti-α-Gal immunity and the incidence of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Alberdi, Pilar; Villar, Margarita; Riveau, Gilles; Hermann, Emmanuel; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Khalife, Jamal; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2017-01-01

    The identification of factors affecting the susceptibility to infectious diseases is essential toward reducing their burden on the human population. The ABO blood type correlates with susceptibility to malaria and other infectious diseases. Due to the structural similarity between blood antigen B and Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal), we hypothesized that self-tolerance to antigen B affects the immune response to α-Gal, which in turn affects the susceptibility to infectious diseases caused by pathogens carrying α-Gal on their surface. Here we found that the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis, caused by pathogens with α-Gal on their surface, positively correlates with the frequency of blood type B in endemic regions. However, the incidence of dengue fever, caused by a pathogen without α-Gal, was not related to the frequency of blood type B in these populations. Furthermore, the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis was negatively correlated with the anti-α-Gal antibody protective response. These results have implications for disease control and prevention. PMID:28280265

  14. Effect of flaxseed gum on reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Goutam; Mitra, Analava; Pal, Kunal; Rousseau, Dérick

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ingestion of flaxseed gum on blood glucose and cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Flaxseed gum was incorporated in wheat flour chapattis. Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes were fed a daily diet for 3 months, along with six wheat flour chapattis containing flaxseed gum (5 g), as per the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association. The control group (60 individuals) consumed an identical diet but the chapattis were without gum. The blood biochemistry profiles monitored before starting the study and at monthly intervals showed fasting blood sugar in the experimental group decreased from 154 ± 8 mg/dl to 136 ± 7 mg/dl (P=0.03) while the total cholesterol reduced from 182 ± 11 mg/dl to 163 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.03). Results showed a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 110 ± 8 mg/dl to 92 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.02). The study demonstrated the efficacy of flax gum in the blood biochemistry profiles of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health.

  16. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition.

    PubMed

    Gervin, Kristina; Page, Christian Magnus; Aass, Hans Christian D; Jansen, Michelle A; Fjeldstad, Heidi Elisabeth; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B; van Zelm, Menno C; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Nordeng, Hedvig; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Magnus, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Felix, Janine F; Lyle, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused by cellular heterogeneity is a major concern. This can be adjusted for using reference data consisting of DNA methylation signatures in cell types isolated from blood. However, the most commonly used reference data set is based on blood samples from adult males and is not representative of the cell type composition in neonatal cord blood. The aim of this study was to generate a reference data set from cord blood to enable correct adjustment of the cell type composition in samples collected at birth. The purity of the isolated cell types was very high for all samples (>97.1%), and clustering analyses showed distinct grouping of the cell types according to hematopoietic lineage. We explored whether this cord blood and the adult peripheral blood reference data sets impact the estimation of cell type composition in cord blood samples from an independent birth cohort (MoBa, n = 1092). This revealed significant differences for all cell types. Importantly, comparison of the cell type estimates against matched cell counts both in the cord blood reference samples (n = 11) and in another independent birth cohort (Generation R, n = 195), demonstrated moderate to high correlation of the data. This is the first cord blood reference data set with a comprehensive examination of the downstream application of the data through validation of estimated cell types against matched cell counts.

  17. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  18. Capturing the interaction types of two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab on suppressing the cotton bollworm by using multi-exponential equations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Wei, Ji-Zhen; Sandhu, Hardev S; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic crops are increasingly promoted for their practical effects on suppressing certain insect pests, but all transgenic crops are not equally successful. The insect pests can easily develop resistance against single Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin transgenic crops. Therefore, transgenic crops including two or more mixed Bt-toxins can solve this problem by delaying the resistance development and killing the majority of targeted pests before the evolution of resistance. It is important to test the controlling effects of transgenic crops including multiple mixed toxins on a particular insect pest. Previous research has checked the cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against one susceptible and four resistant strains of cotton bollworm. The results showed that independence was the main interaction type between two toxins for the susceptible strain, whereas synergism was the main interaction type for any one resistant strain. However, the optimal combinations of two toxins were not obtained. In the present study, we developed two multi-exponential equations (namely bi- and tri-exponential equations) to describe the combination effects of two Bt toxins. Importantly, the equations can provide predictions of combination effects of different continuous concentrations of two toxins. We compared these two multi-exponential equations with the generalized linear model (GLM) in describing the combination effects, and found that the bi- and tri-exponential equations are better than GLM. Moreover, the bi-exponential equation can also provide the optimal dose combinations for two toxins.

  19. Polymorphic transformation of dense ZnO nanoparticles: Implications for chair/boat-type Peierls distortions of AB semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-Y.; Shen Pouyan; Jiang Jianzhong

    2004-12-08

    Peierls distortion path was proved experimentally for dense ZnO nanoparticles prepared by static compression. Electron irradiation caused rock salt (R) to wurtzite (W) transition, following preferential (11-bar1){sub R}//(01-bar11){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[1-bar21-bar3]{sub W} and then transformation strain induced (111-bar){sub R}//(1-bar011){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[011-bar1]{sub W}. The two relationships can be rationalized by specified extent of chair- and boat-type Peierls distortions accompanied with band gap opening and intermediate {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R} slip for energetically favorable {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R}/(01-bar11){sub W} match.

  20. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  1. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  2. An efficient ab initio DFT and PCM assessment of the potentiometric selectivity of a salophen type Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Demir, Serkan; Yilmaz, Hakan; Dilimulati, Maowulidan; Andaç, Müberra

    2014-06-01

    As a neutral carrier component for the preparation of a potentiometric membrane sensor, the affinity and selectivity of the salophen type Schiff base ligand obtained by 1:2 condensation of 2.3-diaminopyridine with salicylaldehyde toward a series of common cations has been fully examined by DFT/B3LYP and integral equation formalism polarizable continum model (IEF-PCM or only given with PCM as default input in the computations) in combination with the experimental data. Both the potentiometric measurements and DFT calculations have exhibited that the ionophore shows appreciable selectivity for Cu(2+) ion over other cations. Four different approaches where the last three are the modified version of each other have been evaluated and compared with potentiometric data. Based upon the results of comparison among the approaches suggested to verify the selective behavior of ionophore toward Cu(2+), PCM implemented approach having a whole computational groundwork has given well-matched results with the observed data and with the method augmented with experimental hydration energies. The foremost interferences were detected by determining potentiometric selectivity coefficients for each metal ion relative to Cu(2+) and compared to the results obtained by the DFT calculations.

  3. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Tangkawsakul, Wanida; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Baba, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 10(5) cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 10(5) cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 10(8) cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.

  4. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

    PubMed Central

    Tangkawsakul, Wanida; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing. PMID:28101104

  5. Determination of Both Fetus' and Mother's Blood Type from an Autopsy Case Immersed in Formalin for Over 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Uno, Akari Takaya; Morita, Satomu; Furukawa, Satoshi; Nishi, Katsuji; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    A female fetus which had been immersed in formalin for more than 50 years was found in Japan. Because no liquid blood could be obtained, we tried to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods to tissue samples obtained at autopsy to identify both the fetal and mother's blood type. We detected B antigens on endothelial cells in paraffin sections of the fetal organs. Furthermore, we observed both anti-A- and anti-B-positive red blood cells in the intervillous space, which is indicative of the mother's blood type. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on determining the blood type of both the fetus and the mother from tissue immersed in formalin for such a long time. The results suggest that IHC is valuable for the determination of ABO blood type in circumstances of long postmortem duration and unfavorable storage conditions.

  6. Comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward ABO blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hamako, J; Ozeki, Y; Titani, K

    2001-02-16

    Binding specificities of ABO blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. Human serum albumin conjugated with A- and B-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus, Dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin B(4), respectively. Almost the same results were obtained for human group A and B ovarian cyst and A-active hog gastric mucins, but Glycine max agglutinin only reacted to the group A hog mucin. When human plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), having Asn-linked blood group antigens, was tested, HPA was highly sensitive to blood group A antigen on the vWF. Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) preferentially bound to the vWF from blood group O plasma. Within the GalNAc-recognizing lectins examined, a biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide having the blood group A structure retarded on an HPA-agarose column, and the affinity was diminished after digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. This product bound to UEA-I agarose column. These results indicate that HPA and UEA-I are most sensitive for detection of glycoproteins possessing small amounts of blood group A and H antigens and also useful for fractionation of complex-type oligosaccharides with blood group A and H antigens, respectively.

  7. Increased expression of blood mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    St Clair, E W; Wilkinson, W E; Lang, T; Sanders, L; Misukonis, M A; Gilkeson, G S; Pisetsky, D S; Granger, D I; Weinberg, J B

    1996-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inflammatory mediator in nonhuman animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether blood mononuclear cells from patients with active RA (as compared to control subjects) have higher levels of NO synthase type 2 (NOS2) and produce more NO in vitro. Leukocytes from 25 RA patients and 20 normal subjects were examined. Arthritis activity was assessed by tender and swollen joint counts, duration of morning stiffness, patient assessment of pain, physician and patient global assessment of disease activity, the modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, and by blood levels of acute phase reactants. Blood mononuclear cell NOS enzyme activity/antigen content and nitrite/nitrate formation in vitro were measured. Blood mononuclear cells from RA patients had increased NOS activity and increased NOS2 antigen content as compared to those from normal subjects, and responded to interferon-gamma with increased NOS expression and nitrite/nitrate production in vitro. NOS activity of freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells correlated significantly with disease activity, as assessed by render and swollen joint counts. Our results demonstrate that patients with RA have systemic activation for NOS2 expression, and that the degree of activation correlates with disease activity. Increased NOS2 expression and NO generation may be important in the pathogenesis of RA.

  8. Interactions of human blood and tissue cell types with 95-nm-high nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Matthew J; Marshall, George E; Johnstone, Heather J H; Affrossman, Stanley; Riehle, Mathis O

    2002-03-01

    Two of the major concerns for tissue engineering materials are inflammatory responses from blood cells and fibrous encapsulation by the body in order to shield the implant from blood reaction. A further hurdle is that of vascularization. In order to develop new tissues, or to repair parts of the vascular system, nutrients need to be carried to the basal cell layers. If a material promotes tissue formation, but not vascularization, necrosis will be observed as multilayered cells develop. In this paper, polymer demixed island topography with a 95-nm Z axis was tested using human mononuclear blood cells, platelets, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The results showed no difference in blood response between the islands and the flat controls, suggesting that in vivo there would be negligible immunological difference. Fibroblasts reacted by changing morphology into a rounded shape with thick processes and poorly developed cytoskeleton. Retardation of fibroblast growth may be an advantageous, as it is this cell type that forms the fibrous capsule, preventing growth of the required tissue type. Finally, endothelial cells were seen to form arcuate, or curved, morphologies in response to the islands. This is the normal, in vivo, morphology for vascular endothelium. This result suggests that the nano-features are promoting a more phenotypically correct morphology.

  9. A case of tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy after ABO-blood-type-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Asami; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keij; Inaguma, Daizyo; Goto, Norihiko; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Morozumi, Kunio

    2011-07-01

    De novo thrombotic microangiopathy(TMA) is most commonly triggered by calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and the prognosis is less severe than with recurrent TMA. However, it is difficult to distinguish de novo TMA from CNI toxicity and acute antibody-mediated rejection(AMR) soon after renal transplantation. We present a case of tacrolimus-associated TMA soon after ABO blood type incompatible renal transplantation that was difficult to differentiate from acute AMR. On day 9 his urine output decreased dramatically and the Scr level increased. His anti-blood type A antibody titer increased to ×16 postopratively and the tacrolimus trough level was higher than in our immunosuppressive regimen. Although we gave priority to anti-AMR treatment, adequate dose adjustment of tacrolimus after tacrolimus nephrotoxicity was diagnosed from graft biopsy could correct allograft dysfunction.

  10. Cytokine release assays for the prediction of therapeutic mAb safety in first-in man trials — Whole blood cytokine release assays are poorly predictive for TGN1412 cytokine storm

    PubMed Central

    Vessillier, S.; Eastwood, D.; Fox, B.; Sathish, J.; Sethu, S.; Dougall, T.; Thorpe, S.J.; Thorpe, R.; Stebbings, R.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) TGN1412 (anti-CD28 superagonist) caused near-fatal cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in all six volunteers during a phase-I clinical trial. Several cytokine release assays (CRAs) with reported predictivity for TGN1412-induced CRS have since been developed for the preclinical safety testing of new therapeutic mAbs. The whole blood (WB) CRA is the most widely used, but its sensitivity for TGN1412-like cytokine release was recently criticized. In a comparative study, using group size required for 90% power with 5% significance as a measure of sensitivity, we found that WB and 10% (v/v) WB CRAs were the least sensitive for TGN1412 as these required the largest group sizes (n = 52 and 79, respectively). In contrast, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) solid phase (SP) CRA was the most sensitive for TGN1412 as it required the smallest group size (n = 4). Similarly, the PBMC SP CRA was more sensitive than the WB CRA for muromonab-CD3 (anti-CD3) which stimulates TGN1412-like cytokine release (n = 4 and 4519, respectively). Conversely, the WB CRA was far more sensitive than the PBMC SP CRA for alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) which stimulates FcγRI-mediated cytokine release (n = 8 and 180, respectively). Investigation of potential factors contributing to the different sensitivities revealed that removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from WB permitted PBMC-like TGN1412 responses in a SP CRA, which in turn could be inhibited by the addition of the RBC membrane protein glycophorin A (GYPA); this observation likely underlies, at least in part, the poor sensitivity of WB CRA for TGN1412. The use of PBMC SP CRA for the detection of TGN1412-like cytokine release is recommended in conjunction with adequately powered group sizes for dependable preclinical safety testing of new therapeutic mAbs. PMID:25960173

  11. Effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Adele; Kashi, Zahra; Daneshpour, Ezzatossadat; Akha, Ozra; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM. The patients received treatments of a placebo (control group; n = 20) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (cabergoline group; n = 20) using the sequential method, once per week for 3 months, while using previously prescribed glucose-lowering drugs. All tests, such as levels of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-prandial glucose, complete lipid profile, prolactin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results: The fasting blood sugar levels were significantly different between placebo and cabergoline groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.004). The prolactin levels were significantly different from beginning of the treatment to 6 months later (P = 0.001). In the cabergoline group, there was a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels after 3 months (P = 0.003). Overall, 65%and 45% patients in the cabergoline and control groups, respectively, responded to treatment (HbA1C<7%). Conclusion: Cabergoline may be useful as a long-acting antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27749534

  12. [Teaching design and practice of human blood type traits in genetics comprehensive laboratory course].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Hu, Dongmei; Yu, Dade; Dong, Mingliang; Li, Yun; Fan, Yingming; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Comprehensive laboratory courses, which enable students to aptly apply theoretic knowledge and master experiment skills, play an important role in the present educational reform of laboratory courses. We utilized human ABO blood type as the experimental subject, and designed the experiment--"Molecular Genotyping of Human ABO Blood Type and Analysis of Population Genetic Equilibrium". In the experiment, DNA in mucosal cells is extracted from students' saliva, and each student's genotype is identified using a series of molecular genetics technologies, including PCR amplification of target fragments, enzymatic digestion, and electrophoretic separation. Then, taking the whole class as an analogous Mendel population, a survey of genotype frequency of ABO blood type is conducted, followed with analyses of various population genetic parameters using Popgene. Through the open laboratory course, students can not only master molecular genetic experimental skills, but also improve their understanding of theoretic knowledge through independent design and optimization of molecular techniques. After five years of research and practice, a stable experimental system of molecular genetics has been established to identify six genotypes of ABO blood types, namely I(A)I(A), I(A)i, I(B)I(B), I(B)i, I(A)I(B) and ii. Laboratory courses of molecular and population genetics have been integrated by calculating the frequencies of the six genotypes and three multiple alleles and testing population genetic equilibrium. The goal of the open laboratory course with independent design and implementation by the students has been achieved. This laboratory course has proved effective and received good reviews from the students. It could be applied as a genetics laboratory course for the biology majors directly, and its ideas and methods could be promoted and applied to other biological laboratory courses.

  13. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  14. Changes in T cell subsets identify responders to FcR non-binding anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab) in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, James E; Vudattu, Nalini; Choi, Jinmyung; Cotsapas, Chris; Devine, Lesley; Raddassi, Khadir; Ehlers, Mario R; McNamara, James G; Harris, Kristina M; Kanaparthi, Sai; Phippard, Deborah; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby immune therapies affect progression of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not well understood. Teplizumab, an FcR non-binding anti-CD3 mAb, has shown efficacy in multiple randomized clinical trials. We previously reported an increase in the frequency of circulating CD8+ central memory (CD8CM) T cells in clinical responders, but the generalizability of this finding and the molecular effects of teplizumab on these T cells have not been evaluated. We analyzed data from 2 randomized clinical studies of teplizumab in patients with new and recent onset T1D. At the conclusion of therapy clinical responders showed a significant reduction in circulating CD4+ effector memory (CD4EM) T cells. Afterwards, there was an increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD8CM T cells. In vitro, teplizumab expanded CD8CM T cells by proliferation and conversion of non-CM T cells. Nanostring analysis of gene expression of CD8CM T cells from responders and non-responders vs placebo-treated control subjects identified decreases in expression of genes associated with immune activation and increases in expression of genes associated with T cell differentiation and regulation. We conclude that CD8CM T cells with decreased activation and regulatory gene expression are associated with clinical responses to teplizumab in patients with T1D. PMID:26518356

  15. Changes in T-cell subsets identify responders to FcR-nonbinding anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab) in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tooley, James E; Vudattu, Nalini; Choi, Jinmyung; Cotsapas, Chris; Devine, Lesley; Raddassi, Khadir; Ehlers, Mario R; McNamara, James G; Harris, Kristina M; Kanaparthi, Sai; Phippard, Deborah; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby immune therapies affect progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not well understood. Teplizumab, an FcR nonbinding anti-CD3 mAb, has shown efficacy in multiple randomized clinical trials. We previously reported an increase in the frequency of circulating CD8(+) central memory (CD8CM) T cells in clinical responders, but the generalizability of this finding and the molecular effects of teplizumab on these T cells have not been evaluated. We analyzed data from two randomized clinical studies of teplizumab in patients with new- and recent-onset T1D. At the conclusion of therapy, clinical responders showed a significant reduction in circulating CD4(+) effector memory T cells. Afterward, there was an increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD8CM T cells. In vitro, teplizumab expanded CD8CM T cells by proliferation and conversion of non-CM T cells. Nanostring analysis of gene expression of CD8CM T cells from responders and nonresponders versus placebo-treated control subjects identified decreases in expression of genes associated with immune activation and increases in expression of genes associated with T-cell differentiation and regulation. We conclude that CD8CM T cells with decreased activation and regulatory gene expression are associated with clinical responses to teplizumab in patients with T1D.

  16. Ab initio calculations on elastic properties in L12 structure Al3X and X3Al-type (X=transition or main group metal) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, T.; Wang, X. F.; Li, W.

    2013-03-01

    As high-temperature structural materials, L12 intermetallic compounds have attracted the strong interest from both fundamental and industrial aspects. Understanding of elastic property is a basis for the complete investigations of mechanical behavior of L12 alloys. In an effort to explore the electronic origin of elastic properties of L12 intermetallics, we have performed a systematic study on elastic constants for single crystals, and Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio for poly-crystals of 22 known Al3X and X3Al-type (X=transition or main group metal) intermetallics using the ab initio calculations. Based on the calculations of elastic constants and extreme (both positive and negative) Poisson's ratios, we found a pronounced correlation between the extreme Poisson's ratio and the elastic anisotropy, i.e., approximate 40% of the investigated L12 intermetallics exhibit intrinsic auxetic behavior. Furthermore, based on the distribution of bonding charge densities, we revealed that the ductility and extreme Poisson's ratios were attributable to the directionality of bonds of these alloys. Our findings provide a new method to predict mechanical behavior of intermetallics.

  17. Gevokizumab, an anti-IL-1β mAb for the potential treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Geiler, Janina; McDermott, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β has an essential role in the innate immune response. High levels of IL-1β have been implicated in the development of many diseases, including type 1 and 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cardiovascular disease. XOMA is developing gevokizumab (XOMA-052), an IgG2 humanized mAb against human IL-1β, for the potential treatment of these diseases. Gevokizumab has a high affinity for IL-1β and a long t1/2, which would allow for once-monthly dosing and offer a considerable advantage for patients over agents requiring more frequent dosing. Data from preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that gevokizumab is a potentially effective and well-tolerated treatment for the indicated diseases. At the time of publication, phase II clinical trials were ongoing in patients with T1D, T2D and RA, with the T2D trials assessing key cardiovascular markers. Following promising data from a recent pilot trial, XOMA was also planning a phase I/II trial of gevokizumab for the potential treatment of uveitis in patients with the vasculitic inflammatory disorder Behçet's disease and the autoinflammatory conditions familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome and Muckle-Wells syndrome.

  18. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  19. Myocardial blood flow under general anaesthesia with sevoflurane in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetic patients, cardiac events in the perioperative period may be associated with diminished myocardial vasomotor function and endothelial dysfunction. The influence of sevoflurane anaesthesia on myocardial endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mellitus is investigated in this pilot study. Methods Six males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and eight healthy controls were included. Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest, during adenosine-induced hyperaemia (endothelium-independent vasodilation) and after sympathetic stimulation by the cold pressor test (endothelium-dependent vasodilation). Measurements were performed before and after induction of sevoflurane anaesthesia. Results Sevoflurane anaesthesia decreased resting MBF in diabetics but not in controls (P = 0.03), while baseline MBF did not differ between diabetics and controls. Without anaesthesia, adenosine-induced hyperaemia increased MBF in both groups compared to resting values. Adenosine combined with sevoflurane resulted in a lower hyperaemic MBF in both groups compared to no anaesthesia. Differences in MBF in response to adenosine before and after sevoflurane administration were larger in diabetic patients, however not statistically significant in this pilot group (P = 0.08). Myocardial blood flow parameters after the cold pressor test were not different between groups. Conclusion These pilot data in type 2 diabetic patients show that sevoflurane anaesthesia decreases resting myocardial blood flow compared to healthy controls. Further, we observed a trend towards a lower endothelium-independent vasodilation capacity in diabetic patients under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not affected by sevoflurane in diabetic patients. These data provide preliminary insight into myocardial responses in type 2 diabetic patients under general anaesthesia. Trial registration http

  20. Charge carrier transport and lifetimes in n-type and p-type phosphorene as 2D device active materials: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Tea, E; Hin, C

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we provide a detailed analysis of phosphorene's performance as an n-type and p-type active material. This study is based on first principles calculations of the phosphorene electronic structure, and the resulting electron and hole scattering rates and lifetimes. Emphasis is put on extreme regimes commonly found in semiconductor devices, i.e. high electric fields and heavy doping, where impact ionization and Auger recombination can occur. We found that electron-initiated impact ionization is weaker than the hole-initiated process, when compared to carrier-phonon interaction rates, suggesting resilience to impact ionization initiated breakdown. Moreover, calculated minority electron lifetimes are limited by radiative recombination only, not by Auger processes, suggesting that phosphorene could achieve good quantum efficiencies in optoelectronic devices. The provided scattering rates and lifetimes are critical input data for the modeling and understanding of phosphorene-based device physics.

  1. Assessment of the Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Female mdr 1a/b Knockout versus Wild-type Mice Using Multivariate Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures, which make it challenging to identify PCB congeners that may be subject to active transport processes. Here we employ a transgenic mouse model in combination with multivariate analyses to investigate if chiral PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, 176 and 183 are subject to active (enantioselective) transport by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. A synthetic PCB mixture containing these congeners was administered orally to female FVB or mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Due to the short half-life of chiral PCB congeners, mice were euthanized after 24 hours and PCB concentrations and enantiomeric fractions were determined in selected tissues and excreta. Principal component analysis did not reveal differences between wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. However, Hotelling T2-test revealed significantly lower PCB concentrations and a more pronounced enantiomeric enrichment in the adipose tissue of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. These differences are due to higher body weights and higher fecal fat contents of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Analysis of the enantiomeric fractions of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 showed a significant enantiomeric enrichment for all five congeners in wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Overall, by studying a PCB mixture in a transgenic mouse model in combination with a multivariate data reduction approach, PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 could be excluded as substrates of multidrug resistance transporters 1a/b. PMID:19923000

  2. Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure Associates With Cardiovascular Complications Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Forman, John P.; Jensen, Majken K.; Flint, Alan; Curhan, Gary C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) commonly coexist, and both conditions are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to high blood pressure and risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. The current study included 1,005 men and 1,299 women with T2D from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study, of whom 732 developed CVD. A genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 29 established blood pressure–associated variants. The genetic predisposition score showed consistent associations with risk of CVD in men and women. In the combined results, each additional blood pressure–increasing allele was associated with a 6% increased risk of CVD (odds ratio [OR] 1.06 [95% CI 1.03–1.10]). The OR was 1.62 (1.22–2.14) for risk of CVD comparing the extreme quartiles of the genetic predisposition score. The genetic association for CVD risk was significantly stronger in patients with T2D than that estimated in the general populations by a meta-analysis (OR per SD of genetic score 1.22 [95% CI 1.10–1.35] vs. 1.10 [1.08–1.12]; I2 = 71%). Our data indicate that genetic predisposition to high blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. PMID:22829449

  3. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    PubMed

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  4. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood samples stored as high-salt lysates.

    PubMed

    Zolg, J W; Lanciotti, R S; Wendlinger, M; Meyer, W A

    1990-09-01

    Blood samples to be tested for the presence of parasite DNA by using specific DNA probes are routinely stored in our laboratory as high-salt lysates (HSL). To safeguard against the risk of accidental infection with etiological agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) while manipulating large numbers of blood samples in preparation for DNA probing, we determined the residual infectivity of HIV-1 after exposure to HSL components. Both high-titer virus stocks or provirus-carrying cells, suspended either in tissue culture medium or freshly drawn blood, were completely inactivated upon contact with the HSL components. This was verified by the absence of any detectable HIV-1-specific antigen in the supernatants of long-term cultures and the absence of virus-specific DNA fragments after amplification by polymerase chain reaction with DNA from such cultures as target DNA. These results support the conclusion that the virus is in fact completely inactivated by contact with the HSL components, rendering blood specimens stored as HSL noninfectious in regard to HIV-1.

  5. Relationship of Early Spontaneous Type V Blood Pressure Fluctuation after Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients and the Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lian; Wan, Ting; Xu, Xiahong; Liu, Feifeng; Li, Changsong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Huan; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between an early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation and the post-thrombolysis prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were admitted consecutively. All patients were categorized into the type V blood pressure fluctuation group or non-type V blood pressure group. Their blood pressure was monitored before thrombolysis and until 6 h after thrombolysis. Baseline data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 170 patients, 43 (25.2%) had an early type V blood pressure fluctuation. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis and 24 h after thrombolysis, and the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an unfavorable prognosis at 3 months was associated with the NIHSS score before thrombolysis (P = 0.000) but probably not with this blood pressure fluctuation (P = 0.058). An early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation is common in patients with acute cerebral infarction who received venous thrombolysis, especially if they have a higher NIHSS score before thrombolysis. The type V blood pressure fluctuation may not influence patients’ prognosis; however, this needs to be confirmed in future trials. PMID:27278121

  6. Blood methylomic signatures of presymptomatic dementia in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lunnon, Katie; Smith, Rebecca G; Cooper, Itzik; Greenbaum, Lior; Mill, Jonathan; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2015-03-01

    Due to an aging population, the incidence of dementia is steadily rising. The ability to identify early markers in blood, which appear before the onset of clinical symptoms is of considerable interest to allow early intervention, particularly in "high risk" groups such as those with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present a longitudinal study of genome-wide DNA methylation in whole blood from 18 elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes who developed presymptomatic dementia within an 18-month period following baseline assessment and 18 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls who maintained normal cognitive function. We identified a significant overlap in methylomic differences between groups at baseline and follow-up, with 8 CpG sites being consistently differentially methylated above our nominal significance threshold before symptoms at baseline and at 18 months follow up, after a diagnosis of presymptomatic dementia. Finally, we report a significant overlap between DNA methylation differences identified in converters, only after they develop symptoms of dementia, with differences at the same loci in blood samples from patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease compared with unaffected control subjects.

  7. Hemolysis and heat generation in six different types of centrifugal blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Araki, K; Taenaka, Y; Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Wakisaka, Y; Watari, M; Nakatani, T; Akagi, H; Baba, Y; Anai, H

    1995-09-01

    What the most causative factor affecting hemolysis is still controversial. To resolve this problem, we investigated the relationship between hemolysis and heat generation in six types of centrifugal blood pumps (Bio-Pump, Delphin, Capiox, Nikkiso, Isoflow, and Toyobo). The analyzed parameters were index of hemolysis in fresh goat blood, pumping performance, and heat generation in a thermally isolated mock circuit. These parameters were analyzed at a flow rate of 5 L/min by changing the pressure head (100 mm Hg and 500 mm Hg). At 500 mm Hg of pressure head, the Bio-Pump needed the highest rotation number and showed the highest hemolytic rate and heat generation. The index of hemolysis is well correlated to heat generation (r2 = 0.721). Heat may originate from the motor by conduction, hydraulic energy loss, and mechanical friction between the shaft and seal. We strongly suspect that hemolysis was caused by a factor such as mechanical friction which generates heat locally.

  8. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  9. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl β-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-β-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes.

  10. limited potentiation of blood pressure in response to oral tyramine by the anti-Parkinson brain selective multifunctional monoamine oxidase-AB inhibitor, M30.

    PubMed

    Gal, Shunit; Abassi, Zaid A; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2010-08-01

    One of the limitations of non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors as anti-depressant or anti-Parkinson drugs is their ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine, resulting from inhibition of systemic MAO-A and release of noradrenaline. We have investigated the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional, brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor, M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline], and compared it to the classical non-selective inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) in rats. We also measured MAO-A and B in the striatum, hippocampus, liver, and small intestine and determined brain levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. At the doses employed, intraperitoneal (i.p.) M30 (5 and 10 mg/kg) selectively inhibited brain MAO-A and B by more than 85%, with little inhibition of liver and small intestine enzymes while raising striatal levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. In contrast to TCP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which fully inhibits both enzymes in the brain and systemic organs and significantly potentiates the tyramine pressor effect, M30 had a limited pressor effect as compared to it and controls. The limited potentiation of tyramine pressor effect by M30, its ability to raise brain levels of aminergic neurotransmitters together with its neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities make this drug potentially important as an anti-depressant and anti-Parkinsonian agent, for which it is being developed.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Blood Pressure in 162,135 Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Julia M; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Dost, Axel; Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Kiess, Wieland; Schöfl, Christof; Holl, Reinhard W

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variation in blood pressure (BP) has been observed in different populations. However, only few studies have focused on BP seasonality in diabetic patients. This study examined the seasonal patterns in BP in 62,589 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in 99,546 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the German/Austrian Diabetes Follow-up Registry. Adjusted mean BP values revealed seasonal cycles of 12 months, with higher BP in colder months. Using harmonic regression models, the estimated systolic BP difference throughout the year was 2.28/2.48 mm Hg in T1DM/T2DM (both P<.001). Interestingly, seasonal variation in diastolic BP was larger in T1DM than in T2DM (1.24/0.64 mm Hg, P<.001). A sex difference was observed in T1DM only, while age differences occurred in both types of diabetes. Correlations between BP and potentially related factors such as outdoor temperature indicated that reasons underlying BP seasonality are likely to be complex and vary by subgroup.

  12. Automated ABO Rh-D blood type detection using smartphone imaging for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya; Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya; Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel methodology for automated ABO Rh-D blood typing using simple morphological image processing algorithms to be used in conjunction with a fabric strip based rapid diagnostic test. Images of the fabric strip post testing are acquired using low cost mobile phones and the proposed algorithm proceeds to automatically identify the blood type by processing the images using steps comprising of noise reduction, range filtering and empirically derived heuristics. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple mobile phone application to enable automated, rapid and accessible blood type detection at the point-of-care.

  13. Microstructural characterization of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Mn-V-Cr based AB2-type battery alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhan

    1999-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), combined with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was employed to investigate a proprietary and multicomponent AB2 type Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery alloy. This material was prepared by High Pressure Gas Atomization (HPGA) and examined in both the as-atomized and heat treated condition. TEM examination showed a heavily faulted dendritic growth structure in as-atomized powder. Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) showed that this region consisted of both a cubic C15 structure with lattice constant a=7.03 and a hexagonal C14 structure with lattice parameter a=4.97 Å, c=8.11 Å. The Orientation Relationship (OR) between the C14 and C15 structures was determined to be (111)[1$\\bar{1}$0]C15//(0001)[11$\\bar{2}$0]C14. An interdendritic phase possessing the C14 structure was also seen. There was also a very fine grain region consisting of the C14 structure. Upon heat treatment, the faulted structure became more defined and appeared as intercalation layers within the grains. Spherical particles rich in Zr and Ni appeared scattered at the grain boundaries instead of the C14 interdendritic phase. The polycrystalline region also changed to a mixture of C14 and C15 structures. These results as well as phase stability of the C15 and C14 structures based on a consideration of atomic size factor and the average electron concentration are discussed.

  14. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications. PMID:23429024

  15. Cell-type specific gene expression profiles of leukocytes in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Chana; Diehn, Maximilian; Alizadeh, Ash A; Brown, Patrick O

    2006-01-01

    Background Blood is a complex tissue comprising numerous cell types with distinct functions and corresponding gene expression profiles. We attempted to define the cell type specific gene expression patterns for the major constituent cells of blood, including B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes. We did this by comparing the global gene expression profiles of purified B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, granulocytes, and lymphocytes using cDNA microarrays. Results Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that similar cell populations from different donors share common gene expression profiles. Supervised analyses identified gene expression signatures for B-cells (427 genes), T-cells (222 genes), CD8+ T-cells (23 genes), granulocytes (411 genes), and lymphocytes (67 genes). No statistically significant gene expression signature was identified for CD4+ cells. Genes encoding cell surface proteins were disproportionately represented among the genes that distinguished among the lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocytes were distinguishable from granulocytes based on their higher levels of expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, while granulocytes exhibited characteristic expression of various cell surface and inflammatory proteins. Conclusion The genes comprising the cell-type specific signatures encompassed many of the genes already known to be involved in cell-type specific processes, and provided clues that may prove useful in discovering the functions of many still unannotated genes. The most prominent feature of the cell type signature genes was the enrichment of genes encoding cell surface proteins, perhaps reflecting the importance of specialized systems for sensing the environment to the physiology of resting leukocytes. PMID:16704732

  16. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  17. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  18. Expression of ABH blood group antigens, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, and type IV collagen in the sinusoids of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Nakanuma, Y

    1991-01-01

    The expression of blood group antigens (A, B, H, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen on the sinusoids was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 11 cases of cirrhosis, 12 cases of chronic active hepatitis, and in a control sample of 16 normal livers. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC characteristically showed a diffuse and strong immunoreactivity to ABH blood group antigens in the specimen with a comparable ABO blood group. The sinusoidal endothelial cells were also diffusely and strongly positive for UEA-I receptors. In contrast, in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-I receptors. In normal livers, only a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-1 receptors. Tests for factor VIII-related antigen and Lewis blood group antigens were almost negative on sinusoidal endothelial cells. Although type IV collagen was distributed diffusely in the space of Disse in these four groups, its expression was strongest in HCC. Blood vessels of portal tracts and fibrous septa were positive for ABH blood group antigens, UEA-1 receptors, factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen, but negative for Lewis blood group antigens. These findings suggest that some sinusoidal endothelial cells undergo "capillarization" in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis, and that the majority of sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC have phenotypic characteristics of capillaries.

  19. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  20. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer's disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ryzhikova, Elena; Kazakov, Oleksandr; Halamkova, Lenka; Celmins, Dzintra; Malone, Paula; Molho, Eric; Zimmerman, Earl A; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-07-01

    The key moment for efficiently and accurately diagnosing dementia occurs during the early stages. This is particularly true for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this proof-of-concept study, we applied near infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy of blood serum together with advanced multivariate statistics for the selective identification of AD. We analyzed data from 20 AD patients, 18 patients with other neurodegenerative dementias (OD) and 10 healthy control (HC) subjects. NIR Raman microspectroscopy differentiated patients with more than 95% sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrated the high discriminative power of artificial neural network (ANN) classification models, thus revealing the high potential of this developed methodology for the differential diagnosis of AD. Raman spectroscopic, blood-based tests may aid clinical assessments for the effective and accurate differential diagnosis of AD, decrease the labor, time and cost of diagnosis, and be useful for screening patient populations for AD development and progression. Multivariate data analysis of blood serum Raman spectra allows for the differentiation between patients with Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia and healthy individuals.

  2. Estimation of size of cord blood inventory based on high-resolution typing of HLAs.

    PubMed

    Song, E Y; Huh, J Y; Kim, S Y; Kim, T G; Oh, S; Yoon, J H; Roh, E Y; Park, M H; Kang, M S; Shin, S

    2014-07-01

    Methods for estimating the cord blood (CB) inventory size required vary according to the ethnic diversity of the HLA, degree of HLA matching and HLA-typing resolution. We estimated the CB inventory size required using 7190 stored CB units (CBU) and 2450 patients who were awaiting or underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With high-resolution typing of HLA-A, B and DRB1, 94.6% of Korean patients could find CBUs in 100 000 CBUs with a 5/6 match, and 95.7% could find CBUs in 5000 CBUs with a 4/6 match. With low-resolution typing of HLA-A and B and high-resolution typing of leukocyte antigen-DRB1, 95% of patients could find CBUs in 50 000 CBUs with a 5/6 match, and 96.7% could find CBUs in 3000 CBUs  with a 4/6 match. With additional high-resolution typing for HLA-A and B, which could improve transplantation outcome, the size of the CB inventory would need to increase twofold for Koreans.

  3. CpxR Activates MexAB-OprM Efflux Pump Expression and Enhances Antibiotic Resistance in Both Laboratory and Clinical nalB-Type Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xue-Xian; O’Gara, Fergal; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) efflux pumps are responsible for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we demonstrate that CpxR, previously identified as a regulator of the cell envelope stress response in Escherichia coli, is directly involved in activation of expression of RND efflux pump MexAB-OprM in P. aeruginosa. A conserved CpxR binding site was identified upstream of the mexA promoter in all genome-sequenced P. aeruginosa strains. CpxR is required to enhance mexAB-oprM expression and drug resistance, in the absence of repressor MexR, in P. aeruginosa strains PA14. As defective mexR is a genetic trait associated with the clinical emergence of nalB-type multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa during antibiotic treatment, we investigated the involvement of CpxR in regulating multidrug resistance among resistant isolates generated in the laboratory via antibiotic treatment and collected in clinical settings. CpxR is required to activate expression of mexAB-oprM and enhances drug resistance, in the absence or presence of MexR, in ofloxacin-cefsulodin-resistant isolates generated in the laboratory. Furthermore, CpxR was also important in the mexR-defective clinical isolates. The newly identified regulatory linkage between CpxR and the MexAB-OprM efflux pump highlights the presence of a complex regulatory network modulating multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27736975

  4. Normalization of Phenotypic Data from a Clinical Data Warehouse: Case Study of Heterogeneous Blood Type Data with Surprising Results.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses often contain analogous data from disparate sources, resulting in heterogeneous formats and semantics. We have developed an approach that attempts to represent such phenotypic data in its most atomic form to facilitate aggregation. We illustrate this approach with human blood antigen typing (ABO-Rh) data drawn from the National Institutes of Health's Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS). In applying the method to actual patient data, we discovered a 2% incidence of changed blood types. We believe our approach can be applied to any institution's data to obtain comparable patient phenotypes. The actual discrepant blood type data will form the basis for a future study of the reasons for blood typing variation.

  5. Systolic blood pressure control among individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A comparative effectiveness analysis of three interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive lifestyle management or frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes....

  6. Evaluation of vitamin D relationship with type 2 diabetes and systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Shivananda Bijoor

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether relationships exist among vitamin D, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and blood pressure in Trinidadian subjects with T2DM. Research design and methods This was a case–controlled study to determine if vitamin D levels were lower in patients with T2DM. After data analysis, an exploratory hypothesis of vitamin D relationship to systolic blood pressure (SBP) was developed. Plasma calcifediol (25(OH)D) concentrations were used as a measurement for vitamin D levels and were determined by ELISA. Cholesterol levels were measured by an automated dry chemistry analyzer and blood pressure was measured using an automatic blood pressure monitor. Results There was no significant difference (p=0.139, n=76) in 25(OH)D levels between patients with T2DM and controls. Subjects with SBP above 130 mm Hg were 8 times more likely to have a 25(OH)D plasma concentration above 25 ng/mL (OR 7.9 (2.2 to 28.7)), and were 5 times (OR 4.7 (1.7 to 15.1)) more likely to have a 25(OH)D plasma concentration above 30 ng/mL (OR 7.5 (2.3–24.2)). Vitamin D levels moderately and positively correlated with SBP (rs=0.38, p=0.001). Conclusions There was no significant difference in the 25(OH)D levels between patients with T2DM and controls (p=0.139). Patients with SBP under 130 mm Hg were 8 times more likely to have a vitamin D level above 25 ng/mL (OR 7.9 (2.2 to 28.7)). Further investigations are required to examine the relationship between vitamin D and SBP. PMID:27843555

  7. Exposure to Racial Discrimination and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick; Feinn, Richard; Burg, Matthew M; Seawell, Asani; White, William B

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is the only disorder in which women's risk for heart disease exceeds men's. Elevated blood pressure (BP) increases cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Racial discrimination and neuroticism are both associated with BP levels but have not been examined in concert. This study investigated self-reported racial discrimination, neuroticism and ambulatory BP in women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine Black and 38 White women completed a race-neutral version of the Schedule of Racist Events; BP was evaluated using ambulatory monitoring devices. Actigraphy and diaries were used to document times of sleep and wakefulness. Racial discrimination interacted with neuroticism to predict systolic and diastolic BP both while awake and during sleep, after adjustment for covariates. For each, the influence of racist events was stronger at lower levels of neuroticism. Racial discrimination is associated with higher levels of 24-h BP in diabetic women who are low in neuroticism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  9. A study of the transport and immobilisation mechanisms of human red blood cells in a paper-based blood typing device using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lizi; Tian, Junfei; Ballerini, David; Li, Miaosi; Shen, Wei

    2013-09-07

    Recent research on the use of bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying the haemagglutination of red blood cells (RBCs). When a blood sample is introduced onto paper treated with the grouping antibodies, RBCs undergo haemagglutination with the corresponding grouping antibodies, forming agglutinated cell aggregates in the paper. A subsequent washing of the paper with saline buffer could not remove these aggregates from the paper; this phenomenon provides a new method for rapid, visual identification of the antibody-specific haemagglutination reactions and thus the determination of the blood type. This study aims to understand the mechanism of RBC immobilization inside the paper which follows haemagglutination reactions. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the morphology of the free and agglutinated RBCs that are labelled with FITC. Chromatographic elution patterns of both agglutinated and non-agglutinated RBCs are studied to gain insight into the transport behaviour of free RBCs and agglutinated aggregates. This work provides new information about RBC haemagglutination inside the fibre network of paper on a microscopic level, which is important for the future design of paper-based blood typing devices with high sensitivity and assaying speed.

  10. Indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies (Ab): The effect of DTPA conjugation on the Ab activity and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Ohmomo, Y.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to human ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) were conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using cyclic DTPA anhydride and the obtained conjugates, DTPA-Ab, were labeled with In-111. The effect of DTPA conjugation on the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity of Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay and Scatchard plot analysis and In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were used for the radioimmunodetection of tumor. Ab containing 1.0 DTPA molecule per Ab showed almost full retention of both the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity. Then, 40 ..mu..Ci of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were injected intravenously to nude mice bearing AFP-producing human testicular tumor and the resulted were compared with I-131 labeled Ab. Scintigraphy clearly revealed transplanted tumor. Localization of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab was significantly higher than I-131 labeled Ab. Tumor to blood ratio obtained at 4 days after injection was 2.59 with In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab compared to 0.99 with I-131 labeled Ab. When more than 1.9 DTPA molecules were incorporated per Ab, the maximum binding capacity decreased, although the affinity constant was less affected. These In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab caused significantly higher liver accumulation. These results indicate that In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab at a cojugated DTPA to Ab molar ratio of 1.0 may be superior to I-131 labeled Ab for tumor imaging, but the maximum binding capacity and tissue distribution of In-111 labeled DTPA-AB are greatly dependent upon the number of DTPA molecules incorporated per Ab molecule.

  11. Type I Interferons Regulate Immune Responses in Humans with Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H.; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Bunn, Patrick T.; Best, Shannon E.; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S.; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Loughland, Jessica R.; Burel, Julie; Doolan, Denise L.; Haque, Ashraful; McCarthy, James S.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The development of immunoregulatory networks is important to prevent disease. However, these same networks allow pathogens to persist and reduce vaccine efficacy. Here, we identify type I interferons (IFNs) as important regulators in developing anti-parasitic immunity in healthy volunteers infected for the first time with Plasmodium falciparum. Type I IFNs suppressed innate immune cell function and parasitic-specific CD4+ T cell IFNγ production, and they promoted the development of parasitic-specific IL-10-producing Th1 (Tr1) cells. Type I IFN-dependent, parasite-specific IL-10 production was also observed in P. falciparum malaria patients in the field following chemoprophylaxis. Parasite-induced IL-10 suppressed inflammatory cytokine production, and IL-10 levels after drug treatment were positively associated with parasite burdens before anti-parasitic drug administration. These findings have important implications for understanding the development of host immune responses following blood-stage P. falciparum infection, and they identify type I IFNs and related signaling pathways as potential targets for therapies or vaccine efficacy improvement. PMID:27705789

  12. Cerebral blood flow response to hypoglycemia is altered in patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wiegers, Evita C; Becker, Kirsten M; Rooijackers, Hanne M; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Tack, Cees J; Heerschap, Arend; de Galan, Bastiaan E; van der Graaf, Marinette

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether cerebral blood flow responses to hypoglycemia are altered in people with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoglycemia on both global and regional cerebral blood flow in type 1 diabetes patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, type 1 diabetes patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls ( n = 7 per group). The subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp in a 3 T MR system. Global and regional changes in cerebral blood flow were determined by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, at the end of both glycemic phases. Hypoglycemia generated typical symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, but not in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Conversely, hypoglycemia increased global cerebral blood flow in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, which was not observed in the other two groups. Regionally, hypoglycemia caused a redistribution of cerebral blood flow towards the thalamus of both patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, consistent with activation of brain regions associated with the autonomic response to hypoglycemia. No such redistribution was found in the patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. An increase in global cerebral blood flow may enhance nutrient supply to the brain, hence suppressing symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia. Altogether these results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia contribute to impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

  13. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Espina, Luz M.; Souza, Kátia P. R.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Krysztof, David E.; Foster, Gregory A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Methods We used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. Results DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. Conclusions DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma. PMID:26871560

  14. Concept designs of nonrotating-type centrifugal blood pump and basic study on output characteristics of the oscillating disk-type centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Kabei, N; Tuichiya, K; Sakurai, Y

    1994-09-01

    When designing a turbo-type blood pump as an artificial heart, the gap between a rotating shaft and a pump housing should be perfectly sealed to prevent any leakage or contamination through a seal. In addition, blood coagulation in a blood chamber must be avoided. To overcome these problems, we proposed five different nonrotating-type turbo pumps: a caudal-fin-type axial-flow pump, a caudal-fin-type centrifugal pump, a nutating-column-type centrifugal pump, a nutating-collapsible-tube-type centrifugal pump, and an oscillating-disk-type centrifugal pump. We selected and developed the oscillating-disk-type centrifugal pump that consists of a disk, a driving rod, a seal, an oscillation mechanism, and a pump housing. The disk is mounted on the end of the rod, which is connected to a high-speed DC motor through an oscillation mechanism. The rod and the disk do not rotate, but they oscillate in the pump housing. This movement of the disk generates forward fluid flow around the axis (i.e., the rotational fluid flow). Centrifugal force due to fluid rotation supports the pressure difference between the outlet and the inlet. The diameter of the disk is 39 mm, the maximum inner diameter of the pump housing is 40 mm, and the volume of the blood chamber for 25 degrees' oscillation is 16.9 ml. The performance of the pump was tested in a mock circulatory system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Clinical evaluation of the QuickVet/RapidVet canine dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood-typing test.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Barbara; Classe, Gabriele; Weingart, Christiane

    2012-05-01

    In transfusion medicine, blood typing is an integral part of pretransfusion testing. The objective of the current study was the clinical evaluation of an automated canine cartridge dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 blood-typing method (QuickVet/RapidVet) and comparison of the results with a gel column-based method (ID-Gel Test Canine DEA 1.1). Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-anticoagulated blood samples from 11 healthy and 85 sick dogs were available for typing. Before blood typing, all samples were tested for agglutination and hemolysis. All samples were tested once or multiple times with both methods according to the manufacturer's guidelines. With the gel method, 53 dogs tested DEA 1.1 positive and 42 dogs DEA 1.1 negative; blood typing was not possible due to erythrocyte autoagglutination in 1 dog. With the cartridge test, 53 samples tested DEA 1.1 positive, 34 samples tested DEA 1.1 negative, and 6 results were inconclusive (3 samples were not included due to autoagglutination or severe hemolysis). Without taking the inconclusive samples into account, the agreement between both methods was 96.5%. The sensitivity and specificity for samples that were definitively typed by both methods were 100% and 91.9%, respectively. The cartridge test was suitable for in-clinic canine DEA 1.1 blood typing, although some discrepancies compared to the gel method existed. The cartridge test is software-directed, is easy to use, and does not require user interpretation, but preanalytical guidelines (sample evaluation for agglutination and hemolysis) have to be followed. For inconclusive results, an alternate blood-typing method should be performed.

  17. Changes in glycosylation of human blood plasma chitotriosidase in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Żurawska-Płaksej, Ewa; Kratz, Ewa Maria; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława; Knapik-Kordecka, Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Human blood plasma chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a glycoprotein with chitinolytic activity with not fully elucidated biological function. Its increased level is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with development of diabetic complications. The CHIT1 glycosylation profile and degree is still poorly studied and never investigated in T2DM. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the association between glycosylation profile and degree and diabetes with accompanying nephropathy. In blood plasma of 28 patients with T2DM and 11 healthy subjects the CHIT1 concentration and specific activity were examined. The profile and degree of CHIT1 glycosylation were determined by lectin-ELISA using lectins specific to O-glycans (Jacalin, MPL, VVL) and sialo-specific SNA and MAA. We revealed that both concentration and specific activity of CHIT1 significantly increased in T2DM, especially in nephropathy with elevated albuminuria. The relative reactivities with lectins, except Jacalin, decreased progressively with T2DM occurrence and albuminuria progression. The most significant differences were observed between control vs. albuminuric group (Micro and Macro). It is also possible that the observed differences in immunoblotting pattern in molecular masses of CHIT1 bands between T2DM patients and healthy subjects may be caused by the differences in degree of CHIT1 glycosylation. The analysis of CHIT1 glycosylation status and the determination of CHIT1 concentration together with its enzymatic activity in blood plasma might constitute additional valuable diagnosis tools for the evaluation the T2DM patients with accompanying nephropathy. Extension of the lectin panel specific to O-glycans occurs useful for the further research using microarray formats, which are expected to accelerate “lectin-based glycan profiling” of glycoproteins.

  18. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  19. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (<0.1 Hz), but also over the higher frequency range from ˜0.1 to 0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  20. Transfer of liraglutide from blood to cerebrospinal fluid is minimal in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M; Sparre-Ulrich, A H; Hartmann, B; Grevstad, U; Rosenkilde, M M; Holst, J J; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, F K

    2015-11-01

    Treatment with liraglutide leads to weight loss. We investigated whether blood-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transfer of liraglutide occurs, and if so, whether it associates with clinical weight loss following liraglutide treatment in humans. We performed lumbar puncture and blood sampling in eight patients with type 2 diabetes (mean (range)): age 63 (54-79) years; actual body weight: 90 (75-118) kg treated with 1.8 mg liraglutide for 14 (5-22) months and with a treatment-induced weight loss of 8.4 (7-11) kg. We measured liraglutide in plasma and CSF with a radioimmunoassay specific for the N-terminus of the GLP-1 moiety of liraglutide. Mean plasma liraglutide was 31 (range: 21-63) nmol l(-1). The mean CSF-liraglutide concentration was 6.5 (range: 0.9-13.9) pmol l(-1). Ratio of CSF: plasma-liraglutide concentrations was 0.02 (range: 0.07-0.002)% and plasma liraglutide did not correlate with CSF-liraglutide levels (P=0.67). Body weight loss tended to correlate with plasma-liraglutide levels (P=0.06), but not with CSF-liraglutide levels (P=0.69). In conclusion, we measured very low concentrations of liraglutide in CSF, and the levels of CSF liraglutide did not correlate with the actual clinical weight loss in these patients. The amount of liraglutide in plasma tended to correlate with the clinical weight loss.

  1. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG) elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO). Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (P < .05), as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety. PMID:21773021

  2. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Intaglietta, Marcos; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test. Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation) showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05), when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05). Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be associated with a level of endothelial dysfunction that interferes with the antihypertensive effect of HbA1c. PMID:19066010

  3. Peripheral blood monocyte gene expression profile clinically stratifies patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katharine M; Gallego, Patricia; An, Xiaoyu; Best, Shannon E; Thomas, Gethin; Wells, Christine; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2012-05-01

    Novel biomarkers of disease progression after type 1 diabetes onset are needed. We profiled peripheral blood (PB) monocyte gene expression in six healthy subjects and 16 children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed ∼3 months previously and analyzed clinical features from diagnosis to 1 year. Monocyte expression profiles clustered into two distinct subgroups, representing mild and severe deviation from healthy control subjects, along the same continuum. Patients with strongly divergent monocyte gene expression had significantly higher insulin dose-adjusted HbA(1c) levels during the first year, compared with patients with mild deviation. The diabetes-associated expression signature identified multiple perturbations in pathways controlling cellular metabolism and survival, including endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress (e.g., induction of HIF1A, DDIT3, DDIT4, and GRP78). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) of a 9-gene panel correlated with glycemic control in 12 additional recent-onset patients. The qPCR signature was also detected in PB from healthy first-degree relatives. A PB gene expression signature correlates with glycemic control in the first year after diabetes diagnosis and is present in at-risk subjects. These findings implicate monocyte phenotype as a candidate biomarker for disease progression pre- and postonset and systemic stresses as contributors to innate immune function in type 1 diabetes.

  4. Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Association with Blood Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their association with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods 276 adolescents and their caregivers completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Adolescents completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Demographic and family characteristics were obtained from caregiver report. Diabetes duration, regimen type, BGM frequency, and glycemic control were also collected. Results Trait anxiety symptoms that suggest further clinical assessment is needed were present in 17% of adolescents; the rate was 13% for state anxiety symptoms. Higher levels of state anxiety symptoms were associated with less frequent BGM F(14, 261) = 6.35, p < .0001, R2 = .25, and suboptimal glycemic control, F(15, 260) = 7.97, p < .0001, R2 = .32. State anxiety symptoms were correlates of BGM frequency and glycemic control independent of depressive symptoms. Conclusions State anxiety symptoms are associated with less frequent BGM and suboptimal glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19684117

  5. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells benefits an animal model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Desjarlais, Tammy; Davis Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul R

    2005-08-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B is caused by alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme deficiency leading to an accumulation of undegraded heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Cell therapy is a promising new treatment and human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cell transplantation may be preferred for delivery of the missing enzyme. We investigated the ability of mononuclear hUCB cells administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle to ameliorate/prevent histopathological changes in mice modeling Sanfilippo syndrome type B. These are the first results supporting enzyme replacement by administered hUCB cells. In vivo, transplanted hUCB cells survived long-term (7 months), migrated into the parenchyma of the brain and peripheral organs, expressed neural antigens, and exhibited neuron and astrocyte-like morphology. Transplant benefits were also demonstrated by stable cytoarchitecture in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and by reduced GAGs in the livers of treated mutant mice. A hUCB cell transplant may be an effective therapeutic strategy for enzyme delivery in Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

  6. [Social psychological factors of interest in lay personality theories: why is ABO blood-typing popular?].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Y

    2000-12-01

    We hypothesized that one of the reasons that not a few Japanese are interested in lay personality theories of ABO blood-typing and similar unsupported beliefs on human nature, was unsatisfied needs of having clear collective and personal identities. To test the hypothesis, we asked 149 married women, 34 to 62 years of age, to describe themselves as in self introduction to strangers, and then separately indicate the degree of interest in lay personality theories. We then counted the number of references to personal/private aspects (an index of personal identity) and the number to social groups whose membership was known to be exclusive and limited (an index of collective one). Results showed that those who were high on both indices were less interested in lay theories than those low on one or both of personal and collective indices.

  7. Typing of blood-group antigens on neutral oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-06-18

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, for example, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report, we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B-, and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2 and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established, we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and (0,2)A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions.

  8. Exercise-induced albuminuria vs circadian variations in blood pressure in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tadida Meli, Isabelle Hota; Tankeu, Aurel T; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Chelo, David; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationship between exercise-induced ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adolescents. METHODS We conducted a case-control at the National Obesity Center of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We compared 24 h ABPM and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise between 20 Cameroonian T1DM patients and 20 matched controls. T1DM adolescents were aged 12-18 years, with diabetes for at least one year, without proteinuria, with normal office blood pressure (BP) and renal function according to the general reference population. Non-diabetic controls were adolescents of general population matched for sex, age and BMI. RESULTS Mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 ± 2.8 years. The mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 116 ± 9 mmHg in the diabetic group vs 111 ± 8 mmHg in the non-diabetic (P = 0.06), and 69 ± 7 mm Hg vs 66 ± 5 mm Hg (P = 0.19). There was no difference in the diurnal pattern of BP in diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (SBP: 118 ± 10 mmHg vs 114 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.11; DBP: 71 ± 7 mmHg vs 68 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.22). Nighttime BP was higher in the diabetic group with respect to SBP (112 ± 11 mmHg vs 106 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.06) and to the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (89 ± 9 mmHg vs 81 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.06). ACR at rest was similar in both groups (5.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.74), but significantly higher in diabetes patients after exercise (10.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.03). SBP was higher in patients having exercise-induced albuminuria (116 ± 10 mmHg vs 108 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION Exercise-induced albuminuria could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney damage in adolescents with T1DM. PMID:28265345

  9. Validation of a DNA methylation reference panel for the estimation of nucleated cells types in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Andres; Allard, Catherine; Doyon, Myriam; Houseman, E Andres; Bakulski, Kelly M; Perron, Patrice; Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-11-01

    Cord blood is widely used as surrogate tissue in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal conditions. Cell type composition variation across samples can be an important confounder of epigenome-wide association studies in blood that constitute a mixture of cells. We evaluated a newly developed cord blood reference panel to impute cell type composition from DNA methylation levels, including nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs). We estimated cell type composition from 154 unique cord blood samples with available DNA methylation data as well as direct measurements of nucleated cell types. We observed high correlations between the estimated and measured composition for nRBCs (r = 0.92, R(2) = 0.85), lymphocytes (r = 0.77, R(2) = 0.58), and granulocytes (r = 0.72, R(2) = 0.52), and a moderate correlation for monocytes (r = 0.51, R(2) = 0.25) as well as relatively low root mean square errors from the residuals ranging from 1.4 to 5.4%. These results validate the use of the cord blood reference panel and highlight its utility and limitations for epidemiological studies.

  10. Validation of a DNA methylation reference panel for the estimation of nucleated cells types in cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Catherine; Doyon, Myriam; Houseman, E. Andres; Perron, Patrice; Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cord blood is widely used as surrogate tissue in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal conditions. Cell type composition variation across samples can be an important confounder of epigenome-wide association studies in blood that constitute a mixture of cells. We evaluated a newly developed cord blood reference panel to impute cell type composition from DNA methylation levels, including nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs). We estimated cell type composition from 154 unique cord blood samples with available DNA methylation data as well as direct measurements of nucleated cell types. We observed high correlations between the estimated and measured composition for nRBCs (r = 0.92, R2 = 0.85), lymphocytes (r = 0.77, R2 = 0.58), and granulocytes (r = 0.72, R2 = 0.52), and a moderate correlation for monocytes (r = 0.51, R2 = 0.25) as well as relatively low root mean square errors from the residuals ranging from 1.4 to 5.4%. These results validate the use of the cord blood reference panel and highlight its utility and limitations for epidemiological studies. PMID:27668573

  11. Heterogeneous Effects of Fructose on Blood Lipids in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Carleton, Amanda J.; Chatha, Sheena; Jiang, Henry Y.; de Souza, Russell J.; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of blood lipid concerns, diabetes associations discourage fructose at high intakes. To quantify the effect of fructose on blood lipids in diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental clinical trials investigating the effect of isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate on triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol in type 1 and 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials of ≥7 days. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as standardized mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ2 tests and quantified by I2. Meta-regression models identified dose threshold and independent predictors of effects. RESULTS Sixteen trials (236 subjects) met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate raised triglycerides and lowered total cholesterol under specific conditions without affecting LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol. A triglyceride-raising effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes when the reference carbohydrate was starch (mean difference 0.24 [95% CI 0.05–0.44]), dose was >60 g/day (0.18 [0.00–0.37]), or follow-up was ≤4 weeks (0.18 [0.00–0.35]). Piecewise meta-regression confirmed a dose threshold of 60 g/day (R2 = 0.13)/10% energy (R2 = 0.36). A total cholesterol–lowering effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes under the following conditions: no randomization and poor study quality (−0.19 [−0.34 to −0.05]), dietary fat >30% energy (−0.33 [−0.52 to −0.15]), or crystalline fructose (−0.28 [−0.47 to −0.09]). Multivariate meta-regression analyses were largely in agreement. CONCLUSIONS Pooled analyses demonstrated conditional triglyceride-raising and total cholesterol–lowering effects of isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes. Recommendations

  12. Conformational analysis of thioglycoside derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens using an ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4: implications for design of non-hydrolysable mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2009-12-01

    Histo-blood group ABH antigens serve as recognition sites for infectious microorganisms and tissue lectins in intercellular communication, e.g. in tumor progression. Thus, they are of interest as a starting point for drug design. In this respect, potent non-hydrolysable derivatives such as thioglycosides are of special interest. As prerequisite to enable estimations of ligand properties relative to their natural counterparts, conformational properties of the thioglycosidic derivatives of ABH trisaccharides and their disaccharide units were calculated using systematic and filtered systematic searches with the MM4 force field. Parameters for the glycosidic torsions of thioglycosides were independently derived from ab initio calculations. The resulting energy deviations required a reparameterization of MM4 to a new parameter set called MM4R. The data sets obtained using MM4R reveal that the thioglycosides have somewhat increased levels of flexibility about the major low-energy conformations shared with the corresponding O-glycosides. In the trisaccharides, the thiosubstitution of the Gal[NAc]α1-3Gal linkage leads to a preference for a conformation which is the secondary minimum of the natural counterparts. This conformation also generates contacts between the N-acetyl group and the fucose moiety in the blood group A derivative. Calculations further indicate that thiosubstitution of only the Fucα1-2Gal linkage does not affect the conformational preferences compared to the natural trisaccharide. Thiosubstitution of both linkages in the trisaccharide results in increased flexibility but the favored conformation of the natural trisaccharides is preferred. The study suggests that thioglycoside derivatives of ABH antigens could have pharmaceutical interest as ligands of lectins and other carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  13. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (P<0.001). However, Rh type was not associated with brucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  14. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  15. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  16. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  17. Adjustable bioadhesive control of PEGylated hyperbranch brushes on polystyrene microplate interface for the improved sensitivity of human blood typing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Wen; Chang, Yung; Lee, Rong-Ho; Li, Wen-Tyng; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2014-08-05

    A PEGylated 96-well polystyrene (PS) microplate was first introduced for applications in high-throughput screening for selective blood typing to minimize the risks in blood transfusions. Herein, we present a hemocompatible PS 96-well microplate with adjustable PEGylated hyperbranch brush coverage prepared by ozone pretreated activation and thermally induced surface PEGylation. The grafting properties, hydration capacity, and blood compatibility of the PEGylated hyperbrush immobilized PS surfaces in human blood were illustrated by the combined chemical and physical properties of the surface, and the dependence of the specific absorption of human plasma fibrinogen onto the PEGylated surfaces on the grafting density was analyzed by monoclonal antibodies. The surface coverage of PEGylated brushes plays a major role in the bioadhesive properties of modified PS microplates, which in turn control the level of agglutination sensitivity in blood typing. The bioadhesive resistance toward proteins, platelets, and erythrocytes in human whole blood showed a correlation to the controlled hydration properties of the PEGylated hyperbrush-modified surfaces. Therefore, we suggested that the surface coverage of PEGylated hyperbrushes on PS surfaces can increase the sensitivity of cross-matching blood agglutination by up to 16-fold compared to that of the conventional 96-well virgin PS due to the regulated biorecognition of hematocrit and antibodies of the PEGylated hyperbrush-modified surfaces.

  18. ABO-blood type incompatible living donor liver transplantation in a patient with Budd-Chiari Syndrome secondary to essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Amano, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Igarashi, Yuki; Ide, Kentarou; Oshita, Akihiko; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) results from diverse causative factors. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) account for a minority of BCS cases in Japan. ABO-blood-type incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adults has become an acceptable procedure owing to the development of new strategies for preventing antibody-mediated rejection. This report presents a rare case of BCS secondary to ET, which was cured by an ABO-incompatible (AB to A) LDLT. In this case, prostaglandin E(1) and gabexate mesilate were administered into portal vein and rituximab prophylaxis was applied. No splenectomy was performed as it is in most ABO-incompatible cases, since a flow cytometry showed no anti-B antibodies in the splenocytes collected by a wedge biopsy during the LDLT. The postoperative course was uneventful. Anti-coagulation therapy was initiated with aspirin and warfarin instead of hydroxyurea. This report describes an ABO-incompatible LDLT without a splenectomy for BCS secondary to ET.

  19. Magnetically suspended rotary blood pump with radial type combined motor-bearing.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, T; Kita, T; Matsuda, K; Okada, Y

    2000-06-01

    A magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump is being developed with a combined motor-bearing for long-term ventricular assist systems. The combined motor-bearing actively suspends a rotor in a radial direction to deal with radial force unbalance in the pump and rotates the rotor by using the electric magnetic field. Therefore, the pump has no mechanical parts such as bearings of the motor and has a long lifetime. The developed pump consists of a thin rotor with a semi open-type 6 vane impeller and a stator to suspend and rotate the rotor. The rotor has 4-pole permanent magnets on the circumferential surface. The outer diameter and the thickness of the rotor are 60 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Axial movement and tilt of the rotor are restricted by passive stability based on the thin rotor structure. Radial movements of the rotor, such as levitation in radial direction and rotation, are controlled actively by using electric magnets of the stator. The electric magnet coils to produce levitation and rotation forces are constructed on the periphery stator. The p +/- 2-pole algorithm and the synchronous motor mechanism are adopted to levitate and rotate the rotor. The radial gap between the rotor and the stator is 1 mm. A closed-loop circuit filled with water was connected to the developed pump to examine the basic performance of the pump and the magnetic suspension system. Maximum rotational speed, flow rate, and head were 2,800 rpm, 11 L/min, and 270 mm Hg, respectively. The rotor with the impeller could be suspended completely during the entire pumping process. We conclude the pump with the combined motor-bearing has sufficient performance for the blood pump.

  20. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wei, Jing; Xue, Rong; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Zi-Zheng; Wang, Shu-Kui; Zhou, Zheng-Xian; Song, Dan-Qing; Wang, Yue-Ming; Pan, Huai-Ning; Kong, Wei-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2010-02-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that berberine (BBR) increases insulin receptor (InsR) expression and improves glucose utility both in vitro and in animal models. Here, we study the InsR-up-regulating and glucose-lowering activities of BBR in humans. Our results showed that BBR increased InsR messenger RNA and protein expression in a variety of human cell lines, including CEM, HCT-116, SW1990, HT1080, 293T, and hepatitis B virus-transfected human liver cells. Accordingly, insulin-stimulated phosphorylations of InsR beta-subunit and Akt were increased after BBR treatment in cultured cells. In the clinical study, BBR significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A(1c), triglyceride, and insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The FBG- and hemoglobin A(1c)-lowering efficacies of BBR were similar to those of metformin and rosiglitazone. In the BBR-treated patients, the percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes that express InsR were significantly elevated after therapy. Berberine also lowered FBG effectively in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients with T2DM or impaired fasting glucose. Liver function was improved greatly in these patients by showing reduction of liver enzymes. Our results confirmed the activity of BBR on InsR in humans and its relationship with the glucose-lowering effect. Together with our previous report, we strongly suggest BBR as an ideal medicine for T2DM with a mechanism different from metformin and rosiglitazone.

  1. Changes in dental pulp blood flow of different maxillary tooth types after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Seyda Ersahan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of Le Fort I (LF-I) osteotomy on pulpal blood flow (PBF) in maxillary teeth during a 12-month postsurgical period. A laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure PBF in maxillary incisors, canines, and first premolars of 14 patients undergoing LF-I osteotomy (study group), 7 patients undergoing mandibular osteotomy (surgical control group), and 7 nonsurgical controls. The PBF was measured at baseline (preoperatively) and at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and at similar intervals in nonsurgical control subjects. Data were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests. Changes in PBF over time for each tooth type were evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Study findings showed that baseline PBF values did not differ significantly between groups. Maxillary PBF in the control group did not vary over time; however, an initial decrease in PBF was observed in all tooth types immediately after surgery in the study group. A gradual increase to near-preoperative levels was then observed during a 12-month healing period. Although dramatic reductions in maxillary perfusion of the first premolar and canine pulps were observed at 1 week and 1 month after LF-I osteotomy when compared with baseline (P < 0.001), PBF significantly recovered over time. Moreover, hyperemia was observed in lateral incisors 3 months postoperatively, demonstrating a tooth type-specific effect of LF-I osteotomy on PBF.

  2. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry; Arnaud, Lionel

    2015-06-04

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a-) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a-) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1(-/-) mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization.

  3. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A.; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a−) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a−) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1−/− mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization. PMID:25896650

  4. [No relationship between blood type and personality: evidence from large-scale surveys in Japan and the US].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo

    2014-06-01

    Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878-2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618-3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037-3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (eta2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.

  5. Insulin Receptor Antibody-α-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Fusion Protein Penetrates the Primate Blood-Brain Barrier and Reduces Glycosoaminoglycans in Sanfilippo Type B Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boado, Ruben J; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Lin, Huilan; Pardridge, William M

    2016-04-04

    Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPSIIIB) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). MPSIIIB presents with severe disease of the central nervous system, but intravenous NAGLU enzyme replacement therapy has not been developed because the NAGLU enzyme does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating form of the enzyme was produced by re-engineering NAGLU as an IgG-enzyme fusion protein, where the IgG domain is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb traverses the BBB via transport on the endogenous insulin receptor and acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused NAGLU across the BBB from blood. The NAGLU was fused to the carboxyl terminus of each heavy chain of the HIRMAb via an extended 31-amino acid linker, and the fusion protein is designated HIRMAb-LL-NAGLU. The fusion protein retains high affinity binding to the HIR, and on a molar basis has an enzyme activity equal to that of recombinant human NAGLU. Treatment of MPSIIIB fibroblasts with the fusion protein normalizes intracellular NAGLU enzyme activity and reduces sulfate incorporation into intracellular glycosoaminoglycan. The fusion protein is targeted to the lysosomal compartment of the cells as shown by confocal microscopy. The fusion protein was radiolabeled with the [(125)I]-Bolton-Hunter reagent and injected intravenously in the adult Rhesus monkey. The fusion protein was rapidly cleared from plasma by all major peripheral organs. The high brain uptake of the fusion protein, 1% injected dose/brain, enables normalization of brain NAGLU enzyme activity with a therapeutic dose of 1 mg/kg. The HIRMAb-LL-NAGLU fusion protein is a new treatment of the brain in MPSIIIB, which can be administered by noninvasive intravenous infusion.

  6. Amino-Terminal proB-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in the Umbilical Cord Blood of Neonates Differ According to the Type of Prenatally Diagnosed Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Young; Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Seong, Won Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in amino-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in the cord blood of neonates according to the type of congenital heart disease (CHD) and to evaluate the usefulness of NT-proBNP as a prognostic marker. We included 76 neonates with prenatally diagnosed CHD and 45 controls without CHD. Neonates were classified into five groups based on echocardiographic findings. The levels of NT-proBNP in the cord blood were examined and analyzed according to the neonatal outcomes. The levels of NT-proBNP were significantly elevated in the cord blood of neonates with CHD compared with that in the cord blood of controls. The levels of NT-proBNP in the group with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction without a ventricular septal defect were significantly increased compared to that in the other groups. The neonates that required acute surgical correction had higher levels of NT-proBNP in the cord blood, though they were not statistically significant. Meanwhile, NT-proBNP levels in the cord blood of neonates with functional single ventricle were significantly higher than that in the cord blood of those with functional biventricles. Significant differences in the levels of NT-proBNP between survivors and nonsurvivors were observed within 1 year of birth. In this study, we found that the levels of NT-proBNP in the cord blood of neonates with CHD were higher than the levels in controls. This finding was striking in the group with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and it was associated with surgery for functional single ventricle and 1-year survival.

  7. Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Rajdl, Daniel; Mudrová, Vlasta; Hunter, Douglas; Senft, VáClav

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chromium (Cr)- enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and blood markers of oxidative stress in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (median duration: 3.0 yr). Thirty-six subjects (9 men, 27 women; mean age: 61.3 yr; mean body mass index: 34.33 kg/m2) were supplemented with 400 microg Cr/d as Cr-enriched yeast (n = 19) or placebo (n = 17) for 12 wk in a randomized, double-blind study. The most interesting results were obtained by comparison of the change in the placebo group to the change in the Cr group. The Cr group showed a significantly greater increase in serum Cr compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Supplementation with Cr-enriched yeast was associated with a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Blood markers of oxidative stress glutathione peroxidase activity and levels of reduced glutathione were essentially unchanged in the Cr group after 12 wk, but decreased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Serum HbA1c and glycated protein (fructosamine) were essentially unchanged in the Cr group, whereas HbA1c tended to increase in the placebo group (from 6.94% to 7.11%). Fasting serum insulin decreased in both groups, with a greater tendency in the Cr group (-16.5% vs -9.5%). These data suggest that supplementation of well-controlled type 2 diabetics with Cr-enriched yeast is safe and can result in improvements in blood glucose variables and oxidative stress.

  8. [Prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome: study of correlations between two types of blood collection tubes].

    PubMed

    Laudat, Antoine; Girard, Philippe; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    In the perspective of a future request of accreditation according to the NF EN 15189 standard of the sector of prenatal diagnosis of the trisomy 21 foetal, we compared the results obtained for AFP, hCG, free hCG, PAPP-A and for the risks, according to 2 types of blood collection tubes: sterile tube and sterile tube with inert gel barrier. For 107 patients, the study of the Passing-Bablok regressions between the results from the 2 kinds of tubes, showed perfect correlations for measured biochemical markers (AFP, hCG, free hCG and PAPP-A) as well as for the estimated risks. A patient who presented a higher risk of foetal trisomy 21 (risk at 1/244) for the serum from the sterile tube was not in the high-risk area for the serum from the sterile tube with inert gel barrier (risk at 1/295). The fact that these 2 values of risk are very close to the threshold fixed to 1/250 can probably explain the observed conflict. Working on sterile tube, this study confirms that the requests of prenatal diagnosis of the trisomy 21 foetal taken from tube with inert gel barrier which we receive of outer laboratories.

  9. Effect of delayed feed access on production and blood parameters of layer-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Gaglo-Disse, Adjovi; Tona, Kokou; Aliou, Sakibou; Debonne, Marian; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Gbeassor, Messanvi; Decuypere, Eddy

    2010-06-01

    A total of 684 Hisex Brown day-old chicks were studied. The chicks were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: (1) chicks with immediate feed access; (2) chicks with 48 h delay in feed access, and (3) chicks with 72 h delay in feed access. For each group, chicks were assigned into 4 replications of 57 birds each. Prior to feed access, the chicks were weighed. Samples of chicks were used to weigh yolk sac at 1, 3 and 7 days and to collect blood at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 56 days. Also, reared chicks were weighed weekly. The results indicated that chick weights decreased during the holding period. Yolk sac utilisation was similar between groups, while morbidity and mortality increased linearly with the duration of delay in feed access. At 56 days, chicks having delayed access to feed were lighter than those without delay in feed access. Serum concentration of glucose up to 14 days and of total protein and triglycerides until 56 days decreased with the increasing duration of delay in feed access. It can be concluded that delayed feed access is detrimental to the juvenile performance of layer-type chicks and has a negative age-related effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and total protein.

  10. Blood ALDH1 and GST activity in diabetes type 2 and its correlation with glycated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, J; Sołobodowska, S; Bobilewicz, D; Wroczyński, P

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress (OS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of its complications. As one of the consequences of OS is increased lipid peroxidation (LP), the aim of our studies was to check, how the activity of 2 enzymes involved in the detoxification of aldehydes formed during LP, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH 1) is changed in patients suffering from DM.GST and ALDH1A1 activities were determined in whole blood samples of DM type 2 patients (n=64) and healthy controls (n=60) using spectrophotometer (for GST activity) and fluorometer (for ALDH1 activity) and they were found to be significantly increased in diabetics when compared with healthy control (p<0.05). Intriguingly, grouping the DM patients on the basis of the glucose level and HbA1c revealed unusually low ALDH activity in the group of patients (n=16) with a relatively high level of these 2 parameters.The increase of ALDH1A1 and GST activity in DM seems to be associated with the severity of the disease and might be a compensatory effect against oxidative stress. Surprisingly low ALDH activity in DM patients with relatively high glucose and HbA1c levels can be a factor predisposing to the development of diabetic complications.

  11. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  12. [Systematic review of the effects of inulin-type fructans on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Yang, Yuexin; Zhang, Lishi; Han, Junhua

    2010-03-01

    To conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of inulin-type fructans on lowering blood lipids, randomized controlled intervention trials on the analysis of plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol resulted from the treatment of dietary inulin-type fructans were selected from international journal databases and reference lists of relevant publications. The data of trials were extracted and identified by two independent reviewers. Only the qualified ones were included and evaluated. The results of 9 studies included in the systematic review indicated that the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol of subjects with hyperlipidemia could be significantly decreased by dietary inulin-type fructans, whereas the effects were absent in normal subjects. Blood lipids of subjects with hyperlipidemia could be decreased significantly by foods enriched with 17 g of inulin-type fructans per day.

  13. Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Winzelberg, Sarah; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Sample Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Procedures Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Results Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use. PMID:22280380

  14. Development of a fluorometric microtiter plate based enzyme assay for MPS IVA (Morquio type A) using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Ullal, Anirudh J; Millington, David S; Bali, Deeksha S

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA or Morquio type-A disease is a hereditary lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). The disease is caused by lysosomal accumulation of unprocessed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that manifests with severe to mild skeletal and cardiopulmonary abnormalities. We have developed a modified microtiter plate-based enzyme activity assay using dried blood spots and a fluorescent substrate for measuring specific GALNS activity to identify patients with MPS IVA.

  15. Microbubble type and distribution dependence of focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shutao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Feshitan, Jameel A; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    Focused ultrasound, in the presence of microbubbles, has been used non-invasively to induce reversible blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in both rodents and non-human primates. This study was aimed at identifying the dependence of BBB opening properties on polydisperse microbubble (all clinically approved microbubbles are polydisperse) type and distribution by using a clinically approved ultrasound contrast agent (Definity microbubbles) and in-house prepared polydisperse (IHP) microbubbles in mice. A total of 18 C57 BL/6 mice (n = 3) were used in this study, and each mouse was injected with either Definity or IHP microbubbles via the tail vein. The concentration and size distribution of activated Definity and IHP microbubbles were measured, and the microbubbles were diluted to 6 × 10(8)/mL before injection. Immediately after microbubble administration, mice were subjected to focused ultrasound with the following parameters: frequency = 1.5 MHz, pulse repetition frequency = 10 Hz, 1000 cycles, in situ peak rarefactional acoustic pressures = 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 MPa for a sonication duration of 60 s. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was used to confirm BBB opening and allowed for image-based analysis. Permeability of the treated region and volume of BBB opening did not significantly differ between the two types of microbubbles (p > 0.05) at peak rarefractional acoustic pressures of 0.45 and 0.6 MPa, whereas IHP microbubbles had significantly higher permeability and opening volume (p < 0.05) at the relatively lower pressure of 0.3 MPa. The results from this study indicate that microbubble type and distribution could have significant effects on focused ultrasound-induced BBB opening at lower pressures, but less important effects at higher pressures, possibly because of the stable cavitation that governs the former. This difference may have become less significant at higher pressures, where inertial cavitation typically occurs.

  16. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. Results The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (<2+ reaction grade), extra serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. Conclusions ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do. PMID:28028997

  18. Eye color, hair color, blood type, and the rhesus factor: exploring possible genetic links to sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Ficek, Christopher; Burke, Donald; Das, Shyamal

    2008-02-01

    The present study sought to expand the limited evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetic factors. This was accomplished by seeking statistical differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals for four traits that are known to be genetically determined: eye color, natural hair color, blood type, and the Rhesus factor. Using a sample of over 7,000 U.S. and Canadian college students supplemented with additional homosexual subjects obtained through internet contacts, we found no significant differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals regarding eye color or hair color. In the case of blood type and the Rh factor, however, interesting patterns emerged. Heterosexual males and females exhibited statistically identical frequencies of the A blood type, while gay men exhibited a relatively low incidence and lesbians had a relatively high incidence (p < .05). In the case of the Rh factor, unusually high proportions of homosexuals of both sexes were Rh- when compared to heterosexuals (p < .06). The findings suggest that a connection may exist between sexual orientation and genes both on chromosome 9 (where blood type is determined) and on chromosome 1 (where the Rh factor is regulated).

  19. Relationships of family support, diet therapy practice and blood glucose control in typeII diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Ki-Nam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of family support for diabetic patients and the diet therapy practice of patients themselves, and to analyze the relationship between family support and diet therapy practice and blood glucose control, and thus to prepare basic data for the development of effective education programs to improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients. The study subjects were 82 patients with type II diabetes, aged over 20 in the Chungbuk area. The gender distribution of subjects was 52.4% males and 47.6% females, and BMI showed 29.3% overweight and 35.3% obesity. Among the 82 study subjects, the relationship between diet therapy related family support and blood glucose control was examined in 67 subjects who answered practicing diet therapy, and the results showed that the family support score of a group with excellent blood glucose control was significantly higher than those of groups with fair or poor control (p<0.001) and the correlation between the two factors was very high (r=0.341, p<0.001). For the relationship between diet therapy practice by patients themselves and blood glucose control, diet therapy practice of a group with excellent blood glucose control was significantly higher than those of other groups (fair or poor control groups) (p<0.001) and the correlation between two factors was very high (r=0.304, p<0.001). For other factors influencing blood glucose control, a group with diabetes education showed significantly better blood glucose control compared to other groups without education (p<0.05). From the above results, diet therapy practice by patients, family support, and the necessity of diabetes education were confirmed to control blood glucose of diabetic patients. In conclusion, development and operation of education program should include not only patients but also their family members.

  20. Influence of Individual Differences on the Calculation Method for FBG-Type Blood Pressure Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shouhei; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Chino, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a blood pressure calculation and associated measurement method that by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. There are several points at which the pulse can be measured on the surface of the human body, and when a FBG sensor located at any of these points, the pulse wave signal can be measured. The measured waveform is similar to the acceleration pulse wave. The pulse wave signal changes depending on several factors, including whether or not the individual is healthy and/or elderly. The measured pulse wave signal can be used to calculate the blood pressure using a calibration curve, which is constructed by a partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis using a reference blood pressure and the pulse wave signal. In this paper, we focus on the influence of individual differences from calculated blood pressure based on each calibration curve. In our study, the calculated blood pressure from both the individual and overall calibration curves were compared, and our results show that the calculated blood pressure based on the overall calibration curve had a lower measurement accuracy than that based on an individual calibration curve. We also found that the influence of the individual differences on the calculated blood pressure when using the FBG sensor method were very low. Therefore, the FBG sensor method that we developed for measuring the blood pressure was found to be suitable for use by many people. PMID:28036015

  1. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... flush excess water and sodium from the body. Beta-blockers: Beta-blockers reduce nerve impulses to the heart and blood ... easily, causing blood pressure to go down. Alpha-beta-blockers: Alpha-beta-blockers work the same way as ...

  2. [THE STATE OF HEPATIC AND SPLANCHNIC BLOOD FLOW IN VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPLICATED PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYSTS].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Goncharova, N M; Andreyeshchev, S A; Yavorska, T P

    2015-05-01

    Investigations were conducted in 37 patients, suffering complicated pancreatic pseudocysts. In accordance to data of ultrasound Doppler flowmetry for the blood flow along portal vein, a. hepatis communis, a. mesenterica superior in complicated pancreatic pseudocysts compensatory--adaptive reactions on level of hepatic--spanchnic blood flow are directed towards restriction of the blood inflow through the portal vein system. This is accompanied by the common peripheral vascular resistence raising in basin of a. mesenterica superior, which have depended upon the patients' state severity, caused by reduction of the volume blood flow in a certan vascular collector. The oxygen debt of the liver in these patients is compensated by the volume blood flow enhancement along a. hepatis communis.

  3. Blood pressure and all-cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqin; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Horswell, Ronald; Wang, Yujie; Johnson, Jolene; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background The recommended goal for blood pressure (BP) control has recently been adjusted for people with diabetes, but the optimal BP control range for the diabetic population is still uncertain. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 35,261 patients with type 2 diabetes. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of BP with all-cause mortality. Results During a mean follow-up period of 8.7 years, 4,199 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of all-cause mortality associated with different levels of systolic/diastolic BP (<110/65, 110–119/65–69, 120–129/70–80, 130–139/80–90 [reference group], 140–159/90–100, and ≥160/100 mmHg) were 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–2.04), 1.26 (95% CI 1.07–1.50), 0.99 (95% CI 0.86–1.12), 1.00, 0.92 (95% CI 0.82–1.03), and 1.10 (95% CI 0.98–1.23) using baseline BP measurements, and 2.62 (95% CI 2.00–3.44), 1.77 (95% CI 1.51–2.09), 1.22 (95% CI 1.09–1.36), 1.00, 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–1.00), and 0.98 (95% CI 0.86–1.12) using an updated mean value of BP during follow-up, respectively. The U-shaped associations were confirmed in both African American and white patients, in both men and women, in those who were or were not taking antihypertensive drugs; and in patients aged 30–49 years and 50–59 years. Conclusions The current study found a U-shaped association between BP at baseline and during follow-up and the risk of all-cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26788685

  4. Refractive index of human whole blood with different types in the visible and near-infrared ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Lin, Lei; Xie, Shusen

    2000-06-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of human whole blood has always been of great interest for medical applications. The aim of this study was to provide the dispersive relations of refractive index of human whole blood with different types in the visible and near-infrared ranges and other conditions. In order to overcome the scattering effect, we applied an unusual method based on total internal reflection. A focused light, a semicylindrical lens in contact with tissues and a linear CCD camera are used in the experimental apparatus. The critical angle and therefore the refractive index can be obtained from the spacial distribution of internal reflective light. A monochromator is chosen as the light source, the chromatic dispersion curve of materials can be determined directly and quickly. A set of values has been presented that relates the refractive index to wavelength and types of whole, undiluted blood. Our results suggest that the refractive dispersions be almost the same in the visible and near-infrared ranges no matter which blood type it belongs to. In addition, the relationship can be described by Cauchy's formula.

  5. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    PubMed Central

    Maghsudlu, Mahtab; Safabakhsh, Hamidreza; Jamili, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors’ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17–59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations. PMID:26420946

  6. A non-invasive blood glucose meter design using multi-type sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D.; Nguyen, Hienvu; Roveda, Janet

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a design of a multi optical modalities blood glucose monitor. The Monte Carlo tissues optics simulation with typical human skin model suggests the SNR ratio for a detector sensor is 104 with high sensitivity that can detect low blood sugar limit at 1 mMole/dL ( <20 mg/dL). A Bayesian filtering algorithm is proposed for multisensor fusion to identify whether e user has the danger of having diabetes. The new design has real time response (on the average of 2 minutes) and provides great potential to perform real time monitoring for blood glucose.

  7. Biochemical changes correlated with blood thiamine and its phosphate esters levels in patients with diabetes type 1 (DMT1).

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alharbi, Mohammed; Wani, Kaiser; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sheshah, Eman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1) patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biochemical changes related to thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 outcomes among Saudi adults. We hypothesized that blood thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 manifestations might lead to an increase in metabolic syndrome. A total of 77 patients with DMT1 (age 35.8 ± 5.5) and 81 controls (age 45.0 ± 18.1) (total N = 158) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Saudi adults with diabetes type 1, a significant decrease in systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.02). Moreover, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were significantly increased (P 0.001, 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) in patients with diabetes type 1 compared to controls. On the other hand, HDL, TMP, TDP and thiamine, were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes type 1 (P 0.005, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002), respectively. A strong association between blood thiamine level and diabetes type 1 was detected in our study population. The results confirmed the role of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters, in preventing metabolic changes and complications of diabetes type 1. The levels of these thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters were correlated with diabetes related biomarkers including HDL, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as microalbuminuria, LDL and urine thiamine. The results support a pivotal role of blood thiamine and its phosphate esters in preventing the biochemical changes and complications in patients with DMT1.

  8. Biochemical changes correlated with blood thiamine and its phosphate esters levels in patients with diabetes type 1 (DMT1)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alharbi, Mohammed; Wani, Kaiser; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sheshah, Eman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1) patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biochemical changes related to thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 outcomes among Saudi adults. We hypothesized that blood thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 manifestations might lead to an increase in metabolic syndrome. A total of 77 patients with DMT1 (age 35.8±5.5) and 81 controls (age 45.0±18.1) (total N = 158) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Saudi adults with diabetes type 1, a significant decrease in systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.02). Moreover, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were significantly increased (P 0.001, 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) in patients with diabetes type 1 compared to controls. On the other hand, HDL, TMP, TDP and thiamine, were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes type 1 (P 0.005, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002), respectively. A strong association between blood thiamine level and diabetes type 1 was detected in our study population. The results confirmed the role of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters, in preventing metabolic changes and complications of diabetes type 1. The levels of these thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters were correlated with diabetes related biomarkers including HDL, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as microalbuminuria, LDL and urine thiamine. The results support a pivotal role of blood thiamine and its phosphate esters in preventing the biochemical changes and complications in patients with DMT1. PMID:26722561

  9. Phenotypic Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Bacha, Fida; Gungor, Neslihan; Arslanian, Silva

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Some obese youth with a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes have evidence of islet cell autoimmunity with positive autoantibodies. In this study, we investigated the differences in insulin sensitivity and secretion between autoantibody-negative (Ab−) and -positive (Ab+) youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes in comparison with control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Sixteen Ab− and 26 Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and 39 obese control youth underwent evaluation of insulin sensitivity (3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), first- and second-phase insulin secretion (2-h hyperglycemic clamp), body composition and abdominal adiposity (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scan, respectively), and glucose disposition index (first-phase insulin secretion × insulin sensitivity). RESULTS— Insulin-stimulated total, oxidative, and nonoxidative glucose disposal, and suppression of fat oxidation during hyperinsulinemia were significantly lower in Ab− compared with Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic and control subjects with no difference between the latter two. First- and second-phase insulin secretion and C-peptide were lower in Ab+ compared with Ab− type 2 diabetes. Glucose disposition index was not different between the Ab− and Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, but both were significantly lower than that in control subjects. Systolic blood pressure and alanine aminotransferase were higher in Ab− versus Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, whereas the frequency of ketonuria at diagnosis was higher in Ab+ versus Ab− patients. CONCLUSIONS— Islet-cell Ab− clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic youth are characterized by severe insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, whereas Ab+ youth have severe insulin deficiency and β-cell failure. The former group has additional features of insulin

  10. Effects of high-protein diets on body weight, glycaemic control, blood lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Wang, Pei-Yu; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2013-09-14

    High-protein diets are popular for weight management, but the health effects of such diets in diabetic persons are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of high-protein diets on body weight and metabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomised trials up to August 2012. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to combine the net changes in each outcome from baseline to the end of the intervention. Overall, nine trials including a total of 418 diabetic patients met our inclusion criteria. The study duration ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. The actual intake of dietary protein ranged from 25 to 32% of total energy in the intervention groups and from 15 to 20% in the control groups. Compared with the control diets, high-protein diets resulted in more weight loss (pooled mean difference: 22.08, 95% CI 23.25, 20.90 kg). High-protein diets significantly decreased glycated Hb A1C (HbA1C) levels by 0.52 (95% CI 20.90, 20.14) %, but did not affect the fasting blood glucose levels. There were no differences in lipid profiles. The pooled net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 23.13 (95% CI 26.58, 0.32)mmHg and 21.86 (95% CI 24.26, 0.56) mmHg, respectively. However, two studies reported a large influence on weight loss and HbA1C levels, respectively. In summary, high-protein diets (within 6 months) may have some beneficial effects on weight loss, HbA1C levels and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigations are still required to draw a conclusion.

  11. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  12. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for temporary ventricular support. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-06-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump (NRP) devices for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) for NRP devices for temporary ventricular support. FDA is also revising the title and identification of the regulation for NRP devices in this order.

  13. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    PubMed

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  14. The effect of melatonin on circadian blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Możdżan, Michał; Chałubiński, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Broncel, Marlena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension receiving medical treatment and with type 2 diabetes in good metabolic control. Material and methods The study lasted 8 weeks. Patients were equipped with a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitor and took melatonin (3 mg a day in the evening) for 4 weeks. The patients were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 32) including dippers, group 2 (n = 34) non-dippers treated with melatonin; and two control groups: group 3 (n = 28) including dippers and group 4 (n = 30) non-dippers treated without melatonin. After 4 weeks patients took melatonin for the next 4 weeks (5 mg a day). In each visit were analyzed: systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in both day and night time. Results We observed that 29.5% non-dippers (n = 10) treated with melatonin in a dose of 3 mg/day achieved features of dippers compared to control group (p < 0.05). Five mg of melatonin per day restored normal diurnal blood pressure rhythm in 32.4% non-dippers (n = 11, p < 0.05). In non-dippers treated with melatonin significant decreases of diastolic, systolic and mean night blood pressure values (p < 0.05) were observed. Conclusions More than 30% of non-dippers with type 2 diabetes treated with melatonin were restored to the normal circadian rhythm of blood pressure. The effect of melatonin in both doses (3 mg and 5 mg) was significant for non-dippers only and included nocturnal systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. PMID:25276149

  15. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( CBC ) Platelet count ... and this is the only time when this type of blood sample can be collected. You can also decide ...

  16. eTumorType, An Algorithm of Discriminating Cancer Types for Circulating Tumor Cells or Cell-free DNAs in Blood.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinfeng; Wang, Edwin

    2017-04-04

    With the technology development on detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs) in blood, serum, and plasma, non-invasive diagnosis of cancer becomes promising. A few studies reported good correlations between signals from tumor tissues and CTCs or cfDNAs, making it possible to detect cancers using CTCs and cfDNAs. However, the detection cannot tell which cancer types the person has. To meet these challenges, we developed an algorithm, eTumorType, to identify cancer types based on copy number variations (CNVs) of the cancer founding clone. eTumorType integrates cancer hallmark concepts and a few computational techniques such as stochastic gradient boosting, voting, centroid, and leading patterns. eTumorType has been trained and validated on a large dataset including 18 common cancer types and 5327 tumor samples. eTumorType produced high accuracies (0.86-0.96) and high recall rates (0.79-0.92) for predicting colon, brain, prostate, and kidney cancers. In addition, relatively high accuracies (0.78-0.92) and recall rates (0.58-0.95) have also been achieved for predicting ovarian, breast luminal, lung, endometrial, stomach, head and neck, leukemia, and skin cancers. These results suggest that eTumorType could be used for non-invasive diagnosis to determine cancer types based on CNVs of CTCs and cfDNAs.

  17. Natural OX40L expressed on human T cell leukemia virus type-I-immortalized T cell lines interferes with infection of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by CCR5-utilizing human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background OX40 ligand (OX40L) co-stimulates and differentiates T cells via ligation of OX40 that is transiently induced on T cells upon activation, resulting in prolonged T cell survival and enhanced cytokine production by T cells. This view has led to the targeting of OX40 as a strategy to boost antigen specific T cells in the context of vaccination. In addition, the ligation of OX40 has also been shown to inhibit infection by CCR5-utilizing (R5) but not CXCR4-utilizing (X4) human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) via enhancement of production of CCR5-binding β-chemokines. It was reasoned that human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) immortalized T cell lines that express high levels of OX40L could serve as an unique source of physiologically functional OX40L. The fact that HTLV-1+ T cell lines simultaneously also express high levels of OX40 suggested a potential limitation. Results Results of our studies showed that HTLV-1+ T cell lines bound exogenous OX40 but not OX40L, indicating that HTLV-1+ T cell lines express an active form of OX40L but an inactive form of OX40. Anti-OX40 non-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not blocking mAb, stained HTLV-1+ T cell lines, suggesting that the OX40 might be saturated with endogenous OX40L. Functionality of the OX40L was confirmed by the fact that a paraformaldehyde (PFA)-fixed HTLV-1+ T cell lines inhibited the infection of autologous activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with R5 HIV-1 which was reversed by either anti-OX40L blocking mAb or a mixture of neutralizing mAbs against CCR5-binding β-chemokines. Conclusions Altogether, these results demonstrated that autologous T cell lines immortalized by HTLV-1 can be utilized as a conventional source of physiologically functional OX40L. PMID:24238037

  18. Designations F18ab and F18ac for the related fimbrial types F107, 2134P and 8813 of Escherichia coli isolated from porcine postweaning diarrhoea and from oedema disease.

    PubMed

    Rippinger, P; Bertschinger, H U; Imberechts, H; Nagy, B; Sorg, I; Stamm, M; Wild, P; Wittig, W

    1995-08-01

    The relatedness of the fimbriae produced by eight E. coli strains including type strains with F107 fimbriae, 2134P pili and colonization factor 8813 (preliminary F18), was examined. These strains had been isolated principally from pigs which were affected with postweaning diarrhoea or with oedema disease. The fimbriae were analyzed by means of electron microscopy, slide agglutination, immunofluorescence, immunogold labelling, immuno-diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and western blot, molecular genetic techniques, and in vitro adhesion. The fimbriae of all the strains were long flexible filaments with a diameter not larger than 4.6 nm showing a zig-zag pattern. Results obtained by the serological techniques confirmed that the fimbriae possessed a common antigenic determinant designated 'a' in addition to a variant-specific determinant designated 'b' or 'c'. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the determinants 'a' and 'b' or 'a' and 'c' were localized along the same fimbrium. In immunoelectrophoresis, fimbrial extracts of selected strains yielded a single precipitation line towards the cathode. One single major subunit of approximately 15 kDa was recognised in western blots by antisera against the common antigenic determinant and the variant specific determinants. All strains possessed sequences related to gene fedA, coding for the major subunit of fimbriae F107. Two types of fedA-related subunit genes were differentiated, corresponding to the 'ab' and 'ac' types of fimbriae as defined by serological methods. The results demonstrated that F107 fimbriae, 2134P pili and colonization factor 8813 are related, and that two serological variants can be distinguished. We propose designations F18ab (for F107), and F18ac (for 2134P and 8813) in analogy to the nomenclature of F4 fimbriae.

  19. Oligomeric adiponectin forms and their complexes in the blood of healthy donors and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Alexander E; Filatov, Vladimir L; Kolosova, Olga V; Katrukha, Ivan A; Mironova, Ekaterina V; Zhuravleva, Natalya S; Nagibin, Oleg A; Kara, Andrei N; Bereznikova, Anastasiya V; Katrukha, Alexey G

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (Adn) is a protein that circulates in the blood in several oligomeric forms, namely low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight forms. Adn may serve as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aims of this work were (1) to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to different Adn oligomeric forms, (2) to design immunoassays suitable for measuring the Adn forms present in human blood, and (3) to investigate the changes in Adn forms that occur in patients with T2DM. Gel filtration, fluoroimmunoassays, and Western blotting were utilized as major techniques in this study. MAbs recognizing various oligomeric forms of Adn were obtained. Complexes between Adn and complement component C1q and between the low molecular weight form of Adn and albumin were described in human blood. A decrease in the total Adn and Adn-albumin complex levels in the blood of patients with T2DM and no difference in the levels of the Adn-C1q complex in comparison with healthy volunteers were demonstrated. An Adn94-Adn63 fluoroimmunoassay was selected as the technique that most accurately measured the mass ratio of Adn oligomers in blood samples, and an Adn214-Adn27 assay that measured the low-molecular-weight form of Adn only.

  20. In vitro study of possible microbial indicators for drowning: Salinity and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Muraoka, Eri; Uchiyama, Taketo; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-30

    Numbers and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood samples mixed with water of various salinity levels were examined to determine the characteristics of species associated with salinity. Water samples (total n=88) were collected from the midstream of two rivers (freshwater; n=10; salinity <0.05%), from around their estuaries (areas of freshwater, n=20, salinity <0.05%; areas of brackish water, n=20, salinity <0.05-3.1%; areas of marine water beyond the mouths of the rivers, n=28, salinity 2.4-3.3%), and from the coast (areas of marine water; n=10; salinity 3.3-3.5%). Freshwater bacteria were identified in 41 of 42 blood samples mixed with water at ≤1.3% salinity, and the genus Aeromonas, which is universally distributed in freshwater environments, was predominant. Marine bacteria were identified in all of 46 blood samples mixed with water at ≥1.8% salinity, and most comprised the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium that are universally distributed in seawater environments. Aeromonas was undetectable in all blood samples mixed with brackish or sea water at ≥1.8% salinity although they are detectable even in seawater environments. Thus, the present results showed that bacterioplankton capable of proliferating in human blood reflects the salinity of water.

  1. Sourcing of an alternative pericyte-like cell type from peripheral blood in clinically relevant numbers for therapeutic angiogenic applications.

    PubMed

    Blocki, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Koch, Maria; Goralczyk, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Agarwal, Nikita; Lee, Michelle; Moonshi, Shehzahdi; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Peh, Priscilla; Schwarz, Herbert; Bhakoo, Kishore; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Autologous cells hold great potential for personalized cell therapy, reducing immunological and risk of infections. However, low cell counts at harvest with subsequently long expansion times with associated cell function loss currently impede the advancement of autologous cell therapy approaches. Here, we aimed to source clinically relevant numbers of proangiogenic cells from an easy accessible cell source, namely peripheral blood. Using macromolecular crowding (MMC) as a biotechnological platform, we derived a novel cell type from peripheral blood that is generated within 5 days in large numbers (10-40 million cells per 100 ml of blood). This blood-derived angiogenic cell (BDAC) type is of monocytic origin, but exhibits pericyte markers PDGFR-β and NG2 and demonstrates strong angiogenic activity, hitherto ascribed only to MSC-like pericytes. Our findings suggest that BDACs represent an alternative pericyte-like cell population of hematopoietic origin that is involved in promoting early stages of microvasculature formation. As a proof of principle of BDAC efficacy in an ischemic disease model, BDAC injection rescued affected tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model by accelerating and enhancing revascularization. Derived from a renewable tissue that is easy to collect, BDACs overcome current short-comings of autologous cell therapy, in particular for tissue repair strategies.

  2. Deposition of collagen type I onto skeletal endothelium reveals a new role for blood vessels in regulating bone morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ben Shoham, Adi; Rot, Chagai; Stern, Tomer; Krief, Sharon; Akiva, Anat; Dadosh, Tali; Sabany, Helena; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, blood vessels have been implicated in the morphogenesis of various organs. The vasculature is also known to be essential for endochondral bone development, yet the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. We show that a unique composition of blood vessels facilitates the role of the endothelium in bone mineralization and morphogenesis. Immunostaining and electron microscopy showed that the endothelium in developing bones lacks basement membrane, which normally isolates the blood vessel from its surroundings. Further analysis revealed the presence of collagen type I on the endothelial wall of these vessels. Because collagen type I is the main component of the osteoid, we hypothesized that the bone vasculature guides the formation of the collagenous template and consequently of the mature bone. Indeed, some of the bone vessels were found to undergo mineralization. Moreover, the vascular pattern at each embryonic stage prefigured the mineral distribution pattern observed one day later. Finally, perturbation of vascular patterning by overexpressing Vegf in osteoblasts resulted in abnormal bone morphology, supporting a role for blood vessels in bone morphogenesis. These data reveal the unique composition of the endothelium in developing bones and indicate that vascular patterning plays a role in determining bone shape by forming a template for deposition of bone matrix. PMID:27621060

  3. Durable modification of segmented polyurethane for elastic blood-contacting devices by graft-type 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine copolymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Inoue, Yuuki; Mahara, Atsushi; Kakinoki, Sachiro; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel application of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for enhancing the performance of modified segmented polyurethane (SPU) surfaces for the development of a small-diameter vascular prosthesis. The SPU membranes were modified by random-type, block-type, and graft-type MPC polymers that were prepared using a double-solution casting procedure on stainless steel substrates. Among these MPC polymers, the graft-type poly(MPC-graft-2-ethylhexyl methacrylate [EHMA]), which is composed of a poly(MPC) segment as the main chain and poly(EHMA) segments as side chains, indicated a higher stability on the SPU membrane after being peeled off from the stainless steel substrate, as well as after immersion in an aqueous medium. This stability was caused by the intermiscibility in the domain of the poly(EHMA) segments and the soft segments of the SPU membrane. Each SPU/MPC polymer membrane exhibited a dramatic suppression of protein adsorption from human plasma and endothelium cell adhesion. Based on these results, the performance of SPU/poly(MPC-graft-EHMA) tubings 2 mm in diameter as vascular prostheses was investigated. Even after blood was passed through the tubings for 2 min, the graft-type MPC polymers effectively protected the blood-contacting surfaces from thrombus formation. In summary, SPU modified by graft-type MPC polymers has the potential for practical application in the form of a non-endothelium, small-diameter vascular prosthesis.

  4. Effect of different types of anesthesia on intraoperative blood glucose of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqiong; Wang, Jinjing; Chen, Kang; Li, Yijun; Wang, Haibin; Mu, Yiming; Chen, Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Systematic review which analyzes the impact of different anesthesia on intraoperative blood glucose levels of diabetes patients. Methods: We searched Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wangfang, CNKI, and CBM database through June 2016, included in randomized controlled trial (RCT), about different anesthesia on intraoperative blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Two researchers in 1 group independently screened literatures with eligibility criteria, extracted information, and used RevMan5.3 software to perform meta-analysis. Results: We included 11 trials and performed the meta-analysis with 10 trials. The meta-analysis results suggested that compared with general anesthesia, the combined general-epidural anesthesia has a better glycemic control in intraoperative blood glucose levels (WMD −1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.77 to 0.76), the epidural anesthesia had no significant effects compared with general anesthesia (WMD −0.74, 95% CI 4.41–2.92), and the combined spinal-epidural anesthesia had no significant effects compared with epidural anesthesia (WMD −0.28, 95% CI −1.02 to 0.46). One study suggested that compared with epidural anesthesia, the combined general-epidural anesthesia can lower blood glucose levels Conclusion: Existing evidence showed that compared with general anesthesia, the combined general-epidural anesthesia has a better glycemic control in intraoperative blood glucose levels. PMID:28353577

  5. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear.

  6. [The first pillar of patient blood management. Types of anemia and diagnostic parameters].

    PubMed

    Basora Macaya, M; Bisbe Vives, E

    2015-06-01

    Patient Blood Management (PBM) is the design of a personalized, multimodal multidisciplinary plan for minimizing transfusion and simultaneously achieving a positive impact on patient outcomes. The first pillar of PBM consists of optimizing the erythrocyte mass. The best chance for this step is offered by preoperative preparation. In most cases, a detailed medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests will identify the cause of anemia. A correct evaluation of parameters that assess the state and function of iron, such as ferritin levels, and the parameters that measure functional iron, such as transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor levels, provide us with essential information for guiding the treatment with iron. The new blood count analyzers that measure hypochromia (% of hypochromic red blood cells and reticulocyte hemoglobin concentrations) provide us useful information for the diagnosis and follow-up of the response to iron treatment. Measuring serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels is essential for treating deficiencies and thereby achieving better hemoglobin optimization.

  7. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  8. Persistently low transplantation rate of ABO blood type O and highly sensitised patients despite alternative transplantation programs.

    PubMed

    Roodnat, Joke I; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; Claas, Frans H; Ijzermans, Jan; Weimar, Willem

    2012-09-01

    ABO blood type O and highly sensitised patients have the smallest chance to receive kidney transplantation. Do alternative donation programs increase this chance? In the period studied: 2323 patients were enlisted on the Rotterdam waiting list for a renal transplantation: 435 patients still waiting (WL), 464 delisted without transplantation (DWT). 1424 received deceased donor (DD, 535) or living donor (LD, 889, including 204 alternative) transplantation. Alternative LD programs in our centre are: paired kidney-exchange, altruistic with domino-paired donation and ABO-incompatible donation (ABOi). Compared to populations not transplanted, blood type O recipients are significantly underrepresented in DD and all LD transplantation populations, except the ABOi program. Highly sensitised patients are overrepresented in DD, but underrepresented in all LD transplantation populations. The high transplantation rate of highly sensitised patients was the result of Eurotransplant Acceptable mismatch program (AM). The LD ABOi and DD AM programs are the only alternative donation programs favourable for patients with low chances. While the contribution of direct LD transplantations will increase in time, the relative success rate of low-chance patients will decrease. Beside increasing LD ABOi transplantation, a new DD allocation model favouring both highly immunised and blood type O patients is essential.

  9. Block synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides related to the human ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Ivan M; Korchagina, Elena Yu; Popova, Inna S; Tyrtysh, Tatiana V; Paramonov, Alexander S; Bovin, Nicolai V

    2016-07-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides via [3 + 1] block scheme. Peracetylated trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides were used as glycosyl donors. The well-known low reactivity of 4-OH group of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine forced us to test four glucosamine derivatives (3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc and 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl β-glycosides of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc, 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3, and 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2) to select the best glycosyl acceptor for the synthesis of type 2 tetrasaccharides. The desired tetrasacchrides were not isolated, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycosyde of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAcβ was glycosylated. Glycosylation of 3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivative resulted in α-glycoside as a major product. High stereospecificity was achieved only in the synthesis of B (type 2) tetrasaccharide, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2β was applied as the glycosyl acceptor (β/α 5:1), whereas glycosylation with trichloroacetimidate of A trisaccharide was not stereospecific (β/α 1.3:1). Glycosylation of 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycoside of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3β with trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides provided the same stereochemical yield (β/α 1.5:1).

  10. Islet Autoantibody Measurements from Dried Blood Spots on Filter Paper Strongly Correlate to Serum Levels

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kimber M.; Alkanani, Aimon K.; McDaniel, Kristen A.; Goyne, Christopher; Miao, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Yu, Liping; Michels, Aaron W.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing in incidence and predictable with measurement of serum islet autoantibodies (iAb) years prior to clinical disease onset. Identifying iAb positive individuals reduces diabetic ketoacidosis and identifies individuals for T1D prevention trials. However, large scale screening for iAb remains challenging as assays have varying sensitivities and specificities, insulin autoantibodies remain difficult to measure and venipuncture is generally required to obtain serum. We developed an approach to reliably measure all four major iAb, including insulin autoantibodies, from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter-paper. By spiking iAb positive serum into iAb negative whole blood in a dose titration, we optimized the conditions for autoantibody elution from filter paper as measured by fluid phase radioimmunoassays. After assessing stability of measuring iAb from DBS over time, we then screened iAb from DBS and the corresponding serum in new-onset T1D (n = 52), and controls (n = 72) which included first-degree relatives of T1D patients. iAb measured from eluted DBS in new-onset T1D strongly correlated with serum measurements (R2 = 0.96 for mIAA, GADA = 0.94, IA-2A = 0.85, ZnT8A = 0.82, p<0.01 for each autoantibody). There were no false positives in control subjects, and 5/6 with previously unknown iAb positivity in sera were detected using DBS. With further validation, measuring iAb from DBS can be a reliable method to screen for T1D risk. PMID:27846247

  11. Type 2 diabetics with higher plasma viscosity exhibit a higher blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Aloulou, Ikram; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle

    2004-01-01

    Among hemorheologic parameters, plasma viscosity is one of the most studied in epidemiology, so that it has emerged as an independent risk factor. In diabetes, plasma viscosity is frequently elevated. For this reason we tried to define characteristics of non-insulin dependent diabetics with high plasma viscosity (>1.45 mPa.s) and whether they were more insulin resistant and/or exhibited other hemorheologic disturbances. 12 subjects (age 56.1+/-11.7; BMI 28.6+/-4.8) were thus found to have a value of plasma viscosity >1.45 mPa.s. They were compared to 20 age and BMI-matched NIDDMs. Patients have similar insulin sensitivity, HbA1c, and fibrinogen. RBC aggregation, rigidity and hematocrit were not significantly different. Whole blood viscosity at high shear rate was slightly higher (p=0.05). When corrected for hematocrit whole blood viscosity is no longer different. However, hematocrit was not lower in subjects with hpl >1.45. By contrast blood pressure was markedly higher (systolic: 177.5+/-2.5 mmHg vs 140+/-8 mmHg, p<10(-8); diastolic 110+/-14 vs 83+/-9 mmHg, p<10(-9); mean 132+/-18 mmHg vs 102+/-7 mmHg p<10(-9)). Therefore, in NIDDM, higher plasma viscosity, regardless insulin resistance and adiposity, is strongly related to blood pressure.

  12. Systolic Blood Pressure Control Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Three Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probstfield, Jeffery; Hire, Donald; Redmon, J. Bruce; Evans, Gregory W.; Coday, Mace; Lewis, Cora E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Wilmoth, Sharon; Bahnson, Judy; Dulin, Michael F.; Green, Jennifer B.; Knowler, William C.; Kitabchi, Abbas; Murillo, Anne L.; Osei, Kwame; Rehman, Shakaib U.; Cushman, William C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The relative effectiveness of 3 approaches to blood pressure control—(i) an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) focused on weight loss, (ii) frequent goal-based monitoring of blood pressure with pharmacological management, and (iii) education and support—has not been established among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who are appropriate for each intervention. METHODS Participants from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) cohorts who met criteria for both clinical trials were identified. The proportions of these individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140mm Hg from annual standardized assessments over time were compared with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS Across 4 years among 480 Look AHEAD and 1,129 ACCORD participants with baseline SBPs between 130 and 159mm Hg, ILI (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = [1.18–1.81]) and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacotherapy (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = [1.16–1.97]) yielded higher rates of blood pressure control compared to education and support. The intensive behavioral-based intervention may have been more effective among individuals with body mass index >30kg/m2, while frequent goal-based monitoring with medication management may be more effective among individuals with lower body mass index (interaction P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, both ILI and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY clinicaltrials.gov identifiers NCT00017953 (Look AHEAD) and NCT00000620 (ACCORD). PMID:25666468

  13. Standing or 'Easy' Walks May Help Type 2 Diabetics Control Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Exercise and Physical Fitness Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 2 Exercise and Physical Fitness About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  14. Blood-based profiles of DNA methylation predict the underlying distribution of cell types: a validation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Devin C; Christensen, Brock; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J; Langevin, Scott M; Kelsey, Karl T; Wiencke, John K; Houseman, E Andres

    2013-08-01

    The potential influence of underlying differences in relative leukocyte distributions in studies involving blood-based profiling of DNA methylation is well recognized and has prompted development of a set of statistical methods for inferring changes in the distribution of white blood cells using DNA methylation signatures. However, the extent to which this methodology can accurately predict cell-type proportions based on blood-derived DNA methylation data in a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) has yet to be examined. We used publicly available data deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (accession number GSE37008), which consisted of both blood-derived epigenome-wide DNA methylation data assayed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray and complete blood cell (CBC) counts among a community cohort of 94 non-diseased individuals. Constrained projection (CP) was used to obtain predictions of the proportions of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes for each of the study samples based on their DNA methylation signatures. Our findings demonstrated high consistency between the average CBC-derived and predicted percentage of monocytes and lymphocytes (17.9% and 17.6% for monocytes and 82.1% and 81.4% for lymphocytes), with root mean squared error (rMSE) of 5% and 6%, for monocytes and lymphocytes, respectively. Similarly, there was moderate-high correlation between the CP-predicted and CBC-derived percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes (0.60 and 0.61, respectively), and these results were robust to the number of leukocyte differentially methylated regions (L-DMRs) used for CP prediction. These results serve as further validation of the CP approach and highlight the promise of this technique for EWAS where DNA methylation is profiled using whole-blood genomic DNA.

  15. ABO blood group and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in a population of Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Liming; Sun, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Lizhen; Su, Dan

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies found that the ABO blood type alters the individual susceptibility of some malignancies. However, whether such an association exists between ABO blood type and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. A case-control study was conducted, with 1,538 patients who had NPC and 1,260 cancer-free controls. The association between ABO blood type and NPC incidence was evaluated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects with blood type O, a relatively higher risk was observed among cases with blood types A or AB, with ORs (95% confidence interval) of 1.287 (1.072 - 1.545), p = 0.007 and 1.390 (1.007 - 1.919), p = 0.045, respectively, after adjusting for gender, age, smoking status and family history of cancer. The rate of distant metastasis was significantly higher among male patients with blood type A than in patients with non-A blood types (6.8 vs. 3.5%, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that blood types A or AB is associated with an increased risk of NPC. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to explore the mechanisms involved.

  16. Insulin receptor antibody-sulfamidase fusion protein penetrates the primate blood-brain barrier and reduces glycosoaminoglycans in Sanfilippo type A cells.

    PubMed

    Boado, Ruben J; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Pardridge, William M

    2014-08-04

    Mutations in the lysosomal enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH), also called sulfamidase, cause accumulation of lysosomal inclusion bodies in the brain of children born with mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA, also called Sanfilippo type A syndrome. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant SGSH does not treat the brain because the enzyme is a large molecule drug that does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating form of SGSH was produced by re-engineering the enzyme as an IgG fusion protein, where the IgG domain is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb domain of the HIRMAb-SGSH fusion protein acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused enzyme across the BBB. The HIRMAb-SGSH was produced in stably transfected host cells and purified to homogeneity by protein A chromatography. The fusion protein reacted with antibodies against either human IgG or SGSH on Western blotting. High affinity binding to the HIR was retained following SGSH fusion to the HIRMAb, with an EC50 of 0.33 ± 0.05 nM in an HIR binding ELISA. The SGSH enzyme activity of the HIRMAb-SGSH fusion protein was 4712 ± 388 units/mg protein based on a two-step fluorometric enzyme assay. The HIRMAb-SGSH was taken up by lysosomes in MPSIIIA fibroblasts, and treatment of these cells with the fusion protein caused an 83% reduction in sulfate incorporation into lysosomal glycosoaminoglycans. The HIRMAb-SGSH fusion protein was radiolabeled with the [(125)I]-Bolton-Hunter reagent and injected intravenously in the Rhesus monkey. The brain uptake of the fusion protein was high, ∼1% injected dose/brain. Calculations, based on this level of brain uptake, suggest normalization of brain SGSH enzyme activity is possible following administration of therapeutic doses of the fusion protein. These studies describe a novel IgG-SGSH fusion protein that is a new noninvasive treatment of the brain in MPS type IIIA.

  17. Association of morning fasting blood glucose variability with insulin antibodies and clinical factors in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Chihiro; Tashima-Horie, Kanako; Fukushima, Sayaka; Saito, Satoko; Tanaka, Sayoko; Haruki, Takenori; Ogino, Jun; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Hashimoto, Naotake

    2016-07-30

    The fasting blood glucose concentration in type 1 diabetes may vary without being much affected by diet and exercise. This study aimed to identify association of morning fasting blood glucose concentration variability with insulin antibodies and clinical factors. The subjects in this study were 54 patients with type 1 diabetes who had high variation of fasting blood glucose. The insulin antibody level was measured, and correlations of glycemic variability with antibody levels, binding rates, and other clinical factors were investigated. The standard deviation (SD) of the 30-day morning self-monitored fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG SD) was evaluated as an index of glycemic variability. The mean glucose level was 159.8±42.1 mg/dL and the FBG SD was 47.5±22.0 mg/dL. Glycemic variability (FBG SD) was positively correlated with insulin antibody level, but not with insulin antibody binding rate, and had a negative correlation with C-peptide immunoreactivity/plasma glucose (CPR/PG) and positive correlations with diabetes duration, basal insulin dose and bolus insulin dose. Glycemic variability was not correlated with BMI, HbA1c or age. In multiple regression analysis of glycemic variability, CPR/PG was the only significant related factor. The results showed that glycemic variability was mainly influenced by endogenous insulin secretion capacity and was high in patients with high insulin antibody levels. In some patients with a high insulin antibody titer, the antibody may have an effect on the variability of the fasting glucose concentration in type 1 diabetes.

  18. Erythema ab igne.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristen; Hunt, Raegan; Chu, Julie; Meehan, Shane; Stein, Jennifer

    2011-10-15

    Erythema ab igne is a reticulated, erythematous or hyperpigmented dermatosis that results from chronic and repeated exposure to low levels of infrared radiation. Multiple heat sources have been reported to cause this condition, which include heated reclining chairs, heating pads, hot water bottles, car heaters, electric space heaters, and, more recently, laptop computers. Treatment consists of withdrawing the inciting heat source. Although erythema ab igne carries a good prognosis, it is not necessarily a self-limited diagnosis as patients are at long-term risk of developing subsequent cutaneous malignant conditions, which include squamous cell and merkel-cell carcinomas.

  19. Effects of types and length of soft-segments on the physical properties and blood compatibility of polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih Hao; Tsao, Ching Ting; Chang, Ken Yu; Chen, Szu Hsien; Han, Jin Lin; Hsieh, Kuo Huang

    2012-01-01

    Segmented polyurethane (SPU) materials based on different soft-segment component (PPG, PTMO and PBA) and various length of soft-segment (molecular weight of PBA: 500, 700 and 1000) were synthesized in this research. The soft-segment components were synthesized from polyether-polyols (PPG and PTMO) or from polyester-polyol (PBA). The physical properties and structure characterization of the synthesized SPUs were fully investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and stress-strain measurements. Blood compatibility was evaluated with the platelet adhesion ratio (PAR) and the morphological observation for adhering platelets. Our results showed that the physical properties and blood compatibility of SPUs were closely related to its composition, which was controlled by (1) the types of the soft-segment component employed and (2) the length of soft segments. Polyether-polyol-based SPUs exhibited greater phase separations, poorer tensile strengths, and better blood compatibility, compared with polyester-polyol-based SPUs. SPUs with shorter soft-segment component exhibited greater phase mixing, higher tensile strength, but lower blood compatibility of SPUs, as compared with its counterparts with longer soft-segment component.

  20. Improved control of blood pressure and albuminuria among patients with type-2 diabetes in Finnish open care.

    PubMed

    Varis, Juha; Metsärinne, Kaj; Koivisto, Veikko; Niskanen, Leo; Rissanen, Aila; Virkamäki, Antti; Appelroth, Tina; Pöntynen, Nora; Poussa, Tuija; Kantola, Ilkka

    2017-04-01

    Risk of cardiovascular events within the diabetic population has decreased and survival increased with patients living longer and thus facing the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This calls for good care of patient with diabetes with a focus on hypertension. Patient data were collected from 42 Finnish primary care centres. Each was asked to enrol 10-12 consecutive patients with type-2 diabetes between March 2011 and August 2012. Along with the office blood pressure measurements and laboratory tests, the presence of albuminuria was measured and glomerular filtration rate estimated (eGFR). The 2013 ESH criteria for diabetic hypertensive patients (<140/85 mmHg) was reached by 39% of all 625 study patients and 38% of the pharmacologically treated 520 patients. The absence of detectable albumin in urine was significantly associated with the control of systolic blood pressure and achievement of treatment goals. Beta blockers were the most common antihypertensive agents and patients treated with them had lower eGFR compared to those not treated with these agents. The blood pressure of patients was not in full concordance with the present guideline recommendations. However, satisfactory improvement in blood pressure control, reduction of albuminuria and hence ESRD prevention was achieved.

  1. DNA-based typing of Kell, Kidd, MNS, Dombrock, Colton, and Yt blood group systems in the French Basques.

    PubMed

    Touinssi, Mhammed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Degioanni, Anna; Granier, Thomas; Dutour, Olivier; Bailly, Pascal; Bauduer, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The Basques demonstrate peculiar characteristics regarding blood group systems. Although ABO, Rhesus, and Duffy have been extensively studied in this population, the distribution of other groups remains largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the frequency of less-explored- or still noninvestigated blood groups using DNA-based assays and interpreted these data in the view of population genetics. Polymorphisms of KEL (Kell), SLCA14A1 (Kidd), GYPA/GYPB (MNS), ART4 (Dombrock), AQP1 (Colton), and ACHE (Yt) blood group genes were determined from a sample of more than 100 autochthonous French Basques using allele-specific primer PCR (PCR-ASP) methods. Our results were compared with those previously obtained by the use of serology from both Basque and non-Basque European populations. MNS*1 and JK*1 allele frequencies were comparable with those reported from Basque samples. Conversely, the KEL*1 allele frequency differed significantly. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the other three systems are studied in the Basque population. DO*1 and CO*1 allele frequencies, being respectively 0.35 and 0.96, were significantly inferior to those published from various European populations. There were some discrepancies regarding these six blood systems when comparing molecular typing with serology. These findings may be explained by differences in either criteria for individual selection or technical assays. Nevertheless, these results constitute additional data to be included in the chapter of Basque biological anthropology.

  2. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... two tests will be done before the transfusion: Blood typing. To confirm your child's blood type, a nurse ... blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. Cross-matching. Once typing is complete, a compatible donor blood is chosen. ...

  3. Homing receptor expression is deviated on CD56+ blood lymphocytes during pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Burke, Suzanne D; Seaward, Alexandra V C; Ramshaw, Heather; Smith, Graeme N; Virani, Sophia; Croy, Barbara A; Lima, Patricia D A

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by an augmented pro-inflammatory immune state. This contributes to the increased risk for gestational complications observed in T1DM mothers. In normal pregnancies, critical immunological changes occur, including the massive recruitment of lymphocytes, particularly CD56bright NK cells, into early decidua basalis and a 2nd trimester shift towards Type 2 immunity. Decidual CD56bright NK cells arise at least partly from circulating progenitors expressing adhesion molecules SELL and ITGA4 and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4. In vitro studies show that T1DM reduces interactions between blood CD56+ NK cells and decidual endothelial cells by reducing SELL and ITGA4-based interactions. To address the mechanisms by which specific lymphocyte subsets may be recruited from the circulation during pregnancy and whether these mechanisms are altered in T1DM, flow cytometry was used to examine eight peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (Type 1 (IL18R1+) and Type 2 (IL1RL1+) CD56bright NK, CD56dim NK, NKT and T cells) from control and T1DM women. Blood was collected serially over pregnancy and postpartum, and lymphocytes were compared for expression of homing receptors SELL, ITGA4, CXCR3, and CXCR4. The decline of Type 1/Type 2 immune cells in normal pregnancy was driven by an increase in Type 2 cells that did not occur in T1DM. CD56bright NK cells from control women had the highest expression of all four receptors with greatest expression in 2nd trimester. At this time, these receptors were expressed at very low levels by CD56bright NK cells from TIDM patients. Type 1/Type 2 NKT cell ratios were not influenced by either pregnancy or TIDM. Our results suggest that T1DM alters immunological balances during pregnancy with its greatest impact on CD56bright NK cells. This implicates CD56bright NK cells in diabetic pregnancy complications.

  4. Molecular analysis of the rare in(Lu) blood type: toward decoding the phenotypic outcome of haploinsufficiency for the transcription factor KLF1.

    PubMed

    Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Peyrard, Thierry; Vera, Eliane; Prehu, Claude; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Arnaud, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    KLF1 encodes an erythroid transcription factor, whose essential function in erythropoiesis has been demonstrated by extensive studies in mouse models. The first reported mutations in human KLF1 were found in individuals with a rare and asymptomatic blood type called In(Lu). Here, we show that KLF1 haploinsufficiency is responsible for the In(Lu) blood type, after redefining this peculiar blood type using flow cytometry to quantify the levels of BCAM and CD44 on red blood cells. We found 10 (seven novel) heterozygous KLF1 mutations responsible for the In(Lu) blood type. Although most were obligate loss-of-function mutations due to the truncation of the DNA-binding domain of KLF1, three were missense mutations that were located in its DNA-binding domain and impaired the transactivation capacity of KLF1 in vitro. We further showed that the levels of the hemoglobin variants HbF and HbA(2) were increased in the In(Lu) blood type, albeit differently. The levels of the membrane glycoproteins BCAM and CD44 were also differently reduced on In(Lu) red blood cells. This biochemical and genetic analysis of the In(Lu) blood type tackles the phenotypic outcome of haploinsufficiency for a transcription factor.

  5. Axial type self-bearing motor for axial flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohji; Masuzawa, Toru; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Ohmori, Kunihiro; Yamane, Takashi; Konishi, Yoshiaki; Fukahori, Shinya; Ueno, Satoshi; Kim, Seung-Jong

    2003-10-01

    An axial self-bearing motor is proposed which can drive an axial blood pump without physical contact. It is a functional combination of the bi-directional disc motor and the axial active magnetic bearing, where it actively controls single degree-of-freedom motion, while other motions such as lateral vibration are passively stable. For application to a blood pump, the proposed self-bearing motor has the advantages of simple structure and small size. Through the finite element method (FEM) analysis and the experimental test, its good feasibility is verified. Finally, the axial flow pump is fabricated using the developed magnetically suspended motor. The pump test is carried out and the results are discussed in detail.

  6. [Modification of DNA typing of blood stains by textile stain carriers].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, R; Weisser, H J

    1991-01-01

    Samples of 20 microliters blood were applicated von 55 different textiles, containing all usual materials for clothes, straight from the fabric and after thorough washing. DNA profiling was influenced only by blue jeans and blue terry towel straight from the fabric; in some of these samples there was an inhibition of the restriction enzyme digest that could not be prevented by an additional dialysis step.

  7. Site-specific conjugation of chain-terminal chelating polymers to Fab' fragments of anti-CEA mAb: effect of linkage type and polymer size on conjugate biodistribution in nude mice bearing human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Slinkin, M A; Curtet, C; Sai-Maurel, C; Gestin, J F; Torchilin, V P; Chatal, J F

    1992-01-01

    Polylysine-based chelating polymers were used for site-specific modification of anti-CEA mAb Fab' fragments via their SH group distal to the antigen-binding site of the antibody molecule. Conjugation was performed using chain-terminal (pyridyldithio)propionate or 4-(p-maleimidophenyl)butyrate moieties to form reducible (S-S) or stable (S-C) bonds between a polymer and Fab' molecule, respectively. One S-S conjugate (S-S9) and two different S-C conjugates (S-C3 and S-C9) were prepared using 3- and 9-kDa molecular weight polymers. No significant loss of immunoreactivity was observed in solid-phase immunoassay, 90-95% of 111In-labeled conjugates being bound to CEA-coated Sepharose beads. After labeling with 111In, the conjugates had a specific radioactivity of 90-120 microCi/micrograms. Injected in nude mice bearing LS 174T carcinoma, the conjugates produced different biodistribution patterns. S-S9 was practically unable to accumulate in tumor and produced very rapid blood clearance of radioactivity and high uptake of radioactivity in liver, spleen, and especially kidneys (225% ID/g 24 h postinjection). S-C3 and S-C9 produced practically the same blood clearances (much slower than that of S-S9) and significant tumor uptake (9-10% ID/g at 24 h). S-C3 gave significantly lower radioactivity in spleen, skin, and bones, and cleared more rapidly from liver and kidneys. Renal uptake for S-C3 and S-C9 was rather high (45% ID/g at 24 h), but much lower than for S-S9.

  8. [Zinc and copper blood plasma and erythrocyte value in adolescent with the different types of pathology].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E M; Bakanov, M I; Spichak, T V; Simonova, O I; Poliakova, S I; Surganova, A A; Kupriianova, O O; Gorelova, Zh Iu; Plats-Koldobenko, A N; Baranovskaia, Iu V; Gorinova, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis the value of the cation of zinc and copper in the blood plasma and erythrocytes were performed in the different diseases in children and adolescent. The patients with bronchopulmonary diseases, liver diseases, low cardiovascular malformation and growth inhibition were examined. Increase the value of the intracellular zinc and copper was detected in patients with the definite bronchopulmonary diseases, which can on the one hand, reflected the activation of the antioxidant protection system and by another hand, reflected destructive metalloproteinase. Decrease the value of the intracellular copper in bronchopulmonary patients with the lung emphysema and Kartagnera syndrome indicate about the falure of the compensatory reactions and needs the additional investigation. It was detected that copper content in the blood plasma and the copper accumulation in erythrocyte were decrease in patients with liver diseases in comparison with the health children. The increase of copper value in erythrocyte in children with low cardiovascular malformation was detected and need the additional investigation. In children with the growth inhibition was detected appreciable decrease the value of the free zinc and copper ions in erythrocytes and copper in the blood plasma, which can explained the physical developmental lagging.

  9. Ability of procalcitonin to diagnose bacterial infection and bacteria types compared with blood culture findings.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuji; Oikawa, Nozomi; Hariu, Maya; Fuke, Ryota; Seki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein serve as biomarkers of infection in patients with sepsis/bacteremia. The present study assessed the clinical characteristics of 280 patients with suspected sepsis who were admitted to Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Among the patients, 133 and 147 were positive and negative for PCT, respectively. Patients who were PCT positive were older and more frequently male, had reduced levels of platelets and albumin, and increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Patients who were PCT positive had significantly higher blood culture positivity compared with those who were PCT negative, and the sensitivity and specificity of PCT for detecting positive blood cultures were 74.5% and 59.1%, respectively. Escherichia coli was detected in PCT-positive patients, whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were frequently detected in PCT-negative patients. Levels of PCT were higher in the patients infected with gram-negative rods than those with gram-positive cocci. Furthermore, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria cases showed higher levels of PCT than those of non-ESBL cases. These results suggest that PCT may be a useful biomarker of sepsis, and it might serve as a strong tool to detect patients with severe gram-negative rod bacteremia including ESBL-producing bacteria cases early due to its relative high sensitivity.

  10. Ability of procalcitonin to diagnose bacterial infection and bacteria types compared with blood culture findings

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yuji; Oikawa, Nozomi; Hariu, Maya; Fuke, Ryota; Seki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein serve as biomarkers of infection in patients with sepsis/bacteremia. The present study assessed the clinical characteristics of 280 patients with suspected sepsis who were admitted to Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Among the patients, 133 and 147 were positive and negative for PCT, respectively. Patients who were PCT positive were older and more frequently male, had reduced levels of platelets and albumin, and increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Patients who were PCT positive had significantly higher blood culture positivity compared with those who were PCT negative, and the sensitivity and specificity of PCT for detecting positive blood cultures were 74.5% and 59.1%, respectively. Escherichia coli was detected in PCT-positive patients, whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were frequently detected in PCT-negative patients. Levels of PCT were higher in the patients infected with gram-negative rods than those with gram-positive cocci. Furthermore, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria cases showed higher levels of PCT than those of non-ESBL cases. These results suggest that PCT may be a useful biomarker of sepsis, and it might serve as a strong tool to detect patients with severe gram-negative rod bacteremia including ESBL-producing bacteria cases early due to its relative high sensitivity. PMID:27757046

  11. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, T.M.; Blehert, D.S.; Dunning, F.M.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Zeytin, F.N.; Samuel, M.D.; Tucker, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by F??rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  12. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Timothy M.; Blehert, David S.; Dunning, F. Mark; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Zeytin, Fusun N.; Samuel, Michael D.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity.

  13. Isolation of three important types of stem cells from the same samples of banked umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Phuc, Pham Van; Ngoc, Vu Bich; Lam, Dang Hoang; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Viet, Pham Quoc; Ngoc, Phan Kim

    2012-06-01

    It is known that umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of stem cells with practical and ethical advantages. Three important types of stem cells which can be harvested from umbilical cord blood and used in disease treatment are hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Since these stem cells have shown enormous potential in regenerative medicine, numerous umbilical cord blood banks have been established. In this study, we examined the ability of banked UCB collected to produce three types of stem cells from the same samples with characteristics of HSCs, MSCs and EPCs. We were able to obtain homogeneous plastic rapidly-adherent cells (with characteristics of MSCs), slowly-adherent (with characteristics of EPCs) and non-adherent cells (with characteristics of HSCs) from the mononuclear cell fractions of cryopreserved UCB. Using a protocol of 48 h supernatant transferring, we successfully isolated MSCs which expressed CD13, CD44 and CD90 while CD34, CD45 and CD133 negative, had typical fibroblast-like shape, and was able to differentiate into adipocytes; EPCs which were CD34, and CD90 positive, CD13, CD44, CD45 and CD133 negative, adherent with cobble-like shape; HSCs which formed colonies when cultured in MethoCult medium.

  14. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alnek, Kristi; Kisand, Kalle; Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  15. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  16. The Effect of Different Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries on Blood Concentration of Serum Amyloid A in Thoroughbred Racehorses

    PubMed Central

    Turło, Agnieszka; Cywińska, Anna; Czopowicz, Michał; Witkowski, Lucjan; Niedźwiedź, Artur; Słowikowska, Malwina; Borowicz, Hieronim; Jaśkiewicz, Anna; Winnicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Training-induced muscle, skeletal and joint trauma may result in acute phase response reflected by the changes in the blood concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) in racehorses. It remains yet unclear if such systemic reaction could be triggered by sport injuries and what is the impact of different types of musculoskeletal trauma on SAA concentrations in racehorses. This study aimed to determine changes in the SAA blood concentration in racehorses with different types of injuries of musculoskeletal system. Materials and Methods The study involved 28 racehorses diagnosed after the race with bone fractures (n = 7), dorsal metacarpal disease (n = 11), joint trauma (n = 4) or tendon and muscle trauma (n = 6) and 28 healthy control racehorses. Serum samples were collected twice, between 1 and 4 days of the injury or succesful completion of the race. SAA concentration was measured using the commercial ELISA kit. Differences between mean SAA concentration in respective groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results Mean SAA concentration within the first 4 days of the injury of muscle and tendon was significantly higher than in bone fractures, dorsal metacarpal disease, joint trauma or in the healthy horses (p<0,001). There were no significant differences between the other groups. Conclusions Strain injuries of muscle and tendons can cause a moderate increase in SAA blood concentration in racehorses, reflecting the occurrence of the acute phase response. Similar reaction is not observed in the stress-related bone injuries. PMID:26466121

  17. Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Karma L; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny

    2011-02-01

    The role of dietary cholesterol in people with diabetes has been little studied. We investigated the effect of a hypoenergetic high-protein high-cholesterol (HPHchol) diet compared to a similar amount of animal protein (high-protein low-cholesterol, HPLchol) on plasma lipids, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk markers in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of sixty-five participants with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (age 54·4 (sd 8·2) years; BMI 34·1 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) 2·67 (sd 0·10) mmol/l) were randomised to either HPHchol or HPLchol. Both hypoenergetic dietary interventions (6-7 MJ; 1·4-1·7 Mcal) and total carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio of 40:30:30 % were similar but differed in cholesterol content (HPHchol, 590 mg cholesterol; HPLchol, 213 mg cholesterol). HPHchol participants consumed two eggs per d, whereas HPHchol participants replaced the eggs with 100 g of lean animal protein. After 12 weeks, weight loss was 6·0 (sd 0·4) kg (P < 0·001). LDL-C and homocysteine remained unchanged. All the subjects reduced total cholesterol ( - 0·3 (sd 0·1) mmol/l, P < 0·001), TAG ( - 0·4 (sd 0·1) mmol/l, P < 0·001), non-HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, - 0·4 (sd 0·1) mmol/l, P < 0·001), apo-B ( - 0·04 (sd 0·02) mmol/l, P < 0·01), HbA1c ( - 0·6 (sd 0·1) %, P < 0·001), fasting blood glucose ( - 0·5 (sd 0·2) mmol/l, P < 0·01), fasting insulin ( - 1·7 (sd 0·7) mIU/l, P < 0·01), systolic blood pressure ( - 7·6 (sd 1·7) mmHg, P < 0·001) and diastolic blood pressure ( - 4·6 (sd 1·0) mmHg; P < 0·001). Significance was not altered by diet, sex, medication or amount of weight loss. HDL-C increased on HPHchol (+0·02 (sd 0·02) mmol/l) and decreased on HPLchol ( - 0·07 (sd 0·03) mmol/l, P < 0·05). Plasma folate and lutein increased more on HPHchol (P < 0·05). These results suggest that a high-protein energy-restricted diet high in

  18. Changes in Whole Blood Gene Expression in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Following Bariatric Surgery: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Stela Z.; Serre, David; Schauer, Philip; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A pilot study was performed in order to investigate the effects of bariatric surgery on whole blood gene expression profiles in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methodology/Principal Findings Whole blood from eleven obese subjects with type 2 diabetes was collected in PAXgene tubes prior to and 6–12 months after bariatric surgery. Total RNA was isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Illumina gene expression microarrays. Clinical and expression data were analyzed using a paired t-test, and correlations between changes in clinical trait and transcript levels were calculated. Pathways were identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and DAVID gene ontology software. Overall, bariatric surgery resulted in significant reduction of body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, and normalization of glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The expression levels of 204 transcripts, representing 200 unique genes, were significantly altered after bariatric surgery. Among the significantly regulated genes were GGT1, CAMP, DEFA1, LCN2, TP53, PDSS1, OLR1, CNTNAP5, DHCR24, HHAT and SARDH, which have been previously implicated in lipid metabolism, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes. Selected findings were replicated by quantitative real-time-PCR. The changes in expression of seven transcripts, WDR35, FLF45244, DHCR24, TIGD7, TOPBP1, TSHZ1, and FAM8A1 were strongly correlated with the changes in body weight, fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin content. The top pathways associated with gene expression changes after bariatric surgery was lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and gene expression. Two antimicrobial peptides were among the transcripts with the largest changes in gene expression after bariatric surgery. Conclusions/Significance Data from this pilot study suggest that whole blood expression levels of specific transcripts may be useful as biomarkers associated with susceptibility for type 2 diabetes and/or therapeutic

  19. Angiotensin type-2 (AT-2)-receptor activation reduces renal fibrosis in cyclosporine nephropathy: evidence for blood pressure independent effect

    PubMed Central

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira R.T.; Carletti, Raffaella; Roma, Francesca; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Stella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Compound 21 (C21), selective agonist of angiotensin type-2 (AT-2) receptors, shows anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models of hypertension and nephroprotection in diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of C21 in cyclosporine nephropathy, which is characterized mainly by tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Ten days before and during the experimental periods, low-salt diet was administered to Sprague–Dawley rats. Cyclosporine-A (CsA; 15 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal injection) and CsA plus C21 (0.3 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal injection) were administered for 1 and 4 weeks. Control groups were left without any treatment. Blood pressure (plethysmographic method) and 24 h urinary albumin excretion were measured once a week. At the end of the experimental protocols, the kidneys were excised for histomorphometric analysis of renal fibrosis and for immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrates and type I and type IV collagen expression. After 1 and 4 weeks, the rats treated with CsA showed a significant increase (P<0.01) in blood pressure, no significant changes in urinary albumin excretion and a significant increase (P<0.01) in glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates as compared with the control rats. Treatment with C21 did not modify the CsA dependent increase of blood pressure, which was higher than in control rats, but after 4 weeks of treatment significantly reduced (P<0.01) glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, type 1 collagen expression and macrophage infiltration, as compared with rats treated with cyclosporine. The administration of C21 showed a protective effect on cyclosporine nephropathy, decreasing renal fibrosis and macrophage infiltration. These data suggest that C21 may counteract tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, the most potent predictor of the progression of renal diseases. PMID:27679859

  20. A 2MASS/AllWISE Search for Extremely Red L Dwarfs: The Discovery of Several Likely L Type Members of β Pic, AB Dor, Tuc-Hor, Argus, and the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Windsor, James; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2017-04-01

    Young brown dwarfs share many properties with directly imaged giant extrasolar planets. They therefore provide unique laboratories for investigating the full range of temperature and mass encompassed by the growing collection of planets discovered outside our Solar System. Furthermore, if they can be tied to a particular group of coeval stars, they also provide vital anchor points for low-mass empirical isochrones. We have developed a novel procedure for identifying such objects based on their unique 2MASS and AllWISE colors. Using our search criteria, we have identified 50 new, late-type L dwarf candidates, 47 of which are spectroscopically confirmed as L dwarfs with follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy. We evaluate the potential membership of these objects in nearby, young moving groups using their proper motions, photometric distance estimates, and spectroscopic indicators of youth, and find seven likely L-type members belonging to the β Pictoris moving group, the AB Doradus moving group, the Tucana-Horologium association, or the Argus association, in addition to several lower probability members. Also found are two late-type (L5 and L6) potential members of the nearby Hyades cluster (WISEA J043642.75+190134.8 and WISEA J044105.56+213001.5).

  1. Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients have an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing that is associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and increased oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the circadian variability of blood pressure and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) in healthy siblings of T1D patients vs healthy control subjects who had no first-degree relative with T1D. Secondary aims of the study were to explore the influence of both cardiovascular autonomic function and erythrocyte electron transfer activity as oxidative marker on the ambulatory blood pressure profile. Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was undertaken in 25 controls, 20 T1D patients and 20 siblings. In addition to laboratory examination (including homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity) and clinical testing of autonomic function, we measured the rate of oxidant-induced erythrocyte electron transfer to extracellular ferricyanide (RBC vfcy). Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP) midline-estimating statistic of rhythm and pulse pressure were higher in T1D patients and correlated positively with diabetes duration and RBC vfcy; autonomic dysfunction was associated with diastolic BP ecphasia and increased AASI. Siblings had higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, larger SBP amplitude, and higher AASI than controls. Daytime SBP was positively, independently associated with BMI and RBC vfcy. Among non-diabetic people, there was a significant correlation between AASI and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Siblings of T1D patients exhibited a cluster of sub-clinical metabolic abnormalities associated with consensual perturbations in BP variability. Moreover, our findings support, in a clinical setting, the proposed role of transplasma membrane electron transport systems in vascular pathobiology. PMID:20920366

  2. Blood versus urine ketone monitoring in a pediatric cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes: a crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Goffinet, Line; Barrea, Thierry; Beauloye, Véronique; Lysy, Philippe A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to determine the influence of routine ketone monitoring on hyperglycemic events (HE) and ketosis in youngsters with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: Our single-site, controlled and randomized study was conducted on children and adolescents with T1D outside of remission phase. During two crossover periods of 6 months, patients (n = 22) experiencing HE tested ketones alternatively with a blood ketone meter or urine ketone test strips and gave their opinion on screening methods after completion of clinical trial. Moreover, we evaluated levels of awareness of ketone production in a series of 58 patients and sometimes parents via a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results: Based on self-monitoring data, patients experienced a mean of 4.8 HE/month (range 0–9.3). Patients performed accurate ketone tests more frequently during urine (46%) than during blood-testing (29%) periods (p < 0.05); while globally, 50% of ketone tests were inaccurate (i.e. without HE). Ketosis occurred significantly more often during urine (46.4%) than during blood (14.8%) monitoring (p = 0.01), although no episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were noticed. Duration of hyperglycemia was not different whether patients measured ketones or not, suggesting that ketone monitoring did not affect correction of glycemia. Patients evaluated blood monitoring more frequently as being practical, reliable, and useful compared with urine testing. Scores in the awareness questionnaire were globally low (36.8%) without difference between patients and their parents. Conclusions: Although our study shows differences in outcomes (e.g. accurate use, detection of ketosis) of urine versus blood ketone monitoring, these did not affect the occurrence of HE. Whereas ketone monitoring is part of standardized diabetes education, its implementation in daily routine remains difficult, partly because patient awareness about mechanisms of ketosis is lacking. PMID:28203360

  3. Using Behavioral Interventions to Assist Children with Type 1 Diabetes Manage Blood Glucose Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasecki, Kim; Olympia, Daniel; Clark, Elaine; Jenson, William; Heathfield, Lora Tuesday

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and management of chronic disease processes on children occurs across multiple settings, placing demands for consultation and expertise on school personnel, including school psychologists. One such chronic condition in children is type I diabetes. Children with type I insulin dependent diabetes mellitus exhibit high rates of…

  4. Elastic properties of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica at the mantle temperature and pressure: an ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R.; Wu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Stishovite is stable at 9~50GPa and further transformed into CaCl2-type silica. It is estimated that stishovite makes up more than 20% of the subducted oceanic crust in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle. Therefore, the properties of stishovite and its polymorph are critical for us to understand the mantle convection. We calculated the elastic constants of stishovite and CaCl2-type silica at high-temperature and -pressure using the new method developed by Wu and Wentzcovitch [1], which requires only tenth of computational time of the conventional first principles method. The elastic properties of stishovite show not only strong pressure dependence but also temperature dependence. By increasing temperature, the shear instability of stishovite is shifted to an elevated pressure with a slope of ~5.4±1.4 MPa/K. The softening of the shear modulus and the positive Clapeyron slope result in crossing of the sound velocities at different temperatures, which leads to the unusual positive temperature dependence of the sound velocities around the phase boundary. The transition from stishovite to the CaCl2-type silica at the lower mantle's temperature occurs at a depth far deeper than 1200 km and is accompanied by a velocity jump ~ 0.98±0.08 km/s in S wave velocity (VS) and ~ 0.45±0.15 km/s in P wave velocity (VP). This transition is likely related to the seismic discontinuity at the depth ~1670 km in the vicinity of Mariana Island. The unusual positive temperature dependence of VS of stishovite and strong anisotropy of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica around the phase boundary provide potential ways to identify the origin of the seismic discontinuity [2]. [1]. Wu, Z., Wentzcovitch, R. M., Phys. Rev. B 83, 184115 (2011) [2] Yang, R., Wu, Z., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. in press.

  5. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λadjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12–1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λadjusted = 1.00–1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models. PMID:26799745

  6. Estimation of Cell-Type Composition Including T and B Cell Subtypes for Whole Blood Methylation Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Waite, Lindsay L; Weaver, Benjamin; Day, Kenneth; Li, Xinrui; Roberts, Kevin; Gibson, Andrew W; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Absher, Devin M; Tiwari, Hemant K

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation levels vary markedly by cell-type makeup of a sample. Understanding these differences and estimating the cell-type makeup of a sample is an important aspect of studying DNA methylation. DNA from leukocytes in whole blood is simple to obtain and pervasive in research. However, leukocytes contain many distinct cell types and subtypes. We propose a two-stage model that estimates the proportions of six main cell types in whole blood (CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, monocytes, B cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells) as well as subtypes of T and B cells. Unlike previous methods that only estimate overall proportions of CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cells, and B cells, our model is able to estimate proportions of naïve, memory, and regulatory CD4+ T cells as well as naïve and memory CD8+ T cells and naïve and memory B cells. Using real and simulated data, we are able to demonstrate that our model is able to reliably estimate proportions of these cell types and subtypes. In studies with DNA methylation data from Illumina's HumanMethylation450k arrays, our estimates will be useful both for testing for associations of cell type and subtype composition with phenotypes of interest as well as for adjustment purposes to prevent confounding in epigenetic association studies. Additionally, our method can be easily adapted for use with whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data or any other genome-wide methylation data platform.

  7. Reactions of latent prints exposed to blood.

    PubMed

    Praska, Nicole; Langenburg, Glenn

    2013-01-10

    We explored whether an undeveloped latent print (fingermark) exposed to blood and later developed by enhancement with blood reagents such as amido black (AB) or leucocrystal violet (LCV) could appear as a genuine blood mark. We examined three different experimental conditions. In Experiment I, fingermark residue only was tested, as a control to confirm that fingermark residue alone does not react with the blood reagents AB and LCV. Experiment II investigated whether latent fingermarks exposed to blood dilutions could be treated with AB or LCV and subsequently appear as a genuine blood mark enhanced with AB or LCV. Experiment III tested whether latent fingermarks exposed to whole blood could be processed with AB or LCV and subsequently appear as a genuine blood mark enhanced with AB or LCV. The present study found that indeed, fingermark residue alone does not react with the blood reagents AB and LCV. In Experiment II, an interaction occurred between the fingermark residue and the diluted blood that caused the ridges to appear a red color. In the present study, this interaction is called a faux blood mark. While the faux blood mark phenomenon occurred most often following exposure to diluted blood, it did not occur consistently, and a predictable pattern could not be established. However, the reaction occurred more frequently following extended fingermark residue drying times. Faux blood marks are distinguishable from genuine blood marks prior to enhancement with blood reagents. Following treatment with blood reagents, it became increasingly difficult to determine whether the enhanced mark was a genuine blood print or a latent fingermark exposed to diluted blood. Latent fingermarks exposed to whole blood often resulted in a void prior to enhancement, but following treatment with blood reagents, were difficult to distinguish from a genuine blood mark enhanced with blood reagents.

  8. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 polymorphism in Koreans defined by sequence-based typing of 4128 cord blood units.

    PubMed

    Huh, J Y; Yi, D Y; Eo, S-H; Cho, H; Park, M H; Kang, M S

    2013-12-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes differ significantly among different ethnic groups, and high-resolution typing methods allow for the detection of a wider spectrum of HLA variations. In this study, HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 genotypes were analysed in 4128 cord blood units obtained from Korean women using the sequence-based typing method. A total of 44 HLA-A, 67 HLA-B and 48 HLA-DRB1 most probable alleles were identified. Of these, high-frequency alleles found at a frequency of ≥5% were 6 HLA-A (A*02:01, A*02:06, A*11:01, A*24:02, A*31:01, A*33:03), 5 HLA-B (B*15:01, B*44:03, B*51:01, B*54:01, B*58:01) and 7 HLA-DRB1 (DRB1*01:01, DRB1*04:05, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:03, DRB1*09:01, DRB1*13:02, DRB1*15:01) alleles. At each locus, A*02, B*15 and DRB1*04 generic groups were most diverse at allelic level, consisting of 8, 11 and 10 different alleles, respectively. Two- and three-locus haplotypes estimated by the maximum likelihood method revealed 73 A-B, 74 B-DRB1 and 42 A-B-DRB1 haplotypes with frequencies of ≥0.3%. A total of 193 A-B-DRB1 haplotypes found at a frequency of ≥0.1% were presented, and the six most common haplotypes were A*33:03-B*44:03-DRB1*13:02 (4.6%), A*33:03-B*58:01-DRB1*13:02 (3.0%), A*24:02-B*07:02-DRB1*01:01 (2.7%), A*33:03-B*44:03-DRB1*07:01 (2.5%), A*30:01-B*13:02-DRB1*07:01 (2.2%) and A*24:02-B*52:01-DRB1*15:02 (2.1%). Compared with previous smaller scale studies, this study further delineated the allelic and haplotypic diversity in Koreans including low-frequency alleles and haplotypes. Information obtained in this study will be useful for the search for unrelated bone marrow donors and for anthropologic and disease association studies.

  9. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  10. Lifestyle monitoring with the use of an earphone-type thermometer, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and a new wristwatch-type pulsimeter with accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kanako; Yamasue, Kotaro; Tochikubo, Osamu; Terauchi, Yasuo; Mizushima, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among 24-h blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR) and core temperature by using an ambulatory BP monitoring, a new wristwatch-type pulsimeter with accelerometer (WPA) and an ear thermometer simultaneously. Our results suggest that the ear temperature which reflects the core body temperature was lowest at base PR during sleep and 75% of normotensives and 54% of subjects without hypertensive medication had a significant correlation between BP and PR. Diabetic subjects showed a significantly higher PR during sleep than non-diabetic subjects. Three types of equipments, especially a new WPA, are expected to be useful for daily lifestyle monitoring to evaluate risk of complications of hypertension and diabetes.

  11. Typing (A/B) and subtyping (H1/H3/H5) of influenza A viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Suwannakarn, Kamol; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Chamnanpood, Pornchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2008-09-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR was developed in two assays by using primers and a number of specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-mediated TaqMan probes which increase the thermal stability of oligonucleotides. The first assay consisted of primers and probes specific to the matrix (M1) gene of influenza A virus, matrix (M1) gene of influenza B virus and GAPDH gene of host cells for typing of influenza virus and verification by an internal control, respectively. The other assay employed primers and probes specific to the hemagglutinin gene of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes in order to identify the three most prominent subtypes of influenza A capable of infecting humans. The specificity results did not produce any cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses or other subtypes of influenza A viruses (H2, H4 and H6-H15), indicating the high specificity of the primers and probes used. The sensitivity of the assays which depend on the type or subtype being detected was approximately 10 to 10(3)copies/microl that depended on the types or subtypes being detected. Furthermore, the assays demonstrated 100% concordance with 35 specimens infected with influenza A viruses and 34 specimens infected with other respiratory viruses, which were identified by direct nucleotide sequencing. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays have proven advantageous in terms of rapidity, specificity and sensitivity for human specimens and thus present a feasible and attractive method for large-scale detection aimed at controlling influenza outbreaks.

  12. Ablation of the N-type calcium channel ameliorates diabetic nephropathy with improved glycemic control and reduced blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shoko; Yokoi, Hideki; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Masato; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Fujikura, Junji; Naito, Masaki; Kuwabara, Takashige; Imamaki, Hirotaka; Ishii, Akira; Saleem, Moin A.; Numata, Tomohiro; Mori, Yasuo; Nakao, Kazuwa; Yanagita, Motoko; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the N- and L-type calcium channel lessens renal injury in kidney disease patients. The significance of specific blockade of α1 subunit of N-type calcium channel, Cav2.2, in diabetic nephropathy, however, remains to be clarified. To examine functional roles, we mated Cav2.2−/− mice with db/db (diabetic) mice on the C57BLKS background. Cav2.2 was localized in glomeruli including podocytes and in distal tubular cells. Diabetic Cav2.2−/− mice significantly reduced urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hyperfiltration, blood glucose levels, histological deterioration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with decreased urinary catecholamine compared to diabetic Cav2.2+/+ mice. Interestingly, diabetic heterozygous Cav2.2+/− mice also decreased albuminuria, although they exhibited comparable systolic blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity and creatinine clearance to diabetic Cav2.2+/+ mice. Consistently, diabetic mice with cilnidipine, an N-/L-type calcium channel blocker, showed a reduction in albuminuria and improvement of glomerular changes compared to diabetic mice with nitrendipine. In cultured podocytes, depolarization-dependent calcium responses were decreased by ω-conotoxin, a Cav2.2-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, reduction of nephrin by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in podocytes was abolished with ω-conotoxin, cilnidipine or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, Cav2.2 inhibition exerts renoprotective effects against the progression of diabetic nephropathy, partly by protecting podocytes. PMID:27273361

  13. A reappraisal of the blood glucose homeostat which comprehensively explains the type 2 diabetes mellitus–syndrome X complex

    PubMed Central

    Koeslag, Johan H; Saunders, Peter T; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose concentrations are unaffected by exercise despite very high rates of glucose flux. The plasma ionised calcium levels are even more tightly controlled after meals and during lactation. This implies ‘integral control’. However, pairs of integral counterregulatory controllers (e.g. insulin and glucagon, or calcitonin and parathyroid hormone) cannot operate on the same controlled variable, unless there is some form of mutual inhibition. Flip-flop functional coupling between pancreatic α- and β-cells via gap junctions may provide such a mechanism. Secretion of a common inhibitory chromogranin by the parathyroids and the thyroidal C-cells provides another. Here we describe how the insulin:glucagon flip-flop controller can be complemented by growth hormone, despite both being integral controllers. Homeostatic conflict is prevented by somatostatin-28 secretion from both the hypothalamus and the pancreatic islets. Our synthesis of the information pertaining to the glucose homeostat that has accumulated in the literature predicts that disruption of the flip-flop mechanism by the accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes mellitus will lead to hyperglucagonaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and impaired insulin responsiveness to elevated blood glucose levels. It explains syndrome X (or metabolic syndrome) as incipient type 2 diabetes in which the glucose control system, while impaired, can still maintain blood glucose at the desired level. It also explains why it is characterised by high plasma insulin levels and low plasma growth hormone levels, despite normoglycaemia, and how this leads to central obesity, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease in both syndrome X and type 2 diabetes. PMID:12717005

  14. Intracellular Immunization of Human Fetal Cord Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells with a Ribozyme Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mang; Leavitt, Mark C.; Maruyama, Midori; Yamada, Osamu; Young, Dennis; Ho, Anthony D.; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1995-01-01

    Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection may ultimately require targeting of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we used retroviral vectors carrying the ribozyme gene to transduce CD34^+ cells from human fetal cord blood. Transduction and ribozyme expression had no apparent adverse effect on cell differentiation and/or proliferation. The macrophage-like cells, differentiated from the stem/progenitor cells in vitro, expressed the ribozyme gene and resisted infection by a macrophage tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1. These results suggest the feasibility of stem cell gene therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

  15. Large-scale survey of rates of achieving targets for blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids and prevalence of complications in type 2 diabetes (JDDM 40)

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hiroki; Oishi, Mariko; Takamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Katsuya; Shirabe, Shin-ichiro; Uchida, Daigaku; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Kurihara, Yoshio; Araki, Shin-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The fact that population with type 2 diabetes mellitus and bodyweight of patients are increasing but diabetes care is improving makes it important to explore the up-to-date rates of achieving treatment targets and prevalence of complications. We investigated the prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications and rates of achieving treatment targets through a large-scale multicenter-based cohort. Research design and methods A cross-sectional nationwide survey was performed on 9956 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who consecutively attended primary care clinics. The prevalence of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications and rates of achieving targets of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, and lipids of low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.1/≥1.0 mmol/L and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.8 mmol/L were investigated. Results The rates of achieving targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids were 52.9%, 46.8% and 65.5%, respectively. The prevalence of microvascular complications was ∼28% each, 6.4% of which had all microvascular complications, while that of macrovascular complications was 12.6%. With an increasing duration of diabetes, the rate of achieving target HbA1c decreased and the prevalence of each complication increased despite increased use of diabetes medication. The prevalence of each complication decreased according to the number achieving the 3 treatment targets and was lower in subjects without macrovascular complications than those with. Adjustments for considerable covariates exhibited that each complication was closely inter-related, and the achievement of each target was significantly associated with being free of each complication. Conclusions Almost half of the subjects examined did not meet the recommended targets. The risk of each complication was significantly affected by 1 on-target treatment (inversely) and the

  16. AB152. The concomitant increase or decrease of several cytokines in prostatic secretion of patients with type-IIIA and type-IV prostatitis: the two subtypes of prostatitis may have a similar pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunlei; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Background Because the prevalence of chronic prostatitis (CP) subgroup can not be determined by routine epidemiologic methods (questionnaires), little research has been done with regard to each subtype of CP. In addition, further description of prostate cytokines may help to characterize the different types of prostatitis, and improve our understanding of the prostate immune responses in patients with type-IIIA, type-IIIB and type-IV CP. Methods and findings The study population comprised 2,887 men aged 18-78 years at second phase recruitment of a population-based cohort in China. The CP patients and healthy controls were defined by the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index. Meanwhile, EPS specimens were collected and the leukocyte in EPS was counted. We analyzed the levels of 47 cytokines in the EPS in 118 individuals (30/health, 30/type-IIIB, 29/type-IIIA, 29/type-III IV) randomly selected from present population. Prevalence of CP (26.78%/total, 1.49%/type-IIIA, 6.27%/type-IIIB and 19.02%/type-IV) is prevalent in China, and the prevalence of prostate inflammation (type-IIIA or type-IV CP) between the symptomatic men (type-IIIA/type-IIIA + IIIB, 19.20%) and asymptomatic men (type-IV/type-IV + health, 20.62%) is similar. While IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17, basic FGF, G-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-16 and IL-18 levels were much higher in the type-IIIA and type-IV patient groups than in the type-IIIB and control groups, the levels of GM-CSF, PDGF-BB, SCGF-β and TNF-β was significantly lower in the type-IIIA and type-IV groups. The level of IL-1ra was clearly lower in the type-IIIB group, but LIF and β-NGF were elevated in type-IIIB groups of patients compared to controls type-IIIA and type-IV groups. Conclusions We think that type-IIIA and type-IV CP may have a similar pathogenesis, but type-IIIB CP may be a different disease with different pathogenesis.

  17. Pharmacogenetic analysis of captopril effects on blood pressure: possible role of the Ednrb (endothelin receptor type B) candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Zídek, V; Silhavý, J; Simáková, M; Mlejnek, P; Vaněčková, I; Kuneš, J; Pravenec, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to search for genetic determinants associated with antihypertensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. Linkage and correlation analyses of captopril-induced effects on blood pressure (BP) with renal transcriptome were performed in the BXH/HXB recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Brown Norway (BN-Lx) progenitors. Variability of blood pressure lowering effects of captopril among RI strains was continuous suggesting a polygenic mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis of captopril-induced BP effects revealed a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15. This QTL colocalized with cis regulated expression QTL (eQTL) for the Ednrb (endothelin receptor type B) gene in the kidney (SHR allele was associated with increased renal expression) and renal expression of Ednrb correlated with captopril-induced BP effects. These results suggest that blood pressure lowering effects of ACE inhibitor captopril may be modulated by the variants at the Ednrb locus.

  18. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Jk(a) and Jk(b) antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting.

  19. Cerebral Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Measured With Positron Emission Tomography Are Decreased in Human Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Larissa W.; Huisman, Marc C.; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Hoetjes, Nikie J.; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical systemic microvascular dysfunction exists in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that microangiopathy, resulting from long-standing systemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may be generalized to the brain, resulting in changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in these patients. We performed dynamic [15O]H2O and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose brain positron emission tomography scans to measure CBF and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu), respectively, in 30 type 1 diabetic patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls after an overnight fast. Regions of interest were automatically delineated on coregistered magnetic resonance images and full kinetic analysis was performed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in patients versus controls. Total gray matter CBF was 9%, whereas CMRglu was 21% lower in type 1 diabetic subjects versus control subjects. We conclude that at real-life fasting glucose and insulin levels, type 1 diabetes is associated with decreased resting cerebral glucose metabolism, which is only partially explained by the decreased CBF. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than generalized microangiopathy account for the altered CMRglu observed in well-controlled type 1 diabetes. PMID:23530004

  20. Analysis of HCV genotypes from blood donors shows three new HCV type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Shinji, Toshiyuki; Kyaw, Yi Yi; Gokan, Katsunori; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Ochi, Koji; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mizushima, Takaaki; Fujioka, Shin-ichi; Shiraha, Hidenori; Lwin, Aye Aye; Shiratori, Yasushi; Mizokami, Masashi; Khin, Myo; Miyahara, Masayuki; Okada, Shigeru; Koide, Norio

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Myanmar in comparison with the rest of Southeast Asia is not well known. Serum samples were obtained from 201 HCV antibody-positive volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Of these, the antibody titers of 101 samples were checked by serial dilution using HCV antibody PA test II and Terasaki microplate as a low-cost method. To compare antibody titers by this method and RNA identification, we also checked HCV-RNA using the Amplicor 2.0 test. Most high-titer groups were positive for HCV-RNA. Of the 201 samples, 110 were successfully polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified. Among them, 35 (31.8%) were of genotype 1, 52 (47.3%) were of genotype 3, and 23 (20.9%) were of type 6 variants, and phylogenetic analysis of these type 6 variants revealed that 3 new type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar. We named the subgroups M6-1, M6-2, and M6-3. M6-1 and M6-2 were relatively close to types 8 and 9, respectively. M6-3, though only found in one sample, was a brand-new subgroup. These subtypes were not seen in Vietnam, where type 6 group variants are widely spread. These findings may be useful for analyzing how and when these subgroups were formed.

  1. Long-Term Reduction in Peripheral Blood HIV Type 1 Reservoirs Following Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Timothy J.; Hu, Zixin; Li, Jonathan Z.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Busch, Michael P.; Keating, Sheila M.; Gallien, Sebastien; Lin, Nina H.; Giguel, Francoise F.; Lavoie, Laura; Ho, Vincent T.; Armand, Philippe; Soiffer, Robert J.; Sagar, Manish; LaCasce, Ann S.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The long-term impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoirs in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is largely unknown. Methods. We studied the effects of a reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HSCT from donors with wild-type–CCR5+ cells on HIV-1 peripheral blood reservoirs in 2 patients heterozygous for the ccr5Δ32 mutation. In-depth analyses of the HIV-1 reservoir size in peripheral blood, coreceptor use, and specific antibody responses were performed on samples obtained before and up to 3.5 years after HSCT receipt. Results. Although HIV-1 DNA was readily detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and 2–3 months after HSCT receipt, HIV-1 DNA and RNA were undetectable in PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, or plasma up to 21 and 42 months after HSCT. The loss of detectable HIV-1 correlated temporally with full donor chimerism, development of graft-versus-host disease, and decreases in HIV-specific antibody levels. Conclusions. The ability of donor cells to engraft without evidence of ongoing HIV-1 infection suggests that HIV-1 replication may be fully suppressed during cART and does not contribute to maintenance of viral reservoirs in peripheral blood in our patients. HSCTs with wild-type–CCR5+ donor cells can lead to a sustained reduction in the size of the peripheral reservoir of HIV-1. PMID:23460751

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes and prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karoline de Morais, Pâmella; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Alves de Almeida, Jeeser; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed. PMID:25642036

  3. Type I interferons contribute to experimental cerebral malaria development in response to sporozoite or blood-stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Jennifer; Fauconnier, Mathilde; Coquard, Laurie; Gilles, Maïlys; Meme, Sandra; Szeremeta, Frederic; Fick, Lizette; Franetich, Jean-François; Jacobs, Muazzam; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Beloeil, Jean-Claude; Mazier, Dominique; Ryffel, Bernhard; Quesniaux, Valerie F J

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Although T-cell activation and type II IFN-γ are required for Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-induced murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), the role of type I IFN-α/β in ECM development remains unclear. Here, we address the role of the IFN-α/β pathway in ECM devel-opment in response to hepatic or blood-stage PbA infection, using mice deficient for types I or II IFN receptors. While IFN-γR1⁻/⁻ mice were fully resistant, IFNAR1⁻/⁻ mice showed delayed and partial protection to ECM after PbA infection. ECM resistance in IFN-γR1⁻/⁻ mice correlated with unaltered cerebral microcirculation and absence of ischemia, while WT and IFNAR1⁻/⁻ mice developed distinct microvascular pathologies. ECM resistance appeared to be independent of parasitemia. Instead, key mediators of ECM were attenuated in the absence of IFNAR1, including PbA-induced brain sequestration of CXCR3⁺-activated CD8⁺ T cells. This was associated with reduced expression of Granzyme B, IFN-γ, IL-12Rβ2, and T-cell-attracting chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in IFNAR1⁻/⁻ mice, more so in the absence of IFN-γR1. Therefore, the type I IFN-α/β receptor pathway contributes to brain T-cell responses and microvascular pathology, although it is not as essential as IFN-γ for the development of cerebral malaria upon hepatic or blood-stage PbA infection.

  4. Diabetes Numeracy and Blood Glucose Control: Association With Type of Diabetes and Source of Care

    PubMed Central

    Zaugg, Stephanie D.; Dogbey, Godwin; Collins, Karen; Reynolds, Sharon; Batista, Carter; Brannan, Grace; Shubrook, Jay H.

    2014-01-01

    In Brief Limited diabetes numeracy may be an important factor affecting diabetes care and treatment adherence. This study assessed the relationship between the Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT-15 score) and patient and treatment variables. Patients who had type 1 diabetes and those who received care from specialty centers had higher levels of numeracy, but this did not translate into improved glucose control. PMID:25646940

  5. Development of Lorentz force-type self-bearing motor for an alternative axial flow blood pump design.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2006-05-01

    A Lorentz force-type self-bearing motor was developed to provide delivery of both motoring torque and levitation force for an alternative axial flow blood pump design with an enclosed impeller. The axial flow pumps currently available introduce electromagnetic coupling from the motor's stator to the impeller by means of permanent magnets (PMs) embedded in the tips of the pump's blades. This design has distinct disadvantages, for example, pumping efficiency and electromagnetic coupling transmission are compromised by the constrained or poor geometry of the blades and limited pole width of the PMs, respectively. In this research, a Lorentz force-type self-bearing motor was developed. It is composed of (i) an eight-pole PM hollow-cylindrical rotor assembly supposedly to house and enclose the impeller of an axial flow blood pump, and (ii) a six-pole stator with two sets of copper wire and different winding configurations to provide the motoring torque and levitating force for the rotor assembly. MATLAB's xPC Target interface hardware was used as the rapid prototyping tool for the development of the controller for the self-bearing motor. Experimental results on a free/simply supported rotor assembly validated the design feasibility and control algorithm effectiveness in providing both the motoring torque and levitation force for the rotor. When levitated, a maximum orbital displacement of 0.3 mm corresponding to 1050 rpm of the rotor was measured by two eddy current probes placed in the orthogonal direction. This design has the advantage of eliminating the trade-off between motoring torques, levitating force, and pumping efficiency of previous studies. It also indicated the benefits of enclosed-impeller design as having good dynamic response, linearity, and better reliability. The nonmechanical contact feature between rotating and stationary parts will further reduce hemolysis and thromboembolitic tendencies in a typical blood pump application.

  6. Angiotensin Type-2 (AT-2)-Receptor activation reduces renal fibrosis in cyclosporine nephropathy: Evidence for blood-pressure independent effect.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira R T; Carletti, Raffaella; Roma, Francesca; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Stella, Andrea

    2016-09-27

    Compound 21 (C21), selective agonist of AT2 receptors, shows antinflammatory effects in hypertension and nephroprotection in diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of C21 in cyclosporine nephropathy, which is characterized mainly by tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Ten days before and during the experimental periods, low-salt diet was administered to Sprague Dawley rats. Cyclosporine-A (15mg/kg/day, i.p.) and cyclosporine-A plus C21 (0.3 mg/kg /day, i.p) were administered for 1 and 4 weeks. Control groups was left without any treatment. Blood pressure (plethysmographic method) and 24 hour albuminuria were measured once a week. At the end of the experiments, the kidneys were excised for histomorphometric analysis of renal fibrosis and for immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrates and type I and IV collagen expression.
    After 1 and 4 weeks, the rats treated with cyclosporine showed a significant increase (p <0.01) in blood pressure, no significant changes in albuminuria, a significant increase (p <0.01) in glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates as compared to the control rats. Treatment with C21 did not modify the cyclosporine dependent increase of blood pressure, which was higher than in control rats, but after 4 weeks of treatment significantly reduced (p <0.01) glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, type 1 collagen expression and macrophage infiltration, as compared to rats treated with cyclosporine.The administration of C21 showed a protective effect on cyclosporine nephropathy, decreasing renal fibrosis and macrophage infiltration. These data suggest that C21 may counteract tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, the most potent predictor of the progression of renal diseases.

  7. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... donated. Top What is the most common blood type? The approximate distribution of blood types in the ... or to organize mobile blood drives. In addition, monetary donations are always welcome to help ensure that ...

  8. Effects of physical training on endothelial function and limb blood flow in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Mette Paulli; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Olsen, David Benee; Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra; Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Stallknecht, Bente; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Vaag, Allan; Dela, Flemming

    2007-10-01

    The term "endothelial dysfunction" refers to the inability or attenuated effect of the endothelial cells in participating in the relaxation of the adjacent smooth muscle, thus causing less vasodilation. Although endothelial dysfunction is often seen in patients with type 2 diabetes, it does not necessarily follow that insulin resistance and (or) hyperglycemia is causing the inability to respond properly to vasodilatory stimuli. Rather, this could be related to the impact of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors that are almost invariably present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The impact of physical training - or the opposite, inactivity - on endothelial function is not fully elucidated. Some studies have shown positive effects of physical training, whereas others have not. In general, physical training can improve endothelial function when this is impaired. However, physical training does not seem to have any effect on endothelial function when this is normal.

  9. Association of Whole Blood Viscosity With Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Independent Association With Post-Breakfast Triglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Satomi; Takenouchi, Akiko; Uchida, Junko; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kurata, Miki; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Background Associations of whole blood viscosity (WBV) with metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been extensively studied in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Intrapersonal means of 12 measurements of waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and those of six measurements of fasting and post-breakfast triglycerides (TG) during 12 months were calculated in a cohort of 168 patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on these means, MS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria with the Asian definition of abdominal obesity. WBV was calculated from hematocrit and total serum protein concentrations by a validated formula. Results Diabetes patients with MS (n = 77) had higher WBV as compared to those without MS (6.38 ± 0.06 vs. 6.10 ± 0.07 cP, P = 0.004). As the number of MS components increased, WBV increased (component number 1: 6.12 ± 0.10, 2: 6.09 ± 0.10, 3: 6.37 ± 0.08, 4: 6.42 ± 0.10, 5: 6.30 ± 0.15 cP, P for trends = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male gender, diastolic BP and post-breakfast TG were determinants of WBV independent of fasting TG, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (R2 = 0.258). Conclusions Both the presence of MS and the number of MS components were associated with higher WBV in patients with type 2 diabetes. Physicians need to perform a close follow-up of type 2 diabetes patients with MS on inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporters 2, which may increase stroke risk associated with an increase in hematocrit and therefore blood viscosity. Post-breakfast TG was an independent determinant of WBV. Elevated WBV may represent an important confounder of the relationship between MS, postprandial hyperlipidemia and elevated cardiovascular risk in this population. PMID:28270893

  10. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    PubMed

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  11. Cooperative Effects of Corticosteroids and Catecholamines upon Immune Deviation of the Type-1/Type-2 Cytokine Balance in Favor of Type-2 Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Sams, Clarence F.; Marshall, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show strong associations between stress and altered immune function. In vivo studies of chronic and acute stress have demonstrated that cognitive stressors are strongly correlated with high levels of catecholamines (CT) and corticosteroids (CS). Although both CS and CT individually can inhibit the production of T-helper 1 (TH1, type-1 like) cytokines and simultaneously promote the production of T-helper 2 (TH2, type-2 like) cytokines in antigen-specific and mitogen stimulated human leukocyte cultures in vitro, little attention has been focused on the effects of combination CT and CS in immune responses that may be more physiologically relevant. We therefore investigated the combined effects of in vitro CT and CS upon the type-1/type-2 cytokine balance of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a model to study the immunomodulatory effects of superimposed acute and chronic stress. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in type-1 cytokine production (IFN-gamma) and a significant increase in type-2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10) in our CS+CT incubated cultures when compared to either CT or CS agents alone. Furthermore, variable enhancement of type-1/type-2 immune deviation occurred depending upon when the CT was added. The data suggest that CS can increase the sensitivity of PBMC to the immunomodulatory effects of CT and establishes an in vitro model to study the combined effects of in vivo type-1/type-2 cytokine alterations observed in acute and chronic stress.

  12. A Rapid Screening Test on Dried Blood for the Neonatal Diagnosis of Tyrosinemia Type I

    PubMed Central

    Bodaghkhan, Farahnaz; Geramizadeh, Bita; Rajeh, Abbas Abdollah; Haghighat, Mahmoud; Dehghani, Mohsen; Honar, Naser; Zahmatkeshan, Mojgan; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tyrosinemia is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of tyrosine and its metabolites in plasma. Without treatment, the disease will progress to hepatic and renal failure, so that without liver transplantation will cause death in less than 10 years of age. So, early diagnosis and treatment can be life saving and crucial. It means that with early treatment starting in the neonatal period, the patient can have normal life with very few restrictions in diets containing tyrosine and phenylalanine. Objectives: In this study we wanted to evaluate an easy to perform, rapid and sensitive qualitative test with low cost, as a part of neonatal screening tests to help early diagnosis and treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, during the study period (2013 - 2014), 100 patients were selected. Fifty three (53) of these patients had proven tyrosinemia and the other 47 cases biliary atresia, paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis, galactosemia and storage diseases. Results: There were 2 false negative and 14 false positive cases of hereditary tyrosinemia (HT-1) in the test. Six cases of biliary atresia, 7 cases of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and one patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis were falsely positive with the test. Sensitivity of the test was 96.23%, specificity 71.43%, positive predictive value (PPV) 78.46%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.59%. Conclusions: This rapid qualitative test on dried blood sample is an easy, cheap, and feasible method for the screening of hereditary tyrosinemia in neonatal period. PMID:28203327

  13. Antibody conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for cancer cell separation in fresh whole blood.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Duan, Hongwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Wang, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    A highly efficient process using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IO)-based immunomagnetic separation of tumor cells from fresh whole blood has been developed. The process involved polymer coated 30 nm IO that was modified with antibodies (Ab) against human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2 or anti-HER2/neu) forming IO-Ab. HER2 is a cell membrane protein that is overexpressed in several types of human cancer cells. Using a HER2/neu overexpressing human breast cancer cell line, SK-BR3, as a model cell, the IO-Ab was used to separate 73.6% (with a maximum capture of 84%) of SK-BR3 cells that were spiked in 1 mL of fresh human whole blood. The IO-Ab preferentially bound to SK-BR3 cells over normal cells found in blood due to the high level of HER2/neu receptor on the cancer cells unlike the normal cell surfaces. The results showed that the nanosized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited an enrichment factor (cancer cells over normal cells) of 1:10,000,000 in a magnetic field (with gradient of 100 T/m) through the binding of IO-Ab on the cell surface that resulted in the preferential capture of the cancer cells. This research holds promise for efficient separation of circulating cancer cells in fresh whole blood.

  14. The relationship between type 2 diabetes family history, body composition and blood basal glycemia in sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Raccuglia, Margherita; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Filingeri, Davide; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass and composition, and alterations in blood basal glycaemia levels in sedentary male and female. Anthropometric variables, blood parameters, body composition and body surface area were evaluated on 183 male and 237 female sedentary individuals. Participants were classified into two groups: FH(+) (family history positive) and FH(-) (familiar history negative) according to their medical history. The FH(+) group showed higher values of body mass and body surface area than FH(-) group. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the female subgroup. When compared to the FH(-) group, FH(+) female individuals showed a significantly greater fat mass (p < 0.01) and a significantly lower free fat mass-to-fat mass ratio (FFM/FM ratio) (p < 0.05). FH(+) female individuals showed significant lower levels of basal glucose values for Kg of FFM (p < 0.05), FM (p < 0.01) and BSA (p < 0.01) than FH(-) group. The results of this study indicate that body mass and composition correlate positively to family history to type 2 diabetes. The relationship between family history and body composition is particularly evident in young FH(+) female. Thus, as family history might represent a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, this could be considered as an important parameter able to predict the onset of the disease itself. This knowledge could be used to improve preventive interventions (i.e. increasing levels of physical activity) promoting healthy lifestyle.

  15. Comparison between Gaussian-type orbitals and plane wave ab initio density functional theory modeling of layer silicates: Talc [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}] as model system

    SciTech Connect

    Ulian, Gianfranco; Valdrè, Giovanni; Tosoni, Sergio

    2013-11-28

    The quantum chemical characterization of solid state systems is conducted with many different approaches, among which the adoption of periodic boundary conditions to deal with three-dimensional infinite condensed systems. This method, coupled to the Density Functional Theory (DFT), has been proved successful in simulating a huge variety of solids. Only in relatively recent years this ab initio quantum-mechanic approach has been used for the investigation of layer silicate structures and minerals. In the present work, a systematic comparison of different DFT functionals (GGA-PBEsol and hybrid B3LYP) and basis sets (plane waves and all-electron Gaussian-type orbitals) on the geometry, energy, and phonon properties of a model layer silicate, talc [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}], is presented. Long range dispersion is taken into account by DFT+D method. Results are in agreement with experimental data reported in literature, with minimal deviation given by the GTO/B3LYP-D* method regarding both axial lattice parameters and interaction energy and by PW/PBE-D for the unit-cell volume and angular values. All the considered methods adequately describe the experimental talc infrared spectrum.

  16. Improvement in low-temperature and instantaneous high-rate output performance of Al-free AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy for negative electrode in Ni/MH battery: Effect of thermodynamic and kinetic regulation via partial Mn substituting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wanhai; Zhu, Ding; Tang, Zhengyao; Wu, Chaoling; Huang, Liwu; Ma, Zhewen; Chen, Yungui

    2017-03-01

    A series of Al-free Mn-modified AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys have been designed and the effects of thermodynamic stability and electrochemical kinetics on electrochemical performance via Mn substituting have been investigated. Compared with high-Al alloys, the Al-free alloys in this study have better low-temperature performance and instantaneous high-rate output because of the higher surface catalytic ability. After partial substitution of Ni by Mn, both the hydrogen desorption capacity and plateau pressure decrease, and correspondingly results in an improved thermodynamic stability which is adverse to low-temperature delivery. Additionally, with the improvement of charge acceptance ability and anti-corrosion property via Mn substitution, the room-temperature discharge capacity and cycling stability increase slightly. However, Mn adversely affects the electrochemical kinetics and deteriorates both the surface catalytic ability and the bulk hydrogen diffusion ability, leading to the drop of low-temperature dischargeability, high-rate dischargeability and peak power (Ppeak). Based on the thermodynamic and kinetic regulation and overall electrochemical properties, the optimal composition is obtained when x = 0.2, the discharge capacity is 243.6 mAh g-1 at -40 °C with 60 mA g-1, and the Ppeak attains to 969.6 W kg-1 at -40 °C.

  17. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research.

  18. Upregulated inflammatory associated factors and blood-retinal barrier changes in the retina of type 2 diabetes mellitus model

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Rui-Jin; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xue-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Shen-Yin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the expression of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the retina and the hippocampal tissues; and further to evaluate the association of these two molecules with the alterations of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS The type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) model was established with a high-fat and high-glucose diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ). Sixteen weeks after DM induction, morphological changes of retina and hippocampus were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining, and alternations of BRB and BBB permeability were measured using Evans blue method. Levels of HMGB-1 and ICAM-1 in retina and hippocampus were detected by Western blot. Serum HMGB-1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS A significantly higher serum fasting blood glucose level in DM rats was observed 2wk after STZ injection (P<0.01). The serum levels of fasting insulin, Insulin resistance homeostatic model assessment (IRHOMA), total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the DM rats significantly higher than those in the controls (all P<0.01). HMGB-1 (0.96±0.03, P<0.01) and ICAM-1 (0.76±0.12, P<0.05) levels in the retina in the DM rats were significantly higher than those in the controls. HMGB-1 (0.83±0.13, P<0.01) and ICAM-1 (1.15±0.08, P<0.01) levels in the hippocampal tissues in the DM rats were also significantly higher than those in the controls. Sixteen weeks after induction of DM, the BRB permeability to albumin-bound Evans blue dye in the DM rats was significantly higher than that in the controls (P<0.01). However, there was no difference of BBB permeability between the DM rats and controls. When compared to the controls, hematoxylin and eosin staining showed obvious irregularities in the DM rats. CONCLUSION BRB permeability increases significantly in rats with type-2

  19. Effects of moxonidine vs. metoprolol on blood pressure and metabolic control in hypertensive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S; Klimm, H-J; Rett, K; Helsberg, K; Häring, H-U; Gödicke, J

    2004-06-01

    Subjects with type 2 diabetes experience an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, related to a high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Antihypertensive treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor blockers may have deleterious metabolic consequences, including worsening of lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity. The centrally-acting sympatholytic agent moxonidine may improve these variables. In this randomised, double-blind multicenter study, the effects of two widely used antihypertensive agents--moxonidine (MOX) and the beta (1)-selective adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol (MET)--on blood pressure and metabolic control were directly compared in hypertensive subjects with type 2 diabetes. Patients received either MOX (0.2 - 0.6 mg/d) or MET (50 - 150 mg/d) for 12 weeks, intending comparable blood pressure control. In total 200 patients were randomized. Here we report results from the per protocol population consisting of 127 patients (MOX 66, MET 61) but similar results were found in the ITT population. Reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures after 12 weeks were similar in both groups: In the MOX group, mean SBP (+/- SD) decreased from 154 +/- 12 to 142 +/- 17 mmHg and mean DBP from 91 +/- 9 to 83 +/- 9 mmHg. In the MET group, mean SBP decreased from 152 +/- 13 to 140 +/- 15 mmHg, and mean DBP from 90 +/- 8 to 84 +/- 10 mmHg. Mean HbA (1C) values did not differ between groups after 12 weeks (MOX 8.1 +/- 1.4 Hb%, MET 8.1 +/- 1.5 Hb%, intention-to-treat population). However, fasting plasma glucose decreased in the MOX group (median change - 5 mg/dl), but increased in the MET group (+ 16 mg/dl; p < 0.05). Median changes in the insulin resistance index (HOMA (IR)) were + 0.56 micro IU x mol/L (2) in the MET group, and - 0.27 micro IU x mol/L (2) in the MOX group. Correspondingly, fasting triglycerides increased with a median change of + 29.5 mg/dL in the MET group, but decreased in the MOX group (- 27.5 mg/dl; p

  20. An assessment of discriminatory power of office blood pressure measurements in predicting optimal ambulatory blood pressure control in people with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Libend, Christelle Nong; Dzudie, Anastase; Menanga, Alain; Dehayem, Mesmin Yefou; Kingue, Samuel; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements (ABPM) predict health outcomes better than office BP, and are recommended for assessing BP control, particularly in high-risk patients. We assessed the performance of office BP in predicting optimal ambulatory BP control in sub-Saharan Africans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Participants were a random sample of 51 T2DM patients (25 men) drug-treated for hypertension, receiving care in a referral diabetes clinic in Yaounde, Cameroon. A quality control group included 46 non-diabetic individuals with hypertension. Targets for BP control were systolic (and diastolic) BP. Results Mean age of diabetic participants was 60 years (standard deviation: 10) and median duration of diabetes was 6 years (min-max: 0-29). Correlation coefficients between each office-based variable and the 24-h ABPM equivalent (diabetic vs. non-diabetic participants) were 0.571 and 0.601 for systolic (SBP), 0.520 and 0.539 for diastolic (DBP), 0.631 and 0.549 for pulse pressure (PP), and 0.522 and 0.583 for mean arterial pressure (MAP). The c-statistic for the prediction of optimal ambulatory control from office-BP in diabetic participants was 0.717 for SBP, 0.494 for DBP, 0.712 for PP, 0.582 for MAP, and 0.721 for either SBP + DBP or PP + MAP. Equivalents in diabetes-free participants were 0.805, 0.763, 0.695, 0.801 and 0.813. Conclusion Office DBP was ineffective in discriminating optimal ambulatory BP control in diabetic patients, and did not improve predictions based on office SBP alone. Targeting ABPM to those T2DM patients who are already at optimal office-based SBP would likely be more cost effective in this setting. PMID:25838859

  1. Effects of saxagliptin add-on therapy to insulin on blood glycemic fluctuations in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-fei; Jiang, Lan-lan; Yan, Reng-na; Zhu, Hong-hong; Zhou, Pei-hua; Zhang, Dan-feng; Su, Xiao-fei; Wu, Jin-dan; Ye, Lei; Ma, Jian-hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To investigate whether saxagliptin add-on therapy to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) further improve blood glycemic control than CSII therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, control, open-labeled trial. Newly diagnosed T2D patients were recruited between February 2014 and December 2015. Subjects were divided into saxagliptin add-on therapy to CSII group (n = 31) and CSII therapy group (n = 38). The treatment was maintained for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline. Serum samples were obtained before and 30 and 120 minutes after oral administration for glucose, insulin, and C-peptide determination. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed before and endpoint. Results: A total of 69 subjects were admitted. After 4-week therapy, CGM data showed that patients with saxagliptin add-on therapy exhibited further improvement of mean amplitude glycemic excursion (MAGE), the incremental area under curve of plasma glucose >7.8 and 10 mmol/L compared with that of control group. In addition, the hourly mean blood glucose concentrations, especially between 0000 and 0600 in patient with saxagliptin add-on therapy, were significantly lower compared with that of the control patients. Furthermore, patients in saxagliptin add-on group needed lower insulin dose to maintain euglycemic control. In addition, severe hypoglycemic episode was not observed from any group. Conclusion: Saxagliptin add-on therapy to insulin had the ability of further improve blood glycemic controlling, with lower insulin dose required by patients with T2D to maintain euglycemic controlling. PMID:27787387

  2. Consensus Report: The Current Role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Non-Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C; Blonde, Lawrence; Cembrowski, George; Chacra, Antonio Roberto; Charpentier, Guillaume; Colagiuri, Stephen; Dailey, George; Gabbay, Robert A; Heinemann, Lutz; Kerr, David; Nicolucci, Antonio; Polonsky, William; Schnell, Oliver; Vigersky, Robert; Yale, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board convened a meeting in San Francisco, CA, July 20–21, 2011, to discuss the current practice of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated (NIT) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve physician panel members from academia, practice, and government attended this meeting. These experts came from the United States, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. In addition, three consultants from Australia, Germany, and the United States contributed to the group’s final report. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Society. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was studied from eight perspectives related to patients with NIT T2DM: (1) epidemiological studies; (2) randomized controlled trials (RCT)s and meta-analyses; (3) targets, timing, and frequency of SMBG use; (4) incidence and role of SMBG in preventing hypoglycemia with single-drug regimens and combination regimens consisting of antihyperglycemic agents other than secretagogues and insulin; (5) comparison of SMBG with continuous glucose monitoring; (6) technological capabilities and limitations of SMBG; (7) barriers to appropriate use of SMBG; and (8) methods and end points for appropriate future clinical trials. The panel emphasized recent studies, which reflect the current approach for applying this intervention. Among the participants there was consensus that: SMBG is an established practice for patients with NIT T2DM, and to be most effective, it should be performed in a structured format where information obtained from this measurement is used to guide treatment; New, high-quality efficacy data from RCTs have demonstrated efficacy of SMBG in NIT T2DM in trials reported since 2008; Both patients and health care professionals require education on how to respond to the data for SMBG to be effective; and Additional well-defined studies are needed to assess the benefits and

  3. Real-time PCR strategy for the identification of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units directly in chronically infected human blood.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-San Martín, Catalina; Apt, Werner; Zulantay, Inés

    2017-04-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. This parasite has a complex population structure comprised by six or seven major evolutionary lineages (discrete typing units or DTUs) TcI-TcVI and TcBat, some of which have apparently resulted from ancient hybridization events. Because of the existence of significant biological differences between these lineages, strain characterization methods have been essential to study T. cruzi in its different vectors and hosts. However, available methods can be laborious and costly, limited in resolution or sensitivity. In this study, a new genotyping strategy by real-time PCR to identify each of the six DTUs in clinical blood samples have been developed and evaluated. Two nuclear (SL-IR and 18S rDNA) and two mitochondrial genes (COII and ND1) were selected to develop original primers. The method was evaluated with eight genomic DNA of T. cruzi populations belonging to the six DTUs, one genomic DNA of Trypanosoma rangeli, and 53 blood samples from individuals with chronic Chagas disease. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 1-25fg of DNA per reaction tube depending on the DTU analyzed. The selectivity of trials with 20fg/μL of genomic DNA identified each DTU, excluding non-targets DTUs in every test. The method was able to characterize 67.9% of the chronically infected clinical samples with high detection of TcII followed by TcI. With the proposed original genotyping methodology, each DTU was established with high sensitivity after a single real-time PCR assay. This novel protocol reduces carryover contamination, enables detection of each DTU independently and in the future, the quantification of each DTU in clinical blood samples.

  4. Muscle pH, rigor mortis and blood variables in Atlantic salmon transported in two types of well-boat.

    PubMed

    Gatica, M C; Monti, G E; Knowles, T G; Gallo, C B

    2010-01-09

    Two systems for transporting live salmon (Salmo salar) were compared in terms of their effects on blood variables, muscle pH and rigor index: an 'open system' well-boat with recirculated sea water at 13.5 degrees C and a stocking density of 107 kg/m3 during an eight-hour journey, and a 'closed system' well-boat with water chilled from 16.7 to 2.1 degrees C and a stocking density of 243.7 kg/m3 during a seven-hour journey. Groups of 10 fish were sampled at each of four stages: in cages at the farm, in the well-boat after loading, in the well-boat after the journey and before unloading, and in the processing plant after they were pumped from the resting cages. At each sampling, the fish were stunned and bled by gill cutting. Blood samples were taken to measure lactate, osmolality, chloride, sodium, cortisol and glucose, and their muscle pH and rigor index were measured at death and three hours later. In the open system well-boat, the initial muscle pH of the fish decreased at each successive stage, and at the final stage they had a significantly lower initial muscle pH and more rapid onset of rigor than the fish transported on the closed system well-boat. At the final stage all the blood variables except glucose were significantly affected in the fish transported on both types of well-boat.

  5. Accumulation of defective viral genomes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, G; Xu, X; Chermann, J C; Hirsch, I

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomes present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of infected persons or in lymphocytes infected in vitro were studied by long-distance PCR (LD-PCR) using primers localized in the HIV-1 long terminal repeats. The full-length 9-kb DNA was the only LD-PCR product obtained in peripheral and cord blood lymphocytes from seronegative donors infected in vitro. However, a high proportion (27% to 66%) of distinct populations of extensively deleted HIV-1 genomes of variable size was detected in PBMCs of 15 of 16 HIV-1-infected persons. Physical mapping of defective genomes showed that the frequency of deletions is proportional to their proximity to the central part of HIV-1 genome, which is consistent with a deletion mechanism involving a single polymerase jump during reverse transcription. Sequencing of deletion junctions revealed the presence of short direct repeats of three or four nucleotides. The number of defective HIV-1 genomes decreased after in vitro activation of PBMCs. Persistence of full-length and deleted genomes in in vitro activated PBMCs correlated with isolation of an infectious virus. Our results represent the first quantitative assessment of intragenomic rearrangements in HIV-1 genomes in PBMCs of infected persons and demonstrate that, in contrast to in vitro infection, defective genomes accumulate in PBMCs of infected persons. PMID:9032358

  6. [Validation of antibody screening by indirect antigloblin test and ABO blood typing by filtration and microplate techniques: assessment of robustness].

    PubMed

    Mannessier, L; Delamaire, M; Bouix, O; Krause, C; Roubinet, F

    2006-10-01

    According to requirements of the French Committee for Accreditation (Cofrac), it is essential to use validated and standardised methods in Immunohematology. This imposes first the knowledge of metrological tolerances for all the technics. Two multicenter studies were carried out to define the maximal acceptable deviations concerning incubation temperature and time, volumes of patient plasma and tests cells for antibody screening using indirect antiglobulin test on one hand and for reverse grouping on another hand. All equipment used (temperature test chamber, chronometer, pipettes) were calibrated according to Cofrac standards. The antibody screenings were performed manually using 3 different filtration systems: ID Diamed, Biovue Ortho and Scangel Biorad, the same tests cells, a standard 20 ng/mL anti RH1, a positive control anti KEL1 and a negative control; the reverse blood grouping was performed manually using the above mentionned filtration systems and microplate technic with the same A1 and B test cells. These two studies showed that all the tests from the multiples combinations of the above parameters gave the same results and allowed us to define a range of tolerance for 4 critical physical parameters involved in the antibody screening and blood typing.

  7. Maternal transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells provides prenatal therapy in Sanfilippo type B mouse model.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Gografe, Sylvia J; Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Willing, Alison E; Saporta, Samuel; Cameron, Don F; Desjarlais, Tammy; Daily, Jennifer; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Klasko, Stephen K; Sanberg, Paul R

    2006-03-01

    Numerous data support passage of maternal cells into the fetus during pregnancy in both human and animal models. However, functional benefits of maternal microchimerism in utero are unknown. The current study attempted to take advantage of this route for prenatal delivery of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme into the enzyme-deficient mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B (MPS III B). Enzymatically sufficient mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood (MNC hUCB) were intravenously administered into heterozygote females modeling MPS III B on the 5th day of pregnancy during blastocyst implantation. The major findings were 1) administered MNC hUCB cells transmigrated and diffused into the embryos (E12.5); 2) some transmigrated cells expressed CD34 and CD117 antigens; 3) transmigrated cells were found in both the maternal and embryonic parts of placentas; 4) transmigrated cells corrected Naglu enzyme activity in all embryos; 5) administered MNC hUCB cells were extensively distributed in the organs and the blood of heterozygote mothers at one week after transplantation. Results indicate that prenatal delivery of Naglu enzyme by MNC hUCB cell administration into mothers of enzyme-deficient embryos is possible and may present a significant opportunity for new biotechnologies to treat many inherited disorders.

  8. TT virus (TTV) loads associated with different peripheral blood cell types and evidence for TTV replication in activated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Maggi, F; Fornai, C; Zaccaro, L; Morrica, A; Vatteroni, M L; Isola, P; Marchi, S; Ricchiuti, A; Pistello, M; Bendinelli, M

    2001-06-01

    TT virus (TTV) loads associated with the peripheral blood cells of seven patients known to carry the virus in plasma were investigated by real-time PCR. Whereas red cells/platelets were uniformly negative, six and four patients yielded positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, respectively, but viral titres were generally low. Fractionation of PBMCs into monocyte- and B, T4, and T8 lymphocyte-enriched subpopulations showed no pattern in the viral loads that might suggest the preferential association of TTV to one or more specific cell types. TTV-negative PBMCs absorbed measurable amounts of virus when incubated with infected plasma at 4 degrees C. Furthermore, cultures of TTV-negative phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated PBMCs exposed in vitro to virus-positive plasma and faecal extracts released considerable levels of infectious TTV into the supernatant fluid and the same was true for TTV-positive stimulated PBMCs. These results indicate that, whereas freshly harvested resting PBMCs seem to produce little, if any TTV, stimulated PBMCs actively replicate the virus.

  9. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Haim; Friedensohn, Aharon; Leibovitz, Arthur; Gabay, Galia; Rocas, Claudia; Habot, Benno

    2004-05-01

    Intervention trials have shown the beneficial effects of chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). This study investigated the effects of chromium picolinate on elderly diabetic patients within a rehabilitation program. Thirty-nine diabetic subjects, average age 73 years (18 males and 21 females), undergoing rehabilitation following stroke or hip fracture, were recruited to participate in this study. An additional 39 diabetic patients constituted the control group. Along with standard treatment for diabetes, the study group received 200 microg of chromium twice a day for a three-week period. Blood samples, dietary intake, and anthropometric data were collected prior to and post-intervention. Throughout the study period, participants received a diet of approximately 1500 kcal/day. Significant differences in the fasting blood level of glucose compared to the baseline (190 mg/dL vs 150 mg/dL, p < 0.001) were found at the end of the study. HbA1c also improved from 8.2% to 7.6% (p < 0.01). Total cholesterol was also reduced from 235 mg/dL to 213 mg/dL (p < 0.02). A trend towards lowered triglyceride levels was also observed (152 mg/dL vs 136 mg/dL). We conclude that, in this population of elderly, diabetic patients undergoing rehabilitation, dietary supplementation with chromium is beneficial in moderating glucose intolerance. In addition, chromium intake appears to lower plasma lipid levels.

  10. Influence of phospholipid types and animal models on the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon of PEGylated liposomes upon repeated injection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Ye, Feifei; Hu, Meina; Yin, Pengpeng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yan; Yu, Xiu; Deng, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    When polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated liposomes were repeatedly injected into the same animal, the second dose of liposomes would rapidly clear from the bloodstream and enhance accumulation in the liver and spleen, and this phenomenon is called "accelerated blood clearance (ABC)". There are many factors known to influence ABC phenomenon, in this study, we mainly focused on the effects of different phospholipids (PL) types and animal models. The effects of PL types on ABC phenomenon were examined by repeating injection of PEGylated liposomes prepared by five different types of PL (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, egg sphingomyelin, soybean phosphatidycholin, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and egg phosphatidycholin) in rats. Dramatically, repeated injection of different types of PL could induce ABC phenomenon altogether. Both t1/2 and AUC of experimental group (EG) were lower significantly than those of control group (CG). Our results also showed that the liver accumulation of second dose increased significantly (p < 0.01) in all EG as compared that of CG. Interestingly, ABC phenomenon of liposomes prepared by unsaturated PL was more obvious than that of saturated PL. All the first dose could induce the antibody (anti-PEG IgM) level increasing significantly (p < 0.01). For different animal models, we found that after repeated injection of PEGylated liposomes, rats, mice, rabbits and guinea pigs could produce ABC phenomenon. Various PL types and animal models could all produce the ABC phenomenon. However, their extent of accelerated clearance differed. ABC phenomenon is possibly a ubiquitous immune phenomenon in life.

  11. Spike Protein VP8* of Human Rotavirus Recognizes Histo-Blood Group Antigens in a Type-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Wei, Chao; Wang, Leyi; Morrow, Ardythe

    2012-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs), an important cause of severe diarrhea in children, have been found to recognize sialic acid as receptors for host cell attachment. While a few animal RVs (of P[1], P[2], P[3], and P[7]) are sialidase sensitive, human RVs and the majority of animal RVs are sialidase insensitive. In this study, we demonstrated that the surface spike protein VP8* of the major P genotypes of human RVs interacts with the secretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Strains of the P[4] and P[8] genotypes shared reactivity with the common antigens of Lewis b (Leb) and H type 1, while strains of the P[6] genotype bound the H type 1 antigen only. The bindings between recombinant VP8* and human saliva, milk, or synthetic HBGA oligosaccharides were demonstrated, which was confirmed by blockade of the bindings by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Leb and/or H type 1. In addition, specific binding activities were observed when triple-layered particles of a P[8] (Wa) RV were tested. Our results suggest that the spike protein VP8* of RVs is involved in the recognition of human HBGAs that may function as ligands or receptors for RV attachment to host cells. PMID:22345472

  12. Effects of rice bran oil on the blood lipids profiles and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Hoang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Ya-Yen; Chang, Jui-Hung; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of rice bran oil consumption on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a placebo group or a rice bran oil group. The placebo group consumed 250 mL soybean oil-modified milk (18 g soybean oil) daily for 5 weeks, and the rice bran oil group consumed 250 mL rice bran oil modified milk (18 g rice bran oil) daily for 5 weeks. At week 0 and week 5, anthropometric measurements, hematology tests, and an oral-glucose-tolerance test were conducted. The results showed that the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the area under the curve for postprandial serum insulin, and serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increased significantly in the placebo group. In the rice bran oil group, fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose concentrations and the area under the curve for postprandial plasma glucose increased significantly; however, total serum cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly. However, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance was not significantly different. Consumption of 18 g rice bran oil modified milk daily for 5 weeks significantly decreased total serum cholesterol concentrations and tended to decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, no significant influence on insulin resistance was observed.

  13. Characterization of Human AB Serum for Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Vanessa Tieko Marques; Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela Delgado; Caruso, Samia Rigotto; da Silva, Fernanda Borges; Traina, Fabiola; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    Background So far, using human blood-derived components appears to be the most efficient and safest approach available for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) expansion. In this paper, we report on the characterization of human AB serum (AB HS) produced by using different plasma sources, and its use as an alternative supplement to MSC expansion. Methods Two plasma sources were used for AB HS production: plasma removed from whole blood after 24 h of collection (PC > 24 h) and plasma, cryoprecipitate reduced (PCryoR). The biochemical profile and quality of the produced AB HS batches were analyzed and their ability to support MSC cell growth after different storage times (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) was evaluated. Results The two plasma sources used showed similar characteristics regarding biochemical constituents and quality parameters and were effective in promoting MSC growth. MSCs cultured in medium supplemented with 10% AB HS presented similar doubling times and cumulative population doublings when compared to the 10% fetal bovine serum(FBS)-supplemented culture while maintaining immunophenotype, functional features, and cytogenetic profile. Conclusion Overall, the results indicate that AB HS is an efficient FBS substitute and can be used for at least 12 months after production without impairing cell proliferation and quality. PMID:28275329

  14. Combined intensive blood pressure and glycemic control does not produce an additive benefit on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Craven, Timothy E; O'Connor, Patrick J; Karl, Diane; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hramiak, Irene; Genuth, Saul; Cushman, William C; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Katz, Lois; Schubart, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    A reduction of either blood pressure or glycemia decreases some microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, and we studied here their combined effects. In total, 4733 older adults with established type 2 diabetes and hypertension were randomly assigned to intensive (systolic blood pressure less than 120 mm Hg) or standard (systolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg) blood pressure control, and separately to intensive (HbA1c less than 0.060) or standard (HbA1c 0.070-0.079) glycemic control. Prespecified microvascular outcomes were a composite of renal failure and retinopathy and nine single outcomes. Proportional hazard regression models were used without correction for type I error due to multiple tests. During a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, the primary outcome occurred in 11.4% of intensive and 10.9% of standard blood pressure patients (hazard ratio 1.08), and in 11.1% of intensive and 11.2% of standard glycemia control patients. Intensive blood pressure control only reduced the incidence of microalbuminuria (hazard ratio 0.84), and intensive glycemic control reduced the incidence of macroalbuminuria and a few other microvascular outcomes. There was no interaction between blood pressure and glycemic control, and neither treatment prevented renal failure. Thus, in older patients with established type 2 diabetes and hypertension, intensive blood pressure control improved only 1 of 10 prespecified microvascular outcomes. None of the outcomes were significantly reduced by simultaneous intensive treatment of glycemia and blood pressure, signifying the lack of an additional beneficial effect from combined treatment.

  15. Self-reported discrimination, diabetes distress, and continuous blood glucose in women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with continuous glucose levels and variability in individuals with diabetes, and whether diabetes distress mediated these associations. Seventy-four Black and White women with type 2 diabetes completed the Experience of Discrimination scale, a measure of lifetime racial discrimination, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes, a measure of diabetes distress. Participants wore a continuous glucose monitor for 24 h after 8 h of fasting, a standard meal, and a 4-h run in period. Higher discrimination predicted higher continuous mean glucose and higher standard deviation of glucose. For both mean and standard deviation of glucose, a race × discrimination interaction indicated a stronger relationship between discrimination and glucose for Whites than for Blacks. Diabetes distress mediated the discrimination-mean glucose relationship. Whites who report discrimination may be uniquely sensitive to distress. These preliminary findings suggest that racial discrimination adversely affects glucose control in women with diabetes, and does so indirectly through diabetes distress. Diabetes distress may be an important therapeutic target to reduce the ill effects of racial discrimination in persons with diabetes.

  16. Sprint training effects on muscle myoglobin, enzymes, fiber types, and blood lactate.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, I; Esbjörnsson, M; Sylvén, C; Holm, I; Jansson, E

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in intra-muscular myoglobin concentration accompany histochemical and enzymatic adaptations to supra-maximal exercise training. Subjects were assigned to either a training group (N = 11), who trained 2 to 3 times weekly for 6 wk, or a control group (N = 6). Training progressed from two 15-s and two 30-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer during week 1 to six 15-s and six 30-s bouts per session during week 6. The Wingate test was performed before and after the 6 wk, but performance variables were not changed in either group. In the training group, peak lactate after the Wingate test was significantly higher after training. No significant changes in enzyme activities, myoglobin concentration, or fiber-type frequency were observed in the control group. In contrast, in the training group, the percent fast twitch oxidative fibers increased, myoglobin decreased, and both citrate synthase and phosphofructokinase activities increased (P less than 0.05). The results suggest that muscle myoglobin concentration is not increased by 6 wk of supra-maximal exercise training and that such training induces cellular adaptations without accompanying performance changes. Alternatively, the Wingate test is not a sensitive test of adaptations to the training.

  17. Continuous-time interval model identification of blood glucose dynamics for type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; del Re, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    While good physiological models of the glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic patients are well known, their parameterisation is difficult. The high intra-patient variability observed is a further major obstacle. This holds for data-based models too, so that no good patient-specific models are available. Against this background, this paper proposes the use of interval models to cover the different metabolic conditions. The control-oriented models contain a carbohydrate and insulin sensitivity factor to be used for insulin bolus calculators directly. Available clinical measurements were sampled on an irregular schedule which prompts the use of continuous-time identification, also for the direct estimation of the clinically interpretable factors mentioned above. An identification method is derived and applied to real data from 28 diabetic patients. Model estimation was done on a clinical data-set, whereas validation results shown were done on an out-of-clinic, everyday life data-set. The results show that the interval model approach allows a much more regular estimation of the parameters and avoids physiologically incompatible parameter estimates.

  18. Eucommia bark (Du-Zhong) improves diabetic nephropathy without altering blood glucose in type 1-like diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ho-Shan; Liu, I-Min; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Ku, Po-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Background Eucommia bark, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver barks (Du-Zhong in Mandarin), is an herb used for renal dysfunction in Chinese traditional medicine. In an attempt to develop this herb as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN), we investigated the effects of Du-Zhong on renal dysfunction in type 1-like diabetic rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce type 1-like diabetes in rats (STZ-diabetic rats). In addition to hyperglycemia, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant nephropathy, including higher plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue was applied to characterize the changes in potential signals related to nephropathy. Results Oral administration of Du-Zhong (1 g/kg/day) to STZ-diabetic rats for 20 days not only decreased the plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but also improved renal fibrosis, whereas the plasma glucose level was not changed. The higher expressions of protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor in diabetic rats were markedly attenuated by Du-Zhong. The increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in STZ-diabetic rats was also reduced by Du-Zhong. However, Du-Zhong cannot reverse the hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the diabetic kidney. Conclusion Oral administration of Du-Zhong improves STZ-induced DN in rats by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling and suppressing TGF-β/connective tissue growth factor expression. Therefore, active principle from Du-Zhong is suitable to develop as new agent for DN in the future. PMID:27041999

  19. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and impaired insulin-stimulated blood flow: role of skeletal muscle NO synthase and endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Leryn J; Credeur, Daniel P; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume; Fadel, Paul J; Thyfault, John P

    2017-01-01

    Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) and reduced endothelial nitric oxide phosphorylation (peNOS) are hypothesized to reduce insulin-stimulated blood flow in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but studies examining these links in humans are limited. We sought to assess basal and insulin-stimulated endothelial signaling proteins (ET-1 and peNOS) in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. Ten obese T2D [glucose disposal rate (GDR): 6.6 ± 1.6 mg·kg lean body mass (LBM)(-1)·min(-1)] and 11 lean insulin-sensitive subjects (Lean GDR: 12.9 ± 1.2 mg·kg LBM(-1)·min(-1)) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and 60 min into the clamp. Basal biopsies were also taken in 11 medication-naïve, obese, non-T2D subjects. ET-1, peNOS (Ser1177), and eNOS protein and mRNA were measured from skeletal muscle samples containing native microvessels. Femoral artery blood flow was assessed by duplex Doppler ultrasound. Insulin-stimulated blood flow was reduced in obese T2D (Lean: +50.7 ± 6.5% baseline, T2D: +20.8 ± 5.2% baseline, P < 0.05). peNOS/eNOS content was higher in Lean under basal conditions and, although not increased by insulin, remained higher in Lean during the insulin clamp than in obese T2D (P < 0.05). ET-1 mRNA and peptide were 2.25 ± 0.50- and 1.52 ± 0.11-fold higher in obese T2D compared with Lean at baseline, and ET-1 peptide remained 2.02 ± 1.9-fold elevated in obese T2D after insulin infusion (P < 0.05) but did not increase with insulin in either group (P > 0.05). Obese non-T2D subjects tended to also display elevated basal ET-1 (P = 0.06). In summary, higher basal skeletal muscle expression of ET-1 and reduced peNOS/eNOS may contribute to a reduced insulin-stimulated leg blood flow response in obese T2D patients.

  20. Association between glycemic control and morning blood surge with vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuthalapati, Rama Kumari; Indukuri, Bhaskara Raju

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and MBPS, and its effect on vascular injury in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study examined the association between glycemic control and MBPS and the involvement of MBPS in the development of vascular dysfunction in T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two consecutive T2DM outpatients from the Department of Cardiology and Endocrinology were enrolled in this study. We did MBPS in T2DM patients, 85 (male) (69.7%) patients and 37 (female) patients (30.3%); mean age 60.1 ± 9.39; (n = 122) using 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and assessed vascular function by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Results: The correlation between MBPS and various clinical variables were examined by single regression analysis in all subjects. MBPS showed significant and positive correlation with pulse rate (P = 0.01), fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002), and postprandial blood sugar (P = 0.05). To further confirm the association of insulin resistance (IR) with MBPS in T2DM patients, we examined the correlation between homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), an established marker of IR and MBPS in diabetic (DM) patients who were not taking insulin no significant association with MBPS in T2DM patients (P = 0.41), angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker (P = 0.07). We examined the relationship between MBPS and vascular injury by measuring endothelium-dependent FMD and endothelium-independent NMD in T2DM patients. Among the various traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis such as DM duration (P = 0.04), platelet reactivity (P = 0.04) and morning surge (P = 0.002) emerged as significant factors. HOMA-IR was a negative correlation with FMD. Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that

  1. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  2. C-type related order in the defective fluorites La2Ce2O7 and Nd2Ce2O7 studied by neutron scattering and ab initio MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Kalland, Liv-Elisif; Norberg, Stefan T; Kyrklund, Jakob; Hull, Stephen; Eriksson, Sten G; Norby, Truls; Mohn, Chris E; Knee, Christopher S

    2016-09-14

    This work presents a structural investigation of La2-xNdxCe2O7 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) using X-ray powder diffraction and total scattering neutron powder diffraction, analysed using Rietveld and the reverse Monte Carlo method (RMC). Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) modelling is also performed for further investigations of the local order. The main intensities in the neutron diffraction data for the La2-xNdxCe2O7 series correspond to the fluorite structure. However, additional C-type superlattice peaks are visible for x > 0 and increase in intensity with increasing x. The Nd-containing compositions (x > 0) are best fitted with Rietveld analysis by using a combination of oxygen deficient fluorite and oxygen excess C-type structures. No indications of cation order are found in the RMC or Rietveld analysis, and the absence of cation order is supported by the MD modelling. We argue that the superlattice peaks originate from oxygen vacancy ordering and associated shift in the cation position away from the ideal fluorite site similar to that in the C-type structure, which is seen from the Rietveld refinements and the observed ordering in the MD modelling. The vacancies favour alignments in the 〈110〉, 〈111〉 and especially the 〈210〉 direction. Moreover, we find that such ordering might also be found to a small extent in La2Ce2O7, explaining the discernible modulated background between the fluorite peaks. The observed overlap of the main Bragg peaks between the fluorite and C-type phase supports the co-existence of vacancy ordered and more disordered domains. This is further supported by the observed similarity of the radial distribution functions as modelled with MD. The increase in long range oxygen vacancy order with increasing Nd-content in La2-xNdxCe2O7 corresponds well with the lower oxide ion conductivity in Nd2Ce2O7 compared to La2Ce2O7 reported earlier.

  3. Laptop induced erythema ab igne.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sudhir U K; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Prabhu, Smitha

    2012-03-01

    Erythema ab igne is a reticular, pigmented dermatosis caused by prolonged and repeated exposure to infrared radiation that is insufficient to produce a burn. The use of laptop computers has increased manifold in the recent past. Prolonged contact of the laptop with the skin can lead to the development of erythema ab igne. We present a case of erythema ab igne secondary to laptop use in an Indian student.

  4. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients’ graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications. PMID:27683633

  5. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. Results: In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. Conclusion: The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world. PMID:26396600

  6. Impact of Glycemic and Blood Pressure Variability on Surrogate Measures of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Flaviani, Alessandra; Picconi, Fabiana; Di Stefano, Paola; Giordani, Ilaria; Malandrucco, Ilaria; Maggio, Paola; Palazzo, Paola; Sgreccia, Fabrizio; Peraldo, Carlo; Farina, Fabrizio; Frajese, Gaetano; Frontoni, Simona

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The effect of glycemic variability (GV) on cardiovascular risk has not been fully clarified in type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effect of GV, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress on intima-media thickness (IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and sympathovagal balance (low frequency [LF]/high frequency [HF] ratio) in 26 type 2 diabetic patients (diabetes duration 4.41 ± 4.81 years; HbA1c 6.70 ± 1.25%) receiving diet and/or metformin treatment, with no hypotensive treatment or complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data were used to calculate mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA)-2, mean blood glucose (MBG), mean postprandial glucose excursion (MPPGE), and incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Blood pressure (BP), circadian rhythm, and urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]) were also evaluated. Subjects were divided into dipper (D) and nondipper (ND) groups according to ΔBP. RESULTS IMT and LVMI were increased in ND versus D (0.77 ± 0.08 vs. 0.68 ± 0.13 [P = 0.04] and 67 ± 14 vs. 55 ± 11 [P = 0.03], respectively). MBG, MAGE, and IAUC were significantly associated with LF/HF ratio at night (r = 0.50, P = 0.01; r = 0.40, P = 0.04; r = 0.41, P = 0.04, respectively), MPPGE was negatively associated with FMD (r = −0.45, P = 0.02), and CONGA-2 was positively associated with LVMI (r = 0.55, P = 0.006). The Δsystolic BP was negatively associated with IMT (r = −0.43, P = 0.03) and with LVMI (r = −0.52, P = 0.01). Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α was positively associated with LVMI (r = 0.68 P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS An impaired GV and BP variability is associated with endothelial and cardiovascular damage in short-term diabetic patients with optimal metabolic control. Oxidative stress is the only independent predictor of increased LV mass and correlates with glucose and BP variability. PMID:21610126

  7. ABO blood types associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism in Han Chinese people: A hospital-based study of 200,000 patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefeng; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wei; Peng, Min; Shi, Juhong

    2017-03-06

    ABO blood types are putatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but it is not proved in Chinese people. A large population of Han Chinese patients discharged from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed in a case-control study. A total of 1412 VTE patients were identified from 200,660 discharged Han Chinese patients, including 600 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 441 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 371 patients with both DVT and pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of non-O blood type was weakly but statistically higher in VTE patients compared with 199,248 non-VTE patients, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.205-1.540). Subgroup analysis showed that the OR for non-O blood type was still increased. It was greater in pre-hospital VTE (OR = 1.464) than that in hospital-acquired VTE (OR = 1.224), and greater in unprovoked VTE (OR = 1.859) than that in provoked VTE (OR = 1.227). The OR for non-O blood type decreased with age in subgroup analysis. These results suggest a weak but statistically significant correlation between non-O blood type and risk of VTE in Han Chinese people.

  8. ABO blood types associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism in Han Chinese people: A hospital-based study of 200,000 patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuefeng; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wei; Peng, Min; Shi, Juhong

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood types are putatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but it is not proved in Chinese people. A large population of Han Chinese patients discharged from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed in a case-control study. A total of 1412 VTE patients were identified from 200,660 discharged Han Chinese patients, including 600 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 441 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 371 patients with both DVT and pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of non-O blood type was weakly but statistically higher in VTE patients compared with 199,248 non-VTE patients, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.205–1.540). Subgroup analysis showed that the OR for non-O blood type was still increased. It was greater in pre-hospital VTE (OR = 1.464) than that in hospital-acquired VTE (OR = 1.224), and greater in unprovoked VTE (OR = 1.859) than that in provoked VTE (OR = 1.227). The OR for non-O blood type decreased with age in subgroup analysis. These results suggest a weak but statistically significant correlation between non-O blood type and risk of VTE in Han Chinese people. PMID:28262729

  9. Dysfunctionally phosphorylated type 1 insulin receptor substrate in neural-derived blood exosomes of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Boxer, Adam; Schwartz, Janice B.; Abner, Erin L.; Biragyn, Arya; Masharani, Umesh; Frassetto, Lynda; Petersen, Ronald C.; Miller, Bruce L.; Goetzl, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance causes diminished glucose uptake in similar regions of the brain in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Brain tissue studies suggested that insulin resistance is caused by low insulin receptor signaling attributable to its abnormal association with more phospho (P)-serine-type 1 insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) and less P-tyrosine-IRS-1. Plasma exosomes enriched for neural sources by immunoabsorption were obtained once from 26 patients with AD, 20 patients with DM2, 16 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and matched case control subjects. At 2 time points, they were obtained from 22 others when cognitively normal and 1 to 10 yr later when diagnosed with AD. Mean exosomal levels of extracted P-serine 312-IRS-1 and P-pan-tyrosine-IRS-1 by ELISA and the ratio of P-serine 312-IRS-1 to P-pan-tyrosine-IRS-1 (insulin resistance factor, R) for AD and DM2 and P-serine 312-IRS-1 and R for FTD were significantly different from those for case control subjects. The levels of R for AD were significantly higher than those for DM2 or FTD. Stepwise discriminant modeling showed correct classification of 100% of patients with AD, 97.5% of patients with DM2, and 84% of patients with FTD. In longitudinal studies of 22 patients with AD, exosomal levels of P-serine 312-IRS-1, P-pan-tyrosine-IRS-1, and R were significantly different 1 to 10 yr before and at the time of diagnosis compared with control subjects. Insulin resistance reflected in R values from this blood test is higher for patients with AD, DM2, and FTD than case control subjects; higher for patients with AD than patients with DM2 or FTD; and accurately predicts development of AD up to 10 yr prior to clinical onset.—Kapogiannis, D., Boxer, A., Schwartz, J. B., Abner, E. L., Biragyn, A., Masharani, U., Frassetto, L., Petersen, R. C., Miller, B. L., Goetzl, E. J. Dysfunctionally phosphorylated type 1 insulin receptor substrate in neural-derived blood exosomes of

  10. AB-type lectin (toxin/agglutinin) from mistletoe: differences in affinity of the two galactoside-binding Trp/Tyr-sites and regulation of their functionality by monomer/dimer equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Marta; André, Sabine; Siebert, Hans-C; Gabius, Hans-J; Solís, Dolores

    2006-10-01

    Viscumin of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) has a concentration-dependent activity profile unique to plant AB-toxins. It starts with lectin-dependent mitogenicity and then covers toxicity and cell agglutination, associated with shifts in the monomer/dimer equilibrium. Each lectin subunit harbors two sections for ligand contact. In the dimer, the B-chain sites in subdomain 2 gamma (designated as the Tyr-sites) appear fully accessible, whereas Trp-sites in subdomain 1 alpha are close to the dimer interface. It is unclear whether both types of sites operate similarly in binding glycoligands in solution. By systematically covering a broad range of lactose/lectin ratio in isothermal titration calorimetry, we obtained evidence for two sites showing dissimilar binding affinity. Intriguingly, the site with higher affinity was only partially occupied. To assign the observed properties to the Trp/Tyr-sites, we next performed chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization measurements of Trp and Tyr accessibility. A Tyr signal, but not distinct Trp peaks, was recorded when testing the dimer. Lactose-quenchable Trp peaks became visible on the destabilization of the dimer by citraconylation, intimating Trp involvement in ligand contact in the monomer. Fittingly, Tyr acetylation but not mild Trp oxidation reduced the dimer hemagglutination activity and the extent of binding to asialofetuin-Sepharose 4B. Altogether, the results attribute lectin activity in the dimer primarily to Tyr-sites. Full access to Trp-sites is gained on dimer dissociation. Thus, the monomer/dimer equilibrium of viscumin regulates the operativity of these sites. Their structural divergence affords the possibility for differences in ligand selection when comparing monomers (Tyr- and Trp-sites) with dimers (primarily Tyr-sites).

  11. Type I interferon signaling genes in recurrent major depression: increased expression detected by whole-blood RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, S; Battle, A; Zhu, X; Potash, J B; Weissman, M M; Shi, J; Beckman, K; Haudenschild, C; McCormick, C; Mei, R; Gameroff, M J; Gindes, H; Adams, P; Goes, F S; Mondimore, F M; MacKinnon, D F; Notes, L; Schweizer, B; Furman, D; Montgomery, S B; Urban, A E; Koller, D; Levinson, D F

    2014-12-01

    A study of genome-wide gene expression in major depressive disorder (MDD) was undertaken in a large population-based sample to determine whether altered expression levels of genes and pathways could provide insights into biological mechanisms that are relevant to this disorder. Gene expression studies have the potential to detect changes that may be because of differences in common or rare genomic sequence variation, environmental factors or their interaction. We recruited a European ancestry sample of 463 individuals with recurrent MDD and 459 controls, obtained self-report and semi-structured interview data about psychiatric and medical history and other environmental variables, sequenced RNA from whole blood and genotyped a genome-wide panel of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We used analytical methods to identify MDD-related genes and pathways using all of these sources of information. In analyses of association between MDD and expression levels of 13 857 single autosomal genes, accounting for multiple technical, physiological and environmental covariates, a significant excess of low P-values was observed, but there was no significant single-gene association after genome-wide correction. Pathway-based analyses of expression data detected significant association of MDD with increased expression of genes in the interferon α/β signaling pathway. This finding could not be explained by potentially confounding diseases and medications (including antidepressants) or by computationally estimated proportions of white blood cell types. Although cause-effect relationships cannot be determined from these data, the results support the hypothesis that altered immune signaling has a role in the pathogenesis, manifestation, and/or the persistence and progression of MDD.

  12. Postmaximal contraction blood volume responses are blunted in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects in a muscle-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Otto A; Copenhaver, Elizabeth A; Chance, Marti A; Fowler, Michael J; Towse, Theodore F; Kent-Braun, Jane A; Damon, Bruce M

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in postisometric contraction blood volume and oxygenation responses among groups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obese, and lean individuals detectable using MRI. Eight T2DM patients were individually matched by age, sex, and race to non-T2DM individuals with similar body mass index (obese) and lean subjects. Functional MRI was performed using a dual-gradient-recalled echo, echo-planar imaging sequence with a repetition time of 1 s and at two echo times (TE = 6 and 46 ms). Data were acquired before, during, and after 10-s isometric dorsiflexion contractions performed at 50 and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. MRI signal intensity (SI) changes from the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles were plotted as functions of time for each TE. From each time course, the difference between the minimum and the maximum postcontraction SI (ΔSI) were determined for TE = 6 ms (ΔSI(6)) and TE = 46 ms (ΔSI(46)), reflecting variations in blood volume and oxyhemoglobin saturation, respectively. Following 50% MVC contractions, the mean postcontraction ΔSI(6) values were similar in the three groups. Following MVC only, and in the EDL muscle only, T2DM and obese participants had ∼56% lower ΔSI(6) than the lean individuals. Also following MVC only, the ΔSI(46) response in the EDL was lower in T2DM subjects than in lean individuals. These data suggest that skeletal muscle small vessel impairment occurs in T2DM and body mass index-matched subjects, in muscle-specific and contraction intensity-dependent manners.

  13. Effect of age and Blood Pressure on Surrogate Markers of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Namrata Bindurao; Ganu, Meghana Ulhas; Godbole, Sanjay Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased arterial stiffness may be an important path- way linking diabetes mellitus to increased cardiovascular risk. Aim: The study was conducted to assess the surrogate markers of arterial stiffness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and compare with age-matched hypertensive and healthy controls. Also the effect of age and blood pressure on these markers was evaluated. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in West India. Methods: After a detailed medical history and anthropometric evaluation, all the participants were subjected to measurements of Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI), Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), and Augmentation Index (AIx) using a non-invasive oscillometric method. The four study groups consisted of patients with T2DM (>5 years) along with hypertension, newly diagnosed patients with T2DM (<2years) without hypertension, hypertensive controls, and healthy controls. Results: PWV, ASI, AIx were elevated in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Patients with T2DM above 60 years had higher carotid-femoral PWV, ASI and AIx than those below 60 years (p<0.05). ASI and AIx were significantly increased in patients with T2DM with hypertension having systolic BP > 140 mmHg compared to those with systolic BP < 140 mmHg. A very strong correlation between PWV and AIx in patients with T2DM and hypertensive controls was observed. Conclusion: This study reveals that markers of arterial stiffness (PWV, ASI, AIx) were increased significantly in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls. Age and systolic blood pressure had significant influence on these markers. Thus, oscillometric markers have potential utility in identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. PMID:25120969

  14. Postmaximal contraction blood volume responses are blunted in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects in a muscle-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Otto A.; Copenhaver, Elizabeth A.; Chance, Marti A.; Fowler, Michael J.; Towse, Theodore F.; Kent-Braun, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in postisometric contraction blood volume and oxygenation responses among groups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obese, and lean individuals detectable using MRI. Eight T2DM patients were individually matched by age, sex, and race to non-T2DM individuals with similar body mass index (obese) and lean subjects. Functional MRI was performed using a dual-gradient-recalled echo, echo-planar imaging sequence with a repetition time of 1 s and at two echo times (TE = 6 and 46 ms). Data were acquired before, during, and after 10-s isometric dorsiflexion contractions performed at 50 and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. MRI signal intensity (SI) changes from the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles were plotted as functions of time for each TE. From each time course, the difference between the minimum and the maximum postcontraction SI (ΔSI) were determined for TE = 6 ms (ΔSI6) and TE = 46 ms (ΔSI46), reflecting variations in blood volume and oxyhemoglobin saturation, respectively. Following 50% MVC contractions, the mean postcontraction ΔSI6 values were similar in the three groups. Following MVC only, and in the EDL muscle only, T2DM and obese participants had ∼56% lower ΔSI6 than the lean individuals. Also following MVC only, the ΔSI46 response in the EDL was lower in T2DM subjects than in lean individuals. These data suggest that skeletal muscle small vessel impairment occurs in T2DM and body mass index-matched subjects, in muscle-specific and contraction intensity-dependent manners. PMID:21572006

  15. Assessment of red blood cell deformability in type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy by dual optical tweezers stretching technique

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Smart, Thomas; Nobre-Cardoso, João; Richards, Christopher; Bhatnagar, Rhythm; Tufail, Adnan; Shima, David; H. Jones, Phil; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A pilot cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the role of red blood cells (RBC) deformability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without and with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using a dual optical tweezers stretching technique. A dual optical tweezers was made by splitting and recombining a single Nd:YAG laser beam. RBCs were trapped directly (i.e., without microbead handles) in the dual optical tweezers where they were observed to adopt a “side-on” orientation. RBC initial and final lengths after stretching were measured by digital video microscopy, and a Deformability index (DI) calculated. Blood from 8 healthy controls, 5 T2DM and 7 DR patients with respective mean age of 52.4yrs, 51.6 yrs and 52 yrs was analysed. Initial average length of RBCs for control group was 8.45 ± 0.25 μm, 8.68 ± 0.49 μm for DM RBCs and 8.82 ± 0.32 μm for DR RBCs (p < 0.001). The DI for control group was 0.0698 ± 0.0224, and that for DM RBCs was 0.0645 ± 0.03 and 0.0635 ± 0.028 (p < 0.001) for DR group. DI was inversely related to basal length of RBCs (p = 0.02). DI of RBC from DM and DR patients was significantly lower in comparison with normal healthy controls. A dual optical tweezers method can hence be reliably used to assess RBC deformability. PMID:26976672

  16. The role of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet food groups in blood pressure in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Tatiana Pedroso; Steemburgo, Thais; de Almeida, Jussara Carnevale; Dall'Alba, Valesca; Gross, Jorge Luiz; de Azevedo, Mirela Jobim

    2012-07-14

    The role of each Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet component in blood pressure (BP) of patients with diabetes is still uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible associations of the recommended food groups of the DASH diet eating plan with BP values in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present cross-sectional study, 225 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 61·1 (SD 10·4) years; diabetes duration 13·1 (SD 9·1) years; males 48·4 %; BMI 28·5 (SD 4·3) kg/m(2); HbA1c 7·1 (SD 1·3) %; systolic BP 136·7 (SD 20·0) mmHg; diastolic BP 78·4 (SD 11·8) mmHg) without dietary counselling during the previous 6 months had their dietary intake assessed by 3 d weighed-diet records. Patients were divided into two groups according to BP tertiles: LOW BP (first tertile) and HIGH BP (second plus third tertiles). Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the daily intake of 80 g of fruits per 4184 kJ (1000 kcal) (OR 0·781; 95 % CI 0·617, 0·987; P = 0·039) or 50 g of vegetables per 4184 kJ (1000 kcal) (OR 0·781; 95 % CI 0·618, 0·988; P = 0·040) reduced the chance of the presence of HIGH mean BP (MBP ≥ 92 mmHg) by 22 % each, adjusted for possible confounders. In conclusion, fruit and vegetables were the food groups of the DASH diet associated with reduced BP values in patients with type 2 diabetes, and their consumption might play a protective role against increased BP values.

  17. [DYNAMICS OF CHANGES OF PROINFLAMMATORY AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES, AS WELL AS SOME INDICES OF THE BLOOD PEROXIDATION SYSTEM, IN THE PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST TYPES].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Goncharova, N M; Andreyeshchev, S A; Yavorska, T P

    2015-04-01

    The investigation was performed in 47 patients, operated on for pancreatic pseudocysts (PP). The PP type was established in accordance to A. D'Egidio, M. Schein (1991) classification. The blood plasma contents of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL): IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, as well as malonic dialdehyde and activity of glutationperoxidase, were determined for estimation of the immune state disorders. Mostly expressed changes in IL-8 content were registered in complicated PP in 72 h postoperatively, what was have characterized by more expressed raising of its level in systemic blood flow, than in a splanchnic one, in all types of PP and witnessed a hepatic capacity to guarantee a cytokine's clearance in all the patients. The contents of glutationperoxidase and IL-18 in the blood serum in various types of PP have correlated immediately with pancreatitis severity. Close correlative connection between these indices while unfavorable prognosis of postoperative period course was established.

  18. Adolescents with clinical type 1 diabetes display reduced red blood cell glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1).

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Becker, Dorothy J; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-11-01

    Type 1 diabetic (T1D) adolescent children on insulin therapy suffer episodes of both hyper- and hypoglycemic episodes. Glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 expressed in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and red blood cells (RBC) compensates for perturbed circulating glucose toward protecting the supply to brain and RBCs. We hypothesized that RBC-GLUT1 concentration, as a surrogate for BBB-GLUT1, is altered in T1D children. To test this hypothesis, we measured RBC-GLUT1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in T1D children (n = 72; mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 yr) and control children (CON; n = 11; mean age 15.6 ± 0.9 yr) after 12 h of euglycemia and during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp with a nadir blood glucose of ~3.3 mmol/L for 90 min (clamp I) or ~3 mmol/L for 45 min (clamp II). Reduced baseline RBC-GLUT1 was observed in T1D (2.4 ± 0.17 ng/ng membrane protein); vs. CON (4.2 ± 0.61 ng/ng protein) (p < 0.0001). Additionally, baseline RBC-GLUT1 in T1D negatively correlated with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (R = -0.23, p < 0.05) but not in CON (R = 0.06, p < 0.9). Acute decline in serum glucose to 3.3 mmol/L (90 min) or 3 mmol/L (45 min) did not change baseline RBC-GLUT1 in T1D or CON children. We conclude that reduced RBC-GLUT1 encountered in T1D, with no ability to compensate by increasing during acute hypoglycemia over the durations examined, may demonstrate a vulnerability of impaired RBC glucose transport (serving as a surrogate for BBB), especially in those with the worst control. We speculate that this may contribute to the perturbed cognition seen in T1D adolescents.

  19. Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II proviral sequences in Argentinian