Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics.
Luehr, Nathan; Markland, Thomas E; Martínez, Todd J
2014-02-28
Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.
Ab initio calculations of the lattice dynamics of silver halides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordienko, A. B.; Kravchenko, N. G.; Sedelnikov, A. N.
2010-12-01
Based on ab initio pseudopotential calculations, the results of investigations of the lattice dynamics of silver halides AgHal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) are presented. Equilibrium lattice parameters, phonon spectra, frequency densities and effective atomic-charge values are obtained for all types of crystals under study.
Bicanonical ab Initio Molecular Dynamics for Open Systems.
Frenzel, Johannes; Meyer, Bernd; Marx, Dominik
2017-08-08
Performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of open systems, where the chemical potential rather than the number of both nuclei and electrons is fixed, still is a challenge. Here, drawing on bicanonical sampling ideas introduced two decades ago by Swope and Andersen [ J. Chem. Phys. 1995 , 102 , 2851 - 2863 ] to calculate chemical potentials of liquids and solids, an ab initio simulation technique is devised, which introduces a fictitious dynamics of two superimposed but otherwise independent periodic systems including full electronic structure, such that either the chemical potential or the average fractional particle number of a specific chemical species can be kept constant. As proof of concept, we demonstrate that solvation free energies can be computed from these bicanonical ab initio simulations upon directly superimposing pure bulk water and the respective aqueous solution being the two limiting systems. The method is useful in many circumstances, for instance for studying heterogeneous catalytic processes taking place on surfaces where the chemical potential of reactants rather than their number is controlled and opens a pathway toward ab initio simulations at constant electrochemical potential.
Towards ab initio Calculations with the Dynamical Vertex Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galler, Anna; Kaufmann, Josef; Gunacker, Patrik; Pickem, Matthias; Thunström, Patrik; Tomczak, Jan M.; Held, Karsten
2018-04-01
While key effects of the many-body problem — such as Kondo and Mott physics — can be understood in terms of on-site correlations, non-local fluctuations of charge, spin, and pairing amplitudes are at the heart of the most fascinating and unresolved phenomena in condensed matter physics. Here, we review recent progress in diagrammatic extensions to dynamical mean-field theory for ab initio materials calculations. We first recapitulate the quantum field theoretical background behind the two-particle vertex. Next we discuss latest algorithmic advances in quantum Monte Carlo simulations for calculating such two-particle quantities using worm sampling and vertex asymptotics, before giving an introduction to the ab initio dynamical vertex approximation (AbinitioDΓA). Finally, we highlight the potential of AbinitioDΓA by detailing results for the prototypical correlated metal SrVO3.
Diffusion in liquid Germanium using ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, R. V.; Aulbur, W. G.; Stroud, D.
1996-03-01
We describe the results of calculations of the self-diffusion constant of liquid Ge over a range of temperatures. The calculations are carried out using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme which combines an LDA model for the electronic structure with the Bachelet-Hamann-Schlüter norm-conserving pseudopotentials^1. The energies associated with electronic degrees of freedom are minimized using the Williams-Soler algorithm, and ionic moves are carried out using the Verlet algorithm. We use an energy cutoff of 10 Ry, which is sufficient to give results for the lattice constant and bulk modulus of crystalline Ge to within 1% and 12% of experiment. The program output includes not only the self-diffusion constant but also the structure factor, electronic density of states, and low-frequency electrical conductivity. We will compare our results with other ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and discuss extension to impurity diffusion. ^1 We use the ab initio molecular dynamics code fhi94md, developed at 1cm the Fritz-Haber Institute, Berlin. ^2 Work supported by NASA, Grant NAG3-1437.
Ab initio molecular dynamics in a finite homogeneous electric field.
Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo
2002-10-07
We treat homogeneous electric fields within density functional calculations with periodic boundary conditions. A nonlocal energy functional depending on the applied field is used within an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. The reliability of the method is demonstrated in the case of bulk MgO for the Born effective charges, and the high- and low-frequency dielectric constants. We evaluate the static dielectric constant by performing a damped molecular dynamics in an electric field and avoiding the calculation of the dynamical matrix. Application of this method to vitreous silica shows good agreement with experiment and illustrates its potential for systems of large size.
Quantum Fragment Based ab Initio Molecular Dynamics for Proteins.
Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xianwei; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H
2015-12-08
Developing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods for practical application in protein dynamics is of significant interest. Due to the large size of biomolecules, applying standard quantum chemical methods to compute energies for dynamic simulation is computationally prohibitive. In this work, a fragment based ab initio molecular dynamics approach is presented for practical application in protein dynamics study. In this approach, the energy and forces of the protein are calculated by a recently developed electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (EE-GMFCC) method. For simulation in explicit solvent, mechanical embedding is introduced to treat protein interaction with explicit water molecules. This AIMD approach has been applied to MD simulations of a small benchmark protein Trpcage (with 20 residues and 304 atoms) in both the gas phase and in solution. Comparison to the simulation result using the AMBER force field shows that the AIMD gives a more stable protein structure in the simulation, indicating that quantum chemical energy is more reliable. Importantly, the present fragment-based AIMD simulation captures quantum effects including electrostatic polarization and charge transfer that are missing in standard classical MD simulations. The current approach is linear-scaling, trivially parallel, and applicable to performing the AIMD simulation of proteins with a large size.
Hydrogen diffusion in liquid aluminum from ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.
2014-05-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to describe the diffusion of hydrogen in liquid aluminum at different temperatures. Quasi-instantaneous jumps separating periods of localized vibrations around a mean position are found to characterize the hydrogen motion at the microscopic scale. The hydrogen motion is furthermore analyzed using the van Hove function. We highlight a non-Fickian behavior for the hydrogen diffusion due to a large spatial distribution of hydrogen jumps. We show that a generalized continuous time random walk (CTRW) model describes the experimental diffusion coefficients in a satisfactory manner. Finally, the impact of impurities and alloying elements on hydrogen diffusion in aluminum is discussed.
Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework
Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr
2013-09-26
In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to amore » 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core ( 4He) polarization effects.« less
Ab Initio Multiple Spawning Photochemical Dynamics of DMABN Using GPUs
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Sisto, Aaron; Martinez, Todd J.
2016-12-15
The ultrafast decay dynamics of 4-( N,N-dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) following photoexcitation was studied with the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) method, combined with GPU-accelerated linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT). We validate the LR-TDDFT method for this case and then present a detailed analysis of the first ≈200 fs of DMABN excited-state dynamics. Almost complete nonadiabatic population transfer from S 2 (the initially populated bright state) to S 1 takes place in less than 50 fs, without significant torsion of the dimethylamino (DMA) group. Significant torsion of the DMA group is only observed after the nuclear wavepacket reaches S 1 andmore » acquires locally excited electronic character. Here, our results show that torsion of the DMA group is not prerequisite for nonadiabatic transitions in DMABN, although such motion is indeed relevant on the lowest excited state (S 1).« less
Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Graphene Sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolev, S.; Balchev, I.; Cvetkov, K.; Tinchev, S.; Milenov, T.
2017-01-01
The study of graphene is important because it is a promising material for a variety of applications in the electronic industry. In the present work, the properties of а 2D periodic graphene sheet are studied with the use of ab initio molecular dynamics. DFT in the generalized gradient approximation is used in order to carry out the dynamical simulations. The PBE functional and DZVP-MOLOPT basis set are implemented in the CP2K/Quickstep package. A periodic box, consisting of 288 carbon atoms is chosen for the simulations. After geometry optimization it has dimensions 2964 x 2964 x 1500 pm and form angles of 90, 90, 60 degrees. The dynamical simulation is run for 1 ps in the NPT ensemble, at temperature T = 298.15 K. The radial distribution function shows a first peak at 142 pm, marking the bond length between carbon atoms. The density of states for the periodic systems is simulated as occupied orbitals represent the valence band and unoccupied ones the conduction band. The calculated bandgap, as expected is close to 0 eV.
Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric
2016-04-01
Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti.
Ab Initio Computation of Dynamical Properties: Pressure Broadening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Drouin, Brian
2014-06-01
Rotational spectroscopy of polar molecules is the main observational tool in many areas of astrophysics, for gases of low densities (n ˜ 102 - 108 cm-3). Spectral line shapes in astrophysical media are largely dominated by turbulence-induced Doppler effects and natural line broadening are negligible. However line broadening remains an important tool for denser gases, like planetary high atmospheres. Understanding the excitation schemes of polar molecules requires the knowledge of excitation transfer rate due to collisional excitation, between the polar molecule and the ambient gas, usually H2. Transport properties in ionized media also require a precise knowledge of momentum transfer rates by elastic collisions. In order to assess the theoretically computed cross section and energy/momentum transfer rates, direct absolute experiments are scarce. The best way is to measure not individual scattering events but rather the global effect of the buffer gas, thanks to the pressure broadening cross sections, whose magnitude can be measured without any scaling parameters. At low temperatures, both elastic and inelastic scattering amplitudes are tested. At higher temperature, depending on the interaction strength, only inelastic scattering cross section are shown to play a significant role 1 ,2. Thanks to the advances of computer capabilities, it has become practical to compute spectral line parameters fromab initio quantum chemistry. In particular, the theory of rotational line broadening is readily incorporated into scattering quantum dynamical theory, like close-coupling schemes. The only approximations used in the computation are the isolated collision/isolated line approximations. We compute the non-binding interaction potential with high precision quantum chemistry and fit the resulting ab initio points onto a suitable functional. We have recently computed several such systems, for molecules in H2 buffer gas: H2O,3 H2CO,4 HCO+ .5 Detailed computations taking into
A Force Balanced Fragmentation Method for ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Protein.
Xu, Mingyuan; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, John Z H
2018-01-01
A force balanced generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (FB-GMFCC) method is proposed for ab initio molecular dynamic simulation of proteins. In this approach, the energy of the protein is computed by a linear combination of the QM energies of individual residues and molecular fragments that account for the two-body interaction of hydrogen bond between backbone peptides. The atomic forces on the caped H atoms were corrected to conserve the total force of the protein. Using this approach, ab initio molecular dynamic simulation of an Ace-(ALA) 9 -NME linear peptide showed the conservation of the total energy of the system throughout the simulation. Further a more robust 110 ps ab initio molecular dynamic simulation was performed for a protein with 56 residues and 862 atoms in explicit water. Compared with the classical force field, the ab initio molecular dynamic simulations gave better description of the geometry of peptide bonds. Although further development is still needed, the current approach is highly efficient, trivially parallel, and can be applied to ab initio molecular dynamic simulation study of large proteins.
AB INITIO Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Under Static and Shock Compressed Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, Nir; Fried, Laurence E.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Kuo, I.-F. William; Curioni, Alessandro; Reed, Evan J.
2007-12-01
We report herein a series of ab initio simulations of water under both static and shocked conditions. We have calculated the coherent x-ray scattering intensity of several phases of water under high pressure, using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT). We provide new atomic scattering form factors for water at extreme conditions, which take into account frequently neglected changes in ionic charge and electron delocalization. We have also simulated liquid water undergoing shock loading of velocities from 5-11 km/s using the Multi-Scale Shock Technique (MSST). We show that Density Functional Theory (DFT) molecular dynamics results compare extremely well to experiments on the water shock Hugoniot.
Timko, Jeff; Kuyucak, Serdar
2012-11-28
Polarization is an important component of molecular interactions and is expected to play a particularly significant role in inhomogeneous environments such as pores and interfaces. Here we investigate the effects of polarization in the gramicidin A ion channel by performing quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and comparing the results with those obtained from classical MD simulations with non-polarizable force fields. We consider the dipole moments of backbone carbonyl groups and channel water molecules as well as a number of structural quantities of interest. The ab initio results show that the dipole moments of the carbonyl groups and water molecules are highly sensitive to the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) they participate in. In the absence of a K(+) ion, water molecules in the channel are quite mobile, making the H-bond network highly dynamic. A central K(+) ion acts as an anchor for the channel waters, stabilizing the H-bond network and thereby increasing their average dipole moments. In contrast, the K(+) ion has little effect on the dipole moments of the neighboring carbonyl groups. The weakness of the ion-peptide interactions helps to explain the near diffusion-rate conductance of K(+) ions through the channel. We also address the sampling issue in relatively short ab initio MD simulations. Results obtained from a continuous 20 ps ab initio MD simulation are compared with those generated by sampling ten windows from a much longer classical MD simulation and running each window for 2 ps with ab initio MD. Both methods yield similar results for a number of quantities of interest, indicating that fluctuations are fast enough to justify the short ab initio MD simulations.
An ab-initio study of mechanical, dynamical and electronic properties of MgEu intermetallic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S. Ramesh; Jaiganesh, G.; Jayalakshmi, V.
2018-04-01
The theoretical investigation on the mechanical, dynamical and electronic properties of MgEu in CsCl-type structure has been carried out through the ab-initio calculations within the framework of the density functional theory and the density functional perturbation theory. For the purpose, Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package and Phonopy packages were used. Our calculated ground-state properties of MgEu are in good agreement with other available results. Our computed elastic constants and phonon spectrum results suggest that MgEu is mechanically and dynamically stable up to 5 GPa. The thermodynamic quantities as a function of temperatures are also reported and discussed. The band structure, density of states and charge density also calculated to understand the electronic properties of MgEu.
Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2007-10-18
We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.
Rana, Malay Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu
2013-05-28
The behavior of water near a graphene sheet is investigated by means of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The wetting of the graphene sheet by ab initio water and the relation of such behavior to the strength of classical dispersion interaction between surface atoms and water are explored. The first principles simulations reveal a layered solvation structure around the graphene sheet with a significant water density in the interfacial region implying no drying or cavitation effect. It is found that the ab initio results of water density at interfaces can be reproduced reasonably well by classical simulations with a tuned dispersion potential between the surface and water molecules. Calculations of vibrational power spectrum from ab initio simulations reveal a shift of the intramolecular stretch modes to higher frequencies for interfacial water molecules when compared with those of the second solvation later or bulk-like water due to the presence of free OH modes near the graphene sheet. Also, a weakening of the water-water hydrogen bonds in the vicinity of the graphene surface is found in our ab initio simulations as reflected in the shift of intermolecular vibrational modes to lower frequencies for interfacial water molecules. The first principles calculations also reveal that the residence and orientational dynamics of interfacial water are somewhat slower than those of the second layer or bulk-like molecules. However, the lateral diffusion and hydrogen bond relaxation of interfacial water molecules are found to occur at a somewhat faster rate than that of the bulk-like water molecules. The classical molecular dynamics simulations with tuned Lennard-Jones surface-water interaction are found to produce dynamical results that are qualitatively similar to those of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.
Hirshberg, Barak; Sagiv, Lior; Gerber, R Benny
2017-03-14
Algorithms for quantum molecular dynamics simulations that directly use ab initio methods have many potential applications. In this article, the ab initio classical separable potentials (AICSP) method is proposed as the basis for approximate algorithms of this type. The AICSP method assumes separability of the total time-dependent wave function of the nuclei and employs mean-field potentials that govern the dynamics of each degree of freedom. In the proposed approach, the mean-field potentials are determined by classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The nuclear wave function can thus be propagated in time using the effective potentials generated "on the fly". As a test of the method for realistic systems, calculations of the stationary anharmonic frequencies of hydrogen stretching modes were carried out for several polyatomic systems, including three amino acids and the guanine-cytosine pair of nucleobases. Good agreement with experiments was found. The method scales very favorably with the number of vibrational modes and should be applicable for very large molecules, e.g., peptides. The method should also be applicable for properties such as vibrational line widths and line shapes. Work in these directions is underway.
Ab-initio study of several static and dynamic properties of liquid palladium and platinum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, L. E.; González, D. J.; Molla, Mohammad Riazuddin; Ahmed, A. Z. Ziauddin; Bhuiyan, G. M.
2017-08-01
We report a study on several static and dynamic properties of liquid Pd and Pt metals at thermodynamic conditions near their respective triple points. The calculations have been carried out by an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation technique. Results are reported for several static structural magnitudes which are compared with the available X-ray diffraction. As for the dynamic properties, results have been obtained for both single and collective dynamical magnitudes as well as for some transport coeffcients which are compared with the corresponding experimental data.
Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study
Sharma, Nalini, E-mail: nalini-2808@yahoo.co.in; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil
2016-05-23
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70,.} Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30}, and Hg{sub 90}Pb{sub 10}) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the localmore » arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.« less
Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2016-05-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg10In90, Hg30In70,. Hg50In50, Hg70In30, and Hg90Pb10) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid Hg-Pb alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2014-04-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-Pb alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-Pb mixtures (Hg30Pb70, Hg50Pb50 and Hg90Pb10) at 600K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-Pb). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered three alloys. Among the all considered alloys, Hg50Pb50 alloy shows presence of more chemical ordering and presence of hetero-coordination.
Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics
Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil
2015-05-15
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factormore » shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.« less
Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2015-05-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg10In90, Hg30In70, Hg50In50, Hg70In30 and Hg90In10) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venâncio, Mateus F.; Rocha, Willian R.
2015-10-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the early chemical events involved in the dynamics of nitric oxide (NOrad), nitrosonium cation (NO+) and nitroxide anion (NO-) in aqueous solution. The NO+ ion is very reactive in aqueous solution having a lifetime of ∼4 × 10-13 s, which is shorter than the value of 3 × 10-10 s predicted experimentally. The NO+ reacts generating the nitrous acid as an intermediate and the NO2- ion as the final product. The dynamics of NOrad revealed the reversibly formation of a transient anion radical species HONOrad -.
Geng, Hua Y., E-mail: huay.geng@gmail.com; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model—the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate ismore » about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of r{sub s}=0.912.« less
Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics
Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric
2016-04-22
Efficient exploration of the configuration space and identification of metastable structures are challenging from both computational as well as algorithmic perspectives. Here, we extend the recently proposed orderparameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways within the framework of density functional theory based molecular dynamics. The sampling method is applied to explore the relevant parts of the configuration space in prototypical materials SiO 2 and Ti to identify the different metastable structures corresponding to different phases in these materials. In addition, we use the string methodmore » in collective variables to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO 2 and the hcp to fcc phase transition in Ti.« less
Ab initio study of the structure and dynamics of bulk liquid Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marqués, M.; González, L. E.; González, D. J.
2015-10-01
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Fe at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been evaluated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows very good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the structure factor which underlines a substantial local icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. The dynamical structure reveals propagating density fluctuations, with an associated dispersion relation which closely follows the experimental data. The dynamic structure factors S (q ,ω ) show a good agreement with their experimental counterparts which have been recently measured by an inelastic x-ray scattering experiment. The dynamical processes behind the S (q ,ω ) have been analyzed by using a model with two decay channels (a fast and a slow) associated with the relaxations of the collective excitations. The recent finding of transverselike excitation modes in the IXS data is analyzed by using the present ab initio simulation results. Several transport coefficients have been evaluated and the results are compared with the available experimental data.
Xiao, H. Y.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zu, X. T.; Li, S.
2015-01-01
The response of titanate pyrochlores (A2Ti2O7, A = Y, Gd and Sm) to electronic excitation is investigated utilizing an ab initio molecular dynamics method. All the titanate pyrochlores are found to undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition under a low concentration of electronic excitations. The transition temperature at which structural amorphization starts to occur depends on the concentration of electronic excitations. During the structural transition, O2-like molecules are formed, and this anion disorder further drives cation disorder that leads to an amorphous state. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of amorphization in titanate pyrochlores under laser, electron and ion irradiations. PMID:25660219
Xiao, H Y; Weber, W J; Zhang, Y; Zu, X T; Li, S
2015-02-09
The response of titanate pyrochlores (A2Ti2O7, A = Y, Gd and Sm) to electronic excitation is investigated utilizing an ab initio molecular dynamics method. All the titanate pyrochlores are found to undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition under a low concentration of electronic excitations. The transition temperature at which structural amorphization starts to occur depends on the concentration of electronic excitations. During the structural transition, O2-like molecules are formed, and this anion disorder further drives cation disorder that leads to an amorphous state. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of amorphization in titanate pyrochlores under laser, electron and ion irradiations.
The hydrogen diffusion in liquid aluminum alloys from ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.
2014-09-01
We study the hydrogen diffusion in liquid aluminum alloys through extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. At the microscopic scale, we show that the hydrogen motion is characterized by a broad distribution of spatial jumps that does not correspond to a Brownian motion. To determine the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in liquid aluminum alloys, we use a generalized continuous time random walk model recently developed to describe the hydrogen diffusion in pure aluminum. In particular, we show that the model successfully accounts the effects of alloying elements on the hydrogen diffusion in agreement with experimental features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Symonds, Christopher; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.
2017-08-01
The Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) method is a quantum dynamics technique which allows treatment of a large number of quantum nuclear degrees of freedom. This paper presents a review of MCE and its recent applications, providing a summary of the formalisms, including its ab initio direct dynamics versions and also giving a summary of recent results. Firstly, we describe the Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest version 2 (MCEv2) method and its applicability to direct dynamics and report new calculations which show that the approach converges to the exact result in model systems with tens of degrees of freedom. Secondly, we review previous ;on the fly; ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC-MCE) MCE dynamics results obtained for systems of a similar size, in which the calculations treat every electron and every nucleus of a polyatomic molecule on a fully quantum basis. We also review the Time Dependent Diabatic Basis (TDDB) version of the technique and give an example of its application. We summarise the details of the sampling techniques and interpolations used for calculation of the matrix elements, which make our approach efficient. Future directions of work are outlined.
Dynamics and Novel Mechanisms of SN2 Reactions on ab Initio Analytical Potential Energy Surfaces.
Szabó, István; Czakó, Gábor
2017-11-30
We describe a novel theoretical approach to the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) reactions that is based on analytical potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained by fitting a few tens of thousands high-level ab initio energy points. These PESs allow computing millions of quasi-classical trajectories thereby providing unprecedented statistical accuracy for S N 2 reactions, as well as performing high-dimensional quantum dynamics computations. We developed full-dimensional ab initio PESs for the F - + CH 3 Y [Y = F, Cl, I] systems, which describe the direct and indirect, complex-forming Walden-inversion, the frontside attack, and the new double-inversion pathways as well as the proton-transfer channels. Reaction dynamics simulations on the new PESs revealed (a) a novel double-inversion S N 2 mechanism, (b) frontside complex formation, (c) the dynamics of proton transfer, (d) vibrational and rotational mode specificity, (e) mode-specific product vibrational distributions, (f) agreement between classical and quantum dynamics, (g) good agreement with measured scattering angle and product internal energy distributions, and (h) significant leaving group effect in accord with experiments.
Time-domain ab initio modeling of photoinduced dynamics at nanoscale interfaces.
Wang, Linjun; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-04-01
Nonequilibrium processes involving electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in nanoscale materials are under active experimental investigation. Corresponding theoretical studies are much scarcer. The review starts with the basics of time-dependent density functional theory, recent developments in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and the fusion of the two techniques. Ab initio simulations of this kind allow us to directly mimic a great variety of time-resolved experiments performed with pump-probe laser spectroscopies. The focus is on the ultrafast photoinduced charge and exciton dynamics at interfaces formed by two complementary materials. We consider purely inorganic materials, inorganic-organic hybrids, and all organic interfaces, involving bulk semiconductors, metallic and semiconducting nanoclusters, graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, polymers, molecular crystals, molecules, and solvent. The detailed atomistic insights available from time-domain ab initio studies provide a unique description and a comprehensive understanding of the competition between electron transfer, thermal relaxation, energy transfer, and charge recombination processes. These advances now make it possible to directly guide the development of organic and hybrid solar cells, as well as photocatalytic, electronic, spintronic, and other devices relying on complex interfacial dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinek, Tomas; Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Timr, Štěpán; Mason, Philip E.; Baxová, Katarina; Fischer, Henry E.; Schmidt, Burkhard; Pluhařová, Eva; Jungwirth, Pavel
2018-06-01
We present a combination of force field and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations together with neutron scattering experiments with isotopic substitution that aim at characterizing ion hydration and pairing in aqueous calcium chloride and formate/acetate solutions. Benchmarking against neutron scattering data on concentrated solutions together with ion pairing free energy profiles from ab initio molecular dynamics allows us to develop an accurate calcium force field which accounts in a mean-field way for electronic polarization effects via charge rescaling. This refined calcium parameterization is directly usable for standard molecular dynamics simulations of processes involving this key biological signaling ion.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces and Quantum Dynamics for Polyatomic Bimolecular Reactions.
Fu, Bina; Zhang, Dong H
2018-05-08
There has been great progress in the development of potential energy surfaces (PESs) and quantum dynamics calculations in the gas phase. The establishment of a fitting procedure for highly accurate PESs and new developments in quantum reactive scattering on reliable PESs allow accurate characterization of reaction dynamics beyond triatomic systems. This review will give the recent development in our group in constructing ab initio PESs based on neural networks and the time-dependent wave packet calculations for bimolecular reactions beyond three atoms. Bimolecular reactions of current interest to the community, namely, OH + H 2 , H + H 2 O, OH + CO, H + CH 4 , and Cl + CH 4 , are focused on. Quantum mechanical characterization of these reactions uncovers interesting dynamical phenomena with an unprecedented level of sophistication and has greatly advanced our understanding of polyatomic reaction dynamics.
Chao, Shih-Wei; Li, Arvin Huang-Te; Chao, Sheng D
2009-09-01
Intermolecular interaction energy data for the methane dimer have been calculated at a spectroscopic accuracy and employed to construct an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of fluid methane properties. The full potential curves of the methane dimer at 12 symmetric conformations were calculated by the supermolecule counterpoise-corrected second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. Single-point coupled cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations were also carried out to calibrate the MP2 potentials. We employed Pople's medium size basis sets [up to 6-311++G(3df, 3pd)] and Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets (cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ, X = D, T, Q). For each conformer, the intermolecular carbon-carbon separation was sampled in a step 0.1 A for a range of 3-9 A, resulting in a total of 732 configuration points calculated. The MP2 binding curves display significant anisotropy with respect to the relative orientations of the dimer. The potential curves at the complete basis set (CBS) limit were estimated using well-established analytical extrapolation schemes. A 4-site potential model with sites located at the hydrogen atoms was used to fit the ab initio potential data. This model stems from a hydrogen-hydrogen repulsion mechanism to explain the stability of the dimer structure. MD simulations using the ab initio PES show quantitative agreements on both the atom-wise radial distribution functions and the self-diffusion coefficients over a wide range of experimental conditions. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ion-solid interactions in zirconate pyrochlores
Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...
2015-01-31
In this paper, an ab initio molecular dynamics method is employed to study low energy recoil events in zirconate pyrochlores (A 2Zr 2O 7, A = La, Nd and Sm). It shows that both cations and anions in Nd 2Zr 2O 7 and Sm 2Zr 2O 7 are generally more likely to be displaced than those in La 2Zr 2O 7. The damage end states mainly consist of Frenkel pair defects, and the Frenkel pair formation energies in Nd 2Zr 2O 7 and Sm 2Zr 2O 7 are lower than those in La 2Zr 2O 7. These results suggest thatmore » the order–disorder structural transition more easily occurs in Nd 2Zr 2O 7 and Sm 2Zr 2O 7 resulting in a defect-fluorite structure, which agrees well with experimental observations. Our calculations indicate that oxygen migration from 48f and 8b to 8a sites is dominant under low energy irradiation. A number of new defects, including four types of cation Frenkel pairs and six types of anion Frenkel pairs, are revealed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The present findings may help to advance the fundamental understanding of the irradiation response behavior of zirconate pyrochlores.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galler, Anna; Gunacker, Patrik; Tomczak, Jan; Thunström, Patrik; Held, Karsten
Recently, approaches such as the dynamical vertex approximation (D ΓA) or the dual-fermion method have been developed. These diagrammatic approaches are going beyond dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) by including nonlocal electronic correlations on all length scales as well as the local DMFT correlations. Here we present our efforts to extend the D ΓA methodology to ab-initio materials calculations (ab-initio D ΓA). Our approach is a unifying framework which includes both GW and DMFT-type of diagrams, but also important nonlocal correlations beyond, e.g. nonlocal spin fluctuations. In our multi-band implementation we are using a worm sampling technique within continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo in the hybridization expansion to obtain the DMFT vertex, from which we construct the reducible vertex function using the two particle-hole ladders. As a first application we show results for transition metal oxides. Support by the ERC project AbinitioDGA (306447) is acknowledged.
Ab initio molecular dynamics of solvation effects on reactivity at electrified interfaces
Herron, Jeffrey A.; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Mavrikakis, Manos
2016-08-08
Using ab initio molecular dynamics (as implemented in periodic, self-consistent (GGA-PBE) density functional theory (DFT) we investigated the mechanism of methanol electro-oxidation on Pt(111). We investigated the role of solvation and electrode potential on the energetics of the first proton transfer step, methanol electro-oxidation to methoxy (CH 3O) or hydroxymethyl (CH 2OH). The results show that solvation weakens the adsorption of methoxy to uncharged Pt(111), while the binding energy of methanol and hydroxymethyl are not significantly affected. The free energies of activation for breaking the C-H and O-H bonds in methanol were calculated through a Blue Moon Ensemble using constrainedmore » ab initio molecular dynamics. Calculated barriers for these elementary steps on unsolvated, uncharged Pt(111) are similar to results for climbing-image nudged elastic band calculations from the literature. Solvation reduces the barrier for both C-H and O-H bond activation steps with respect to their vapor phase values, though the effect is more pronounced for C-H bond activation due to less disruption of the hydrogen-bond network. The calculated activation energy barriers show that breaking the C-H bond of methanol is more facile than the O-H bond on solvated negatively biased, or uncharged Pt(111). Furthermore, with positive bias, O-H bond activation is enhanced, becoming slightly more facile than C-H bond activation.« less
Ab Initio Classical Dynamics Simulations of CO_2 Line-Mixing Effects in Infrared Bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamouroux, Julien; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Tran, Ha; Snels, Marcel; Stefani, Stefania; Piccioni, Giuseppe
2013-06-01
Ab initio calculations of line-mixing effects in CO_2 infrared bands are presented and compared with experiments. The predictions were carried using requantized Classical Dynamics Molecular Simulations (rCDMS) based on an approach previously developed and successfully tested for CO_2 isolated line shapes. Using classical dynamics equations, the force and torque applied to each molecule by the surrounding molecules (described by an ab initio intermolecular potential) are computed at each time step. This enables, using a requantization procedure, to predict dipole and isotropic polarizability auto-correlation functions whose Fourier-Laplace transforms yield the spectra. The quality of the rCDMS calculations is demonstrated by comparisons with measured spectra in the spectral regions of the 3ν_3 and 2ν_1+2ν_2+ν_3 Infrared bands. J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, N. H. Ngo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. A {87} (2013), 013403. H. Tran, C. Boulet, M. Snels, S. Stefani, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer {112} (2011), 925-936.
Ab initio study on the dynamics of furfural at the liquid-solid interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Hongli; Xue, Wenhua; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu
2013-03-01
Catalytic biomass conversion sometimes occurs at the liquid-solid interfaces. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures for the catalytic reactions involving furfural at the water-Pd and water-Cu interfaces. We found that, during the dynamic process, the furan ring of furfural prefers to be parallel to the Pd surface and the aldehyde group tends to be away from the Pd surface. On the other hand, at the water-Cu(111) interface, furfural prefers to be tilted to the Cu surface while the aldehyde group is bonded to the surface. In both cases, interaction of liquid water and furfural is identified. The difference of dynamic process of furfural at the two interfaces suggests different catalytic reaction mechanisms for the conversion of furfural, consistent with the experimental investigations. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSED's and NERSC's supercomputers
Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Studies of Pb m Sb n ( m + n ≤ 9) Alloy Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Bingyi; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Wenlong; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Na; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian
2017-10-01
Structure, stability, and dynamics of Pb m Sb n ( m + n ≤ 9) clusters were investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics. Size dependence of binding energies, the second-order energy difference of clusters, dissociation energy, HOMO-LUMO gaps, Mayer bond order, and the diffusion coefficient of Pb m Sb n clusters were discussed. Results suggest that Pb3Sb2, Pb4Sb2, and Pb5Sb4 ( n = 2 or 4) clusters have higher stability than other clusters, which is consistent with previous findings. In case of Pb-Sb alloy, the dynamics results show that Pb4Sb2 (Pb-22.71 wt pct Sb) can exist in gas phase at 1073 K (800 °C), which reasonably explains the azeotropic phenomenon, and the calculated values are in agreement with the experimental results (Pb-22 wt pct Sb).
Structural phase transition of BeTe: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.
Alptekin, Sebahaddin
2017-08-11
Beryllium telluride (BeTe) with cubic zinc-blende (ZB) structure was studied using ab initio constant pressure method under high pressure. The ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) approach for constant pressure was studied and it was found that the first order phase transition occurs from the ZB structure to the nickel arsenide (NiAs) structure. It has been shown that the MD simulation predicts the transition pressure P T more than the value obtained by the static enthalpy and experimental data. The structural pathway reveals MD simulation such as cubic → tetragonal → orthorhombic → monoclinic → orthorhombic → hexagonal, leading the ZB to NiAs phase. The phase transformation is accompanied by a 10% volume drop and at 80 GPa is likely to be around 35 GPa in the experiment. In the present study, our obtained values can be compared with the experimental and theoretical results. Graphical abstract The energy-volume relation and ZB phase for the BeTe.
i-PI: A Python interface for ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceriotti, Michele; More, Joshua; Manolopoulos, David E.
2014-03-01
Recent developments in path integral methodology have significantly reduced the computational expense of including quantum mechanical effects in the nuclear motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. However, the implementation of these developments requires a considerable programming effort, which has hindered their adoption. Here we describe i-PI, an interface written in Python that has been designed to minimise the effort required to bring state-of-the-art path integral techniques to an electronic structure program. While it is best suited to first principles calculations and path integral molecular dynamics, i-PI can also be used to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations, and can just as easily be interfaced with an empirical forcefield code. To give just one example of the many potential applications of the interface, we use it in conjunction with the CP2K electronic structure package to showcase the importance of nuclear quantum effects in high-pressure water. Catalogue identifier: AERN_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138626 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3128618 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: Multiple architectures. Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows. RAM: Less than 256 Mb Classification: 7.7. External routines: NumPy Nature of problem: Bringing the latest developments in the modelling of nuclear quantum effects with path integral molecular dynamics to ab initio electronic structure programs with minimal implementational effort. Solution method: State-of-the-art path integral molecular dynamics techniques are implemented in a Python interface. Any electronic structure code can be patched to receive the atomic
Decarboxylation of furfural on Pd(111): Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Wenhua; Dang, Hongli; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu
2013-03-01
Furfural conversion over metal catalysts plays an important role in the studies of biomass-derived feedstocks. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the decarboxylation process of furfural on the palladium surface at finite temperatures. We observed and analyzed the atomic-scale dynamics of furfural on the Pd(111) surface and the fluctuations of the bondlengths between the atoms in furfural. We found that the dominant bonding structure is the parallel structure in which the furfural plane, while slightly distorted, is parallel to the Pd surface. Analysis of the bondlength fluctuations indicates that the C-H bond is the aldehyde group of a furfural molecule is likely to be broken first, while the C =O bond has a tendency to be isolated as CO. Our results show that the reaction of decarbonylation dominates, consistent with the experimental measurements. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSEDE's and NERSC's supercomputers.
Insights into H2 formation in space from ab initio molecular dynamics
Casolo, Simone; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Martinazzo, Rocco
2013-01-01
Hydrogen formation is a key process for the physics and the chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecular hydrogen is believed to form on the carbonaceous surface of dust grains, and several mechanisms have been invoked to explain its abundance in different regions of space, from cold interstellar clouds to warm photon-dominated regions. Here, we investigate direct (Eley–Rideal) recombination including lattice dynamics, surface corrugation, and competing H-dimers formation by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. We find that Eley–Rideal reaction dominates at energies relevant for the interstellar medium and alone may explain observations if the possibility of facile sticking at special sites (edges, point defects, etc.) on the surface of the dust grains is taken into account. PMID:23572584
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokizaki, Chihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki
2016-05-01
The cyclooctatetraene (COT) anion has a stable D4h structure that is similar to the transition state configurations of the neutral C-C bond-alternation (D4h ↔ D8h ↔ D4h) and ring-inversion (D2d ↔ D4h ↔ D2d) unimolecular reactions. The previously measured photodetachment spectrum of COT- revealed the reaction dynamics in the vicinity of the two transition states on the neutral potential energy surface. In this work, the photodetachment spectrum is calculated quantum mechanically on ab initio-level potential energy surfaces within a three degree-of-freedom reduced-dimensionality model. Very good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment, providing reliable interpretations for the experimental spectrum. A detailed picture of the reactive molecular dynamics of the COT unimolecular reaction in the transition state region is also discussed.
Formation Dynamics of Potassium-Based Graphite Intercalation Compounds: An Ab Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xiankai; Song, Bo; Tománek, David
2018-04-01
This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. We use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study the microscopic dynamics of potassium intercalation in graphite. Upon adsorbing on graphite from the vapor phase, K atoms transfer their valence charge to the substrate. K atoms adsorbed on the surface diffuse rapidly along the graphene basal plane and eventually enter the interlayer region following a "U -turn" across the edge, gaining additional energy. This process is promoted at higher coverages associated with higher K pressure, leading to the formation of a stable intercalation compound. We find that the functionalization of graphene edges is an essential prerequisite for intercalation since bare edges reconstruct and reconnect, closing off the entry channels for the atoms.
Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen
2015-02-09
In this study, the response of titanate pyrochlores (A 2Ti 2O 7, A = Y, Gd and Sm) to electronic excitation is investigated utilizing an ab initio molecular dynamics method. All the titanate pyrochlores are found to undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition under a low concentration of electronic excitations. The transition temperature at which structural amorphization starts to occur depends on the concentration of electronic excitations. During the structural transition, O 2-like molecules are formed, and this anion disorder further drives cation disorder that leads to an amorphous state. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of amorphization inmore » titanate pyrochlores under laser, electron and ion irradiations.« less
Ab initio ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) study on the deamination reaction by cytidine deaminase.
Matsubara, Toshiaki; Dupuis, Michel; Aida, Misako
2007-08-23
We applied the ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) method to the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine by cytidine deaminase, which is an essential step of the activation process of the anticancer drug inside the human body. The direct MD simulations were performed for the realistic model of cytidine deaminase by calculating the energy and its gradient by the ab initio ONIOM method on the fly. The ONIOM-MD calculations including the thermal motion show that the neighboring amino acid residue is an important factor of the environmental effects and significantly affects not only the geometry and energy of the substrate trapped in the pocket of the active site but also the elementary step of the catalytic reaction. We successfully simulate the second half of the catalytic cycle, which has been considered to involve the rate-determining step, and reveal that the rate-determining step is the release of the NH3 molecule.
Casolo, S; Tantardini, G F; Martinazzo, R
2016-07-14
We studied Eley-Rideal molecular hydrogen formation on graphite using ab initio molecular dynamics, in the energy range relevant for the chemistry of the interstellar medium and for terrestrial experiments employing cold plasma (0.02-1 eV). We found substantial projectile steering effects that prevent dimer formation at low energies, thereby ruling out any catalytic synthetic pathways that form hydrogen molecules. Ortho and para dimers do form efficiently thanks to preferential sticking, but only at energies that are too high to be relevant for the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Computed reaction cross sections and ro-vibrational product populations are in good agreement with available experimental data and capable of generating adsorbate configurations similar to those observed with scanning tunneling microscopy techniques.
Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru, E-mail: ohno@ynu.ac.jp
Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronicmore » excited state configuration.« less
Ab initio molecular dynamic study of solid-state transitions of ammonium nitrate
Yu, Hongyu; Duan, Defang; Liu, Hanyu; Yang, Ting; Tian, Fubo; Bao, Kuo; Li, Da; Zhao, Zhonglong; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian
2016-01-01
High-pressure polymorphism and phase transitions have wide ranging consequences on the basic properties of ammonium nitrate. However, the phase diagram of ammonium nitrate at high pressure and high temperature is still under debate. This study systematically investigates the phase transitions and structural properties of ammonium nitrate at a pressure range of 5–60 GPa and temperature range of 250–400 K by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two new phases are identified: one corresponds to the experimentally observed phase IV’ and the other is named AN-X. Simultaneously, the lattice strains play a significant role in the formation and stabilization of phase IV’, providing a reasonable explanation for experimental observation of phase IV-IV’ transition which only appears under nonhydrostatic pressure. In addition, 12 O atoms neighboring the NH (N atom in ammonium cation) atom are selected as reference system to clearly display the tanglesome rotation of ammonium cation. PMID:26754622
Lattice dynamics of solid N2 with an ab initio intermolecular potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luty, T.; van der Avoird, A.; Berns, R. M.
1980-11-01
We have performed harmonic and self-consistent phonon lattice dynamics calculations for α and γ N2 crystals using an intermolecular potential from ab initio calculations. This potential contains electrostatic (multipole) interactions, up to all R-9 terms inclusive, anisotropic dispersion interactions up to all R-10 terms inclusive, and anisotropic overlap interactions caused by charge penetration and exchange between the molecules. The lattice constants, cohesion energy, the frequencies of the translational phonon modes and the Grüneisen parameters for the librational modes are in good agreement with experimental values, confirming the quality of the potential. The frequencies of the librational modes and those of the mixed modes are less well reproduced, especially at temperatures near the α-β phase transition. Probably, the self-consistent phonon method used does not fully account for the anharmonicity in the librations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard L.; Pattengill, Merle D.; Schwenke, David W.
1989-01-01
Strategies for constructing global potential energy surfaces from a limited number of accurate ab initio electronic energy calculations are discussed. Generally, these data are concentrated in small regions of configuration space (e.g., in the vicinity of saddle points and energy minima) and difficulties arise in generating a potential function that is globally well-behaved. Efficient computer codes for carrying out classical trajectory calculations on vector and parallel processors are also described. Illustrations are given from recent work on the following chemical systems: Ca + HF yields CaF + H, H + H + H2 yields H2 + H2, N + O2 yields NO + O and O + N2 yields NO + N. The dynamics and kinetics of metathesis, dissociation, recombination, energy transfer and complex formation processes will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Guang-Yu; Ishibashi, Shoji; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Terakura, Kiyoyuki
2007-03-01
Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 by Iijima, carbon and other nanotubes have attracted considerable interest worldwide because of their unusual properties and also great potentials for technological applications. Though CNTs continue to attract great interest, other nanotubes such as BN nanotubes (BN-NTs) may offer different opportunities that CNTs cannot provide. In this contribution, we present the results of our recent systematic ab initio calculations of the static dielectric constant, electric polarizability, Born dynamical charge, electrostriction coefficient and piezoelectric constant of BN-NTs using the latest crystalline finite electric field theory [1]. [1] I. Souza, J. Iniguez, and D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 117602 (2002); P. Umari and A. Pasquarello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 157602 (2002).
Carbon diffusion in molten uranium: an ab initio molecular dynamics study
Garrett, Kerry E.; Abrecht, David G.; Kessler, Sean H.
In this work we used ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and the projector-augmented wave (PAW) method to study carbon diffusion in liquid uranium at temperatures above 1600 K. The electronic interactions of carbon and uranium were described using the local density approximation (LDA). The self-diffusion of uranium based on this approach is compared with literature computational and experimental results for liquid uranium. The temperature dependence of carbon and uranium diffusion in the melt was evaluated by fitting the resulting diffusion coefficients to an Arrhenius relationship. We found that the LDA calculated activationmore » energy for carbon was nearly twice that of uranium: 0.55±0.03 eV for carbon compared to 0.32±0.04 eV for uranium. Structural analysis of the liquid uranium-carbon system is also discussed.« less
Carbon diffusion in molten uranium: an ab initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrett, Kerry E.; Abrecht, David G.; Kessler, Sean H.; Henson, Neil J.; Devanathan, Ram; Schwantes, Jon M.; Reilly, Dallas D.
2018-04-01
In this work we used ab initio molecular dynamics within the framework of density functional theory and the projector-augmented wave method to study carbon diffusion in liquid uranium at temperatures above 1600 K. The electronic interactions of carbon and uranium were described using the local density approximation (LDA). The self-diffusion of uranium based on this approach is compared with literature computational and experimental results for liquid uranium. The temperature dependence of carbon and uranium diffusion in the melt was evaluated by fitting the resulting diffusion coefficients to an Arrhenius relationship. We found that the LDA calculated activation energy for carbon was nearly twice that of uranium: 0.55 ± 0.03 eV for carbon compared to 0.32 ± 0.04 eV for uranium. Structural analysis of the liquid uranium-carbon system is also discussed.
Ab Initio Molecular-Dynamics Simulation of Neuromorphic Computing in Phase-Change Memory Materials.
Skelton, Jonathan M; Loke, Desmond; Lee, Taehoon; Elliott, Stephen R
2015-07-08
We present an in silico study of the neuromorphic-computing behavior of the prototypical phase-change material, Ge2Sb2Te5, using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Stepwise changes in structural order in response to temperature pulses of varying length and duration are observed, and a good reproduction of the spike-timing-dependent plasticity observed in nanoelectronic synapses is demonstrated. Short above-melting pulses lead to instantaneous loss of structural and chemical order, followed by delayed partial recovery upon structural relaxation. We also investigate the link between structural order and electrical and optical properties. These results pave the way toward a first-principles understanding of phase-change physics beyond binary switching.
Communication: Improved ab initio molecular dynamics by minimally biasing with experimental data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Andrew D.; Knight, Chris; Hocky, Glen M.; Voth, Gregory A.
2017-01-01
Accounting for electrons and nuclei simultaneously is a powerful capability of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). However, AIMD is often unable to accurately reproduce properties of systems such as water due to inaccuracies in the underlying electronic density functionals. This shortcoming is often addressed by added empirical corrections and/or increasing the simulation temperature. We present here a maximum-entropy approach to directly incorporate limited experimental data via a minimal bias. Biased AIMD simulations of water and an excess proton in water are shown to give significantly improved properties both for observables which were biased to match experimental data and for unbiased observables. This approach also yields new physical insight into inaccuracies in the underlying density functional theory as utilized in the unbiased AIMD.
Communication: Improved ab initio molecular dynamics by minimally biasing with experimental data.
White, Andrew D; Knight, Chris; Hocky, Glen M; Voth, Gregory A
2017-01-28
Accounting for electrons and nuclei simultaneously is a powerful capability of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). However, AIMD is often unable to accurately reproduce properties of systems such as water due to inaccuracies in the underlying electronic density functionals. This shortcoming is often addressed by added empirical corrections and/or increasing the simulation temperature. We present here a maximum-entropy approach to directly incorporate limited experimental data via a minimal bias. Biased AIMD simulations of water and an excess proton in water are shown to give significantly improved properties both for observables which were biased to match experimental data and for unbiased observables. This approach also yields new physical insight into inaccuracies in the underlying density functional theory as utilized in the unbiased AIMD.
A direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) study on the benzophenone-water 1 : 1 complex.
Tachikawa, Hiroto; Iyama, Tetsuji; Kato, Kohichi
2009-07-28
Direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been applied to a benzophenone-water 1 : 1 complex Bp(H(2)O) and free benzophenone (Bp) to elucidate the effects of zero-point energy (ZPE) vibration and temperature on the absorption spectra of Bp(H(2)O). The n-pi transition of free-Bp (S(1) state) was blue-shifted by the interaction with a water molecule, whereas three pi-pi transitions (S(2), S(3) and S(4)) were red-shifted. The effects of the ZPE vibration and temperature of Bp(H(2)O) increased the intensity of the n-pi transition of Bp(H(2)O) and caused broadening of the pi-pi transitions. In case of the temperature effect, the intensity of n-pi transition increases with increasing temperature. The electronic states of Bp(H(2)O) were discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VandeVondele, Joost; Rothlisberger, Ursula
2000-09-01
We present a method for calculating multidimensional free energy surfaces within the limited time scale of a first-principles molecular dynamics scheme. The sampling efficiency is enhanced using selected terms of a classical force field as a bias potential. This simple procedure yields a very substantial increase in sampling accuracy while retaining the high quality of the underlying ab initio potential surface and can thus be used for a parameter free calculation of free energy surfaces. The success of the method is demonstrated by the applications to two gas phase molecules, ethane and peroxynitrous acid, as test case systems. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the entire free energy landscape is well converged within a 40 ps simulation at 500 K, even for a system with barriers as high as 15 kcal/mol.
Experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation studies of liquid Al60Cu40 alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S. Y.; Kramer, M. J.; Xu, M.; Wu, S.; Hao, S. G.; Sordelet, D. J.; Ho, K. M.; Wang, C. Z.
2009-04-01
X-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation studies of molten Al60Cu40 have been carried out between 973 and 1323 K. The structures obtained from our simulated atomic models are fully consistent with the experimental results. The local structures of the models analyzed using Honeycutt-Andersen and Voronoi tessellation methods clearly demonstrate that as the temperatures of the liquid is lowered it becomes more ordered. While no one cluster-type dominates the local structure of this liquid, the most prevalent polyhedra in the liquid structure can be described as distorted icosahedra. No obvious correlations between the clusters observed in the liquid and known stable crystalline phases in this system were observed.
Ab initio study of several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ni near melting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Rio, B. G.; González, L. E.; González, D. J.
2017-01-01
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ni at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been evaluated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows very good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the static structure factor, which underlines a marked local icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. The dynamical structure reveals propagating density fluctuations, and the calculated dynamic structure factors, S (q ,ω ) , show a good agreement with the inelastic x-ray scattering measurements. The obtained dispersion relation closely follows that obtained from the inelastic x-ray scattering measurements; moreover we analyze the possible reasons behind its discrepancy with respect to the dispersion relation derived from the inelastic neutron scattering data. The dynamical processes behind the S (q ,ω ) have been analyzed by using a model with two decay channels (a fast and a slow) associated with the relaxations of the collective excitations. We have found that the transverse current spectral functions exhibit some features which, so far, had previously been shown by high pressure liquid metals only. Furthermore, the calculated S (q ,ω ) show, within some q-range, the appearance of transverse-like excitation modes, similar to those recently found in other liquid metals. Finally, results are also reported for several transport coefficients.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding asmore » a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.« less
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.
Der gegenwärtige Stand der physikalischen Erkenntnis, in Sonderheit die Atomistik und die Quantentheorie, ermöglicht (in wohldefinierten Energie-Bereichen) eine ab initio-Berechnung aller physikalischen und chemischen Prozesse und Strukturen. Die Schrödinger-Gleichung erlaubt zusammen mit den Prinzipien der Quantenstatistik (Pauli-Prinzip) aus dem Planckschen Wirkungsquantum h und den atomischen Konstanten die Berechnung aller Energieumsätze, Zeitabläufe etc., die insbesondere die chemische Physik bestimmen. Die Rechenresultate gelten auch quantitativ bis auf die unvermeidliche Stochastik.Die ab initio-Berechnungen korrespondieren einerseits und sind andererseits komplementär zu den auf den Methoden der theoretischen Chemie und der klassischen Thermodynamik beruhenden Ergebnissen ex eventu. Die theoretische Behandlung ab initio führt zu mathematischen Experimenten, die die Laboratoriums-Experimente ergänzen oder auch substituieren.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventuThe present state of physical knowledge, in peculiar atomistic and quantum theory, makes an ab initio calculation of all physical and chemical processes and structures possible (in well defined reaches of energy). The Schrödinger equation together with the principles of quantum statistics (Pauli principle) permits from the Planck and atomistic constants to calculate all exchanges of energy, courses of time, etc. which govern chemical physics. The calculated results are valid even quantitatively apart from the unavoidable stochastics.These ab initio calculations on the one hand correspond and are on the other complimentary to results ex eventu based on the methods of theoretical chemistry and classical thermodynamics. Theoretical treatment ab initio leads to mathematical experiments which add to or even substitute experiments in the laboratory.
Mehandzhiyski, Aleksandar Y; Riccardi, Enrico; van Erp, Titus S; Trinh, Thuat T; Grimes, Brian A
2015-08-20
The interaction between a carboxylate anion (deprotonated propanoic acid) and the divalent Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+) metal ions is studied via ab initio molecular dynamics. The main focus of the study is the selectivity of the carboxylate-metal ion interaction in aqueous solution. The interaction is modeled by explicitly accounting for the solvent molecules on a DFT level. The hydration energies of the metal ions along with their diffusion and mobility coefficients are determined and a trend correlated with their ionic radius is found. Subsequently, a series of 16 constrained molecular dynamics simulations for every ion is performed, and the interaction free energy is obtained from thermodynamic integration of the forces between the metal ion and the carboxylate ion. The results indicate that the magnesium ion interacts most strongly with the carboxylate, followed by calcium, strontium, and barium. Because the interaction free energy is not enough to explain the selectivity of the reaction observed experimentally, more detailed analysis is performed on the simulation trajectories to understand the steric changes in the reaction complex during dissociation. The solvent dynamics appear to play an important role during the dissociation of the complex and also in the observed selectivity behavior of the divalent ions.
Fischer, Sean A.; Aprà, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan
2017-02-03
Recent developments in nanophotonics have paved the way for achieving significant advances in the realm of single molecule chemical detection, imaging, and dynamics. In particular, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that is now routinely used to identify the chemical identity of single molecules. Understanding how nanoscale physical and chemical processes affect single molecule SERS spectra and selection rules is a challenging task, and is still actively debated. Herein, we explore underappreciated chemical phenomena in ultrasensitive SERS. We observe a fluctuating excited electronic state manifold, governed by the conformational dynamics of a molecule (4,4’-dimercaptostilbene, DMS) interacting withmore » a metallic cluster (Ag20). This affects our simulated single molecule SERS spectra; the time trajectories of a molecule interacting with its unique local environment dictates the relative intensities of the observable Raman-active vibrational states. Ab initio molecular dynamics of a model Ag20-DMS system are used to illustrate both concepts in light of recent experimental results.« less
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of LiBr association in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izvekov, Sergei; Philpott, Michael R.
2000-12-01
A computationally economical scheme which unifies the density functional description of an ionic solute and the classical description of a solvent was developed. The density functional part of the scheme comprises Car-Parrinello and related formalisms. The substantial saving in the computer time is achieved by performing the ab initio molecular dynamics of the solute electronic structure in a relatively small basis set constructed from lowest energy Kohn-Sham orbitals calculated for a single anion in vacuum, instead of using plane wave basis. The methodology permits simulation of an ionic solution for longer time scales while keeping accuracy in the prediction of the solute electronic structure. As an example the association of the Li+-Br- ion-pair system in water is studied. The results of the combined molecular dynamics simulation are compared with that obtained from the classical simulation with ion-ion interaction described by the pair potential of Born-Huggins-Mayer type. The comparison reveals an important role played by the polarization of the Br- ion in the dynamics of ion pair association.
On-the-fly ab initio semiclassical dynamics: Emission spectra of oligothiophenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehrle, Marius; Sulc, Miroslav; Vanicek, Jiri
2014-03-01
We employ the thawed Gaussian approximation (TGA) [E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1544 (1975)] within an on-the-fly ab initio (OTF-AI) scheme to calculate the vibrationally resolved emission spectra of oligothiophenes up to five rings. OTF-AI-TGA is efficient enough to treat all vibrational degrees of freedom on an equal footing even in case of 5-oligothiophene (105 vibrational degrees of freedom), thus obviating the need for the crude global harmonic approximation, popular for large system. The experimental emission spectra have been almost perfectly reproduced. In order to provide a deeper insight into the associated physical and chemical processes, we present a systematic approach to assess the importance and to analyze the mutual coupling of individual vibrational degrees of freedom during the dynamics. This allows us to explain the changes in the vibrational line shapes of the oligothiophenes with increasing number of rings. Furthermore, we observe the dynamical interplay between quinoid and aromatic characters of individual rings in the oligothiophene chain during the dynamics and confirm that the quinoid character prevails in the center of the chain. This research was supported by the Swiss NSF Grant No. 200021_124936/1 and NCCR Molecular Ultrafast Science & Technology (MUST), and by the EPFL.
Exploring oxidative ageing behaviour of hydrocarbons using ab initio molecular dynamics analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Tongyan; Cheng, Cheng
2016-06-01
With a proper approximate solution to the Schrödinger Equation of a multi-electron system, the method of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) performs first-principles molecular dynamics analysis without pre-defining interatomic potentials as are mandatory in traditional molecular dynamics analyses. The objective of this study is to determine the oxidative-ageing pathway of petroleum asphalt as a typical hydrocarbon system, using the AIMD method. This objective was accomplished in three steps, including (1) identifying a group of representative asphalt molecules to model, (2) determining an atomistic modelling method that can effectively simulate the production of critical functional groups in oxidative ageing of hydrocarbons and (3) evaluating the oxidative-ageing pathway of a hydrocarbon system. The determination of oxidative-ageing pathway of hydrocarbons was done by tracking the generations of critical functional groups in the course of oxidative ageing. The chemical elements of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur all experience oxidative reactions, producing polarised functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes or carboxylic acids, pyrrolic groups and sulphoxides. The electrostatic forces of the polarised groups generated in oxidation are responsible for the behaviour of aged hydrocarbons. The developed AIMD model can be used for modelling the ageing of generic hydrocarbon polymers and developing antioxidants without running expensive experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Erik G.; Agosta, Lorenzo; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.
2016-07-01
Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity.Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation data on equilibration of energies and structures (root-mean-square-deviations and
Ab initio theory and modeling of water
Chen, Mohan; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Remsing, Richard C.; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F.; Santra, Biswajit; Sun, Zhaoru; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Klein, Michael L.; Perdew, John P.; Wu, Xifan
2017-01-01
Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes the balance among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions that dictates the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Notably, SCAN captures the density difference between water and ice Ih at ambient conditions, as well as many important structural, electronic, and dynamic properties of liquid water. These successful predictions of the versatile SCAN functional open the gates to study complex processes in aqueous phase chemistry and the interactions of water with other materials in an efficient, accurate, and predictive, ab initio manner. PMID:28973868
Ab initio theory and modeling of water.
Chen, Mohan; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Remsing, Richard C; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F; Santra, Biswajit; Sun, Zhaoru; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Klein, Michael L; Perdew, John P; Wu, Xifan
2017-10-10
Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes the balance among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions that dictates the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Notably, SCAN captures the density difference between water and ice I h at ambient conditions, as well as many important structural, electronic, and dynamic properties of liquid water. These successful predictions of the versatile SCAN functional open the gates to study complex processes in aqueous phase chemistry and the interactions of water with other materials in an efficient, accurate, and predictive, ab initio manner.
Real-time ab initio simulations of excited-state dynamics in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomanek, David
2007-03-01
Combining time-dependent ab initio density functional calculations for electrons with molecular dynamics simulations for ions, we investigate the effect of excited-state dynamics in nanostructures. In carbon nanotubes, we find electronic excitations to last for a large fraction of a picosecond. The de-excitation process is dominated by coupling to other electronic degrees of freedom during the first few hundred femtoseconds. Later, the de-excitation process becomes dominated by coupling to ionic motion. The onset point and damping rate in that regime change with initial ion velocities, a manifestation of temperature dependent electron-phonon coupling. Considering the fact that the force field in the electronically excited state differs significantly from the ground state, as reflected in the Franck-Condon effect, atomic bonds can easily be broken or restored during the relatively long lifetime of electronic excitations. This effect can be utilized in a ``photo-surgery" of nanotubes, causing structural self-healing at vacancy sites or selective de-oxidation processes induced by photo-absorption. Also, electronic excitations are a key ingredient for the understanding of sputtering processes in nanostructures, induced by energetic collisions with ions. Yoshiyuki Miyamoto, Angel Rubio, and David Tomanek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 126104 (2006). Yoshiyuki Miyamoto, Savas Berber, Mina Yoon, Angel Rubio, and David Tomanek, Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 209 (2004). Yoshiyuki Miyamoto, Noboru Jinbo, Hisashi Nakamura, Angel Rubio, and David Tomanek, Phys. Rev. B 70, 233408 (2004). Yoshiyuki Miyamoto, Arkady Krasheninnikov, and David Tomanek (in preparation).
Resolving the HONO formation mechanism in the ionosphere via ab initio molecular dynamic simulations
He, Rongxing; Li, Lei; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Chongqin; Francisco, Joseph S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng
2016-01-01
Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO+) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth’s surface. NO+ is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The dynamics of this reaction at the ionospheric temperature (200–220 K) and the associated mechanistic details are largely unknown. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and transition-state search, key structures of the water hydrates—tetrahydrate NO+(H2O)4 and pentahydrate NO+(H2O)5—are identified and shown to be responsible for HONO formation in the ionosphere. The critical tetrahydrate NO+(H2O)4 exhibits a chain-like structure through which all of the lowest-energy isomers must go. However, most lowest-energy isomers of pentahydrate NO+(H2O)5 can be converted to the HONO-containing product, encountering very low barriers, via a chain-like or a three-armed, star-like structure. Although these structures are not the global minima, at 220 K, most lowest-energy NO+(H2O)4 and NO+(H2O)5 isomers tend to channel through these highly populated isomers toward HONO formation. PMID:27071120
He, Rongxing; Li, Lei; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Chongqin; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng
2016-04-26
Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO(+)) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth's surface. NO(+) is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The dynamics of this reaction at the ionospheric temperature (200-220 K) and the associated mechanistic details are largely unknown. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and transition-state search, key structures of the water hydrates-tetrahydrate NO(+)(H2O)4 and pentahydrate NO(+)(H2O)5-are identified and shown to be responsible for HONO formation in the ionosphere. The critical tetrahydrate NO(+)(H2O)4 exhibits a chain-like structure through which all of the lowest-energy isomers must go. However, most lowest-energy isomers of pentahydrate NO(+)(H2O)5 can be converted to the HONO-containing product, encountering very low barriers, via a chain-like or a three-armed, star-like structure. Although these structures are not the global minima, at 220 K, most lowest-energy NO(+)(H2O)4 and NO(+)(H2O)5 isomers tend to channel through these highly populated isomers toward HONO formation.
An ab initio molecular dynamics study of S0 ketene fragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsythe, Kelsey M.; Gray, Stephen K.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Hall, Gregory E.
2001-08-01
The dynamical origins of product state distributions in the unimolecular dissociation of S0 ketene, CH2CO (X˜ 1A1)→CH2(ã1A1)+CO, are studied with ab initio molecular dynamics. We focus on rotational distributions associated with ground vibrational state fragments. Trajectories are integrated between an inner, variational transition state (TS) and separated fragments in both the dissociative and associative directions. The average rotational energy in both CO and CH2 fragments decreases during the motion from the TS to separated fragments. However, the CO distribution remains slightly hotter than phase space theory (PST) predictions, whereas that for CH2 ends up significantly colder than PST, in good agreement with experiment. Our calculations do not, however, reproduce the experimentally observed correlations between CH2 and CO rotational states, in which the simultaneous formation of low rotational levels of each fragment is suppressed relative to PST. A limited search for nonstatistical behavior in the strong interaction region also fails to explain this discrepancy.
Jacquelin, Mathias; De Jong, Wibe A.; Bylaska, Eric J.
2017-07-03
The Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) method allows scientists to treat the dynamics of molecular and condensed phase systems while retaining a first-principles-based description of their interactions. This extremely important method has tremendous computational requirements, because the electronic Schr¨odinger equation, approximated using Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT), is solved at every time step. With the advent of manycore architectures, application developers have a significant amount of processing power within each compute node that can only be exploited through massive parallelism. A compute intensive application such as AIMD forms a good candidate to leverage this processing power. In this paper, wemore » focus on adding thread level parallelism to the plane wave DFT methodology implemented in NWChem. Through a careful optimization of tall-skinny matrix products, which are at the heart of the Lagrange multiplier and nonlocal pseudopotential kernels, as well as 3D FFTs, our OpenMP implementation delivers excellent strong scaling on the latest Intel Knights Landing (KNL) processor. We assess the efficiency of our Lagrange multiplier kernels by building a Roofline model of the platform, and verify that our implementation is close to the roofline for various problem sizes. Finally, we present strong scaling results on the complete AIMD simulation for a 64 water molecules test case, that scales up to all 68 cores of the Knights Landing processor.« less
Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations and GIPAW NMR Calculations of a Lithium Borate Glass Melt.
Ohkubo, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Eiji; Takahashi, Takafumi; Iwadate, Yasuhiko
2016-04-14
The atomic structure of a molten 0.3Li2O-0.7B2O3 glass at 1250 K was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The gauge including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) method was then employed for computing the chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling constant of (11)B, (17)O, and (7)Li from 764 AIMD derived structures. The chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling constant distributions were directly estimated from the dynamical structure of the molten glass. (11)B NMR parameters of well-known structural units such as the three-coordinated ring, nonring, and four-coordinated tetrahedron were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In this study, more detailed classification of B units was presented based on the number of O species bonded to the B atoms. This highlights the limitations of (11)B NMR sensitivity for resolving (11)B local environment using the experimentally obtained spectra only. The (17)O NMR parameter distributions can theoretically resolve the bridging and nonbridging O atoms with different structural units such as nonring, single boroxol ring, and double boroxol ring. Slight but clear differences in the number of bridging O atoms surrounding Li that have not been reported experimentally were observed in the theoretically obtained (7)Li NMR parameters.
New Approach for Investigating Reaction Dynamics and Rates with Ab Initio Calculations.
Fleming, Kelly L; Tiwary, Pratyush; Pfaendtner, Jim
2016-01-21
Herein, we demonstrate a convenient approach to systematically investigate chemical reaction dynamics using the metadynamics (MetaD) family of enhanced sampling methods. Using a symmetric SN2 reaction as a model system, we applied infrequent metadynamics, a theoretical framework based on acceleration factors, to quantitatively estimate the rate of reaction from biased and unbiased simulations. A systematic study of the algorithm and its application to chemical reactions was performed by sampling over 5000 independent reaction events. Additionally, we quantitatively reweighed exhaustive free-energy calculations to obtain the reaction potential-energy surface and showed that infrequent metadynamics works to effectively determine Arrhenius-like activation energies. Exact agreement with unbiased high-temperature kinetics is also shown. The feasibility of using the approach on actual ab initio molecular dynamics calculations is then presented by using Car-Parrinello MD+MetaD to sample the same reaction using only 10-20 calculations of the rare event. Owing to the ease of use and comparatively low-cost of computation, the approach has extensive potential applications for catalysis, combustion, pyrolysis, and enzymology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chen; Arntsen, Christopher; Voth, Gregory A.
2017-10-01
Incorporation of quantum mechanical electronic structure data is necessary to properly capture the physics of many chemical processes. Proton hopping in water, which involves rearrangement of chemical and hydrogen bonds, is one such example of an inherently quantum mechanical process. Standard ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, however, do not yet accurately predict the structure of water and are therefore less than optimal for developing force fields. We have instead utilized a recently developed method which minimally biases AIMD simulations to match limited experimental data to develop novel multiscale reactive molecular dynamics (MS-RMD) force fields by using relative entropy minimization. In this paper, we present two new MS-RMD models using such a parameterization: one which employs water with harmonic internal vibrations and another which uses anharmonic water. We show that the newly developed MS-RMD models very closely reproduce the solvation structure of the hydrated excess proton in the target AIMD data. We also find that the use of anharmonic water increases proton hopping, thereby increasing the proton diffusion constant.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in MgO
Petersen, B. A.; Liu, B.; Weber, W. J.; ...
2017-01-11
In this paper, low-energy recoil events in MgO are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the dynamic displacement processes and final defect configurations. Threshold displacement energies, E d, are obtained for Mg and O along three low-index crystallographic directions, [100], [110], and [111]. The minimum values for E d are found along the [110] direction consisting of the same element, either Mg or O atoms. Minimum threshold values of 29.5 eV for Mg and 25.5 eV for O, respectively, are suggested from the calculations. For other directions, the threshold energies are considerably higher, 65.5 and 150.0 eVmore » for O along [111] and [100], and 122.5 eV for Mg along both [111] and [100] directions, respectively. These results show that the recoil events in MgO are partial-charge transfer assisted processes where the charge transfer plays an important role. Finally, there is a similar trend found in other oxide materials, where the threshold displacement energy correlates linearly with the peak partial-charge transfer, suggesting this behavior might be universal in ceramic oxides.« less
Equation of state of paramagnetic CrN from ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steneteg, Peter; Alling, Björn; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2012-04-01
The equation of state for chromium nitride has been debated in the literature in connection with a proposed collapse of its bulk modulus following the pressure-induced transition from the paramagnetic cubic phase to the antiferromagnetic orthorhombic phase [F. Rivadulla , Nature Mater.1476-112210.1038/nmat2549 8, 947 (2009); B. Alling , Nature Mater.1476-112210.1038/nmat2722 9, 283 (2010)]. Experimentally the measurements are complicated due to the low transition pressure, while theoretically the simulation of magnetic disorder represents a major challenge. Here a first-principles method is suggested for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of magnetic materials in their high-temperature paramagnetic phase. It is based on ab initio molecular dynamics and simultaneous redistributions of the disordered but finite local magnetic moments. We apply this disordered local moments molecular dynamics method to the case of CrN and simulate its equation of state. In particular the debated bulk modulus is calculated in the paramagnetic cubic phase and is shown to be very similar to that of the antiferromagnetic orthorhombic CrN phase for all considered temperatures.
Ionization dynamics of the water trimer: A direct ab initio MD study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takada, Tomoya
2013-03-01
Ionization dynamics of the cyclic water trimer (H2O)3 have been investigated by means of direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method. Two reaction channels, complex formation and OH dissociation, were found following the ionization of (H2O)3. In both channels, first, a proton was rapidly transferred from H2O+ to H2O (time scale is ˜15 fs after the ionization). In complex channel, an ion-radical contact pair (H3O+-OH) solvated by the third water molecule was formed as a long-lived H3O+(OH)H2O complex. In OH dissociation channel, the second proton transfer further takes place from H3O+(OH) to H2O (time scale is 50-100 fs) and the OH radical is separated from the H3O+. At the same time, the OH dissociation takes place when the excess energy is efficiently transferred into the kinetic energy of OH radical. The OH dissociation channel is significantly minor, and almost all product channels were the complex formation. The reaction mechanism was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.
Dynamic Structure of a Molecular Liquid S0.5Cl0.5: Ab initio Molecular-Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohmura, Satoshi; Shimakura, Hironori; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Yao, Makoto
2013-07-01
The static and dynamic structures of a molecular liquid S0.5Cl0.5 consisting of Cl--S--S--Cl (S2Cl2) type molecules are studied by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Both the calculated static and dynamic structure factors are in good agreement with experimental results. The dynamic structures are discussed based on van-Hove distinct correlation functions, molecular translational mean-square displacements (TMSD) and rotational mean-square displacements (RMSD). In the TMSD and RMSD, there are ballistic and diffusive regimes in the sub-picosecond and picosecond time regions, respectively. These time scales are consistent with the decay time observed experimentally. The interaction between molecules in the liquid is also discussed in comparison with that in another liquid chalcogen--halogen system Se0.5Cl0.5.
Zhao, Jing; Wang, Mei; Fu, Aiyun; Yang, Hongfang; Bu, Yuxiang
2015-08-03
We present an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation study into the transfer dynamics of an excess electron from its cavity-shaped hydrated electron state to a hydrated nucleobase (NB)-bound state. In contrast to the traditional view that electron localization at NBs (G/A/C/T), which is the first step for electron-induced DNA damage, is related only to dry or prehydrated electrons, and a fully hydrated electron no longer transfers to NBs, our AIMD simulations indicate that a fully hydrated electron can still transfer to NBs. We monitored the transfer dynamics of fully hydrated electrons towards hydrated NBs in aqueous solutions by using AIMD simulations and found that due to solution-structure fluctuation and attraction of NBs, a fully hydrated electron can transfer to a NB gradually over time. Concurrently, the hydrated electron cavity gradually reorganizes, distorts, and even breaks. The transfer could be completed in about 120-200 fs in four aqueous NB solutions, depending on the electron-binding ability of hydrated NBs and the structural fluctuation of the solution. The transferring electron resides in the π*-type lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the NB, which leads to a hydrated NB anion. Clearly, the observed transfer of hydrated electrons can be attributed to the strong electron-binding ability of hydrated NBs over the hydrated electron cavity, which is the driving force, and the transfer dynamics is structure-fluctuation controlled. This work provides new insights into the evolution dynamics of hydrated electrons and provides some helpful information for understanding the DNA-damage mechanism in solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Köster, Andreas; Spura, Thomas; Rutkai, Gábor; Kessler, Jan; Wiebeler, Hendrik; Vrabec, Jadran; Kühne, Thomas D
2016-07-15
The accuracy of water models derived from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations by means on an improved force-matching scheme is assessed for various thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties. It is found that although the resulting force-matched water models are typically less accurate than fully empirical force fields in predicting thermodynamic properties, they are nevertheless much more accurate than generally appreciated in reproducing the structure of liquid water and in fact superseding most of the commonly used empirical water models. This development demonstrates the feasibility to routinely parametrize computationally efficient yet predictive potential energy functions based on accurate ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for a large variety of different systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varley, Joel; Kweon, Kyoung; Mehta, Prateek; Shea, Patrick; Heo, Tae Wook; Stavila, Vitalie; Udovic, Terrence; Wood, Brandon
Polyborane salts based on B12H122- , B10H102- , and their carboborane counterparts CB11H12- and CB9H10- demonstrate extraordinary Li and Na superionic conductivity that make them attractive as electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries. Their rich chemical and structural diversity creates a versatile design space that could be used to optimize materials with even higher conductivity at lower temperatures; however, many mechanistic details remain enigmatic, including reasons why certain modifications lead to improved performance. Here, we use extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to broadly explore the dependence of ionic conductivity on cation/anion pair combinations for Li and Na polyborane salts. Further simulations based on Li2B12H12 as a model system are used to probe the additional influence of local perturbations, including modifications to chemistry, stoichiometry, and composition. Carbon doping, anion alloying, and cation off-stoichiometry are found to be favorable because they introduce intrinsic disorder, which facilitates local deviations from the expected cation population. Anion reorientations are also discovered to be critical for conduction, with benefits associated with lattice expansion traceable to the facilitation of anion rotation at larger volumes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water using high quality meta-GGA functionals
Ruiz Pestana, Luis; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin; ...
2017-02-27
We have used ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to characterize water properties using two meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) functionals, M06-L-D3 and B97M-rV, and compared their performance against a standard GGA corrected for dispersion, revPBE-D3, at ambient conditions (298 K, and 1 g cm –3 or 1 atm). Simulations of the equilibrium density, radial distribution functions, self-diffusivity, the infrared spectrum, liquid dipole moments, and characterizations of the hydrogen bond network show that all three functionals have overcome the problem of the early AIMD simulations that erroneously found ambient water to be highly structured, but they differ substantially among themselves in agreementmore » with experiment on this range of water properties. We show directly using water cluster data up through the pentamer that revPBE-D3 benefits from a cancellation of its intrinsic functional error by running classical trajectories, whereas the meta-GGA functionals are demonstrably more accurate and would require the simulation of nuclear quantum effects to realize better agreement with all cluster and condensed phase properties.« less
Statistical variances of diffusional properties from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xingfeng; Zhu, Yizhou; Epstein, Alexander; Mo, Yifei
2018-12-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation is widely employed in studying diffusion mechanisms and in quantifying diffusional properties of materials. However, AIMD simulations are often limited to a few hundred atoms and a short, sub-nanosecond physical timescale, which leads to models that include only a limited number of diffusion events. As a result, the diffusional properties obtained from AIMD simulations are often plagued by poor statistics. In this paper, we re-examine the process to estimate diffusivity and ionic conductivity from the AIMD simulations and establish the procedure to minimize the fitting errors. In addition, we propose methods for quantifying the statistical variance of the diffusivity and ionic conductivity from the number of diffusion events observed during the AIMD simulation. Since an adequate number of diffusion events must be sampled, AIMD simulations should be sufficiently long and can only be performed on materials with reasonably fast diffusion. We chart the ranges of materials and physical conditions that can be accessible by AIMD simulations in studying diffusional properties. Our work provides the foundation for quantifying the statistical confidence levels of diffusion results from AIMD simulations and for correctly employing this powerful technique.
Xu, Cong-Qiao; Lee, Mal-Soon; Wang, Yang-Gang; Cantu, David C; Li, Jun; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger
2017-02-28
The structure, composition, and atomic distribution of nanoalloys under operating conditions are of significant importance for their catalytic activity. In the present work, we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to understand the structural behavior of Au-Pd nanoalloys supported on rutile TiO 2 under different conditions. We find that the Au-Pd structure is strongly dependent on the redox properties of the support, originating from strong metal-support interactions. Under reducing conditions, Pd atoms are inclined to move toward the metal/oxide interface, as indicated by a significant increase of Pd-Ti bonds. This could be attributed to the charge localization at the interface that leads to Coulomb attractions to positively charged Pd atoms. In contrast, under oxidizing conditions, Pd atoms would rather stay inside or on the exterior of the nanoparticle. Moreover, Pd atoms on the alloy surface can be stabilized by hydrogen adsorption, forming Pd-H bonds, which are stronger than Au-H bonds. Our work offers critical insights into the structure and redox properties of Au-Pd nanoalloy catalysts under working conditions.
How Is Acetylcholinesterase Phosphonylated by Soman? An Ab Initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study
2015-01-01
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a crucial enzyme in the cholinergic nerve system that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (ACh) and terminates synaptic signals by reducing the effective concentration of ACh in the synaptic clefts. Organophosphate compounds irreversibly inhibit AChEs, leading to irreparable damage to nerve cells. By employing Born–Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling, a state-of-the-art approach to simulate enzyme reactions, we have characterized the covalent inhibition mechanism between AChE and the nerve toxin soman and determined its free energy profile for the first time. Our results indicate that phosphonylation of the catalytic serine by soman employs an addition–elimination mechanism, which is highly associative and stepwise: in the initial addition step, which is also rate-limiting, His440 acts as a general base to facilitate the nucleophilic attack of Ser200 on the soman’s phosphorus atom to form a trigonal bipyrimidal pentacovalent intermediate; in the subsequent elimination step, Try121 of the catalytic gorge stabilizes the leaving fluorine atom prior to its dissociation from the active site. Together with our previous characterization of the aging mechanism of soman inhibited AChE, our simulations have revealed detailed molecular mechanistic insights into the damaging function of the nerve agent soman. PMID:24786171
Ab Initio ONIOM-Molecular Dynamics (MD) Study on the Deamination Reaction by Cytidine Deaminase
Matsubara, Toshiaki; Dupuis, Michel; Aida, Misako
2007-08-23
We applied the ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) method to the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine by cytidine deaminase, which is an essential step of the activation process of the anticancer drug inside the human body. The direct MD simulations were performed for the realistic model of cytidine deaminase calculating the energy and its gradient by the ab initio ONIOM method on the fly. The ONIOM-MD calculations including the thermal motion show that the neighboring amino acid residue is an important factor of the environmental effects and significantly affects not only the geometry and energy of the substrate trapped in the pocket ofmore » the active site but also the elementary step of the catalytic reaction. We successfully simulate the second half of the catalytic cycle, which has been considered to involve the rate-determining step, and reveal that the rate-determing step is the release of the NH3 molecule. TM and MA were supported in part by grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. MD was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy DOE. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debela, Tekalign T.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Zhang, D. X.; Jiang, J. Z.
2017-05-01
The crystallization process of liquid metals is studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of short-range order during quenching in Pb and Zn liquids is compared with body-centered cubic (bcc) Nb and V, and hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Mg. We found that the fraction and type of the short-range order depends on the system under consideration, in which the icosahedral symmetry seems to dominate in the body-centered cubic metals. Although the local atomic structures in stable liquids are similar, liquid hcp-like Zn, bcc-like Nb and V can be deeply supercooled far below its melting point before crystallization while the supercooled temperature range in liquid Pb is limited. Further investigations into the nucleation process reveal the process of polymorph selection. In the body-centered cubic systems, the polymorph selection occurs in the supercooled state before the nucleation is initiated, while in the closed-packed systems it starts at the time of onset of crystallization. Atoms with bcc-like lattices in all studied supercooled liquids are always detected before the polymorph selection. It is also found that the bond orientational ordering is strongly correlated with the crystallization process in supercooled Zn and Pb liquids.
HCO3(-) formation from CO2 at high pH: ab initio molecular dynamics study.
Stirling, András
2011-12-15
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the dissolution of CO2 in water at high pH. The CO2 + OH(-) --> HCO3(-) forward and the HCO3(-) --> CO2 + OH(-) reverse paths have been simulated by employing the metadynamics technics. We have found that the free energy barrier along the forward direction is predominantly hydration related and significantly entropic in origin, whereas the backward barrier is primarily enthalpic. The main motifs in the forward mechanism are the structural diffusion of the hydroxyl ion to the first hydration sphere of CO2, its desolvation, and the C-O bond formation in concert with the CO2 bending within the hydrate cavity. In the reverse reaction, the origin of the barrier is the rupture of the strong C-O(H) bond. The present findings support the notion that the free energy barrier of the bicarbonate formation is strongly solvation related but provide also additional mechanistic details at the molecular level.
Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori
2016-12-14
NH 3 is an essential molecule as a nitrogen source for prebiotic amino acid syntheses such as the Strecker reaction. Previous shock experiments demonstrated that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have provided a considerable amount of NH 3 from atmospheric N 2 and oceanic H 2 O through reduction by meteoritic iron. However, specific production mechanisms remain unclear, and impact velocities employed in the experiments were substantially lower than typical impact velocities of meteorites on the early Earth. Here, to investigate the issues from the atomistic viewpoint, we performed multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealed a rapid production of NH 3 within several picoseconds after the shock, indicating that shocks with greater impact velocities would provide further increase in the yield of NH 3 . Meanwhile, the picosecond-order production makes one expect that the important nitrogen source precursors of amino acids were obtained immediately after the impact. It was also observed that the reduction of N 2 proceeded according to an associative mechanism, rather than a dissociative mechanism as in the Haber-Bosch process.
Ab initio molecular dynamics of the reaction of quercetin with superoxide radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lespade, Laure
2016-08-01
Superoxide plays an important role in biology but in unregulated concentrations it is implicated in a lot of diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Antioxidants like flavonoids are abundant in plant and are good scavengers of superoxide radical. The modeling of superoxide scavenging by flavonoids from the diet still remains a challenge. In this study, ab initio molecular dynamics of the reaction of the flavonoid quercetin toward superoxide radical has been carried out using Car-Parrinello density functional theory. The study has proven different reactant solvation by modifying the number of water molecules surrounding superoxide. The reaction consists in the gift of a hydrogen atom of one of the hydroxyl groups of quercetin to the radical. When it occurs, it is relatively fast, lower than 100 fs. Calculations show that it depends largely on the environment of the hydroxyl group giving its hydrogen atom, the geometry of the first water layer and the presence of a certain number of water molecules in the second layer, indicating a great influence of the solvent on the reactivity.
Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Enzyme Reactions
Zhou, Yanzi; Wang, Shenglong; Li, Yongle; Zhang, Yingkai
2016-01-01
There are two key requirements for reliably simulating enzyme reactions: one is a reasonably accurate potential energy surface to describe the bond forming/breaking process as well as to adequately model the heterogeneous enzyme environment; the other is to perform extensive sampling since an enzyme system consists of at least thousands of atoms and its energy landscape is very complex. One attractive approach to meet both daunting tasks is Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation (aiQM/MM-MD) with umbrella sampling. In this chapter, we describe our recently developed pseudobond Q-Chem–Amber interface, which employs a combined electrostatic-mechanical embedding scheme with periodic boundary condition and the particle mesh Ewald method for long-range electrostatics interactions. In our implementation, Q-Chem and the sander module of Amber are combined at the source code level without using system calls, and all necessary data communications between QM and MM calculations are achieved via computer memory. We demonstrate the applicability of this pseudobond Q-Chem–Amber interface by presenting two examples, one reaction in aqueous solution and one enzyme reaction. Finally, we describe our established aiQM/MM-MD enzyme simulation protocol, which has been successfully applied to study more than a dozen enzymes. PMID:27498636
CuCl Complexation in the Vapor Phase: Insights from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Mei, Yuan; Liu, Weihua; Migdiov, A. A.; ...
2018-05-02
We invesmore » tigated the hydration of the CuCl 0 complex in HCl-bearing water vapor at 350°C and a vapor-like fluid density between 0.02 and 0.09 g/cm 3 using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations reveal that one water molecule is strongly bonded to Cu(I) (first coordination shell), forming a linear [H 2O-Cu-Cl] 0 moiety. The second hydration shell is highly dynamic in nature, and individual configurations have short life-spans in such low-density vapors, resulting in large fluctuations in instantaneous hydration numbers over a timescale of picoseconds. The average hydration number in the second shell (m) increased from ~0.5 to ~3.5 and the calculated number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule increased from 0.09 to 0.25 when fluid density (which is correlated to water activity) increased from 0.02 to 0.09 g/cm 3 ( f H 2O 1.72 to 2.05). These changes of hydration number are qualitatively consistent with previous solubility studies under similar conditions, although the absolute hydration numbers from MD were much lower than the values inferred by correlating experimental Cu fugacity with water fugacity. This could be due to the uncertainties in the MD simulations and uncertainty in the estimation of the fugacity coefficients for these highly nonideal “vapors” in the experiments. Finally, our study provides the first theoretical confirmation that beyond-first-shell hydrated metal complexes play an important role in metal transport in low-density hydrothermal fluids, even if it is highly disordered and dynamic in nature.« less
CuCl Complexation in the Vapor Phase: Insights from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Mei, Yuan; Liu, Weihua; Migdiov, A. A.
We invesmore » tigated the hydration of the CuCl 0 complex in HCl-bearing water vapor at 350°C and a vapor-like fluid density between 0.02 and 0.09 g/cm 3 using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations reveal that one water molecule is strongly bonded to Cu(I) (first coordination shell), forming a linear [H 2O-Cu-Cl] 0 moiety. The second hydration shell is highly dynamic in nature, and individual configurations have short life-spans in such low-density vapors, resulting in large fluctuations in instantaneous hydration numbers over a timescale of picoseconds. The average hydration number in the second shell (m) increased from ~0.5 to ~3.5 and the calculated number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule increased from 0.09 to 0.25 when fluid density (which is correlated to water activity) increased from 0.02 to 0.09 g/cm 3 ( f H 2O 1.72 to 2.05). These changes of hydration number are qualitatively consistent with previous solubility studies under similar conditions, although the absolute hydration numbers from MD were much lower than the values inferred by correlating experimental Cu fugacity with water fugacity. This could be due to the uncertainties in the MD simulations and uncertainty in the estimation of the fugacity coefficients for these highly nonideal “vapors” in the experiments. Finally, our study provides the first theoretical confirmation that beyond-first-shell hydrated metal complexes play an important role in metal transport in low-density hydrothermal fluids, even if it is highly disordered and dynamic in nature.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, T. Y.; Yeak, S. H.; Liew, K. M.
2008-02-01
A multiscale technique is developed that couples empirical molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio density functional theory (DFT). An overlap handshaking region between the empirical MD and ab initio DFT regions is formulated and the interaction forces between the carbon atoms are calculated based on the second-generation reactive empirical bond order potential, the long-range Lennard-Jones potential as well as the quantum-mechanical DFT derived forces. A density of point algorithm is also developed to track all interatomic distances in the system, and to activate and establish the DFT and handshaking regions. Through parallel computing, this multiscale method is used here to study the dynamic behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under asymmetrical axial compression. The detection of sideways buckling due to the asymmetrical axial compression is reported and discussed. It is noted from this study on SWCNTs that the MD results may be stiffer compared to those with electron density considerations, i.e. first-principle ab initio methods.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of AlN responding to low energy particle radiation
Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; ...
2018-01-30
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in wurtzite AlN have been performed to determine threshold displacement energies, defect production and evolution mechanisms, role of partial charge transfer during the process, and the influence of irradiation-induced defects on the properties of AlN. Here, the results show that the threshold displacement energies, E d, along the direction parallel to the basal planes are smaller than those perpendicular to the basal planes. The minimum E d values are determined to be 19 eV and 55 eV for N and Al atom, respectively, which occur along the [more » $$\\overline{11}20$$] direction. In general, the threshold displacement energies for N are smaller than those for Al atom, indicating the N defects would be dominant under irradiation. The defect production mechanisms have been analyzed. It is found that charge transfer and redistribution for both the primary knock-on atom and the subsequent recoil atoms play a significant role in defect production and evolution. Similar to the trend in oxide materials, there is a nearly linear relationship between E d and the total amount of charge transfer at the potential energy peak in AlN, which provides guidance on the development of charge-transfer interatomic potentials for classic molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, the response behavior of AlN to low energy irradiation is qualitatively investigated. The existence of irradiation-induced defects significantly modifies the electronic structure, and thus affects the magnetic, electronic and optical properties of AlN. In conclusion, these findings further enrich the understanding of defects in the wide bandgap semiconductor of AlN.« less
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of AlN responding to low energy particle radiation
Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in wurtzite AlN have been performed to determine threshold displacement energies, defect production and evolution mechanisms, role of partial charge transfer during the process, and the influence of irradiation-induced defects on the properties of AlN. Here, the results show that the threshold displacement energies, E d, along the direction parallel to the basal planes are smaller than those perpendicular to the basal planes. The minimum E d values are determined to be 19 eV and 55 eV for N and Al atom, respectively, which occur along the [more » $$\\overline{11}20$$] direction. In general, the threshold displacement energies for N are smaller than those for Al atom, indicating the N defects would be dominant under irradiation. The defect production mechanisms have been analyzed. It is found that charge transfer and redistribution for both the primary knock-on atom and the subsequent recoil atoms play a significant role in defect production and evolution. Similar to the trend in oxide materials, there is a nearly linear relationship between E d and the total amount of charge transfer at the potential energy peak in AlN, which provides guidance on the development of charge-transfer interatomic potentials for classic molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, the response behavior of AlN to low energy irradiation is qualitatively investigated. The existence of irradiation-induced defects significantly modifies the electronic structure, and thus affects the magnetic, electronic and optical properties of AlN. In conclusion, these findings further enrich the understanding of defects in the wide bandgap semiconductor of AlN.« less
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of AlN responding to low energy particle radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.
2018-01-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in wurtzite AlN have been performed to determine threshold displacement energies, defect production and evolution mechanisms, role of partial charge transfer during the process, and the influence of irradiation-induced defects on the properties of AlN. The results show that the threshold displacement energies, Ed, along the direction parallel to the basal planes are smaller than those perpendicular to the basal planes. The minimum Ed values are determined to be 19 eV and 55 eV for N and Al atom, respectively, which occur along the [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 20 ] direction. In general, the threshold displacement energies for N are smaller than those for Al atom, indicating the N defects would be dominant under irradiation. The defect production mechanisms have been analyzed. It is found that charge transfer and redistribution for both the primary knock-on atom and the subsequent recoil atoms play a significant role in defect production and evolution. Similar to the trend in oxide materials, there is a nearly linear relationship between Ed and the total amount of charge transfer at the potential energy peak in AlN, which provides guidance on the development of charge-transfer interatomic potentials for classic molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, the response behavior of AlN to low energy irradiation is qualitatively investigated. The existence of irradiation-induced defects significantly modifies the electronic structure, and thus affects the magnetic, electronic and optical properties of AlN. These findings further enrich the understanding of defects in the wide bandgap semiconductor of AlN.
An ab initio study of the structure and dynamics of bulk liquid Ag and its liquid-vapor interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez Del Rio, Beatriz; Gonzalez Tesedo, Luis Enrique; Gonzalez Fernandez, David Jose
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ag at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been calculated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows a very good agreement with the available experimental data. The dynamical structure reveals collective density excitations with an associated dispersion relation which points to a small positive dispersion. Results are also reported at a slightly higher temperature in order to study the structure of the free liquid surface. The ionic density profile shows an oscillatory behaviour with two different wavelenghts, as the spacing between the outer and first inner layer is different from that between the other inner layers.
Dynamics and Structure of Point Defects in Forsterite: ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churakov, S.; Khisina, N.; Urusov, V.; Wirth, R.
2001-12-01
OH-bearing fluid inclusions in Fo92 forsterite samples from peridotite nodule 9206 (Udachnaja kimberlite pipe)[1] were documented recently based on TEM and IR studies. The Fourier transform of diffraction pattern from the inclusions exhibited a pattern, which is interpreted as ordered planar (2H)xMg defects. In this study the structure and dynamics of protons associated with Mg(1), Mg(2) vacancies and interstitial polyhedrons ordered in a (100) plane corresponding to double unite cell periodicity of the forsterite lattice has been investigated by ab initio quantum mechanic calculations. Static structure optimizations and ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed using the CPMD density functional code[2]. The calculations were accomplished with the BLYP-functional utilizing the generalized gradient approximation. Non-local Goedecker-type pseudopotentials[3] have been applied to account for core electrons. Valence electron orbitals were approximated by plane wave expansion up to 70 Ry energy cutoff. The energy of static structures was sampled on 2x2x2 Monkhorst-Pack mesh[4]. During the structure relaxation parameters of an orthorhombic 2x1x2 supercell contaning 116 atoms corresponding to Mg28Si16O64H8 hydrous olivine was fixed at experimental values of a=9.524Å b=10.225Å and c=11.988Å relative to the Pbnm space group. Series of NVT-MD calculations were performed at 1000 K on 2x1x1 supercell with 58 atoms using four chain Nose thermostat. Randomly disturbed optimized structures were used as initial configuration for MD runs. The 1ps system equilibration is followed by trajectory production over 5 ps interval. A point energy sampling was applied in all MD calculations. A series of geometry optimizations, starting with various initial position of protons in Mg(1), Mg(2) and interstitial sites were carried out to obtain a structure with the lowest lattice energy. It was found that structures with protons completely located within the M1
Bucher, Denis; Pierce, Levi C T; McCammon, J Andrew; Markwick, Phineus R L
2011-04-12
We have implemented the accelerated molecular dynamics approach (Hamelberg, D.; Mongan, J.; McCammon, J. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 120 (24), 11919) in the framework of ab initio MD (AIMD). Using three simple examples, we demonstrate that accelerated AIMD (A-AIMD) can be used to accelerate solvent relaxation in AIMD simulations and facilitate the detection of reaction coordinates: (i) We show, for one cyclohexane molecule in the gas phase, that the method can be used to accelerate the rate of the chair-to-chair interconversion by a factor of ∼1 × 10(5), while allowing for the reconstruction of the correct canonical distribution of low-energy states; (ii) We then show, for a water box of 64 H(2)O molecules, that A-AIMD can also be used in the condensed phase to accelerate the sampling of water conformations, without affecting the structural properties of the solvent; and (iii) The method is then used to compute the potential of mean force (PMF) for the dissociation of Na-Cl in water, accelerating the convergence by a factor of ∼3-4 compared to conventional AIMD simulations.(2) These results suggest that A-AIMD is a useful addition to existing methods for enhanced conformational and phase-space sampling in solution. While the method does not make the use of collective variables superfluous, it also does not require the user to define a set of collective variables that can capture all the low-energy minima on the potential energy surface. This property may prove very useful when dealing with highly complex multidimensional systems that require a quantum mechanical treatment.
Pluharova, Eva; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.
2014-07-03
Understanding specific ion effects on proteins remains a considerable challenge. N-methylacetamide serves as a useful proxy for the protein backbone that can be well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The spectroscopic signatures in the amide I band reflecting the strength of the interaction of alkali cations and alkali earth dications with the carbonyl group remain difficult to assign and controversial to interpret. Herein, we directly compute the IR shifts corresponding to the binding of either sodium or calcium to aqueous N-methylacetamide using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the two cations interact with aqueous N-methylacetamide with different affinitiesmore » and in different geometries. Since sodium exhibits a weak interaction with the carbonyl group, the resulting amide I band is similar to an unperturbed carbonyl group undergoing aqueous solvation. In contrast, the stronger calcium binding results in a clear IR shift with respect to N-methylacetamide in pure water. Support from the Czech Ministry of Education (grant LH12001) is gratefully acknowledged. EP thanks the International Max-Planck Research School for support and the Alternative Sponsored Fellowship program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PJ acknowledges the Praemium Academie award from the Academy of Sciences. Calculations of the free energy profiles were made possible through generous allocation of computer time from the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). Calculations of vibrational spectra were performed in part using the computational resources in the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant CHE-0431312. CJM is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. PNNL is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle
Kolb, Brian; Guo, Hua
2016-07-07
Scattering and dissociative chemisorption of DCl on Au(111) are investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics with a slab model, in which the top two layers of Au are mobile. Substantial kinetic energy loss in the scattered DCl is found, but the amount of energy transfer is notably smaller than that observed in the experiment. On the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption probability reproduces the experimental trend with respect to the initial kinetic energy, but is about one order of magnitude larger than the reported initial sticking probability. While the theory-experiment agreement is significantly improved from the previous rigid surface model, the remaining discrepancies are still substantial, calling for further scrutiny in both theory and experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietrucci, Fabio; Andreoni, Wanda
2011-08-01
Social permutation invariant coordinates are introduced describing the bond network around a given atom. They originate from the largest eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of the contact matrix, are invariant under permutation of identical atoms, and bear a clear signature of an order-disorder transition. Once combined with ab initio metadynamics, these coordinates are shown to be a powerful tool for the discovery of low-energy isomers of molecules and nanoclusters as well as for a blind exploration of isomerization, association, and dissociation reactions.
Opletal, George; Drumm, Daniel W; Wang, Rong P; Russo, Salvy P
2014-07-03
Ternary glass structures are notoriously difficult to model accurately, and yet prevalent in several modern endeavors. Here, a novel combination of Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) is presented, rendering these complicated structures computationally tractable. A case study (Ge6.25As32.5Se61.25 glass) illustrates the effects of ab initio MD quench rates and equilibration temperatures, and the combined approach's efficacy over standard RMC or random insertion methods. Submelting point MD quenches achieve the most stable, realistic models, agreeing with both experimental and fully ab initio results. The simple approach of RMC followed by ab initio geometry optimization provides similar quality to the RMC-MD combination, for far fewer resources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamashita, Koichi; Morokuma, Keiji; Le Quéré, Frederic; Leforestier, Claude
1992-04-01
New ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and B ( 1B 2) states of ozone have been calculated with the CASSCF-SECI/DZP method to describe the three-dimensional photodissociation process. The dissociation energy of the ground state and the vertical barrier height of the B PES are obtained to be 0.88 and 1.34 eV, respectively, in better agreement with the experimental values than the previous calculation. The photodissociation autocorrelation function, calculated on the new B PES, based on exact three-dimensional quantum dynamics, reproduces well the main recurrence feature extracted from the experimental spectra.
Ab-initio study of high temperature lattice dynamics of BCC zirconium (β-Zr) and uranium (γ-U)
Ghosh, Partha S., E-mail: parthasarathi13@gmail.com; Arya, A., E-mail: parthasarathi13@gmail.com; Dey, G. K., E-mail: parthasarathi13@gmail.com
2014-04-24
Using self consistent ab-initio lattice dynamics calculations, we show that bcc structures of Zr and U phases become stable at high temperature by phonon-phonon interactions. The calculated temperature dependent phonon dispersion curve (PDC) of β-Zr match excellently with experimental PDC. But the calculated PDC for γ-U shows negative phonon frequencies even at solid to liquid transition temperature. We show that this discrepancy is due to an overestimation of instability depth of bcc U phase which is removed by incorporation of spin-orbit coupling in the electronic structure calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Grant D.; Jaffe, R. L.; Yoon, D. Y.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of POE melts have been performed utilizing a potential force field parameterized to reproduce conformer energies and rotational energy barriers in dimethoxyethane as determined from ab initio electronic structure calculations. Chain conformations and dimensions of POE from the simulations were found to be in good agreement with predictions of a rotational isomeric state (RIS) model based upon the ab initio conformational. energies. The melt chains were found to be somewhat extended relative to chains at theta conditions. This effect will be discussed in light of neutron scattering experiments which indicate that POE chains are extended in the melt relative to theta solutions. The conformational characteristics of POE chains will also be compared with those of other poly (alkylethers), namely poly(oxymethylene), poly(oxytrimethylene) and poly(oxytetramethylene). Local conformational dynamics were found to be more rapid than in polymethylene. Calculated C-H vector correlation times were found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental values from C-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation times. The influence of ionic salts on local conformations and dynamics will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.
2016-04-01
We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.
Hollas, Daniel; Sistik, Lukas; Hohenstein, Edward G.
Here, we show that the floating occupation molecular orbital complete active space configuration interaction (FOMO-CASCI) method is a promising alternative to the widely used complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method in direct nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. We have simulated photodynamics of three archetypal molecules in photodynamics: ethylene, methaniminium cation, and malonaldehyde. We compared the time evolution of electronic populations and reaction mechanisms as revealed by the FOMO-CASCI and CASSCF approaches. Generally, the two approaches provide similar results. Some dynamical differences are observed, but these can be traced back to energetically minor differences in the potential energy surfaces. We suggest thatmore » the FOMO-CASCI method represents, due to its efficiency and stability, a promising approach for direct ab initio dynamics in the excited state.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammond, Philip S.; Wu, Yudong; Harris, Rebecca; Minehardt, Todd J.; Car, Roberto; Schmitt, Jeffrey D.
2005-01-01
A variety of biologically active small molecules contain prochiral tertiary amines, which become chiral centers upon protonation. S-nicotine, the prototypical nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, produces two diastereomers on protonation. Results, using both classical (AMBER) and ab initio (Car-Parrinello) molecular dynamical studies, illustrate the significant differences in conformational space explored by each diastereomer. As is expected, this phenomenon has an appreciable effect on nicotine's energy hypersurface and leads to differentiation in molecular shape and divergent sampling. Thus, protonation induced isomerism can produce dynamic effects that may influence the behavior of a molecule in its interaction with a target protein. We also examine differences in the conformational dynamics for each diastereomer as quantified by both molecular dynamics methods.
Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra
2015-10-12
The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity.
Kritayakornupong, Chinapong; Plankensteiner, Kristof; Rode, Bernd M
2004-10-01
Structural and dynamical properties of the Cr(III) ion in aqueous solution have been investigated using a combined ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation. The hydration structure of Cr(III) was determined in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distributions. The QM/MM simulation gives coordination numbers of 6 and 15.4 for the first and second hydration shell, respectively. The first hydration shell is kinetically very inert but by no means rigid and variations of the first hydration shell geometry lead to distinct splitting in the vibrational spectra of Cr(H(2)O)(6) (3+). A mean residence time of 22 ps was obtained for water ligands residing in the second hydration shell, which is remarkably shorter than the experimentally estimated value. The hydration energy of -1108 +/- 7 kcal/mol, obtained from the QM/MM simulation, corresponds well to the experimental hydration enthalpy value. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baroni, Stefano
Modern simulation methods based on electronic-structure theory have long been deemed unfit to compute heat transport coefficients within the Green-Kubo formalism. This is so because the quantum-mechanical energy density from which the heat flux is derived is inherently ill defined, thus allegedly hampering the use of the Green-Kubo formula. While this objection would actually apply to classical systems as well, I will demonstrate that the thermal conductivity is indeed independent of the specific microscopic expression for the energy density and current from which it is derived. This fact results from a kind of gauge invariance stemming from energy conservation and extensivity, which I will illustrate numerically for a classical Lennard-Jones fluid. I will then introduce an expression for the adiabatic energy flux, derived within density-functional theory, that allows simulating atomic heat transport using equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics. The resulting methodology is demonstrated by comparing results from ab-initio and classical molecular-dynamics simulations of a model liquid-Argon system, for which accurate inter-atomic potentials are derived by the force-matching method, and applied to compute the thermal conductivity of heavy water at ambient conditions. The problem of evaluating transport coefficients along with their accuracy from relatively short trajectories is finally addressed and discussed with a few representative examples. Partially funded by the European Union through the MaX Centre of Excellence (Grant No. 676598).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huaming; Tian, Yanting; Sun, Yongli; Li, Mo; Nonequilibrium materials; physics Team; Computational materials science Team
In this work, we apply a general equation of state of liquid and Ab initio molecular-dynamics method to study thermodynamic properties in liquid potassium under high pressure. Isothermal bulk modulus and molar volume of molten sodium are calculated within good precision as compared with the experimental data. The calculated internal energy data and the calculated values of isobaric heat capacity of molten potassium show the minimum along the isothermal lines as the previous result obtained in liquid sodium. The expressions for acoustical parameter and nonlinearity parameter are obtained based on thermodynamic relations from the equation of state. Both parameters for liquid potassium are calculated under high pressure along the isothermal lines by using the available thermodynamic data and numeric derivations. Furthermore, Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations are used to calculate some thermodynamic properties of liquid potassium along the isothermal lines. Scientific Research Starting Foundation from Taiyuan university of Technology, Shanxi Provincial government (``100-talents program''), China Scholarship Council and National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 51602213.
Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai
2015-11-15
Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding toward class IIa HDACs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai
2015-01-01
Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding towards class IIa HDACs. PMID:26452222
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Qing-Hai; You, Yu-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Shan; Liu, C. S.
2013-03-01
The microscopic structure and dynamics of liquid MgxBi1-x(x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) alloys together with pure liquid Mg and Bi metals were investigated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We present results of structure properties including pair correlation function, structural factor, bond-angle distribution function and bond order parameter, and their composition dependence. The dynamical and electronic properties have also been studied. The structure factor and pair correlation function are in agreement with the available experimental data. The calculated bond-angle distribution function and bond order parameter suggest that the stoichiometric composition Mg3Bi2 exhibits a different local structure order compared with other concentrations, which help us understand the appearance of the minimum electronic conductivity at this composition observed in previous experiments.
An ab initio study of the structure and dynamics of bulk liquid Cd and its liquid-vapor interface.
Calderín, L; González, L E; González, D J
2013-02-13
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Cd at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been calculated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows a very good agreement with the available experimental data. The dynamical structure reveals collective density excitations with an associated dispersion relation which points to a small positive dispersion. Results are also reported for several transport coefficients. Additional simulations have also been performed at a slightly higher temperature in order to study the structure of the free liquid surface. The ionic density profile shows an oscillatory behavior with two different wavelengths, as the spacing between the outer and first inner layer is different from that between the other inner layers. The calculated reflectivity shows a marked maximum whose origin is related to the surface layering, along with a shoulder located at a much smaller wavevector transfer.
Atomistic non-adiabatic dynamics of the LH2 complex with a GPU-accelerated ab initio exciton model
Sisto, Aaron; Stross, Clem; van der Kamp, Marc W.; ...
2017-03-28
We recently outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel ab initio excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground and excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail – enabling us to undertake non-adiabatic simulations which explicitly account for the coupled anharmonic vibrational motion of all the constituent atoms in a supramolecular system. Here we apply that framework to the 27 coupled bacterio-chlorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute an on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) trajectory of electronically excited LH2. Part one of this article is focussed on calibratingmore » our ab initio exciton Hamiltonian using two key parameters: a shift δ, which corrects for the error in TDDFT vertical excitation energies; and an effective dielectric constant ε, which describes the average screening of the transition-dipole coupling between chromophores. Using snapshots obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of LH2, we tune the values of both δ and ε through fitting to the thermally broadened experimental absorption spectrum, giving a linear absorption spectrum that agrees reasonably well with experiment. In part two of this article, we construct a time-resolved picture of the coupled vibrational and excitation energy transfer (EET) dynamics in the sub-picosecond regime following photo-excitation. Assuming Franck–Condon excitation of a narrow eigenstate band centred at 800 nm, we use surface hopping to follow a single nonadiabatic dynamics trajectory within the full eigenstate manifold. Consistent with experimental data, this trajectory gives timescales for B800→B850 population transfer (τ B800→B850) between 650–1050 fs, and B800 population decay (τ 800→) between 10–50 fs. The dynamical picture that emerges is one of rapidly fluctuating LH2 eigenstates that are delocalized over multiple
Atomistic non-adiabatic dynamics of the LH2 complex with a GPU-accelerated ab initio exciton model.
Sisto, Aaron; Stross, Clem; van der Kamp, Marc W; O'Connor, Michael; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Johnson, Graham T; Hohenstein, Edward G; Manby, Fred R; Glowacki, David R; Martinez, Todd J
2017-06-14
We recently outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel ab initio excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground and excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail - enabling us to undertake non-adiabatic simulations which explicitly account for the coupled anharmonic vibrational motion of all the constituent atoms in a supramolecular system. Here we apply that framework to the 27 coupled bacterio-chlorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute an on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) trajectory of electronically excited LH2. Part one of this article is focussed on calibrating our ab initio exciton Hamiltonian using two key parameters: a shift δ, which corrects for the error in TDDFT vertical excitation energies; and an effective dielectric constant ε, which describes the average screening of the transition-dipole coupling between chromophores. Using snapshots obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of LH2, we tune the values of both δ and ε through fitting to the thermally broadened experimental absorption spectrum, giving a linear absorption spectrum that agrees reasonably well with experiment. In part two of this article, we construct a time-resolved picture of the coupled vibrational and excitation energy transfer (EET) dynamics in the sub-picosecond regime following photo-excitation. Assuming Franck-Condon excitation of a narrow eigenstate band centred at 800 nm, we use surface hopping to follow a single nonadiabatic dynamics trajectory within the full eigenstate manifold. Consistent with experimental data, this trajectory gives timescales for B800→B850 population transfer (τ B800→B850 ) between 650-1050 fs, and B800 population decay (τ 800→ ) between 10-50 fs. The dynamical picture that emerges is one of rapidly fluctuating LH2 eigenstates that are delocalized over multiple chromophores and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hee-Seung; Tuckerman, Mark E.
2007-04-01
Dynamical properties of liquid water were studied using Car-Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)] ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations within the Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory employing the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional for the electronic structure. The KS orbitals were expanded in a discrete variable representation basis set, wherein the complete basis set limit can be easily reached and which, therefore, provides complete convergence of ionic forces. In order to minimize possible nonergodic behavior of the simulated water system in a constant energy (NVE) ensemble, a long equilibration run (30ps) preceded a 60ps long production run. The temperature drift during the entire 60ps trajectory was found to be minimal. The diffusion coefficient [0.055Å2/ps] obtained from the present work for 32 D2O molecules is a factor of 4 smaller than the most up to date experimental value, but significantly larger than those of other recent AIMD studies. Adjusting the experimental result so as to match the finite-sized system used in the present study brings the comparison between theory and experiment to within a factor of 3. More importantly, the system is not observed to become "glassy" as has been reported in previous AIMD studies. The computed infrared spectrum is in good agreement with experimental data, especially in the low frequency regime where the translational and librational motions of water are manifested. The long simulation length also made it possible to perform detailed studies of hydrogen bond dynamics. The relaxation dynamics of hydrogen bonds observed in the present AIMD simulation is slower than those of popular force fields, such as the TIP4P potential, but comparable to that of the TIP5P potential.
Lee, Hee-Seung; Tuckerman, Mark E
2007-04-28
Dynamical properties of liquid water were studied using Car-Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)] ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations within the Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory employing the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional for the electronic structure. The KS orbitals were expanded in a discrete variable representation basis set, wherein the complete basis set limit can be easily reached and which, therefore, provides complete convergence of ionic forces. In order to minimize possible nonergodic behavior of the simulated water system in a constant energy (NVE) ensemble, a long equilibration run (30 ps) preceded a 60 ps long production run. The temperature drift during the entire 60 ps trajectory was found to be minimal. The diffusion coefficient [0.055 A2/ps] obtained from the present work for 32 D2O molecules is a factor of 4 smaller than the most up to date experimental value, but significantly larger than those of other recent AIMD studies. Adjusting the experimental result so as to match the finite-sized system used in the present study brings the comparison between theory and experiment to within a factor of 3. More importantly, the system is not observed to become "glassy" as has been reported in previous AIMD studies. The computed infrared spectrum is in good agreement with experimental data, especially in the low frequency regime where the translational and librational motions of water are manifested. The long simulation length also made it possible to perform detailed studies of hydrogen bond dynamics. The relaxation dynamics of hydrogen bonds observed in the present AIMD simulation is slower than those of popular force fields, such as the TIP4P potential, but comparable to that of the TIP5P potential.
Jackson, Bret, E-mail: jackson@chem.umass.edu; Nattino, Francesco; Kroes, Geert-Jan
The dissociative chemisorption of methane on metal surfaces is of great practical and fundamental importance. Not only is it the rate-limiting step in the steam reforming of natural gas, the reaction exhibits interesting mode-selective behavior and a strong dependence on the temperature of the metal. We present a quantum model for this reaction on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces based on the reaction path Hamiltonian. The dissociative sticking probabilities computed using this model agree well with available experimental data with regard to variation with incident energy, substrate temperature, and the vibrational state of the incident molecule. We significantly expand the vibrationalmore » basis set relative to earlier studies, which allows reaction probabilities to be calculated for doubly excited initial vibrational states, though it does not lead to appreciable changes in the reaction probabilities for singly excited initial states. Sudden models used to treat the center of mass motion parallel to the surface are compared with results from ab initio molecular dynamics and found to be reasonable. Similar comparisons for molecular rotation suggest that our rotationally adiabatic model is incorrect, and that sudden behavior is closer to reality. Such a model is proposed and tested. A model for predicting mode-selective behavior is tested, with mixed results, though we find it is consistent with experimental studies of normal vs. total (kinetic) energy scaling. Models for energy transfer into lattice vibrations are also examined.« less
Ab Initio Crystal Field for Lanthanides.
Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F
2017-03-13
An ab initio methodology for the first-principle derivation of crystal-field (CF) parameters for lanthanides is described. The methodology is applied to the analysis of CF parameters in [Tb(Pc) 2 ] - (Pc=phthalocyanine) and Dy 4 K 2 ([Dy 4 K 2 O(OtBu) 12 ]) complexes, and compared with often used approximate and model descriptions. It is found that the application of geometry symmetrization, and the use of electrostatic point-charge and phenomenological CF models, lead to unacceptably large deviations from predictions based on ab initio calculations for experimental geometry. It is shown how the predictions of standard CASSCF (Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field) calculations (with 4f orbitals in the active space) can be systematically improved by including effects of dynamical electronic correlation (CASPT2 step) and by admixing electronic configurations of the 5d shell. This is exemplified for the well-studied Er-trensal complex (H 3 trensal=2,2',2"-tris(salicylideneimido)trimethylamine). The electrostatic contributions to CF parameters in this complex, calculated with true charge distributions in the ligands, yield less than half of the total CF splitting, thus pointing to the dominant role of covalent effects. This analysis allows the conclusion that ab initio crystal field is an essential tool for the decent description of lanthanides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ab initio treatment of ion-induced charge transfer dynamics of isolated 2-deoxy-D-ribose.
Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine
2014-08-21
Modeling-induced radiation damage in biological systems, in particular, in DNA building blocks, is of major concern in cancer therapy studies. Ion-induced charge-transfer dynamics may indeed be involved in proton and hadrontherapy treatments. We have thus performed a theoretical approach of the charge-transfer dynamics in collision of C(4+) ions and protons with isolated 2-deoxy-D-ribose in a wide collision energy range by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The comparison of both projectile ions has been performed with regard to previous theoretical and experimental results. The charge transfer appears markedly less efficient with the 2-deoxy-D-ribose target than that with pyrimidine nucleobases, which would induce an enhancement of the fragmentation process in agreement with experimental measurements. The mechanism has been analyzed with regard to inner orbital excitations, and qualitative tendencies have been pointed out for studies on DNA buiding block damage.
Mignolet, Benoit; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Martinez, Todd J.
2016-11-17
Attoscience is an emerging field where attosecond pulses or few cycle IR pulses are used to pump and probe the correlated electron-nuclear motion of molecules. We present the trajectory-guided eXternal Field Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (XFAIMS) method that models such experiments “on-the-fly,” from laser pulse excitation to fragmentation or nonadiabatic relaxation to the ground electronic state. For the photoexcitation of the LiH molecule, we show that XFAIMS gives results in close agreement with numerically exact quantum dynamics simulations, both for atto- and femtosecond laser pulses. As a result, we then show the ability of XFAIMS to model the dynamics inmore » polyatomic molecules by studying the effect of nuclear motion on the photoexcitation of a sulfine (H 2CSO).« less
Pham, Tuan Anh; Kweon, Kyoung E.; Samanta, Amit; ...
2017-09-18
The development of sodium and potassium batteries offers a promising way to meet the scaling and cost challenges of energy storage. However, compared to Li +, several intrinsic properties of Na + and K +, including their solvation and dynamics in typical organic electrolytes utilized in battery applications, are less well-understood. Here in this paper, we report a systematic investigation of Na + and K + in ethylene carbonate (EC) using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations reveal significant differences in the solvation structure and dynamical properties of Na + and K + compared to Li +. We find that,more » in contrast to Li + which exhibits a well-defined first solvation shell, the larger Na+ and K+ ions show more disordered and flexible solvation structures. These differences in solvation were found to significantly influence the ion dynamics, leading to larger diffusion coefficients of Na + and K + compared to Li +. Our simulations also reveal a clear and interesting analog in the behavior of the ions in EC and aqueous environments, particularly in the specific ion effects on the solvent dynamics. Lastly, this work provides fundamental understanding of the intrinsic properties of Na + and K + in organic electrolytes, which may ultimately influence the intercalation mechanism at the electrode–electrolyte interface and therefore battery performance, lifetime, and safety.« less
Jin, K.; Xiao, H. Y.; Zhang, Y.
2014-05-19
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effects of a boron nitride (BN) substrate on Stone-Wales (SW) defect formation and recovery in graphene. It is found that SW defects can be created by an off-plane recoil atom that interacts with the BN substrate. A mechanism with complete bond breakage for formation of SW defects in suspended graphene is also revealed for recoils at large displacement angles. In addition, further irradiation can result in recovery of the SW defects through a bond rotation mechanism in both graphene and graphene/BN, and the substrate has little effect on the recoverymore » process. This study indicates that the BN substrate enhances the irradiation resistance of graphene.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Qing-Hai; Li, Y. D.; Kong, Xiang-Shan; Liu, C. S.
2013-02-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on liquid Sb have been carried out at five different temperatures from 913 K to 1193 K. We have investigated the temperature dependence of structure properties including structural factor S(Q), pair correlation function g(r), bond-angle distribution function g3(θ), cluster properties and bond order parameter Q4 and Q6. A shoulder was reproduced in the high wave number side of the first peak in the S(Q) implying that the residual structure units of crystalline Sb remain in liquid Sb. There is a noticeable bend at around 1023 K in the temperature dependence of the first-peak height of S(Q), the cluster properties and bond order parameter Q4, respectively, indicating that an abnormal structural change may occur at 973-1023 K.
Fast Li-Ion Transport in Amorphous Li 2Si 2O 5: An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Lei, Xueling; Wang, Jie; Huang, Kevin
2016-05-03
The present study reports an ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation of ionic diffusion in the amorphous Li 2Si 2O 5 in a temperature range of 573–823 K. The results show that the amorphous Li 2Si 2O 5 is primarily a Li + conductor with negligible O 2- and Si 4+ contributions. The obtained activation energy of 0.47 eV for Li + diffusion is higher than Na + in the analogue amorphous Na 2Si 2O 5, but close to other types of Li + conductors. The predicted Li + conductivity is on the order of 10 -2 S·cm -1 at 623–823more » K. Our simulations also reveal that Li + in the amorphous Li 2Si 2O 5 diffuses via a hopping mechanism between the nearest sites in the channels formed by two adjacent SiO 4 layers.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Wenhua; Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu
2014-03-01
In the study of catalytic reactions of biomass, furfural conversion over metal catalysts with the presence of hydrogen has attracted wide attention. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for furfural and hydrogen on the Pd(111) surface at finite temperatures. The simulations demonstrate that the presence of hydrogen is important in promoting furfural conversion. In particular, hydrogen molecules dissociate rapidly on the Pd(111) surface. As a result of such dissociation, atomic hydrogen participates in the reactions with furfural. The simulations also provide detailed information about the possible reactions of hydrogen with furfural. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). This research used the supercomputer resources of the XSEDE, the NERSC Center, and the Tandy Supercomputing Center.
Parkes, Marie V; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Hart, David B; Gallis, Dorina F Sava; Nenoff, Tina M
2016-04-28
The separation of oxygen from nitrogen using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is of great interest for potential pressure-swing adsorption processes for the generation of purified O2 on industrial scales. This study uses ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations to examine for the first time the pure-gas and competitive gas adsorption of O2 and N2 in the M2(dobdc) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe) MOF series with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. Effects of metal, temperature, and gas composition are explored. This unique application of AIMD allows us to study in detail the adsorption/desorption processes and to visualize the process of multiple guests competitively binding to coordinatively unsaturated metal sites of a MOF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bankura, Arindam; Klein, Michael L.; Carnevale, Vincenzo
2013-08-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations have been used to compare and contrast the deprotonation reaction of a histidine residue in aqueous solution with the situation arising in a histidine-tryptophan cluster. The latter is used as a model of the proton storage unit present in the pore of the M2 proton conducting ion channel. We compute potentials of mean force for the dissociation of a proton from the Nδ and Nɛ positions of the imidazole group to estimate the pKas. Anticipating our results, we will see that the estimated pKa for the first protonation event of the M2 channel is in good agreement with experimental estimates. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the histidine is partially desolvated in the M2 channel, the affinity for protons is similar to that of a histidine in aqueous solution. Importantly, the electrostatic environment provided by the indoles is responsible for the stabilization of the charged imidazolium.
Stirling, András; Nair, Nisanth N; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori
2014-07-21
We present here a review of the mechanistic studies of the Wacker process stressing the long controversy about the key reaction steps. We give an overview of the previous experimental and theoretical studies on the topic. Then we describe the importance of the most recent Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) calculations in modelling organometallic reactivity in water. As a prototypical example of homogeneous catalytic reactions, the Wacker process poses serious challenges to modelling. The adequate description of the multiple role of the water solvent is very difficult by using static quantum chemical approaches including cluster and continuum solvent models. In contrast, such reaction systems are suitable for AIMD, and by combining with rare event sampling techniques, the method provides reaction mechanisms and the corresponding free energy profiles. The review also highlights how AIMD has helped to obtain a novel understanding of the mechanism and kinetics of the Wacker process.
Mosey, Nicholas J; Woo, Tom K
2006-09-04
The reactions that occur between metathiophosphate (MTP) molecules are identified and examined through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and static quantum chemical calculations at the density functional level of theory. The simulations show that certain types of MTPs can react to yield phosphate chains, while others only dimerize. These differences are rationalized in terms of reaction energies and the electronic structures of these molecules. In the reaction leading to the formation of phosphate chains, the reactive center, a tri-coordinate phosphorus atom, is continually regenerated. A polymerization mechanism linking MTPs to phosphate chains is developed on the basis of these results. This information sheds light on the underlying processes that may be responsible for the formation of phosphates under high-temperature conditions and may prove useful in the development of protocols for the rational synthesis of complex phosphate structures.
Ab initio molecular dynamics of the reactivity of vitamin C toward hydroxyl and HO₂/O⁻₂ radicals.
Lespade, Laure
2017-11-21
Vitamin C is one of the most abundant exogenous antioxidants in the cell, and it is of the utmost importance to elucidate its mechanism of action against radicals. In this study, the reactivity of vitamin C toward OH and [Formula: see text] radicals in aqueous medium was analyzed by ab initio molecular dynamics using CPMD code. The simulations led to results similar to those of static studies or experiments for the pair of [Formula: see text] radicals but bring new insights for the reactivity with hydroxyl radical: the reaction takes place before the formation of an adduct and consists of two steps: first an electron is transferred to hydroxyl radical and then the ascorbyl radical loses a proton. Graphical Abstract Reactivity of vitamin C toward hydroxyl and [Formula: see text] radicals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuryev, A. A.; Gelchinski, B. R.; Vatolin, N. A.
2018-03-01
The specific features pertinent to the temperature dependence of the electronic and atomic properties of liquid bismuth that have been observed in experiments are investigated according to the ab initio molecular dynamics method using the SIESTA open software package. The density of electronic states, the radial distribution function of atoms, and the self-diffusion coefficient are calculated for the temperature range from the melting point equal to 545 K to 1500 K. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that the position of the first peak in the radial distribution function of atoms and the self-diffusion coefficient are characterized by a nonmonotonic dependence under the conditions of superheating by approximately 150 K above the melting temperature. In the authors' opinion, this dependence feature is attributed to a change in the liquid short-range order structure.
Non-equilibrium dynamics in disordered materials: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohmura, Satoshi; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Yao, Makoto
2015-08-01
The dynamic properties of liquid B2O3 under pressure and highly-charged bromophenol molecule are studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on density functional theory (DFT). Diffusion properties of covalent liquids under high pressure are very interesting in the sense that they show unexpected pressure dependence. It is found from our simulation that the magnitude relation of diffusion coefficients for boron and oxygen in liquid B2O3 shows the anomalous pressure dependence. The simulation clarified the microscopic origin of the anomalous diffusion properties. Our simulation also reveals the dissociation mechanism in the coulomb explosion of the highly-charged bromophenol molecule. When the charge state n is 6, hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl group dissociates at times shorter than 20 fs while all hydrogen atoms dissociate when n is 8. After the hydrogen dissociation, the carbon ring breaks at about 100 fs. There is also a difference on the mechanism of the ring breaking depending on charge states, in which the ring breaks with expanding (n = 6) or shrink (n = 8).
Topological Semimetals Studied by Ab Initio Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Murakami, Shuichi
2018-04-01
In topological semimetals such as Weyl, Dirac, and nodal-line semimetals, the band gap closes at points or along lines in k space which are not necessarily located at high-symmetry positions in the Brillouin zone. Therefore, it is not straightforward to find these topological semimetals by ab initio calculations because the band structure is usually calculated only along high-symmetry lines. In this paper, we review recent studies on topological semimetals by ab initio calculations. We explain theoretical frameworks which can be used for the search for topological semimetal materials, and some numerical methods used in the ab initio calculations.
Chen, Ji; Ren, Xinguo; Li, Xin-Zheng; Alfè, Dario; Wang, Enge
2014-07-14
The finite-temperature phase diagram of hydrogen in the region of phase IV and its neighborhood was studied using the ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD). The electronic structures were analyzed using the density-functional theory (DFT), the random-phase approximation, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. Taking the state-of-the-art DMC results as benchmark, comparisons of the energy differences between structures generated from the MD and PIMD simulations, with molecular and dissociated hydrogens, respectively, in the weak molecular layers of phase IV, indicate that standard functionals in DFT tend to underestimate the dissociation barrier of the weak molecular layers in this mixed phase. Because of this underestimation, inclusion of the quantum nuclear effects (QNEs) in PIMD using electronic structures generated with these functionals leads to artificially dissociated hydrogen layers in phase IV and an error compensation between the neglect of QNEs and the deficiencies of these functionals in standard ab initio MD simulations exists. This analysis partly rationalizes why earlier ab initio MD simulations complement so well the experimental observations. The temperature and pressure dependencies for the stability of phase IV were also studied in the end and compared with earlier results.
Kessler, Jan; Elgabarty, Hossam; Spura, Thomas; Karhan, Kristof; Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Hassanali, Ali A; Kühne, Thomas D
2015-08-06
The structure and dynamics of the water/vapor interface is revisited by means of path-integral and second-generation Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with an instantaneous surface definition [Willard, A. P.; Chandler, D. J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 1954]. In agreement with previous studies, we find that one of the OH bonds of the water molecules in the topmost layer is pointing out of the water into the vapor phase, while the orientation of the underlying layer is reversed. Therebetween, an additional water layer is detected, where the molecules are aligned parallel to the instantaneous water surface.
Chen, Ying; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.
2017-03-31
Many important geochemical and biogeochemical reactions occur in the mineral/formation water interface of the highly abundant mineral, goethite (α-Fe(OOH). Ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the goethite α-FeOOH (100) surface and the structure, water bond formation and dynamics of water molecules in the mineral/aqueous interface are presented. Here, several exchange correlation functionals were employed (PBE96, PBE96+Grimme, and PBE0) in the simulations of a (3 x 2) goethite surface with 65 absorbed water molecules in a 3D-periodic supercell (a=30 Å, FeOOH slab ~12 Å thick, solvation layer ~18 Å thick).
Chen, Ying; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.
Many important geochemical and biogeochemical reactions occur in the mineral/formation water interface of the highly abundant mineral, goethite (α-Fe(OOH). Ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the goethite α-FeOOH (100) surface and the structure, water bond formation and dynamics of water molecules in the mineral/aqueous interface are presented. Here, several exchange correlation functionals were employed (PBE96, PBE96+Grimme, and PBE0) in the simulations of a (3 x 2) goethite surface with 65 absorbed water molecules in a 3D-periodic supercell (a=30 Å, FeOOH slab ~12 Å thick, solvation layer ~18 Å thick).
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in MgO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersen, B. A.; Liu, B.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y.
2017-04-01
Low-energy recoil events in MgO are studied using ab intio molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the dynamic displacement processes and final defect configurations. Threshold displacement energies, Ed, are obtained for Mg and O along three low-index crystallographic directions, [100], [110], and [111]. The minimum values for Ed are found along the [110] direction consisting of the same element, either Mg or O atoms. Minimum threshold values of 29.5 eV for Mg and 25.5 eV for O, respectively, are suggested from the calculations. For other directions, the threshold energies are considerably higher, 65.5 and 150.0 eV for O along [111] and [100], and 122.5 eV for Mg along both [111] and [100] directions, respectively. These results show that the recoil events in MgO are partial-charge transfer assisted processes where the charge transfer plays an important role. There is a similar trend found in other oxide materials, where the threshold displacement energy correlates linearly with the peak partial-charge transfer, suggesting this behavior might be universal in ceramic oxides.
Calderín, L; González, L E; González, D J
2011-09-21
Fluid Hg undergoes a metal-nonmetal (M-NM) transition when expanded toward a density of around 9 g cm(-3). We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for several thermodynamic states around the M-NM transition range and the associated static, dynamic and electronic properties have been analyzed. The calculated static structure shows a good agreement with the available experimental data. It is found that the volume expansion decreases the number of nearest neighbors from 10 (near the triple point) to around 8 at the M-NM transition region. Moreover, these neighbors are arranged into two subshells and the decrease in the number of neighbors occurs in the inner subshell. The calculated dynamic structure factors agree fairly well with their experimental counterparts obtained by inelastic x-ray scattering experiments, which display inelastic side peaks. The derived dispersion relation exhibits some positive dispersion for all the states, although its value around the M-NM transition region is not as marked as suggested by the experiment. We have also calculated the electronic density of states, which shows the appearance of a gap at a density of around 8.3 g cm(-3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Sangalli, Davide; Wirtz, Ludger; Marini, Andrea
2017-08-01
In single-layer WSe$_2$, a paradigmatic semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide, a circularly polarized laser field can selectively excite electronic transitions in one of the inequivalent $K^{\\pm}$ valleys. Such selective valley population corresponds to a pseudospin polarization. This can be used as a degree of freedom in a valleytronic device provided that the time scale for its depolarization is sufficiently large. Yet, the mechanism behind the valley depolarization still remains heavily debated. Recent time-dependent Kerr experiments have provided an accurate way to visualize the valley dynamics by measuring the rotation of a linearly polarized probe pulse applied after a circularly polarized pump pulse. We present here a clear, accurate and parameter-free description of the valley dynamics. By using an atomistic, ab initio, approach we fully disclose the elemental mechanisms that dictate the depolarization effects. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent time-dependent Kerr experiments. We explain the Kerr dynamics and its temperature dependence in terms of electron-phonon mediated processes that induce spin-flip inter-valley transitions.
Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M
2018-05-17
We report quantum VSCF/VCI and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations of the IR spectra of (HCOOH) 2 and (DCOOH) 2 , using full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces (PES and DMS). These surfaces are fits, using permutationally invariant polynomials, to 13 475 ab initio CCSD(T)-F12a electronic energies and MP2 dipole moments. Here "AIMD" means using these ab initio potential and dipole moment surfaces in the MD calculations. The VSCF/VCI calculations use all (24) normal modes for coupling, with a four-mode representation of the potential. The quantum spectra align well with jet-cooled and room-temperature experimental spectra over the spectral range 600-3600 cm -1 . Analyses of the complex O-H and C-H stretch bands are made based on the mixing of the VSCF/VCI basis functions. The comparisons of the AIMD IR spectra with both experimental and VSCF/VCI ones provide tests of the accuracy of the AIMD approach. These indicate good accuracy for simple bands but not for the complex O-H stretch band, which is upshifted from experimental and VSCF/VCI bands by roughly 300 cm -1 . In addition to testing the AIMD approach, the PES, DMS, and VSCF/VCI calculations for formic acid dimer provide opportunities for testing other methods to represent high-dimensional data and other methods that perform postharmonic vibrational calculations.
Kawashima, Yukio; Tachikawa, Masanori
2014-01-14
Ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulation was performed to understand the nuclear quantum effect on the out-of-plane ring deformation of hydrogen maleate anion and investigate the existence of a stable structure with ring deformation, which was suggested in experimental observation (Fillaux et al., Chem. Phys. 1999, 120, 387-403). The isotope effect and the temperature effect are studied as well. We first investigated the nuclear quantum effect on the proton transfer. In static calculation and classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the proton in the hydrogen bond is localized to either oxygen atom. On the other hand, the proton is located at the center of two oxygen atoms in quantum ab initio PIMD simulations. The nuclear quantum effect washes out the barrier of proton transfer. We next examined the nuclear quantum effect on the motion of hydrogen maleate anion. Principal component analysis revealed that the out-of-plane ring bending modes have dominant contribution to the entire molecular motion. In quantum ab initio PIMD simulations, structures with ring deformation were the global minimum for the deuterated isotope at 300 K. We analyzed the out-of-plane ring bending mode further and found that there are three minima along a ring distortion mode. We successfully found a stable structure with ring deformation of hydrogen maleate for the first time, to our knowledge, using theoretical calculation. The structures with ring deformation found in quantum simulation of the deuterated isotope allowed the proton transfer to occur more frequently than the planar structure. Static ab initio electronic structure calculation found that the structures with ring deformation have very small proton transfer barrier compared to the planar structure. We suggest that the "proton transfer driven" mechanism is the origin of stabilization for the structure with out-of-plane ring deformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna, Alice
One of the functions of graphite is as a moderator in several nuclear reactor designs, including the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR). In the reactor graphite is used to thermalise the neutrons produced in the fission reaction thus allowing a self-sustained reaction to occur. The graphite blocks, acting as the moderator, are constantly irradiated and consequently suffer damage. This thesis examines the types of damage caused using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and ab intio calculations. Neutron damage starts with a primary knock-on atom (PKA), which is travelling so fast that it creates damage through electronic and thermal excitation (this is addressed with thermal spike simulations). When the PKA has lost energy the subsequent cascade is based on ballistic atomic displacement. These two types of simulations were performed on single crystal graphite and other carbon structures such as diamond and amorphous carbon as a comparison. The thermal spike in single crystal graphite produced results which varied from no defects to a small number of permanent defects in the structure. It is only at the high energy range that more damage is seen but these energies are less likely to occur in the nuclear reactor. The thermal spike does not create damage but it is possible that it can heal damaged sections of the graphite, which can be demonstrated with the motion of the defects when a thermal spike is applied. The cascade simulations create more damage than the thermal spike even though less energy is applied to the system. A new damage function is found with a threshold region that varies with the square root of energy in excess of the energy threshold. This is further broken down in to contributions from primary and subsequent knock-on atoms. The threshold displacement energy (TDE) is found to be Ed=25eV at 300K. In both these types of simulation graphite acts very differently to the other carbon structures. There are two types of polycrystalline graphite structures
Bylaska, Eric J.; Jacquelin, Mathias; De Jong, Wibe A.
2017-10-20
Ab-initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) methods are an important class of algorithms, as they enable scientists to understand the chemistry and dynamics of molecular and condensed phase systems while retaining a first-principles-based description of their interactions. Many-core architectures such as the Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor are an interesting and promising target for these algorithms, as they can provide the computational power that is needed to solve interesting problems in chemistry. In this paper, we describe the efforts of refactoring the existing AIMD plane-wave method of NWChem from an MPI-only implementation to a scalable, hybrid code that employs MPI and OpenMP tomore » exploit the capabilities of current and future many-core architectures. We describe the optimizations required to get close to optimal performance for the multiplication of the tall-and-skinny matrices that form the core of the computational algorithm. We present strong scaling results on the complete AIMD simulation for a test case that simulates 256 water molecules and that strong-scales well on a cluster of 1024 nodes of Intel Xeon Phi processors. We compare the performance obtained with a cluster of dual-socket Intel® Xeon® E5–2698v3 processors.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambino, D.; Sangiovanni, D. G.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, I. A.
2017-09-01
We use the color diffusion (CD) algorithm in nonequilibrium (accelerated) ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine Ti monovacancy jump frequencies in NaCl-structure titanium nitride (TiN), at temperatures ranging from 2200 to 3000 K. Our results show that the CD method extended beyond the linear-fitting rate-versus-force regime [Sangiovanni et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 094305 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.094305] can efficiently determine metal vacancy migration rates in TiN, despite the low mobilities of lattice defects in this type of ceramic compound. We propose a computational method based on gamma-distribution statistics, which provides unambiguous definition of nonequilibrium and equilibrium (extrapolated) vacancy jump rates with corresponding statistical uncertainties. The acceleration-factor achieved in our implementation of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics increases dramatically for decreasing temperatures from 500 for T close to the melting point Tm, up to 33 000 for T ≈0.7 Tm .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Taku
2018-03-01
The melting curve of MgO is extended up to 4 TPa, corresponding to the Jovian core pressure, based on the one-step thermodynamic integration method implemented on ab initio molecular dynamics. The calculated melting temperatures are 3100 and 16 000 K at 0 and 500 GPa, respectively, which are consistent with previous experimental results, and 20 600 K at 3900 GPa, which is inconsistent with a recent experimental extrapolation, which implies the molten Jovian core. A quite small Clapeyron slope (dT/dP ) of 0.0+/- 0.5 is found at 3900 GPa due to comparable densities of the liquid and B2 phases under extreme compression. The Mg-O coordination number in the liquid phase is saturated at around 7.5 above 1 TPa and remains smaller than that in the B2 phase (8) even at 4 TPa, suggesting no density crossover between liquid and crystal and thus no further denser crystalline phases. Dynamical properties (atomic diffusivity and viscosity) are also investigated along the melting curve to understand these behaviors in greater detail.
Brela, Mateusz Z; Boczar, Marek; Malec, Leszek M; Wójcik, Marek J; Nakajima, Takahito
2018-05-15
Hydrogen bond networks in uracil, 1-methyluracil and 1-methyl-4-thiouracil were studied by ab initio molecular dynamics as well as analysis of the orbital interactions. The power spectra calculated by ab initio molecular dynamics for atoms involved in hydrogen bonds were analyzed. We calculated spectra by using anharmonic approximation based on the autocorrelation function of the atom positions obtained from the Born-Oppenheimer simulations. Our results show the differences between hydrogen bond networks in uracil and its methylated derivatives. The studied methylated derivatives, 1-methyluracil as well as 1-methyl-4-thiouracil, form dimeric structures in the crystal phase, while uracil does not form that kind of structures. The presence of sulfur atom instead oxygen atom reflects weakness of the hydrogen bonds that build dimers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brela, Mateusz Z.; Boczar, Marek; Malec, Leszek M.; Wójcik, Marek J.; Nakajima, Takahito
2018-05-01
Hydrogen bond networks in uracil, 1-methyluracil and 1-methyl-4-thiouracil were studied by ab initio molecular dynamics as well as analysis of the orbital interactions. The power spectra calculated by ab initio molecular dynamics for atoms involved in hydrogen bonds were analyzed. We calculated spectra by using anharmonic approximation based on the autocorrelation function of the atom positions obtained from the Born-Oppenheimer simulations. Our results show the differences between hydrogen bond networks in uracil and its methylated derivatives. The studied methylated derivatives, 1-methyluracil as well as 1-methyl-4-thiouracil, form dimeric structures in the crystal phase, while uracil does not form that kind of structures. The presence of sulfur atom instead oxygen atom reflects weakness of the hydrogen bonds that build dimers.
Spin crossover in liquid Fe2SiO4 at high pressures: an ab initio Molecular Dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz Ramo, D.; Stixrude, L. P.
2010-12-01
Liquid iron silicate (Fe2SiO4) is an important component of natural silicate liquids appearing in Earth’s interior. The effect of iron in the properties of these melts is a crucial issue, as it displays a high-spin to low-spin transition at high pressures which is accompanied by volume reduction and changes in the optical absorption spectrum. This phenomenon has a major influence on properties like the buoyancy or the thermal conductivity of the melt, and ultimately on the chemical and thermal evolution of our planet. Computer simulations using ab initio methods have proven to be a powerful approach to the study of liquid silicate systems[1,2], although not yet including Fe. In this paper, we report ab initio molecular dynamics studies of liquid iron silicate at high pressure (up to 300 GPa) and high temperatures (from 3000K to 6000K) that allow us to predict different properties of the system. We use mainly the GGA density functional for the calculation of the electronic structure. We also perform simulations with the GGA+U formalism to estimate the impact of strong electron correlation effects in the properties of the system at high pressures. The spin-polarized formalism is also used in order to keep track of the evolution of the iron magnetic moments in the system. By means of these simulations we predict the short and medium-range structure and thermodynamic properties of the liquid. We compute the theoretical Hugoniot for the system and find very good agreement between the GGA results and the equation of state values obtained from shock experiments [3], while the GGA+U results overestimate the Hugoniot curve at high pressures. Density crossover with the solid is obtained at about 110 GPa at 3000 K. Our calculations show that the spin crossover in this system takes place at a wide pressure interval, dependent on temperature. At 3000K, the spin transition starts at around 10 GPa and finishes at pressures around 250 Gpa. Increase of the temperature to 6000K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Cui-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Zhang, Chao-Yang; Lu, Zhi-Peng
2018-05-01
The thermite reaction at Al/CuO nano-interfaces is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations in canonical ensemble at 500 K, 800 K, 1200 K and 1500 K, respectively. The reaction process and reaction products are analyzed in terms of chemical bonds, average charge, time constants and total potential energy. The activity of the reactants enhances with increasing temperature, which induces a faster thermite reaction. The alloy reaction obviously expands outward at Cu-rich interface of Al/CuO system, and the reaction between Al and O atoms obviously expands outward at O-rich interface as temperature increases. Different reaction products are found at the outermost layer of different interfaces in the Al/CuO system. In generally, the average charge of the outer layer aluminum atoms (i.e., Al1, Al2, Al5 and Al6) increases with temperature. The potential energy of Al/CuO system decreases significantly, which indicates that drastic exothermic reaction occurs at the Al/CuO system. This research enhances fundamental understanding in temperature effect on the thermite reaction at atomic level, which can potentially open new possibilities for its industrial application.
Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sushko, Peter V; Duffy, Dorothy M
2016-09-21
The nature of chemical bonding of molybdenum in high level nuclear waste glasses has been elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two compositions, (SiO 2 ) 57.5 -(B 2 O 3 ) 10 -(Na 2 O) 15 -(CaO) 15 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 and (SiO 2 ) 57.3 -(B 2 O 3 ) 20 -(Na 2 O) 6.8 -(Li 2 O) 13.4 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 , were considered in order to investigate the effect of ionic and covalent components on the glass structure and the formation of the crystallisation precursors (Na 2 MoO 4 and CaMoO 4 ). The coordination environments of Mo cations and the corresponding bond lengths calculated from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analysis of the first coordination shell reveals two different types of molybdenum host matrix bonds in the lithium sodium borosilicate glass. Based on the structural data and the bond valence model, we demonstrate that the Mo cation can be found in a redox state and the molybdate tetrahedron can be connected with the borosilicate network in a way that inhibits the formation of crystalline molybdates. These results significantly extend our understanding of bonding in Mo-containing nuclear waste glasses and demonstrate that tailoring the glass composition to specific heavy metal constituents can facilitate incorporation of heavy metals at high concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bučko, Tomáš; Šimko, František
2016-02-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in isobaric-isothermal ensemble have been performed to study the low- and the high-temperature crystalline and liquid phases of cryolite. The temperature induced transitions from the low-temperature solid (α) to the high-temperature solid phase (β) and from the phase β to the liquid phase have been simulated using a series of MD runs performed at gradually increasing temperature. The structure of crystalline and liquid phases is analysed in detail and our computational approach is shown to reliably reproduce the available experimental data for a wide range of temperatures. Relatively frequent reorientations of the AlF6 octahedra observed in our simulation of the phase β explain the thermal disorder in positions of the F- ions observed in X-ray diffraction experiments. The isolated AlF63-, AlF52-, AlF4-, as well as the bridged Al 2 Fm 6 - m ionic entities have been identified as the main constituents of cryolite melt. In accord with the previous high-temperature NMR and Raman spectroscopic experiments, the compound AlF5 2 - has been shown to be the most abundant Al-containing species formed in the melt. The characteristic vibrational frequencies for the AlFn 3 - n species in realistic environment have been determined and the computed values have been found to be in a good agreement with experiment.
Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo
Liu, Bin; Yuan, Fenglin; Jin, Ke; ...
2015-10-06
Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atomsmore » and a <1 0 0> split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the <1 0 0> split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation.« less
Single-layer 1T‧-MoS2 under electron irradiation from ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzochero, Michele; Yazyev, Oleg V.
2018-04-01
Irradiation with high-energy particles has recently emerged as an effective tool for tailoring the properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. In order to carry out an atomically-precise manipulation of the lattice, a detailed understanding of the beam-induced events occurring at the atomic scale is necessary. Here, we investigate the response of 1T' -MoS2 to the electron irradiation by ab initio molecular dynamics means. Our simulations suggest that an electron beam with energy smaller than 75 keV does not result in any knock-on damage. The displacement threshold energies are different for the two nonequivalent sulfur atoms in 1T' -MoS2 and strongly depend on whether the top or bottom chalcogen layer is considered. As a result, a careful tuning of the beam energy can promote the formation of ordered defects in the sample. We further discuss the effect of the electron irradiation in the neighborhood of a defective site, the mobility of the sulfur vacancies created and their tendency to aggregate. Overall, our work provides useful guidelines for the imaging and the defect engineering of 1T' -MoS2 using electron microscopy.
Liu, Lihong; Liu, Jian; Martinez, Todd J.
2015-12-17
Here, we investigate the photoisomerization of a model retinal protonated Schiff base (trans-PSB3) using ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) based on multi-state second order perturbation theory (MSPT2). Discrepancies between the photodynamical mechanism computed with three-root state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-3-CASSCF, which does not include dynamic electron correlation effects) and MSPT2 show that dynamic correlation is critical in this photoisomerization reaction. Furthermore, we show that the photodynamics of trans-PSB3 is not well described by predictions based on minimum energy conical intersections (MECIs) or minimum energy conical intersection (CI) seam paths. Instead, most of the CIs involved in the photoisomerizationmore » are far from MECIs and minimum energy CI seam paths. Thus, both dynamical nuclear effects and dynamic electron correlation are critical to understanding the photochemical mechanism.« less
Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design
Martínez, Todd J.
2017-03-21
Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This then opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. Here, we arguemore » that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.« less
Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design
Martínez, Todd J.
Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This then opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. Here, we arguemore » that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.« less
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less
Xie, Binbin; Liu, Lihong; Cui, Ganglong
2015-11-21
In this work, the recently introduced quantum trajectory mean-field (QTMF) approach is implemented and employed to explore photodissociation dynamics of diazirinone (N{sub 2}CO), which are based on the high-level ab initio calculation. For comparison, the photodissociation process has been simulated as well with the fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) and the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) methods. Overall, the dynamical behavior predicted by the three methods is consistent. The N{sub 2}CO photodissociation at λ > 335 nm is an ultrafast process and the two C—N bonds are broken in a stepwise way, giving birth to CO and N{sub 2} as themore » final products in the ground state. Meanwhile, some noticeable differences were found in the QTMF, FSSH, and AIMS simulated time constants for fission of the C—N bonds, excited-state lifetime, and nonadiabatic transition ratios in different intersection regions. These have been discussed in detail. The present study provides a clear evidence that direct ab initio QTMF approach is one of the reliable tools for simulating nonadiabatic dynamics processes.« less
Stein, Tamar; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Troy, Tyler P.; Fang, Yigang; Kostko, Oleg
2017-01-01
The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion–molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to hexamers). A dramatic dependence of product distribution on the ionization conditions is demonstrated experimentally and understood from simulations. The products change from reactive fragmentation products in a higher temperature, higher density gas regime toward a very cold collision-free cluster regime that is dominated by products whose empirical formula is (C2H2)n+, just like ionized acetylene clusters. The fragmentation products result from reactive ion–molecule collisions in a comparatively higher pressure and temperature regime followed by unimolecular decomposition. The isolated ionized clusters display rich dynamics that contain bonded C4H4+ and C6H6+ structures solvated with one or more neutral acetylene molecules. Such species contain large amounts (>2 eV) of excess internal energy. The role of the solvent acetylene molecules is to affect the barrier crossing dynamics in the potential energy surface (PES) between (C2H2)n+ isomers and provide evaporative cooling to dissipate the excess internal energy and stabilize products including the aromatic ring of the benzene cation. Formation of the benzene cation is demonstrated in AIMD simulations of acetylene clusters with n > 3, as well as other metastable C6H6+ isomers. These results suggest a path for aromatic ring formation in cold acetylene-rich environments such as parts of the ISM. PMID:28484019
Stein, Tamar; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Troy, Tyler P.; ...
2017-05-08
The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion-molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to hexamers). A dramatic dependence of product distribution on the ionization conditions is demonstrated experimentally and understood from simulations. The products change from reactive fragmentation products in a higher temperature, higher density gas regime toward a very cold collision-free cluster regime that is dominated by products whose empirical formula is (Cmore » 2H 2) n +, just like ionized acetylene clusters. The fragmentation products result from reactive ion- molecule collisions in a comparatively higher pressure and temperature regime followed by unimolecular decomposition. The isolated ionized clusters display rich dynamics that contain bonded C 4H 4 + and C 6H 6 + structures solvated with one or more neutral acetylene molecules. Such species contain large amounts ( > 2 eV) of excess internal energy. The role of the solvent acetylene molecules is to affect the barrier crossing dynamics in the potential energy surface (PES) between (C 2H 2) n + isomers and provide evaporative cooling to dissipate the excess internal energy and stabilize products including the aromatic ring of the benzene cation. Formation of the benzene cation is demonstrated in AIMD simulations of acetylene clusters with n > 3, as well as other metastable C 6H 6 + isomers. Lastly, these results suggest a path for aromatic ring formation in cold acetylene-rich environments such as parts of the ISM.« less
Stein, Tamar; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Troy, Tyler P.
The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion-molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to hexamers). A dramatic dependence of product distribution on the ionization conditions is demonstrated experimentally and understood from simulations. The products change from reactive fragmentation products in a higher temperature, higher density gas regime toward a very cold collision-free cluster regime that is dominated by products whose empirical formula is (Cmore » 2H 2) n +, just like ionized acetylene clusters. The fragmentation products result from reactive ion- molecule collisions in a comparatively higher pressure and temperature regime followed by unimolecular decomposition. The isolated ionized clusters display rich dynamics that contain bonded C 4H 4 + and C 6H 6 + structures solvated with one or more neutral acetylene molecules. Such species contain large amounts ( > 2 eV) of excess internal energy. The role of the solvent acetylene molecules is to affect the barrier crossing dynamics in the potential energy surface (PES) between (C 2H 2) n + isomers and provide evaporative cooling to dissipate the excess internal energy and stabilize products including the aromatic ring of the benzene cation. Formation of the benzene cation is demonstrated in AIMD simulations of acetylene clusters with n > 3, as well as other metastable C 6H 6 + isomers. Lastly, these results suggest a path for aromatic ring formation in cold acetylene-rich environments such as parts of the ISM.« less
Stein, Tamar; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Troy, Tyler P; Fang, Yigang; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Head-Gordon, Martin
2017-05-23
The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion-molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to hexamers). A dramatic dependence of product distribution on the ionization conditions is demonstrated experimentally and understood from simulations. The products change from reactive fragmentation products in a higher temperature, higher density gas regime toward a very cold collision-free cluster regime that is dominated by products whose empirical formula is (C 2 H 2 ) n + , just like ionized acetylene clusters. The fragmentation products result from reactive ion-molecule collisions in a comparatively higher pressure and temperature regime followed by unimolecular decomposition. The isolated ionized clusters display rich dynamics that contain bonded C 4 H 4 + and C 6 H 6 + structures solvated with one or more neutral acetylene molecules. Such species contain large amounts (>2 eV) of excess internal energy. The role of the solvent acetylene molecules is to affect the barrier crossing dynamics in the potential energy surface (PES) between (C 2 H 2 ) n + isomers and provide evaporative cooling to dissipate the excess internal energy and stabilize products including the aromatic ring of the benzene cation. Formation of the benzene cation is demonstrated in AIMD simulations of acetylene clusters with n > 3, as well as other metastable C 6 H 6 + isomers. These results suggest a path for aromatic ring formation in cold acetylene-rich environments such as parts of the ISM.
Ab initio modeling of nonequilibrium electron-ion dynamics of iron in the warm dense matter regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogitsu, T.; Fernandez-Pañella, A.; Hamel, S.; Correa, A. A.; Prendergast, D.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Ping, Y.
2018-06-01
The spatiotemporal electron and ion relaxation dynamics of iron induced by femtosecond laser pulses was studied using a one-dimensional two-temperature model (1D-TTM) where electron and ion temperature-dependent thermophysical parameters such as specific heat (C ), electron-phonon coupling (G ), and thermal conductivity (K ) were calculated with ab initio density-functional-theory (DFT) simulations. Based on the simulated time evolutions of electron and ion temperature distributions [Te(x ,t ) and Ti(x ,t ) ], the time evolution of x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was calculated and compared with experimental results reported by Fernandez-Pañella et al., where the slope of XANES spectrum at the onset of absorption (s ) was used due to its excellent sensitivity to the electron temperature. Our results indicate that the ion temperature dependence on G and C , which is largely neglected in the past studies, is very important for studying the nonequilibrium electron-ion relaxation dynamics of iron in warm dense matter (WDM) conditions. It is also shown that the 1 /s behavior becomes very sensitive to the thermal gradient profile, in other words, to the values of K in a TTM simulation, for target thickness of about two to four times the mean free path of conduction electrons. Our approach based on 1D-TTM and XANES simulations can be used to determine the optimal combination of target geometry and laser fluence for a given target material, which will enable us to tightly constrain the thermophysical parameters under electron-ion nonequilibrium WDM conditions.
A walk through the approximations of ab initio multiple spawning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignolet, Benoit; Curchod, Basile F. E.
2018-04-01
Full multiple spawning offers an in principle exact framework for excited-state dynamics, where nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states are represented by a set of coupled trajectory basis functions that follow classical trajectories. The couplings between trajectory basis functions can be approximated to treat molecular systems, leading to the ab initio multiple spawning method which has been successfully employed to study the photochemistry and photophysics of several molecules. However, a detailed investigation of its approximations and their consequences is currently missing in the literature. In this work, we simulate the explicit photoexcitation and subsequent excited-state dynamics of a simple system, LiH, and we analyze (i) the effect of the ab initio multiple spawning approximations on different observables and (ii) the convergence of the ab initio multiple spawning results towards numerically exact quantum dynamics upon a progressive relaxation of these approximations. We show that, despite the crude character of the approximations underlying ab initio multiple spawning for this low-dimensional system, the qualitative excited-state dynamics is adequately captured, and affordable corrections can further be applied to ameliorate the coupling between trajectory basis functions.
A walk through the approximations of ab initio multiple spawning.
Mignolet, Benoit; Curchod, Basile F E
2018-04-07
Full multiple spawning offers an in principle exact framework for excited-state dynamics, where nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states are represented by a set of coupled trajectory basis functions that follow classical trajectories. The couplings between trajectory basis functions can be approximated to treat molecular systems, leading to the ab initio multiple spawning method which has been successfully employed to study the photochemistry and photophysics of several molecules. However, a detailed investigation of its approximations and their consequences is currently missing in the literature. In this work, we simulate the explicit photoexcitation and subsequent excited-state dynamics of a simple system, LiH, and we analyze (i) the effect of the ab initio multiple spawning approximations on different observables and (ii) the convergence of the ab initio multiple spawning results towards numerically exact quantum dynamics upon a progressive relaxation of these approximations. We show that, despite the crude character of the approximations underlying ab initio multiple spawning for this low-dimensional system, the qualitative excited-state dynamics is adequately captured, and affordable corrections can further be applied to ameliorate the coupling between trajectory basis functions.
Kritayakornupong, Chinapong
2009-12-01
A hybrid ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation at the Hartree-Fock level has been performed to investigate structural and dynamical parameters of the V(3+) ion in dilute aqueous solution. A distorted octahedral structure with the average V(3+)-O distance of 1.99 A is evaluated from the QM/MM simulation, which is in good agreement with the X-ray data. Several structural parameters such as angular distribution functions, theta- and tilt-angle distributions have been determined to obtain the full description of the hydration structure of the hydrated V(3+). The Jahn-Teller distortions of the V(3+) ion are pronounced in the QM/MM simulation. The mean residence time of 14.5 ps is estimated for the ligand exchange processes in the second hydration shell. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Johari, Priya; Qi, Yue; Shenoy, Vivek B
2011-12-14
In order to realize Si as a negative electrode material in commercial Li-ion batteries, it is important to understand the mixing mechanism of Li and Si, and stress evolution during lithiation in Si negative electrode of Li-ion batteries. Available experiments mainly provide the diffusivity of Li in Si as an averaged property, neglecting information regarding diffusivity of Si. However, if Si can diffuse as fast as Li, the stress generated during Li diffusion can be reduced. We, therefore, studied the diffusivity of Li as well as Si atoms in the Si-anode of Li-ion battery using an ab initio molecular dynamics-based methodology. The electrochemical insertion of Li into crystalline Si prompts a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition. We considered this situation and thus examined the diffusion kinetics of Li and Si atoms in both crystalline and amorphous Si. We find that Li diffuses faster in amorphous Si as compared to crystalline Si, while Si remains relatively immobile in both cases and generates stresses during lithiation. To further understand the mixing mechanism and to relate the structure with electrochemical mixing, we analyzed the evolution of the structure during lithiation and studied the mechanism of breaking of Si-Si network by Li. We find that Li atoms break the Si rings and chains and create ephemeral structures such as stars and boomerangs, which eventually transform to Si-Si dumbbells and isolated Si atoms in the LiSi phase. Our results are found to be in agreement with the available experimental data and provide insights into the mixing mechanism of Li and Si in Si negative electrode of Li-ion batteries.
Isayev, Olexandr; Gorb, Leonid; Qasim, Mo; Leszczynski, Jerzy
2008-09-04
CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane or HNIW) is a high-energy nitramine explosive. To improve atomistic understanding of the thermal decomposition of CL-20 gas and solid phases, we performed a series of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that during unimolecular decomposition, unlike other nitramines (e.g., RDX, HMX), CL-20 has only one distinct initial reaction channelhomolysis of the N-NO2 bond. We did not observe any HONO elimination reaction during unimolecular decomposition, whereas the ring-breaking reaction was followed by NO 2 fission. Therefore, in spite of limited sampling, that provides a mostly qualitative picture, we proposed here a scheme of unimolecular decomposition of CL-20. The averaged product population over all trajectories was estimated at four HCN, two to four NO2, two to four NO, one CO, and one OH molecule per one CL-20 molecule. Our simulations provide a detailed description of the chemical processes in the initial stages of thermal decomposition of condensed CL-20, allowing elucidation of key features of such processes as composition of primary reaction products, reaction timing, and Arrhenius behavior of the system. The primary reactions leading to NO2, NO, N 2O, and N2 occur at very early stages. We also estimated potential activation barriers for the formation of NO2, which essentially determines overall decomposition kinetics and effective rate constants for NO2 and N2. The calculated solid-phase decomposition pathways correlate with available condensed-phase experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vocadlo, L.; Martorell, B.; Brodholt, J. P.; Wood, I. G.
2014-12-01
Seismically determined S-wave velocities in the Earth's inner core are observed to be much lower (10-30%) than those generally inferred from mineral physics. This is a remarkably large discrepancy - mineralogical models for the mantle and the outer core match the observed velocities to around 1%. In no other large volume of the Earth does such a difference exist. There have been a number of arguments put forward over the years to account for the difference, but none have been universally accepted and our inability to explain the seismic velocities of the inner core remains an uncomfortable truth. Here, we present results from ab initio molecular dynamics calculations performed at 360 GPa and core temperatures on hcp and fcc iron, and on fcc-Fe alloyed with nickel and hcp-Fe alloyed with silicon. The calculated shear modulus, and therefore seismic velocities, of pure hcp-Fe reduces dramatically just prior to melting, providing an elegant explanation for the observed velocities. Calculations on fcc-Fe show no such strong reduction in VS, with a transformation to an hcp-type structure prior to melting; addition of 6.5 atm% and 13 atm% Ni to fcc-Fe raises the temperature of this transition. When silicon is added to hcp-Fe, the pre-melting behaviour is found to be very similar to that of pure hcp-Fe with a strong nonlinear shear weakening just before melting and a corresponding reduction in VS. Because temperatures range from T/Tm = 1 at the inner-outer core boundary to T/Tm ≈ 0.99 at the centre, this strong nonlinear effect on VS should occur in the inner core, providing a compelling explanation for the low VS observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gali, Adam; Thiering, Gergő
Dopants in solids are promising candidates for implementations of quantum bits for quantum computing. In particular, the high-spin negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect (NV) in diamond has become a leading contender in solid-state quantum information processing. The initialization and readout of the spin is based on the spin-selective decay of the photo-excited electron to the ground state which is mediated by spin-orbit coupling between excited states states and phonons. Generally, the spin-orbit coupling plays a crucial role in the optical spinpolarization and readout of NV quantum bit (qubit) and alike. Strong electron-phonon coupling in dynamic Jahn-Teller (DJT) systems can substantially influence the effective strength of spin-orbit coupling. Here we show by ab initio supercell density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is strongly damped by DJT effect in the triplet excited state that has a consequence on the rate of non-radiative decay. This theory is applied to the ground state of silicon-vacancy (SiV) and germanium-vacancy (GeV) centers in their negatively charged state that can also act like qubits. We show that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in SiV and GeV centers is in the 100 GHz region, in contrast to the NV center of 10 GHz region. Our results provide deep insight in the nature of SiV and GeV qubits in diamond. EU FP7 DIADEMS project (Contract No. 611143).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, Luan Carvalho; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Cino, Elio A.; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado
2018-03-01
Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC50 = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization. Here, the cruzain binding mode of compound 1 was investigated using docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ab initio derived parameters, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA. Two ligand protonation states and four binding poses were evaluated. A careful ligand parameterization method was employed to derive more physically meaningful parameters than those obtained by automated tools. The poses of unprotonated 1 were unstable in MD, showing large conformational changes and diffusing away from the binding site, whereas the protonated form showed higher stability and interaction with negatively charged residues Asp161 and Cys25. MM/PBSA also suggested that these two residues contribute favorably to binding of compound 1. By combining results from MD, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA, a binding mode of 1 is proposed. The results also provide insights for further optimization of 1, an interesting lead compound for the development of new cruzain inhibitors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, Luan Carvalho; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Cino, Elio A.; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado
2018-05-01
Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC50 = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization. Here, the cruzain binding mode of compound 1 was investigated using docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ab initio derived parameters, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA. Two ligand protonation states and four binding poses were evaluated. A careful ligand parameterization method was employed to derive more physically meaningful parameters than those obtained by automated tools. The poses of unprotonated 1 were unstable in MD, showing large conformational changes and diffusing away from the binding site, whereas the protonated form showed higher stability and interaction with negatively charged residues Asp161 and Cys25. MM/PBSA also suggested that these two residues contribute favorably to binding of compound 1. By combining results from MD, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA, a binding mode of 1 is proposed. The results also provide insights for further optimization of 1, an interesting lead compound for the development of new cruzain inhibitors.
Martins, Luan Carvalho; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Cino, Elio A; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado
2018-05-01
Chagas disease remains a major health problem in South America, and throughout the world. The two drugs clinically available for its treatment have limited efficacy and cause serious adverse effects. Cruzain is an established therapeutic target of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Our group recently identified a competitive cruzain inhibitor (compound 1) with an IC 50 = 15 µM that is also more synthetically accessible than the previously reported lead, compound 2. Prior studies, however, did not propose a binding mode for compound 1, hindering understanding of the structure-activity relationship and optimization. Here, the cruzain binding mode of compound 1 was investigated using docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with ab initio derived parameters, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA. Two ligand protonation states and four binding poses were evaluated. A careful ligand parameterization method was employed to derive more physically meaningful parameters than those obtained by automated tools. The poses of unprotonated 1 were unstable in MD, showing large conformational changes and diffusing away from the binding site, whereas the protonated form showed higher stability and interaction with negatively charged residues Asp161 and Cys25. MM/PBSA also suggested that these two residues contribute favorably to binding of compound 1. By combining results from MD, ab initio calculations, and MM/PBSA, a binding mode of 1 is proposed. The results also provide insights for further optimization of 1, an interesting lead compound for the development of new cruzain inhibitors.
Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Usui, Kota; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki
2015-09-28
Interfacial water structures have been studied intensively by probing the O-H stretch mode of water molecules using sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. This surface-specific technique is finding increasingly widespread use, and accordingly, computational approaches to calculate SFG spectra using molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of interfacial water molecules have been developed and employed to correlate specific spectral signatures with distinct interfacial water structures. Such simulations typically require relatively long (several nanoseconds) MD trajectories to allow reliable calculation of the SFG response functions through the dipole moment-polarizability time correlation function. These long trajectories limit the use of computationally expensive MD techniques such as ab initio MD and centroid MD simulations. Here, we present an efficient algorithm determining the SFG response from the surface-specific velocity-velocity correlation function (ssVVCF). This ssVVCF formalism allows us to calculate SFG spectra using a MD trajectory of only ∼100 ps, resulting in the substantial reduction of the computational costs, by almost an order of magnitude. We demonstrate that the O-H stretch SFG spectra at the water-air interface calculated by using the ssVVCF formalism well reproduce those calculated by using the dipole moment-polarizability time correlation function. Furthermore, we applied this ssVVCF technique for computing the SFG spectra from the ab initio MD trajectories with various density functionals. We report that the SFG responses computed from both ab initio MD simulations and MD simulations with an ab initio based force field model do not show a positive feature in its imaginary component at 3100 cm(-1).
Liquid Aluminum: Atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics
Jakse, Noel; Pasturel, Alain
2013-01-01
We present a study of dynamic properties of liquid aluminum using density-functional theory within the local-density (LDA) and generalized gradient (GGA) approximations. We determine the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient as well the viscosity using direct methods. Comparisons with experimental data favor the LDA approximation to compute dynamic properties of liquid aluminum. We show that the GGA approximation induce more important backscattering effects due to an enhancement of the icosahedral short range order (ISRO) that impact directly dynamic properties like the self-diffusion coefficient. All these results are then used to test the Stokes-Einstein relation and the universal scaling law relating the diffusion coefficient and the excess entropy of a liquid. PMID:24190311
Ab initio studies on the photodissociation dynamics of the 1,1-difluoroethyl radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritsche, Lukas; Bach, Andreas; Chen, Peter
2018-02-01
Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectory calculations at the HCTH147/6-31G** level of theory simulate the dissociation dynamics of photolytically excited 1,1-difluoroethyl radicals. EOMCCSD/AUG-cc-pVDZ calculations show that an excitation energy of 94.82 kcal/mol is necessary to initiate photodissociation reactions. In contrast to photodissociation dynamics of ethyl radicals where a large discrepancy between actual dissociation rates and rates that are predicted by statistical rate theories, we find reaction rates of 5.1 × 1011 s-1 for the dissociation of an H atom, which is in perfect accord with what is predicted by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) calculations and there is no indication of any nonstatistical effects. However, our trajectory calculations show a much larger fraction of C-C bond breakage reaction of 56% occurring than that expected by RRKM (only 16%).
Ab initio studies on the photodissociation dynamics of the 1,1-difluoroethyl radical.
Fritsche, Lukas; Bach, Andreas; Chen, Peter
2018-02-28
Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectory calculations at the HCTH147/6-31G** level of theory simulate the dissociation dynamics of photolytically excited 1,1-difluoroethyl radicals. EOMCCSD/AUG-cc-pVDZ calculations show that an excitation energy of 94.82 kcal/mol is necessary to initiate photodissociation reactions. In contrast to photodissociation dynamics of ethyl radicals where a large discrepancy between actual dissociation rates and rates that are predicted by statistical rate theories, we find reaction rates of 5.1 × 10 11 s -1 for the dissociation of an H atom, which is in perfect accord with what is predicted by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) calculations and there is no indication of any nonstatistical effects. However, our trajectory calculations show a much larger fraction of C-C bond breakage reaction of 56% occurring than that expected by RRKM (only 16%).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imandi, Venkataramana; Nair, Nisanth N.
2016-09-01
The absence of isotope scrambling observed by Henry and coworkers in the Wacker oxidation of deuterated allylic alcohol was used by them as support for the inner-sphere mechanism hydroxypalladation mechanism. One of the assumptions used to interpret their experimental data was that allyl alcohol oxidation takes place through non-cyclic intermediate routes as in the case of ethene. Here we verify this assumption through ab initio metadynamics simulations of the Wacker oxidation of allyl alcohol in explicit solvent. Importance of our results in interpreting the isotope scrambling experiments is discussed.
An ab initio study of ion induced charge transfer dynamics in collision of carbon ions with thymine.
Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine; Tergiman, Yvette Suzanne
2011-05-28
Charge transfer in collisions of carbon ions on a thymine target has been studied theoretically in a wide collision range by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The process appears markedly anisotropic in the whole energy domain, significantly favoured in the perpendicular orientation. A specific decrease of the charge transfer cross sections at low collision energies may be pointed out and could induce an enhancement of the complementary fragmentation processes for collision energies down to about 10 eV, as observed for the low-electron fragmentation process. Such feature may be of important interest in ion-induced biomolecular radiation damage. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011
Ab initio simulations of the dynamic ion structure factor of warm dense lithium
Witte, B. B. L.; Shihab, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; ...
2017-04-06
Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations based on finite-temperature density functional theory that determine self-consistently the dynamic ion structure factor and the electronic form factor in lithium. Our comprehensive data set allows for the calculation of the dispersion relation for collective excitations, the calculation of the sound velocity, and the determination of the ion feature from the total electronic form factor and the ion structure factor. The results are compared with available experimental x-ray and neutron scattering data. Good agreement is found for both the liquid metal and warm dense matter domain. Finally, we study the impact of possible targetmore » inhomogeneities on x-ray scattering spectra.« less
Ab initio simulations of the dynamic ion structure factor of warm dense lithium
Witte, B. B. L.; Shihab, M.; Glenzer, S. H.
Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations based on finite-temperature density functional theory that determine self-consistently the dynamic ion structure factor and the electronic form factor in lithium. Our comprehensive data set allows for the calculation of the dispersion relation for collective excitations, the calculation of the sound velocity, and the determination of the ion feature from the total electronic form factor and the ion structure factor. The results are compared with available experimental x-ray and neutron scattering data. Good agreement is found for both the liquid metal and warm dense matter domain. Finally, we study the impact of possible targetmore » inhomogeneities on x-ray scattering spectra.« less
Surface Structure of Liquid Li and Na: An ab initio Molecular Dynamics Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, D. J.; González, L. E.; Stott, M. J.
2004-02-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of the liquid-vapor interfaces of liquid metals have been performed using first principles methods. Results are presented for liquid lithium and sodium near their respective triple points, for samples of 2000 particles in a slab geometry. The atomic density profiles show a pronounced stratification extending several atomic diameters into the bulk, which is similar to that already experimentally observed in liquid K, Ga, In, and Hg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Anupam; Ghosh, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Atanu
2017-07-01
Conical intersections are now firmly established to be the key features in the excited electronic state processes of polyatomic energetic molecules. In the present work, we have explored conical intersection-mediated nonadiabatic chemical dynamics of a simple analogue nitramine molecule, dimethylnitramine (DMNA, containing one N-NO2 energetic group), and its complex with an iron atom (DMNA-Fe). For this task, we have used the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) dynamics simulation at the state averaged-complete active space self-consistent field(8,5)/6-31G(d) level of theory. We have found that DMNA relaxes back to the ground (S0) state following electronic excitation to the S1 excited state [which is an (n,π*) excited state] with a time constant of approximately 40 fs. This AIMS result is in very good agreement with the previous surface hopping-result and femtosecond laser spectroscopy result. DMNA does not dissociate during this fast internal conversion from the S1 to the S0 state. DMNA-Fe also undergoes extremely fast relaxation from the upper S1 state to the S0 state; however, this relaxation pathway is dissociative in nature. DMNA-Fe undergoes initial Fe-O, N-O, and N-N bond dissociations during relaxation from the upper S1 state to the ground S0 state through the respective conical intersection. The AIMS simulation reveals the branching ratio of these three channels as N-N:Fe-O:N-O = 6:3:1 (based on 100 independent simulations). Furthermore, the AIMS simulation reveals that the Fe-O bond dissociation channel exhibits the fastest (time constant 24 fs) relaxation, while the N-N bond dissociation pathway features the slowest (time constant 128 fs) relaxation. An intermediate time constant (30 fs) is found for the N-O bond dissociation channel. This is the first nonadiabatic chemical dynamics study of metal-contained energetic molecules through conical intersections.
Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-07-08
Hybrid organic/inorganic polymer/quantum dot (QD) solar cells are an attractive alternative to the traditional cells. The original, simple models postulate that one-dimensional polymers have continuous energy levels, while zero-dimensional QDs exhibit atom-like electronic structure. A realistic, atomistic viewpoint provides an alternative description. Electronic states in polymers are molecule-like: finite in size and discrete in energy. QDs are composed of many atoms and have high, bulk-like densities of states. We employ ab initio time-domain simulation to model the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced dynamics in a QD/polymer hybrid and show that an atomistic description is essential for understanding the time-resolved experimental data. Both electron and hole transfers across the interface exhibit subpicosecond time scales. The interfacial processes are fast due to strong electronic donor-acceptor, as evidenced by the densities of the photoexcited states which are delocalized between the donor and the acceptor. The nonadiabatic charge-phonon coupling is also strong, especially in the polymer, resulting in rapid energy losses. The electron transfer from the polymer is notably faster than the hole transfer from the QD, due to a significantly higher density of acceptor states. The stronger molecule-like electronic and charge-phonon coupling in the polymer rationalizes why the electron-hole recombination inside the polymer is several orders of magnitude faster than in the QD. As a result, experiments exhibit multiple transfer times for the long-lived hole inside the QD, ranging from subpicoseconds to nanoseconds. In contrast, transfer of the short-lived electron inside the polymer does not occur beyond the first picosecond. The energy lost by the hole on its transit into the polymer is accommodated by polymer's high-frequency vibrations. The energy lost by the electron injected into the QD is accommodated primarily by much lower-frequency collective and
Thermal decomposition of the solid phase of nitromethane: ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.
Chang, Jing; Lian, Peng; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Qing-Ming; Gong, Zi-Zheng
2010-10-29
The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate thermal decomposition of the solid nitromethane. It is found that it undergoes chemical decomposition at about 2200 K under ambient pressure. The initiation of reactions involves both proton transfer and commonly known C-N bond cleavage. About 75 species and 100 elementary reactions were observed with the final products being H2O, CO2, N2, and CNCNC. It represents the first complete simulation of solid-phase explosive reactions reported to date, which is of far-reaching implication for design and development of new energetic materials.
Vibrations of bioionic liquids by ab initio molecular dynamics and vibrational spectroscopy.
Tanzi, Luana; Benassi, Paola; Nardone, Michele; Ramondo, Fabio
2014-12-26
Density functional theory and vibrational spectroscopy are used to investigate a class of bioionic liquids consisting of a choline cation and carboxylate anions. Through quantum mechanical studies of motionless ion pairs and molecular dynamics of small portions of the liquid, we have characterized important structural features of the ionic liquid. Hydrogen bonding produces stable ion pairs in the liquid and induces vibrational features of the carboxylate groups comparable with experimental results. Infrared and Raman spectra of liquids have been measured, and main bands have been assigned on the basis of theoretical spectra.
Thermal Decomposition of the Solid Phase of Nitromethane: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Jing; Lian, Peng; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Qing-Ming; Gong, Zi-Zheng
2010-10-01
The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate thermal decomposition of the solid nitromethane. It is found that it undergoes chemical decomposition at about 2200 K under ambient pressure. The initiation of reactions involves both proton transfer and commonly known C-N bond cleavage. About 75 species and 100 elementary reactions were observed with the final products being H2O, CO2, N2, and CNCNC. It represents the first complete simulation of solid-phase explosive reactions reported to date, which is of far-reaching implication for design and development of new energetic materials.
Phase behavior of metastable liquid silicon at negative pressure: Ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, G.; Yu, Y. J.; Yan, J. L.; Ding, M. C.; Zhao, X. G.; Wang, H. Y.
2016-04-01
Extensive first-principle molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the phase behavior of metastable liquid Si at negative pressure. Our results show that the high-density liquid (HDL) and HDL-vapor spinodals indeed form a continuous reentrant curve and the liquid-liquid critical point seems to just coincide with its minimum. The line of density maxima also has a strong tendency to pass through this minimum. The phase behaviour of metastable liquid Si therefore tends to be a critical-point-free scenario rather than a second-critical-point one based on SW potential.
Lesnicki, Dominika; Sulpizi, Marialore
2018-06-13
What happens when extra vibrational energy is added to water? Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, also including the full electronic structure, and novel descriptors, based on projected vibrational density of states, we are able to follow the flow of excess vibrational energy from the excited stretching and bending modes. We find that the energy relaxation, mostly mediated by a stretching-stretching coupling in the first solvation shell, is highly heterogeneous and strongly depends on the local environment, where a strong hydrogen bond network can transport energy with a time scale of 200 fs, whereas a weaker network can slow down the transport by a factor 2-3.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of high-pressure melting of beryllium oxide
Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Jun
2014-01-01
We investigate, through first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, the high-pressure melting of BeO in the range 0 ≤ p ≤ 100 GPa. The wurtzite (WZ), zinc blend (ZB), and rocksalt (RS) phases of BeO are considered. It is shown that below 40 GPa, the melting temperature for the WZ phase is higher than that for the ZB and RS phases. When the pressure is beyond 66 GPa, the melting temperature for the RS phase is the highest one, in consistent with the previously reported phase diagram calculated within the quasiharmonic approximation. We find that in the medium pressure range between 40 to 66 GPa, the ZB melting data are very close to those of RS, which results from the fact that the ZB structure first transforms to RS phase before melting. The ZB-RS-liquid phase transitions have been observed directly during the molecular dynamics runs and confirmed using the pair correlation functions analysis. In addition, we propose the melting curve of BeO in the form Tm = 2696.05 (1 + P/24.67)0.42, the zero-pressure value of 2696.05 K falling into the experimental data range of 2693 ~ 2853 K. PMID:24759594
Ding, Feng; Sharma, Shantanu; Chalasani, Poornima; Demidov, Vadim V.; Broude, Natalia E.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.
2008-01-01
RNA molecules with novel functions have revived interest in the accurate prediction of RNA three-dimensional (3D) structure and folding dynamics. However, existing methods are inefficient in automated 3D structure prediction. Here, we report a robust computational approach for rapid folding of RNA molecules. We develop a simplified RNA model for discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations, incorporating base-pairing and base-stacking interactions. We demonstrate correct folding of 150 structurally diverse RNA sequences. The majority of DMD-predicted 3D structures have <4 Å deviations from experimental structures. The secondary structures corresponding to the predicted 3D structures consist of 94% native base-pair interactions. Folding thermodynamics and kinetics of tRNAPhe, pseudoknots, and mRNA fragments in DMD simulations are in agreement with previous experimental findings. Folding of RNA molecules features transient, non-native conformations, suggesting non-hierarchical RNA folding. Our method allows rapid conformational sampling of RNA folding, with computational time increasing linearly with RNA length. We envision this approach as a promising tool for RNA structural and functional analyses. PMID:18456842
Structure and dynamics of phosphate ion in aqueous solution: an ab initio QMCF MD study.
Pribil, Andreas B; Hofer, Thomas S; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M
2008-11-15
A simulation of phosphate in aqueous solution was carried out employing the new QMCF MD approach which offers the possibility to investigate composite systems with the accuracy of a QMMM method but without the time consuming creation of solute-solvent potential functions. The data of the simulations give a clear picture of the hydration shells of the phosphate anion. The first shell consists of 13 water molecules and each oxygen of the phosphate forms in average three hydrogens bonds to different solvent molecules. Several structural parameters such as radial distribution functions and coordination number distributions allow to fully characterize the embedding of the highly charged phosphate ion in the solvent water. The dynamics of the hydration structure of phosphate are described by mean residence times of the solvent molecules in the first hydration shell and the water exchange rate. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Manu; Resta, Raffaele; Car, Roberto
2004-03-01
We have implemented a modified Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics scheme in which maximally localized Wannier functions, instead of delocalized Bloch orbitals, are used to represent ``on the fly'' the electronic wavefunction of an insulating system. Within our scheme, we account for the effects of a finite homogeneous field applied to the simulation cell; we then use the ideas of the modern theory of polarization to investigate the system's response. The dielectric response (linear and nonlinear) of a given material is thus directly accessible at a reasonable computational cost. We have performed a thorough study of the behavior of a computational sample of liquid water under the effect of an electric field. We used norm-conserving pseudopotentials, the PBE exchange-correlation potential, and supercell containing water 64 molecules. Besides providing the static response of the liquid at a given temperature, our simulations yield microscopic insight into features wich are not easily measured in experiments, particularly regarding relaxation phenomena.
Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost, E-mail: Joost.VandeVondele@mat.ethz.ch
2015-06-28
We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling’s iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filteringmore » small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.« less
Ab initio molecular dynamics of H2O adsorbed on solid MgO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langel, Walter; Parrinello, Michele
1995-08-01
The Car-Parrinello method has been applied to study the adsorption of water on solid magnesium oxide with surface defects. A step consisting of an (100) and an (010) surface on an (011) base plane allows us to model the experimentally observed microfaceting. In and on this step dissociation of water into a hydroxyl group and a H-atom took place following a complicated pathway only accessible by the simulation of thermal motion. Under comparable conditions physisorption only was observed on a regular (001) plane. This solves an experimental controversy and it is in agreement with the observation, that disordered surfaces are more active in initiating the dissociation of the water molecules. Our work allows us to identify an important active center. We can also account for the experimentally observed broadening and shifting to the red of the stretching mode of hydrogen bonded hydroxyl groups, and we provide a detailed explanation of the origin of this effect. This allows us to verify earlier theories of hydrogen bonding such as that of the adiabatic separation of the proton dynamics.
Ab initio folding of proteins using all-atom discrete molecular dynamics
Ding, Feng; Tsao, Douglas; Nie, Huifen; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.
2008-01-01
Summary Discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) is a rapid sampling method used in protein folding and aggregation studies. Until now, DMD was used to perform simulations of simplified protein models in conjunction with structure-based force fields. Here, we develop an all-atom protein model and a transferable force field featuring packing, solvation, and environment-dependent hydrogen bond interactions. Using the replica exchange method, we perform folding simulations of six small proteins (20–60 residues) with distinct native structures. In all cases, native or near-native states are reached in simulations. For three small proteins, multiple folding transitions are observed and the computationally-characterized thermodynamics are in quantitative agreement with experiments. The predictive power of all-atom DMD highlights the importance of environment-dependent hydrogen bond interactions in modeling protein folding. The developed approach can be used for accurate and rapid sampling of conformational spaces of proteins and protein-protein complexes, and applied to protein engineering and design of protein-protein interactions. PMID:18611374
Ab Initio Calculations of Transport in Titanium and Aluminum Mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, Nicholas; Novak, Brian; Tam, Ka Ming; Moldovan, Dorel; Jarrell, Mark
In classical molecular dynamics simulations, the self-diffusion and shear viscosity of titanium about the melting point have fallen within the ranges provided by experimental data. However, the experimental data is difficult to collect and has been rather scattered, making it of limited value for the validation of these calculations. By using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations within the density functional theory framework, the classical molecular dynamics data can be validated. The dynamical data from the ab initio molecular dynamics can also be used to calculate new potentials for use in classical molecular dynamics, allowing for more accurate classical dynamics simulations for the liquid phase. For metallic materials such as titanium and aluminum alloys, these calculations are very valuable due to an increasing demand for the knowledge of their thermophysical properties that drive the development of new materials. For example, alongside knowledge of the surface tension, viscosity is an important input for modeling the additive manufacturing process at the continuum level. We are developing calculations of the viscosity along with the self-diffusion for aluminum, titanium, and titanium-aluminum alloys with ab initio molecular dynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation through cooperative agreement OIA-1541079 and the Louisiana Board of Regents.
None, None
2016-01-01
The nature of chemical bonding of molybdenum in high level nuclear waste glasses has been elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two compositions, (SiO2)57.5 – (B2O3)10 – (Na2O)15 – (CaO)15 – (MoO3)2.5 and (SiO2)57.3 – (B2O3)20 – (Na2O)6.8 – (Li2O)13.4 – (MoO3)2.5 , were considered in order to investigate the effect of ionic and covalent components on the glass structure and the formation of the crystallisation precursors (Na2MoO4 and CaMoO4). The coordination environments of Mo cations and the corresponding bond lengths calculated from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analysis of the first coordination shellmore » reveals two different types of molybdenum host matrix bonds in the lithium sodium borosilicate glass. Based on the structural data and the bond valence model, we demonstrate that the Mo cation can be found in a redox state and the molybdate tetrahedron can be connected with the borosilicate network in a way that inhibits the formation of crystalline molybdates. These results significantly extend our understanding of bonding in Mo-containing nuclear waste glasses and demonstrate that tailoring the glass composition to specific heavy metal constituents can facilitate incorporation of heavy metals at high concentrations. K.K. was supported through the Impact Studentship scheme at UCL co-funded by the IHI Corporation and UCL. P.V.S. thanks the Royal Society, which supported preliminary work on this project, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at PNNL, a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. Via our membership of the UK's HEC Materials Chemistry Consortium, which is funded by EPSRC (EP/L000202), this work used the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service (http://www.archer.ac.uk).« less
Kroes, Geert-Jan, E-mail: g.j.kroes@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María
2014-08-07
Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of themore » incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction (“EF”) model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated “post” (“p”) the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional
Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J
2014-08-07
Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the
Leung, Kevin; Budzien, Joanne L
2010-07-07
The decomposition of ethylene carbonate (EC) during the initial growth of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films at the solvent-graphitic anode interface is critical to lithium ion battery operations. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of explicit liquid EC/graphite interfaces are conducted to study these electrochemical reactions. We show that carbon edge terminations are crucial at this stage, and that achievable experimental conditions can lead to surprisingly fast EC breakdown mechanisms, yielding decomposition products seen in experiments but not previously predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Tian; Sun, Shi-Gang
2017-11-01
Experiments have found that the porphyrin-like FeN4 site in Fe-N-C materials is highly efficient for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 into CO. In this work, we investigated the reduction mechanisms on FeN4 embedded graphene layer catalyst with some explicit water molecules by combining the constrained ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integrations. The reaction free energy and electron transfer in each elementary step were identified. The initial CO2 activation was identified to go through the first electron transfer to form adsorbed CO2- anion and the CO desorption was the rate limiting step in the overall catalytic cycle.
Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.
2016-07-14
In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm{supmore » −1}), where the vibrational motions involve the NH{sub 3}+ group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm{sup −1} where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν{sub 3}) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D{sub 3h} symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.« less
Ab initio simulations of molten Ni alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodward, Christopher; Asta, Mark; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Lill, James; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano
2010-06-01
Convective instabilities responsible for misoriented grains in directionally solidified turbine airfoils are produced by variations in liquid-metal density with composition and temperature across the solidification zone. Here, fundamental properties of molten Ni-based alloys, required for modeling these instabilities, are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Equations of state are derived from constant number-volume-temperature ensembles at 1830 and 1750 K for elemental, binary (Ni-X, X=Al, W, Re, and Ta) and ternary (Ni-Al-X, X=W, Re, and Ta) Ni alloys. Calculated molar volumes agree to within 0.6%-1.8% of available measurements. Predictions are used to investigate the range of accuracy of a parameterization of molar volumes with composition and temperature based on measurements of binary alloys. Structural analysis reveals a pronounced tendency for icosahedral short-range order for Ni-W and Ni-Re alloys and the calculations provide estimates of diffusion rates and their dependence on compositions and temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Palacios, Juan Carlos; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesús; Ishii, Keisaku; Yamashita, Koichi
2007-04-01
The intermolecular potentials for the NO(XΠ2)-Kr and NO(AΣ+2)-Kr systems have been calculated using highly accurate ab initio calculations. The spin-restricted coupled cluster method for the ground 1A'2 state [NO(XΠ2)-Kr ] and the multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction method for the excited 2A'2 state [NO(AΣ+2)-Kr], respectively, were used. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) show two linear wells and one that is almost in the perpendicular position. An analytical representation of the PESs has been constructed for the triatomic systems and used to carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the NO-doped krypton matrix response after excitation of NO. MD results are shown comparatively for three sets of potentials: (1) anisotropic ab initio potentials [NO molecule direction fixed during the dynamics and considered as a point (its center of mass)], (2) isotropic ab initio potentials (isotropic part in a Legendre polynomial expansion of the PESs), and (3) fitted Kr-NO potentials to the spectroscopic data. An important finding of this work is that the anisotropic and isotropic ab initio potentials calculated for the Kr-NO triatomic system are not suitable for describing the dynamics of structural relaxation upon Rydberg excitation of a NO impurity in the crystal. However, the isotropic ab initio potential in the ground state almost overlaps the published experimental potential, being almost independent of the angle asymmetry. This fact is also manifested in the radial distribution function around NO. However, in the case of the excited state the isotropic ab initio potential differs from the fitted potentials, which indicates that the Kr-NO interaction in the matrix is quite different because of the presence of the surrounding Kr atoms acting on the NO molecule. MD simulations for isotropic potentials reasonably reproduce the experimental observables for the femtosecond response and the bubble size but do not match spectroscopic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.
2017-07-01
The response of water to externally applied electric fields is of central relevance in the modern world, where many extraneous electric fields are ubiquitous. Historically, the application of external fields in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics has been restricted, by and large, to relatively inexpensive, more or less sophisticated, empirical models. Here, we report long-time non-equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics in both static and oscillating (time-dependent) external electric fields, therefore opening up a new vista in rigorous studies of electric-field effects on dynamical systems with the full arsenal of electronic-structure methods. In so doing, we apply this to liquid water with state-of-the-art non-local treatment of dispersion, and we compute a range of field effects on structural and dynamical properties, such as diffusivities and hydrogen-bond kinetics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Yuan; Sherman, David M.; Liu, Weihua; Etschmann, Barbara; Testemale, Denis; Brugger, Joël
2015-02-01
The solubility of zinc minerals in hydrothermal fluids is enhanced by chloride complexation of Zn2+. Thermodynamic models of these complexation reactions are central to models of Zn transport and ore formation. However, existing thermodynamic models, derived from solubility measurements, are inconsistent with spectroscopic measurements of Zn speciation. Here, we used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional) to predict the speciation of Zn-Cl complexes from 25 to 600 °C. We also obtained in situ XAS measurements of Zn-Cl solutions at 30-600 °C. Qualitatively, the simulations reproduced the main features derived from in situ XANES and EXAFS measurements: octahedral to tetrahedral transition with increasing temperature and salinity, stability of ZnCl42- at high chloride concentration up to ⩾500 °C, and increasing stability of the trigonal planar [ZnCl3]- complex at high temperature. Having confirmed the dominant species, we directly determined the stability constants for the Zn-Cl complexes using thermodynamic integration along constrained Zn-Cl distances in a series of MD simulations. We corrected our stability constants to infinite dilution using the b-dot model for the activity coefficients of the solute species. In order to compare the ab initio results with experiments, we need to re-model the existing solubility data using the species we identified in our MD simulations. The stability constants derived from refitting published experimental data are in reasonable agreement with those we obtained using ab initio MD simulations. Our new thermodynamic model accurately predicts the experimentally observed changes in ZnO(s) and ZnCO3(s) solubility as a function of chloride concentration from 200 (Psat) to 600 °C (2000 bar). This study demonstrates that metal speciation and geologically useful stability constants can be derived for species in hydrothermal fluids from ab initio MD simulations even at the generalized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhadda, Y.; Bentabet, A.; Fenineche, N. E.; Boudouma, Y.
2012-12-01
By this work, we aim to study the dynamical and the thermodynamic properties of the zinc-blende GaX (X = N, P, As and Sb) using the Ab initio simulation method. Indeed, we studied the lattice dynamics, the constant-volume specific heat (Cv), the internal energy (U), the entropy (S) and the free energy (F). The observed differences between the properties of GaX elements were discussed. Our results and the available literature data (theoretical and experimental) seems to be in good agreement. Moreover, Cv, U, F and S were calculated by using the harmonic approximation in the calculation of the dynamic lattice vibration. The good agreement between our results of both the phonon frequency, the constant-volume specific heat and the experimental data allows us to conclude that our results of S, U and F of GaX were well predicted.
Ab Initio-Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry
2015-07-15
There are two prime objectives of the research. One is to develop and apply efficient methods for using ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs...31-Mar-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Ab Initio -Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry The...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 hydrocarbon combustion, ab initio quantum chemistry, potential energy surfaces, chemical
Govind Rajan, Ananth; Strano, Michael S; Blankschtein, Daniel
2018-04-05
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is an up-and-coming two-dimensional material, with applications in electronic devices, tribology, and separation membranes. Herein, we utilize density-functional-theory-based ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and lattice dynamics calculations to develop a classical force field (FF) for modeling hBN. The FF predicts the crystal structure, elastic constants, and phonon dispersion relation of hBN with good accuracy and exhibits remarkable agreement with the interlayer binding energy predicted by random phase approximation calculations. We demonstrate the importance of including Coulombic interactions but excluding 1-4 intrasheet interactions to obtain the correct phonon dispersion relation. We find that improper dihedrals do not modify the bulk mechanical properties and the extent of thermal vibrations in hBN, although they impact its flexural rigidity. Combining the FF with the accurate TIP4P/Ice water model yields excellent agreement with interaction energies predicted by quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our FF should enable an accurate description of hBN interfaces in classical MD simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Lixin; Chen, Mohan; Sun, Zhaoru; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Santra, Biswajit; Dhuvad, Pratikkumar; Wu, Xifan
2018-04-01
We perform ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation of liquid water in the canonical ensemble at ambient conditions using the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) functional approximation and carry out systematic comparisons with the results obtained from the GGA-level Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional and Tkatchenko-Scheffler van der Waals (vdW) dispersion correction inclusive PBE functional. We analyze various properties of liquid water including radial distribution functions, oxygen-oxygen-oxygen triplet angular distribution, tetrahedrality, hydrogen bonds, diffusion coefficients, ring statistics, density of states, band gaps, and dipole moments. We find that the SCAN functional is generally more accurate than the other two functionals for liquid water by not only capturing the intermediate-range vdW interactions but also mitigating the overly strong hydrogen bonds prescribed in PBE simulations. We also compare the results of SCAN-based AIMD simulations in the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles. Our results suggest that SCAN provides a reliable description for most structural, electronic, and dynamical properties in liquid water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnham, Christian J.; Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.
2018-03-01
The force-matching method has been applied to parameterise an empirical potential model for water-water and water-hydrogen intermolecular interactions for use in clathrate-hydrate simulations containing hydrogen guest molecules. The underlying reference simulations constituted ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) of clathrate hydrates with various occupations of hydrogen-molecule guests. It is shown that the resultant model is able to reproduce AIMD-derived free-energy curves for the movement of a tagged hydrogen molecule between the water cages that make up the clathrate, thus giving us confidence in the model. Furthermore, with the aid of an umbrella-sampling algorithm, we calculate barrier heights for the force-matched model, yielding the free-energy barrier for a tagged molecule to move between cages. The barrier heights are reasonably large, being on the order of 30 kJ/mol, and are consistent with our previous studies with empirical models [C. J. Burnham and N. J. English, J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 16561 (2016) and C. J. Burnham et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 717 (2017)]. Our results are in opposition to the literature, which claims that this system may have very low barrier heights. We also compare results to that using the more ad hoc empirical model of Alavi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 024507 (2005)] and find that this model does very well when judged against the force-matched and ab initio simulation data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanicek, Jiri
2014-03-01
Rigorous quantum-mechanical calculations of coherent ultrafast electronic spectra remain difficult. I will present several approaches developed in our group that increase the efficiency and accuracy of such calculations: First, we justified the feasibility of evaluating time-resolved spectra of large systems by proving that the number of trajectories needed for convergence of the semiclassical dephasing representation/phase averaging is independent of dimensionality. Recently, we further accelerated this approximation with a cellular scheme employing inverse Weierstrass transform and optimal scaling of the cell size. The accuracy of potential energy surfaces was increased by combining the dephasing representation with accurate on-the-fly ab initio electronic structure calculations, including nonadiabatic and spin-orbit couplings. Finally, the inherent semiclassical approximation was removed in the exact quantum Gaussian dephasing representation, in which semiclassical trajectories are replaced by communicating frozen Gaussian basis functions evolving classically with an average Hamiltonian. Among other examples I will present an on-the-fly ab initio semiclassical dynamics calculation of the dispersed time-resolved stimulated emission spectrum of the 54-dimensional azulene. This research was supported by EPFL and by the Swiss National Science Foundation NCCR MUST (Molecular Ultrafast Science and Technology) and Grant No. 200021124936/1.
Li, Hui-Ji; Yan, Dan; Cai, Hou-Qin; Yi, Hai-Bo; Min, Xiao-Bo; Xia, Fei-Fei
2017-05-10
The molecular structure of growth units building crystals is a fundamental issue in the crystallization processes from aqueous solutions. In this work, a systematic investigation of pre-nucleation clusters and their hydration characteristics in aqueous CaSO 4 solutions was performed using ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of ab initio calculations and MD simulations indicate that the dominant species in aqueous CaSO 4 solutions are monodentate ion-associated structures. Compared with charged ion clusters, neutral clusters are more likely to be present in an aqueous CaSO 4 solution. Neutral (CaSO 4 ) m clusters are probably the growth units involved in the pre-nucleation or crystallization processes. Meanwhile, hydration behavior around ion associated species in aqueous CaSO 4 solutions plays an important role in related phase/polymorphism selections. Upon ion clustering, the residence of some water molecules around Ca 2+ in ion-associated species is weakened while that of some bridging waters is enhanced due to dual interaction by Ca 2+ and SO 4 2- . Some phase/polymorphism selections can be achieved in aqueous CaSO 4 solutions by controlling the hydration around pre-nucleation clusters. Moreover, the association trend between calcium and sulfate is found to be relatively strong, which hints at the low solubility of calcium sulfate in water.
Wu, Ruibo; Hu, Po; Wang, Shenglong; Cao, Zexing; Zhang, Yingkai
2009-01-01
Abstracs The different coordination modes and fast ligand exchange of zinc coordination has been suggested to be one key catalytic feature of the zinc ion which makes it an invaluable metal in biological catalysis. However, partly due to the well known difficulties for zinc to be characterized by spectroscopy methods, evidence for dynamic nature of the catalytic zinc coordination has so far mainly been indirect. In this work, Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation has been employed, which allows for a first-principle description of the dynamics of the metal active site while properly including effects of the heterogeneous and fluctuating protein environment. Our simulations have provided direct evidence regarding inherent flexibility of the catalytic zinc coordination shell in Thermolysin (TLN) and Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). We have observed different coordination modes and fast ligand exchange during the picosecond's time-scale. For TLN, the coordination of the carboxylate group of Glu166 to Zinc is found to continuously change between monodentate and bidentate manner dynamically; while for HDAC8, the flexibility mainly comes from the coordination to a non-amino-acid ligand. Such distinct dynamics in the zinc coordination shell between two enzymes suggests that the catalytic role of Zinc in TLN and HDAC8 is likely to be different in spite of the fact that both catalyze the hydrolysis of amide bond. Meanwhile, considering that such Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM MD simulations are very much desired but are widely considered to be too computationally expensive to be feasible, our current study demonstrates the viability and powerfulness of this state-of-the-art approach in simulating metalloenzymes. PMID:20161624
Ab initio quantum chemistry: methodology and applications.
Friesner, Richard A
2005-05-10
This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over the past decade. Incorporation of a condensed-phase environment by means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics or self-consistent reaction field techniques, is presented. A wide range of illustrative applications, focusing on materials science and biology, are discussed briefly.
Dynamics of the O(3P) + CHD3(vCH = 0,1) reactions on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface
Czakó, Gábor; Bowman, Joel M.
2012-01-01
Recent experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamics of the reactions of methane with F and Cl atoms have modified our understanding of mode-selective chemical reactivity. The O + methane reaction is also an important candidate to extend our knowledge on the rules of reactivity. Here, we report a unique full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for the O(3P) + methane reaction, which opens the door for accurate dynamics calculations using this surface. Quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the angular and vibrational distributions for the ground state and CH stretching excited O + CHD3(v1 = 0,1) → OH + CD3 reactions are in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our theory confirms what was proposed experimentally: The mechanistic origin of the vibrational enhancement is that the CH-stretching excitation enlarges the reactive cone of acceptance. PMID:22566657
Malbon, Christopher L; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Hua; Yarkony, David R
2016-12-21
For two electronic states coupled by conical intersections, the line integral of the derivative coupling can be used to construct a complex-valued multiplicative phase factor that makes the real-valued adiabatic electronic wave function single-valued, provided that the curl of the derivative coupling is zero. Unfortunately for ab initio determined wave functions, the curl is never rigorously zero. However, when the wave functions are determined from a coupled two diabatic state Hamiltonian H d (fit to ab initio data), the resulting derivative couplings are by construction curl free, except at points of conical intersection. In this work we focus on a recently introduced diabatization scheme that produces the H d by fitting ab initio determined energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings to the corresponding H d determined quantities in a least squares sense, producing a removable approximation to the ab initio determined derivative coupling. This approach and related numerical issues associated with the nonremovable ab initio derivative couplings are illustrated using a full 33-dimensional representation of phenol photodissociation. The use of this approach to provide a general framework for treating the molecular Aharonov Bohm effect is demonstrated.
Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suetin, D. V.; Shein, I. R.
2018-02-01
Ab initio calculations were used to study the properties of a series of hexagonal (Fe2N-like) subcarbides M2C, where M = Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt, and to calculate their equilibrium structural parameters, electronic properties, phase stability, elastic constants, compression modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, compressibility, Pugh's indicator, Poisson ratio, elastic anisotropy indices, and also hardness, Debye temperature, sound velocity, and low-temperature heat capacity. It is found based on these results that all the subcarbides are mechanically stable; however, their formation energies E form are positive with respect to a mixture of d-metal and graphite. In addition, the calculation of the phonon spectra of these subcarbides shows the existence of negative modes, which indicates their dynamical instability. Thus, a successful synthesis of these subcarbides at normal conditions is highly improbable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Lu; Zhao, JiJun; Dong, Chuang; Wen, Bin; Wang, Qing
2011-06-01
We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of Cu64Zr36 alloy at descending temperatures (from 2000 K to 400 K) and discussed the evolution of short-range order with temperature. The pair-correlation functions, coordination numbers, and chemical compositions of the most abundant local clusters have been analyzed. We found that icosahedral short-range order exists in the liquid, undercooled, and glass states, and it becomes dominant in the glass states. Moreover, we demonstrated the existence of Cu-centered Cu8Zr5 icosahedral clusters as the major local structural unit in the Cu64Zr36 amorphous alloy. This finding agrees well with our previous cluster model of Cu-Zr-based BMG as well as experimental evidences from synchrotron x ray and neutron diffraction measurements.
Parkes, Marie V.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David B.; ...
2016-04-04
The separation of oxygen from nitrogen using metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is of great interest for potential pressure-swing adsorption processes for the generation of purified O 2 on industrial scales. This study uses ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations to examine for the first time the pure-gas and competitive gas adsorption of O 2 and N 2 in the M 2(dobdc) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe) MOF series with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. Effects of metal, temperature, and gas composition are explored. Lastly, this unique application of AIMD allows us to study in detail the adsorption/desorption processes and to visualize themore » process of multiple guests competitively binding to coordinatively unsaturated metal sites of a MOF.« less
Gerber, Iann C; Jolibois, Franck
2015-05-14
Chemical shift requires the knowledge of both the sample and a reference magnetic shielding. In few cases as nitrogen (15N), the standard experimental reference corresponds to its liquid phase. Theoretical estimate of NMR magnetic shielding parameters of compounds in their liquid phase is then mandatory but usually replaced by an easily-get gas phase value, forbidding direct comparisons with experiments. We propose here to combine ab initio molecular dynamic simulations with the calculations of magnetic shielding using GIAO approach on extracted cluster's structures from MD. Using several computational strategies, we manage to accurately calculate 15N magnetic shielding of nitromethane in its liquid phase. Theoretical comparison between liquid and gas phase allows us to extrapolate an experimental value for the 15N magnetic shielding of nitromethane in gas phase between -121.8 and -120.8 ppm.
Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Kühne, Thomas D
2015-11-05
We present a novel computational method to accurately calculate Raman spectra from first principles. Together with an extension of the second-generation Car-Parrinello method of Kühne et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 98, 066401) to propagate maximally localized Wannier functions together with the nuclei, a speed-up of one order of magnitude can be observed. This scheme thus allows to routinely calculate finite-temperature Raman spectra "on-the-fly" by means of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. To demonstrate the predictive power of this approach we investigate the effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in water solution on the infrared and Raman spectra. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David
2014-01-01
Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.
Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; ...
2015-10-12
Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivitymore » and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO 2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca 2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO 2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences
Liu, Ping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Meng; Bu, Yuxiang
2014-01-28
In view of the important implications of excess electrons (EEs) interacting with CO2-H2O clusters in many fields, using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation technique, we reveal the structures and dynamics of an EE associated with its localization and subsequent time evolution in heterogeneous CO2-H2O mixed media. Our results indicate that although hydration can increase the electron-binding ability of a CO2 molecule, it only plays an assisting role. Instead, it is the bending vibrations that play the major role in localizing the EE. Due to enhanced attraction of CO2, an EE can stably reside in the empty, low-lying π(*) orbital of a CO2 molecule via a localization process arising from its initial binding state. The localization is completed within a few tens of femtoseconds. After EE trapping, the ∠OCO angle of the core CO2 (-) oscillates in the range of 127°∼142°, with an oscillation period of about 48 fs. The corresponding vertical detachment energy of the EE is about 4.0 eV, which indicates extreme stability of such a CO2-bound solvated EE in [CO2(H2O)n](-) systems. Interestingly, hydration occurs not only on the O atoms of the core CO2 (-) through formation of O⋯H-O H-bond(s), but also on the C atom, through formation of a C⋯H-O H-bond. In the latter binding mode, the EE cloud exhibits considerable penetration to the solvent water molecules, and its IR characteristic peak is relatively red-shifted compared with the former. Hydration on the C site can increase the EE distribution at the C atom and thus reduce the C⋯H distance in the C⋯H-O H-bonds, and vice versa. The number of water molecules associated with the CO2 (-) anion in the first hydration shell is about 4∼7. No dimer-core (C2O4 (-)) and core-switching were observed in the double CO2 aqueous media. This work provides molecular dynamics insights into the localization and time evolution dynamics of an EE in heterogeneous CO2-H2O media.
Molecular Spectroscopy by Ab Initio Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Due to recent advances in methods and computers, the accuracy of ab calculations has reached a point where these methods can be used to provide accurate spectroscopic constants for small molecules; this will be illustrated with several examples. We will show how ab initio calculations where used to identify the Hermann infrared system in N2 and two band systems in CO. The identification of all three of these band systems relied on very accurate calculations of quintet states. The analysis of the infrared spectra of cool stars requires knowledge of the intensity of vibrational transitions in SiO for high nu and J levels. While experiment can supply very accurate dipole moments for nu = 0 to 3, this is insufficient to construct a global dipole moment function. We show how theory, combined by the experiment, can be used to generate the line intensities up to nu = 40 and J = 250. The spectroscopy of transition metal containing systems is very difficult for both theory and experiment. We will discuss the identification of the ground state of Ti2 and the spectroscopy of AlCu as examples of how theory can contribute to the understanding of these complex systems.
Cooperative effects in spherical spasers: Ab initio analytical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordo, V. G.
2017-06-01
A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit simple and physically transparent, criteria for both plasmonic superradiance and surface plasmon generation.
Xin, H.; LaRue, J.; Oberg, H.
2015-04-16
We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distributionmore » and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Jens; Hartmann, Benedikt; Rommel, Robert; Brandenburg, Jens; Winter, Stephen M.; Schlueter, John A.
2015-08-01
We have studied the low-frequency dynamics of the charge carriers in different organic charge-transfer salts κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X with polymeric anions X by using resistance noise spectroscopy. Our aim is to investigate the structural, glass-like transition caused by the conformational degrees of freedom of the BEDT-TTF molecules’ terminal ethylene groups. Although of fundamental importance for studies of the electronic ground-state properties, the phenomenology of the glassy dynamics has been minimally investigated and its origin is not understood. Our systematic studies of fluctuation spectroscopy of various different compounds reveal a universal, pronounced maximum in the resistance noise power spectral density related to the glass transition. The energy scale of this process can be identified with the activation energy of the glass-like ethylene endgroup structural dynamics as determined from thermodynamic and NMR measurements. For the first time for this class of ‘plastic crystals’, we report a typical glassy property of the relaxation time, namely a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, and are able to determine the degree of fragility of the glassy system. Supporting ab initio calculations provide an explanation for the origin and phenomenology of the glassy dynamics in different systems in terms of a simple two-level model, where the relevant energy scales are determined by the coupling of the ethylene endgroups to the anions.
Ab Initio Infrared and Raman Spectra.
1982-08-01
equilibrium and non -equilibrium systems. It b pointed out that a similar ab !ni- te QFC molecular dynamic approach could be used to compute other types of...applied to -2- equilibrium and non -equilibrium system. It is pointed out that a similar oh im- ib QFCT molecular dynamic approach could be used to...desire to be able to experimentally identify and understand transient species or states (such as those existing during the course of chemical
Wood, Geoffrey P F; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Moore, Jamie M; Wang, John; Trout, Bernhardt L
2016-05-12
An assessment of the mechanisms of (•)OH and (•)OOH radical-mediated oxidation of tryptophan was performed using density functional theory calculations and ab initio plane-wave Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. For the (•)OH reactions, addition to the pyrrole ring at position 2 is the most favored site with a barrierless reaction in the gas phase. The subsequent degradation of this adduct through a H atom transfer to water was intermittently observed in aqueous-phase molecular dynamics simulations. For the (•)OOH reactions, addition to the pyrrole ring at position 2 is the most favored pathway, in contrast to the situation in the model system ethylene, where concerted addition to the double bond is preferred. From the (•)OOH position 2 adduct QM/MM simulations show that formation of oxy-3-indolanaline occurs readily in an aqueous environment. The observed transformation starts from an initial rupture of the O-O bond followed by a H atom transfer with the accompanying loss of an (•)OH radical to solution. Finally, classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed to equate observed differential oxidation rates of various tryptophan residues in monoclonal antibody fragments. It was found that simple parameters derived from simulation correlate well with the experimental data.
Ruberti, M; Decleva, P; Averbukh, V
2018-03-28
Here we present a fully ab initio study of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum of aligned CO 2 molecules. The calculations have been performed by using the molecular time-dependent (TD) B-spline algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) method. We quantitatively study how the sub-cycle laser-driven multi-channel dynamics, as reflected in the position of the dynamical minimum in the HHG spectrum, is affected by the full inclusion of both correlation-driven and laser-driven dipole interchannel couplings. We calculate channel-resolved spectral intensities as well as the phase differences between contributions of the different ionization-recombination channels to the total HHG spectrum. Our results show that electron correlation effectively controls the relative contributions of the different channels to the total HHG spectrum, leading to the opening of the new ones (1 2 Π u , 1 2 Σ), previously disregarded for the aligned molecular setup. We conclude that inclusion of many-electron effects into the theoretical interpretation of molecular HHG spectra is essential in order to correctly extract ultrafast electron dynamics using HHG spectroscopy.
Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gesell, Laurence E.
1995-01-01
Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)
Ab initio molecular simulations with numeric atom-centered orbitals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Volker; Gehrke, Ralf; Hanke, Felix; Havu, Paula; Havu, Ville; Ren, Xinguo; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias
2009-11-01
We describe a complete set of algorithms for ab initio molecular simulations based on numerically tabulated atom-centered orbitals (NAOs) to capture a wide range of molecular and materials properties from quantum-mechanical first principles. The full algorithmic framework described here is embodied in the Fritz Haber Institute "ab initio molecular simulations" (FHI-aims) computer program package. Its comprehensive description should be relevant to any other first-principles implementation based on NAOs. The focus here is on density-functional theory (DFT) in the local and semilocal (generalized gradient) approximations, but an extension to hybrid functionals, Hartree-Fock theory, and MP2/GW electron self-energies for total energies and excited states is possible within the same underlying algorithms. An all-electron/full-potential treatment that is both computationally efficient and accurate is achieved for periodic and cluster geometries on equal footing, including relaxation and ab initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate the construction of transferable, hierarchical basis sets, allowing the calculation to range from qualitative tight-binding like accuracy to meV-level total energy convergence with the basis set. Since all basis functions are strictly localized, the otherwise computationally dominant grid-based operations scale as O(N) with system size N. Together with a scalar-relativistic treatment, the basis sets provide access to all elements from light to heavy. Both low-communication parallelization of all real-space grid based algorithms and a ScaLapack-based, customized handling of the linear algebra for all matrix operations are possible, guaranteeing efficient scaling (CPU time and memory) up to massively parallel computer systems with thousands of CPUs.
A note on AB INITIO semiconductor band structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiorentini, Vincenzo
1992-09-01
We point out that only the internal features of the DFT ab initio theoretical picture of a crystal should be used in a consistent ab initio calculation of the band structure. As a consequence, we show that ground-state band structure calculations should be performed for the system in equilibrium at zero pressure, i.e. at the computed equilibrium cell volume ω th. Examples of consequences of this attitude are considered.
Genova, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.genova@rutgers.edu; Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu; Ceresoli, Davide, E-mail: davide.ceresoli@cnr.it
2016-06-21
In this work we achieve three milestones: (1) we present a subsystem DFT method capable of running ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations accurately and efficiently. (2) In order to rid the simulations of inter-molecular self-interaction error, we exploit the ability of semilocal frozen density embedding formulation of subsystem DFT to represent the total electron density as a sum of localized subsystem electron densities that are constrained to integrate to a preset, constant number of electrons; the success of the method relies on the fact that employed semilocal nonadditive kinetic energy functionals effectively cancel out errors in semilocal exchange–correlation potentials that aremore » linked to static correlation effects and self-interaction. (3) We demonstrate this concept by simulating liquid water and solvated OH{sup •} radical. While the bulk of our simulations have been performed on a periodic box containing 64 independent water molecules for 52 ps, we also simulated a box containing 256 water molecules for 22 ps. The results show that, provided one employs an accurate nonadditive kinetic energy functional, the dynamics of liquid water and OH{sup •} radical are in semiquantitative agreement with experimental results or higher-level electronic structure calculations. Our assessments are based upon comparisons of radial and angular distribution functions as well as the diffusion coefficient of the liquid.« less
Gao, Liang; Bu, Yuxiang
2017-05-31
In this work, we present an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study on the interaction of an excess electron (EE) with histidine in its aqueous solution. Two different configurations of histidine (imidazole group protonated or not) are considered to reflect its different existing forms in neutral or slightly acidic surroundings. The simulation results indicate that localizations of EEs in different aqueous histidine solutions are quite different and are strongly affected by protonation of the side chain imidazole group and are thus pH-controlled. In neutral aqueous histidine solution, an EE localizes onto the carboxyl anionic group of the amino acid backbone after a relatively lengthy diffuse state, performing just like in an aliphatic amino acid solution. But in weakly acidic solution in which the side chain imidazole group is protonated, an EE undergoes a short lifetime diffuse state and finally localizes on the protonated imidazole group. We carefully examine these two different localization dynamics processes and analyze the competition between different dominating groups in their corresponding electron localization mechanisms. To explain the difference, we investigate the frontier molecular orbitals of these two systems and find that their energy levels and compositions are important to determine these differences. These findings can provide helpful information to understand the interaction mechanisms of low energy EEs with amino acids and even oligopeptides, especially with aromatic rings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pederzoli, Marek; Pittner, Jiří; Barbatti, Mario; Lischka, Hans
2012-10-01
The cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene upon S1(n,π*) excitation is studied both in gas phase and in solution. Our study is based on ab initio non-adiabatic dynamics simulations with the non-adiabatic effects included via the fewest-switches surface hopping method with potential-energy surfaces and couplings determined on the fly. The non-adiabatic couplings have been computed based on overlaps of CASSCF wave functions. The solvent is described using classical molecular dynamics employing the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. Azobenzene photoisomerization upon S1(n,π*) excitation occurs purely as a rotational motion of the central CNNC moiety. Two non-equivalent rotational pathways, corresponding to clockwise or counterclockwise rotation, are available. The course of the rotational motion is strongly dependent on the initial conditions. The internal conversion occurs via a S0/S1 crossing seam located near the midpoint of both of these rotational pathways. Based on statistical analysis it is shown that the occurrence of one or other pathways can be completely controlled by selecting adequate initial conditions. The effect of the solvent on the reaction mechanism is small. The lifetime of the S1 state is marginally lowered; the effect does not depend on the polarity, but rather on the viscosity of the solvent. The quantum yield is solvent dependent; the simulations in water give smaller quantum yield than those obtained in n-hexane and in gas phase.
Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
2016-06-21
In this work we achieve three milestones: (1) we present a subsystem DFT method capable of running ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations accurately and efficiently. (2) In order to rid the simulations of inter-molecular self-interaction error, we exploit the ability of semilocal frozen density embedding formulation of subsystem DFT to represent the total electron density as a sum of localized subsystem electron densities that are constrained to integrate to a preset, constant number of electrons; the success of the method relies on the fact that employed semilocal nonadditive kinetic energy functionals effectively cancel out errors in semilocal exchange-correlation potentials that are linked to static correlation effects and self-interaction. (3) We demonstrate this concept by simulating liquid water and solvated OH(•) radical. While the bulk of our simulations have been performed on a periodic box containing 64 independent water molecules for 52 ps, we also simulated a box containing 256 water molecules for 22 ps. The results show that, provided one employs an accurate nonadditive kinetic energy functional, the dynamics of liquid water and OH(•) radical are in semiquantitative agreement with experimental results or higher-level electronic structure calculations. Our assessments are based upon comparisons of radial and angular distribution functions as well as the diffusion coefficient of the liquid.
Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Mason, Philip E; Fischer, Henry E; Jungwirth, Pavel
2018-04-05
Magnesium and zinc dications possess the same charge and have an almost identical size, yet they behave very differently in aqueous solutions and play distinct biological roles. It is thus crucial to identify the origins of such different behaviors and to assess to what extent they can be captured by force-field molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we combine neutron scattering experiments in a specific mixture of H 2 O and D 2 O (the so-called null water) with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to probe the difference in the hydration structure and ion-pairing properties of chloride solutions of the two cations. The obtained data are used as a benchmark to develop a scaled-charge force field for Mg 2+ that includes electronic polarization in a mean field way. We show that using this electronic continuum correction we can describe aqueous magnesium chloride solutions well. However, in aqueous zinc chloride specific interaction terms between the ions need to be introduced to capture ion pairing quantitatively.
Ab initio gene identification in metagenomic sequences
Zhu, Wenhan; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark
2010-01-01
We describe an algorithm for gene identification in DNA sequences derived from shotgun sequencing of microbial communities. Accurate ab initio gene prediction in a short nucleotide sequence of anonymous origin is hampered by uncertainty in model parameters. While several machine learning approaches could be proposed to bypass this difficulty, one effective method is to estimate parameters from dependencies, formed in evolution, between frequencies of oligonucleotides in protein-coding regions and genome nucleotide composition. Original version of the method was proposed in 1999 and has been used since for (i) reconstructing codon frequency vector needed for gene finding in viral genomes and (ii) initializing parameters of self-training gene finding algorithms. With advent of new prokaryotic genomes en masse it became possible to enhance the original approach by using direct polynomial and logistic approximations of oligonucleotide frequencies, as well as by separating models for bacteria and archaea. These advances have increased the accuracy of model reconstruction and, subsequently, gene prediction. We describe the refined method and assess its accuracy on known prokaryotic genomes split into short sequences. Also, we show that as a result of application of the new method, several thousands of new genes could be added to existing annotations of several human and mouse gut metagenomes. PMID:20403810
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glowacki, David
Recently, we outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground/excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail. In this paper, we apply our ab initioexciton framework to the 27 coupled bacteriocholorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute linear absorption spectra and short-time, on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) dynamics of electronically excited LH2. Our ab initio exciton model includes two key parameters whose values are determined by fitting to experiment: d, which is added to the diagonal elements, corrects for the error in TDDFT vertical excitation energies on a single chromophore; and e, which occurs on the off-diagonal matrix elements, describes the average dielectric screening of the inter-chromophore transition-dipole coupling. Using snapshots obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of LH2, best-fit values of both d and e were obtained by fitting to the thermally broadened experimental absorption spectrum within the Frank-Condon approximation, providing a linear absorption spectrum that agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations. We follow the nonadiabatic dynamics using surface hopping to construct time-resolved visualizations of the EET dynamics in the sub-picosecond regime following photoexcitation. This provides some qualitative insight into the excitonic energy transfer (EET) that results from atomically resolved vibrational fluctuations of the chromophores. The dynamical picture that emerges is one of rapidly fluctuating eigenstates that are delocalized over multiple chromophores and undergo frequent crossing on a femtosecond timescale as a result of the underlying chromophore vibrational dynamics. The eigenstate fluctuations arise from disorder in both the diagonal chromophore site energies and the off-diagonal inter
Choudhuri, Jyoti Roy; Chandra, Amalendu
2014-10-07
We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of a liquid-vapor interfacial system consisting of a mixture of water and methanol molecules. Detailed results are obtained for the structural and dynamical properties of the bulk and interfacial regions of the mixture. Among structural properties, we have looked at the inhomogeneous density profiles of water and methanol molecules, hydrogen bond distributions and also the orientational profiles of bulk and interfacial molecules. The methanol molecules are found to have a higher propensity to be at the interface than water molecules. It is found that the interfacial molecules show preference for specific orientations so as to form water-methanol hydrogen bonds at the interface with the hydrophobic methyl group pointing towards the vapor side. It is also found that for both types of molecules, the dipole moment decreases at the interface. It is also found that the local electric field of water influences the dipole moment of methanol molecules. Among the dynamical properties, we have calculated the diffusion, orientational relaxation, hydrogen bond dynamics, and vibrational frequency fluctuations in bulk and interfacial regions. It is found that the diffusion and orientation relaxation of the interfacial molecules are faster than those of the bulk. However, the hydrogen bond lifetimes are longer at the interface which can be correlated with the time scales found from the decay of frequency time correlations. The slower hydrogen bond dynamics for the interfacial molecules with respect to bulk can be attributed to diminished cooperative effects at the interface due to reduced density and number of hydrogen bonds.
Le, Hung M; Dinh, Thach S; Le, Hieu V
2011-10-13
The singlet-triplet transformation and molecular dissociation of ozone (O(3)) gas is investigated by performing quasi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) with visible and near-infrared excitations. MP4(SDQ) level of theory with the 6-311g(2d,2p) basis set is executed for three different electronic spin states (singlet, triplet, and quintet). In order to simplify the potential energy function, an approximation is adopted by ignoring the spin-orbit coupling and allowing the molecule to switch favorably and instantaneously to the spin state that is more energetically stable (lowest in energy among the three spin states). This assumption has previously been utilized to study the SiO(2) system as reported by Agrawal et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124 (13), 134306). The use of such assumption in this study probably makes the upper limits of computed rate coefficients the true rate coefficients. The global PES for ozone is constructed by fitting 5906 ab initio data points using a 60-neuron two-layer feed-forward neural network. The mean-absolute error and root-mean-squared error of this fit are 0.0446 eV (1.03 kcal/mol) and 0.0756 eV (1.74 kcal/mol), respectively, which reveal very good fitting accuracy. The parameter coefficients of the global PES are reported in this paper. In order to identify the spin state with high confidence, we propose the use of a pattern-recognition neural network, which is trained to predict the spin state of a given configuration (with a prediction accuracy being 95.6% on a set of testing data points). To enhance the prediction effectiveness, a buffer series of five points are validated to confirm the spin state during the MD process to gain better confidence. Quasi-classical MD simulations from 1.2 to 2.4 eV of total internal energy (including zero-point energy) result in rate coefficients of singlet-triplet transformation in the range of 0.027 ps(-1) to 1.21 ps(-1). Also, we find very
Ab initio study of collective excitations in a disparate mass molten salt.
Bryk, Taras; Klevets, Ivan
2012-12-14
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and the approach of generalized collective modes are applied for calculations of spectra of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in molten LiBr. Dispersion and damping of low- and high-frequency branches of collective excitations as well as wave-number dependent relaxing modes were calculated. The main mode contributions to partial, total, and concentration dynamic structure factors were estimated in a wide region of wave numbers. A role of polarization effects is discussed from comparison of mode contributions to concentration dynamic structure factors calculated for molten LiBr from ab initio and classical rigid ion simulations.
Ab-initio calculations on melting of thorium
Mukherjee, D., E-mail: debojyoti@barc.gov.in; Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.
2016-05-23
Ab-initio molecular dynamics study has been performed on face centered cubic structured thorium to determine its melting temperature at room pressure. The ion-electron interaction potential energy calculated as a function of temperature for three volumes (a{sub 0}){sup 3} and (1.02a{sub 0}){sup 3} and (1.04a{sub 0}){sup 3} increases gradually with temperature and undergoes a sharp jump at ~2200 K, ~2100 K and ~1800 K, respectively. Here, a{sub 0} = 5.043 Å is the equilibrium lattice parameter at 0 K obtained from ab-initio calculations. These jumps in interaction energy are treated as due to the onset of melting and corresponding temperatures asmore » melting point. The melting point of 2100 K is close to the experimental value of 2023 K. Further, the same has been verified by plotting the atomic arrangement evolved at various temperatures and corresponding pair correlation functions.« less
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.; ...
2018-04-28
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows formore » on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1B u or the dark 2 1A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Schalk, Oliver; Stolow, Albert; Martínez, Todd J.
2018-04-01
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 11Bu (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 21Ag state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 11Bu state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1Bu or the dark 21Ag state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows formore » on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1B u or the dark 2 1A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.« less
Glover, William J; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Schalk, Oliver; Stolow, Albert; Martínez, Todd J
2018-04-28
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1 B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1 A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1 B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1 B u or the dark 2 1 A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.
Yang, Jing; Jin, Qi-Yu; Zhang, Biao; Shen, Hong-Bin
2016-08-15
Inter-residue contacts in proteins dictate the topology of protein structures. They are crucial for protein folding and structural stability. Accurate prediction of residue contacts especially for long-range contacts is important to the quality of ab inito structure modeling since they can enforce strong restraints to structure assembly. In this paper, we present a new Residue-Residue Contact predictor called R2C that combines machine learning-based and correlated mutation analysis-based methods, together with a two-dimensional Gaussian noise filter to enhance the long-range residue contact prediction. Our results show that the outputs from the machine learning-based method are concentrated with better performance on short-range contacts; while for correlated mutation analysis-based approach, the predictions are widespread with higher accuracy on long-range contacts. An effective query-driven dynamic fusion strategy proposed here takes full advantages of the two different methods, resulting in an impressive overall accuracy improvement. We also show that the contact map directly from the prediction model contains the interesting Gaussian noise, which has not been discovered before. Different from recent studies that tried to further enhance the quality of contact map by removing its transitive noise, we designed a new two-dimensional Gaussian noise filter, which was especially helpful for reinforcing the long-range residue contact prediction. Tested on recent CASP10/11 datasets, the overall top L/5 accuracy of our final R2C predictor is 17.6%/15.5% higher than the pure machine learning-based method and 7.8%/8.3% higher than the correlated mutation analysis-based approach for the long-range residue contact prediction. http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/R2C/Contact:hbshen@sjtu.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Xu, Gui-Liang; Sheng, Tian; Chong, Lina; Ma, Tianyuan; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Zuo, Xiaobing; Liu, Di-Jia; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Yuzi; Heald, Steve M; Sun, Shi-Gang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil
2017-02-08
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as one of the promising power source candidates for the stationary storage industries owing to the much lower cost of sodium than lithium. It is well-known that the electrode materials largely determine the energy density of the battery systems. However, recent discoveries on the electrode materials showed that most of them present distinct lithium and sodium storage performance, which is not yet well understood. In this work, we performed a comparative understanding on the structural changes of porous cobalt oxide during its electrochemical lithiation and sodiation process by in operando synchrotron small angel X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. It was found that compared to the lithiation process, the porous cobalt oxide undergoes less pore structure changes, oxidation state, and local structure changes as well as crystal structure evolution during its sodiation process, which is attributed to the intrinsic low sodiation activity of cobalt oxide as evidenced by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, it was indicated that the sodiation activity of metal sulfides is higher than that of metal oxides, indicating a better candidate for SIBs. Such understanding is crucial for future design and improvement of high-performance electrode materials for SIBs.
An ab initio molecular dynamics study of thermal decomposition of 3,6-di(azido)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine.
Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming
2014-10-21
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the thermal decomposition of isolated and crystal 3,6-di(azido)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DiAT). During unimolecular decomposition, the three different initiation mechanisms were observed to be N-N2 cleavage, ring opening, and isomerization, respectively. The preferential initial decomposition step is the homolysis of the N-N2 bond in the azido group. The release mechanisms of nitrogen gas are found to be very different in the early and later decomposition stages of crystal DiAT. In the early decomposition, DiAT decomposes very fast and drastically without forming any stable long-chains or heterocyclic clusters, and most of the nitrogen gases are released through rapid rupture of nitrogen-nitrogen and carbon-nitrogen bonds. But in the later decomposition stage, the release of nitrogen gas is inhibited due to low mobility, long distance from each other, and strong carbon-nitrogen bonds. To overcome the obstacles, the nitrogen gases are released through slow formation and disintegration of polycyclic networks. Our simulations suggest a new decomposition mechanism for the organic polyazido initial explosive at the atomistic level.
Sato, Ryuhei; Shibuta, Yasushi; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Yamaguchi, Shu
2017-08-02
Hydration reactions on a carbonate-terminated cubic ZrO 2 (110) surface were analyzed using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. After hydration reactions, carbonates were still present on the surface at 500 K. However, these carbonates are very weak conjugate bases and only act as steric hindrance in proton hopping processes between acidic chemisorbed H 2 O molecules (Zr-OH 2 ) and monodentate hydroxyl groups (Zr-OH - ). Similar to a carbonate-free hydrated surface, Zr-OH 2 , Zr-OH - , and polydentate hydroxyl groups ([double bond splayed left]OH + ) were observed, while the ratio of acidic Zr-OH 2 was significantly larger than that on the carbonate-free hydrated surface. A thermodynamic discussion and bond property analysis reveal that CO 2 adsorption significantly decreases the basicity of surface oxide ions ([double bond splayed left]O), whereas the acidity of Zr-OH 2 is not affected. As a result, protons released from [double bond splayed left]OH + react with Zr-OH - to form Zr-OH 2 , leading to a deficiency of proton acceptor sites, which decreases the proton conductivity by the hopping mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.
2016-03-01
Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0> is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2> and < 0,2,8,1> , are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2> polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0> in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.
Jiang, M.; Peng, S. M.; Zhang, H. B.; Xu, C. H.; Xiao, H. Y.; Zhao, F. A.; Liu, Z. J.; Zu, X. T.
2016-01-01
In this study, an ab initio molecular dynamics method is employed to investigate how the existence of stacking faults (SFs) influences the response of SiC to low energy irradiation. It reveals that the C and Si atoms around the SFs are generally more difficult to be displaced than those in unfaulted SiC, and the corresponding threshold displacement energies for them are generally larger, indicative of enhanced radiation tolerance caused by the introduction of SFs, which agrees well with the recent experiment. As compared with the unfaulted state, more localized point defects are generated in faulted SiC. Also, the efficiency of damage production for Si recoils is generally higher than that of C recoils. The calculated potential energy increases for defect generation in SiC with intrinsic and extrinsic SFs are found to be higher than those in unfaulted SiC, due to the stronger screen-Coulomb interaction between the PKA and its neighbors. The presented results provide a fundamental insight into the underlying mechanism of displacement events in faulted SiC and will help to advance the understanding of the radiation response of SiC with and without SFs. PMID:26880027
Brüssel, Marc; di Dio, Philipp J.; Muñiz, Kilian; Kirchner, Barbara
2011-01-01
We carried out ab initio molecular dynamic simulations in order to determine the free energy surfaces of two selected reactions including solvents, namely a rearrangement of a ruthenium oxoester in water and a carbon dioxide addition to a palladium complex in carbon dioxide. For the latter reaction we also investigated the gas phase reaction in order to take solvent effects into account. We used two techniques to reconstruct the free energy surfaces: thermodynamic integration and metadynamics. Furthermore, we gave a reasonable error estimation of the computed free energy surface. We calculated a reaction barrier of ΔF = 59.5 ± 8.5 kJ mol−1 for the rearrangement of a ruthenium oxoester in water from thermodynamic integration. For the carbon dioxide addition to the palladium complex in carbon dioxide we found a ΔF = 44.9 ± 3.3 kJ mol−1 from metadynamics simulations with one collective variable. The investigation of the same reactions in the gas phase resulted in ΔF = 24.9 ± 6.7 kJ mol−1 from thermodynamic integration, in ΔF = 26.7 ± 2.3 kJ mol−1 from metadynamics simulations with one collective variable, and in ΔF = 27.1 ± 5.9 kJ mol−1 from metadynamics simulations with two collective variables. PMID:21541065
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangiovanni, Davide G.; Alling, Björn; Hultman, Lars; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2015-03-01
We use ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics (AIMD, CMD) to simulate diffusion of N vacancy and N self-interstitial point-defects in B1 TiN. The physical properties of TiN, important material system for thin film and coatings applications, are largely dictated by concentration and mobility of point defects. We determine N dilute-point-defect diffusion pathways, activation energies, attempt frequencies, and diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature. In addition, MD simulations reveal an unanticipated atomistic process, which controls the spontaneous formation of N-self-interstitial/N-vacancy pairs (Frenkel pairs) in defect-free TiN. This entails that a N lattice atom leaves its bulk position and bonds to a neighboring N lattice atom. In most cases, Frenkel-pair NI and NV recombine within a fraction of ns; 50% of these processes result in the exchange of two nitrogen lattice atoms. Occasionally, however, Frenkel-pair N-interstitial atoms permanently escape from the anion vacancy site, thus producing unpaired NI and NV point defects. The Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (Isotope Project, 2011.0094), the Swedish Research Council (VR) Linköping Linnaeus Initiative LiLi-NFM (Grant 2008-6572), and the Swedish Government Strategic Research (Grant MatLiU 2009-00971).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhili; Feng, Gang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Lijiang; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Xu, Hong-Guang; Xu, Xi-Ling; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Gao, Yi Qin
2018-06-01
To understand the initial hydration processes of CaCl2, we performed molecular simulations employing the force field based on the theory of electronic continuum correction with rescaling. Integrated tempering sampling molecular dynamics were combined with ab initio calculations to overcome the sampling challenge in cluster structure search and refinement. The calculated vertical detachment energies of CaCl2(H2O)n- (n = 0-8) were compared with the values obtained from photoelectron spectra, and consistency was found between the experiment and computation. Separation of the Cl—Ca ion pair is investigated in CaCl2(H2O)n- anions, where the first Ca—Cl ionic bond required 4 water molecules, and both Ca—Cl bonds are broken when the number of water molecules is larger than 7. For neutral CaCl2(H2O)n clusters, breaking of the first Ca—Cl bond starts at n = 5, and 8 water molecules are not enough to separate the two ion pairs. Comparing with the observations on magnesium chloride, it shows that separating one ion pair in CaCl2(H2O)n requires fewer water molecules than those for MgCl2(H2O)n. Coincidentally, the solubility of calcium chloride is higher than that of magnesium chloride in bulk solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Hsin-Yu; Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto
Hybrid functionals are known to alleviate the self-interaction error in density functional theory (DFT) and provide a more accurate description of the electronic structure of molecules and materials. However, hybrid DFT in the condensed-phase has a prohibitively high associated computational cost which limits their applicability to large systems of interest. In this work, we present a general-purpose order(N) implementation of hybrid DFT in the condensed-phase using Maximally localized Wannier function; this implementation is optimized for massively parallel computing architectures. This algorithm is used to perform large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water, ice, and aqueous ionic solutions. We have performed simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble to quantify the effects of exact exchange on the equilibrium density properties of water at different thermodynamic conditions. We find that the anomalous density difference between ice I h and liquid water at ambient conditions as well as the enthalpy differences between ice I h, II, and III phases at the experimental triple point (238 K and 20 Kbar) are significantly improved using hybrid DFT over previous estimates using the lower rungs of DFT This work has been supported by the Department of Energy under Grants No. DE-FG02-05ER46201 and DE-SC0008626.
Xu, Gui -Liang; Sheng, Tian; Chong, Lina; ...
2017-01-10
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as one of the promising power source candidates for the stationary storage industries owing to the much lower cost of sodium than lithium. It is well-known that the electrode materials largely determine the energy density of the battery systems. However, recent discoveries on the electrode materials showed that most of them present distinct lithium and sodium storage performance, which is not yet well understood. In this work, we performed a comparative understanding on the structural changes of porous cobalt oxide during its electrochemical lithiation and sodiation process by in operando synchrotron small angel X-raymore » scattering, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. It was found that compared to the lithiation process, the porous cobalt oxide undergoes less pore structure changes, oxidation state, and local structure changes as well as crystal structure evolution during its sodiation process, which is attributed to the intrinsic low sodiation activity of cobalt oxide as evidenced by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, it was indicated that the sodiation activity of metal sulfides is higher than that of metal oxides, indicating a better candidate for SIBs. Furthermore, such understanding is crucial for future design and improvement of high-performance electrode materials for SIBs.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branicio, Paulo S.; Bai, Kewu; Ramanarayan, H.; Wu, David T.; Sullivan, Michael B.; Srolovitz, David J.
2018-04-01
The complete process of amorphization and crystallization of the phase-change material G e2S b2T e5 is investigated using nanosecond ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Varying the quench rate during the amorphization phase of the cycle results in the generation of a variety of structures from entirely crystallized (-0.45 K/ps) to entirely amorphized (-16 K/ps). The 1.5-ns annealing simulations indicate that the crystallization process depends strongly on both the annealing temperature and the initial amorphous structure. The presence of crystal precursors (square rings) in the amorphous matrix enhances nucleation/crystallization kinetics. The simulation data are used to construct a combined continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) and temperature-time-transformation (TTT) diagram. The nose of the CCT-TTT diagram corresponds to the minimum time for the onset of homogenous crystallization and is located at 600 K and 70 ps. That corresponds to a critical cooling rate for amorphization of -4.5 K/ps. The results, in excellent agreement with experimental observations, suggest that a strategy that utilizes multiple quench rates and annealing temperatures may be used to effectively optimize the reversible switching speed and enable fast and energy-efficient phase-change memories.
Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; ...
2016-02-01
Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 and Cu-rich Cu 50Zr 45Al 5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 and Cu 50Zr 45Al 5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0 > is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2 > and
Yamataka, H.; Aida, Misako; Dupuis, Michel
We present a qualitative analysis, based on ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) calculations, of the SN2/ET mechanistic spectrum for three reactions: (1) HC(CN)=O.- + CH3Cl, (2) HC(CN)=O.- + (CH3)2CHCl, and (3) H2C=O.- + CH3Cl, passing through their SN2-like transition states. The finite temperature (298 K) direct-MD simulations indicate that the trajectories for reaction 1 appear to have a propensity towards SN2 products, the propensity for trajectories for reaction 2 seems to be towards ET products, whereas trajectories for reaction 3 appear to show no particular propensity towards either ET or SN2 products. The mechanistic diversity is consistent with the electronmore » donating ability of the ketyl species and steric bulkiness of chloroalkanes. We find that the trajectories have characteristics that reflect strongly the types of process (SN2 trajectories in reactions 1 and 3 vs. ET trajectories in reactions 2 and 3). Trajectories that lead to SN2 products are simple with C-C bond formation and C-Cl bond breaking essentially completed within 50 fs. By contrast, trajectories leading to ET products are more complex with a sudden electron reorganization taking place within 15 - 30 fs and the major bonding changes and electron and spin reorganizations completed after 250 fs.« less
Matsubara, Toshiaki; Dupuis, Michel; Aida, Misako
2008-02-01
We applied the ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) method to cytosine deaminase to examine the environmental effects of the amino acid residues in the pocket of the active site on the substrate taking account of their thermal motion. The ab initio ONIOM-MD simulations show that the substrate uracil is strongly perturbed by the amino acid residue Ile33, which sandwiches the uracil with His62, through the steric contact due to the thermal motion. As a result, the magnitude of the thermal oscillation of the potential energy and structure of the substrate uracil significantly increases. TM and MA were partly supported by grants frommore » the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.MD was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy DOE. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE.« less
Fischer, Sean A.; Ueltschi, Tyler W.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; ...
2015-07-29
Carbon-hydrogen (C-H) vibration modes serve as key probes in the chemical identification of hydrocarbons and in vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy of hydrocarbons at the liquid/gas interface. Their assignments pose a challenge from a theoretical viewpoint. Here in this work, we present a detailed study of the C-H stretching region of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using a new Gaussian basis set- based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) module that we have implemented in the NWChem computational chemistry program. By combining AIMD simulations and static normal mode analysis, we interpret experimental infrared and Raman spectra and explore the role of anharmonic effectsmore » in this system. Our anharmonic normal mode analysis of the in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric C-H stretching modes challenges the previous experimental assignment of the shoulder in the symmetric C-H stretching peak as an overtone or Fermi resonance. In addition, our AIMD simulations also show significant broadening of the in-phase symmetric C-H stretching resonance, which suggests that the experimentally observed shoulder is due to thermal broadening of the symmetric stretching resonance.« less
Yonezawa, Yasushige; Nakata, Kazuto; Sakakura, Kota; Takada, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Haruki
2009-04-01
The cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline plays important roles in protein folding and biological function. Although many experimental and theoretical studies have been done, the mechanism has not yet been clearly elucidated. We studied the cis-trans isomerization of the proline dipeptide (Ace-Pro-NMe) in explicit water by molecular dynamics simulations using a combined potential derived from ab initio quantum mechanics and empirical molecular mechanics. We obtained the free energy landscape during the isomerization by using the umbrella sampling method. The free energy landscape is in good accordance with previous experimental and theoretical values. We observed that in the middle of the isomerization, the prolyl nitrogen transiently takes pyramidal conformations in two polarized directions and that, simultaneously, the prolyl C-N bond extends. We show that these geometrical changes cooperatively transform the prolyl nitrogen from a sp(2)-hybridized electronic state into a sp(3)-hybridized one, and thus realize a transition state that reduces the rotational barriers separating the cis- and trans-states. We also found that the hydration of the prolyl nitrogen stabilizes the negative pyramidal conformation, while an intramolecular interaction mainly stabilizes the positive one. Fluctuations in the polarity and magnitude of the pyramidal conformation during the isomerization are interpreted as a competition between the hydrogen-bonding partners for the prolyl nitrogen between different sides of the pyrrolidine ring.
He, Zhili; Feng, Gang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Lijiang; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Xu, Hong-Guang; Xu, Xi-Ling; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Gao, Yi Qin
2018-06-14
To understand the initial hydration processes of CaCl 2 , we performed molecular simulations employing the force field based on the theory of electronic continuum correction with rescaling. Integrated tempering sampling molecular dynamics were combined with ab initio calculations to overcome the sampling challenge in cluster structure search and refinement. The calculated vertical detachment energies of CaCl 2 (H 2 O) n - (n = 0-8) were compared with the values obtained from photoelectron spectra, and consistency was found between the experiment and computation. Separation of the Cl-Ca ion pair is investigated in CaCl 2 (H 2 O) n - anions, where the first Ca-Cl ionic bond required 4 water molecules, and both Ca-Cl bonds are broken when the number of water molecules is larger than 7. For neutral CaCl 2 (H 2 O) n clusters, breaking of the first Ca-Cl bond starts at n = 5, and 8 water molecules are not enough to separate the two ion pairs. Comparing with the observations on magnesium chloride, it shows that separating one ion pair in CaCl 2 (H 2 O) n requires fewer water molecules than those for MgCl 2 (H 2 O) n . Coincidentally, the solubility of calcium chloride is higher than that of magnesium chloride in bulk solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabó, István; Czakó, Gábor
2016-10-01
We report a detailed quasiclassical trajectory study for the dynamics of the ground-state and CH/CD stretching-excited F- + CHD2Cl(vCH/CD = 0, 1) → Cl- + CHD2F, HF + CD2Cl-, and DF + CHDCl- SN2, proton-, and deuteron-abstraction reactions using a full-dimensional global ab initio analytical potential energy surface. The simulations show that (a) CHD2Cl(vCH/CD = 1), especially for vCH = 1, maintains its mode-specific excited character prior to interaction, (b) the SN2 reaction is vibrationally mode-specific, (c) double inversion can occur and is enhanced upon CH/CD stretching excitations, (d) in the abstraction reactions the HF channel is preferred and the vCH/CD = 1 excitations significantly promote the HF/DF channels, (e) back-side rebound, back-side stripping, and front-side stripping are the dominant direct abstraction mechanisms based on correlated scattering- and attack-angle distributions, (f) the exact classical vibrational energy-based Gaussian binning (1GB) provides realistic mode-specific polyatomic product state distributions, (g) in the abstraction reactions CH and CD stretchings are not pure spectator modes and mainly ground-state products are produced, thus most of the initial energy transfers into product translation, and (h) the HF and DF product molecules are rotationally cold without any significant dependence on the reactant's and HF/DF vibrational states.
Virtual synthesis of crystals using ab initio MD: Case study on LiFePO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, S. B.; Nanda, B. R. K.
2017-05-01
Molecular dynamics simulation technique is fairly successful in studying the structural aspects and dynamics of fluids. Here we study the ability of ab initio molecular dynamics (ab initio MD) to carry out virtual experiments to synthesize new crystalline materials and to predict their structures. For this purpose the olivine phosphate LiFePO4 (LFPO) is used as an example. As transition metal oxides in general are stabilized with layered geometry, we carried out ab initio MD simulations over a hypothetical layered configuration consisting of alternate LiPO2 and FeO2 layers. With intermittent steps of electron minimization, the resulted equilibrium lattice consist of PO4 tetrahedra and distorted Fe-O complexes similar to the one observed in the experimental lattice.
Chen, Ying; Bylaska, Eric J; Weare, John H
2017-03-31
Many important geochemical and biogeochemical reactions occur in the mineral/formation water interface of the highly abundant mineral, goethite [α-Fe(OOH)]. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the goethite α-FeOOH (100) surface and the structure, water bond formation and dynamics of water molecules in the mineral/aqueous interface are presented. Several exchange correlation functionals were employed (PBE96, PBE96 + Grimme, and PBE0) in the simulations of a (3 × 2) goethite surface with 65 absorbed water molecules in a 3D-periodic supercell (a = 30 Å, FeOOH slab ~12 Å thick, solvation layer ~18 Å thick). The lowest energy goethite (100) surface termination model was determined to have an exposed surface Fe 3+ that was loosely capped by a water molecule and a shared hydroxide with a neighboring surface Fe 3+ . The water molecules capping surface Fe 3+ ions were found to be loosely bound at all DFT levels with and without Grimme corrections, indicative that each surface Fe 3+ was coordinated with only five neighbors. These long bonds were supported by bond valence theory calculations, which showed that the bond valence of the surface Fe 3+ was saturated and surface has a neutral charge. The polarization of the water layer adjacent to the surface was found to be small and affected only the nearest water. Analysis by density difference plots and localized Boys orbitals identified three types of water molecules: those loosely bound to the surface Fe 3+ , those hydrogen bonded to the surface hydroxyl, and bulk water with tetrahedral coordination. Boys orbital analysis showed that the spin down lone pair orbital of the weakly absorbed water interact more strongly with the spin up Fe 3+ ion. These weakly bound surface water molecules were found to rapidly exchange with the second water layer (~0.025 exchanges/ps) using a dissociative mechanism. Water molecules adjacent to the surface were found to only weakly interact with the surface and as a
Li, Junjie; Li, Xiaohu; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2014-06-10
We discuss a multiconfigurational treatment of the "on-the-fly" electronic structure within the quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics (QWAIMD) method for coupled treatment of quantum nuclear effects with electronic structural effects. Here, multiple single-particle electronic density matrices are simultaneously propagated with a quantum nuclear wavepacket and other classical nuclear degrees of freedom. The multiple density matrices are coupled through a nonorthogonal configuration interaction (NOCI) procedure to construct the instantaneous potential surface. An adaptive-mesh-guided set of basis functions composed of Gaussian primitives are used to simplify the electronic structure calculations. Specifically, with the replacement of the atom-centered basis functions positioned on the centers of the quantum-mechanically treated nuclei by a mesh-guided band of basis functions, the two-electron integrals used to compute the electronic structure potential surface become independent of the quantum nuclear variable and hence reusable along the entire Cartesian grid representing the quantum nuclear coordinates. This reduces the computational complexity involved in obtaining a potential surface and facilitates the interpretation of the individual density matrices as representative diabatic states. The parametric nuclear position dependence of the diabatic states is evaluated at the initial time-step using a Shannon-entropy-based sampling function that depends on an approximation to the quantum nuclear wavepacket and the potential surface. This development is meant as a precursor to an on-the-fly fully multireference electronic structure procedure embedded, on-the-fly, within a quantum nuclear dynamics formalism. We benchmark the current development by computing structural, dynamic, and spectroscopic features for a series of bihalide hydrogen-bonded systems: FHF(-), ClHCl(-), BrHBr(-), and BrHCl(-). We find that the donor-acceptor structural features are in good
Eklund, Lars; Hofer, Thomas S; Pribil, Andreas B; Rode, Bernd M; Persson, Ingmar
2012-05-07
Theoretical ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) formalism has been applied in conjunction to experimental large angle X-ray scattering to study the structure and dynamics of the hydrated sulfite ion in aqueous solution. The results show that there is a considerable effect of the lone electron-pair on sulfur concerning structure and dynamics in comparison with the sulfate ion with higher oxidation number and symmetry of the hydration shell. The S-O bond distance in the hydrated sulfite ion has been determined to 1.53(1) Å by both methods. The hydrogen bonds between the three water molecules bound to each sulfite oxygen are only slightly stronger than those in bulk water. The sulfite ion can therefore be regarded as a weak structure maker. The water exchange rate is somewhat slower for the sulfite ion than for the sulfate ion, τ(0.5) = 3.2 and 2.6 ps, respectively. An even more striking observation in the angular radial distribution (ARD) functions is that the for sulfite ion the water exchange takes place in close vicinity of the lone electron-pair directed at its sides, while in principle no water exchange did take place of the water molecules hydrogen bound to sulfite oxygens during the simulation time. This is also confirmed when detailed pathway analysis is conducted. The simulation showed that the water molecules hydrogen bound to the sulfite oxygens can move inside the hydration shell to the area outside the lone electron-pair and there be exchanged. On the other hand, for the hydrated sulfate ion in aqueous solution one can clearly see from the ARD that the distribution of exchange events is symmetrical around the entire hydration sphere.
Chiariello, Maria Gabriella; Rega, Nadia
2018-03-22
Advances in time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy techniques provided a new stimulus for understanding the transient molecular dynamics triggered by the electronic excitation. The detailed interpretation of such time-dependent spectroscopic signals is a challenging task from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We simulated and analyzed the transient photorelaxation of the pyranine photoacid in aqueous solution, with special focus on structural parameters and low frequency skeleton modes that are possibly preparatory for the photoreaction occurring at later time, as suggested by experimental spectroscopic studies. To this aim, we adopted an accurate computational protocol that combines excited state ab initio molecular dynamics within an hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics framework and a time-resolved vibrational analysis based on the Wavelet transform. According to our results, the main nuclear relaxation on the excited potential energy surface is completed in about 500 fs, in agreement with experimental data. The rearrangement of C-C bonds occurs according to a complex vibrational dynamics, showing oscillatory patterns that are out of phase and modulated by modes below 200 cm -1 . We also analyzed in both the ground and the excited state the evolution of some structural parameters involved in excited state proton transfer reaction, namely, those involving the pyranine and the water molecule hydrogen bonded to the phenolic O-H group. Both the hydrogen bond distance and the intermolecular orientation are optimized in the excited state, resulting in a tighter proton donor-acceptor couple. Indeed, we found evidence that collective low frequency skeleton modes, such as the out of plane wagging at 108 cm -1 and the deformation at 280 cm -1 , are photoactivated by the ultrafast part of the relaxation and modulate the pyranine-water molecule rearrangement, favoring the preparatory step for the photoreactivity.
Pinto de Magalhães, Halua; Brennwald, Matthias S; Kipfer, Rolf
2017-03-22
Atmospheric noble gases are routinely used as natural tracers to analyze gas transfer processes in aquatic systems. Their isotopic ratios can be employed to discriminate between different physical transport mechanisms by comparison to the unfractionated atmospheric isotope composition. In many applications of aquatic systems molecular diffusion was thought to cause a mass dependent fractionation of noble gases and their isotopes according to the square root ratio of their masses. However, recent experiments focusing on isotopic fractionation within a single element challenged this broadly accepted assumption. The determined fractionation factors of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes revealed that only Ar follows the prediction of the so-called square root relation, whereas within the Ne, Kr and Xe elements no mass-dependence was found. The reason for this unexpected divergence of Ar is not yet understood. The aim of our computational exercise is to establish the molecular-resolved mechanisms behind molecular diffusion of noble gases in water. We make the hypothesis that weak intermolecular interactions are relevant for the dynamical properties of noble gases dissolved in water. Therefore, we used ab initio molecular dynamics to explicitly account for the electronic degrees of freedom. Depending on the size and polarizability of the hydrophobic particles such as noble gases, their motion in dense and polar liquids like water is subject to different diffusive regimes: the inter-cavity hopping mechanism of small particles (He, Ne) breaks down if a critical particle size achieved. For the case of large particles (Kr, Xe), the motion through the water solvent is governed by mass-independent viscous friction leading to hydrodynamical diffusion. Finally, Ar falls in between the two diffusive regimes, where particle dispersion is propagated at the molecular collision time scale of the surrounding water molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walter, Nathan P.; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Cai, Zhikun; Zhang, Yang
2018-07-01
Neutron scattering is a powerful experimental technique for characterizing the structure and dynamics of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. However, the interpretation of experimental data from neutron scattering is oftentimes not trivial, partly because scattering methods probe ensemble-averaged information in the reciprocal space. Therefore, computer simulations, such as classical and ab initio molecular dynamics, are frequently used to unravel the time-dependent atomistic configurations that can reproduce the scattering patterns and thus assist in the understanding of the microscopic origin of certain properties of materials. LiquidLib is a post-processing package for analyzing the trajectory of atomistic simulations of liquids and liquid-like matter with application to neutron scattering experiments. From an atomistic simulation, LiquidLib provides the computation of various statistical quantities including the pair distribution function, the weighted and unweighted structure factors, the mean squared displacement, the non-Gaussian parameter, the four-point correlation function, the velocity auto correlation function, the self and collective van Hove correlation functions, the self and collective intermediate scattering functions, and the bond orientational order parameter. LiquidLib analyzes atomistic trajectories generated from packages such as LAMMPS, GROMACS, and VASP. It also offers an extendable platform to conveniently integrate new quantities into the library and integrate simulation trajectories of other file formats for analysis. Weighting the quantities by element-specific neutron-scattering lengths provides results directly comparable to neutron scattering measurements. Lastly, LiquidLib is independent of dimensionality, which allows analysis of trajectories in two, three, and higher dimensions. The code is beginning to find worldwide use.
Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.
2016-05-04
Here, we present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We also discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH 3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). Furthermore, we find that there are regions of state spacemore » for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the “rare-event” character of chemical reactions.« less
Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.
2016-05-01
We present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). We find that there are regions of state space for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the "rare-event" character of chemical reactions.
Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum.
Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean
2015-03-01
We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003)] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013)]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Jayanta; Gajapathy, Harshad; Konar, Arindam; Narasimhaiah, Gowrav M.; Bhattacharya, Atanu
2017-11-01
Energetic materials store a large amount of chemical energy. Different ignition processes, including laser ignition and shock or compression wave, initiate the energy release process by first promoting energetic molecules to the electronically excited states. This is why a full understanding of initial steps of the chemical dynamics of energetic molecules from the excited electronic states is highly desirable. In general, conical intersection (CI), which is the crossing point of multidimensional electronic potential energy surfaces, is well established as a controlling factor in the initial steps of chemical dynamics of energetic molecules following their electronic excitations. In this article, we have presented different aspects of the ultrafast unimolecular relaxation dynamics of energetic molecules through CIs. For this task, we have employed ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulation using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) electronic wavefunction and frozen Gaussian-based nuclear wavefunction. The AIMS simulation results collectively reveal that the ultrafast relaxation step of the best energetic molecules (which are known to exhibit very good detonation properties) is completed in less than 500 fs. Many, however, exhibit sub-50 fs dynamics. For example, nitro-containing molecules (including C-NO2, N-NO2, and O-NO2 active moieties) relax back to the ground state in approximately 40 fs through similar (S1/S0)CI conical intersections. The N3-based energetic molecule undergoes the N2 elimination process in 40 fs through the (S1/S0)CI conical intersection. Nitramine-Fe complexes exhibit sub-50 fs Fe-O and N-O bond dissociation through the respective (S1/S0)CI conical intersection. On the other hand, tetrazine-N-oxides, which are known to exhibit better detonation properties than tetrazines, undergo internal conversion in a 400-fs time scale, while the relaxation time of tetrazine is very long (about 100 ns). Many other characteristics of
Horowitz, Yonatan; Han, Hui-Ling; Soto, Fernando A; Ralston, Walter T; Balbuena, Perla B; Somorjai, Gabor A
2018-02-14
Fluorinated compounds are added to carbonate-based electrolyte solutions in an effort to create a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The SEI mitigates detrimental electrolyte redox reactions taking place on the anode's surface upon applying a potential in order to charge (discharge) the lithium (Li) ion battery. The need for a stable SEI is dire when the anode material is silicon as silicon cracks due to its expansion and contraction upon lithiation and delithiation (charge-discharge) cycles, consequently limiting the cyclability of a silicon-based battery. Here we show the molecular structures for ethylene carbonate (EC): fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) solutions on silicon surfaces by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, which yields vibrational spectra of molecules at interfaces and by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations at open circuit potential. Our AIMD simulations and SFG spectra indicate that both EC and FEC adsorb to the amorphous silicon (a-Si) through their carbonyl group (C═O) oxygen atom with no further desorption. We show that FEC additives induce the reorientation of EC molecules to create an ordered, up-right orientation of the electrolytes on the Si surface. We suggest that this might be helpful for Li diffusion under applied potential. Furthermore, FEC becomes the dominant species at the a-Si surface as the FEC concentration increases above 20 wt %. Our finding at open circuit potential can now initiate additive design to not only act as a sacrificial compound but also to produce a better suited SEI for the use of silicon anodes in the Li-ion vehicular industry.
Tachikawa, Hiroto
2014-06-06
The mechanism of dissolution of the Li(+) ion in an electrolytic solvent is investigated by the direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method. Lithium fluoroborate (Li(+)BF4(-)) and ethylene carbonate (EC) are examined as the origin of the Li(+) ion and the solvent molecule, respectively. This salt is widely utilized as the electrolyte in the lithium ion secondary battery. The binding of EC to the Li(+) moiety of the Li(+)BF4(-) salt is exothermic, and the binding energies at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level for n=1, 2, 3, and 4, where n is the number of EC molecules binding to the Li(+) ion, (EC)n(Li(+)BF4(-)), are calculated to be 91.5, 89.8, 87.2, and 84.0 kcal mol(-1) (per EC molecule), respectively. The intermolecular distances between Li(+) and the F atom of BF4(-) are elongated: 1.773 Å (n=0), 1.820 Å (n=1), 1.974 Å (n=2), 1.942 Å (n=3), and 4.156 Å (n=4). The atomic bond populations between Li(+) and the F atom for n=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are 0.202, 0.186, 0.150, 0.038, and 0.0, respectively. These results indicate that the interaction of Li(+) with BF4(-) becomes weaker as the number of EC molecules is increased. The direct AIMD calculation for n=4 shows that EC reacts spontaneously with (EC)3(Li(+)BF4(-)) and the Li(+) ion is stripped from the salt. The following substitution reaction takes place: EC+(EC)3(Li(+)BF4(-))→(EC)4Li(+)-(BF4(-)). The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the theoretical results. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chen, Linjiang; Mowat, John P S; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Morrison, Carole A; Thompson, Stephen P; Wright, Paul A; Düren, Tina
2013-10-23
Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations have been used to predict structural transitions of the breathing metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-53(Sc) in response to changes in temperature over the range 100-623 K and adsorption of CO2 at 0-0.9 bar at 196 K. The method has for the first time been shown to predict successfully both temperature-dependent structural changes and the structural response to variable sorbate uptake of a flexible MOF. AIMD employing dispersion-corrected density functional theory accurately simulated the experimentally observed closure of MIL-53(Sc) upon solvent removal and the transition of the empty MOF from the closed-pore phase to the very-narrow-pore phase (symmetry change from P2(1)/c to C2/c) with increasing temperature, indicating that it can directly take into account entropic as well as enthalpic effects. We also used AIMD simulations to mimic the CO2 adsorption of MIL-53(Sc) in silico by allowing the MIL-53(Sc) framework to evolve freely in response to CO2 loadings corresponding to the two steps in the experimental adsorption isotherm. The resulting structures enabled the structure determination of the two CO2-containing intermediate and large-pore phases observed by experimental synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies with increasing CO2 pressure; this would not have been possible for the intermediate structure via conventional methods because of diffraction peak broadening. Furthermore, the strong and anisotropic peak broadening observed for the intermediate structure could be explained in terms of fluctuations of the framework predicted by the AIMD simulations. Fundamental insights from the molecular-level interactions further revealed the origin of the breathing of MIL-53(Sc) upon temperature variation and CO2 adsorption. These simulations illustrate the power of the AIMD method for the prediction and understanding of the behavior of flexible microporous solids.
Liu, Peng; Johansson, Viktor; Trilaksana, Herri; Rosdahl, Jan; Andersson, Gunther G; Kloo, Lars
2017-06-14
The organization of dye molecules in the dye layer adsorbed on the semiconductor substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied using a combination of theoretical methods and experimental techniques. The model system is based on the simple D-π-A dye L0, which has been chemically modified by substituting the acceptor group CN with Br (L0Br) to offer better X-ray contrast. Experimental EXAFS data based on the Br K-edge backscattering show no obvious difference between dye-sensitized titania powder and titania film samples, thus allowing model systems to be based on powder slurries. Ab initio molecular dynamic (aiMD) calculations have been performed to extract less biased information from the experimental EXASF data. Using the aiMD calculation as input, the EXAFS structural models can be generated a priori that match the experimental data. Our study shows that the L0Br dye adsorbs in the trans-L0Br configuration and that adsorption involves both a proximity to other L0Br dye molecules and the titanium atoms in the TiO 2 substrate. These results indicate direct coordination of the dye molecules to the TiO 2 surface in contrast to previous results on metal-organic dyes. The molecular coverage of L0Br on mesoporous TiO 2 was also estimated using NICIS spectroscopy. The NICISS results emphasized that the L0Br dye on nanoporous titania mainly forms monolayers with a small contribution of multilayer coverage.
Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro
2012-04-21
Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).
Kerisit, Sebastien; Bylaska, Eric J; Massey, Michael S; McBriarty, Martin E; Ilton, Eugene S
2016-11-21
Incorporation of economically or environmentally consequential polyvalent metals into iron (oxyhydr)oxides has applications in environmental chemistry, remediation, and materials science. A primary tool for characterizing the local coordination environment of such metals, and therefore building models to predict their behavior, is extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Accurate structural information can be lacking yet is required to constrain and inform data interpretation. In this regard, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) was used to calculate the local coordination environment of minor amounts of U incorporated in the structure of goethite (α-FeOOH). U oxidation states (VI, V, and IV) and charge compensation schemes were varied. Simulated trajectories were used to calculate the U L III -edge EXAFS function and fit experimental EXAFS data for U incorporated into goethite under reducing conditions. Calculations that closely matched the U EXAFS of the well-characterized mineral uraninite (UO 2 ), and constrained the S 0 2 parameter to be 0.909, validated the approach. The results for the U-goethite system indicated that U(V) substituted for structural Fe(III) in octahedral uranate coordination. Charge balance was achieved by the loss of one structural proton coupled to addition of one electron into the solid (-1 H + , +1 e - ). The ability of AIMD to model higher energy states thermally accessible at room temperature is particularly relevant for protonated systems such as goethite, where proton transfers between adjacent octahedra had a dramatic effect on the calculated EXAFS. Vibrational effects as a function of temperature were also estimated using AIMD, allowing separate quantification of thermal and configurational disorder. In summary, coupling AIMD structural modeling and EXAFS experiments enables modeling of the redox behavior of polyvalent metals that are incorporated in conductive materials such as iron (oxyhydr)oxides, with
Sangiovanni, D G; Gueorguiev, G K; Kakanakova-Georgieva, A
2018-06-19
Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of group III nitrides on graphene heterostructures offers new opportunities for the development of flexible optoelectronic devices and for the stabilization of conceptually-new two-dimensional materials. However, the MOCVD of group III nitrides is regulated by an intricate interplay of gas-phase and surface reactions that are beyond the resolution of experimental techniques. We use density-functional ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) with van der Waals corrections to identify atomistic pathways and associated electronic mechanisms driving precursor/surface reactions during metal organic vapor phase epitaxy at elevated temperatures of aluminum nitride on graphene, considered here as model case study. The results presented provide plausible interpretations of atomistic and electronic processes responsible for delivery of Al, C adatoms, and C-Al, CHx, AlNH2 admolecules on pristine graphene via precursor/surface reactions. In addition, the simulations reveal C adatom permeation across defect-free graphene, as well as exchange of C monomers with graphene carbon atoms, for which we obtain rates of ∼0.3 THz at typical experimental temperatures (1500 K), and extract activation energies Eexca = 0.28 ± 0.13 eV and attempt frequencies Aexc = 2.1 (×1.7±1) THz via Arrhenius linear regression. The results demonstrate that AIMD simulations enable understanding complex precursor/surface reaction mechanisms, and thus propose AIMD to become an indispensable routine prediction-tool toward more effective exploitation of chemical precursors and better control of MOCVD processes during synthesis of functional materials.
Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2011-11-30
Following recent experiments [Science 2010, 328, 1543; PNAS 2011, 108, 965], we report an ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulation of the ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from a PbSe quantum dot (QD) into the rutile TiO(2) (110) surface. The system forms the basis for QD-sensitized semiconductor solar cells and demonstrates that ultrafast interfacial ET is instrumental for achieving high efficiencies in solar-to-electrical energy conversion. The simulation supports the observation that the ET successfully competes with energy losses due to electron-phonon relaxation. The ET proceeds by the adiabatic mechanism because of strong donor-acceptor coupling. High frequency polar vibrations of both QD and TiO(2) promote the ET, since these modes can rapidly influence the donor-acceptor state energies and coupling. Low frequency vibrations generate a distribution of initial conditions for ET, which shows a broad variety of scenarios at the single-molecule level. Compared to the molecule-TiO(2) interfaces, the QD-TiO(2) system exhibits pronounced differences that arise due to the larger size and higher rigidity of QDs relative to molecules. Both donor and acceptor states are more delocalized in the QD system, and the ET is promoted by optical phonons, which have relatively low frequencies in the QD materials composed of heavy elements. In contrast, in molecular systems, optical phonons are not thermally accessible under ambient conditions. Meanwhile, TiO(2) acceptor states resemble surface impurities due to the local influence of molecular chromophores. At the same time, the photoinduced ET at both QD-TiO(2) and molecule-TiO(2) interfaces is ultrafast and occurs by the adiabatic mechanism, as a result of strong donor-acceptor coupling. The reported state-of-the-art simulation generates a detailed time-domain atomistic description of the interfacial ET process that is fundamental to a wide variety of applications.
Kerisit, Sebastien; Bylaska, Eric J.; Massey, Michael S.
2016-11-21
Incorporation of economically or environmentally consequential polyvalent metals into iron (oxyhydr)oxides has applications in environmental chemistry, remediation, and materials science. A primary tool for characterizing the local coordination environment of such metals, and therefore building models to predict their behavior, is extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Accurate structural information can be lacking, yet is required to constrain and inform data interpretation. In this regard, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) was used to calculate the local coordination environment of minor amounts of U incorporated in the structure of goethite (α-FeOOH). U oxidation state (VI, V, and IV) and chargemore » compensation scheme (CCS) were varied. Simulated trajectories were used to calculate the U LIII-edge EXAFS function and fit experimental EXAFS data for U incorporated into goethite under reducing conditions. Calculations that closely matched the U EXAFS of the well-characterized mineral uraninite (UO2), and constrained the S02 parameter to be 0.909, validated the approach. The results for the U-goethite system indicated that U(V) substituted for structural Fe(III) in octahedral uranate coordination. Charge balance was achieved by the loss of one structural proton coupled to injection of one electron into the solid (–1 H+, + 1 e-). The ability of AIMD to model higher-energy states thermally accessible at room temperature is particularly relevant for protonated systems such as goethite, where proton transfers between adjacent octahedra had a dramatic effect on the calculated EXAFS. Vibrational effects as a function of temperature were also estimated using AIMD, allowing separate quantification of thermal and configurational disorder. In summary, coupling AIMD structural modeling and EXAFS experiments enables modeling of the redox behavior of polyvalent metals that are incorporated in conductive materials such as iron (oxyhydr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rulis, P.; Chen, J.; Ouyang, L.; Ching, W.-Y.; Su, X.; Garofalini, S. H.
2005-06-01
The electronic structure and bonding of a realistic model of an intergranular glassy film (IGF) was studied with multiple computational methods. The model has a Si-O-N glassy region sandwiched between crystalline basal planes of β-Si3N4 and contains a total of 798 atoms. It was constructed with periodic boundary conditions via classical molecular dynamics (MD) techniques using an accurate multibody atomic potential. The model was then further relaxed by the VASP (Vienna ab initio simulation package) program. It is shown that the VASP-relaxed structure reduces the total energy from the MD-relaxed structure by only 47.38eV , validating the accuracy of the multiatom potential used. The calculated electronic structure shows the IGF model to be an insulator with a sizable gap of almost 3eV . Quasidefectlike states can be identified near the band edges arising from the more strained Si-N and Si-O bonds at the interface. Calculation of the Mulliken effective charge and bond order values indicates that the bonds in the glassy region and at the interface can be enhanced and weakened by distortions in the bond length and bond angle. The states at the top of the valence band are derived mostly from the crystalline part of the Si-N bonding while the states at the bottom of the conduction band are dominated by the Si-O bonding in the glassy region. Calculation of the electrostatic potential across the interface shows an average band offset of about 1.5eV between the crystalline β-Si3N4 and the glassy Si-O-N region which could be related to the space charge model for IGF.
Makarewicz, Jan; Shirkov, Leonid
2016-05-28
The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy De of 392 cm(-1) is close to that of 387 cm(-1) calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, De for PAr becomes slightly lower than De for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics.
Lithium cluster anions: photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.
Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Li, Xiang; Sarkas, Harry W; Hendricks, Jay H; Arnold, Susan T; Bowen, Kit H
2011-01-28
Structural and energetic properties of small, deceptively simple anionic clusters of lithium, Li(n)(-), n = 3-7, were determined using a combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The most stable isomers of each of these anions, the ones most likely to contribute to the photoelectron spectra, were found using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm program. Subsequently, state-of-the-art ab initio techniques, including time-dependent density functional theory, coupled cluster, and multireference configurational interactions methods, were employed to interpret the experimental spectra.
Ab initio calculation of one-nucleon halo states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodkin, D. M.; Tchuvil'sky, Yu M.
2018-02-01
We develop an approach to microscopic and ab initio description of clustered systems, states with halo nucleon and one-nucleon resonances. For these purposes a basis combining ordinary shell-model components and cluster-channel terms is built up. The transformation of clustered wave functions to the uniform Slater-determinant type is performed using the concept of cluster coefficients. The resulting basis of orthonormalized wave functions is used for calculating the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of Hamiltonians built in the framework of ab initio approaches. Calculations of resonance and halo states of 5He, 9Be and 9B nuclei demonstrate that the approach is workable and labor-saving.
Structure and dynamics of the UO(2)(2+) ion in aqueous solution: an ab initio QMCF MD study.
Frick, Robert J; Hofer, Thomas S; Pribil, Andreas B; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M
2009-11-12
A comprehensive theoretical investigation on the structure and dynamics of the UO(2)(2+) ion in aqueous solution using double-zeta HF level quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics is presented. The quantum mechanical region includes two full layers of hydration and is embedded in a large box of explicitly treated water to achieve a realistic environment. A number of different functions, including segmential, radial, and angular distribution functions, are employed together with tilt- and Theta-angle distribution functions to describe the complex structural properties of this ion. These data were compared to recent experimental data obtained from LAXS and EXAFS and results of various theoretical calculations. Some properties were explained with the aid of charge distribution plots for the solute. The solvent dynamics around the ion were investigated using distance plots and mean ligand residence times and the results compared to experimental and theoretical data of related ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Tuan Anh
2015-03-01
Photoelectrochemical cells offer a promising avenue for hydrogen production from water and sunlight. The efficiency of these devices depends on the electronic structure of the interface between the photoelectrode and liquid water, including the alignment between the semiconductor band edges and the water redox potential. In this talk, we will present the results of first principles calculations of semiconductor-water interfaces that are obtained with a combination of density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics simulations and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). First, we will discuss the development of an MBPT approach that is aimed at improving the efficiency and accuracy of existing methodologies while still being applicable to complex heterogeneous interfaces consisting of hundreds of atoms. We will then present studies of the electronic structure of liquid water and aqueous solutions using MBPT, which represent an essential step in establishing a quantitative framework for computing the energy alignment at semiconductor-water interfaces. Finally, using a combination of DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations and MBPT, we will describe the relationship between interfacial structure, electronic properties of semiconductors and their reactivity in aqueous solutions through a number of examples, including functionalized Si surfaces and GaP/InP surfaces in contact with liquid water. T.A.P was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by the Lawrence Fellowship Program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robert, G.; Sollier, A.; Legrand, Ph.
2007-12-01
In the framework of density functional theory, static properties and phonon spectra of beryllium have been calculated under high compression (for pressures up to 4 Mbar) for two solid phases: hexagonal compact (hcp) and body-centered cubic (bcc). The melting curve and some isotherms in the liquid phase have been calculated using quantum molecular dynamics. The coupling of these theoretical data to a quasi-harmonic approach (phonon moments) allows us to suggest a new theoretical phase diagram and to build a multiphase equation of state (EOS) valid in a large range of pressure and temperature. The resulting Hugoniot curves as well as the evolution of the longitudinal sound speed with both pressure and temperature are in good agreement with available experimental data.
Ab Initio Theory of Dynamical Core-Hole Screening in Graphite from X-Ray Absorption Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessely, O.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eriksson, O.
2005-04-01
We have implemented the effect of dynamical core-hole screening, as given by Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis, in a first-principles based method and applied the theory to the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of graphite. It turns out that two of the conspicuous peaks of graphite are well described, both regarding the position, shape, and relative intensity, whereas one peak is absent in the theory. Only by incorporation of both excitonic and delocalized processes can a full account of the experimental spectrum be obtained theoretically, and we interpret the XA spectrum in graphite to be the result of a well screened and a poor screened process, much in the same way as is done for core level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Xu, Kai; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Ji, Guang-Fu
2014-10-01
The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation was applied to study the thermal decomposition of solid phase nitromethane under gradual heating and fast annealing conditions. In gradual heating simulations, we found that, rather than C-N bond cleavage, intermolecular proton transfer is more likely to be the first reaction in the decomposition process. At high temperature, the first reaction in fast annealing simulation is intermolecular proton transfer leading to CH3NOOH and CH2NO2, whereas the initial chemical event at low temperature tends to be a unimolecular C-N bond cleavage, producing CH3 and NO2 fragments. It is the first time to date that the direct rupture of a C-N bond has been reported as the first reaction in solid phase nitromethane. In addition, the fast annealing simulations on a supercell at different temperatures are conducted to validate the effect of simulation cell size on initial reaction mechanisms. The results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations on a unit cell. By analyzing the time evolution of some molecules, we also found that the time of first water molecule formation is clearly sensitive to heating rates and target temperatures when the first reaction is an intermolecular proton transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhijun; Lazim, Raudah; Sun, Tiedong; Mei, Ye; Zhang, Dawei
2012-04-01
Solvent effect on protein conformation and folding mechanism of E6-associated protein (E6ap) peptide are investigated using a recently developed charge update scheme termed as adaptive hydrogen bond-specific charge (AHBC). On the basis of the close agreement between the calculated helix contents from AHBC simulations and experimental results, we observed based on the presented simulations that the two ends of the peptide may simultaneously take part in the formation of the helical structure at the early stage of folding and finally merge to form a helix with lowest backbone RMSD of about 0.9 Å in 40% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol solution. However, in pure water, the folding may start at the center of the peptide sequence instead of at the two opposite ends. The analysis of the free energy landscape indicates that the solvent may determine the folding clusters of E6ap, which subsequently leads to the different final folded structure. The current study demonstrates new insight to the role of solvent in the determination of protein structure and folding dynamics.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of fluid H2O-CO2 mixture in broad pressure-temperature range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Jie; Zhao, Jijun; Plyasunov, Andrey V.; Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
2017-11-01
Properties of H2O and CO2 fluid and their mixtures under extreme pressures and temperatures are poorly known yet critically important in a number of applications. Several hundreds of first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) runs have been performed to obtain the pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) data on supercritical H2O, CO2, and H2O-CO2 mixtures. The pressure-temperature (P-T) range are from 0.5 GPa to 104 GPa (48.5 GPa for CO2) and from 600 K to 4000 K. Based on these data, we evaluate several existing equations of state (EOS) for the fluid H2O, CO2, and H2O-CO2 mixture. The results show that the EOS for H2O from Belonoshko et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 381-387; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3191-3208; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 3611-3626; Comput. Geosci. 18, 1267-1269] not only can be used in the studied P-T range but also is accurate enough to be used for prediction of P-V-T data. In addition, IAPWS-95 EOS for H2O shows excellent extrapolation behavior beyond 1.0 GPa and 1273 K. However, for the case of CO2, none of the existing EOS produces data in agreement with the FPMD results. We created new EOS for CO2. The precision of the new EOS is tested by comparison to the calculated P-V-T data, fugacity coefficient of the CO2 fluid derived from high P-T experimental data as well as to the (very scarce) experimental volumetric data in the high P-T range. On the basis of our FPMD data we created a new EOS for H2O-CO2 mixture. The new EOS for the mixture is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.
Ab initio interatomic potentials and the thermodynamic properties of fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J.
2017-07-01
Monte Carlo simulations with accurate ab initio interatomic potentials are used to investigate the key thermodynamic properties of argon and krypton in both vapor and liquid phases. Data are reported for the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound calculated using various two-body interatomic potentials and different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The results are compared to either experimental or reference data at state points between the triple and critical points. Using accurate two-body ab initio potentials, combined with three-body interaction terms such as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto and Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials, yields systematic improvements to the accuracy of thermodynamic predictions. The effect of three-body interactions is to lower the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities and increase both the Joule-Thomson coefficient and speed of sound. The Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential is a computationally inexpensive way to utilize accurate two-body ab initio potentials for the prediction of thermodynamic properties. In particular, it provides a very effective way of extending two-body ab initio potentials to liquid phase properties.
The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed with an emphasis on recent developments, such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is found that new developments in methodology, combined with improvements in computer hardware, are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.
The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent developments such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is shown that new developments in methodology combined with improvements in computer hardware are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.
Ab initio interatomic potentials and the thermodynamic properties of fluids.
Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J
2017-07-14
Monte Carlo simulations with accurate ab initio interatomic potentials are used to investigate the key thermodynamic properties of argon and krypton in both vapor and liquid phases. Data are reported for the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound calculated using various two-body interatomic potentials and different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The results are compared to either experimental or reference data at state points between the triple and critical points. Using accurate two-body ab initio potentials, combined with three-body interaction terms such as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto and Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials, yields systematic improvements to the accuracy of thermodynamic predictions. The effect of three-body interactions is to lower the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities and increase both the Joule-Thomson coefficient and speed of sound. The Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential is a computationally inexpensive way to utilize accurate two-body ab initio potentials for the prediction of thermodynamic properties. In particular, it provides a very effective way of extending two-body ab initio potentials to liquid phase properties.
Tasinato, Nicola; Regini, Giorgia; Stoppa, Paolo; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Gambi, Alberto
2012-06-07
Difluoromethane (CH(2)F(2), HFC-32) is a molecule used in refrigerant mixtures as a replacement of the more environmentally hazardous, ozone depleting, chlorofluorocarbons. On the other hand, presenting strong vibration-rotation bands in the 9 μm atmospheric window, it is a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. In the present work, the vibrational and ro-vibrational properties of CH(2)F(2), providing basic data for its atmospheric modeling, are studied in detail by coupling medium resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to high-level electronic structure ab initio calculations. Experimentally a full quantum assignment and accurate integrated absorption cross sections are obtained up to 5000 cm(-1). Ab initio calculations are carried out by using CCSD(T) theory and large basis sets of either the correlation consistent or atomic natural orbital hierarchies. By using vibrational perturbation theory to second order a complete set of vibrational and ro-vibrational parameters is derived from the ab initio quartic anharmonic force fields, which well compares with the spectroscopic constants retrieved experimentally. An excellent agreement between theory and experiment is achieved for vibrational energy levels and integrated absorption cross sections: transition frequencies up to four quanta of vibrational excitation are reproduced with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 7 cm(-1) while intensities are predicted within few km mol(-1) from the experiment. Basis set performances and core correlation effects are discussed throughout the paper. Particular attention is focused in the understanding of the anharmonic couplings which rule the vibrational dynamics of the |ν(1)>, |2ν(8)>, |2ν(2)> three levels interacting system. The reliability of the potential energy and dipole moment surfaces in reproducing the vibrational eigenvalues and intensities as well as in modeling the vibrational and ro-vibrational mixings over the whole 400-5000 cm(-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasinato, Nicola; Regini, Giorgia; Stoppa, Paolo; Charmet, Andrea Pietropolli; Gambi, Alberto
2012-06-01
Difluoromethane (CH2F2, HFC-32) is a molecule used in refrigerant mixtures as a replacement of the more environmentally hazardous, ozone depleting, chlorofluorocarbons. On the other hand, presenting strong vibration-rotation bands in the 9 μm atmospheric window, it is a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. In the present work, the vibrational and ro-vibrational properties of CH2F2, providing basic data for its atmospheric modeling, are studied in detail by coupling medium resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to high-level electronic structure ab initio calculations. Experimentally a full quantum assignment and accurate integrated absorption cross sections are obtained up to 5000 cm-1. Ab initio calculations are carried out by using CCSD(T) theory and large basis sets of either the correlation consistent or atomic natural orbital hierarchies. By using vibrational perturbation theory to second order a complete set of vibrational and ro-vibrational parameters is derived from the ab initio quartic anharmonic force fields, which well compares with the spectroscopic constants retrieved experimentally. An excellent agreement between theory and experiment is achieved for vibrational energy levels and integrated absorption cross sections: transition frequencies up to four quanta of vibrational excitation are reproduced with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 7 cm-1 while intensities are predicted within few km mol-1 from the experiment. Basis set performances and core correlation effects are discussed throughout the paper. Particular attention is focused in the understanding of the anharmonic couplings which rule the vibrational dynamics of the |ν1⟩, |2ν8⟩, |2ν2⟩ three levels interacting system. The reliability of the potential energy and dipole moment surfaces in reproducing the vibrational eigenvalues and intensities as well as in modeling the vibrational and ro-vibrational mixings over the whole 400-5000 cm-1 region is also
Perspective: Ab initio force field methods derived from quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Peng; Guidez, Emilie B.; Bertoni, Colleen; Gordon, Mark S.
2018-03-01
It is often desirable to accurately and efficiently model the behavior of large molecular systems in the condensed phase (thousands to tens of thousands of atoms) over long time scales (from nanoseconds to milliseconds). In these cases, ab initio methods are difficult due to the increasing computational cost with the number of electrons. A more computationally attractive alternative is to perform the simulations at the atomic level using a parameterized function to model the electronic energy. Many empirical force fields have been developed for this purpose. However, the functions that are used to model interatomic and intermolecular interactions contain many fitted parameters obtained from selected model systems, and such classical force fields cannot properly simulate important electronic effects. Furthermore, while such force fields are computationally affordable, they are not reliable when applied to systems that differ significantly from those used in their parameterization. They also cannot provide the information necessary to analyze the interactions that occur in the system, making the systematic improvement of the functional forms that are used difficult. Ab initio force field methods aim to combine the merits of both types of methods. The ideal ab initio force fields are built on first principles and require no fitted parameters. Ab initio force field methods surveyed in this perspective are based on fragmentation approaches and intermolecular perturbation theory. This perspective summarizes their theoretical foundation, key components in their formulation, and discusses key aspects of these methods such as accuracy and formal computational cost. The ab initio force fields considered here were developed for different targets, and this perspective also aims to provide a balanced presentation of their strengths and shortcomings. Finally, this perspective suggests some future directions for this actively developing area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Baoling
Atomic-level thermal transport in compact, layered, linked-cage, and filled-cage crystals is investigated using a multiscale approach, combines the ab initio calculation, molecular dynamics (MD), Boltzman transport equations (BTE), and the kinetic theory. These materials are of great interests in energy storage, transport, and conversion. The structural metrics of phonon conductivity of these crystals are then explored. An atomic structure-based model is developed for the understanding the relationship between the atomic structure and phonon transport in compact crystals at high temperatures. The elemental electronegativity, element mass, and the arrangement of bonds are found to be the dominant factors to determine the phonon conductivity. As an example of linked-cage crystals, the phonon conductivity of MOF-5 is investigated over a wide temperature range using MD simulations and the Green-Kubo method. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of MOF-5 is found to be weak at high temperatures, which results from the suppression of the long-range acoustic phonon transport by the special linked-cage structure. The mean free path of the majority of phonons in MOF-5 is limited by the cage size. The phonon and electron transport in layered Bi2Te3 structure are investigated using the first-principle calculations, MD, and BTE. Strong anisotropy has been found for both phonon and electron transport due to the special layered structure. The long-range acoustic phonons dominate the phonon transport with a strong temperature and direction dependence. Temperature dependence of the energy gap and appropriate modelling of relaxation times are found to be important for the prediction of the electrical transport in the intrinsic regime. The scattering by the acoustic, optical, and polar-optical phonons are found to dominate the electron transport. For filled skutterudite structure, strong coupling between the filler and the host is found, which contradicts the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Yuan; Liu, Weihua; Brugger, Joël; Sherman, David M.; Gale, Julian D.
2018-04-01
HCl is one of the most significant volatiles in the Earth's crust. It is well established that chloride activity and acidity (pH) play important roles in controlling the solubility of metals in aqueous hydrothermal fluids. Thus, quantifying the dissociation of HCl in aqueous solutions over a wide range of temperature and pressure is crucial for the understanding and numerical modeling of element mobility in hydrothermal fluids. Here we have conducted ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanism of HCl(aq) dissociation and to calculate the thermodynamic properties for the dissociation reaction at 25-700 °C, 1 bar to 60 kbar, i.e. including high temperature and pressure conditions that are geologically important, but difficult to investigate via experiments. Our results predict that HCl(aq) tends to associate with increasing temperature, and dissociate with increasing pressure. In particular, HCl(aq) is highly dissociated at extremely high pressures, even at high temperatures (e.g., 60 kbar, 600-700 °C). At 25 °C, the calculated logKd values (6.79 ± 0.81) are close to the value (7.0) recommended by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) and some previous experimental and theoretical studies (Simonson et al.., 1990; Sulpizi and Sprik, 2008, 2010). The MD simulations indicate full dissociation of HCl at low temperature; in contrast, some experiments were interpreted assuming significant association at high HCl concentrations (≥1 m HCltot) even at room T (logKd ∼0.7; e.g., Ruaya and Seward, 1987; Sretenskaya, 1992; review in Tagirov et al., 1997). This discrepancy is most likely the result of difficulties in the experimental determination of minor (if any) concentration of associated HCl(aq) under ambient conditions, and thus reflects differences in the activity models used for the interpretation of the experiments. With increasing temperature, the discrepancy between our MD results and previous experimental
Lattice dynamics of Cs2NaYbF6 and Cs2NaYF6 elpasolites: Ab initio calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshev, V. A.; Petrov, V. P.; Nikiforov, A. E.; Zakir'yanov, D. O.
2015-06-01
The ab initio calculations of the crystal structure and the phonon spectrum of Cs2NaYbF6 and Cs2NaYF6 crystals with the elpasolite structure have been performed. The frequencies and types of fundamental vibrations have been determined. The calculations have been performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the molecular orbital method with hybrid functionals in the CRYSTAL09 program developed for the simulation of periodic structures. The outer 5 s and 5 p shells of the rare-earth ion have been described in Gaussian-type basis sets. The influence of inner shells, including 4 f electron shells, on the outer shells has been described using the pseudopotential. It has been shown that this approach allows the description of the phonon spectrum with the inclusion of the splitting of the longitudinal and transverse optical modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández Vera, Mario; Yurtsever, Ersin; Wester, Roland; Gianturco, Franco A.
2018-05-01
We present an extensive range of accurate ab initio calculations, which map in detail the spatial electronic potential energy surface that describes the interaction between the molecular anion NH2 - (1A1) in its ground electronic state and the He atom. The time-independent close-coupling method is employed to generate the corresponding rotationally inelastic cross sections, and then the state-changing rates over a range of temperatures from 10 to 30 K, which is expected to realistically represent the experimental trapping conditions for this ion in a radio frequency ion trap filled with helium buffer gas. The overall evolutionary kinetics of the rotational level population involving the molecular anion in the cold trap is also modelled during a photodetachment experiment and analyzed using the computed rates. The present results clearly indicate the possibility of selectively detecting differences in behavior between the ortho- and para-anions undergoing photodetachment in the trap.
Towards an ab initio description of correlated materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Chuck-Hou
Strongly-correlated materials are a rich playground for physical phenomena, exhibiting complex phase diagrams with many competing orders. Ab initio insights into materials combined with physical ideas provide the ability to identify the organizing principles driving the correlated electronic behavior and pursue first-principles design of new compounds. Realistic modeling of correlated materials is an active area of research, especially with the recent merger of density functional theory (DFT) with dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). This thesis is structured in two parts. The first describes the methods and algorithmic developments which drive advances in DFT+DMFT. In Ch. 2 and 3, we provide an overview of the two foundational theories, DMFT and DFT. In the second half of Ch. 3, we describe some of the principles guiding the combination of the two theories to form DFT+DMFT. In Ch. 4, we describe the algorithm lying at the heart of modern DFT+DMFT implementations, the hybridization expansion formulation of continuous-time quantum monte carlo (CTQMC) for the general Anderson impurity problem, as well as a fast rejection algorithm for speeding-up the local trace evaluation. The final chapter in the methods section describes an algorithm for direct sampling of the partition function, and thus the free energy and entropy, of simple Anderson impurity models within CTQMC. The second part of the thesis is a collection of applications of our ab initio approach to key correlated materials. We first apply our method to plutonium binary alloys (Ch. 6), which when supplemented with slave-boson mean-field theory, allows us to understand the observed photoemission spectra. Ch. 7 describes the computation of spectra and optical conductivity for rare-earth nickelates grown as epitaxial thin films. In the final two chapters, we turn our attention to the high-temperature superconductors. In the first, we show that the charge-transfer energy is a key chemical variable which controls
Ab initio theories for light nuclei and neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gezerlis, Alexandros
2016-09-01
In this talk I will touch upon several features of modern ab initio low-energy nuclear theory. I will start by discussing what ``ab initio'' means in this context. Specifically, I will spend some time going over nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions and their connections with the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. I will then show how these interactions are used to describe light nuclei using essentially exact few-body methods. I will then discuss heavier systems, especially those of astrophysical relevance, as well as the methods used to tackle them. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI).
Ab initio structures and polarizabilities of sodium clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kronik, Leeor; Vasiliev, Igor; Jain, Manish; Chelikowsky, James R.
2001-09-01
We present quantitative ab initio calculations for Na cluster structures and polarizabilities, for all cluster sizes up to 20 atoms. Our calculations are performed by combining an ab initio core-corrected pseudopotential and a gradient-corrected density functional within a real space approach. We find the cluster bonding to be very floppy and catalog a host of low-energy quasi-degenerate isomers for all second-decade clusters. The existence of these isomers results in a band of polarizability values for each cluster size even at zero temperature. This eliminates any finer structure in the polarizability curve. We further show that the experimental polarizability values are consistently underestimated by calculations at zero temperature. By computing the effects of structure expansion and distortion due to a finite temperature we arrive at a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment.
Ab Initio Study of KCl and AgCl Clusters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeough, James; Hira, Ajit; Cathey, Tommy; Valdez, Alexandra
This paper presents a theoretical study of molecular clusters that examines the chemical and physical properties of small KnCln and AgnCln clusters (n = 2 - 24). Due to combinations of attractive and repulsive long-range forces, such clusters exhibit structural and dynamical behavior different from that of homogeneous clusters. The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is widely known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations were performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. Potential design of new medicinal drugs is explored. We will also investigate model and material dependence of the results. AMP program of the National Science Foundation.
Ab initio predictions of the symmetry energy and recent constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sammarruca, Francesca
2017-01-01
The symmetry energy plays a crucial role in the structure and the dynamics of neutron-rich systems, including the formation of neutron skins, the location of neutron drip lines, as well as intriguing correlations with the structure of compact stars. With experimental efforts in progress or being planned to shed light on the less known aspects of the nuclear chart, microscopic predictions based on ab initio approaches are very important. In recent years, chiral effective field theory has become popular because of its firm connection with quantum chromodynamics and its systematic approach to the development of nuclear forces. Predictions of the symmetry energy obtained from modern chiral interactions will be discussed in the light of recent empirical constraints extracted from heavy ion collisions at 400 MeV per nucleon at GSI. Applications of our equations of state to neutron-rich systems will also be discussed, with particular emphasis on neutron skins, which are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy.
The study of molecular spectroscopy by ab initio methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1991-01-01
This review illustrates the potential of theory for solving spectroscopic problems. The accuracy of approximate techniques for including electron correlation have been calibrated by comparison with full configuration-interaction calculations. Examples of the application of ab initio calculations to vibrational, rotational, and electronic spectroscopy are given. It is shown that the state-averaged, complete active space self-consistent field, multireference configuration-interaction procedure provides a good approach for treating several electronic states accurately in a common molecular orbital basis.
GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.
1978-01-01
Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.
A Complete and Accurate Ab Initio Repeat Finding Algorithm.
Lian, Shuaibin; Chen, Xinwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Dai, Xianhua
2016-03-01
It has become clear that repetitive sequences have played multiple roles in eukaryotic genome evolution including increasing genetic diversity through mutation, changes in gene expression and facilitating generation of novel genes. However, identification of repetitive elements can be difficult in the ab initio manner. Currently, some classical ab initio tools of finding repeats have already presented and compared. The completeness and accuracy of detecting repeats of them are little pool. To this end, we proposed a new ab initio repeat finding tool, named HashRepeatFinder, which is based on hash index and word counting. Furthermore, we assessed the performances of HashRepeatFinder with other two famous tools, such as RepeatScout and Repeatfinder, in human genome data hg19. The results indicated the following three conclusions: (1) The completeness of HashRepeatFinder is the best one among these three compared tools in almost all chromosomes, especially in chr9 (8 times of RepeatScout, 10 times of Repeatfinder); (2) in terms of detecting large repeats, HashRepeatFinder also performed best in all chromosomes, especially in chr3 (24 times of RepeatScout and 250 times of Repeatfinder) and chr19 (12 times of RepeatScout and 60 times of Repeatfinder); (3) in terms of accuracy, HashRepeatFinder can merge the abundant repeats with high accuracy.
A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane.
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-09-14
A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of (12)CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm(-1). The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.
Ab initio calculations for industrial materials engineering: successes and challenges.
Wimmer, Erich; Najafabadi, Reza; Young, George A; Ballard, Jake D; Angeliu, Thomas M; Vollmer, James; Chambers, James J; Niimi, Hiroaki; Shaw, Judy B; Freeman, Clive; Christensen, Mikael; Wolf, Walter; Saxe, Paul
2010-09-29
Computational materials science based on ab initio calculations has become an important partner to experiment. This is demonstrated here for the effect of impurities and alloying elements on the strength of a Zr twist grain boundary, the dissociative adsorption and diffusion of iodine on a zirconium surface, the diffusion of oxygen atoms in a Ni twist grain boundary and in bulk Ni, and the dependence of the work function of a TiN-HfO(2) junction on the replacement of N by O atoms. In all of these cases, computations provide atomic-scale understanding as well as quantitative materials property data of value to industrial research and development. There are two key challenges in applying ab initio calculations, namely a higher accuracy in the electronic energy and the efficient exploration of large parts of the configurational space. While progress in these areas is fueled by advances in computer hardware, innovative theoretical concepts combined with systematic large-scale computations will be needed to realize the full potential of ab initio calculations for industrial applications.
Ab Initio Calculations of Water Line Strengths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry
1998-01-01
We report on the determination of a high quality ab initiu potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function for water. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base with J less than 6 for H2O. The changes in the PES are small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Using this adjusted PES, we can match 30,092 of the 30,117 transitions in the HITRAN 96 data base for H2O with theoretical lines. The 10,25,50,75, and 90 percentiles of the difference between the calculated and tabulated line positions are -0.11, -0.04, -0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 l/cm. Non-adiabatic effects are not explicitly included. About 3% of the tabulated line positions appear to be incorrect. Similar agreement using this adjusted PES is obtained for the oxygen 17 and oxygen 18 isotopes. For HDO, the agreement is not as good, with root-mean-square error of 0.25 l/cm for lines with J less than 6. This error is reduced to 0.02 l/cm by including a small asymmetric correction to the PES, which is parameterized by simultaneously fitting to HDO md D2O data. Scaling this correction by mass factors yields good results for T2O and HTO. The intensities summed over vibrational bands are usually in good agreement between the calculations and the tabulated results, but individual lines strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature list consisting of 307,721,352 lines is generated for H2O using our PES and dipole moment function.
Olasz, Balázs; Szabó, István; Czakó, Gábor
2017-04-01
Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) and proton transfer are fundamental processes in chemistry and F - + CH 3 I is an important prototype of these reactions. Here we develop the first full-dimensional ab initio analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the F - + CH 3 I system using a permutationally invariant fit of high-level composite energies obtained with the combination of the explicitly-correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method, the aug-cc-pVTZ basis, core electron correlation effects, and a relativistic effective core potential for iodine. The PES accurately describes the S N 2 channel producing I - + CH 3 F via Walden-inversion, front-side attack, and double-inversion pathways as well as the proton-transfer channel leading to HF + CH 2 I - . The relative energies of the stationary points on the PES agree well with the new explicitly-correlated all-electron CCSD(T)-F12b/QZ-quality benchmark values. Quasiclassical trajectory computations on the PES show that the proton transfer becomes significant at high collision energies and double-inversion as well as front-side attack trajectories can occur. The computed broad angular distributions and hot internal energy distributions indicate the dominance of indirect mechanisms at lower collision energies, which is confirmed by analyzing the integration time and leaving group velocity distributions. Comparison with available crossed-beam experiments shows usually good agreement.
Ab Initio Predictions of Hexagonal Zr(B,C,N) Polymorphs for Coherent Interface Design
Hu, Chongze; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.
2017-10-27
Density functional theory calculations are used to explore hexagonal (HX) NiAs-like polymorphs of Zr(B,C,N) and compare with corresponding Zr(B,C,N) Hagg-like face-centered cubic rocksalt (B1) phases. While all predicted compounds are mechanically stable according to the Born-Huang criteria, only HX Zr(C,N) are found dynamically stable from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and lattice dynamics calculations. HX ZrN emerges as a candidate structure with ground state energy, elastic constants, and extrinsic mechanical parameters comparable with those of B1 ZrN. Ab initio band structure and semi-classical Boltzmann transport calculations predict a metallic character and a monotonic increase in electrical conductivity with the numbermore » of valence electrons. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the HX phases gain their stability and mechanical attributes by Zr d- non-metal p hybridization and by broadening of Zr d bands. Furthermore, it is shown that the HX ZrN phase provides a low-energy coherent interface model for connecting B1 ZrN domains, with significant energetic advantage over an atomistic interface model derived from high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The ab initio characterizations provided herein should aid the experimental identification of non-Hagg-like hard phases. Furthermore, the results can also enrich the variety of crystalline phases potentially available for designing coherent interfaces in superhard nanostructured materials and in materials with multilayer characteristics.« less
Optical properties of highly compressed polystyrene: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kilcrease, D. P.
2017-10-01
Using all-electron density functional theory, we have performed an ab initio study on x-ray absorption spectra of highly compressed polystyrene (CH). We found that the K -edge shifts in strongly coupled, degenerate polystyrene cannot be explained by existing continuum-lowering models adopted in traditional plasma physics. To gain insights into the K -edge shift in warm, dense CH, we have developed a model designated as "single mixture in a box" (SMIAB), which incorporates both the lowering of the continuum and the rising of the Fermi surface resulting from high compression. This simple SMIAB model correctly predicts the K -edge shift of carbon in highly compressed CH in good agreement with results from quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations. Traditional opacity models failed to give the proper K -edge shifts as the CH density increased. Based on QMD calculations, we have established a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) for CH in a wide range of densities and temperatures [ρ =0.1 -100 g /c m3 and T =2000 -1 000 000 K ]. The FPOT gives much higher Rosseland mean opacity compared to the cold-opacity-patched astrophysics opacity table for warm, dense CH and favorably compares to the newly improved Los Alamos atomic model for moderately compressed CH (ρCH≤10 g /c m3 ), but remains a factor of 2 to 3 higher at extremely high densities (ρCH≥50 g /c m3 ). We anticipate the established FPOT of CH will find important applications to reliable designs of high-energy-density experiments. Moreover, the understanding of K -edge shifting revealed in this study could provide guides for improving the traditional opacity models to properly handle the strongly coupled and degenerate conditions.
Optical properties of highly compressed polystyrene: An ab initio study
Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Colgan, J. P.
Using all-electron density functional theory, we have performed an ab initio study on x ray absorption spectra of highly compressed polystyrene (CH). Here, we found that the K-edge shifts in strongly coupled, degenerate polystyrene cannot be explained by existing continuum-lowering models adopted in traditional plasma physics. To gain insights into the K edge shift in warm, dense CH, we have developed a model designated as “single-mixture-in-a-box” (SMIAB), which incorporates both the lowering of continuum and the rising of Fermi surface resulting from high compression. This simple SMIAB model correctly predicts the K-edge shift of carbon in highly compressed CH inmore » good agreement with results from quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) calculations. Traditional opacity models failed to give the proper K-edge shifts as the CH density increased. Based on QMD calculations, we have established a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) for CH in a wide range of densities and temperatures [p = 0.1 to 100 g/cm 3 and T = 2000 to 1,000,000 K]. The FPOT gives much higher Rosseland mean opacity compared to the cold-opacity–patched astrophysics opacity table for warm, dense CH and favorably compares to the newly improved Los Alamos ATOMIC model for moderately compressed CH (pCH ≤10 g/cm 3) but remains a factor of 2 to 3 higher at extremely high densities (pCH ≥ 50 g/cm 3). We anticipate the established FPOT of CH will find important applications to reliable designs of high-energy-density experiments. Moreover, the understanding of K-edge shifting revealed in this study could provide guides for improving the traditional opacity models to properly handle the strongly coupled and degenerate conditions.« less
Optical properties of highly compressed polystyrene: An ab initio study
Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Colgan, J. P.; ...
2017-10-16
Using all-electron density functional theory, we have performed an ab initio study on x ray absorption spectra of highly compressed polystyrene (CH). Here, we found that the K-edge shifts in strongly coupled, degenerate polystyrene cannot be explained by existing continuum-lowering models adopted in traditional plasma physics. To gain insights into the K edge shift in warm, dense CH, we have developed a model designated as “single-mixture-in-a-box” (SMIAB), which incorporates both the lowering of continuum and the rising of Fermi surface resulting from high compression. This simple SMIAB model correctly predicts the K-edge shift of carbon in highly compressed CH inmore » good agreement with results from quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) calculations. Traditional opacity models failed to give the proper K-edge shifts as the CH density increased. Based on QMD calculations, we have established a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) for CH in a wide range of densities and temperatures [p = 0.1 to 100 g/cm 3 and T = 2000 to 1,000,000 K]. The FPOT gives much higher Rosseland mean opacity compared to the cold-opacity–patched astrophysics opacity table for warm, dense CH and favorably compares to the newly improved Los Alamos ATOMIC model for moderately compressed CH (pCH ≤10 g/cm 3) but remains a factor of 2 to 3 higher at extremely high densities (pCH ≥ 50 g/cm 3). We anticipate the established FPOT of CH will find important applications to reliable designs of high-energy-density experiments. Moreover, the understanding of K-edge shifting revealed in this study could provide guides for improving the traditional opacity models to properly handle the strongly coupled and degenerate conditions.« less
Ab Initio Studies of Metal Hexaboride Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Kevin M.
Metal hexaborides are refractory ceramics with several qualities relevant to materials design, such as low work functions, high hardness, low thermal expansion coefficients, and high melting points, among many other properties of interest for industrial applications. Thermal and mechanical stability is a common feature provided by the covalently-bonded network boron atoms, and electronic properties can vary significantly with the resident metal. While these materials are currently employed as electron emitters and abrasives, promising uses of these materials also include catalytic applications for chemical dissociation reactions of various molecules such as hydrogen, water and carbon monoxide, for example. However, these extensions require a thorough understanding of particular mechanical and electronic properties. This dissertation is a collection of studies focused on understanding the behavior of metal hexaboride materials using computational modeling methods to investigate materials properties of these from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view. Classical modeling is performed using molecular dynamics methods with interatomic potentials obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Atomic mean-square displacements from the quasi-harmonic approximation and lattice energetic data are produced with DFT for developing the potentials. A generalized method was also developed for the inversion of cohesive energy curves of crystalline materials; pairwise interatomic potentials are extracted using detailed geometrical descriptions of the atomic interactions and a list of atomic displacements and degeneracies. The surface structure of metal hexaborides is studied with DFT using several model geometries to describe the terminal cation layouts, and these provide a basis for further studies on metal hexaboride interactions with hydrogen. The surface electronic structure calculations show that segregated regions of metal and boron
Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure.
Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel
2015-01-01
Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors' approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a 'still-life', but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein's true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.
2015-02-01
The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.
{bold {ital Ab initio}} studies of the structural and electronic properties of solid cubane
Richardson, S.L.; Martins, J.L.
1998-12-01
In this paper, we report {ital ab initio} calculation of the structural and electronic properties of solid cubane (s-C{sub 8}H{sub 8}) in the local-density approximation. By using an {ital ab initio} constant pressure extended molecular dynamics method with variable cell shape proposed by Wentzcovitch, Martins, and Price, we compute a lattice parameter {ital a} and a bond angle {alpha} for the rhombohedral Bravais lattice and compare it with experimental x-ray data. We obtain bond lengths for the mononuclear C{sub 8}H{sub 8} unit of basis atoms, as well as a density of states and heat of formation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {italmore » The American Physical Society}« less
Automated generation of radical species in crystalline carbohydrate using ab initio MD simulations.
Aalbergsjø, Siv G; Pauwels, Ewald; Van Yperen-De Deyne, Andy; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Sagstuen, Einar
2014-08-28
As the chemical structures of radiation damaged molecules may differ greatly from their undamaged counterparts, investigation and description of radiation damaged structures is commonly biased by the researcher. Radical formation from ionizing radiation in crystalline α-l-rhamnose monohydrate has been investigated using a new method where the selection of radical structures is unbiased by the researcher. The method is based on using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) studies to investigate how ionization damage can form, change and move. Diversity in the radical production is gained by using different points on the potential energy surface of the intact crystal as starting points for the ionizations and letting the initial velocities of the nuclei after ionization be generated randomly. 160 ab initio MD runs produced 12 unique radical structures for investigation. Out of these, 7 of the potential products have never previously been discussed, and 3 products are found to match with radicals previously observed by electron magnetic resonance experiments.
Ab initio theoretical calculations of the electronic excitation energies of small water clusters.
Tachikawa, Hiroto; Yabushita, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro
2011-12-14
A direct ab initio molecular dynamics method has been applied to a water monomer and water clusters (H(2)O)(n) (n = 1-3) to elucidate the effects of zero-point energy (ZPE) vibration on the absorption spectra of water clusters. Static ab initio calculations without ZPE showed that the first electronic transitions of (H(2)O)(n), (1)B(1)←(1)A(1), are blue-shifted as a function of cluster size (n): 7.38 eV (n = 1), 7.58 eV (n = 2) and 8.01 eV (n = 3). The inclusion of the ZPE vibration strongly affects the excitation energies of a water dimer, and a long red-tail appears in the range of 6.42-6.90 eV due to the structural flexibility of a water dimer. The ultraviolet photodissociation of water clusters and water ice surfaces is relevant to these results.
Ab initio simulations of iron-nickel alloys at Earth's core conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Côté, Alexander S.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Brodholt, John P.
2012-09-01
We report ab initio density functional theory calculations on iron-nickel (FeNi) alloys at conditions representative of the Earth's inner core. We test different concentrations of Ni, up to ∼39 wt% using ab initio lattice dynamics, and investigate the thermodynamic and vibrational stability of the three candidate crystal structures (bcc, hcp and fcc). First of all, at inner core pressures, we find that pure Fe transforms from the hcp to the fcc phase at around 6000 K. Secondly, in agreement with low pressure experiments on Fe-Ni alloys, we find the fcc structure is stabilised by the incorporation of Ni under core pressures and temperatures. Our results show that the fcc structure may, therefore, be stable under core conditions depending on the temperature in the inner core and the Ni content. Lastly, we find that within the quasi-harmonic approximation, there is no stability field for FeNi alloys in the bcc structure under core conditions.
Ab initio study of C + H3+ reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talbi, D.; DeFrees, D. J.
1991-01-01
The reaction C + H3+ --> CH(+) + H2 is frequently used in models of dense interstellar cloud chemistry with the assumption that it is fast, i.e. there are no potential energy barriers inhibiting it. Ab initio molecular orbital study of the triplet CH3+ potential energy surface (triplet because the reactant carbon atom is a ground state triplet) supports this hypothesis. The reaction product is 3 pi CH+; the reaction is to exothermic even though the product is not in its electronic ground state. No path has been found on the potential energy surface for C + H3+ --> CH2(+) + H reaction.
Ab Initio Calculations Applied to Problems in Metal Ion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Electronic structure calculations can provide accurate spectroscopic data (such as molecular structures) vibrational frequencies, binding energies, etc.) that have been very useful in explaining trends in experimental data and in identifying incorrect experimental measurements. In addition, ab initio calculations. have given considerable insight into the many interactions that make the chemistry of transition metal systems so diverse. In this review we focus on cases where calculations and experiment have been used to solve interesting chemical problems involving metal ions. The examples include cases where theory was used to differentiate between disparate experimental values and cases where theory was used to explain unexpected experimental results.
Graphitic nanofilms of zinc-blende materials: ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, San-Lue; Zhao, Li; Li, Yan-Li
2017-12-01
Ab initio calculations on ultra-thin nanofilms of 25 kinds of zinc-blende semiconductors demonstrate their stable geometry structures growth along (1 1 1) surface. Our results show that the (1 1 1) surfaces of 9 kinds of zinc-blende semiconductors can transform into a stable graphitelike structure within a certain thickness. The tensile strain effect on the thickness of graphitic films is not obvious. The band gaps of stable graphitic films can be tuned over a wide range by epitaxial tensile strain, which is important for applications in microelectronic devices, solar cells and light-emitting diodes.
Pseudopotential for ab initio calculations of uranium compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, G. S.; Pisarev, V. V.; Stegailov, V. V.
2018-01-01
The density functional theory (DFT) is a research tool of the highest importance for electronic structure calculations. It is often the only affordable method for ab initio calculations of complex materials. The pseudopotential approach allows reducing the total number of electrons in the model that speeds up calculations. However, there is a lack of pseudopotentials for heavy elements suitable for condensed matter DFT models. In this work, we present a pseudopotential for uranium developed in the Goedecker-Teter-Hutter form. Its accuracy is illustrated using several molecular and solid-state calculations.
Ab initio quantum chemical study of electron transfer in carboranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pati, Ranjit; Pineda, Andrew C.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.
2005-05-01
The electron transfer (ET) properties of 10- and 12-vertex carboranes are investigated by the ab initio Hartree-Fock method within the Marcus-Hush (MH) two-state model and the Koopman theorem (KT) approach. The calculated value of the ET coupling matrix element, VAB, is consistently higher in the KT approach than in the MH two-state model. For the carborane molecules functionalized by -CH 2 groups at C-vertices, VAB strongly depends on the relative orientation of the planes containing the terminal -CH 2 groups. The predicted conformation dependence of VAB offers a molecular mechanism to control ET between two active centers in molecular systems.
Iterative projection algorithms for ab initio phasing in virus crystallography.
Lo, Victor L; Kingston, Richard L; Millane, Rick P
2016-12-01
Iterative projection algorithms are proposed as a tool for ab initio phasing in virus crystallography. The good global convergence properties of these algorithms, coupled with the spherical shape and high structural redundancy of icosahedral viruses, allows high resolution phases to be determined with no initial phase information. This approach is demonstrated by determining the electron density of a virus crystal with 5-fold non-crystallographic symmetry, starting with only a spherical shell envelope. The electron density obtained is sufficiently accurate for model building. The results indicate that iterative projection algorithms should be routinely applicable in virus crystallography, without the need for ancillary phase information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A fragmentation and reassembly method for ab initio phasing.
Shrestha, Rojan; Zhang, Kam Y J
2015-02-01
Ab initio phasing with de novo models has become a viable approach for structural solution from protein crystallographic diffraction data. This approach takes advantage of the known protein sequence information, predicts de novo models and uses them for structure determination by molecular replacement. However, even the current state-of-the-art de novo modelling method has a limit as to the accuracy of the model predicted, which is sometimes insufficient to be used as a template for successful molecular replacement. A fragment-assembly phasing method has been developed that starts from an ensemble of low-accuracy de novo models, disassembles them into fragments, places them independently in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement and then reassembles them into a whole structure that can provide sufficient phase information to enable complete structure determination by automated model building. Tests on ten protein targets showed that the method could solve structures for eight of these targets, although the predicted de novo models cannot be used as templates for successful molecular replacement since the best model for each target is on average more than 4.0 Å away from the native structure. The method has extended the applicability of the ab initio phasing by de novo models approach. The method can be used to solve structures when the best de novo models are still of low accuracy.
Ab Initio and Analytic Intermolecular Potentials for Ar-CF₄
Vayner, Grigoriy; Alexeev, Yuri; Wang, Jiangping
2006-03-09
Ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of theory are performed to characterize the Ar + CF ₄ intermolecular potential. Extensive calculations, with and without a correction for basis set superposition error (BSSE), are performed with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Additional calculations are performed with other correlation consistent (cc) basis sets to extrapolate the Ar---CF₄potential energy minimum to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Both the size of the basis set and BSSE have substantial effects on the Ar + CF₄ potential. Calculations with the cc-pVTZ basis set and without a BSSE correction, appear to give a good representation ofmore » the potential at the CBS limit and with a BSSE correction. In addition, MP2 theory is found to give potential energies in very good agreement with those determined by the much higher level CCSD(T) theory. Two analytic potential energy functions were determined for Ar + CF₄by fitting the cc-pVTZ calculations both with and without a BSSE correction. These analytic functions were written as a sum of two body potentials and excellent fits to the ab initio potentials were obtained by representing each two body interaction as a Buckingham potential.« less
Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions
Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; ...
2016-04-13
The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Bemore » $${({\\rm{p}},\\gamma )}^{8}{\\rm{B}}$$ radiative capture. Lastly, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H$${({\\rm{d}},{\\rm{n}})}^{4}$$He fusion.« less
Ab initio thermodynamic model for magnesium carbonates and hydrates.
Chaka, Anne M; Felmy, Andrew R
2014-09-04
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first-principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogues of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite, which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
Ab initio and empirical energy landscapes of (MgF2)n clusters (n = 3, 4).
Neelamraju, S; Schön, J C; Doll, K; Jansen, M
2012-01-21
We explore the energy landscape of (MgF(2))(3) on both the empirical and ab initio level using the threshold algorithm. In order to determine the energy landscape and the dynamics of the trimer we investigate not only the stable isomers but also the barriers separating these isomers. Furthermore, we study the probability flows in order to estimate the stability of all the isomers found. We find that there is reasonable qualitative agreement between the ab initio and empirical potential, and important features such as sub-basins and energetic barriers follow similar trends. However, we observe that the energies are systematically different for the less compact clusters, when comparing empirical and ab initio energies. Since the underlying motivation of this work is to identify the possible clusters present in the gas phase during a low-temperature atom beam deposition synthesis of MgF(2), we employ the same procedure to additionally investigate the energy landscape of the tetramer. For this case, however, we use only the empirical potential.
Zeng, Lu; Kortschak, R Daniel; Raison, Joy M; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L
2018-01-01
Transposable Elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that make up significant fractions of amniote genomes. However, they are difficult to detect and annotate ab initio because of their variable features, lengths and clade-specific variants. We have addressed this problem by refining and developing a Comprehensive ab initio Repeat Pipeline (CARP) to identify and cluster TEs and other repetitive sequences in genome assemblies. The pipeline begins with a pairwise alignment using krishna, a custom aligner. Single linkage clustering is then carried out to produce families of repetitive elements. Consensus sequences are then filtered for protein coding genes and then annotated using Repbase and a custom library of retrovirus and reverse transcriptase sequences. This process yields three types of family: fully annotated, partially annotated and unannotated. Fully annotated families reflect recently diverged/young known TEs present in Repbase. The remaining two types of families contain a mixture of novel TEs and segmental duplications. These can be resolved by aligning these consensus sequences back to the genome to assess copy number vs. length distribution. Our pipeline has three significant advantages compared to other methods for ab initio repeat identification: 1) we generate not only consensus sequences, but keep the genomic intervals for the original aligned sequences, allowing straightforward analysis of evolutionary dynamics, 2) consensus sequences represent low-divergence, recently/currently active TE families, 3) segmental duplications are annotated as a useful by-product. We have compared our ab initio repeat annotations for 7 genome assemblies to other methods and demonstrate that CARP compares favourably with RepeatModeler, the most widely used repeat annotation package.
Zeng, Lu; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Raison, Joy M.
2018-01-01
Transposable Elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that make up significant fractions of amniote genomes. However, they are difficult to detect and annotate ab initio because of their variable features, lengths and clade-specific variants. We have addressed this problem by refining and developing a Comprehensive ab initio Repeat Pipeline (CARP) to identify and cluster TEs and other repetitive sequences in genome assemblies. The pipeline begins with a pairwise alignment using krishna, a custom aligner. Single linkage clustering is then carried out to produce families of repetitive elements. Consensus sequences are then filtered for protein coding genes and then annotated using Repbase and a custom library of retrovirus and reverse transcriptase sequences. This process yields three types of family: fully annotated, partially annotated and unannotated. Fully annotated families reflect recently diverged/young known TEs present in Repbase. The remaining two types of families contain a mixture of novel TEs and segmental duplications. These can be resolved by aligning these consensus sequences back to the genome to assess copy number vs. length distribution. Our pipeline has three significant advantages compared to other methods for ab initio repeat identification: 1) we generate not only consensus sequences, but keep the genomic intervals for the original aligned sequences, allowing straightforward analysis of evolutionary dynamics, 2) consensus sequences represent low-divergence, recently/currently active TE families, 3) segmental duplications are annotated as a useful by-product. We have compared our ab initio repeat annotations for 7 genome assemblies to other methods and demonstrate that CARP compares favourably with RepeatModeler, the most widely used repeat annotation package. PMID:29538441
A coupled channel study of HN2 unimolecular decay based on a global ab initio potential surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Schatz, George C.; Walch, Stephen P.
1991-01-01
The unimolecular decay lifetimes of several vibrational states of HN2 are determined on the basis of an accurate coupled channel dynamics study using a global analytical potential surface. The surface reproduces the ab initio points with an rms error of 0.08 kcal/mol for energies below 20 kcal/mol. Modifications to the potential that describe the effect of improving the basis set in the ab initio calculations are provided. Converged coupled channel calculations are performed for the ground rotational state of HN2 to determine the lifetimes of the lowest ten vibrational states. Only the ground vibrational state (000) and first excited bend (001) are found to have lifetimes longer than 1 ps. The lifetimes of these states are estimated at 3 x 10 to the -9th and 2 x 10 to the -10th s, respectively. Variation of these results with quality of the ab initio calculations is not more than a factor of 5.
Towards accurate ab initio predictions of the vibrational spectrum of methane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.
2002-01-01
We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.
Penner, Glenn H; Ruscitti, Bruno; Reynolds, Julie; Swainson, Ian
2002-12-30
The decrease in D-->A bond lengths, previously reported for some Lewis acid/base complexes, in going from the gas to the solid phases is investigated by obtaining an accurate crystal structure of solid ND(3)BF(3) by powder neutron diffraction. The B-N internuclear distance is 1.554(3) A, 0.118 A shorter than the most recent gas-phase microwave value and 0.121 A shorter than the single molecule geometry optimized (1.672 A, CISD/6-311++G(d,p)) bond length. The crystal structure also shows N-D.F-B hydrogen bonds. The effects of this change in structure and of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding on nuclear magnetic shielding (i.e., chemical shifts) and the nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants (QCC) are investigated by ab initio molecular orbital and density functional theory calculations. These calculations show that the nitrogen ((15)N and (14)N) and boron ((11)B and (10)B) chemical shifts should be rather insensitive to changes in r(BN) and that the concomitant changes in molecular structure. Calculations on hydrogen-bonded clusters, based on the crystal structure, indicate that H-bonding should also have very little effect on the chemical shifts. On the other hand, the (11)B and (14)N QCCs show large changes because of both effects. An analysis of the (10)B[(19)F] line shape in solid ND(3)(10)BF(3) yields a (11)B QCC of +/-0.130 MHz. This is reasonably close an earlier value of +/-0.080 MHz and the value of +/-0.050 MHz calculated for a [NH(3)BF(3)](4) cluster. The gas-phase value is 1.20 MHz. Temperature-dependent deuterium T(1) measurements yield an activation energy for rotation of the ND(3) group in solid ND(3)BF(3) of 9.5 +/- 0.1 kJ/mol. Simulations of the temperature-dependent T(1) anisotropy gave an E(a) of 9.5 +/- 0.2 kJ/mol and a preexponential factor, A, of 3.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(12) s(-)(1). Our calculated value for a [NH(3)BF(3)](4) cluster is 16.4 kJ/mol. Both are much higher than the previous value of 3.9 kJ/mol, from solid-state proton T(1) measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzotti, Simone; Serva, Alessandra; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre
2018-05-01
Following our previous work where the existence of a special 2-Dimensional H-Bond (2D-HB)-Network was revealed at the air-water interface [S. Pezzotti et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 3133 (2017)], we provide here a full structural and dynamical characterization of this specific arrangement by means of both Density Functional Theory based and Force Field based molecular dynamics simulations. We show in particular that water at the interface with air reconstructs to maximize H-Bonds formed between interfacial molecules, which leads to the formation of an extended and non-interrupted 2-Dimensional H-Bond structure involving on average ˜90% of water molecules at the interface. We also show that the existence of such an extended structure, composed of H-Bonds all oriented parallel to the surface, constrains the reorientional dynamics of water that is hence slower at the interface than in the bulk. The structure and dynamics of the 2D-HB-Network provide new elements to possibly rationalize several specific properties of the air-water interface, such as water surface tension, anisotropic reorientation of interfacial water under an external field, and proton hopping.
Surface Segregation Energies of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2003-01-01
We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy method. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameterization. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. The ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation for the most part, but predicted relaxations from quantum approximate calculations are used in selected cases to compute approximate relaxed ab initio segregation energies. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with other quantum approximate and ab initio theoretical work, and available experimental results.
ab initio MD simulations of geomaterials with ~1000 atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, G. B.; Kirtman, B.; Spera, F. J.
2009-12-01
In the last two decades, ab initio studies of materials using Density Functional Theory (DFT) have increased exponentially in popularity. DFT codes are now used routinely to simulate properties of geomaterials--mainly silicates and geochemically important metals such as Fe. These materials are ubiquitous in the Earth’s mantle and core and in terrestrial exoplanets. Because of computational limitations, most First Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) calculations are done on systems of only ~100 atoms for a few picoseconds. While this approach can be useful for calculating physical quantities related to crystal structure, vibrational frequency, and other lattice-scale properties (especially in crystals), it is statistically marginal for duplicating physical properties of the liquid state like transport and structure. In MD simulations in the NEV ensemble, temperature (T), and pressure (P) fluctuations scale as N-1/2; small particle number (N) systems are therefore characterized by greater statistical state point location uncertainty than large N systems. Previous studies have used codes such as VASP where CPU time increases with N2, making calculations with N much greater than 100 impractical. SIESTA (Soler, et al. 2002) is a DFT code that enables electronic structure and MD computations on larger systems (N~103) by making some approximations, such as localized numerical orbitals, that would be useful in modeling some properties of geomaterials. Here we test the applicability of SIESTA to simulate geosilicates, both hydrous and anhydrous, in the solid and liquid state. We have used SIESTA for lattice calculations of brucite, Mg(OH)2, that compare very well to experiment and calculations using CRYSTAL, another DFT code. Good agreement between more classical DFT calculations and SIESTA is needed to justify study of geosilicates using SIESTA across a range of pressures and temperatures relevant to the Earth’s interior. Thus, it is useful to adjust parameters in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Osamu; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Nanbu, Shinkoh
2017-03-01
The ultra-fast photoisomerization reactions between 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD) and 1,3,5-cis-hexatriene (HT) in both hexane and ethanol solvents were revealed by nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AI-MD) with a particle-mesh Ewald summation method and our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics model (PME-ONIOM) scheme. Zhu-Nakamura version trajectory surface hopping method (ZN-TSH) was employed to treat the ultra-fast nonadiabatic decaying process. The results for hexane and ethanol simulations reasonably agree with experimental data. The high nonpolar-nonpolar affinity between CHD and the solvent was observed in hexane solvent, which definitely affected the excited state lifetimes, the product branching ratio of CHD:HT, and solute (CHD) dynamics. In ethanol solvent, however, the CHD solute was isomerized in the solvent cage caused by the first solvation shell. The photochemical dynamics in ethanol solvent results in the similar property to the process appeared in vacuo (isolated CHD dynamics).
Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya
2009-06-01
Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.
Ab initio elastic properties and tensile strength of crystalline hydroxyapatite.
Ching, W Y; Rulis, Paul; Misra, A
2009-10-01
We report elastic constant calculation and a "theoretical" tensile experiment on stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal using an ab initio technique. These results compare favorably with a variety of measured data. Theoretical tensile experiments are performed on the orthorhombic cell of HAP for both uniaxial and biaxial loading. The results show considerable anisotropy in the stress-strain behavior. It is shown that the failure behavior of the perfect HAP crystal is brittle for tension along the z-axis with a maximum stress of 9.6 GPa at 10% strain. Biaxial failure envelopes from six "theoretical" loading tests show a highly anisotropic pattern. Structural analysis of the crystal under various stages of tensile strain reveals that the deformation behavior manifests itself mainly in the rotation of the PO(4) tetrahedron with concomitant movements of both the columnar and axial Ca ions. These results are discussed in the context of mechanical properties of bioceramic composites relevant to mineralized tissues.
Quantitative verification of ab initio self-consistent laser theory.
Ge, Li; Tandy, Robert J; Stone, A D; Türeci, Hakan E
2008-10-13
We generalize and test the recent "ab initio" self-consistent (AISC) time-independent semiclassical laser theory. This self-consistent formalism generates all the stationary lasing properties in the multimode regime (frequencies, thresholds, internal and external fields, output power and emission pattern) from simple inputs: the dielectric function of the passive cavity, the atomic transition frequency, and the transverse relaxation time of the lasing transition.We find that the theory gives excellent quantitative agreement with full time-dependent simulations of the Maxwell-Bloch equations after it has been generalized to drop the slowly-varying envelope approximation. The theory is infinite order in the non-linear hole-burning interaction; the widely used third order approximation is shown to fail badly.
Molybdenum-titanium phase diagram evaluated from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barzilai, Shmuel; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Levy, Ohad
2017-07-01
The design of next generation β -type titanium implants requires detailed knowledge of the relevant stable and metastable phases at temperatures where metallurgical heat treatments can be performed. Recently, a standard specification for surgical implant applications was established for Mo-Ti alloys. However, the thermodynamic properties of this binary system are not well known and two conflicting descriptions of the β -phase stability have been presented in the literature. In this study, we use ab initio calculations to investigate the Mo-Ti phase diagram. These calculations predict that the β phase is stable over a wide concentration range, in qualitative agreement with one of the reported phase diagrams. In addition, they predict stoichiometric compounds, stable at temperatures below 300 ∘C , which have not yet been detected by experiments. The resulting solvus, which defines the transition to the β -phase solid solution, therefore occurs at lower temperatures and is more complex than previously anticipated.
Ab Initio energetics of SiO bond cleavage.
Hühn, Carolin; Erlebach, Andreas; Mey, Dorothea; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sierka, Marek
2017-10-15
A multilevel approach that combines high-level ab initio quantum chemical methods applied to a molecular model of a single, strain-free SiOSi bridge has been used to derive accurate energetics for SiO bond cleavage. The calculated SiO bond dissociation energy and the activation energy for water-assisted SiO bond cleavage of 624 and 163 kJ mol -1 , respectively, are in excellent agreement with values derived recently from experimental data. In addition, the activation energy for H 2 O-assisted SiO bond cleavage is found virtually independent of the amount of water molecules in the vicinity of the reaction site. The estimated reaction energy for this process including zero-point vibrational contribution is in the range of -5 to 19 kJ mol -1 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
Ab initio Eliashberg Theory: Making Genuine Predictions of Superconducting Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanna, Antonio; Flores-Livas, José A.; Davydov, Arkadiy; Profeta, Gianni; Dewhurst, Kay; Sharma, Sangeeta; Gross, E. K. U.
2018-04-01
We present an application of Eliashberg theory of superconductivity to study a set of novel superconducting systems with a wide range of structural and chemical properties. The set includes three intercalated group-IV honeycomb layered structures, SH3 at 200 GPa (the superconductor with the highest measured critical temperature), the similar system SeH3 at 150 GPa, and a lithium doped mono-layer of black phosphorus. The theoretical approach we adopt is a recently developed, fully ab initio Eliashberg approach that takes into account the Coulomb interaction in a full energy-resolved fashion avoiding any free parameters like μ*. This method provides reasonable estimations of superconducting properties, including TC and the excitation spectra of superconductors.
High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database
Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane
2016-01-01
We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world. PMID:27434308
Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys
Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P.
2016-03-08
Here, we present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multi-component alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we also demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high entropy alloy chemistries. Furthermore, the SSOS methodmore » developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multi-component materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches.« less
Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides.
Olsson, P; Vidal, J; Lincot, D
2011-10-12
The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)(2) dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe(2) pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications.
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice.
Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Nakatani, Naoki; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2015-01-21
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.
High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database.
Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane
2016-07-19
We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world.
Ab Initio Analysis of Auger-Assisted Electron Transfer.
Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Kim, Joonghan; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-01-15
Quantum confinement in nanoscale materials allows Auger-type electron-hole energy exchange. We show by direct time-domain atomistic simulation and analytic theory that Auger processes give rise to a new mechanism of charge transfer (CT) on the nanoscale. Auger-assisted CT eliminates the renown Marcus inverted regime, rationalizing recent experiments on CT from quantum dots to molecular adsorbates. The ab initio simulation reveals a complex interplay of the electron-hole and charge-phonon channels of energy exchange, demonstrating a variety of CT scenarios. The developed Marcus rate theory for Auger-assisted CT describes, without adjustable parameters, the experimental plateau of the CT rate in the region of large donor-acceptor energy gap. The analytic theory and atomistic insights apply broadly to charge and energy transfer in nanoscale systems.
Fabrication and ab initio study of downscaled graphene nanoelectronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuta, Hiroshi; Moktadir, Zakaria; Boden, Stuart A.; Kalhor, Nima; Hang, Shuojin; Schmidt, Marek E.; Cuong, Nguyen Tien; Chi, Dam Hieu; Otsuka, Nobuo; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Tsuchiya, Yoshishige; Chong, Harold; Rutt, Harvey N.; Bagnall, Darren M.
2012-09-01
In this paper we first present a new fabrication process of downscaled graphene nanodevices based on direct milling of graphene using an atomic-size helium ion beam. We address the issue of contamination caused by the electron-beam lithography process to pattern the contact metals prior to the ultrafine milling process in the helium ion microscope (HIM). We then present our recent experimental study of the effects of the helium ion exposure on the carrier transport properties. By varying the time of helium ion bombardment onto a bilayer graphene nanoribbon transistor, the change in the transfer characteristics is investigated along with underlying carrier scattering mechanisms. Finally we study the effects of various single defects introduced into extremely-scaled armchair graphene nanoribbons on the carrier transport properties using ab initio simulation.
An Ab Initio Study of Alkali-C60 Complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frick, Nathan; Hira, A. S.; Ray, A. K.
2003-03-01
We extend our previous work on fullerene-alkali complexes1-2 by presenting the results of an ab initio theoretical study of the alkali LiC60+, LiC60, NaC60+, NaC60, KC60+, and KC60 complexes. In the endohedral complexes for Li and Na, there is displacement of the adatom from the center. Of the ions, exohedral Li+ will sit closest to the cage, and among the neutrals, exohedral K remains closest. Bond lengths are consistently longer for the fivefold and threefold approaches. Adsorbates inside the fullerene donate negative charge to the carbons, but ions outside obtain a small amount, resulting in a polarization of the molecule. In the ion complexes, there is lowering of the orbital energy levels by 3 to 4 eV, resulting in an increase in the number of bound, but unoccupied, electronic orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO gap, of interest in superconductivity studies, is reduced by about 50 1. A.S. Hira and A.K. Ray, Phys. Rev. A 52, 141(1995); A 54, 2205(1996). 2. Ajit Hira and A. K. Ray, "An Initio Modeling of the Endohedral and Exohedral Complexes of C60Na2+ Complexes", Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47 (March 2002).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2015-05-01
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H2O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0-4000 cm-1 is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M
2015-05-21
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H2O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0-4000 cm(-1) is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
Holst, Bastian; French, Martin; Redmer, Ronald
2011-06-15
Using Kubo's linear response theory, we derive expressions for the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (Kubo-Greenwood formula), thermopower, and thermal conductivity in a strongly correlated electron system. These are evaluated within ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the thermoelectric transport coefficients in dense liquid hydrogen, especially near the nonmetal-to-metal transition region. We also observe significant deviations from the widely used Wiedemann-Franz law, which is strictly valid only for degenerate systems, and give an estimate for its valid scope of application toward lower densities.
Ab initio simulation of particle momentum distributions in high-pressure water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceriotti, M.
2014-12-01
Applying pressure to water reduces the average oxygen-oxygen distance, and facilitates the delocalisation of protons along the hydrogen bond. This pressure-induced delocalisation is further enhanced by the quantum nature of hydrogen nuclei, which is very significant even well above room temperature. Here we will evaluate the quantum kinetic energy and the particle momentum distribution of hydrogen and oxygen nuclei in water at extreme pressure, using ab initio path integral molecular dynamics. We will show that (transient) dissociation of water molecules induce measurable changes in the kinetic energy hydrogen atoms, although current deep inelastic scattering experiments are probably unable to capture the heterogeneity of the sample.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua
2017-09-01
The nonadiabatic tunneling-facilitated photodissociation of phenol is investigated using a reduced-dimensional quantum model on two ab initio-based coupled potential energy surfaces (PESs). Although dynamics occurs largely on the lower adiabat, the proximity to a conical intersection between the S1 and S2 states requires the inclusion of both the geometric phase (GP) and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction (DBOC). The lifetime of the lowest-lying vibronic state is computed using the diabatic and various adiabatic models. The GP and DBOC terms are found to be essential on one set of PESs, but have a small impact on the other.
Analysis of Borderline Substitution/Electron Transfer Pathways from Direct ab initio MD Simulations
Yamataka, H; Aida, M A.; Dupuis, Michel
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for the borderline reaction pathways in the reaction of CH2O?- with CH3Cl. The simulations reveal distinctive features of three types of mechanisms passing through the SN2-like transition state (TS): (i) a direct formation of SN2 products, (ii) a direct formation of ET products, and (iii) a 2-step formation of ET products via the SN2 valley. The direct formation of the ET product through the SN2-like TS appears to be more favorable at higher temperatures. The 2-step process depends on the amount of energy that goes into the C-C stretching mode.
Brønsted acidity of protic ionic liquids: a modern ab initio valence bond theory perspective.
Patil, Amol Baliram; Mahadeo Bhanage, Bhalchandra
2016-09-21
Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), especially protic ionic liquids (PILs), are used in many areas of the chemical sciences. Ionicity, the extent of proton transfer, is a key parameter which determines many physicochemical properties and in turn the suitability of PILs for various applications. The spectrum of computational chemistry techniques applied to investigate ionic liquids includes classical molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, ab initio molecular dynamics, Density Functional Theory (DFT), CCSD(t) etc. At the other end of the spectrum is another computational approach: modern ab initio Valence Bond Theory (VBT). VBT differs from molecular orbital theory based methods in the expression of the molecular wave function. The molecular wave function in the valence bond ansatz is expressed as a linear combination of valence bond structures. These structures include covalent and ionic structures explicitly. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations of representative primary and tertiary ammonium protic ionic liquids indicate that modern ab initio valence bond theory can be employed to assess the acidity and ionicity of protic ionic liquids a priori.
Liu, Lihong; Wang, Yating; Fang, Qiu
2017-02-14
Ethylene-bridged azobenzene (br-AB) has aroused broad interests due to its unique photoswitching properties. Numerous dynamical simulations have been performed for the br-AB photoisomerization, which focused mainly on the conformational effect and the funnel role of minimum-energy conical intersection (MECI) on the mechanism. In the present work, we use the "full quantum" ab initio multiple spawning method to simulate the br-AB photoisomerization, which provides new insights into the mechanism. Upon irradiation of br-AB to the first excited singlet state (S 1 ), most of the excess energies are trapped in the azo-moiety. Since the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution is slower than the S 1 relaxation processes, the nonadiabatic transition from S 1 to the ground state (S 0 ) occurs in the vicinity of high-energy crossing seam and even the largest probabilities of the S 1 → S 0 transition are not distributed in the MECI regions. Once decaying to the S 0 state through the high-energy region, the subsequent isomerization and re-formation of the initial isomer are ultrafast processes in the S 0 state. It is the nonergodic behavior of the S 1 and S 0 dynamics that is mainly responsible for the unique photoswitching properties of the ethylene-bridged azobenzene, which will be discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, Taras; Demchuk, Taras; Jakse, Noël; Wax, Jean-François
2018-02-01
Recent findings of pressure-induced emergence of unusual high-frequency contribution to transverse current spectral functions in several simple liquid metals at high pressures raised a question whether similar features can be observed in liquid metals at ambient conditions. We report here analysis of ab initio molecular dynamics-derived longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) current spectral functions and corresponding dispersions of collective excitations in liquid polyvalent metals Al, Tl, Ni. We have not found evidences of the second branch of high-frequency transverse modes in liquid Al and Ni, while in the case of liquid Tl they were clearly present in transverse dynamics. The vibrational density of states for liquid Tl has a pronounced high-frequency shoulder, which is located right in the frequency range of the second high-frequency transverse branch, while for liquid Al and Ni the vibrational density of states has only a weak indication of possible high-frequency shoulder. The origin of specific behavior of transverse excitations in liquid Tl is discussed.
Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2004-01-01
We compare dilute-limit heats of segregation for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent LMTO-based parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation, while the ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of a segregation model driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.
Ab initio calculation of the potential bubble nucleus 34Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duguet, T.; Somà, V.; Lecluse, S.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.
2017-03-01
Background: The possibility that an unconventional depletion (referred to as a "bubble") occurs in the center of the charge density distribution of certain nuclei due to a purely quantum mechanical effect has attracted theoretical and experimental attention in recent years. Based on a mean-field rationale, a correlation between the occurrence of such a semibubble and an anomalously weak splitting between low angular-momentum spin-orbit partners has been further conjectured. Energy density functional and valence-space shell model calculations have been performed to identify and characterize the best candidates, among which 34Si appears as a particularly interesting case. While the experimental determination of the charge density distribution of the unstable 34Si is currently out of reach, (d ,p ) experiments on this nucleus have been performed recently to test the correlation between the presence of a bubble and an anomalously weak 1 /2--3 /2- splitting in the spectrum of 35Si as compared to 37S. Purpose: We study the potential bubble structure of 34Si on the basis of the state-of-the-art ab initio self-consistent Green's function many-body method. Methods: We perform the first ab initio calculations of 34Si and 36S. In addition to binding energies, the first observables of interest are the charge density distribution and the charge root-mean-square radius for which experimental data exist in 36S. The next observable of interest is the low-lying spectroscopy of 35Si and 37S obtained from (d ,p ) experiments along with the spectroscopy of 33Al and 35P obtained from knock-out experiments. The interpretation in terms of the evolution of the underlying shell structure is also provided. The study is repeated using several chiral effective field theory Hamiltonians as a way to test the robustness of the results with respect to input internucleon interactions. The convergence of the results with respect to the truncation of the many-body expansion, i.e., with respect to
Ab Initio Protein Structure Prediction Using Chunk-TASSER
Zhou, Hongyi; Skolnick, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
We have developed an ab initio protein structure prediction method called chunk-TASSER that uses ab initio folded supersecondary structure chunks of a given target as well as threading templates for obtaining contact potentials and distance restraints. The predicted chunks, selected on the basis of a new fragment comparison method, are folded by a fragment insertion method. Full-length models are built and refined by the TASSER methodology, which searches conformational space via parallel hyperbolic Monte Carlo. We employ an optimized reduced force field that includes knowledge-based statistical potentials and restraints derived from the chunks as well as threading templates. The method is tested on a dataset of 425 hard target proteins ≤250 amino acids in length. The average TM-scores of the best of top five models per target are 0.266, 0.336, and 0.362 by the threading algorithm SP3, original TASSER and chunk-TASSER, respectively. For a subset of 80 proteins with predicted α-helix content ≥50%, these averages are 0.284, 0.356, and 0.403, respectively. The percentages of proteins with the best of top five models having TM-score ≥0.4 (a statistically significant threshold for structural similarity) are 3.76, 20.94, and 28.94% by SP3, TASSER, and chunk-TASSER, respectively, overall, while for the subset of 80 predominantly helical proteins, these percentages are 2.50, 23.75, and 41.25%. Thus, chunk-TASSER shows a significant improvement over TASSER for modeling hard targets where no good template can be identified. We also tested chunk-TASSER on 21 medium/hard targets <200 amino-acids-long from CASP7. Chunk-TASSER is ∼11% (10%) better than TASSER for the total TM-score of the first (best of top five) models. Chunk-TASSER is fully automated and can be used in proteome scale protein structure prediction. PMID:17496016
Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.
Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni
2014-09-16
Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangiovanni, D. G.; Alling, B.; Steneteg, P.; Hultman, L.; Abrikosov, I. A.
2015-02-01
We use ab initio and classical molecular dynamics (AIMD and CMD) based on the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) potential to simulate diffusion of N vacancy and N self-interstitial point defects in B 1 TiN. TiN MEAM parameters are optimized to obtain CMD nitrogen point-defect jump rates in agreement with AIMD predictions, as well as an excellent description of Ti Nx(˜0.7
Ab Initio Studies of Halogen and Nitrogen Oxide Species of Interest in Stratospheric Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
Ab initio study of the structural properties of acetonitrile-water mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jinfan; Sit, Patrick H.-L.
2015-08-01
Structural properties of acetonitrile and acetonitrile-water mixtures are studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Stable molecular clusters consisted of several water and acetonitrile molecules are identified to provide microscopic understanding of the interaction among water and acetonitrile molecules. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the liquid structure at the finite temperature. Three mixing compositions in which the mole fraction of acetonitrile equals 0.109, 0.5 and 0.891 are studied. These compositions correspond to three distinct structural regimes. At the 0.109 and 0.891 mole fraction of acetonitrile, the majority species are mostly connected among themselves and the minority species are either isolated or forming small clusters without disrupting the network of the majority species. At the 0.5 mole fraction of acetonitrile, large water and acetonitrile clusters persist throughout the simulation, exhibiting the microheterogeneous behavior in acetonitrile-water mixtures in the mid-range mixing ratio.
2017-03-24
NUMBER (Include area code) 24 March 2017 Briefing Charts 01 March 2017 - 31 March 2017 Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction Kinetics...Laboratory AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB, CA 93524 *Email: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction ...Clearance 17161 Zador et al., Prog. Energ. Combust. Sci., 37 371 (2011) Why Quantum Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies? DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for
Ab initio description of p-shell hypernuclei.
Wirth, Roland; Gazda, Daniel; Navrátil, Petr; Calci, Angelo; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert
2014-11-07
We present the first ab initio calculations for p-shell single-Λ hypernuclei. For the solution of the many-baryon problem, we develop two variants of the no-core shell model with explicit Λ and Σ(+),Σ(0),Σ(-) hyperons including Λ-Σ conversion, optionally supplemented by a similarity renormalization group transformation to accelerate model-space convergence. In addition to state-of-the-art chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions, we use leading-order chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions and a recent meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon interaction. We validate the approach for s-shell hypernuclei and apply it to p-shell hypernuclei, in particular to (Λ)(7)Li, (Λ)(9)Be, and (Λ)(13)C. We show that the chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions provide ground-state and excitation energies that generally agree with experiment within the cutoff dependence. At the same time we demonstrate that hypernuclear spectroscopy provides tight constraints on the hyperon-nucleon interactions.
Ab initio calculation of infrared intensities for hydrogen peroxide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.
1982-01-01
Results of an ab initio SCF quantum mechanical study are used to derive estimates for the infrared intensities of the fundamental vibrations of hydrogen peroxide. Atomic polar tensors (APTs) were calculated on the basis of a 4-31G basis set, and used to derive absolute intensities for the vibrational transitions. Comparison of the APTs calculated for H2O2 with those previously obtained for H2O and CH3OH, and of the absolute intensities derived from the H2O2 APTs with those derived from APTs transferred from H2O and CH3OH, reveals the sets of values to differ by no more than a factor of two, supporting the validity of the theoretical calculation. Values of the infrared intensities obtained correspond to A1 = 14.5 km/mol, A2 = 0.91 km/mol, A3 = 0.058 km/mol, A4 = 123 km/mol, A5 = 46.2 km/mol, and A6 = 101 km/mol. Charge, charge flux and overlap contributions to the dipole moment derivatives are also computed.
Ab initio calculation of infrared intensities for hydrogen peroxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.
1982-04-01
Results of an ab initio SCF quantum mechanical study are used to derive estimates for the infrared intensities of the fundamental vibrations of hydrogen peroxide. Atomic polar tensors (APTs) were calculated on the basis of a 4-31G basis set, and used to derive absolute intensities for the vibrational transitions. Comparison of the APTs calculated for H2O2 with those previously obtained for H2O and CH3OH, and of the absolute intensities derived from the H2O2 APTs with those derived from APTs transferred from H2O and CH3OH, reveals the sets of values to differ by no more than a factor of two, supporting the validity of the theoretical calculation. Values of the infrared intensities obtained correspond to A1 = 14.5 km/mol, A2 = 0.91 km/mol, A3 = 0.058 km/mol, A4 = 123 km/mol, A5 = 46.2 km/mol, and A6 = 101 km/mol. Charge, charge flux and overlap contributions to the dipole moment derivatives are also computed.
Ab-Initio Interfacial Studies of Cobalt/Copper Multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villagonzalo, Cristine; Setty, Arun K.; Muratov, Leonid; Cooper, Bernard R.
2002-03-01
We present a study of the interface of cobalt/copper (Co/Cu) multilayrs. For its potential in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device applications,(S.S.Parkin, et al.), Appl. Phys. Lett. 58 (1991) 2710 the Co/Cu system has been studied extensively. The magnitude of GMR is found to depend sensitively on the nature of the interface, however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, we focus on the energy-configuration of Co/Cu multilayers (of 1-4 monolayers for each element) and on the effects of interpenetration. Using an ab-initio full-potential Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital (FP-LMTO) electronic structure method, we seek a stable interfacial structure. Unlike prior studies, our computations are for the experimentally relevant (111) direction. Our preliminary results indicate that Co impurities in bulk Cu are not energetically favorable, in accord with the experimentally observed immiscibility of Co and Cu. Studies in progress of interfacial relaxation in prelude to consideration of interdiffusion and lattice buckling will also be presented.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
Ab initio solution of macromolecular crystal structures without direct methods.
McCoy, Airlie J; Oeffner, Robert D; Wrobel, Antoni G; Ojala, Juha R M; Tryggvason, Karl; Lohkamp, Bernhard; Read, Randy J
2017-04-04
The majority of macromolecular crystal structures are determined using the method of molecular replacement, in which known related structures are rotated and translated to provide an initial atomic model for the new structure. A theoretical understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio in likelihood-based molecular replacement searches has been developed to account for the influence of model quality and completeness, as well as the resolution of the diffraction data. Here we show that, contrary to current belief, molecular replacement need not be restricted to the use of models comprising a substantial fraction of the unknown structure. Instead, likelihood-based methods allow a continuum of applications depending predictably on the quality of the model and the resolution of the data. Unexpectedly, our understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio in molecular replacement leads to the finding that, with data to sufficiently high resolution, fragments as small as single atoms of elements usually found in proteins can yield ab initio solutions of macromolecular structures, including some that elude traditional direct methods.
Thermal, spectroscopic, and ab initio structural characterization of carprofen polymorphs.
Bruni, Giovanna; Gozzo, Fabia; Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Macchi, Piero; Simoncic, Petra; Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefania; Marini, Amedeo
2011-06-01
Commercial and recrystallized polycrystalline samples of carprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were studied by thermal, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. Our investigations demonstrated that recrystallized sample, stable at room temperature (RT), is a single polymorphic form of carprofen (polymorph I) that undergoes an isostructural polymorphic transformation by heating (polymorph II). Polymorph II remains then metastable at ambient conditions. Commercial sample is instead a mixture of polymorphs I and II. The thermodynamic relationships between the two polymorphs were determined through the construction of an energy/temperature diagram. The ab initio structural determination performed on synchrotron X-Ray powder diffraction patterns recorded at RT on both polymorphs allowed us to elucidate, for the first time, their crystal structure. Both crystallize in the monoclinic space group type P2(1) /c, and the unit cell similarity index and the volumetric isostructurality index indicate that the temperature-induced polymorphic transformation I → II is isostructural. Polymorphs I and II are conformational polymorphs, sharing a very similar hydrogen bond network, but with different conformation of the propanoic skeleton, which produces two different packing. The small conformational change agrees with the low value of transition enthalpy obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements and the small internal energy computed with density functional methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Domain Wall Formation in Ferromagnetic Layers: An Ab Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herper, Heike C.
Domain walls are an inherent feature of ferromagnetic (FM) films consisting of layers with different magnetic orientations. Since FM films are used in electrical devices the question of the influence of domain walls on, e.g., the magnetoresistance has attracted much interest. Besides discussing the resistance contribution of domain walls, it is appropriate to study different types of domain walls and their energy of formation. The behaviour of domain walls is usually discussed within model calculations. In the present paper it is done within an ab initio Green's function technique for layered systems, i.e., the fully relativistic, spin-polarized screened Korringa-Kohn Rostoker method. Results are presented for fcc Co layers covered by two semi-infinite fcc Pt(001) bulk systems or by bulk fcc Co(001), respectively. The resistance, which is caused by the different types of domain walls is discussed within a Kubo-Greenwood approach considering Co(001)/Co24/Co(001) as an example.
Engineering Room-temperature Superconductors Via ab-initio Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulian, Mamikon; Melkonyan, Gurgen; Gulian, Armen
The BCS, or bosonic model of superconductivity, as Little and Ginzburg have first argued, can bring in superconductivity at room temperatures in the case of high-enough frequency of bosonic mode. It was further elucidated by Kirzhnitset al., that the condition for existence of high-temperature superconductivity is closely related to negative values of the real part of the dielectric function at finite values of the reciprocal lattice vectors. In view of these findings, the task is to calculate the dielectric function for real materials. Then the poles of this function will indicate the existence of bosonic excitations which can serve as a "glue" for Cooper pairing, and if the frequency is high enough, and the dielectric matrix is simultaneously negative, this material is a good candidate for very high-Tc superconductivity. Thus, our approach is to elaborate a methodology of ab-initio calculation of the dielectric function of various materials, and then point out appropriate candidates. We used the powerful codes (TDDF with the DP package in conjunction with ABINIT) for computing dielectric responses at finite values of the wave vectors in the reciprocal lattice space. Though our report is concerned with the particular problem of superconductivity, the application range of the data processing methodology is much wider. The ability to compute the dielectric function of existing and still non-existing (though being predicted!) materials will have many more repercussions not only in fundamental sciences but also in technology and industry.
Double-walled silicon nanotubes: an ab initio investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, Matheus P.
2018-02-01
The synthesis of silicon nanotubes realized in the last decade demonstrates multi-walled tubular structures consisting of Si atoms in {{sp}}2 and the {{sp}}3 hybridizations. However, most of the theoretical models were elaborated taking as the starting point {{sp}}2 structures analogous to carbon nanotubes. These structures are unfavorable due to the natural tendency of the Si atoms to undergo {{sp}}3. In this work, through ab initio simulations based on density functional theory, we investigated double-walled silicon nanotubes proposing layered tubes possessing most of the Si atoms in an {{sp}}3 hybridization, and with few {{sp}}2 atoms localized at the outer wall. The lowest-energy structures have metallic behavior. Furthermore, the possibility to tune the band structure with the application of a strain was demonstrated, inducing a metal-semiconductor transition. Thus, the behavior of silicon nanotubes differs significantly from carbon nanotubes, and the main source of the differences is the distortions in the lattice associated with the tendency of Si to make four chemical bonds.
Predicting lattice thermal conductivity with help from ab initio methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broido, David
2015-03-01
The lattice thermal conductivity is a fundamental transport parameter that determines the utility a material for specific thermal management applications. Materials with low thermal conductivity find applicability in thermoelectric cooling and energy harvesting. High thermal conductivity materials are urgently needed to help address the ever-growing heat dissipation problem in microelectronic devices. Predictive computational approaches can provide critical guidance in the search and development of new materials for such applications. Ab initio methods for calculating lattice thermal conductivity have demonstrated predictive capability, but while they are becoming increasingly efficient, they are still computationally expensive particularly for complex crystals with large unit cells . In this talk, I will review our work on first principles phonon transport for which the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity is limited only by phonon-phonon scattering arising from anharmonicity. I will examine use of the phase space for anharmonic phonon scattering and the Grüneisen parameters as measures of the thermal conductivities for a range of materials and compare these to the widely used guidelines stemming from the theory of Liebfried and Schölmann. This research was supported primarily by the NSF under Grant CBET-1402949, and by the S3TEC, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0001299.
Experimental and ab initio structure of BrNO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwabia Tchana, F.; Orphal, J.; Kleiner, I.; Rudolph, H. D.; Willner, H.; Garcia, P.; Bouba, O.; Demaison, J.; Redlich, B.
The ν2 fundamental bands of different isotopomers of BrNO2 (79Br15N16O2, 81Br15N16O2, 79Br14N18O2 and 79Br14N16O18O) located around 13 µm were recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. More than 8000 lines of all these isotopomers were reproduced using a Watson-type A-reduced Hamiltonian with a root-mean-square deviation of better than 7 × 10-4 cm-1 for the four isotopomers. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the ν2 = 1 states as well as for the vibrational ground states of these isotopomers were determined. For the first time, an analysis of the ground-state rotational constants obtained in this study combined with the constants obtained in our previous work on the ν2 bands of 79Br14N16O2 and 81Br14N16O2 has allowed us to calculate the rm structure of nitryl bromide. The structural parameters obtained were rm(Br-N) = 2.0118(16) Å, rm(N-O) = 1.1956(12) Å and α(O-N-O) = 131.02(12) Å. A new ab initio structure of nitryl bromide calculated at the CCSD(T)/SDB-aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory is presented and was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental structure.
Ab initio calculations of the absorption spectrum of chalcone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oumi, Manabu; Maurice, David; Head-Gordon, Martin
1999-03-01
The excitation energies and excited states of trans-chalcone ( trans-( s-cis)-1,3-diphenylpropenone), and several related molecules ( trans-( s-cis)-3-phenylpropenal, s-cis-1-phenylpropenone, propenal, trans-( s-cis)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropenone, trans-( s-cis)3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylpropenone) have been calculated using single reference ab initio molecular orbital methods, and characterized by attachment-detachment density analysis. The results suggest assignments for the lowest three electronic transitions observed experimentally for trans-( s-cis)-chalcone in solution. The extent of localization of the electronic transitions is established by calculations on the excited states of trans-( s-cis)-3-phenylpropenal, s-cis-1-phenylpropenone and propenal, as well as analysis of the chalcone calculations. Contrary to some previous work, none of these excitations are strongly delocalized over the entire molecule. Calculated substituent shifts for the hydroxy chalcones are in qualitative agreement with experimental data, and support the localized interpretation of the main π→ π* transition.
Ab initio correlated calculations of rare-gas dimer quadrupoles
Donchev, Alexander G.
2007-10-15
This paper reports ab initio calculations of rare gas (RG=Kr, Ar, Ne, and He) dimer quadrupoles at the second order of Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The study reveals the crucial role of the dispersion contribution to the RG{sub 2} quadrupole in the neighborhood of the equilibrium dimer separation. The magnitude of the dispersion quadrupole is found to be much larger than that predicted by the approximate model of Hunt. As a result, the total MP2 quadrupole moment is significantly smaller than was assumed in virtually all previous related studies. An analytical model for the distance dependence of the RG{sub 2}more » quadrupole is proposed. The model is based on the effective-electron approach of Jansen, but replaces the original Gaussian approximation to the electron density in an RG atom by an exponential one. The role of the nonadditive contribution in RG{sub 3} quadrupoles is discussed.« less
Ab initio thermodynamic results for warm dense matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, Michael
2016-10-01
Warm dense matter (WDM) - an exotic state where electrons are quantum degenerate and ions may be strongly correlated - is ubiquitous in dense astrophysical plasmas and highly compressed laboratory systems including inertial fusion. Accurate theoretical predictions require precision thermodynamic data for the electron gas at high density and finite temperature around the Fermi temperature. First such data have been obtained by restricted path integral Monte Carlo (restricted PIMC) simulations and transformed into analytical fits for the free energy. Such results are also key input for novel finite temperature density functional theory. However, the RPIMC data of Ref. 1 are limited to moderate densities, and even there turned out to be surprisingly inaccurate, which is a consequence of the fermion sign problem. These problems were recently overcome by the development of alternative QMC approaches in Kiel (configuration PIMC and permutation blocking PIMC) and Imperial College (Density matrix QMC). The three methods have their strengths and limitations in complementary parameter regions and provide highly accurate thermodynamic data for the electronic contributions in WDM. While the original results were obtained for small particle numbers, recently accurate finite size corrections were derived allowing to compute ab initio thermodynamic data with an unprecedented accuracy of better than 0.3 percent. This provides the final step for the use as benchmark data for experiments and models of Warm dense matter. Co-authors: T. Schoof, S. Groth, T. Dornheim, F. D. Malone, M. Foulkes, and T. Sjostroem, Funded by: DFG via SFB-TR24 and project BO1366-10.
Carbene-aerogen bonds: an ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sabouri, Ayda
2017-04-01
Through the use of ab initio calculations, the possibility of formation of σ-hole interaction between ZO3 (Z = Ar, Kr and Xe) and carbene species is investigated. Since singlet carbenes show a negative electrostatic potential on their divalent carbon atom, they can favourably interact with the positive electrostatic potential generated by the σ-hole of Z atom of ZO3. The characteristic of this interaction, termed as 'carbene-aerogen' bond, is analysed in terms of geometric, interaction energies and electronic features. The energy decomposition analysis indicates that for all complexes analysed here, the electrostatic energy is more negative than the polarisation or dispersion energy term. According to the electron density analysis, some partial covalent character can be ascribed to XeṡṡṡC interactions. In addition, the carbene-aerogen bond exhibits cooperative effects with the HṡṡṡO hydrogen-bonding interaction in ternary complexes where both interactions coexist. For a given carbene, the amount of these cooperative effects increases with the size of the Z atom. The results obtained in this work may be helpful for the extension and future application of σ-hole intermolecular interactions as well as coordination chemistry.
The AB Initio Mia Method: Theoretical Development and Practical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peeters, Anik
The bottleneck in conventional ab initio Hartree -Fock calculations is the storage of the electron repulsion integrals because their number increases with the fourth power of the number of basis functions. This problem can be solved by a combination of the multiplicative integral approximation (MIA) and the direct SCF method. The MIA approach was successfully applied in the geometry optimisation of some biologically interesting compounds like the neurolepticum Haloperidol and two TIBO derivatives, inactivators of HIV1. In this thesis the potency of the MIA-method is shown by the application of this method in the calculation of the forces on the nuclei. In addition, the MIA method enabled the development of a new model for performing crystal field studies: the supermolecule model. The results for this model are in better agreement with experimental data than the results for the point charge model. This is illustrated by the study of some small molecules in the solid state: 2,3-diketopiperazine, formamide oxime and two polymorphic forms of glycine, alpha-glycine and beta-glycine.
Physical properties of molybdenum monoboride: Ab-initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajpoot, Priyanka; Rastogi, Anugya; Verma, U. P.
2018-02-01
The Ab initio investigations on structural, electronic, optical and thermal properties of MoB have been reported using full potential linearised-augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation potentials were calculated using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof-Sol generalised gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium lattice constants and cell volume are in excellent agreement with the experimental results as compared to the available theoretical data. Electronic band structure shows that MoB is metallic in nature. From the partial densities of states of MoB it has been found that major contribution on the Fermi level is due to Mo-4d states. Among the reported optical parameters the large value of reflectivity at low energy shows that MoB can be used as a coating material in IR region. Maximum absorption in extreme UV region shows that it can be used in production of electricity through solar power in space vehicles. Various thermal properties have been calculated in a wide temperature range at high pressures. Change in thermal expansion coefficient with respect to temperature shows that anharmonic effect in MoB is very weak at high temperature. The optical and thermal properties of MoB are presented for the first time in this work.
An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.
Ab initio calculations of ionic hydrocarbon compounds with heptacoordinate carbon.
Wang, George; Rahman, A K Fazlur; Wang, Bin
2018-04-25
Ionic hydrocarbon compounds that contain hypercarbon atoms, which bond to five or more atoms, are important intermediates in chemical synthesis and may also find applications in hydrogen storage. Extensive investigations have identified hydrocarbon compounds that contain a five- or six-coordinated hypercarbon atom, such as the pentagonal-pyramidal hexamethylbenzene, C 6 (CH 3 ) 6 2+ , in which a hexacoordinate carbon atom is involved. It remains challenging to search for further higher-coordinated carbon in ionic hydrocarbon compounds, such as seven- and eight-coordinated carbon. Here, we report ab initio density functional calculations that show a stable 3D hexagonal-pyramidal configuration of tropylium trication, (C 7 H 7 ) 3+ , in which a heptacoordinate carbon atom is involved. We show that this tropylium trication is stable against deprotonation, dissociation, and structural deformation. In contrast, the pyramidal configurations of ionic C 8 H 8 compounds, which would contain an octacoordinate carbon atom, are unstable. These results provide insights for developing new molecular structures containing hypercarbon atoms, which may have potential applications in chemical synthesis and in hydrogen storage. Graphical abstract Possible structural transformations of stable configurations of (C 7 H 7 ) 3+ , which may result in the formation of the pyramidal structure that involves a heptacoordinate hypercarbon atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas
2017-11-01
We study qualitatively ultra-fast proton transfer (PT) in the first singlet (S1) state of liquid water (absorption onset) through excited-state dynamics by means of time-dependent density functional theory and ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. We find that after the initial excitation, a PT occurs in S1 in form of a rapid jump to a neighboring water molecule, on which the proton either may rest for a relatively long period of time (as a consequence of possible defect in the hydrogen bond network) followed by back and forth hops to its neighboring water molecule or from which it further moves to the next water molecule accompanied by back and forth movements. In this way, the proton may become delocalized over a long water wire branch, followed again by back and forth jumps or short localization on a water molecule for some femtoseconds. As a result, the mechanism of PT in S1 is in most cases highly non-Grotthuss-like, delayed and discrete. Furthermore, upon PT an excess charge is ejected to the solvent trap, the so-called solvated electron. The spatial extent of the ejected solvated electron is mainly localized within one solvent shell with overlappings on the nearest neighbor water molecules and delocalizing (diffuse) tails extending beyond the first solvent sphere. During the entire ultra-short excited-state dynamics the remaining OH radical from the initially excited water molecule exhibits an extremely low mobility and is non-reactive. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80329-7.
Chen, Liuyang; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Shao, Kejie
2016-05-21
This work performs a time-dependent wavepacket study of the H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}H → H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is constructed using neural network method based on 68 478 geometries with energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level and covers H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}H↔H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} → HCCH{sub 2}, and HCCH{sub 2} radial isomerization reaction regions. The reaction dynamics of H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}H → H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} are investigated using full-dimensional quantum dynamics method. The initial-state selected reactionmore » probabilities are calculated for reactants in eight vibrational states. The calculated results showed that the H{sub 2} vibrational excitation predominantly enhances the reactivity while the excitation of bending mode of C{sub 2}H slightly inhibits the reaction. The excitations of two stretching modes of C{sub 2}H molecule have negligible effect on the reactivity. The integral cross section is calculated with J-shift approximation and the mode selectivity in this reaction is discussed. The rate constants over 200-2000 K are calculated and agree well with the experimental measured values.« less
Ab Initio Simulations of Temperature Dependent Phase Stability and Martensitic Transitions in NiTi
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.
2016-01-01
For NiTi based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. In particular, we show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing these phase transformations is discussed.
4He+n+n continuum within an ab initio framework
Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr; ...
2014-07-16
In this study, the low-lying continuum spectrum of the 6He nucleus is investigated for the first time within an ab initio framework that encompasses the 4He+n+n three-cluster dynamics characterizing its lowest decay channel. This is achieved through an extension of the no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method, in which energy-independent nonlocal interactions among three nuclear fragments can be calculated microscopically, starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with three-body scattering boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonics method on a Lagrange mesh. Using amore » soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we find the known J π = 2 + resonance as well as a result consistent with a new low-lying second 2 + resonance recently observed at GANIL at ~2.6 MeV above the He6 ground state. We also find resonances in the 2 –, 1 +, and 0 – channels, while no low-lying resonances are present in the 0 + and 1 – channels.« less
Phenolic Polymer Solvation in Water and Ethylene Glycol, II: Ab Initio Computations.
Bauschlicher, Charles W; Bucholz, Eric W; Haskins, Justin B; Monk, Joshua D; Lawson, John W
2017-04-06
Ab initio techniques are used to study the interaction of ethylene glycol and water with a phenolic polymer. The water bonds more strongly with the phenolic OH than with the ring. The phenolic OH groups can form hydrogen bonds between themselves. For more than one water molecule, there is a competition between water-water and water-phenolic interactions. Ethylene glycol shows the same effects as those of water, but the potential energy surface is further complicated by CH 2 -phenolic interactions, different conformers of ethylene glycol, and two OH groups on each molecule. Thus, the ethylene glycol-phenolic potential is more complicated than the water-phenolic potential. The results of the ab initio calculations are compared to those obtained using a force field. These calibration studies show that the water system is easier to describe than the ethylene glycol system. The calibration studies confirm the reliability of force fields used in our companion molecular dynamics study of a phenolic polymer in water and ethylene solutions.
Vibrational inelastic and charge transfer processes in H++H2 system: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaran, Saieswari; Kumar, Sanjay
2007-12-01
State-resolved differential cross sections, total and integral cross sections, average vibrational energy transfer, and the relative probabilities are computed for the H++H2 system using the newly obtained ab initio potential energy surfaces at the full CI/cc-pVQZ level of accuracy which allow for both the direct vibrational inelastic and the charge transfer processes. The quantum dynamics is treated within the vibrational close-coupling infinite-order-sudden approximation approach using the two ab initio quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces. The computed collision attributes for both the processes are compared with the available state-to-state scattering experiments at Ec.m.=20eV. The results are in overall good agreement with most of the observed scattering features such as rainbow positions, integral cross sections, and relative vibrational energy transfers. A comparison with the earlier theoretical study carried out on the semiempirical surfaces (diatomics in molecules) is also made to illustrate the reliability of the potential energy surfaces used in the present work.
Machine Learning Force Field Parameters from Ab Initio Data
Li, Ying; Li, Hui; Pickard, Frank C.
Machine learning (ML) techniques with the genetic algorithm (GA) have been applied to determine a polarizable force field parameters using only ab initio data from quantum mechanics (QM) calculations of molecular clusters at the MP2/6-31G(d,p), DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVDZ, and DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVTZ levels to predict experimental condensed phase properties (i.e., density and heat of vaporization). The performance of this ML/GA approach is demonstrated on 4943 dimer electrostatic potentials and 1250 cluster interaction energies for methanol. Excellent agreement between the training data set from QM calculations and the optimized force field model was achieved. The results were further improved by introducing an offset factor duringmore » the machine learning process to compensate for the discrepancy between the QM calculated energy and the energy reproduced by optimized force field, while maintaining the local “shape” of the QM energy surface. Throughout the machine learning process, experimental observables were not involved in the objective function, but were only used for model validation. The best model, optimized from the QM data at the DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVTZ level, appears to perform even better than the original AMOEBA force field (amoeba09.prm), which was optimized empirically to match liquid properties. The present effort shows the possibility of using machine learning techniques to develop descriptive polarizable force field using only QM data. The ML/GA strategy to optimize force fields parameters described here could easily be extended to other molecular systems.« less
Efficient conformational space exploration in ab initio protein folding simulation.
Ullah, Ahammed; Ahmed, Nasif; Pappu, Subrata Dey; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Ullah, A Z M Dayem; Rahman, M Sohel
2015-08-01
Ab initio protein folding simulation largely depends on knowledge-based energy functions that are derived from known protein structures using statistical methods. These knowledge-based energy functions provide us with a good approximation of real protein energetics. However, these energy functions are not very informative for search algorithms and fail to distinguish the types of amino acid interactions that contribute largely to the energy function from those that do not. As a result, search algorithms frequently get trapped into the local minima. On the other hand, the hydrophobic-polar (HP) model considers hydrophobic interactions only. The simplified nature of HP energy function makes it limited only to a low-resolution model. In this paper, we present a strategy to derive a non-uniform scaled version of the real 20×20 pairwise energy function. The non-uniform scaling helps tackle the difficulty faced by a real energy function, whereas the integration of 20×20 pairwise information overcomes the limitations faced by the HP energy function. Here, we have applied a derived energy function with a genetic algorithm on discrete lattices. On a standard set of benchmark protein sequences, our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for similar models. Our approach has been able to explore regions of the conformational space which all the previous methods have failed to explore. Effectiveness of the derived energy function is presented by showing qualitative differences and similarities of the sampled structures to the native structures. Number of objective function evaluation in a single run of the algorithm is used as a comparison metric to demonstrate efficiency.
Ab initio kinetics of gas phase decomposition reactions.
Sharia, Onise; Kuklja, Maija M
2010-12-09
The thermal and kinetic aspects of gas phase decomposition reactions can be extremely complex due to a large number of parameters, a variety of possible intermediates, and an overlap in thermal decomposition traces. The experimental determination of the activation energies is particularly difficult when several possible reaction pathways coexist in the thermal decomposition. Ab initio calculations intended to provide an interpretation of the experiment are often of little help if they produce only the activation barriers and ignore the kinetics of the decomposition process. To overcome this ambiguity, a theoretical study of a complete picture of gas phase thermo-decomposition, including reaction energies, activation barriers, and reaction rates, is illustrated with the example of the β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) molecule by means of quantum-chemical calculations. We study three types of major decomposition reactions characteristic of nitramines: the HONO elimination, the NONO rearrangement, and the N-NO(2) homolysis. The reaction rates were determined using the conventional transition state theory for the HONO and NONO decompositions and the variational transition state theory for the N-NO(2) homolysis. Our calculations show that the HMX decomposition process is more complex than it was previously believed to be and is defined by a combination of reactions at any given temperature. At all temperatures, the direct N-NO(2) homolysis prevails with the activation barrier at 38.1 kcal/mol. The nitro-nitrite isomerization and the HONO elimination, with the activation barriers at 46.3 and 39.4 kcal/mol, respectively, are slow reactions at all temperatures. The obtained conclusions provide a consistent interpretation for the reported experimental data.
Quantal Study of the Exchange Reaction for N + N2 using an ab initio Potential Energy Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Dunyou; Stallcop, James R.; Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The N + N2 exchange rate is calculated using a time-dependent quantum dynamics method on a newly determined ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the ground A" state. This ab initio PES shows a double barrier feature in the interaction region with the barrier height at 47.2 kcal/mol, and a shallow well between these two barriers, with the minimum at 43.7 kcal/mol. A quantum dynamics wave packet calculation has been carried out using the fitted PES to compute the cumulative reaction probability for the exchange reaction of N + N2(J=O). The J - K shift method is then employed to obtain the rate constant for this reaction. The calculated rate constant is compared with experimental data and a recent quasi-classical calculation using a LEPS PES. Significant differences are found between the present and quasiclassical results. The present rate calculation is the first accurate 3D quantal dynamics study for N + N2 reaction system and the ab initio PES reported here is the first such surface for N3.
Single-ion 4f element magnetism: an ab-initio look at Ln(COT)2(-).
Gendron, Frédéric; Pritchard, Benjamin; Bolvin, Hélène; Autschbach, Jochen
2015-12-14
The electron densities associated with the Ln 4f shell, and spin and orbital magnetizations ('magnetic moment densities'), are investigated for the Ln(COT)2(-) series. The densities are obtained from ab-initio calculations including spin-orbit coupling. For Ln = Ce, Pr the magnetizations are also derived from crystal field models and shown to agree with the ab-initio results. Analysis of magnetizations from ab-initio calculations may be useful in assisting research on single molecule magnets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raff, L. M.; Malshe, M.; Hagan, M.; Doughan, D. I.; Rockley, M. G.; Komanduri, R.
2005-02-01
A neural network/trajectory approach is presented for the development of accurate potential-energy hypersurfaces that can be utilized to conduct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and Monte Carlo studies of gas-phase chemical reactions, nanometric cutting, and nanotribology, and of a variety of mechanical properties of importance in potential microelectromechanical systems applications. The method is sufficiently robust that it can be applied to a wide range of polyatomic systems. The overall method integrates ab initio electronic structure calculations with importance sampling techniques that permit the critical regions of configuration space to be determined. The computed ab initio energies and gradients are then accurately interpolated using neural networks (NN) rather than arbitrary parametrized analytical functional forms, moving interpolation or least-squares methods. The sampling method involves a tight integration of molecular dynamics calculations with neural networks that employ early stopping and regularization procedures to improve network performance and test for convergence. The procedure can be initiated using an empirical potential surface or direct dynamics. The accuracy and interpolation power of the method has been tested for two cases, the global potential surface for vinyl bromide undergoing unimolecular decomposition via four different reaction channels and nanometric cutting of silicon. The results show that the sampling methods permit the important regions of configuration space to be easily and rapidly identified, that convergence of the NN fit to the ab initio electronic structure database can be easily monitored, and that the interpolation accuracy of the NN fits is excellent, even for systems involving five atoms or more. The method permits a substantial computational speed and accuracy advantage over existing methods, is robust, and relatively easy to implement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprio, Mark A.; McCoy, Anna E.; Dytrych, Tomas
2017-09-01
Rotational band structure is readily apparent as an emergent phenomenon in ab initio nuclear many-body calculations of light nuclei, despite the incompletely converged nature of most such calculations at present. Nuclear rotation in light nuclei can be analyzed in terms of approximate dynamical symmetries of the nuclear many-body problem: in particular, Elliott's SU (3) symmetry of the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the symplectic Sp (3 , R) symmetry of three-dimensional phase space. Calculations for rotational band members in the ab initio symplectic no-core configuration interaction (SpNCCI) framework allow us to directly examine the SU (3) and Sp (3 , R) nature of rotational states. We present results for rotational bands in p-shell nuclei. Supported by the US DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-95ER-40934 and the Czech Science Foundation under Grant No. 16-16772S.
West, Aaron C; Duchimaza-Heredia, Juan J; Gordon, Mark S; Ruedenberg, Klaus
2017-11-22
The quasi-atomic analysis of ab initio electronic wave functions in full valence spaces, which was developed in preceding papers, yields oriented quasi-atomic orbitals in terms of which the ab initio molecular wave function and energy can be expressed. These oriented quasi-atomic orbitals are the rigorous ab initio counterparts to the conceptual bond forming atomic hybrid orbitals of qualitative chemical reasoning. In the present work, the quasi-atomic orbitals are identified as bonding orbitals, lone pair orbitals, radical orbitals, vacant orbitals and orbitals with intermediate character. A program determines the bonding characteristics of all quasi-atomic orbitals in a molecule on the basis of their occupations, bond orders, kinetic bond orders, hybridizations and local symmetries. These data are collected in a record and provide the information for a comprehensive understanding of the synergism that generates the bonding structure that holds the molecule together. Applications to a series of molecules exhibit the complete bonding structures that are embedded in their ab initio wave functions. For the strong bonds in a molecule, the quasi-atomic orbitals provide quantitative ab initio amplifications of the Lewis dot symbols. Beyond characterizing strong bonds, the quasi-atomic analysis also yields an understanding of the weak interactions, such as vicinal, hyperconjugative and radical stabilizations, which can make substantial contributions to the molecular bonding structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Der Geest, A. G.; Lu, Z.; Lusk, M. T.; Dunn, M. L.
2011-04-01
Single-wall nanotubes can adhere to planar surfaces via van der Waals forces, and this causes the tubes to deform. We use classical molecular dynamics to estimate this deformation and density functional theory to quantify its impact on electronic band structure. For (n,0) tubes, adhesion causes the maximum bandgap to rise more rapidly with diameter, but the value of the maximum is not affected. The influence of adhesion forces on bandgap was found to correlate with that associated with lateral, uniaxial compression for moderate values of adhesion energy and compressive distortion.
An Ab Initio Description of the Excitonic Properties of LH2 and Their Temperature Dependence.
Cupellini, Lorenzo; Jurinovich, Sandro; Campetella, Marco; Caprasecca, Stefano; Guido, Ciro A; Kelly, Sharon M; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard; Mennucci, Benedetta
2016-11-10
The spectroscopic properties of light-harvesting (LH) antennae in photosyntehtic organisms represent a fingerprint that is unique for each specific pigment-protein complex. Because of that, spectroscopic observations are generally combined with structural data from X-ray crystallography to obtain an indirect representation of the excitonic properties of the system. Here, an alternative strategy is presented which goes beyond this empirical approach and introduces an ab initio computational description of both structural and electronic properties and their dependence on the temperature. The strategy is applied to the peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex (LH2) present in purple bacteria. By comparing this model with the one based on the crystal structure, a detailed, molecular level explanation of the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra and their temperature dependence is achieved. The agreement obtained with the experiments at both low and room temperature lays the groundwork for an atomistic understanding of the excitation dynamics in the LH2 system.
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Martínez, Todd J., E-mail: toddjmartinez@gmail.com; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025
2016-03-14
Full multiple spawning is a formally exact method to describe the excited-state dynamics of molecular systems beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, it has been limited until now to the description of radiationless transitions taking place between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. This Communication presents a generalization of the full and ab initio multiple spawning methods to both internal conversion (mediated by nonadiabatic coupling terms) and intersystem crossing events (triggered by spin-orbit coupling matrix elements) based on a spin-diabatic representation. The results of two numerical applications, a model system and the deactivation of thioformaldehyde, validate the presented formalism andmore » its implementation.« less
reaxFF Reactive Force Field for Disulfide Mechanochemistry, Fitted to Multireference ab Initio Data.
Müller, Julian; Hartke, Bernd
2016-08-09
Mechanochemistry, in particular in the form of single-molecule atomic force microscopy experiments, is difficult to model theoretically, for two reasons: Covalent bond breaking is not captured accurately by single-determinant, single-reference quantum chemistry methods, and experimental times of milliseconds or longer are hard to simulate with any approach. Reactive force fields have the potential to alleviate both problems, as demonstrated in this work: Using nondeterministic global parameter optimization by evolutionary algorithms, we have fitted a reaxFF force field to high-level multireference ab initio data for disulfides. The resulting force field can be used to reliably model large, multifunctional mechanochemistry units with disulfide bonds as designed breaking points. Explorative calculations show that a significant part of the time scale gap between AFM experiments and dynamical simulations can be bridged with this approach.
Mundy, Christopher J; Curioni, Alessandro; Goldman, Nir; Will Kuo, I-F; Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E; Ianuzzi, Marcella
2008-05-14
We report herein ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of graphite under shock compression in conjunction with the multiscale shock technique. Our simulations reveal that a novel short-lived layered diamond intermediate is formed within a few hundred of femtoseconds upon shock loading at a shock velocity of 12 kms (longitudinal stress>130 GPa), followed by formation of cubic diamond. The layered diamond state differs from the experimentally observed hexagonal diamond intermediate found at lower pressures and previous hydrostatic calculations in that a rapid buckling of the graphitic planes produces a mixture of hexagonal and cubic diamond (layered diamond). Direct calculation of the x-ray absorption spectra in our simulations reveals that the electronic structure of the final state closely resembles that of compressed cubic diamond.
Analysis of borderline substitution/electron transfer pathways from direct ab initio MD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamataka, Hiroshi; Aida, Misako; Dupuis, Michel
2002-02-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for the borderline reaction pathways in the reaction of CH 2O rad - with CH 3Cl. The simulations reveal distinctive features of three types of mechanisms passing through the S N2-like transition state (TS): (i) a direct formation of S N2 products, (ii) a direct formation of ET products, and (iii) a two-step formation of ET products via the S N2 valley. The direct formation of the ET product through the S N2-like TS appears to be more favorable at higher temperatures. The two-step process depends on the amount of energy that goes into the C-C stretching mode.
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.; ...
2014-12-11
In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropicmore » component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.« less
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.
In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropicmore » component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.« less
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Rauer, Clemens; Marquetand, Philipp; ...
2016-03-11
Full Multiple Spawning is a formally exact method to describe the excited-state dynamics of molecular systems beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, it has been limited until now to the description of radiationless transitions taking place between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. This Communication presents a generalization of the full and ab initio Multiple Spawning methods to both internal conversion (mediated by nonadiabatic coupling terms) and intersystem crossing events (triggered by spin-orbit coupling matrix elements) based on a spin-diabatic representation. Lastly, the results of two numerical applications, a model system and the deactivation of thioformaldehyde, validate the presented formalismmore » and its implementation.« less
Ab Initio Vibrational Levels For HO2 and Vibrational Splittings for Hydrogen Atom Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barclay, V. J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Hamilton, I. P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
We calculate vibrational levels and wave functions for HO2 using the recently reported ab initio potential energy surface of Walch and Duchovic. There is intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer when the hydrogen atom tunnels through a T-shaped saddle point separating two equivalent equilibrium geometries, and correspondingly, the energy levels are split. We focus on vibrational levels and wave functions with significant splitting. The first three vibrational levels with splitting greater than 2/cm are (15 0), (0 7 1) and (0 8 0) where V(sub 2) is the O-O-H bend quantum number. We discuss the dynamics of hydrogen atom transfer; in particular, the O-O distances at which hydrogen atom transfer is most probable for these vibrational levels. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.
Ab initio determination of effective electron-phonon coupling factor in copper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-04-01
The electron temperature Te dependent electron density of states g (ε), Fermi-Dirac distribution f (ε), and electron-phonon spectral function α2 F (Ω) are computed as prerequisites before achieving effective electron-phonon coupling factor Ge-ph. The obtained Ge-ph is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature model (TTM) coupled simulation of femtosecond laser heating. By monitoring temperature evolutions of electron and lattice subsystems, the result utilizing Ge-ph from ab initio calculation shows a faster decrease of Te and increase of Tl than those using Ge-ph from phenomenological treatment. The approach of calculating Ge-ph and its implementation into MD-TTM simulation is applicable to other metals.
Progress towards an ab initio real-time treatment of warm dense matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baczewski, Andrew; Cangi, Attila; Hansen, Stephanie; Jensen, Daniel
2017-10-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) provides an accurate description of equilibrium properties of warm dense matter, such as the dynamic structure factor (Baczewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116(11), 2016). While non-equilibrium properties, such as stopping power, have also been demonstrated to be within the grasp of TDDFT, the ultrafast isochoric heating of condensed matter into the warm dense state, enabled by recent advances in XFELs, remains beyond its capabilities. In this talk, we will describe the successes of and continuing challenges for TDDFT for warm dense matter, and present progress towards a more complete ab initio treatment of isochoric x-ray heating. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.
Ab initio calculation of the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering.
Plagemann, Kai-Uwe; Rüter, Hannes R; Bornath, Thomas; Shihab, Mohammed; Desjarlais, Michael P; Fortmann, Carsten; Glenzer, Siegfried H; Redmer, Ronald
2015-07-01
The spectrum of x-ray Thomson scattering is proportional to the dynamic structure factor. An important contribution is the ion feature which describes elastic scattering of x rays off electrons. We apply an ab initio method for the calculation of the form factor of bound electrons, the slope of the screening cloud of free electrons, and the ion-ion structure factor in warm dense beryllium. With the presented method we can calculate the ion feature from first principles. These results will facilitate a better understanding of x-ray scattering in warm dense matter and an accurate measurement of ion temperatures which would allow determining nonequilibrium conditions, e.g., along shock propagation.
Exploration of phase transition in Th2C under pressure: An Ab-initio investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.
2018-05-01
With the motivation of searching for new compounds in the Th-C system, we have performed ab initio evolutionary searches for all the stable compounds in this binary system in the pressure range of 0-100 GPa. We have found previously unknown, thermodynamically stable, composition Th2C along with experimentally known ThC, ThC2 and Th2C3 phases at 0 GPa. Interestingly at pressure of 13 GPa the predicted ground state orthorhombic (SG no. 59, Pmmn) phase of Th2C transforms to trigonal (SG no. 164, P-3m1) phase. We also find the mechanical and dynamical stability of both the phases. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of Pmmn phase at ambient conditions.
Grabowski, Ireneusz; Teale, Andrew M; Śmiga, Szymon; Bartlett, Rodney J
2011-09-21
The framework of ab initio density-functional theory (DFT) has been introduced as a way to provide a seamless connection between the Kohn-Sham (KS) formulation of DFT and wave-function based ab initio approaches [R. J. Bartlett, I. Grabowski, S. Hirata, and S. Ivanov, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 034104 (2005)]. Recently, an analysis of the impact of dynamical correlation effects on the density of the neon atom was presented [K. Jankowski, K. Nowakowski, I. Grabowski, and J. Wasilewski, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 164102 (2009)], contrasting the behaviour for a variety of standard density functionals with that of ab initio approaches based on second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) and coupled cluster theories at the singles-doubles (CCSD) and singles-doubles perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] levels. In the present work, we consider ab initio density functionals based on second-order many-body perturbation theory and coupled cluster perturbation theory in a similar manner, for a range of small atomic and molecular systems. For comparison, we also consider results obtained from MP2, CCSD, and CCSD(T) calculations. In addition to this density based analysis, we determine the KS correlation potentials corresponding to these densities and compare them with those obtained for a range of ab initio density functionals via the optimized effective potential method. The correlation energies, densities, and potentials calculated using ab initio DFT display a similar systematic behaviour to those derived from electronic densities calculated using ab initio wave function theories. In contrast, typical explicit density functionals for the correlation energy, such as VWN5 and LYP, do not show behaviour consistent with this picture of dynamical correlation, although they may provide some degree of correction for already erroneous explicitly density-dependent exchange-only functionals. The results presented here using orbital dependent ab initio density functionals show that they provide a treatment of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei
2017-12-01
Experiments with ultracold atoms provide a highly controllable laboratory setting with many unique opportunities for precision exploration of quantum many-body phenomena. The nature of such systems, with strong interaction and quantum entanglement, makes reliable theoretical calculations challenging. Especially difficult are excitation and dynamical properties, which are often the most directly relevant to experiment. We carry out exact numerical calculations, by Monte Carlo sampling of imaginary-time propagation of Slater determinants, to compute the pairing gap in the two-dimensional Fermi gas from first principles. Applying state-of-the-art analytic continuation techniques, we obtain the spectral function and the density and spin structure factors providing unique tools to visualize the BEC-BCS crossover. These quantities will allow for a direct comparison with experiments.
Li, Yaqin; Sun, Zhigang, E-mail: zsun@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Center for Advanced Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026
2014-08-28
The kinetics and dynamics of several O + O{sub 2} isotope exchange reactions have been investigated on a recently determined accurate global O{sub 3} potential energy surface using a time-dependent wave packet method. The agreement between calculated and measured rate coefficients is significantly improved over previous work. More importantly, the experimentally observed negative temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is for the first time rigorously reproduced theoretically. This negative temperature dependence can be attributed to the absence in the new potential energy surface of a submerged “reef” structure, which was present in all previous potential energy surfaces. In addition, contributionsmore » of rotational excited states of the diatomic reactant further accentuate the negative temperature dependence.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawabata, Hiroshi; Iyama, Tetsuji; Tachikawa, Hiroto
2008-01-01
Hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the lithium adsorbed on a fluorinated graphene surface (F-graphene, C96F24) to elucidate the effect of fluorination of amorphous carbon on the diffusion mechanism of lithium ion. Also, direct molecular orbital-molecular dynamics (MO-MD) calculation [H. Tachikawa and A. Shimizu: J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 13255] was applied to diffusion processes of the Li+ ion on F-graphene. The B3LYP/LANL2MB calculation showed that the Li+ ion is most stabilized around central position of F-graphene, and the energy was gradually instabilized for the edge region. The direct MO-MD calculations showed that the Li+ ion diffuses on the bulk surface region of F-graphite at 300 K. The nature of the interaction between Li+ and F-graphene was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Rui Shan; Zhai, Huan Chen; Yan, Wei; Gao, Feng; Lin, Shi Ying
2017-04-01
A new ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of Li + HCl reactive system has been constructed by three-dimensional cubic spline interpolation of 36 654 ab initio points computed at the MRCI+Q/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory. The title reaction is found to be exothermic by 5.63 kcal/mol (9 kcal/mol with zero point energy corrections), which is very close to the experimental data. The barrier height, which is 2.99 kcal/mol (0.93 kcal/mol for the vibrationally adiabatic barrier height), and the depth of van der Waals minimum located near the entrance channel are also in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. This study also identified two more van der Waals minima. The integral cross sections, rate constants, and their dependence on initial rotational states are calculated using an exact quantum wave packet method on the new PES. They are also in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements.
Many-body optimization using an ab initio monte carlo method.
Haubein, Ned C; McMillan, Scott A; Broadbelt, Linda J
2003-01-01
Advances in computing power have made it possible to study solvated molecules using ab initio quantum chemistry. Inclusion of discrete solvent molecules is required to determine geometric information about solute/solvent clusters. Monte Carlo methods are well suited to finding minima in many-body systems, and ab initio methods are applicable to the widest range of systems. A first principles Monte Carlo (FPMC) method was developed to find minima in many-body systems, and emphasis was placed on implementing moves that increase the likelihood of finding minimum energy structures. Partial optimization and molecular interchange moves aid in finding minima and overcome the incomplete sampling that is unavoidable when using ab initio methods. FPMC was validated by studying the boron trifluoride-water system, and then the method was used to examine the methyl carbenium ion in water to demonstrate its application to solvation problems.
Huang, Ying; Chen, Shi-Yi; Deng, Feilong
2016-01-01
In silico analysis of DNA sequences is an important area of computational biology in the post-genomic era. Over the past two decades, computational approaches for ab initio prediction of gene structure from genome sequence alone have largely facilitated our understanding on a variety of biological questions. Although the computational prediction of protein-coding genes has already been well-established, we are also facing challenges to robustly find the non-coding RNA genes, such as miRNA and lncRNA. Two main aspects of ab initio gene prediction include the computed values for describing sequence features and used algorithm for training the discriminant function, and by which different combinations are employed into various bioinformatic tools. Herein, we briefly review these well-characterized sequence features in eukaryote genomes and applications to ab initio gene prediction. The main purpose of this article is to provide an overview to beginners who aim to develop the related bioinformatic tools.
An ab initio study of the conformational energy map of acetylcholine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Boyes, R. N.
An ab initio density functional theory study is reported of the conformational energy map of acetylcholine, with respect to the two central dihedral angles of the molecule. The acetylcholine molecule pays a central role in neurotransmission and has been studied widely using semi-empirical computational modelling. The ab initio results are compared with a number of previous investigations and with experiment. The ab initio data indicate that the most stable conformation of acetylcholine is the trans , gauche arrangement of the central dihedral angles. Furthermore, Mulliken population analysis of the electronic structure of the molecule in this conformation indicates that the positive charge of the molecule is spread over the exterior of the cationic head of the molecule.
Karthikeyan, S; Singh, Jiten N; Park, Mina; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, Kwang S
2008-06-28
Important structural isomers of NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(n=4,6) have been studied by using density functional theory, Moller-Plesset second order perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to the complete basis set limit of the CCSD(T) binding energies and free energies is necessary to identify the low energy structures for NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(n=4,6) because otherwise wrong structures could be assigned for the most probable structures. For NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(6), the cage-type structure, which is more stable than the previously reported open structure before the ZPE correction, turns out to be less stable after the ZPE correction. In first principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations around 100 K, the combined power spectrum of three lowest energy isomers of NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(4) and two lowest energy isomers of NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(6) explains each experimental IR spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karthikeyan, S.; Singh, Jiten N.; Park, Mina; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, Kwang S.
2008-06-01
Important structural isomers of NH4+(H2O)n=4,6 have been studied by using density functional theory, Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to the complete basis set limit of the CCSD(T) binding energies and free energies is necessary to identify the low energy structures for NH4+(H2O)n=4,6 because otherwise wrong structures could be assigned for the most probable structures. For NH4+(H2O)6, the cage-type structure, which is more stable than the previously reported open structure before the ZPE correction, turns out to be less stable after the ZPE correction. In first principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations around 100 K, the combined power spectrum of three lowest energy isomers of NH4+(H2O)4 and two lowest energy isomers of NH4+(H2O)6 explains each experimental IR spectrum.
Pallipurath, Anuradha R; Skelton, Jonathan M; Warren, Mark R; Kamali, Naghmeh; McArdle, Patrick; Erxleben, Andrea
2015-10-05
Understanding the polymorphism exhibited by organic active-pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in particular the relationships between crystal structure and the thermodynamics of polymorph stability, is vital for the production of more stable drugs and better therapeutics, and for the economics of the pharmaceutical industry in general. In this article, we report a detailed study of the structure-property relationships among the polymorphs of the model API, Sulfamerazine. Detailed experimental characterization using synchrotron radiation is complemented by computational modeling of the lattice dynamics and mechanical properties, in order to study the origin of differences in millability and to investigate the thermodynamics of the phase equilibria. Good agreement is observed between the simulated phonon spectra and mid-infrared and Raman spectra. The presence of slip planes, which are found to give rise to low-frequency lattice vibrations, explains the higher millability of Form I compared to Form II. Energy/volume curves for the three polymorphs, together with the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic free energy computed from the phonon frequencies, explains why Form II converts to Form I at high temperature, whereas Form III is a rare polymorph that is difficult to isolate. The combined experimental and theoretical approach employed here should be generally applicable to the study of other systems that exhibit polymorphism.
Gan, Yanzhen; Yue, Ling; Guo, Xugeng; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Cao, Zexing
2017-05-17
An on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping dynamic simulation has been performed for revealing the multi-state nonadiabatic deactivation mechanism of coumarin. The mechanism involves three adiabatic excited states, S 3 (ππ*L b ), S 2 (nπ*, ππ*L a ) and S 1 (ππ*L a , nπ*), and the ground state S 0 at the four state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field, SA4-CASSCF(12,10)/6-31G* level of theory. Upon photoexcitation to the third excited state S 3 (ππ*L b ) in the Franck-Condon region, 80% sampling trajectories decay to the dark S 2 (nπ*) state within an average of 5 fs via the conical intersection S 3 (ππ*L b )/S 2 (nπ*), while 20% decay to the S 2 (ππ*L a ) state within an average of 11 fs via the conical intersection S 3 (ππ*L b )/S 2 (ππ*L a ). Then, sampling trajectories via S 2 (nπ*)/S 1 (ππ*L a ) continue with ultrafast decay processes to give a final distribution of quantum yields as follows: 42% stay on the dark S 1 (nπ*) state, 43.3% go back to the ground S 0 state, 12% undergo a ring-opening reaction to the Z-form S 0 (Z) state, and 2.7% go to the E-form S 0 (E) state. The lifetimes of the excited states are estimated as follows: the S 3 state is about 12 fs on average, the S 2 state is about 80 fs, and the S 1 state has a fast component of about 160 fs and a slow component of 15 ps. The simulated ultrafast radiationless deactivation pathways of photoexcited coumarin immediately interpret the experimentally observed weak fluorescence emission.
Brasil, Christiane Regina Soares; Delbem, Alexandre Claudio Botazzo; da Silva, Fernando Luís Barroso
2013-07-30
This article focuses on the development of an approach for ab initio protein structure prediction (PSP) without using any earlier knowledge from similar protein structures, as fragment-based statistics or inference of secondary structures. Such an approach is called purely ab initio prediction. The article shows that well-designed multiobjective evolutionary algorithms can predict relevant protein structures in a purely ab initio way. One challenge for purely ab initio PSP is the prediction of structures with β-sheets. To work with such proteins, this research has also developed procedures to efficiently estimate hydrogen bond and solvation contribution energies. Considering van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bond, and solvation contribution energies, the PSP is a problem with four energetic terms to be minimized. Each interaction energy term can be considered an objective of an optimization method. Combinatorial problems with four objectives have been considered too complex for the available multiobjective optimization (MOO) methods. The proposed approach, called "Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms with many tables" (MEAMT), can efficiently deal with four objectives through the combination thereof, performing a more adequate sampling of the objective space. Therefore, this method can better map the promising regions in this space, predicting structures in a purely ab initio way. In other words, MEAMT is an efficient optimization method for MOO, which explores simultaneously the search space as well as the objective space. MEAMT can predict structures with one or two domains with RMSDs comparable to values obtained by recently developed ab initio methods (GAPFCG , I-PAES, and Quark) that use different levels of earlier knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-Solís, A.; Poteau, R.; Vela, A.; Daudey, J. P.
2005-04-01
The XΠg2-Σg +2, XΠg2-Δg2, XΠg2-Σu +2, XΠg2-Πu2 transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the same relativistic effective core potentials and especially developed basis sets to study the electronic structure of the five lowest states and the corresponding vertical and adiabatic transition energies. The calculated transition energies for three of the hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B97-2, and PBE0) are in very good agreement with the benchmark ab initio results and experimental figures. All of the other functionals largely overestimate the XΠg2-Σg +2 and XΠg2-Δg2 transition energies, many of them even placing the Δg2 ligand field state above the charge transfer Πu2 and Σu +2 states. The relative weight of the Hartree-Fock exchange in the definition of the functional used appears to play a key role in the accurate description of the ΛSΣ density defined by the orientation of the 3d hole (σ, π, or δ) on Cu in the field of both chlorine atoms, but no simple connection of this weight with the quality of the spectra has been found. Mulliken charges and spin densities are carefully analyzed; a possible link between the extent of spin density on the metal for the XΠg2 state and the performance of the various functionals was observed, suggesting that those that lead to the largest values (close to 0.65) are the ones that best reproduce these four transitions. Most functionals lead to a remarkably low ionicity for the three ligand field states even for the best performing functionals, compared to the complete active space (SCF) (21, 14) ab initio values. These findings show that not only large
Accurate ab initio quartic force fields for borane and BeH2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, J. M. L.; Lee, Timothy J.
1992-01-01
The quartic force fields of BH3 and BeH2 have been computed ab initio using an augmented coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) method and basis sets of spdf and spdfg quality. For BH3, the computed spectroscopic constants are in very good agreement with recent experimental data, and definitively confirm misassignments in some older work, in agreement with recent ab initio studies. Using the computed spectroscopic constants, the rovibrational partition function for both molecules has been constructed using a modified direct numerical summation algorithm, and JANAF-style thermochemical tables are presented.
Keegan, Ronan M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Mayans, Olga; Winn, Martyn D; Rigden, Daniel J
2015-02-01
AMPLE clusters and truncates ab initio protein structure predictions, producing search models for molecular replacement. Here, an interesting degree of complementarity is shown between targets solved using the different ab initio modelling programs QUARK and ROSETTA. Search models derived from either program collectively solve almost all of the all-helical targets in the test set. Initial solutions produced by Phaser after only 5 min perform surprisingly well, improving the prospects for in situ structure solution by AMPLE during synchrotron visits. Taken together, the results show the potential for AMPLE to run more quickly and successfully solve more targets than previously suspected.
Concentration dependence of electrical resistivity of binary liquid alloy HgZn: Ab-initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2013-06-01
The electrical resistivity of HgZn liquid alloy has been made calculated using Troullier and Martins ab-initio pseudopotential as a function of concentration. Hard sphere diameters of Hg and Zn are obtained through the inter-ionic pair potential have been used to calculate partial structure factors. Considering the liquid alloy to be a ternary mixture Ziman's formula for calculating the resistivity of binary liquid alloys, modified for complex formation, has been used. These results suggest that ab-initio approach for calculating electrical resistivity is quite successful in explaining the electronic transport properties of binary Liquid alloys.
Keegan, Ronan M.; Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Mayans, Olga; Winn, Martyn D.; Rigden, Daniel J.
2015-01-01
AMPLE clusters and truncates ab initio protein structure predictions, producing search models for molecular replacement. Here, an interesting degree of complementarity is shown between targets solved using the different ab initio modelling programs QUARK and ROSETTA. Search models derived from either program collectively solve almost all of the all-helical targets in the test set. Initial solutions produced by Phaser after only 5 min perform surprisingly well, improving the prospects for in situ structure solution by AMPLE during synchrotron visits. Taken together, the results show the potential for AMPLE to run more quickly and successfully solve more targets than previously suspected. PMID:25664744
Ab initio study of H + + H 2 collisions: Elastic/inelastic and charge transfer processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saieswari, A.; Kumar, Sanjay
2007-12-01
An ab initio full configuration interaction study has been undertaken to obtain the global potential energy surfaces for the ground and the first excited electronic state of the H + + H 2 system employing Dunning's cc-pVQZ basis set. Using the ab initio approach the corresponding quasi-diabatic potential energy surfaces and coupling potentials have been obtained. A time-independent quantum mechanical study has been also undertaken for both the inelastic and charge transfer processes at the experimental collision energy Ec.m. = 20.0 eV and the preliminary results show better agreement with the experimental data as compared to the earlier available theoretical studies.
Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2003-01-01
We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.
Dieterich, Johannes M; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Mata, Ricardo A; Metz, Sebastian; Thiel, Walter
2010-01-21
Energy and free energy barriers for acetaldehyde conversion in aldehyde oxidoreductase are determined for three reaction pathways using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations on the solvated enzyme. Ab initio single-point QM/MM energies are obtained at the stationary points optimized at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level. These ab initio calculations employ local correlation treatments [LMP2 and LCCSD(T0)] in combination with augmented triple- and quadruple-zeta basis sets, and the final coupled cluster results include MP2-based corrections for basis set incompleteness and for the domain approximation. Free energy perturbation (FEP) theory is used to generate free energy profiles at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level for the most important reaction steps by sampling along the corresponding reaction paths using molecular dynamics. The ab initio and FEP QM/MM results are combined to derive improved estimates of the free energy barriers, which differ from the corresponding DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy barriers by about 3 kcal mol(-1). The present results confirm the qualitative mechanistic conclusions from a previous DFT(B3LYP)/MM study. Most favorable is a three-step Lewis base catalyzed mechanism with an initial proton transfer from the cofactor to the Glu869 residue, a subsequent nucleophilic attack that yields a tetrahedral intermediate (IM2), and a final rate-limiting hydride transfer. The competing metal center activated pathway has the same final step but needs to overcome a higher barrier in the initial step on the route to IM2. The concerted mechanism has the highest free energy barrier and can be ruled out. While confirming the qualitative mechanistic scenario proposed previously on the basis of DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy profiles, the present ab initio and FEP QM/MM calculations provide corrections to the barriers that are important when aiming at high accuracy.
Raimondi, Francesco; Hupin, Guillaume; Navratil, Petr; ...
2016-05-10
Low-energy transfer reactions in which a proton is stripped from a deuteron projectile and dropped into a target play a crucial role in the formation of nuclei in both primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, as well as in the study of exotic nuclei using radioactive beam facilities and inverse kinematics. Here, ab initio approaches have been successfully applied to describe the 3H(d,n) 4He and 3He(d,p) 4He fusion processes. An ab initio treatment of transfer reactions would also be desirable for heavier targets. In this work, we extend the ab initio description of (d,p) reactions to processes with light p-shell nuclei. Asmore » a first application, we study the elastic scattering of deuterium on 7Li and the 7Li(d,p) 8Li transfer reaction based on a two-body Hamiltonian. We use the no-core shell model to compute the wave functions of the nuclei involved in the reaction, and describe the dynamics between targets and projectiles with the help of microscopic-cluster states in the spirit of the resonating group method. The shapes of the excitation functions for deuterons impinging on 7Li are qualitatively reproduced up to the deuteron breakup energy. The interplay between d– 7Li and p– 8Li particle-decay channels determines some features of the 9Be spectrum above the d+ 7Li threshold. Our prediction for the parity of the 17.298 MeV resonance is at odds with the experimental assignment. Deuteron stripping reactions with p-shell targets can now be computed ab initio, but calculations are very demanding. Finally, a quantitative description of the 7Li(d,p) 8Li reaction will require further work to include the effect of three-nucleon forces and additional decay channels and to improve the convergence rate of our calculations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Despoja, Vito; Djordjević, Tijana; Karbunar, Lazar; Radović, Ivan; Mišković, Zoran L.
2017-08-01
The propagator of a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W in a sandwichlike structure consisting of two graphene layers separated by a slab of Al2O3 (or vacuum) is derived from single-layer graphene response functions and by using a local dielectric function for the bulk Al2O3 . The response function of graphene is obtained using two approaches within the random phase approximation (RPA): an ab initio method that includes all electronic bands in graphene and a computationally less demanding method based on the massless Dirac fermion (MDF) approximation for the low-energy excitations of electrons in the π bands. The propagator W is used to derive an expression for the effective dielectric function of our sandwich structure, which is relevant for the reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy of its surface. Focusing on the range of frequencies from THz to mid-infrared, special attention is paid to finding an accurate optical limit in the ab initio method, where the response function is expressed in terms of a frequency-dependent conductivity of graphene. It was shown that the optical limit suffices for describing hybridization between the Dirac plasmons in graphene layers and the Fuchs-Kliewer phonons in both surfaces of the Al2O3 slab, and that the spectra obtained from both the ab initio method and the MDF approximation in the optical limit agree perfectly well for wave numbers up to about 0.1 nm-1. Going beyond the optical limit, the agreement between the full ab initio method and the MDF approximation was found to extend to wave numbers up to about 0.3 nm-1 for doped graphene layers with the Fermi energy of 0.2 eV.
Raimondi, Francesco; Hupin, Guillaume; Navratil, Petr
Low-energy transfer reactions in which a proton is stripped from a deuteron projectile and dropped into a target play a crucial role in the formation of nuclei in both primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, as well as in the study of exotic nuclei using radioactive beam facilities and inverse kinematics. Here, ab initio approaches have been successfully applied to describe the 3H(d,n) 4He and 3He(d,p) 4He fusion processes. An ab initio treatment of transfer reactions would also be desirable for heavier targets. In this work, we extend the ab initio description of (d,p) reactions to processes with light p-shell nuclei. Asmore » a first application, we study the elastic scattering of deuterium on 7Li and the 7Li(d,p) 8Li transfer reaction based on a two-body Hamiltonian. We use the no-core shell model to compute the wave functions of the nuclei involved in the reaction, and describe the dynamics between targets and projectiles with the help of microscopic-cluster states in the spirit of the resonating group method. The shapes of the excitation functions for deuterons impinging on 7Li are qualitatively reproduced up to the deuteron breakup energy. The interplay between d– 7Li and p– 8Li particle-decay channels determines some features of the 9Be spectrum above the d+ 7Li threshold. Our prediction for the parity of the 17.298 MeV resonance is at odds with the experimental assignment. Deuteron stripping reactions with p-shell targets can now be computed ab initio, but calculations are very demanding. Finally, a quantitative description of the 7Li(d,p) 8Li reaction will require further work to include the effect of three-nucleon forces and additional decay channels and to improve the convergence rate of our calculations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Pasquale, Nicodemo; Davie, Stuart J.; Popelier, Paul L. A.
2018-06-01
Using the machine learning method kriging, we predict the energies of atoms in ion-water clusters, consisting of either Cl- or Na+ surrounded by a number of water molecules (i.e., without Na+Cl- interaction). These atomic energies are calculated following the topological energy partitioning method called Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQAs). Kriging predicts atomic properties (in this case IQA energies) by a model that has been trained over a small set of geometries with known property values. The results presented here are part of the development of an advanced type of force field, called FFLUX, which offers quantum mechanical information to molecular dynamics simulations without the limiting computational cost of ab initio calculations. The results reported for the prediction of the IQA components of the energy in the test set exhibit an accuracy of a few kJ/mol, corresponding to an average error of less than 5%, even when a large cluster of water molecules surrounding an ion is considered. Ions represent an important chemical system and this work shows that they can be correctly taken into account in the framework of the FFLUX force field.
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2015-05-21
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previousmore » spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggenberger, Rolf; Gerber, Stefan; Huber, Hanspeter; Searles, Debra; Welker, Marc
1992-08-01
The shear viscosity is calculated ab initio for the liquid and hypercritical state, i.e. a previously published potential for Ne 2, obtained from ab initio calculations including electron correlation, is used in classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the shear viscosity from a Green-Kubo integral. The quality of the results is quite uniform over a large pressure range up to 1000 MPa and a wide temperature range from 26 to 600 K. In most cases the calculated shear viscosity deviates by less than 10% from the experimental value, in general the error being only a few percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Geng; Jiang, Hong
2015-12-01
A comprehensive understanding of surface thermodynamics and kinetics based on first-principles approaches is crucial for rational design of novel heterogeneous catalysts, and requires combining accurate electronic structure theory and statistical mechanics modeling. In this work, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) combined with the integrated tempering sampling (ITS) method has been explored to study thermodynamic and kinetic properties of elementary processes on surfaces, using a simple reaction CH 2 ⇌ CH + H on the Ni(111) surface as an example. By a careful comparison between the results from ITS-AIMD simulation and those evaluated in terms of the harmonic oscillator (HO) approximation, it is found that the reaction free energy and entropy from the HO approximation are qualitatively consistent with the results from ITS-AIMD simulation, but there are also quantitatively significant discrepancies. In particular, the HO model misses the entropy effects related to the existence of multiple adsorption configurations arising from the frustrated translation and rotation motion of adsorbed species, which are different in the reactant and product states. The rate constants are evaluated from two ITS-enhanced approaches, one using the transition state theory (TST) formulated in terms of the potential of mean force (PMF) and the other one combining ITS with the transition path sampling (TPS) technique, and are further compared to those based on harmonic TST. It is found that the rate constants from the PMF-based TST are significantly smaller than those from the harmonic TST, and that the results from PMF-TST and ITS-TPS are in a surprisingly good agreement. These findings indicate that the basic assumptions of transition state theory are valid in such elementary surface reactions, but the consideration of statistical averaging of all important adsorption configurations and reaction pathways, which are missing in the harmonic TST, are critical for
Hu, Hao; Yang, Weitao
2013-01-01
Determining the free energies and mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution and enzymes is a major challenge. For such complex reaction processes, combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method is the most effective simulation method to provide an accurate and efficient theoretical description of the molecular system. The computational costs of ab initio QM methods, however, have limited the application of ab initio QM/MM methods. Recent advances in ab initio QM/MM methods allowed the accurate simulation of the free energies for reactions in solution and in enzymes and thus paved the way for broader application of the ab initio QM/MM methods. We review here the theoretical developments and applications of the ab initio QM/MM methods, focusing on the determination of reaction path and the free energies of the reaction processes in solution and enzymes. PMID:24146439
An efficient and accurate molecular alignment and docking technique using ab initio quality scoring
Füsti-Molnár, László; Merz, Kenneth M.
2008-01-01
An accurate and efficient molecular alignment technique is presented based on first principle electronic structure calculations. This new scheme maximizes quantum similarity matrices in the relative orientation of the molecules and uses Fourier transform techniques for two purposes. First, building up the numerical representation of true ab initio electronic densities and their Coulomb potentials is accelerated by the previously described Fourier transform Coulomb method. Second, the Fourier convolution technique is applied for accelerating optimizations in the translational coordinates. In order to avoid any interpolation error, the necessary analytical formulas are derived for the transformation of the ab initio wavefunctions in rotational coordinates. The results of our first implementation for a small test set are analyzed in detail and compared with published results of the literature. A new way of refinement of existing shape based alignments is also proposed by using Fourier convolutions of ab initio or other approximate electron densities. This new alignment technique is generally applicable for overlap, Coulomb, kinetic energy, etc., quantum similarity measures and can be extended to a genuine docking solution with ab initio scoring. PMID:18624561
Steel — ab Initio: Quantum Mechanics Guided Design of New Fe-Based Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prahl, Ulrich; Bleck, Wolfgang; Saeed-Akbari, Alireza
This contribution reports the results of the collaborative research unit SFB 761 "Steel — ab initio", a cooperative project between RWTH Aachen University and the Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research in Düsseldorf (MPIE) financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG). For the first time, it is exploited how ab initio approaches may lead to a detailed understanding and thus to a specific improvement of material development. The challenge lies in the combination of abstract natural science theories with rather engineering-like established concepts. Aiming at the technological target of the development of a new type of structural materials based on Fe-Mn-C alloys, the combination of ab initio and engineering methods is new, but could be followed quite successfully. Three major topics are treated in this research unit: a) development of a new method for material- and process-development based on ab initio calculations; b) design of a new class of structural materials with extraordinary property combinations; c) acceleration of development time and reduction of experimental efforts and complexity for material- and process-development. In the present work, an overview of the results of the first five years as well as an outlook for the upcoming three-year period is given.
Vibrational modes in thymine molecule from an ab initio MO calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aida, Misako; Kaneko, Motohisa; Dupuis, Michel; Ueda, Toyotoshi; Ushizawa, Koichi; Ito, Gen; Kumakura, Akiko; Tsuboi, Masamichi
1997-03-01
Ab initio self-consistent field molecular orbital (SCF MO) calculations have been made of the thymine molecule for the equilibrium geometry, harmonic force constants, vibrational frequencies, vibrational modes, infrared intensities, and Raman intensities. The results have been correlated with the