Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs.
Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G
2015-04-28
Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials.
Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs
Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.
2015-01-01
Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron–phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron–phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron–phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials. PMID:25870287
Ab initio quantum chemical study of electron transfer in carboranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pati, Ranjit; Pineda, Andrew C.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.
2005-05-01
The electron transfer (ET) properties of 10- and 12-vertex carboranes are investigated by the ab initio Hartree-Fock method within the Marcus-Hush (MH) two-state model and the Koopman theorem (KT) approach. The calculated value of the ET coupling matrix element, VAB, is consistently higher in the KT approach than in the MH two-state model. For the carborane molecules functionalized by -CH 2 groups at C-vertices, VAB strongly depends on the relative orientation of the planes containing the terminal -CH 2 groups. The predicted conformation dependence of VAB offers a molecular mechanism to control ET between two active centers in molecular systems.
Ab initio MCDHF calculations of electron-nucleus interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bieroń, Jacek; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Fritzsche, Stephan; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Grant, Ian P.; Indelicato, Paul; Jönsson, Per; Pyykkö, Pekka
2015-05-01
We present recent advances in the development of atomic ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, implemented in the GRASP relativistic atomic structure code. For neutral atoms, the deviations of properties calculated within the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method (based on independent particle model of an atomic cloud) are usually dominated by electron correlation effects, i.e. the non-central interactions of individual electrons. We present the recent advances in accurate calculations of electron correlation effects in small, medium, and heavy neutral atoms. We describe methods of systematic development of multiconfiguration expansions leading to systematic, controlled improvement of the accuracy of the ab initio calculations. These methods originate from the concept of the complete active space (CAS) model within the DHF theory, which, at least in principle, permits fully relativistic calculations with full account of electron correlation effects. The calculations within the CAS model on currently available computer systems are feasible only for very light systems. For heavier atoms or ions with more than a few electrons, restrictions have to be imposed on the multiconfiguration expansions. We present methods and tools, which are designed to extend the numerical calculations in a controlled manner, where multiconfiguration expansions account for all leading electron correlation effects. We show examples of applications of the GRASP code to calculations of hyperfine structure constants, but the code may be used for calculations of arbitrary bound-state atomic properties. In recent years it has been applied to calculations of atomic and ionic spectra (transition energies and rates), to determinations of nuclear electromagnetic moments, as well as to calculations related to interactions of bound electrons with nuclear electromagnetic moments leading to violations of discrete symmetries.
Ab initio electronic and lattice dynamical properties of cerium dihydride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurel, Tanju; Eryigit, Resul
2007-03-01
The rare-earth metal hydrides are interesting systems because of the dramatic structural and electronic changes due to the hydrogen absorption and desorption. Among them, cerium dihydride (CeH2) is one of the less studied rare-earth metal-hydride. To have a better understanding, we have performed an ab initio study of electronic and lattice dynamical properties of CeH2 by using pseudopotential density functional theory within local density approximation (LDA) and a plane-wave basis. Electronic band structure of CeH2 have been obtained within LDA and as well as GW approximation. Lattice dynamical properties are calculated using density functional perturbation theory. The phonon spectrum is found to contain a set of high-frequency (˜ 850-1000 cm-1) optical bands, mostly hydrogen related, and low frequency cerium related acoustic modes climbing to 160 cm^ -1 at the zone boundary.
Approximate ab initio calculations of electronic structure of amorphous silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durandurdu, M.; Drabold, D. A.; Mousseau, N.
2000-12-01
We report on ab initio calculations of electronic states of two large and realistic models of amorphous silicon generated using a modified version of the Wooten-Winer-Weaire algorithm and relaxed, in both cases, with a Keating and a modified Stillinger-Weber potentials. The models have no coordination defects and a very narrow bond-angle distribution. We compute the electronic density-of-states and pay particular attention to the nature of the band-tail states around the electronic gap. All models show a large and perfectly clean optical gap and realistic Urbach tails. Based on these results and the extended quasi-one-dimensional stringlike structures observed for certain eigenvalues in the band tails, we postulate that the generation of model a-Si without localized states might be achievable under certain circumstances.
Ab initio electronic stopping power of protons in bulk materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukri, Abdullah Atef; Bruneval, Fabien; Reining, Lucia
2016-01-01
The electronic stopping power is a crucial quantity for ion irradiation: it governs the deposited heat, the damage profile, and the implantation depth. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. Here we develop a fully ab initio computational scheme based on linear response time-dependent density-functional theory to predict the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. We show that the calculated RESP compares well with experimental data, when at full convergence, with the inclusion of the core states and of the exchange correlation. We evaluate the unexpectedly limited magnitude of the nonlinear terms in the RESP by comparing with other approaches based on the time propagation of time-dependent density-functional theory. Finally, we check the validity of a few empirical rules of thumbs that are commonly used to estimate the electronic stopping power.
Ab initio electron propagator theory of molecular wires. I. Formalism.
Dahnovsky, Yu; Zakrzewski, V G; Kletsov, A; Ortiz, J V
2005-11-08
Ab initio electron propagator methodology may be applied to the calculation of electrical current through a molecular wire. A new theoretical approach is developed for the calculation of the retarded and advanced Green functions in terms of the electron propagator matrix for the bridge molecule. The calculation of the current requires integration in a complex half plane for a trace that involves terminal and Green's-function matrices. Because the Green's-function matrices have complex poles represented by matrices, a special scheme is developed to express these "matrix poles" in terms of ordinary poles. An expression for the current is derived for a terminal matrix of arbitrary rank. For a single terminal orbital, the analytical expression for the current is given in terms of pole strengths, poles, and terminal matrix elements of the electron propagator. It is shown that Dyson orbitals with high pole strengths and overlaps with terminal orbitals are most responsible for the conduction of electrical current.
Ab initio calculations of correlated electron dynamics in ultrashort pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feist, Johannes
2010-03-01
The availability of ultrashort and intense light pulses on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale promises to allow to directly probe and control electron dynamics on their natural timescale. A crucial ingredient to understanding the dynamics in many-electron systems is the influence of electron correlation, induced by the interelectronic repulsion. In order to study electron correlation in ultrafast processes, we have implemented an ab initio simulation of the two-electron dynamics in helium atoms. We solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in its full dimensionality, with one temporal and five spatial degrees of freedom in linearly polarized laser fields. In our computational approach, the wave function is represented through a combination of time-dependent close coupling with the finite element discrete variable representation, while time propagation is performed using an Arnoldi-Lanczos approximation with adaptive step size. This approach is optimized to allow for efficient parallelization of the program and has been shown to scale linearly using up to 1800 processor cores for typical problem sizes. This has allowed us to perform highly accurate and well- converged computations for the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with He. I will present some recent results on using attosecond and femtosecond pulses to probe and control the temporal structure of the ionization process. This work was performed in collaboration with Stefan Nagele, Renate Pazourek, Andreas Kaltenb"ack, Emil Persson, Barry I. Schneider, Lee A. Collins, and Joachim Burgd"orfer.
Ab initio studies of phosphorene island single electron transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, S. J.; Venkata Kamalakar, M.; Chowdhury, R.
2016-05-01
Phosphorene is a newly unveiled two-dimensional crystal with immense potential for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Its unique electronic structure and two dimensionality also present opportunities for single electron devices. Here we report the behaviour of a single electron transistor (SET) made of a phosphorene island, explored for the first time using ab initio calculations. We find that the band gap and the charging energy decrease monotonically with increasing layer numbers due to weak quantum confinement. When compared to two other novel 2D crystals such as graphene and MoS2, our investigation reveals larger adsorption energies of gas molecules on phosphorene, which indicates better a sensing ability. The calculated charge stability diagrams show distinct changes in the presence of an individual molecule which can be applied to detect the presence of different molecules with sensitivity at a single molecular level. The higher charging energies of the molecules within the SET display operational viability at room temperature, which is promising for possible ultra sensitive detection applications.
Ab initio electronic structure and optical conductivity of bismuth tellurohalides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwalbe, Sebastian; Wirnata, René; Starke, Ronald; Schober, Giulio A. H.; Kortus, Jens
2016-11-01
We investigate the electronic structure, dielectric, and optical properties of bismuth tellurohalides BiTe X (X =I , Cl, Br) by means of all-electron density functional theory. In particular, we present the ab initio conductivities and dielectric tensors calculated over a wide frequency range, and compare our results with the recent measurements by Akrap et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 035201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.035201], Makhnev et al. [Opt. Spectrosc. 117, 764 (2014), 10.1134/S0030400X14110125], and Rusinov et al. [JETP Lett. 101, 507 (2015), 10.1134/S0021364015080147]. We show how the low-frequency branch of the optical conductivity can be used to identify characteristic intra- and interband transitions between the Rashba spin-split bands in all three bismuth tellurohalides. We further calculate the refractive indices and dielectric constants, which in turn are systematically compared to previous predictions and measurements. We expect that our quantitative analysis will contribute to the general assessment of bulk Rashba materials for their potential use in spintronics devices.
Electronic structure and conductivity of ferroelectric hexaferrite: Ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knížek, K.; Novák, P.; Küpferling, M.
2006-04-01
Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 is a promising multiferroic compound in which the electric polarization is intimately connected to the magnetic state. In principle, ferroelectrity might exist above the room temperature, but the electrical conductivity that increases with increasing temperature limits it to temperatures below ≈130K . We present results of an ab initio electronic structure calculation of the (BaSr)Zn2Fe12O22 system. To improve the description of strongly correlated 3d electrons of iron, the GGA+U method is used. The results show that the electrical conductivity strongly depends on relative fractions of iron and zinc in the tetrahedral sublattice that belongs to the spinel block of the hexaferrite structure. If this sublattice is fully occupied by zinc, the system is an insulator with a gap of ≈1.5eV . If it is occupied equally by Fe and Zn the gap decreases by a factor of 2, and the system is metallic when this sublattice is filled by iron only.
An efficient method for electron-atom scattering using ab-initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yuan; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang
2017-02-01
We present an efficient method based on ab-initio calculations to investigate electron-atom scatterings. Those calculations profit from methods implemented in standard quantum chemistry programs. The new approach is applied to electron-helium scattering. The results are compared with experimental and other theoretical references to demonstrate the efficiency of our method.
Muchová, Eva; Slavícek, Petr; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Hobza, Pavel
2007-06-21
The goal of this study is to explore the photochemical processes following optical excitation of the glycine molecule into its two low-lying excited states. We employed electronic structure methods at various levels to map the PES of the ground state and the two low-lying excited states of glycine. It follows from our calculations that the photochemistry of glycine can be regarded as a combination of photochemical behavior of amines and carboxylic acid. The first channel (connected to the presence of amino group) results in ultrafast decay, while the channels characteristic for the carboxylic group occur on a longer time scale. Dynamical calculations provided the branching ratio for these channels. We also addressed the question whether conformationally dependent photochemistry can be observed for glycine. While electronic structure calculations favor this possibility, the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) calculations showed only minor relevance of the reaction path resulting in conformationally dependent dynamics.
Ab initio electron mobility and polar phonon scattering in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jin-Jian; Bernardi, Marco
2016-11-01
In polar semiconductors and oxides, the long-range nature of the electron-phonon (e -ph ) interaction is a bottleneck to compute charge transport from first principles. Here, we develop an efficient ab initio scheme to compute and converge the e -ph relaxation times (RTs) and electron mobility in polar materials. We apply our approach to GaAs, where by using the Boltzmann equation with state-dependent RTs, we compute mobilities in excellent agreement with experiment at 250 -500 K . The e -ph RTs and the phonon contributions to intravalley and intervalley e -ph scattering are also analyzed. Our work enables efficient ab initio computations of transport and carrier dynamics in polar materials.
Ab initio calculations on twisted graphene/hBN: Electronic structure and STM image simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, J. D.; Cisternas, E.
2016-09-01
By performing ab initio calculations we obtained theoretical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and studied the electronic properties of graphene on a hexagonal boron-nitrite (hBN) layer. Three different stack configurations and four twisted angles were considered. All calculations were performed using density functional theory, including van der Waals interactions as implemented in the SIESTA ab initio package. Our results show that the electronic structure of graphene is preserved, although some small changes are induced by the interaction with the hBN layer, particularly in the total density of states at 1.5 eV under the Fermi level. When layers present a twisted angle, the density of states shows several van Hove singularities under the Fermi level, which are associated to moiré patterns observed in theoretical STM images.
Bylaska, Eric J.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Tratnyek, Paul G.
2002-12-17
Substituted chloromethyl radicals and anions are potential intermediates in the reduction of substituted chlorinated methanes (CHxCl3-xL, with L- ) F-, OH-, SH-, NO3 -, HCO3 - and (x 0-3). Thermochemical properties, Hf (298.15 K), S(298.15 K,1 bar), and GS(298.15 K, 1 bar), were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure methods for the substituted chloromethyl radicals and anions: CHyCl2-yL and CHyCl2-yL-, for y 0-2. In addition, thermochemical properties were calculated for the aldehyde, ClHCO, and the gemchlorohydrin anions, CCl3O-, CHCl2O-, and CH2ClO-. The thermochemical properties of these additional compounds were calculated because the nitrate-substituted compounds, CHyCl2-y(NO3) and CHyCl2-y(NO3)-,
Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2016-05-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg10In90, Hg30In70,. Hg50In50, Hg70In30, and Hg90Pb10) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.
Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanowires Matrix from Ab Initio Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S.; Boyko, Yaroslav V.; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S.; Potashnyk, Vasylyna Ya.
2016-01-01
An investigation of the model of porous silicon in the form of periodic set of silicon nanowires has been carried out. The electronic energy structure was studied using a first-principle band method—the method of pseudopotentials (ultrasoft potentials in the basis of plane waves) and linearized mode of the method of combined pseudopotentials. Due to the use of hybrid exchange-correlation potentials (B3LYP), the quantitative agreement of the calculated value of band gap in the bulk material with experimental data is achieved. The obtained results show that passivation of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms leads to substantial transformation of electronic energy structure. At complete passivation of the dangling silicon bonds by hydrogen atoms, the band gap value takes the magnitude which substantially exceeds that for bulk silicon. The incomplete passivation gives rise to opposite effect when the band gap value decreases down the semimetallic range.
Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanowires Matrix from Ab Initio Calculations.
Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Boyko, Yaroslav V; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Potashnyk, Vasylyna Ya
2016-12-01
An investigation of the model of porous silicon in the form of periodic set of silicon nanowires has been carried out. The electronic energy structure was studied using a first-principle band method-the method of pseudopotentials (ultrasoft potentials in the basis of plane waves) and linearized mode of the method of combined pseudopotentials. Due to the use of hybrid exchange-correlation potentials (B3LYP), the quantitative agreement of the calculated value of band gap in the bulk material with experimental data is achieved. The obtained results show that passivation of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms leads to substantial transformation of electronic energy structure. At complete passivation of the dangling silicon bonds by hydrogen atoms, the band gap value takes the magnitude which substantially exceeds that for bulk silicon. The incomplete passivation gives rise to opposite effect when the band gap value decreases down the semimetallic range.
AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS
Turchi, P A
2004-04-14
Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Carvajal, Miguel; Thiel, Walter; Jensen, Per
2006-09-01
We report a six-dimensional CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ dipole moment surface for the electronic ground state of PH 3 computed ab initio on a large grid of 10 080 molecular geometries. Parameterized, analytical functions are fitted through the ab initio data, and the resulting dipole moment functions are used, together with a potential energy function determined by refining an existing ab initio surface in fittings to experimental wavenumber data, for simulating absorption spectra of the first three polyads of PH 3, i.e., ( ν2, ν4), ( ν1, ν3, 2 ν2, 2 ν4, ν2 + ν4), and ( ν1 + ν2, ν3 + ν2, ν1 + ν4, ν3 + ν4, 2 ν2 + ν4, ν2 + 2 ν4, 3 ν2, 3 ν4). The resulting theoretical transition moments show excellent agreement with experiment. A line-by-line comparison of the simulated intensities of the ν2/ ν4 band system with 955 experimental intensity values reported by Brown et al. [L.R. Brown, R.L. Sams, I. Kleiner, C. Cottaz, L. Sagui, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 215 (2002) 178-203] gives an average absolute percentage deviation of 8.7% (and a root-mean-square deviation of 0.94 cm -1 for the transition wavenumbers). This is very remarkable since the calculations rely entirely on ab initio dipole moment surfaces and do not involve any adjustment of these surfaces to reproduce the experimental intensities. Finally, we predict the line strengths for transitions between so-called cluster levels (near-degenerate levels formed at high rotational excitation) for J up to 60.
Kurova, N. V. Burdov, V. A.
2013-12-15
The results of ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of Si nanocrystals doped with shallow donors (Li, P) are reported. It is shown that phosphorus introduces much more significant distortions into the electronic structure of the nanocrystal than lithium, which is due to the stronger central cell potential of the phosphorus ion. It is found that the Li-induced splitting of the ground state in the conduction band of the nanocrystal into the singlet, doublet, and triplet retains its inverse structure typical for bulk silicon.
Yamaji, Youhei
2015-12-31
Recently, condensed-matter ab initio approaches to strongly correlated electrons confined in crystalline solids have been developed and applied to transition-metal oxides and molecular conductors. In this paper, an ab initio scheme based on constrained random phase approximations and localized Wannier orbitals is applied to a spin liquid candidate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} and is shown to reproduce experimentally observed specific heat.
Ab initio study on electronically excited states of lithium isocyanide, LiNC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasumatsu, Hisato; Jeung, Gwang-Hi
2014-01-01
The electronically excited states of the lithium isocyanide molecule, LiNC, were studied by means of ab initio calculations. The bonding nature of LiNC up to ∼10 eV is discussed on the basis of the potential energy surfaces according to the interaction between the ion-pair and covalent states. The ion-pair states are described by Coulomb attractive interaction in the long distance range, while the covalent ones are almost repulsive or bound with a very shallow potential dent. These two states interact each other to form adiabatic potential energy surfaces with non-monotonic change in the potential energy with the internuclear distance.
Communication: Multiple-timestep ab initio molecular dynamics with electron correlation.
Steele, Ryan P
2013-07-07
A time-reversible, multiple-timestep protocol is presented for ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using correlated, wavefunction-based underlying potentials. The method is motivated by the observation that electron correlation contributions to forces vary on a slower timescale than their Hartree-Fock counterparts. An efficient dynamics algorithm, involving short-timestep Hartree-Fock and long-timestep Moøller-Plesset perturbation theory, is presented and tested. Results indicate stable trajectories and relative speedups comparable to those seen in force field-based multiple-timestep schemes, with the highest efficiency improvement occurring for large systems.
Communication: Multiple-timestep ab initio molecular dynamics with electron correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, Ryan P.
2013-07-01
A time-reversible, multiple-timestep protocol is presented for ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using correlated, wavefunction-based underlying potentials. The method is motivated by the observation that electron correlation contributions to forces vary on a slower timescale than their Hartree-Fock counterparts. An efficient dynamics algorithm, involving short-timestep Hartree-Fock and long-timestep Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, is presented and tested. Results indicate stable trajectories and relative speedups comparable to those seen in force field-based multiple-timestep schemes, with the highest efficiency improvement occurring for large systems.
Ab Initio Electronic Structure Calculations of Cytochrome P450 -- Ligand Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.
1997-03-01
The Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes are of great interest in pharmacology as they participate in an enormous range of physiological processes including drug deactivation and xenobiotic detoxification. We apply ab initio electronic structure calculations to model the interactions of the haem molecule at the P450 active site with substrate and inhibitor ligands. These calculations, based on density function theory, were performed with the CETEP code which uses a plane wave basis set and pseudopotentials to perform efficient LDA, GGA and spin dependent calculations. A change in the spin state of the haem iron atom is observed on binding of a substrate molecule, consistent with the accepted reaction mechanism.
Ab initio determination of effective electron-phonon coupling factor in copper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-04-01
The electron temperature Te dependent electron density of states g (ε), Fermi-Dirac distribution f (ε), and electron-phonon spectral function α2 F (Ω) are computed as prerequisites before achieving effective electron-phonon coupling factor Ge-ph. The obtained Ge-ph is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature model (TTM) coupled simulation of femtosecond laser heating. By monitoring temperature evolutions of electron and lattice subsystems, the result utilizing Ge-ph from ab initio calculation shows a faster decrease of Te and increase of Tl than those using Ge-ph from phenomenological treatment. The approach of calculating Ge-ph and its implementation into MD-TTM simulation is applicable to other metals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-12-01
We formulate an ab initio downfolding scheme for electron-phonon-coupled systems. In this scheme, we calculate partially renormalized phonon frequencies and electron-phonon coupling, which include the screening effects of high-energy electrons, to construct a realistic Hamiltonian consisting of low-energy electron and phonon degrees of freedom. We show that our scheme can be implemented by slightly modifying the density functional-perturbation theory (DFPT), which is one of the standard methods for calculating phonon properties from first principles. Our scheme, which we call the constrained DFPT, can be applied to various phonon-related problems, such as superconductivity, electron and thermal transport, thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, dielectricity, and multiferroicity. We believe that the constrained DFPT provides a firm basis for the understanding of the role of phonons in strongly correlated materials. Here, we apply the scheme to fullerene superconductors and discuss how the realistic low-energy Hamiltonian is constructed.
Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...
2015-02-09
In this study, the response of titanate pyrochlores (A2Ti2O7, A = Y, Gd and Sm) to electronic excitation is investigated utilizing an ab initio molecular dynamics method. All the titanate pyrochlores are found to undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition under a low concentration of electronic excitations. The transition temperature at which structural amorphization starts to occur depends on the concentration of electronic excitations. During the structural transition, O2-like molecules are formed, and this anion disorder further drives cation disorder that leads to an amorphous state. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of amorphization in titanate pyrochlores under laser,more » electron and ion irradiations.« less
Multiple-Time Step Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Based on Two-Electron Integral Screening.
Fatehi, Shervin; Steele, Ryan P
2015-03-10
A multiple-timestep ab initio molecular dynamics scheme based on varying the two-electron integral screening method used in Hartree-Fock or density functional theory calculations is presented. Although screening is motivated by numerical considerations, it is also related to separations in the length- and timescales characterizing forces in a molecular system: Loose thresholds are sufficient to describe fast motions over short distances, while tight thresholds may be employed for larger length scales and longer times, leading to a practical acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Standard screening approaches can lead, however, to significant discontinuities in (and inconsistencies between) the energy and gradient when the screening threshold is loose, making them inappropriate for use in dynamics. To remedy this problem, a consistent window-screening method that smooths these discontinuities is devised. Further algorithmic improvements reuse electronic-structure information within the dynamics step and enhance efficiency relative to a naı̈ve multiple-timestepping protocol. The resulting scheme is shown to realize meaningful reductions in the cost of Hartree-Fock and B3LYP simulations of a moderately large system, the protonated sarcosine/glycine dipeptide embedded in a 19-water cluster.
Thürmer, Stephan; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr
2011-06-16
The effect of hydration on the electronic structure of H(2)O(2) is investigated by liquid-jet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and ab initio calculations. Experimental valence electron binding energies of the H(2)O(2) orbitals in water are, on average, 1.9 eV red-shifted with respect to the gas-phase molecule. A smaller width of the first peak was observed in the photoelectron spectrum from the solution. Our experiment is complemented by simulated photoelectron spectra, calculated at the ab initio level of theory (with EOM-IP-CCSD and DFT methods), and using path-integral sampling of the ground-state density. The observed shift in ionization energy upon solvation is attributed to a combination of nonspecific electrostatic effects (long-range polarization) and of the specific interactions between H(2)O(2) and H(2)O molecules in the first solvation shell. Changes in peak widths are found to result from merging of the two lowest ionized states of H(2)O(2) in water due to conformational changes upon solvation. Hydration effects on H(2)O(2) are stronger than on the H(2)O molecule. In addition to valence spectra, we report oxygen 1s core-level photoelectron spectra from H(2)O(2)(aq), and observed energies and spectral intensities are discussed qualitatively.
Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study
Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2014-05-15
A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.
An ab initio model for the modulation of galactic cosmic-ray electrons
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2013-12-20
The modulation of galactic cosmic-ray electrons is studied using an ab initio three-dimensional steady state cosmic-ray modulation code in which the effects of turbulence on both the diffusion and drift of these cosmic-rays are treated as self-consistently as possible. A significant refinement is that a recent two-component turbulence transport model is used. This model yields results in reasonable agreement with observations of turbulence quantities throughout the heliosphere. The sensitivity of computed galactic electron intensities to choices of various turbulence parameters pertaining to the dissipation range of the slab turbulence spectrum, and to the choice of model of dynamical turbulence, is demonstrated using diffusion coefficients derived from the quasi-linear and extended nonlinear guiding center theories. Computed electron intensities and latitude gradients are also compared with spacecraft observations.
A toolbox for ab initio 3-D reconstructions in single-particle electron microscopy.
Voss, Neil R; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Cheng, Anchi; Lau, Pick-Wei; Mulder, Anke; Lander, Gabriel C; Brignole, Edward J; Fellmann, Denis; Irving, Christopher; Jacovetty, Erica L; Leung, Albert; Pulokas, James; Quispe, Joel D; Winkler, Hanspeter; Yoshioka, Craig; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S
2010-03-01
Structure determination of a novel macromolecular complex via single-particle electron microscopy depends upon overcoming the challenge of establishing a reliable 3-D reconstruction using only 2-D images. There are a variety of strategies that deal with this issue, but not all of them are readily accessible and straightforward to use. We have developed a "toolbox" of ab initio reconstruction techniques that provide several options for calculating 3-D volumes in an easily managed and tightly controlled work-flow that adheres to standard conventions and formats. This toolbox is designed to streamline the reconstruction process by removing the necessity for bookkeeping, while facilitating transparent data transfer between different software packages. It currently includes procedures for calculating ab initio reconstructions via random or orthogonal tilt geometry, tomograms, and common lines, all of which have been tested using the 50S ribosomal subunit. Our goal is that the accessibility of multiple independent reconstruction algorithms via this toolbox will improve the ease with which models can be generated, and provide a means of evaluating the confidence and reliability of the final reconstructed map.
Klevets, Ivan; Bryk, Taras
2014-12-07
Electron-ion structure factors, calculated in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, are reported for several binary liquids with different kinds of chemical bonding: metallic liquid alloy Bi–Pb, molten salt RbF, and liquid water. We derive analytical expressions for the long-wavelength asymptotes of the partial electron-ion structure factors of binary systems and show that the analytical results are in good agreement with the ab initio simulation data. The long-wavelength behaviour of the total charge structure factors for the three binary liquids is discussed.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Electronic Structures and Biological Functions of Protein Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Haoping
The self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) calculation method reduces the computational effort from M3 to about M1 (M is the number of atoms in the system) with precise calculations. Thus the ab initio, all-electron calculation of the electronic structure and biological function of protein molecule has become a reality, which will promote new proteomics considerably. The calculated results of two real protein molecules, the trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I, 436 atoms) and the ascaris trypsin inhibitor (912 atoms, two three-dimensional structures), will be presented in this paper. The reactive sites of the inhibitors are determined and explained. The accuracy of structure determination of the inhibitors are tested theoretically.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Electronic Structures and Biological Functions of Protein Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Haoping
2003-04-01
The self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) calculation method reduces the computational effort from M3 to about M1 (M is the number of atoms in the system) with unchanged calculation precision. So the ab initio, all-electron calculation of the electronic structure and biological function of protein molecule becomes a reality, which will promote new proteomics considerably. The calculated results of two real protein molecules, the trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I, 436 atoms) and the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor (912 atoms, two three-dimensional structures), are presented. The reactive sites of the inhibitors are determined and explained. The precision of structure determination of inhibitors are tested theoretically.
Ab initio electron scattering cross-sections and transport in liquid xenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyle, G. J.; McEachran, R. P.; Cocks, D. G.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Dujko, S.; White, R. D.
2016-09-01
Ab initio fully differential cross-sections for electron scattering in liquid xenon are developed from a solution of the Dirac-Fock scattering equations, using a recently developed framework (Boyle et al 2015 J. Chem. Phys. 142 154507) which considers multipole polarizabilities, a non-local treatment of exchange, and screening and coherent scattering effects. A multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation accounting for the full anisotropic nature of the differential cross-section is used to calculate transport properties of excess electrons in liquid xenon. The results were found to agree to within 25% of the measured mobilities and characteristic energies over the reduced field range of 10-4-1 Td. The accuracies are comparable to those achieved in the gas phase. A simple model, informed by highly accurate gas-phase cross-sections, is presented to improve the liquid cross-sections, which was found to enhance the accuracy of the transport coefficient calculations.
Ab-initio calculations of electronic, transport, and structural properties of boron phosphide
Ejembi, J. I.; Nwigboji, I. H.; Franklin, L.; Malozovsky, Y.; Zhao, G. L.; Bagayoko, D.
2014-09-14
We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory calculations of electronic and related properties of zinc blende boron phosphide (zb-BP). We employed a local density approximation potential and implemented the linear combination of atomic orbitals formalism. This technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin. The results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. The calculated band gap of 2.02 eV, for the room temperature lattice constant of a=4.5383 Å, is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 2.02±0.05 eV. Our result for the bulk modulus, 155.7 GPa, agrees with experiment (152–155 GPa). Our predictions for the equilibrium lattice constant and the corresponding band gap, for very low temperatures, are 4.5269 Å and 2.01 eV, respectively.
Zhao, Jing; Wang, Mei; Fu, Aiyun; Yang, Hongfang; Bu, Yuxiang
2015-08-03
We present an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation study into the transfer dynamics of an excess electron from its cavity-shaped hydrated electron state to a hydrated nucleobase (NB)-bound state. In contrast to the traditional view that electron localization at NBs (G/A/C/T), which is the first step for electron-induced DNA damage, is related only to dry or prehydrated electrons, and a fully hydrated electron no longer transfers to NBs, our AIMD simulations indicate that a fully hydrated electron can still transfer to NBs. We monitored the transfer dynamics of fully hydrated electrons towards hydrated NBs in aqueous solutions by using AIMD simulations and found that due to solution-structure fluctuation and attraction of NBs, a fully hydrated electron can transfer to a NB gradually over time. Concurrently, the hydrated electron cavity gradually reorganizes, distorts, and even breaks. The transfer could be completed in about 120-200 fs in four aqueous NB solutions, depending on the electron-binding ability of hydrated NBs and the structural fluctuation of the solution. The transferring electron resides in the π*-type lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the NB, which leads to a hydrated NB anion. Clearly, the observed transfer of hydrated electrons can be attributed to the strong electron-binding ability of hydrated NBs over the hydrated electron cavity, which is the driving force, and the transfer dynamics is structure-fluctuation controlled. This work provides new insights into the evolution dynamics of hydrated electrons and provides some helpful information for understanding the DNA-damage mechanism in solution.
Ab initio calculation of structural stability, electronic and optical properties of Ag2Se
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rameshkumar, S.; Jaiganesh, G.; Jayalakshmi, V.; Palanivel, B.
2015-06-01
The structural stability, electronic and optical properties of Ag2Se compound is studied using ab initio packages. Ag2Se is found to crystallize in orthorhombic structure with two different space groups i.e. P212121 (No. 19) and P2221 (No. 17). For this compound in these two space groups, the total energy has been computed as a function of volume. Our calculated results suggest that the P212121-phase is more stable than that of the P2221-phase. The band structure calculation show that Ag2Se is semimetallic with an overlap of about 0.014 eV in P212121-phase whereas is metallic in nature in P2221-phase. Moreover, the optical properties including the dielectric fuction, energy loss spectrum are obtained and analysed.
Electronic and optical properties of K-doped ZnO: Ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aimouch, D. E.; Meskine, S.; Hayn, R.; Zaoui, A.; Boukortt, A.
2016-08-01
We present the results of ab initio calculations of K-doped ZnO in the wurtzite structure using a supercell of 32 atoms and density functional theory. A complete analysis of its electronic, optical and magnetic properties is provided. The local spin density approximation (LSDA) has been used to analyze the density of states and to understand the K influence at different concentration values. The material is revealed to become a p-type doped semiconductor. The optical constant or refractive index, the dielectric function, and the absorption coefficient were determined and show a good agreement with available experimental data. Potassium doping leads to an absorption peak at about 380 nm. That peak might improve the absorption characteristics of ZnO for solar cell or optical applications.
Ab initio electronic structure, magnetism, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of UGa2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diviš, Martin; Richter, Manuel; Eschrig, Helmut; Steinbeck, Lutz
1996-04-01
Ab initio electronic structure calculations for the intermetallic compound UGa2 were performed using an optimized linear combination of atomic orbitals method based on the local spin density approximation. Three separate calculations were done treating the uranium 5f states as band states and as localized states with occupation two and three, respectively. In the itinerant approach, spin and orbital moments, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the Sommerfeld constant were calculated and found to deviate significantly from the related experimental data. In the localized approach, crystal field parameters were obtained for the 5f states, which have been treated by self-interaction corrected local-density theory. This approach with 5f2 occupation is shown to provide reasonable results for the anisotropy of the susceptibility, for the field dependence of the magnetic moments, and for the Sommerfeld constant.
Ab initio study of pressure induced structural and electronic properties in TmPo
Makode, Chandrabhan Pataiya, Jagdish; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Panwar, Y. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra
2015-06-24
We report an ab initio calculation of pressure induced structural phase transition and electronic properties of Thulium Polonide (TmPo).The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that TmPo is stable in NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-phase) structure of this compound in the pressure range of 7.0 GPa. We also calculate the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure and density of states. From energy diagram it is observed that TmPo exhibit metallic behavior. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus are in general good agreement.
Electron Transport through Polyene Junctions in between Carbon Nanotubes: an Ab Initio Realization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yiing-Rei; Chen, Kai-Yu; Dou, Kun-Peng; Tai, Jung-Shen; Lee, Hsin-Han; Kaun, Chao-Cheng
With both ab initio and tight-binding model calculations, we study a system of polyene bridged armchair carbon nanotube electrodes, considering one-polyene and two-polyene cases, to address aspects of quantum transport through junctions with multiple conjugated molecules. The ab initio results of the two-polyene cases not only show the interference effect in transmission, but also the sensitive dependence of such effect on the combination of relative contact sites, which agrees nicely with the tight-binding model. Moreover, we show that the discrepancy mainly brought by ab initio relaxation provides an insight into the influence upon transmission spectra, from the junction's geometry, bonding and effective potential. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China under Grant Nos. 99-2112-M-003-012-MY2 and 103-2622-E-002-031, and the National Center for Theoretical Sciences of Taiwan.
Ab initio study of He-He interactions in homogeneous electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jinlong; Niu, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Ying
2017-02-01
We have investigated the immersion energy of a single He and the He-He interactions in homogeneous electron gas using ab initio calculations. It is found that He dislikes electrons and He-He interact via the He induced Friedel oscillations of electron densities. A critical electron density at which the global binding energy extremum shifts from the first minimum to the second one is identified. We also discover that the He-He global binding energy minimum of ∼-0.09 eV is reached at an optimal electron density of 0.04 e/Å3, corresponding to an optimal He-He separation of ∼1.7 Å. Further, the He atoms are found to gain a trivial amount of 2s and 2p states from the free electrons, inducing a hybridization between the He s- and p-states. The present results can qualitatively interpret the well-known He self-trapping behavior in metals.
Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.
2015-08-14
Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.
Hoy, Erik P; Mazziotti, David A
2015-08-14
Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Ram Sevak; Solanki, Ankit
2016-03-01
Silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) have received a great deal of scientific and commercial interest due to their intriguing properties that include high temperature stability and electronic properties. For their efficient and widespread applications, tuning of electronic properties of SiCNTs is an attractive study. In this article, electronic properties of sulphur doped (S-doped) zigzag (9 , 0) SiCNT is investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Energy band structures and density of states of fully optimized undoped and doped structures with varying dopant concentration are calculated. S-doped on C-site of the nanotube exhibits a monotonic reduction of energy gap with increase in dopant concentration, and the nanotube transforms from semiconductor to metal at high dopant concentration. In case of S-doped on Si-site doping has less influence on modulating electronic structures, which results in reduction of energy gap up to a moderate doping concentration. Importantly, S preferential substitutes of Si-sites and the nanotube with S-doped on Si-site are energetically more stable as compared to the nanotube with S-doped on C-site. The study of tunable electronic properties in S-doped SiCNT may have potential in fabricating nanoelectronic devices, hydrogen storage and gas sensing applications.
Ab-initio calculation of electron-phonon coupling for spin relaxation in metals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruneda, Miguel; Souza, Ivo
2007-03-01
Spin-electronic devices have motivated an important effort in understanding the mechanisms for spin-relaxation, because the operation of such devices requires long spin-diffusion lenghts. Two main factors contribute to spin relaxation: (i) spin-orbit interaction, which mixes the spin-up and spin-down components of the electronic wavefunction, and (ii) electron scattering from defects or phonons. In metals, the phonon-mediated Elliot-Yafet mechanism is believed to be dominant. Realistic calculations are computationally demanding, requiring an accurate description of the electronic states near the Fermi surface and their coupling to the lattice (phonons). Here we use a Density Functional Perturbation Theory implementation to calculate from first-principles the electron-phonon interaction in systems with spin-orbit coupling. Combined with recently-developed Wannier-interpolation methods for sampling efficiently the Brillouin zone, this will allow for a fully ab-initio calculation of the spin relaxation in metals. J. Fabian and S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1211 (1999).
Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water
Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa
2014-04-28
The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.
Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water.
Martiniano, Hugo F M C; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J Costa
2014-04-28
The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O-H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.
Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa
2014-04-01
The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O-H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.
Ab initio transport calculations of molecular wires with electron-phonon couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, Kenji; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko
2009-03-01
Understanding of electron transport through nanostructures becomes important with the advancement of fabrication process to construct atomic-scale devices. Due to the drastic change of transport properties by contact conditions to electrodes in local electric fields, first-principles calculation approaches are indispensable to understand and characterize the transport properties of nanometer-scale molecular devices. Here we study the transport properties of molecular wires between metallic electrodes, especially focusing on the effects of contacts to electrodes and of the electron-phonon interactions. We use an ab initio calculation method based on the scattering waves, which are obtained by the recursion-transfer-matrix (RTM) method, combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method including the electron-phonon scatterings. We find that conductance shows exponential behaviors as a function of the length of molecular wires due to tunneling process determined by the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. From the voltage drop behaviors inside the molecular wires, we show that the contact resistances are dominant source for the bias drop and thus are related to local heating. We will present the electron-phonon coupling effects at contact on the inelastic scattering and discuss on the local heating and local temperature, comparing them with those of metallic atomic wires.
Hegde, Ganesh Bowen, R. Chris
2015-10-15
The accuracy of a single s-orbital representation of Cu towards enabling multi-thousand atom ab initio calculations of electronic structure is evaluated in this work. If an electrostatic compensation charge of 0.3 electron per atom is used in this basis representation, the electronic transmission in bulk and nanocrystalline Cu can be made to compare accurately to that obtained with a Double Zeta Polarized basis set. The use of this representation is analogous to the use of single band effective mass representation for semiconductor electronic structure. With a basis of just one s-orbital per Cu atom, the representation is extremely computationally efficient and can be used to provide much needed ab initio insight into electronic transport in nanocrystalline Cu interconnects at realistic dimensions of several thousand atoms.
Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2016-07-01
Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism.
A Simple ab initio Model for the Hydrated Electron that Matches Experiment
Kumar, Anil; Walker, Jonathan A.; Bartels, David M.; Sevilla, Michael D.
2015-01-01
Since its discovery over 50 years ago, the “structure” and properties of the hydrated electron has been a subject for wonderment and also fierce debate. In the present work we seriously explore a minimal model for the aqueous electron, consisting of a small water anion cluster embedded in a polarized continuum, using several levels of ab initio calculation and basis set. The minimum energy zero “Kelvin” structure found for any 4-water (or larger) anion cluster, at any post-Hartree-Fock theory level, is very similar to a recently reported embedded-DFT-in-classical-water-MD simulation (UMJ: Uhlig, Marsalek, and Jungwirth, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2012, 3, 3071-5), with four OH bonds oriented toward the maximum charge density in a small central “void”. The minimum calculation with just four water molecules does a remarkably good job of reproducing the resonance Raman properties, the radius of gyration derived from the optical spectrum, the vertical detachment energy, and the hydration free energy. For the first time we also successfully calculate the EPR g-factor and (low temperature ice) hyperfine couplings. The simple tetrahedral anion cluster model conforms very well to experiment, suggesting it does in fact represent the dominant structural motif of the hydrated electron. PMID:26275103
Ab initio prediction of electronic, transport and bulk properties of Li2S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malozovsky, Yuriy; Franklin, Lashounda; Ekuma, Chinedu; Bagayoko, Diola
2015-08-01
In this paper, we present results from ab initio, self-consistent, local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of cubic antifluorite (anti-CaF2) lithium sulfide (Li2S). Our nonrelativistic computations implemented the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism following the Bagayoko, Zhao and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). Consequently, using several self-consistent calculations with increasing basis sets, we searched for the smallest basis set that yields the absolute minima of the occupied energies. The outcomes of the calculation with this basis set, called the optimal basis set, have the full physical content of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculated indirect band gap, from Γ to X, is 3.723 eV, for the low temperature experimental lattice constant of 5.689 Å. The predicted indirect band gap of 3.702 eV is obtained for the computationally determined equilibrium lattice constant of 5.651 Å. We have also calculated the total density of states (DOS) and partial densities of states (pDOS), electron and hole effective masses and the bulk modulus of Li2S. Due to a lack of experimental results, most of the calculated ones reported here are predictions for this material suspected of exhibiting a high temperature superconductivity similar to that of MgB2.
Ab initio study of structural, electronic, and thermal properties of Pt1-xPdx alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Shabbir; Zafar, Muhammad; Shakil, M.; Choudhary, M. A.; Hashmi, Muhammad Raza-Ur-Rehman
2017-01-01
We report a systematic theoretical study of Pt1-xPdx alloys using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) by pseudo potential method. We have used super cell approach to investigate structural, electronic and thermal properties of Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and their alloys Pt1-xPdx(x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The calculated lattice constants and bulk moduli are in good agreement with available literature data. The results of electronic properties revealed that the alloys are metallic in nature. The thermal properties were investigated through density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and quasi-harmonic approximation. The contribution to the free energy from the lattice vibration was calculated using the phonon densities of states (DOS) derived by means of the linear-response theory. The DFPT with quasi-harmonic approximation methods was applied to determine the phonon DOS and thermal quantities i.e., the Debye temperatures, vibration energy, entropy and constant-volume specific heat.
PSI3: an open-source Ab Initio electronic structure package.
Crawford, T Daniel; Sherrill, C David; Valeev, Edward F; Fermann, Justin T; King, Rollin A; Leininger, Matthew L; Brown, Shawn T; Janssen, Curtis L; Seidl, Edward T; Kenny, Joseph P; Allen, Wesley D
2007-07-15
PSI3 is a program system and development platform for ab initio molecular electronic structure computations. The package includes mature programming interfaces for parsing user input, accessing commonly used data such as basis-set information or molecular orbital coefficients, and retrieving and storing binary data (with no software limitations on file sizes or file-system-sizes), especially multi-index quantities such as electron repulsion integrals. This platform is useful for the rapid implementation of both standard quantum chemical methods, as well as the development of new models. Features that have already been implemented include Hartree-Fock, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, coupled cluster, and configuration interaction wave functions. Distinctive capabilities include the ability to employ Gaussian basis functions with arbitrary angular momentum levels; linear R12 second-order perturbation theory; coupled cluster frequency-dependent response properties, including dipole polarizabilities and optical rotation; and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections with correlated wave functions. This article describes the programming infrastructure and main features of the package. PSI3 is available free of charge through the open-source, GNU General Public License.
Ab-initio Electronic, Transport and Related Properties of Zinc Blende Boron Arsenide (zb-BAs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nwigboji, Ifeanyi H.; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of zinc blende boron arsenide (zb-BAs). We utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism. Our computational technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin. Our results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. We explain the agreement between these findings, including the indirect band gap, and available, corresponding, experimental ones. This work confirms the capability of DFT to describe accurately properties of materials, provided the computations adhere to the conditions of validity of DFT [AIP Advances, 4, 127104 (2014)]. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
Ab-initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of InP and GaP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malozovsky, Yuriy; Franklin, Lashounda; Ekuma, Chinedu; Zhao, Guang-Lin; Bagayoko, Diola
2013-03-01
We present results from ab-initio, self consistent local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of zinc blende indium and gallium phosphides (InP & GaP) We employed a local density approximation (LDA) potential and implemented the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. This implementation followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). This method searches for the optimal basis set that yields the minima of the occupied energies. This search entails methodically increasing the size of the basis set, up to the optimal one, and the accompanying enrichment of angular symmetry and of radial orbitals. Our calculated, direct band gap of 1.398 eV (1.40 eV) for InP, at the Γ point, is in excellent agreement with experimental values. We discuss our preliminary results for the indirect band gap, from Γ to X, of GaP. We also report calculated electron and hole effective masses for both InP and GaP and the total (DOS) and partial (pDOS) densities of states. This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA and LS-LAMP, [EPS-1003897, No. NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR, and HRD-1002541] and by the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI) at SUBR.
Ab initio calculation of structural stability, electronic and optical properties of Ag{sub 2}Se
Rameshkumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, V.; Jaiganesh, G.; Palanivel, B.
2015-06-24
The structural stability, electronic and optical properties of Ag{sub 2}Se compound is studied using ab initio packages. Ag{sub 2}Se is found to crystallize in orthorhombic structure with two different space groups i.e. P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (No. 19) and P222{sub 1} (No. 17). For this compound in these two space groups, the total energy has been computed as a function of volume. Our calculated results suggest that the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}–phase is more stable than that of the P222{sub 1}–phase. The band structure calculation show that Ag{sub 2}Se is semimetallic with an overlap of about 0.014 eV in P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}–phase whereas is metallic in nature in P222{sub 1}–phase. Moreover, the optical properties including the dielectric function, energy loss spectrum are obtained and analysed.
Ab initio investigation into the stability and electronic properties of GaN-nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, D. J.; Gale, J. D.; Delley, B.; Stampfl, C.
2006-03-01
Recent reports of successful fabrication of high quality gallium nanostructures such as quantum dots, nanocrystallites and nanowires, eg. [1], open the door to their possible role as important nanoscale building blocks for future optoelectronic, high-temperature/power and spintronic device applications. In the present work we perform ab initio calculations, using the DMol^3 [2] and SIESTA [3] codes, for wurtzite GaN nanowires. We have examined nanowires in the [0001], [1010], and [1120] directions, and investigated the stability, electronic and atomic structures as a function of nanowire radius. We found that only nanowires in the [0001] direction are stable, and that wires in the other directions can be stabilised by saturating dangling bonds with hydrogen. We have also investigated the properties of key point defects and dopants. [1] J. C. Johnson, et al. Nature Materials 1, 106 (2002). [2] B. Delley, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 508 (1990); ibid 113, 7756 (2000). [3] J.M. Soler, et al. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 14, 2745 (2002).
Electronic and magnetic properties of α-MnO2 from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo, Y.; Seriani, N.
2013-10-01
α-MnO2, an active catalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, has been investigated using ab initio calculations with different exchange-correlation functionals: the generalized-gradient approximation in the version of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE), PBE+U, and hybrid functionals. Both hybrid functionals and PBE+U (U≥2.0 eV) fail to capture the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state found experimentally, and a ferromagnetic configuration has the lowest energy. An AFM ground state is then recovered when using PBE or PBE+U (U≤1.6 eV). Interestingly, a reduction of the gap is observed at increasing values of the U parameter. We offer a qualitative explanation for the change in the calculated ground state employing the results for the electronic structure and physical arguments similar to those exposed in the Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules. It is argued that the pz orbital of oxygen atoms with sp2 hybridization plays a fundamental role in the superexchange AFM interaction and in the reduction of the gap.
Ab initio study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of ultrathin lead nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, B. K.; Singh, V.; Srivastava, R.; Agrawal, S.
2006-12-01
An ab initio study of the energetic, structural, electronic, and optical absorption properties of the 26 lead nanowires, Pbn (n=1,18) having different m -gonal (m=1-8) cross sections has been made in the density functional theory in local density approximation considering also the spin-orbit coupling (SOI). There are four groups of the stable structures: planar, caged, pyramidal, and helical. The binding energy of a nanowire, in general, increases with the coordination number except in those systems where the nearest neighbors are comparatively far away. A 14-Pb hexagonal helical configuration has maximum stability followed by the heptagonal, other hexagonal, and pentagonal wires. All the nanowires are metallic. The exceptions are the 2-Pb and 3-Pb semiconducting nanowires. A large number of the conduction channels leading to high quantum ballistic conduction are seen for a number of the m -gonal (m=4-8) configuration wires. The calculated optical absorption without and with the SOI are quite different in terms of the number of the absorption peaks which are enhanced approximately by a multiplying factor of 2 by the SOI. The m -gonal (m=4-8) nanowires reveal multipeaked, strong, and extended optical absorption over the whole visible region. Our analysis of the experimental data for the Pb samples that have been fabricated by Romanov points towards the occurrence of the 2-Pb ladder chains.
Ab initio calculations of the electronic states of AsH2 including dissociation characteristics.
Alekseyev, Aleksey B; Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter
2011-12-28
Multireference configuration interaction calculations have been carried out for low-lying electronic states of AsH(2). Bending potentials for the ten lowest states of AsH(2) are obtained in C(2v) symmetry for As-H distances fixed at the the ground state equilibrium value of 2.845 a(0), as well as for the minimum energy path constrained to R(1) = R(2). The calculated equilibrium geometries for the X̃(2)B(1) ground state and the Ã(2)A(1) excited state agree very well with the previous experimental and theoretical results, whereas the data for the higher-lying states are obtained for the first time. Asymmetric potential energy surface (PES) cuts (at R(1) = 2.845 a(0), θ = 90.7°) and two-dimensional (2D) PESs for the lowest three states are also new. The calculated ab initio data are used for analysis of possible AsH(2) photodissociation channels and predissociation effects. It is shown that the Ã(2)A(1)-X̃(2)B(1) transition dipole moment decreases with increasing bending angle, which influences the intensity distribution in the Ã(0,0,0)→X̃ emission spectrum (v(2)'' bending series), shifting its maximum to smaller v(2)'' quantum numbers.
Borges, P. D. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu; Scolfaro, L. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu
2014-12-14
The thermoelectric properties of indium nitride in the most stable wurtzite phase (w-InN) as a function of electron and hole concentrations and temperature were studied by solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory. Based on maximally localized Wannier function basis set and the ab initio band energies, results for the Seebeck coefficient are presented and compared with available experimental data for n-type as well as p-type systems. Also, theoretical results for electric conductivity and power factor are presented. Most cases showed good agreement between the calculated properties and experimental data for w-InN unintentionally and p-type doped with magnesium. Our predictions for temperature and concentration dependences of electrical conductivity and power factor revealed a promising use of InN for intermediate and high temperature thermoelectric applications. The rigid band approach and constant scattering time approximation were utilized in the calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-03-01
On the basis of ab initio quantum mechanics (QM) calculation, the obtained electron heat capacity is implemented into energy equation of electron subsystem in two temperature model (TTM). Upon laser irradiation on the copper film, energy transfer from the electron subsystem to the lattice subsystem is modeled by including the electron-phonon coupling factor in molecular dynamics (MD) and TTM coupled simulation. The results show temperature and thermal melting difference between the QM-MD-TTM integrated simulation and pure MD-TTM coupled simulation. The successful construction of the QM-MD-TTM integrated simulation provides a general way that is accessible to other metals in laser heating.
Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the uniform electron gas without fixed nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groth, S.; Schoof, T.; Dornheim, T.; Bonitz, M.
2016-02-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in the warm dense matter regime, e.g., dense plasmas and laser excited solids. Also, the quality of density functional theory calculations crucially relies on the availability of accurate data for the exchange-correlation energy. Recently, results for N =33 spin-polarized electrons at high density, rs=r ¯/aB≲4 , and low temperature have been obtained with the configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) method [T. Schoof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 130402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.130402]. To achieve these results, the original CPIMC algorithm [T. Schoof et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 687 (2011), 10.1002/ctpp.201100012] had to be further optimized to cope with the fermion sign problem (FSP). It is the purpose of this paper to give detailed information on the manifestation of the FSP in CPIMC simulations of the UEG and to demonstrate how it can be turned into a controllable convergence problem. In addition, we present new thermodynamic results for higher temperatures. Finally, to overcome the limitations of CPIMC towards strong coupling, we invoke an independent method—the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo approach [T. Dornheim et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 204101 (2015), 10.1063/1.4936145]. The combination of both approaches is able to yield ab initio data for the UEG over the entire density range, above a temperature of about one half of the Fermi temperature. Comparison with restricted path integral Monte Carlo data [E. W. Brown et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.146405] allows us to quantify the systematic error arising from the free particle nodes.
Ab initio dynamical vertex approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galler, Anna; Thunström, Patrik; Gunacker, Patrik; Tomczak, Jan M.; Held, Karsten
2017-03-01
Diagrammatic extensions of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) such as the dynamical vertex approximation (DΓ A) allow us to include nonlocal correlations beyond DMFT on all length scales and proved their worth for model calculations. Here, we develop and implement an Ab initio DΓ A approach (AbinitioDΓ A ) for electronic structure calculations of materials. The starting point is the two-particle irreducible vertex in the two particle-hole channels which is approximated by the bare nonlocal Coulomb interaction and all local vertex corrections. From this, we calculate the full nonlocal vertex and the nonlocal self-energy through the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The AbinitioDΓ A approach naturally generates all local DMFT correlations and all nonlocal G W contributions, but also further nonlocal correlations beyond: mixed terms of the former two and nonlocal spin fluctuations. We apply this new methodology to the prototypical correlated metal SrVO3.
Holland, D M P; Trofimov, A B; Seddon, E A; Gromov, E V; Korona, T; de Oliveira, N; Archer, L E; Joyeux, D; Nahon, L
2014-10-21
The recently introduced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform spectroscopy has been employed to study the excited electronic states of thiophene. A highly resolved photoabsorption spectrum has been measured between ∼5 and 12.5 eV, providing a wealth of new data. High-level ab initio computations have been performed using the second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) polarization propagator approach, and the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) method at the CCSD and CC3 levels, to guide the assignment of the spectrum. The adiabatic energy corrections have been evaluated, thereby extending the theoretical study beyond the vertical excitation picture and leading to a significantly improved understanding of the spectrum. The low-lying π→π* and π→σ* transitions result in prominent broad absorption bands. Two strong Rydberg series converging onto the X(~)(2)A2 state limit have been assigned to the 1a2→npb1(1)B2 and the 1a2→nda2(1)A1 transitions. A second, and much weaker, d-type series has been assigned to the 1a2→ndb1(1)B2 transitions. Excitation into some of the Rydberg states belonging to the two strong series gives rise to vibrational structure, most of which has been interpreted in terms of excitations of the totally symmetric ν4 and ν8 modes. One Rydberg series, assigned to the 3b1→nsa1(1)B1 transitions, has been identified converging onto the Ã(2)B1 state limit, and at higher energies Rydberg states converging onto the B(~)(2)A1 state limit could be identified. The present spectra reveal highly irregular vibrational structure in certain low energy absorption bands, and thus provide a new source of information for the rapidly developing studies of excited state non-adiabatic dynamics and photochemistry.
Quarti, Claudio; Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo
2015-04-14
The last two years have seen the unprecedentedly rapid emergence of a new class of solar cells, based on hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. The success of this class of materials is due to their outstanding photoelectrochemical properties coupled to their low cost, mainly solution-based, fabrication techniques. Solution processed materials are however often characterized by an inherent flexible structure, which is hardly mapped into a single local minimum energy structure. In this perspective, we report on the interplay between structural and electronic properties of hybrid lead iodide perovskites investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, which allow the dynamical simulation of disordered systems at finite temperature. We compare the prototypical MAPbI3 (MA = methylammonium) perovskite in its cubic and tetragonal structure with the trigonal phase of FAPbI3 (FA = formamidinium), investigating different starting arrangements of the organic cations. Despite the relatively short time scale amenable to AIMD, typically a few tens of ps, this analysis demonstrates the sizable structural flexibility of this class of materials, showing that the instantaneous structure could significantly differ from the time and thermal averaged structure. We also highlight the importance of the organic-inorganic interactions in determining the fluxional properties of this class of materials. A peculiar spatial localization of the valence and conduction band edges is also found, with a dynamics in the range of 0.1 ps, which is associated with the positional dynamics of the organic cations within the cubo-octahedral perovskite cage. This asymmetry in the spatial localization of the band edges is expected to ease exciton dissociation and assist the initial stages of charge separation, possibly constituting one of the key factors for the impressive photovoltaic performances of hybrid lead-iodide perovskites.
Kemnitz, C.R.; Ellison, G.B.; Karney, W.L.; Borden, W.T.
2000-02-16
(12/11)CASSCF and (12/11)CASPT2 ab initio electronic structure calculations with both the cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets find that there is a barrier to the very exothermic hydrogen shift that converts singlet methylnitrene, CH{sub 3}N, to methyleneimine, H{sub 2}C{double{underscore}bond}NH. These two energy minima are connected by a transition structure of C{sub s} symmetry, which is computed to lie 3.8 kcal/mol above the reactant at the (12/11)CASPT2/cc-pVTZ//(12/11)CASSCF/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The (12/11)CASSCF/cc-pVTZ value for the lowest frequency vibration in the transition structure is 854 cm{sup {minus}1}, and CASPT2 calculations concur that this a{double{underscore}prime} vibration does indeed have a positive force constant. Thus, there is no evidence that this geometry is actually a mountain top, rather than a transition structure, on the global potential energy surface or that a C{sub 1} pathway of lower energy connects the reactant to the product. Therefore, computational results indicate that the bands seen for singlet methylnitrene in the negative ion photoelectron spectrum of CH{sub 3}N{sup {minus}} are due to singlet methylnitrene being an energy minimum, rather than a transition state. These results also lead to the prediction that, at least in principle, singlet methylnitrene should be an observable intermediate in the formation of methyleneimine.
Ab Initio Investigations of the Excited Electronic States of CaOCa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fawzy, Wafaa M.; Heaven, Michael
2016-06-01
Chemical bonding in alkaline earth hypermetalic oxides is of fundamental interest. Previous Ab initio studies of CaOCa predicted a centrosymmetric linear geometry for both the 1Σg^+ ground state and the low lying triplet 3Σu^+ state. However, there have been no reports concerning the higher energy singlet and triplet states. The present work is focused on characterization of the potential energy surface (PES) of the excited 1Σu^+ state (assuming a centrosymmetric linear geometry) and obtaining predictions for the 1Σu^+←1Σg^+ vibronic transitions. We employed the multireference configuration interaction (MRCISD) method with state-averaged, full-valence complete active space self-consistent field (SA-FV-CASSCF) wavefunctions. In these calculations, the active space consisted of ten valence electrons in twelve orbitals, where all the valence electrons were correlated. Contributions of higher excitation and relativistic effects were taken into account using the Davidson correction and the Douglas-Kroll (DK) Hamiltonian, respectively. The correlation-consistent polarized weighed core-valence quadruple zeta basis set (cc-pwCVQZ-DK) was used for all three atoms. The full level of theory is abbreviated as SA-FV-CASSCF (10,12)-MRCISD-Q/cc-pwCVQZ-DK. The calculations were carried out using the MOLPRO2012 suite of programs. For the centrosymmetric linear geometry in all states, initial investigations of one-dimensional radial cuts provided equilibrium bond distances of 2.034 {Å}, 2.034 {Å}, and 1.999 {Å} for the 1Σg^+ , 3Σu^+ , and 1Σu^+ states, respectively. The vertical excitation frequency of the 1Σu^+←1Σg^+ optical transition was calculated to occur at 14801 wn. These predictions were followed by spectroscopic searches by Heaven et al. Indeed, rotationally resolved vibronic progressions were recorded in the vicinity of the predicted electronic band origin. Calculation of the three-dimensional PES showed that the potential minimum in the 1Σu^+ corresponds
Tripathi, A.N.; Smith, V.H. Jr. K7L3N6); Kaijser, P.; Siemens, A.G. ); Diercksen, G.H.F. )
1990-03-01
Isotropic scattering functions and Compton profiles together with their directional components for several directions relevant to the molecular structure of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} have been evaluated for {ital ab} {ital initio} self-consistent field and configuration-interaction wave functions. The internally folded density (reciprocal form factor) {ital B}({ital r}) is calculated and discussed as are various momentum expectation values. Comparison is made with available experimental and other theoretical results.
Izquierdo, J.; Vega, A.; Balbas, L. C.; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Junquera, Javier; Artacho, Emilio; Soler, Jose M.; Ordejon, Pablo
2000-05-15
We present a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of iron systems in different environments: pure iron systems [dimer, bcc bulk, (100) surface, and free-standing iron monolayer], and low-dimensional iron systems deposited on Ag (100) surface (monoatomic linear wires, iron monolayer, planar, and three-dimensional clusters). Electronic and magnetic properties have been calculated using a recently developed total-energy first-principles method based on density-functional theory with numerical atomic orbitals as a basis set for the description of valence electrons and nonlocal pseudopotentials for the atomic core. The Kohn-Sham equations are solved self-consistently within the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Tests on the pseudopotential, the basis set, grid spacing, and k sampling are carefully performed. This technique, which has been proved to be very efficient for large nonmagnetic systems, is applied in this paper to calculate electronic and magnetic properties of different iron nanostructures. The results compare well with previous ab initio all-electron calculations and with experimental data. The method predicts the correct trends in the magnetic moments of Fe systems for a great variety of environments and requires a smaller computational effort than other ab initio methods. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Combined electron beam imaging and ab initio modeling of T{sub 1} precipitates in Al-Li-Cu alloys
Dwyer, C.; Weyland, M.; Chang, L. Y.; Muddle, B. C.
2011-05-16
Among the many considerable challenges faced in developing a rational basis for advanced alloy design, establishing accurate atomistic models is one of the most fundamental. Here we demonstrate how advanced imaging techniques in a double-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, combined with ab initio modeling, have been used to determine the atomic structure of embedded 1 nm thick T{sub 1} precipitates in precipitation-hardened Al-Li-Cu aerospace alloys. The results provide an accurate determination of the controversial T{sub 1} structure, and demonstrate how next-generation techniques permit the characterization of embedded nanostructures in alloys and other nanostructured materials.
Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.
Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; Zu, X. T.; Li, Sean
2015-02-09
In this study, the response of titanate pyrochlores (A_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, A = Y, Gd and Sm) to electronic excitation is investigated utilizing an ab initio molecular dynamics method. All the titanate pyrochlores are found to undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition under a low concentration of electronic excitations. The transition temperature at which structural amorphization starts to occur depends on the concentration of electronic excitations. During the structural transition, O_{2}-like molecules are formed, and this anion disorder further drives cation disorder that leads to an amorphous state. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of amorphization in titanate pyrochlores under laser, electron and ion irradiations.
Grotemeyer, Michael; Pehlke, Eckhard
2014-01-31
In this Letter, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory for the electrons and Ehrenfest dynamics for the nuclei are reported that detail the interaction of a vibrating HCl molecule with an Al(111) substrate. The mechanism responsible for the strong electron-hole-pair (EHP)-vibrational coupling in case of highly vibrationally excited molecules is traced back to a large eigenenergy shift of the spz*-like antibonding HCl lowest unoccupied molecular orbital with the bond length. As a consequence of this mechanism, the electronic excitation spectra turn out to be highly asymmetric. The simulations suggest an explanation of how to reconcile a strong EHP-vibrational coupling in case of highly vibrationally excited molecules with the small, but clearly evident, electronic contribution to the v=0 → v=1 vibrational excitation observed experimentally during the scattering of HCl molecules at a hot Au surface by Ran et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 237601 (2007)].
da Silva, F Ferreira; Duflot, D; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; Rodrigues, F N; Ferreira-Rodrigues, A M; de Souza, G G B; Mason, N J; Eden, S; Limão-Vieira, P
2015-08-06
We present the first set of ab initio calculations (vertical energies and oscillator strengths) of the valence and Rydberg transitions of the anaesthetic compound halothane (CF3CHBrCl). These results are complemented by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption measurements over the wavelength range 115-310 nm (10.8-4.0 eV). The spectrum reveals several new features that were not previously reported in the literature. Spin-orbit effects have been considered in the calculations for the lowest-lying states, allowing us to explain the broad nature of the 6.1 and 7.5 eV absorption bands assigned to σ*(C-Br) ← nBr and σ*(C-Cl) ← n(Cl) transitions. Novel absolute photoabsorption cross sections from electron scattering data were derived in the 4.0-40.0 eV range. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of halothane in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).
Trevisanutto, Paolo E; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-05-28
Ab initio electronic structure calculations of two-dimensional layered structures are typically performed using codes that were developed for three-dimensional structures, which are periodic in all three directions. The introduction of a periodicity in the third direction (perpendicular to the layer) is completely artificial and may lead in some cases to spurious results and to difficulties in treating the action of external fields. In this paper we develop a new approach, which is "native" to quasi-2D materials, making use of basis function that are periodic in the plane, but atomic-like in the perpendicular direction. We show how some of the basic tools of ab initio electronic structure theory - density functional theory, GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation - are implemented in the new basis. We argue that the new approach will be preferable to the conventional one in treating the peculiarities of layered materials, including the long range of the unscreened Coulomb interaction in insulators, and the effects of strain, corrugations, and external fields.
Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredkin, Donald R.; Komornicki, Andrew; White, Steven R.; Wilson, Kent R.
1983-06-01
We discuss several ways in which molecular absorption and scattering spectra can be computed ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature. These methods can be divided into two general categories. In the first, or sequential, type of approach, one first solves the electronic part of the Schrödinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, mapping out the potential energy, dipole moment vector (for infrared absorption) and polarizability tensor (for Raman scattering) as functions of nuclear coordinates. Having completed the electronic part of the calculation, one then solves the nuclear part of the problem either classically or quantum mechanically. As an example of the sequential ab initio approach, the infrared and Raman rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed in the simplest rigid rotor, normal mode approximation. Quantum techniques are used to calculate the necessary potential energy, dipole moment, and polarizability information at the equilibrium geometry. A new quick, accurate, and easy to program classical technique involving no reference to Euler angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman band contours for any rigid rotor, including asymmetric tops. A second, or simultaneous, type of ab initio approach is suggested for large systems, particularly those for which normal mode analysis is inappropriate, such as liquids, clusters, or floppy molecules. Then the curse of dimensionality prevents mapping out in advance the complete potential, dipole moment, and polarizability functions over the whole space of nuclear positions of all atoms, and a solution in which the electronic and nuclear parts of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are simultaneously solved is needed. A quantum force classical trajectory (QFCT) molecular dynamic method, based on linear response theory, is described, in which the forces, dipole moment, and polarizability are computed quantum
Ab Initio Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of the Warm Dense Electron Gas in the Thermodynamic Limit
Dornheim, Tobias; Groth, Simon; Sjostrom, Travis; ...
2016-10-07
Here we perform ab initio quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the warm dense uniform electron gas in the thermodynamic limit. By combining QMC data with the linear response theory, we are able to remove finite-size errors from the potential energy over the substantial parts of the warm dense regime, overcoming the deficiencies of the existing finite-size corrections by Brown et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013)]. Extensive new QMC results for up to N = 1000 electrons enable us to compute the potential energy V and the exchange-correlation free energy F xc of the macroscopic electron gas withmore » an unprecedented accuracy of | Δ V | / | V | , | Δ Fxc | / | F | xc ~ 10 $-$3. Finally, a comparison of our new data to the recent parametrization of F xc by Karasiev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014)] reveals significant deviations to the latter.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant
2016-12-01
In this letter the conceptual and computational implications of the Hartree product type nuclear wavefunction introduced recently within the context of the ab initio non-Born-Oppenheimer Nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) methodology are considered. It is demonstrated that this wavefunction may imply a pseudo-adiabatic separation of the nuclei and electrons and each nucleus is conceived as a quantum oscillator while a non-Coulombic effective Hamiltonian is deduced for electrons. Using the variational principle this Hamiltonian is employed to derive a modified set of single-component Hartree-Fock equations which are equivalent to the multi-component version derived previously within the context of the NEO and, easy to be implemented computationally.
Ab Initio Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of the Warm Dense Electron Gas in the Thermodynamic Limit
Dornheim, Tobias; Groth, Simon; Sjostrom, Travis; Malone, Fionn D.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Bonitz, Michael
2016-10-07
Here we perform ab initio quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the warm dense uniform electron gas in the thermodynamic limit. By combining QMC data with the linear response theory, we are able to remove finite-size errors from the potential energy over the substantial parts of the warm dense regime, overcoming the deficiencies of the existing finite-size corrections by Brown et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013)]. Extensive new QMC results for up to N = 1000 electrons enable us to compute the potential energy V and the exchange-correlation free energy F _{xc} of the macroscopic electron gas with an unprecedented accuracy of | Δ V | / | V | , | Δ F_{xc} | / | F | _{xc} ~ 10 ^{$-$3}. Finally, a comparison of our new data to the recent parametrization of F _{xc} by Karasiev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014)] reveals significant deviations to the latter.
Ab initio GW quasiparticle energies of small sodium clusters by an all-electron mixed-basis approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Soh; Ohno, Kaoru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Louie, Steven G.
2001-04-01
A state-of-the-art GW calculation is carried out for small sodium clusters, Na2, Na4, Na6, and Na8. The quasiparticle energies are evaluated by employing an ab initio GW code based on an all-electron mixed-basis approach, which uses both plane waves and atomic orbitals as basis functions. The calculated ionization potential and the electron affinity are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The exchange and correlation parts to the electron self-energy within the GW approximation are presented from the viewpoint of their size dependence. In addition, the effect of the off-diagonal elements of the self-energy corrections to the local-density-approximation exchange-correlation potential is discussed. Na2 and Na8 have a larger energy gap than Na4 and Na6, consistent with the fact that they are magic number clusters.
Ab Initio Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of the Warm Dense Electron Gas in the Thermodynamic Limit.
Dornheim, Tobias; Groth, Simon; Sjostrom, Travis; Malone, Fionn D; Foulkes, W M C; Bonitz, Michael
2016-10-07
We perform ab initio quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the warm dense uniform electron gas in the thermodynamic limit. By combining QMC data with the linear response theory, we are able to remove finite-size errors from the potential energy over the substantial parts of the warm dense regime, overcoming the deficiencies of the existing finite-size corrections by Brown et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013)]. Extensive new QMC results for up to N=1000 electrons enable us to compute the potential energy V and the exchange-correlation free energy F_{xc} of the macroscopic electron gas with an unprecedented accuracy of |ΔV|/|V|,|ΔF_{xc}|/|F|_{xc}∼10^{-3}. A comparison of our new data to the recent parametrization of F_{xc} by Karasiev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014)] reveals significant deviations to the latter.
Ab initio Theory of Semiconductor Nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Wang
2007-03-01
With blooming experimental synthesis of various nanostructures out of many semiconductor materials, there is an urgent need to calculate the electronic structures and optical properties of these nanosystems based on reliable ab initio methods. Unfortunately, due to the O(N^3) scaling of the conventional ab initio calculation methods based on the density functional theory (DFT), and the >1000 atom sizes of the most experimental nanosystems, the direct applications of these conventional ab intio methods are often difficult. Here we will present the calculated results using our O(N) scaling charge patching method (CPM) [1,2] to nanosystems up to 10,000 atoms. The CPM yields the charge density of a nanosystem by patching the charge motifs generated from small prototype systems. The CPM electron/hole eigen energies differ from the directly calculated results by only ˜10-20 meV. We will present the optical band gaps of quantum dots and wires, quantum rods, quantum dot/quantum well, and quantum dots doped with impurities. Besides good agreements with experimental measurements, we will demonstrate why it is important to perform ab initio calculations, in contrast with the continuum model k.p calculations. We will show the effects of surface polarization potentials and the internal electric fields. Finally, a linear scaling 3 dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method will be discussed. The LS3DF method can be used to calculate the total energy and atomic forces of a large nanosystem, with the results practically the same as the direct DFT method. Our work demonstrates that, with the help of supercomputers, it is now feasible to calculate the electronic structures and optical properties of >10,000 atom nanocrystals with ab initio accuracy. [1] L.W. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 256402 (2002). [2] J. Li, L.W. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125325 (2005).
Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Shrivastava, Keshav N.
2008-05-20
Polonium is the only element with a simple cubic (sc) crystal structure. Atoms in solid polonium sit at the corners of a simple cubic unit cell and no where else. Polonium has a valence electron configuration 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 4} (Z = 84). The low temperature {alpha}-phase transforms into the rhombohedral (trigonal) {beta} structure at {approx}348 K. The sc {alpha}-Po unit cell constant is a = 3.345 A. The beta form of polonium ({beta}-Po) has the lattice parameters, a{sub R} = 3.359 A and a rhombohedral angle 98 deg. 13'. We have performed an ab initio electronic structure calculation by using the density functional theory. We have performed the calculation with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling by using both the LDA and the GGA for the exchange-correlations. The k-points in a simple cubic BZ are determined by R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), M (0.5, 0.5, 0) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). Other directions of k-points are {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). The SO splittings of p states at the {gamma} point in the GGA+SO scheme for {alpha}-Po are 0.04 eV and 0.02 eV while for the {beta}-Po these are 0.03 eV and 0.97 eV. We have also calculated the vibrational spectra for the unit cells in both the structures. We find that exchanging of a Po atom by Pb atom produces several more bands and destabilizes the {beta} phase.
Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fredkin, D. R.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.; Komornicki, A.
1983-01-01
It is pointed out that with increased computer power and improved computational techniques, such as the gradients developed in recent years, it is becoming practical to compute spectra ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature, for systems of increasing complexity. The present investigation has the objective to explore several possible ab initio approaches to spectra, giving particular attention to infrared and nonresonance Raman. Two approaches are discussed. The sequential approach, in which first the electronic part and then later the nuclear part of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is solved, is appropriate for small systems. The simultaneous approach, in which the electronic and nuclear parts are solved at the same time, is more appropriate for many-atom systems. A review of the newer quantum gradient techniques is provided, and the infrared and Raman spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Hlil, E. K.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Hourmatallah, A.; Rezzouk, A.; Bouslykhane, K.; Benzakour, N.
2017-04-01
Self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach and using Full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FLAPW) method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the Mn2NiAl. Magnetic moment considered to lie along (001) axes are computed. Obtained data from ab initio calculations are used as input for Monte Carlo simulations to compute other magnetic parameters. Also, the magnetic properties of Mn2NiAl are studied using the Monte Carlo simulations. The variation of magnetization and magnetic susceptibility with the reduced temperature of Mn2NiAl are investigated. The transition temperature of this system is deduced for different values exchange interaction and crystal field. The thermal total magnetization has been obtained, and the magnetic hysteresis cycle is established. The total magnetic moment is superior to those obtained by the other method and is mainly determined by the antiparallel aligned MnI, MnII and Ni spin moments. The superparamagnetic phase is found at the neighborhood of transition temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Soumendra K.; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V.; Li, Wei-Li; Su, Jing; Bross, David H.; Peterson, Kirk A.; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Li, Jun
2016-02-01
The observation of the gaseous UFO- anion is reported, which is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and relativisitic ab initio calculations. Two strong photoelectron bands are observed at low binding energies due to electron detachment from the U-7sσ orbital. Numerous weak detachment bands are also observed due to the strongly correlated U-5f electrons. The electron affinity of UFO is measured to be 1.27(3) eV. High-level relativistic quantum chemical calculations have been carried out on the ground state and many low-lying excited states of UFO to help interpret the photoelectron spectra and understand the electronic structure of UFO. The ground state of UFO- is linear with an O-U-F structure and a 3H4 spectral term derived from a U 7sσ25fφ15fδ1 electron configuration, whereas the ground state of neutral UFO has a 4H7/2 spectral term with a U 7sσ15fφ15fδ1 electron configuration. Strong electron correlation effects are found in both the anionic and neutral electronic configurations. In the UFO neutral, a high density of electronic states with strong configuration mixing is observed in most of the scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupled states. The strong electron correlation, state mixing, and spin-orbit coupling of the electronic states make the excited states of UFO very challenging for accurate quantum chemical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mestechkin, Mikhail; Zubkov, Vladimir
2005-05-01
Different versions of ab initio quantum chemical models (cluster and periodic boundary conditions approximations) have been used to analyze the effect of finite length and the partial filling of the highest occupied orbital on the band-gaps of carbon nanotubes. In agreement with the previous calculations in the tight-binding approximation and pi-electron open shell model, it has been shown that the ground state of the nanotube with the zigzag structure is triplet. It has been confirmed that these tubes exhibit metallic or semiconductor properties with a very narrow half-filled conduction band. The band-gap is of order few tens of eV, and it is estimated that approximately 0.1-0.2% of pi-electrons belong to the conduction band of finite zigzag nanotubes. The triplet state is predicted to be the ground state of finite-length carbon nanotubes.
Yin, Huabing; Ma, Yuchen Mu, Jinglin; Liu, Chengbu; Hao, Xiaotao; Yi, Zhijun
2014-06-07
The excited states of small-diameter diamond nanoparticles in the gas phase are studied using the GW method and Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) within the ab initio many-body perturbation theory. The calculated ionization potentials and optical gaps are in agreement with experimental results, with the average error about 0.2 eV. The electron affinity is negative and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is rather delocalized. Precise determination of the electron affinity requires one to take the off-diagonal matrix elements of the self-energy operator into account in the GW calculation. BSE calculations predict a large exciton binding energy which is an order of magnitude larger than that in the bulk diamond.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshi, T.; Tanikawa, M.; Ishii, A.
2010-09-01
The ab initio calculation with the density functional theory and plane-wave bases is carried out for stepped Si(1 1 1)-2×1 surfaces that were predicted in a cleavage simulation by the large-scale (order- N) electronic structure theory (T. Hoshi, Y. Iguchi and T. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 72 (2005) 075323). The present ab initio calculation confirms the predicted stepped structure and its bias-dependent STM image. Moreover, two (meta)stable step-edge structures are found and compared. The investigation is carried out also for Ge(1 1 1)-2×1 surfaces, so as to construct a common understanding among elements. The present study demonstrates the general importance of the hierarchical research between large-scale and ab initio electronic structure theories.
Mills, Jeffrey D; Ben-Nun, Michal; Rollin, Kyle; Bromley, Michael W J; Li, Jiabo; Hinde, Robert J; Winstead, Carl L; Sheehy, Jeffrey A; Boatz, Jerry A; Langhoff, Peter W
2016-08-25
Continuing attention has addressed incorportation of the electronically dynamical attributes of biomolecules in the largely static first-generation molecular-mechanical force fields commonly employed in molecular-dynamics simulations. We describe here a universal quantum-mechanical approach to calculations of the electronic energy surfaces of both small molecules and large aggregates on a common basis which can include such electronic attributes, and which also seems well-suited to adaptation in ab initio molecular-dynamics applications. In contrast to the more familiar orbital-product-based methodologies employed in traditional small-molecule computational quantum chemistry, the present approach is based on an "ex-post-facto" method in which Hamiltonian matrices are evaluated prior to wave function antisymmetrization, implemented here in the support of a Hilbert space of orthonormal products of many-electron atomic spectral eigenstates familiar from the van der Waals theory of long-range interactions. The general theory in its various forms incorporates the early semiempirical atoms- and diatomics-in-molecules approaches of Moffitt, Ellison, Tully, Kuntz, and others in a comprehensive mathematical setting, and generalizes the developments of Eisenschitz, London, Claverie, and others addressing electron permutation symmetry adaptation issues, completing these early attempts to treat van der Waals and chemical forces on a common basis. Exact expressions are obtained for molecular Hamiltonian matrices and for associated energy eigenvalues as sums of separate atomic and interaction-energy terms, similar in this respect to the forms of classical force fields. The latter representation is seen to also provide a long-missing general definition of the energies of individual atoms and of their interactions within molecules and matter free from subjective additional constraints. A computer code suite is described for calculations of the many-electron atomic eigenspectra and
Ab Initio Crystal Field for Lanthanides.
Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F
2017-03-13
An ab initio methodology for the first-principle derivation of crystal-field (CF) parameters for lanthanides is described. The methodology is applied to the analysis of CF parameters in [Tb(Pc)2 ](-) (Pc=phthalocyanine) and Dy4 K2 ([Dy(4) K(2) O(OtBu)(12) ]) complexes, and compared with often used approximate and model descriptions. It is found that the application of geometry symmetrization, and the use of electrostatic point-charge and phenomenological CF models, lead to unacceptably large deviations from predictions based on ab initio calculations for experimental geometry. It is shown how the predictions of standard CASSCF (Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field) calculations (with 4f orbitals in the active space) can be systematically improved by including effects of dynamical electronic correlation (CASPT2 step) and by admixing electronic configurations of the 5d shell. This is exemplified for the well-studied Er-trensal complex (H3 trensal=2,2',2"-tris(salicylideneimido)trimethylamine). The electrostatic contributions to CF parameters in this complex, calculated with true charge distributions in the ligands, yield less than half of the total CF splitting, thus pointing to the dominant role of covalent effects. This analysis allows the conclusion that ab initio crystal field is an essential tool for the decent description of lanthanides.
AB initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredkin, D. R.; Komornicki, A.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.
1982-08-01
We discuss several ways in which molecular absorption and scattering spectra can be computed ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature. These methods can be divided into two general categories. In the first, or sequential, type of approach, one first solves the electronic part of the Schroedinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, mapping out the potential energy, dipole moment vector (for infrared absorption) and polarizability tensor (for Raman scattering) as functions of nuclear coordinates. Having completed the electronic part of the calculation, one then solves the nuclear part of the problem either classically or quantum mechanically. As an example of the sequential ab initio approach, the infrared and Raman rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed in the simplest rigid rotor, normal mode approximation. Quantum techniques, are used to calculate the necessary potential energy, dipole moment, and polarizability information at the equilibrium geometry. A new quick, accurate, and easy to program classical technique involving no reference to Euler angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman band contours for any rigid rotor, including asymmetric tops. A second, or simultaneous, type of ab initio approach is suggested for large systems, particularly those for which normal mode analysis is inappropriate, such as liquids, clusters, or floppy molecules.
Electronic and mechanical properties of ZnX (X = S, Se and Te)--An ab initio study
Verma, Ajay Singh; Sharma, Sheetal; Jindal, Vijay Kumar; Sarkar, Bimal Kumar
2011-12-12
Zinc chalcogenides (ZnX, X = S, Se and Te) have been increasing attention as wide and direct band gap semiconductor for blue and ultraviolet optical devices. This paper analyzes electronic and mechanical properties of these materials by ab initio pseudo-potential method that uses non conserving pseudopotentials in fully nonlocal form, as implemented in SIESTA code. In this approach the local density approximation (LDA) is used for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. The calculations are given for band gap, elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}), shear modulus, and Young's modulus. The results are in very good agreement with previous theoretical calculations and available experimental data.
X-ray/neutron diffraction studies and ab initio electronic structure of CeMgNi 4 and its hydride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roquefere, Jean-Gabriel; Matar, Samir F.; Huot, Jacques; Bobet, Jean-Louis
2009-11-01
The crystal structure of CeMgNi 4 intermetallic compound has been studied by both X-ray and neutron diffraction. Rietveld refinement shows that both 4a and 4c sites are occupied by Ce and Mg. The exchange has been evaluated to be about 15%. The hydrogenation of the sample leads to a decomposition and to the formation of CeH 2.52. Ab initio calculations using pseudo-potential and all-electron DFT methods are performed to explain such an unexpected behaviour. They predict a larger stability of the hydride system in the orthorhombic structure rather than in the cubic one. Anti-bonding Ce-H interactions within the hydride are proposed to assess the observed easy decomposition. Moreover, the metastability introduced by mechanosynthesis (i.e. exchange between Ce and Mg) was also evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pati, Ranjit; Karna, Shashi P.
2002-01-01
The dependence of electron transfer (ET) coupling element, VAB, on the length of rigid-rod-like systems consisting of bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane (BCP), cubane (CUB), and bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) monomers, has been investigated with the use of ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) method employing Marcus-Hush two-state (TS) model. The value of VAB decreases exponentially with increase in the number of the cage units of the σ-bonded molecules. The calculated decay constant, β, shows good agreement with previously reported data. For molecular length⩾15 Å, the value of VAB becomes negligibly small, suggesting complete suppression of the through bond direct tunneling contribution to ET process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1988-01-01
Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F+H2 yields HF+H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F + H2 yields HF + H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
Ab initio structural and electronic analysis of CH3SH self-assembled on a Cu(110) substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agostino, S.; Chiodo, L.; Della Sala, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.
2007-05-01
Ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations are here reported to characterize the adsorption of methanethiol at the Cu(110) surface. Theoretical results suggest that the binding of the adsorbate to the substrate is rather weak and the molecular geometry is correspondingly almost unaffected by the adsorption. Otherwise, when CH3SH deprotonates producing methanethiolate, a stronger chemical bond is realized between the sulfur atom of CH3S radical and Cu surface atoms. A detailed study of structural and electronic properties of methanethiolate on Cu(110) for a p(2×2) and a c(2×2) overlayer structure has been carried out. We find that, in the most stable configuration, the molecule adsorbs in the shortbridge site. The chemical bond arises due to a strong hybridization among p orbitals of sulfur and d states from the substrate, as it is deduced by an analysis of partial densities of states and charge densities.
Bylaska, Eric J.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2000-01-01
The presence of different anionic species in natural waters can significantly alter the degradation rates of chlorinated methanes and other organic compounds. Favorable reaction energetics is a necessary feature of these nucleophilic substitution reactions that can result in the degradation of the chlorinated methanes. In this study, ab initio electronic structure theory is used to evaluate the free energies of reaction of a series of monovalent anionic species (OH-, SH-, NO3 -, HCO3 -, HSO3 -, HSO4 -, H2PO4 -, and F-) that can occur in natural waters with the chlorinated methanes, CCl4, CCl3H, CCl2H2, and CClH3. The results of this investigation show that nucleophilic substitution reactions of OH-, SH-, HCO3 -, and F- are significantly exothermic for chlorine displacement, NO3 - reactions are slightly exothermic to thermoneutral, HSO3
Ab-initio study of structural, electronic, and transport properties of zigzag GaP nanotubes.
Srivastava, Anurag; Jain, Sumit Kumar; Khare, Purnima Swarup
2014-03-01
Stability and electronic properties of zigzag (3 ≤ n ≤ 16) gallium phosphide nanotubes (GaP NTs) have been analyzed by employing a systematic ab-intio approach based on density functional theory using generalized gradient approximation with revised Perdew Burke Ernzerhoff type parameterization. Diameter dependence of bond length, buckling, binding energy, and band gap has been investigated and the analysis shows that the bond length and buckling decreases with increasing diameter of the tube, highest binding energy of (16, 0) confirms this as the most stable amongst all the NTs taken into consideration. The present GaP NTs shows direct band gap and it increases with diameter of the tubes. Using a two probe model for (4, 0) NT the I-V relationship shows an exponential increase in current on applying bias voltage beyond 1.73 volt.
Long, Run; Fang, Weihai; Akimov, Alexey V
2016-02-18
We report ab initio time-domain simulations of nonradiative electron-hole recombination and electronic dephasing in ideal and defect-containing monolayer black phosphorus (MBP). Our calculations predict that the presence of phosphorus divacancy in MBP (MBP-DV) substantially reduces the nonradiative recombination rate, with time scales on the order of 1.57 ns. The luminescence line width in ideal MBP of 150 meV is 2.5 times larger than MBP-DV at room temperature, and is in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that the electron-hole recombination in ideal MBP is driven by the 450 cm(-1) vibrational mode, whereas the recombination in the MBP-DV system is driven by a broad range of vibrational modes. The reduced electron-phonon coupling and increased bandgap in MBP-DV rationalize slower recombination in this material, suggesting that electron-phonon energy losses in MBP can be minimized by creating suitable defects in semiconductor device material.
Ab initio calculation of electron-phonon coupling in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam
2016-08-01
The interaction between electrons and vibrational modes in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 is theoretically investigated using ab-initio calculations. The large primitive cell of β-Ga2O3 gives rise to 30 phonon modes all of which are taken into account in transport calculation. The electron-phonon interaction is calculated under density functional perturbation theory and then interpolated using Wannier-Fourier interpolation. The long-range interaction elements between electrons and polar optical phonon (POP) modes are calculated separately using the Born effective charge tensor. The direction dependence of the long-range POP coupling in a monoclinic crystal is explored and is included in the transport calculations. Scattering rate calculations are done using the Fermi golden rule followed by solving the Boltzmann transport equation using the Rode's method to estimate low field mobility. A room temperature mobility of 115 cm2/V s is observed. Comparison with recent experimentally reported mobility is done for a wide range of temperatures (30 K-650 K). It is also found that the POP interaction dominates the electron mobility under low electric field conditions. The relative contribution of the different POP modes is analyzed and the mode 21 meV POP is found to have the highest impact on low field electron mobility at room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subotnik, Joseph
In this talk, I will give a broad overview of our work in nonadiabatic dynamics, i.e. the dynamics of strongly coupled nuclear-electronic motion whereby the relaxation of a photo-excited electron leads to the heating up of phonons. I will briefly discuss how to model such nuclear motion beyond mean field theory. Armed with the proper framework, I will then focus on how to calculate one flavor of electron-phonon couplings, known as derivative couplings in the chemical literature. Derivative couplings are the matrix elements that couple adiabatic electronic states within the Born-Oppenheimer treatment, and I will show that these matrix elements show spurious poles using formal (frequency-independent) time-dependent density functional theory. To correct this TD-DFT failure, a simple approximation will be proposed and evaluated. Finally, time permitting, I will show some ab initio calculations whereby one can use TD-DFT derivative couplings to study electronic relaxation through a conical intersection.
Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.
2014-12-07
Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.
Roy, Soumendra K; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V; Li, Wei-Li; Su, Jing; Bross, David H; Peterson, Kirk A; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Li, Jun
2016-02-28
The observation of the gaseous UFO(-) anion is reported, which is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and relativisitic ab initio calculations. Two strong photoelectron bands are observed at low binding energies due to electron detachment from the U-7sσ orbital. Numerous weak detachment bands are also observed due to the strongly correlated U-5f electrons. The electron affinity of UFO is measured to be 1.27(3) eV. High-level relativistic quantum chemical calculations have been carried out on the ground state and many low-lying excited states of UFO to help interpret the photoelectron spectra and understand the electronic structure of UFO. The ground state of UFO(-) is linear with an O-U-F structure and a (3)H4 spectral term derived from a U 7sσ(2)5fφ(1)5fδ(1) electron configuration, whereas the ground state of neutral UFO has a (4)H(7/2) spectral term with a U 7sσ(1)5fφ(1)5fδ(1) electron configuration. Strong electron correlation effects are found in both the anionic and neutral electronic configurations. In the UFO neutral, a high density of electronic states with strong configuration mixing is observed in most of the scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupled states. The strong electron correlation, state mixing, and spin-orbit coupling of the electronic states make the excited states of UFO very challenging for accurate quantum chemical calculations.
Tohme, Samir N.; Korek, Mahmoud E-mail: fkorek@yahoo.com; Awad, Ramadan
2015-03-21
Ab initio techniques have been applied to investigate the electronic structure of the LiYb molecule. The potential energy curves have been computed in the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for the ground and 29 low-lying doublet and quartet excited electronic states. Complete active space self-consistent field, multi-reference configuration interaction, and Rayleigh Schrödinger perturbation theory to second order calculations have been utilized to investigate these states. The spectroscopic constants, ω{sub e}, R{sub e}, B{sub e}, …, and the static dipole moment, μ, have been investigated by using the two different techniques of calculation with five different types of basis. The eigenvalues, E{sub v}, the rotational constant, B{sub v}, the centrifugal distortion constant, D{sub v}, and the abscissas of the turning points, R{sub min} and R{sub max}, have been calculated by using the canonical functions approach. The comparison between the values of the present work, calculated by different techniques, and those available in the literature for several electronic states shows a very good agreement. Twenty-one new electronic states have been studied here for the first time.
Saalfrank, Peter; Juaristi, J. I.
2014-12-21
Using density functional theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Electronic Friction (AIMDEF), we study the adsorption and dissipative vibrational dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on free-standing lead films of increasing thickness. Lead films are known for their oscillatory behaviour of certain properties with increasing thickness, e.g., energy and electron spillout change in discontinuous manner, due to quantum size effects [G. Materzanini, P. Saalfrank, and P. J. D. Lindan, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235405 (2001)]. Here, we demonstrate that oscillatory features arise also for hydrogen when chemisorbed on lead films. Besides stationary properties of the adsorbate, we concentrate on finite vibrational lifetimes of H-surface vibrations. As shown by AIMDEF, the damping via vibration-electron hole pair coupling dominates clearly over the vibration-phonon channel, in particular for high-frequency modes. Vibrational relaxation times are a characteristic function of layer thickness due to the oscillating behaviour of the embedding surface electronic density. Implications derived from AIMDEF for frictional many-atom dynamics, and physisorbed species will also be given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polin, Daniel; Ziegler, Joshua; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
We present the findings of ab-initio calculations of electronic, transport, and structural properties of cubic sodium oxide (Na2O). These results were obtained using density functional theory (DFT), specifically a local density approximation (LDA) potential, and the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO). Our implementation of LCGO followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We describe the electronic band structure of Na2O with a direct band gap of 2.22 eV. Our results include predicted values for the electronic band structure and associated energy eigenvalues, the total and partial density of states (DOS and pDOS), the equilibrium lattice constant of Na2O, and the bulk modulus. We have also calculated the electron and holes effective masses in the Γ to L, Γ to X, and Γ to K directions. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
Ab initio simulation of single- and few-layer MoS2 transistors: Effect of electron-phonon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabó, Áron; Rhyner, Reto; Luisier, Mathieu
2015-07-01
In this paper, we present full-band atomistic quantum transport simulations of single- and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) including electron-phonon scattering. The Hamiltonian and the electron-phonon coupling constants are determined from ab initio density-functional-theory calculations. It is observed that the phonon-limited electron mobility is enhanced with increasing layer thicknesses and decreases at high charge concentrations. The electrostatic control is found to be crucial even for a single-layer MoS2 device. With a single-gate configuration, the double-layer MoS2 FET shows the best intrinsic performance with an ON current, ION=685 μ A /μ m , but with a double-gate contact the transistor with a triple-layer channel delivers the highest current with ION=1850 μ A /μ m . The charge in the channel is almost independent of the number of MoS2 layers, but the injection velocity increases significantly with the channel thickness in the double-gate devices due to the reduced electron-phonon scattering rates in multilayer structures. We demonstrate further that the ballistic limit of transport is not suitable for the simulation of MX 2 FETs because of the artificial negative differential resistance it predicts.
Li, Zi; Li, Chuanying; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; Kang, Wei
2015-11-15
Ultrafast laser experiments on metals usually induce a high electron temperature and a low ion temperature and, thus, an energy relaxation process. The electron heat capacity and electron-phonon coupling factor are crucial thermal quantities to describe this process. We perform ab initio theoretical studies to determine these thermal quantities and their dependence on density and electron temperature for the metals aluminum and beryllium. The heat capacity shows an approximately linear dependence on the temperature, similar to free electron gas, and the compression only slightly affects the capacity. The electron-phonon coupling factor increases with both temperature and density, and the change observed for beryllium is more obvious than that for aluminum. The connections between thermal quantities and electronic/atomic structures are discussed in detail, and the different behaviors of aluminum and beryllium are well explained.
Karamanis, Panaghiotis; Maroulis, George; Pouchan, Claude
2006-02-21
We have calculated molecular geometries and electric polarizabilities for small cadmium selenide clusters. Our calculations were performed with conventional ab initio and density functional theory methods and Gaussian-type basis sets especially designed for (CdSe)(n). We find that the dipole polarizability per atom converges rapidly to the bulk value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desrier, Antoine; Romanzin, Claire; Lamarre, Nicolas; Alcaraz, Christian; Gans, Bérenger; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine
2016-12-01
Threshold-photoionization spectroscopy of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) and its 15N isotopologue has been investigated in the vacuum-ultraviolet range with a synchrotron-based experiment allowing to record threshold-photoelectron spectrum and photoion yield over a large energy range (from 88 500 to 177 500 cm-1, i.e., from 11 to 22 eV). Adiabatic ionization energies towards the three lowest electronic states X+ 2Π, A+ +2Σ, and B+ 2Π are derived from the threshold-photoelectron spectrum. A detailed description of the vibrational structure of these states is proposed leading to the determination of the vibrational frequencies for most modes. The vibrational assignments and the discussion about the electronic structure are supported by multireference ab initio calculations (CASPT2, MRCI). Unprecedented structures are resolved and tentatively assigned in the region of the B+← X transition. Exploratory calculations highlight the complexity of the electronic landscape of the cation up to approximately 10 eV above its ground state.
Desrier, Antoine; Romanzin, Claire; Lamarre, Nicolas; Alcaraz, Christian; Gans, Bérenger; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine
2016-12-21
Threshold-photoionization spectroscopy of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) and its (15)N isotopologue has been investigated in the vacuum-ultraviolet range with a synchrotron-based experiment allowing to record threshold-photoelectron spectrum and photoion yield over a large energy range (from 88 500 to 177 500 cm(-1), i.e., from 11 to 22 eV). Adiabatic ionization energies towards the three lowest electronic states X(+)(2)Π, A(+) Σ+2, and B(+) Π2 are derived from the threshold-photoelectron spectrum. A detailed description of the vibrational structure of these states is proposed leading to the determination of the vibrational frequencies for most modes. The vibrational assignments and the discussion about the electronic structure are supported by multireference ab initio calculations (CASPT2, MRCI). Unprecedented structures are resolved and tentatively assigned in the region of the B(+)← X transition. Exploratory calculations highlight the complexity of the electronic landscape of the cation up to approximately 10 eV above its ground state.
The ab initio calculations of the doping Zr's influence on the electronic structure of AlCo2Ti
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Hongzhi; Peng, Feng; Cheng, Dong; Gao, Tao; Cheng, Xinlu; Yang, Xiangdong
2007-08-01
The electronic structures of the ternary (Hume Rothery) L21-phase compound AlCo2Ti are calculated by first-principles using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The ab initio results are analyzed with a simplified model for Al-based compounds containing transition metal (TM) atoms. The results show that the total DOS depends strongly on the positions of TM atoms, and the TM d DOS plays a crucial role in hybridization with other element valence electrons. However, the Al 3s states are repelled far away from the Fermi energy in studied sample, and the Al 3d states are far more extended-like in the character than the d states. Furthermore, the total DOSs are modulated by Al 3p states and the Al 3p states are more sensitive than d states to change in the electronic interactions. Then, the Al 3p is also important for the ternary stability of the intermetallic compound. The Co Ti interaction becomes stronger by the doping element Zr in the Al4Co8Ti3Zr structure. Especially, the doping Al4Co8Ti3Zr alloy has a larger value DOS at the Fermi level and makes the total DOS gap smaller than the AlCo2Ti.
Liu, Jinxiang; Cukier, Robert I; Bu, Yuxiang
2013-11-12
We report an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of the solvation and dynamics of an excess electron in liquid acetonitrile (ACN). Four families of states are observed: a diffusely solvated state and three ACN core-localized states with monomer core, quasi-dimer (π*-Rydberg mode) core, and dual-core/dimer core (a coupled dual-core). These core localized states cannot be simply described as the corresponding anions because only a part of the excess electron resides in the core molecule(s). The quasi-dimer core state actually is a mixture that features cooperative excess electron capture by the π* and Rydberg orbitals of two ACNs. Well-defined dimer anion and solvated electron cavity were not observed in the 5-10 ps simulations, which may be attributed to slow dynamics of the formation of the dimer anion and difficulty of the formation of a cavity in such a fluxional medium. All of the above observed states have near-IR absorptions and thus can be regarded as the solvated electron states but with different structures, which can interpret the experimentally observed IR band. These states undergo continuous conversions via a combination of long-lasting breathing oscillation and core switching, characterized by highly cooperative oscillations of the electron cloud volume and vertical detachment energy. The quasi-dimer core and diffusely solvated states dominate the time evolution, with the monomer core and dual-core/dimer core states occurring occasionally during the breathing and core switching processes, respectively. All these oscillations and core switchings are governed by a combination of the electron-impacted bending vibration of the core ACN molecule(s) and thermal fluctuations.
van Genderen, E.; Clabbers, M. T. B.; Das, P. P.; Stewart, A.; Nederlof, I.; Barentsen, K. C.; Portillo, Q.; Pannu, N. S.; Nicolopoulos, S.; Gruene, T.; Abrahams, J. P.
2016-01-01
Until recently, structure determination by transmission electron microscopy of beam-sensitive three-dimensional nanocrystals required electron diffraction tomography data collection at liquid-nitrogen temperature, in order to reduce radiation damage. Here it is shown that the novel Timepix detector combines a high dynamic range with a very high signal-to-noise ratio and single-electron sensitivity, enabling ab initio phasing of beam-sensitive organic compounds. Low-dose electron diffraction data (∼0.013 e− Å−2 s−1) were collected at room temperature with the rotation method. It was ascertained that the data were of sufficient quality for structure solution using direct methods using software developed for X-ray crystallography (XDS, SHELX) and for electron crystallography (ADT3D/PETS, SIR2014). PMID:26919375
Newton, M. D.
1980-01-01
Formalisms suitable for calculating the rate of electron exchange between transition metal complexes in aqueous solution are reviewed and implemented in conjunction with ab initio quantum chemical calculations which provide crucial off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements as well as other relevant electronic structural data. Rate constants and activation parameters are calculated for the hex-aquo Fe^{2 +}-Fe^{3+} system, using a simple activated complex theory, a non-adiabatic semi-classical model which includes nuclear tunnelling, and a more detailed quantum mechanical method based on the Golden Rule. Comparisons are made between calculated results and those obtained by extrapolating experimental data to zero ionic strength. All methods yield similar values for the overall rate constant (∾ 0.1 L/(mol-sec)). The experimental activation parameters (δH^{‡} and δS^{‡}) are in somewhat better agreement with the semi classical and quantum mechanical results than with those from the simple activated complex theory, thereby providing some indication that non-adiabaticity and nuclear tunnelling may be important in the Fe^{2+/3+} exchange reaction. It is concluded that a model based on direct metal-metal overlap can account for the observed reaction kinetics provided the reactants are allowed to approach well within the traditional contact distance of 6.9 Å. 6 figures, 7 tables.
Gaenko, Alexander; DeFusco, Albert; Varganov, Sergey A.; ...
2014-10-20
This work presents a nonadiabatic molecular dynamics study of the nonradiative decay of photoexcited trans-azomethane, using the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) program that has been interfaced with the General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS) quantum chemistry package for on-the-fly electronic structure evaluation. The interface strategy is discussed, and the capabilities of the combined programs are demonstrated with a nonadiabatic molecular dynamics study of the nonradiative decay of photoexcited trans-azomethane. Energies, gradients, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were obtained with the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method, as implemented in GAMESS. The influence of initial vibrational excitationmore » on the outcome of the photoinduced isomerization is explored. Increased vibrational excitation in the CNNC torsional mode shortens the excited state lifetime. Depending on the degree of vibrational excitation, the excited state lifetime varies from ~60–200 fs. As a result, these short lifetimes are in agreement with time-resolved photoionization mass spectroscopy experiments.« less
Ab-initio Studies of Electronic and Spectroscopic Properties of MgO, ZnO and CdO
Schleife, A.; Rodl, C; Fuchs, F; Furthmuller, J; Bechstedt, F; Jefferson, P; Veal, T; McConville, C; Piper, L; et. al.
2008-01-01
We present ab-initio calculations of excited-state properties within single-particle and two-particle approaches in comparison with corresponding experimental results. For the theoretical treatment of the electronic structure, we compute eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by using a spatially nonlocal exchange-correlation potential. From this starting point, quasiparticle energies within the fully frequency-dependent G0W0 approximation are obtained. By solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we evaluate optical properties, including the electron-hole attraction and the local-field effects. The results are compared with experimental spectra from soft X-ray emission, as well as from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or ellipsometry measurements. In more detail, we compute the valenceband densities of states, bound excitons, and the dielectric function. For the latter, we discuss both the absorption edge and higher critical points. Being a possible candidate for applications in optoelectronic devices and being environmentally friendly, ZnO has strongly re-attracted interest in the last years.
Chen, Hung-Cheng; Hsu, Chao-Ping
2005-12-29
To calculate electronic couplings for photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions, we propose and test the use of ab initio quantum chemistry calculation for excited states with the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) method. Configuration-interaction singles (CIS) is proposed to model the locally excited (LE) and charge-transfer (CT) states. When the CT state couples with other high lying LE states, affecting coupling values, the image charge approximation (ICA), as a simple solvent model, can lower the energy of the CT state and decouple the undesired high-lying local excitations. We found that coupling strength is weakly dependent on many details of the solvent model, indicating the validity of the Condon approximation. Therefore, a trustworthy value can be obtained via this CIS-GMH scheme, with ICA used as a tool to improve and monitor the quality of the results. Systems we tested included a series of rigid, sigma-linked donor-bridge-acceptor compounds where "through-bond" coupling has been previously investigated, and a pair of molecules where "through-space" coupling was experimentally demonstrated. The calculated results agree well with experimentally inferred values in the coupling magnitudes (for both systems studied) and in the exponential distance dependence (for the through-bond series). Our results indicate that this new scheme can properly account for ET coupling arising from both through-bond and through-space mechanisms.
Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A; Sumpter, Bobby G; Luque, Javier; Huertas, Oscar; Orozco, Modesto; Felice, Rosa; Brancolini, Giorgia; Migliore, Agostino
2009-01-01
The structural, tautomeric, hydrogen-bonding, stacking and electronic properties of a seleno-derivative of thymine (T), denoted here as 4SeT and created by replacing O4 in T with Se, are investigated by means of ab initio computational techniques. The structural properties of T and 4SeT are very similar and the geometrical differences are mainly limited to the adjacent environment of the C-Se bond. The canonical keto form is the most stable tautomer, in gas phase and in aqueous solution, for both T and 4SeT. It is argued that the competition between two opposite trends, i.e. a decrease in the base-pairing ability and an increase of the stacking interaction upon incorporation of 4SeT into a duplex, likely explains the similar experimental melting points of a seleno-derivative duplex (Se-DNA) and its native counterpart. Interestingly, the underlying electronic structure shows that replacement of O4 with Se promotes a reduction in the HOMO-LUMO gap and an increase in inter-plane coupling, which suggests that Se-DNA could be potentially useful for nanodevice applications. This finding is further supported by the fact that transfer integrals between 4SeT---A stacked base pairs are larger than those determined for similarly stacked natural T---A pairs.
Ab initio study of electronic, magnetic, elastic and optical properties of full Heusler Co2MnSb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashgari, H.; Abolhassani, M. R.; Boochani, A.; Sartipi, E.; Taghavi-Mendi, R.; Ghaderi, A.
2016-08-01
Ab-initio study of electronic, magnetic, elastic and optical properties of full Heusler Co2MnSb is performed in the framework of the Density Functional Theory to obtain the associated parameters. Equilibrium lattice parameter is calculated 6.03 Å. Studying the electronic properties of compound confirms its half-metallic property, whereas spin polarization at Fermi level is 100 %. This compound in the minority spin channel is a semiconductor with a calculated gap of 0.623 eV. Also, elastic properties of the compound including bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's modulus υ are calculated. Investigation of the elastic properties of Co2MnSb indicates the elastic stability is greatly anisotropic. Besides, it is shown that the Co2MnSb is mechanically a ductile compound. Spin magnetic moment is obtained 6.0001 that are in good agreement with the previous experimental studies. In addition, in order to optical studies, dielectric function, reflectivity, energy loss function, absorption coefficient and optical conductivity are calculated.
Calderín, L; González, L E; González, D J
2011-09-21
Fluid Hg undergoes a metal-nonmetal (M-NM) transition when expanded toward a density of around 9 g cm(-3). We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for several thermodynamic states around the M-NM transition range and the associated static, dynamic and electronic properties have been analyzed. The calculated static structure shows a good agreement with the available experimental data. It is found that the volume expansion decreases the number of nearest neighbors from 10 (near the triple point) to around 8 at the M-NM transition region. Moreover, these neighbors are arranged into two subshells and the decrease in the number of neighbors occurs in the inner subshell. The calculated dynamic structure factors agree fairly well with their experimental counterparts obtained by inelastic x-ray scattering experiments, which display inelastic side peaks. The derived dispersion relation exhibits some positive dispersion for all the states, although its value around the M-NM transition region is not as marked as suggested by the experiment. We have also calculated the electronic density of states, which shows the appearance of a gap at a density of around 8.3 g cm(-3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubek, Z. J.; Bunker, P. R.; Zachwieja, M.; Nakhate, S. G.; Simard, B.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Thiel, W.; Jensen, Per
2006-03-01
In this work, the X˜B12 and ÃA12 electronic states of the phosphino (PH2) free radical have been studied by dispersed fluorescence and ab initio methods. PH2 molecules were produced in a molecular free-jet apparatus by laser vaporizing a silicon rod in the presence of phosphine (PH3) gas diluted in helium. The laser-induced fluorescence, from the excited ÃA12 electronic state down to the ground electronic state, was dispersed and analyzed. Ten (υ1υ2υ3) vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state, with υ1⩽2, υ2⩽6, and υ3=0, have been observed. Ab initio potential-energy surfaces for the X˜B12 and ÃA12 electronic states have been calculated at 210 points. These two states correlate with a Πu2 state at linearity and they interact by the Renner-Teller coupling and spin-orbit coupling. Using the ab initio potential-energy surfaces with our RENNER computer program system, the vibronic structure and relative intensities of the ÃA12→X˜B12 emission band system have been calculated in order to corroborate the experimental assignments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keith, J. Brandon; Fennick, Jacob R.; Junkermeier, Chad E.; Nelson, Daniel R.; Lewis, James P.
2009-03-01
FIREBALL is an ab initio technique for fast local orbital simulations of nanotechnological, solid state, and biological systems. We have implemented a convenient interface for new users and software architects in the platform-independent Java language to access FIREBALL's unique and powerful capabilities. The graphical user interface can be run directly from a web server or from within a larger framework such as the Computational Science and Engineering Online (CSE-Online) environment or the Distributed Analysis of Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) framework. We demonstrate its use for high-throughput electronic structure calculations and a multi-100 atom quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Program summaryProgram title: FireballUI Catalogue identifier: AECF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 279 784 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 836 145 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: PC and workstation Operating system: The GUI will run under Windows, Mac and Linux. Executables for Mac and Linux are included in the package. RAM: 512 MB Word size: 32 or 64 bits Classification: 4.14 Nature of problem: The set up and running of many simulations (all of the same type), from the command line, is a slow process. But most research quality codes, including the ab initio tight-binding code FIREBALL, are designed to run from the command line. The desire is to have a method for quickly and efficiently setting up and running a host of simulations. Solution method: We have created a graphical user interface for use with the FIREBALL code. Once the user has created the files containing the atomic coordinates for each system that they are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucci, F.; Sanna, A.; Continenza, A.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.; Gross, E. K. U.; Profeta, G.
2016-01-01
As a follow-up to the discovery of a new family of Fe-based superconductors, namely, the RE4Fe2As2Te1 -xO4 (42214) (RE = Pr, Sm, and Gd), we present a detailed ab initio study of these compounds highlighting the role of rare-earth (RE) atoms, external pressure, and Te content on their physical properties. Modifications of the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of the pure (e.g., x =0.0 ) 42214 compounds and their possible correlations with the observed superconducting properties are calculated and discussed. The careful analysis of the results obtained shows that (i) changing the RE atoms allows one to tune the internal pressure acting on the As height with respect to the Fe planes; (ii) similarly to other Fe pnictides, the 42214 pure compounds show an antiferromagnetic-stripe magnetic ground state phase joined by an orthorhombic distortion (not experimentally found yet); (iii) smaller RE atoms increase the magnetic instability of the compounds possibly favoring the onset of the superconducting state; (iv) external pressure induces the vanishing of the magnetic order with a transition to the tetragonal phase and can be a possible experimental route towards higher superconducting critical temperature (Tc) ; and (v) Te vacancies act on the structural parameters, changing the As height and affecting the stability of the magnetic phase.
Superconductivity and its mechanism in an ab initio model for electron-doped LaFeAsO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misawa, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi
2014-12-01
Two families of high-temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are higher than 50 K are known. One are the copper oxides and the other are the iron-based superconductors. Comparisons of mechanisms between these two in terms of common ground as well as distinctions will greatly help in searching for higher Tc superconductors. However, studies on mechanisms for the iron family based on first principles calculations are few. Here we first show that superconductivity emerges in the state-of-the-art numerical calculations for an ab initio multi-orbital model of an electron-doped iron-based superconductor LaFeAsO, in accordance with experimental observations. Then the mechanism of the superconductivity is identified as enhanced uniform density fluctuations by one-to-one correspondence with the instability towards inhomogeneity driven by first-order antiferromagnetic and nematic transitions. Despite many differences, certain common features with the copper oxides are also discovered in terms of the underlying orbital-selective Mottness found in the iron family.
Superconductivity and its mechanism in an ab initio model for electron-doped LaFeAsO.
Misawa, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi
2014-12-22
Two families of high-temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are higher than 50 K are known. One are the copper oxides and the other are the iron-based superconductors. Comparisons of mechanisms between these two in terms of common ground as well as distinctions will greatly help in searching for higher T(c) superconductors. However, studies on mechanisms for the iron family based on first principles calculations are few. Here we first show that superconductivity emerges in the state-of-the-art numerical calculations for an ab initio multi-orbital model of an electron-doped iron-based superconductor LaFeAsO, in accordance with experimental observations. Then the mechanism of the superconductivity is identified as enhanced uniform density fluctuations by one-to-one correspondence with the instability towards inhomogeneity driven by first-order antiferromagnetic and nematic transitions. Despite many differences, certain common features with the copper oxides are also discovered in terms of the underlying orbital-selective Mottness found in the iron family.
Ab initio Potential-Energy Surfaces and Electron-Spin-Exchange Cross Sections for H-O2 Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene
1996-01-01
Accurate quartet- and doublet-state potential-energy surfaces for the interaction of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen molecule in their ground states have been determined from an ab initio calculation using large-basis sets and the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method. These potential surfaces have been used to calculate the H-O2 electron-spin-exchange cross section; the square root of the cross section (in a(sub 0)), not taking into account inelastic effects, can be obtained approximately from the expressions 2.390E(sup -1/6) and 5.266-0.708 log10(E) at low and high collision energies E (in E(sub h)), respectively. These functional forms, as well as the oscillatory structure of the cross section found at high energies, are expected from the nature of the interaction energy. The mean cross section (the cross section averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution) agrees reasonably well with the results of measurements.
Ab initio phonon limited transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstraete, Matthieu
We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zi; Bevan, Kirk H.
2016-01-01
In the present work, we study the effects of the electronic relaxation of semicore levels on polaron activation energies and dynamics. Within the framework of adiabatic ab initio theory, we utilize both static transition state theory and molecular dynamics methods for an in-depth study of polaronic hopping in delithiated LiFePO4 (FePO4). Our results show that electronic relaxation of semicore states is significant in FePO4, resulting in a lower activation barrier and kinetics that is one to two orders faster compared to the result of calculations that do not incorporate semicore states. In general, the results suggest that the relaxation of states far below the Fermi energy could dramatically impact the ab initio polaronic barrier estimates for many transition metal oxides and phosphates.
Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; and others
2015-10-14
The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.
Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B
2015-10-14
The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.
Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Rosso, Kevin M.
2015-01-01
Goethite (α-FeOOH) surfaces represent one of the most ubiquitous redox-active interfaces in the environment, playing an important role in biogeochemical metal cycling and contaminant residence in the subsurface. Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite is a fundamental process in this context, but the proposed Fe(II)aq-Fe(III)goethite electron and iron atom exchange mechanism of recrystallization remains poorly understood at the atomic level. We examine the adsorption of aqueous Fe(II) and subsequent interfacial electron transfer (ET) between adsorbed Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) at the (110) and (021) goethite surfaces using density functional theory calculations including Hubbard U corrections (DFT+U) aided by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate various surface sites for the adsorption of Fe2+(H2O)6 in different coordination environments. Calculated energies for adsorbed complexes at both surfaces favor monodentate complexes with reduced 4- and 5-fold coordination over higher-dentate structures and 6- fold coordination. The hydrolysis of H2O ligands is observed for some pre-ET adsorbed Fe(II) configurations. ET from the adsorbed Fe(II) into the goethite lattice is calculated to be energetically uphill always, but simultaneous proton transfer from H2O ligands of the adsorbed complexes to the surface oxygen species stabilizes post-ET states. We find that surface defects such as oxygen vacancies near the adsorption site also can stabilize post-ET states, enabling the Fe(II)aq-Fe(III)goethite interfacial electron transfer reaction implied from experiments to proceed.
Bylaska, Eric J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A.; Tratnyek, P. G.
2010-11-25
Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas-phase and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e. hydrogenolysis), reductive Beta-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH- of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties Delta Hof(298.15K), So(298.15K,1 bar), and Delta GS(298.15K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely metabolites. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive Beta-elimination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -27kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH- (Delta Gorxn ≈ -25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate CH2-CHCl-CH2Cl , and CH2Cl-CH-CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (Delta Gorxn ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely.
Ab initio calculation of the electronic and optical properties of solid pentacene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiago, Murilo L.; Northrup, John E.; Louie, Steven G.
2003-03-01
The optical and electronic properties of crystalline pentacene are studied, using a first-principle Green’s-function approach. The quasiparticle energies are calculated within the GW approximation and the electron-hole excitations are computed by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We investigate the role of polymorphism on the electronic energy gap and linear optical spectrum by studying two different crystalline phases: the solution-phase structure and the vapor-phase structure. Charge-transfer excitons are found to dominate the optical spectrum. Excitons with sizable binding energies are predicted for both phases.
Ab initio calculation of the electronic and optical properties of solid pentacene
Tiago, Murilo L.; Northrup, John E.; Louie, Steve G.
2002-11-01
The optical and electronic properties of crystalline pentacene are studied, using a first-principles Green's-function approach. The quasiparticle energies are calculated within the GW approximation and the electron-hole excitations are computed by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We investigate the role of polymorphism on the electronic energy gap and linear optical spectrum by studying two different crystalline phases: the solution-phase structure and the vapor-phase structure. charge-transfer excitons are found to dominate the optical spectrum. Excitons with sizable binding energies are predicted for both phases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, John W.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Daw, Murray
2011-01-01
Refractory materials such as metallic borides, often considered as ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC), are characterized by high melting point, high hardness, and good chemical inertness. These materials have many applications which require high temperature materials that can operate with no or limited oxidation. Ab initio, first principles methods are the most accurate modeling approaches available and represent a parameter free description of the material based on the quantum mechanical equations. Using these methods, many of the intrinsic properties of these material can be obtained. We performed ab initio calculations based on density functional theory for the UHTC materials ZrB2 and HfB2. Computational results are presented for structural information (lattice constants, bond lengths, etc), electronic structure (bonding motifs, densities of states, band structure, etc), thermal quantities (phonon spectra, phonon densities of states, specific heat), as well as information about point defects such as vacancy and antisite formation energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurer, Reinhard J.; Askerka, Mikhail; Batista, Victor S.; Tully, John C.
2016-09-01
Molecular adsorbates on metal surfaces exchange energy with substrate phonons and low-lying electron-hole pair excitations. In the limit of weak coupling, electron-hole pair excitations can be seen as exerting frictional forces on adsorbates that enhance energy transfer and facilitate vibrational relaxation or hot-electron-mediated chemistry. We have recently reported on the relevance of tensorial properties of electronic friction [M. Askerka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 217601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.217601] in dynamics at surfaces. Here we present the underlying implementation of tensorial electronic friction based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory for condensed phase and cluster systems. Using local atomic-orbital basis sets, we calculate nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements and evaluate the full electronic friction tensor in the Markov limit. Our approach is numerically stable and robust, as shown by a detailed convergence analysis. We furthermore benchmark the accuracy of our approach by calculation of vibrational relaxation rates and lifetimes for a number of diatomic molecules at metal surfaces. We find friction-induced mode-coupling between neighboring CO adsorbates on Cu(100) in a c (2 ×2 ) overlayer to be important for understanding experimental findings.
Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
Ab initio study of structural, electronic, magnetic alloys: XTiSb (X = Co, Ni and Fe)
Ibrir, M. Berri, S.; Lakel, S.; Alleg, S.; Bensalem, R.
2015-03-30
Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of three semi-Heusler compounds of CoTiSb, NiTiSb and FeTiSb were calculated by the method (FP-LAPW) which is based on the DFT code WIEN2k. We used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA (06)) for the term of the potential exchange and correlation (XC) to calculate structural properties, electronic properties and magnetic properties. Structural properties obtained as the lattice parameter are in good agreement with the experimental results available for the electronic and magnetic properties was that: CoTiSb is a semiconductor NiTiSb is a metal and FeTiSb is a half-metal ferromagnetic.
Casassa, S.; Baima, J.; Mahmoud, A.; Kirtman, B.
2014-06-14
Electronic and vibrational contributions to the static and dynamic (hyper)polarizability tensors of ice XI and model structures of ordinary hexagonal ice have been theoretically investigated. Calculations were carried out by the finite field nuclear relaxation method for periodic systems (FF-NR) recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code, using the coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham approach (CPKS) for evaluating the required electronic properties. The effect of structure on the static electronic polarizabilities (dielectric constants) and second-hyperpolarizabilities is minimal. On the other hand, the vibrational contributions to the polarizabilities were found to be significant. A reliable evaluation of these (ionic) contributions allows one to discriminate amongst ice phases characterized by different degrees of proton-order, primarily through differences caused by librational motions. Transverse static and dynamic vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities were found by extrapolating calculations for slabs of increasing size, in order to eliminate substantial surface contributions.
Ab initio Calculations of Electronic Fingerprints of DNA bases on Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Towfiq; Rehr, John J.; Kilina, Svetlana; Das, Tanmoy; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2012-02-01
We have carried out first principles DFT calculations of the electronic local density of states (LDOS) of DNA nucleotide bases (A,C,G,T) adsorbed on graphene using LDA with ultra-soft pseudo-potentials. We have also calculated the longitudinal transmission currents T(E) through graphene nano-pores as an individual DNA base passes through it, using a non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. We observe several dominant base-dependent features in the LDOS and T(E) in an energy range within a few eV of the Fermi level. These features can serve as electronic fingerprints for the identification of individual bases from dI/dV measurements in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and nano-pore experiments. Thus these electronic signatures can provide an alternative approach to DNA sequencing.
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Results for the Degenerate Electron Gas at Finite Temperature.
Schoof, T; Groth, S; Vorberger, J; Bonitz, M
2015-09-25
The uniform electron gas at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in dense plasmas, warm dense matter, laser excited solids, and much more. Accurate thermodynamic data for the uniform electron gas are an essential ingredient for many-body theories, in particular, density-functional theory. Recently, first-principles restricted path integral Monte Carlo results became available, which, however, had to be restricted to moderate degeneracy, i.e., low to moderate densities with r_{s}=r[over ¯]/a_{B}≳1. Here we present novel first-principles configuration path integral Monte Carlo results for electrons for r_{s}≤4. We also present quantum statistical data within the e^{4} approximation that are in good agreement with the simulations at small to moderate r_{s}.
Electronic structural and bulk properties of ScSe: ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhardwaj, P.; Singh, S.
2016-10-01
Electronic, structural and bulk properties of scandium selenide, ScSe have been reported in the present paper. These properties have been studied using first principle calculations as well as the interionic potential model modified with covalency effect. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy calculations show that present compound undergoes a structural phase transition from the NaCl-type structure to the CsCl-type structure. The stability of the present compound is discussed in terms of electronic band structure and density of states. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in a good agreement with the available experimental results.
Milowska, Karolina Z.; Birowska, Magdalena; Majewski, Jacek A.
2013-12-04
We present exemplary results of extensive studies of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We report new results for metallic (9,0), and semiconducting (10,0) single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) functionalized with -COOH, -OH, and both groups with concentration up to 12.5%. Our studies are performed in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). We discuss here the stability, local and global changes in structure, elastic moduli (Young's, Shear, and Bulk), electronic structure and resulting band gaps, as a function of the density of the adsorbed molecules.
Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo
2011-12-14
First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al(2)O(3), in a system consisting of a supercell of 80 atoms, are reported. A detailed analysis of the interatomic correlations allows us to conclude that the short-range order is mainly composed of AlO(4) tetrahedra, but, in contrast with previous results, also an important number of AlO(6) octahedra and AlO(5) units are present. The vibrational density of states presents two frequency bands, related to bond-bending and bond-stretching modes. It also shows other recognizable features present in similar amorphous oxides. We also present the calculation of elastic properties (bulk modulus and shear modulus). The calculated electronic structure of the material, including total and partial electronic density of states, charge distribution, electron localization function and the ionicity for each species, gives evidence of correlation between the ionicity and the coordination for each Al atom.
Elastic, Electronic, Optical and Thermal Properties of Na2Po: An Ab Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baki, N.; Eithiraj, R. D.; Khachai, H.; Khenata, R.; Murtaza, G.; Bouhemadou, A.; Seddik, T.; Bin-Omran, S.
2016-01-01
The structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of the sodium polonide Na2Po compound have been studied through the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) and tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) methods. The exchange-correlation potential was treated within the local density approximation for the TB-LMTO calculations and within the generalized gradient approximation for the FP-LAPW + lo calculations. In addition, Tran and Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential and Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation were used for the electronic and optical properties. Ground state properties such as the equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and compared with available data. The single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants of the considered compound were calculated via the total energy versus strain in the framework of the FP-LAPW + lo approach. The calculated electronic structure reveals that Na2Po is a direct band gap semiconductor. The frequency-dependent dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity coefficient and electron energy loss function spectra are calculated for a wide energy range. The variations of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, heat capacity, volume expansion coefficient and Debye temperature with temperature and pressure were calculated successfully using the FP-LAPW + lo method in combination with the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruzzone, Samantha; Fiori, Gianluca
2011-11-01
We present an ab-initio study of electron mobility and electron-phonon coupling in chemically modified graphene, considering fluorinated and hydrogenated graphene at different percentage coverage. Hexagonal boron carbon nitrogen is also investigated due the increased interest shown by the research community towards this material. In particular, the deformation potentials are computed by means of density functional theory, while the carrier mobility is obtained according to the Takagi model (S. Takagi, A. Toriumi, and H. Tango, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 2363 (1994)). We will show that graphene with a reduced degree of hydrogenation can compete, in terms of mobility, with silicon technology.
Ab Initio DFT study of electronic and thermoelectric properties of crystalline Ge2 Sb2 Te5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibarra Hernandez, Wilfredo; Raty, Jean-Yves
2015-03-01
Pseudo-binary phase change materials such as (GeTe)n/(Sb2Te3)m have been recently considered for thermoelectric applications. Among these, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST225, n =2 and m =1) is very popular as it is the leading candidate for non-volatile memory devices such as phase change random access memory. It is well know that the stable crystal structure of GST225 is hexagonal, with atomic layers stacked in the c direction. The stacking sequence is however still under some debate, and structures varying from conventional semiconductor to Dirac semimetal have been claimed to differ only by the nature of the stacking sequence. Here we present electronic, dynamic and thermoelectric calculations on three different stacking sequences of crystalline GST225. We use ab-initio DFT calculations together with Boltzmann transport equations to access thermoelectric properties within the constant relaxation time approximation. Our results show that all three proposed stacking sequences are (meta-)stable. From the density of states we determine that two structures are metallic while the most stable structure has a 0.35 eV band gap. Above 100K, the computed Seebeck coefficient seems to indicate that the experimentally observed structure is the Dirac semimetal one, the doping level being of the order of 1 × 1020 cm-3. The authors acknowledge an A.R.C. grant (TheMoTherm 10/15-03) and the computer time provided by CECI, SEGI-ULg and PRACE projects NanoTherm (2IP FP7 RI-283493) and ThermoSpin on ARCHER (3IP FP7 RI-312763).
Ab initio structural, electronic and optical properties of orthorhombic CaGeO{sub 3}
Henriques, J.M.; Caetano, E.W.S. Freire, V.N.; Costa, J.A.P. da; Albuquerque, E.L.
2007-03-15
Orthorhombic CaGeO{sub 3} is studied using density-functional theory (DFT) considering both the local density and generalized gradient approximations, LDA and GGA, respectively. The electronic band structure, density of states, dielectric function and optical absorption are calculated. Two very close indirect (S->{gamma}) and direct ({gamma}->{gamma}) band gap energies of 1.68eV (2.31eV) and 1.75eV (2.41eV) were obtained within the GGA (LDA) approximation, as well as the effective masses for electrons and holes. Comparing with orthorhombic CaCO{sub 3} (aragonite), the substitution of carbon by germanium changes the localization of the valence band maximum of the indirect transition, and decreases by almost 2.0eV the Kohn-Sham band gap energies.
Ab-initio calculations of electronic structure and optical properties of TiAl alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Altaf; Sikandar Hayat, Sardar; Choudhry, M. A.
2011-05-01
The electronic structures and optical properties of TiAl intermetallic alloy system are studied by the first-principle orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method. Results on the band structure, total and partial density of states, localization index, effective atomic charges, and optical conductivity are presented and discussed in detail. Total density of states spectra reveal that (near the Fermi level) the majority of the contribution is from Ti-3d states. The effective charge calculations show an average charge transfer of 0.52 electrons from Ti to Al in primitive cell calculations of TiAl alloy. On the other hand, calculations using supercell approach reveal an average charge transfer of 0.48 electrons from Ti to Al. The localization index calculations, of primitive cell as well as of supercell, show the presence of relatively localized states even above the Fermi level for this alloy. The calculated optical conductivity spectra of TiAl alloy are rich in structures, showing the highest peak at 5.73 eV for supercell calculations. Calculations of the imaginary part of the linear dielectric function show a prominent peak at 5.71 eV and a plateau in the range 1.1-3.5 eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalilian, Jaafar; Kanjouri, Faramarz
2016-11-01
Using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations, we demonstrated that carbon doped boron nitride nanowire (C-doped BNNW) has diverse electronic and magnetic properties depending on position of carbon atoms and their percentages. Our results show that only when one carbon atom is situated on the edge of the nanowire, C-doped BNNW is transformed into half-metal. The calculated electronic structure of the C-doped BNNW suggests that doping carbon can induce localized edge states around the Fermi level, and the interaction among localized edge states leads to semiconductor to half-metal transition. Overall, the bond reconstruction causes of appearance of different electronic behavior such as semiconducting, half-metallicity, nonmagnetic metallic, and ferromagnetic metallic characters. The formation energy of the system shows that when a C atom is doped on surface boron site, system is more stable than the other positions of carbon impurity. Our calculations show that C-doped BNNW may offer unique opportunities for developing nanoscale spintronic materials.
Ab-initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohara, Bir; Franklin, Lashounda; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
We have performed first principle, local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of cubic calcium fluorite (CaF2) . Our non-relativistic computations employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. The implementation of the LCAO formalism followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We discuss the electronic energy bands, including the large band gap, total and partial density of states, electron and hole effective masses, and the bulk modulus. Our calculated, indirect (X- Γ) band gap is 12.98 eV; it is 1 eV above an experimental value of 11.8 eV. The calculated bulk modulus (82.89 GPA) is excellent agreement with the experimental result of 82.0 +/-0.7. Our predicted equilibrium lattice constant is 5.42Å. Acknowledgments: This work is funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR], and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy, National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE-NA-0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
Ab initio study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of ultrathin bismuth nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, B. K.; Singh, V.; Srivastava, R.; Agrawal, S.
2006-05-01
The energetics, structural, electronic and optical absorption properties of the bismuth nanowires Bin with n = 1, 6 have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA) including the spin-orbit coupling (SOI). The inclusion of the SOI appreciably affects all the physical properties of the wires. The stable structures form four groups: the planar structures, the caged configurations, the pyramidal structures and the helical configurations. This finding may be a guide for the construction of atomic configurations of the nanowires possessing a larger number of atoms per unit cell. The most stable wire configurations are the 5-Bi pentagonal, and the 6-Bi hexagonal and 6-Bi triple zigzag wires, which should be seen in the experiments. All the wires are metallic. The behaviour of the electron states of the second category structures is quite near to that of a linear chain where the parabolic bands cross the EF, and the number of the channels available for the electric conduction is large. Thus, one should grow the wire structures falling into the second category for achieving high conduction. For the 5-Bi pentagonal and 6-Bi hexagonal cross-sectional wires, the number of channels available for the electric conduction are ten and twelve, respectively. The SOI drastically affects the calculated optical absorption, especially in the low energy region. The absorption peaks are different in terms of the number and the energy locations for the different wires, and may be used for the characterization of the structure of a wire. Our analysis of the calculated electronic structure and the optical data of all the studied structures supports the occurrence of the 4-Bi double and/or 6-Bi triple zigzag chains in the samples of Romanov.
Electronic structure and Fermi surface of UNZ ( Z=Se and Te) by ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samsel-Czekała, M.
2010-05-01
The electronic structures of ferromagnetic (FM) UNTe and its nonmagnetically ordered (NMO) isostructural (tetragonal P4/nmm ) and isoelectronic counterpart, UNSe, have been calculated from first principles in the framework of the fully relativistic and full-potential local-orbital band-structure code within local-spin density approximation (LSDA) including also an orbital polarization correction by Eriksson, Brooks, and Johansson (OPB). The results predict that both ternaries have a covalently metallic character and solely uranium atoms, located in (001) planes, form a metallic bond due to the U5f-6d electrons. The U5f electrons contribute also to a covalent bond with the ligand N and Te or Se atoms and they reveal a dual character, i.e., partly localized and itinerant. Contrary to UNSe, UNTe is a collinear FM with the magnetic moment alignment along the c axis, as observed experimentally in the past and now is well reproduced by the LSDA+OPB calculations. In NMO states of both systems, band pseudogaps are opening merely ˜0.25eV below the Fermi level, which cause an instability of the metallic state under small perturbations leading to a semiconducting behavior. The two-band Fermi surfaces (FSs) of both compounds (in NMO state) have similar quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) properties with nesting vectors along the [100] direction. In turn, UNTe in the FM state possesses three-band FS with also Q2D properties and nesting features along the [100] and [110] directions, being important, e.g., in arising such collective phenomena as superconductivity.
Extensive ab initio study of the electronic states of BSe radical including spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Siyuan; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Yufang
2016-06-01
The internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method (MRCI) with Davidson modification and the Douglas-Kroll scalar relativistic correction has been used to calculate the BSe molecule at the level of aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated electronic states, including 9 doublet and 6 quartet Λ-S states, are correlated to the dissociation limit of B(2Pu) + Se(3Pg) and B(2Pu) + Se(1Dg). The Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction is taken into account via the state interaction approach with the full Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian operator, which causes the entire 15 Λ-S states to split into 32 Ω states. This is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling calculation has been carried out on BSe. The potential energy curves of the Λ-S and Ω electronic states are depicted with the aid of the avoided crossing rule between electronic states of the same symmetry. The spectroscopic constants of the bound Λ-S and Ω states were determined, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) and the Franck-Condon factors (FCs) of the transitions from the low-lying bound Ω states A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 to the ground state X2Σ+1/2 have also been presented. Based on the previous calculations, the radiative lifetimes of the A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 were evaluated.
Ab initio study of pressure induced structural and electronic properties in uranium monobismuthide
Pataiya, Jagdish Makode, C.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Singh, A.; Sanyal, Sankar P.
2014-04-24
We have investigated the pressure induced structural and electronic properties of uranium monobismuthide. The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). We predict structural phase transition from NaCl to CsCl-type structure at a pressure of 4.6 GPa. From energy band diagram it is observed that UBi exhibits metallic behavior. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameter is in good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haxton, Daniel
2009-05-01
Interactions of free electrons with neutral and positively charged molecular species play a role in various physical systems. In interstellar space, reactions such as dissociative recombination determine the balance of various charged and neutral species. In a laboratory equipped with an apparatus like a COLTRIMS device, the dissociative attachment process can be used as a microscope to study polyatomic molecular dynamics. We discuss the theoretical and numerical methods used to calculate dissociative attachment and dissociative recombination of electrons with larger molecules from first principles. Studies using these methods are complimentary to other methods that yield more approximate reaction rates at greatly lesser numerical cost; they may yield precise information about the dissociation dynamics, product distribution, and differential cross section that approximate methods cannot. We discuss calculations performed to date on the target species H2O, NO2, and LiH2^+. We discuss the scaling of our numerical methods with the number of atoms, and the prospects of applying them to tetra-atomics.
Ab-initio study of structural and electronic properties of AlAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munjal, N.; Sharma, G.; Vyas, V.; Joshi, K. B.; Sharma, B. K.
2012-08-01
The structural properties, i.e. equilibrium lattice constant, transition pressure, bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives, together with electronic properties, i.e. energy bands, Compton profile and autocorrelation function, of AlAs are presented in this work. The linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method of the CRYSTAL code was applied considering the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof correlation energy functional and Becke's ansatz for the exchange. The total energy of AlAs as a function of primitive cell volume has also been calculated for the zincblende (B3), nickel arsenide (B8), sodium chloride (B1) and cesium chloride (B2) phases. Structural parameters of the B3, B8, B1 and B2 phases are determined. The calculated structural parameters are found to be in good agreement with the results of previous investigations. The spherically averaged theoretical values of Compton profile are in good agreement with an earlier measurement. The LCAO calculation shows an indirect band gap of 1.85 eV, in reasonable agreement with earlier data. On the basis of the equal-valence-electron-density Compton profile, it is found that AlAs is more ionic compared to AlSb.
Mechanical and electronic properties of SiC nanowires: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, J. B.; Morbec, J. M.; Miwa, R. H.
2017-03-01
Using first-principles calculations, based on the density functional theory, we have investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogen-passivated 3C-, 2H-, 4H-, and 6H-SiC nanowires (NWs), analyzing the effects of the diameter on these properties. Our results show that the band-gap energies of the nanowires are larger than the corresponding bulk values and decrease with the increasing diameter. All nanowires investigated exhibit direct band gaps, in contrast with the indirect band gaps observed in bulk SiC. The effect of uniaxial stress on the electronic properties of SiC nanowires has also been examined, and our results reveal that the band-gap dependence on the strain is different for each nanowire polytype. In 3C-SiC nanowires, the band gaps increase (decrease) with tensile (compressive) strain. For 4H- and 6H-SiC nanowires, the influence of strain on the band gaps is more pronounced in the thicker wires. Finally, we estimated the band offsets of hypothetical NW homostructures, composed of stacking SiCNW layers with different polytypes.
Ab initio electronic band structure study of III-VI layered semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olguín, Daniel; Rubio-Ponce, Alberto; Cantarero, Andrés
2013-08-01
We present a total energy study of the electronic properties of the rhombohedral γ-InSe, hexagonal ɛ-GaSe, and monoclinic GaTe layered compounds. The calculations have been done using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, including spin-orbit interaction. The calculated valence bands of the three compounds compare well with angle resolved photoemission measurements and a discussion of the small discrepancies found has been given. The present calculations are also compared with recent and previous band structure calculations available in the literature for the three compounds. Finally, in order to improve the calculated band gap value we have used the recently proposed modified Becke-Johnson correction for the exchange-correlation potential.
Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-06-28
We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling’s iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.
Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties in transition-metal-doped arsenene: Ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Min; Hao Shen, Yu; Yin, Tai Ling
2017-01-01
The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of arsenene doped with five different transition-metal (TM) atoms (TM = Co, Cu, Mn, Fe, and Ni) are investigated using the density functional theory. Magnetism is observed in the cases of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Among these four magnetic systems, the Ni-doped system is the most easily formed. Hence, we study the ferromagnetic (FM) interaction in two-Ni-doped arsenene. It is found that the p-d hybridization mechanism results in the ferromagnetic state. However, the FM interaction is obviously depressed by the increasing Ni-Ni distance, which could be well explained by the Zener-Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) theory. Moreover, exotic phenomena appear in the two-Mn-doped system. Both nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic states are observed.
An unconventional halogen bond with carbene as an electron donor: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qingzhong; Wang, Yilei; Liu, Zhenbo; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo; Gong, Baoan; Sun, Jiazhong
2009-02-01
An unconventional halogen bond has been proved to exist in H2C-BrH complex. The halogen bond energy of H2C-BrH complex is calculated at four levels of theory [MP2, MP4, CCSD, and CCSD(T)]. The result shows that the carbene is a better electron donor. The substitution effect is prominent in this interaction. For example, the interaction energy in H2C-BrCN complex is increased by more than 300% relative to H2C-BrH complex. The analyses of NBO, AIM, and energy components were used to unveil the nature of the interaction. The results show that this novel halogen bond has similar characteristics to hydrogen bonds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-06-01
We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.
Kafka, Graeme R; Masters, Sarah L; Rankin, David W H
2007-07-05
A new method of incorporating ab initio theoretical data dynamically into the gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) refinement process has been developed to aid the structure determination of large, sterically crowded molecules. This process involves calculating a set of differences between parameters that define the positions of peripheral atoms (usually hydrogen), as determined using molecular mechanics (MM), and those which use ab initio methods. The peripheral-atom positions are then updated continually during the GED refinement process, using MM, and the returned positions are modified using this set of differences to account for the differences between ab initio and MM methods, before being scaled back to the average parameters used to define them, as refined from experimental data. This allows the molecule to adopt a completely asymmetric structure if required, without being constrained by the MM parametrization, whereas the calculations can be performed on a practical time scale. The molecular structures of tri-tert-butylphosphine oxide and tri-tert-butylphosphine imide have been re-examined using this new technique, which we call SEMTEX (Structure Enhancement Methodology using Theory and EXperiment).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makode, Chandrabhan; Sanyal, Sankar P.
2011-09-01
We have investigated the structural and electronic properties of monophospides of thorium, uranium and neptunium. The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of the self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). From the present study with the help of total energy calculations it is found that ThP, UP and NpP are stable in NaCl-type structure at ambient pressure. The structural stability of ThP, UP and NpP changes under the application of pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B 1-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B 2-phase) structure for these phospides in the pressure range of 37.0-24.0 GPa (ThP-NpP). We also calculate lattice parameter ( a0), bulk modulus ( B0), band structure and density of states. From energy band diagram it is observed that ThP, UP and NpP exhibit metallic behavior. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and bulk modulus are in good agreement with experimental and theoretical work.
Ab initio approach to structural, electronic, and ferroelectric properties of antimony sulphoiodide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoroso, Danila; Picozzi, Silvia
2016-06-01
By means of first-principles calculations for the SbSI semiconductor, we show that bare density functional theory fails to reproduce the experimentally observed ferroelectric phase, whereas a more advanced approach, based on hybrid functionals, correctly works. When comparing the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases, our results show polar displacements along the c direction of the Sb and S sublattices with respect to the iodine framework, leading to a predicted spontaneous polarization of P ≃20 μ C/cm2 , in good agreement with experiments. In the ferroelectric phase, the semiconducting behavior of SbSI is confirmed by relatively large values for the indirect and direct gaps (≃2.15 eV and 2.3 eV , respectively). An analysis of the electronic structure, in terms of density of states, charge density distribution, and anomalies in the Born effective charges, reveals (i) the clear presence of a Sb(III) lone pair and (ii) a large covalency in the SbSI bonding, based on the hybridization between Sb and S ions, in turn more ionically bonded to iodine anions. Finally, the interplay between ferroelectricity and spin-orbit coupling reveals a coexistence of Dresselhaus and Rashba relativistic effects and a spin texture that can be reversed by switching the polarization, of potential appeal in electrically controlled spintronics.
Ab-Initio Calculations of the Electronic Properties of Boron Nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Anthony; Khamala, Bethuel; Hart, Daniel; Bagayoko, Diola
2014-03-01
The potential of Boron Nitride (BN) in nanotechnology is tremendous. BN in its bulk form has a wide band gap with excellent thermal and chemical stability. BN structures can be tailored using various techniques in order to obtain desired materials properties. The State-of-the-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFCs) technology exploits graphitized carbon as a support for platinum-type catalysts. However, some forms of carbon are susceptible to long-term durability issues such as corrosion which is a detriment to fuel cell performance and viability. Novel non-carbon supports such as BN may provide a pathway for addressing the durability and performance issues associated with carbon support materials. We present preliminary theoretical studies, using an linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) quantum chemistry package from Ames Laboratory, of the electronic properties of this potentially important material. Our calculated band gap of 6.48 eV for the cubic structure, obtained with an LDA potential and the BZW-EF method, is in agreement with experiment. LASIGMA/ NNSA_MSIP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemzalová, P.; Friák, M.; Šob, M.; Ma, D.; Udyansky, A.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.
2013-11-01
We have employed parameter-free density functional theory calculations to study the thermodynamic stability and structural parameters as well as elastic and electronic properties of Ni4N in eight selected crystallographic phases. In agreement with the experimental findings, the cubic structure with Pearson symbol cP5, space group Pm3¯m (221) is found to be the most stable and it is also the only thermodynamically stable structure at T=0 K with respect to decomposition to the elemental Ni crystal and N2 gas phase. We determine structural parameters, bulk moduli, and their pressure derivatives for all eight allotropes. The thermodynamic stability and bulk modulus is shown to be anticorrelated. Comparing ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic states, we find common features between the magnetism of elemental Ni and studied ferromagnetic Ni4N structures. For the ground-state Ni4N structure and other two Ni4N cubic allotropes, we predict a complete set of single-crystalline elastic constants (in the equilibrium and under hydrostatic pressure), the Young and area moduli, as well as homogenized polycrystalline elastic moduli obtained by different homogenization methods. We demonstrate that the elastic anisotropy of the ground-state Ni4N is qualitatively opposite to that in the elemental Ni, i.e., these materials have hard and soft crystallographic directions interchanged. Moreover, one of the studied metastable cubic phases is found auxetic, i.e., exhibiting negative Poisson ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao
2016-07-01
The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.
Bylaska, Eric J; Glaesemann, Kurt R; Felmy, Andrew R; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A; Tratnyek, Paul G
2010-11-25
Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e., hydrogenolysis), reductive β-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH− of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties ΔH(f)°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K, 1 bar), and ΔG(S)(298.15 K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely degradation products: CH3−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CH2−CH2Cl, C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2Cl, cis-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, CH2═CH−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CHCl−CH2OH, CH2Cl−CHOH−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2OH, CH2═COH−CH2Cl, cis-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, CH(═O)−CH2−CH2Cl, and CH3−C(═O)−CH2Cl. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive β-elimination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH− (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl and the CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely.
Electronic structure and anisotropic chemical bonding in TiNF from ab initio study
Matar, Samir F.
2012-01-15
Accounting for disorder in anatase titanium nitride fluoride TiNF is done through atoms re-distributions based on geometry optimizations using ultra soft pseudo potentials within density functional theory DFT. The fully geometry relaxed structures are found to keep the body centering of anatase (I4{sub 1}/amd No. 141). The new structural setups are identified with space groups I-4m2 No. 119 and Imm2 No. 44 which obey the 'group to subgroup' relationships with respect to anatase. In the ground state Imm2 structure identified from energy differences, TiNF is found semi-conducting with similar density of states features to anatase TiO{sub 2} and a chemical bonding differentiated between covalent like Ti-N versus ionic like Ti-F. Inter-anion N-F bonding is also identified. - Graphical Abstract: The geometry optimized ground state anatase derived TiNF structure with arrangement of open faceted TiN3F3 distorted octahedra. The insert shows the arrangement of octahedra in anatase TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original approach of TiNF structure for addressing the electronic band structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on anatase, two different ordering scheme models with geometry optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New structures obeying the group{yields}subgroup relationships with Imm2 ground state from energy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the ground state TiNF is found semi-conducting with similar density of states to anatase TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding differentiated between covalent like Ti-N and ionic Ti-F.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokarev, Sergey I.; Dantz, Marcus; Suljoti, Edlira; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F.
2013-08-01
Nonradiative decay channels in the L-edge fluorescence yield spectra from transition-metal-aqueous solutions give rise to spectral distortions with respect to x-ray transmission spectra. Their origin is unraveled here using partial and inverse partial fluorescence yields on the microjet combined with multireference ab initio electronic structure calculations. Comparing Fe2+, Fe3+, and Co2+ systems we demonstrate and quantify unequivocally the state-dependent electron delocalization within the manifold of d orbitals as one origin of this observation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishioka, Hirotaka; Ando, Koji
2011-05-01
By making use of an ab initio fragment-based electronic structure method, fragment molecular orbital-linear combination of MOs of the fragments (FMO-LCMO), developed by Tsuneyuki et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 104 (2009)], 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.05.069, we propose a novel approach to describe long-distance electron transfer (ET) in large system. The FMO-LCMO method produces one-electron Hamiltonian of whole system using the output of the FMO calculation with computational cost much lower than conventional all-electron calculations. Diagonalizing the FMO-LCMO Hamiltonian matrix, the molecular orbitals (MOs) of the whole system can be described by the LCMOs. In our approach, electronic coupling TDA of ET is calculated from the energy splitting of the frontier MOs of whole system or perturbation method in terms of the FMO-LCMO Hamiltonian matrix. Moreover, taking into account only the valence MOs of the fragments, we can considerably reduce computational cost to evaluate TDA. Our approach was tested on four different kinds of model ET systems with non-covalent stacks of methane, non-covalent stacks of benzene, trans-alkanes, and alanine polypeptides as their bridge molecules, respectively. As a result, it reproduced reasonable TDA for all cases compared to the reference all-electron calculations. Furthermore, the tunneling pathway at fragment-based resolution was obtained from the tunneling current method with the FMO-LCMO Hamiltonian matrix.
Nishioka, Hirotaka; Ando, Koji
2011-05-28
By making use of an ab initio fragment-based electronic structure method, fragment molecular orbital-linear combination of MOs of the fragments (FMO-LCMO), developed by Tsuneyuki et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 104 (2009)], we propose a novel approach to describe long-distance electron transfer (ET) in large system. The FMO-LCMO method produces one-electron Hamiltonian of whole system using the output of the FMO calculation with computational cost much lower than conventional all-electron calculations. Diagonalizing the FMO-LCMO Hamiltonian matrix, the molecular orbitals (MOs) of the whole system can be described by the LCMOs. In our approach, electronic coupling T(DA) of ET is calculated from the energy splitting of the frontier MOs of whole system or perturbation method in terms of the FMO-LCMO Hamiltonian matrix. Moreover, taking into account only the valence MOs of the fragments, we can considerably reduce computational cost to evaluate T(DA). Our approach was tested on four different kinds of model ET systems with non-covalent stacks of methane, non-covalent stacks of benzene, trans-alkanes, and alanine polypeptides as their bridge molecules, respectively. As a result, it reproduced reasonable T(DA) for all cases compared to the reference all-electron calculations. Furthermore, the tunneling pathway at fragment-based resolution was obtained from the tunneling current method with the FMO-LCMO Hamiltonian matrix.
Genderen, E. van; Clabbers, M. T. B.; Das, P. P.; Stewart, A.; Nederlof, I.; Barentsen, K. C.; Portillo, Q.; Pannu, N. S.; Nicolopoulos, S.; Gruene, T.; Abrahams, J. P.
2016-02-05
A specialized quantum area detector for electron diffraction studies makes it possible to solve the structure of small organic compound nanocrystals in non-cryo conditions by direct methods. Until recently, structure determination by transmission electron microscopy of beam-sensitive three-dimensional nanocrystals required electron diffraction tomography data collection at liquid-nitrogen temperature, in order to reduce radiation damage. Here it is shown that the novel Timepix detector combines a high dynamic range with a very high signal-to-noise ratio and single-electron sensitivity, enabling ab initio phasing of beam-sensitive organic compounds. Low-dose electron diffraction data (∼0.013 e{sup −} Å{sup −2} s{sup −1}) were collected at room temperature with the rotation method. It was ascertained that the data were of sufficient quality for structure solution using direct methods using software developed for X-ray crystallography (XDS, SHELX) and for electron crystallography (ADT3D/PETS, SIR2014)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Grant D.; Jaffe, R. L.; Yoon, D. Y.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Conformational energy contours of perfluoroalkanes, determined from ab initio calculations, confirm the well-known spitting of trans states into two minima at plus or minus 17 degrees but also show that the gauche states split as well, with minima at plus or minus 124 degrees and plus or minus 84 in order to relieve steric crowding. The directions of such split distortions from the perfectly staggered states are strongly coupled for adjacent pairs of bonds in a manner identical to the intradyad pair for poly (isobutylene) chains. These conformational characteristics are fully represented by a six-state rotational isomeric state (RIS) model for PTFE comprised of t(+), t(-), g(sup +)+, g(sup +)-, g(sup -) + and g(sup -)-states, located at the split energy minima. The resultant 6 x 6 statistical weight matrix is described by first-order interaction parameters for the g+(+) (ca. 0.6 kcal/mol) and g+- (ca. 2.0 kcal/mol) states, and second order parameters for the g(sup +)+g(sup +)+ (ca 0.6 kcal/mol) and g(sup +)+g(sup -)+ (ca. 1.0 kcal/mol) states. This six-state RIS model, without adjustment of the geometric or energy parameters as determined from the ab initio calculations, predicts the unperturbed chain dimensions and the fraction of gauche bonds as a function of temperature for PTFE in good agreement with available experimental values.
THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY
Turchi, P A
2004-09-24
Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szalay, Péter G.; Holka, Filip; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.
2011-06-01
The aim of the study was to explore the limits of initio methods towards the description of excited vibrational levels up to the dissociation limit for molecules having more than two electrons. To this end a high level ab initio potential energy function was constructed for the four-electron LiH molecule in order to accurately predict a complete set of bound vibrational levels corresponding to the electronic ground state. It was composed from: a) an ab initio non-relativistic potential obtained at the MR-CISD level including size-extensivity corrections and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolation of the basis, b) MVD (Mass-velocity-Darwin) relativistic corrections obtained at icMR-CISD/cc-pwCV5Z level, and c) DBOC (Diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction) obtained at the MR-CISD/cc-pwCVTZ level. Finally, the importance of non-adiabatic effects was also tested by using atomic masses in the vibrational kinetic energy operator and by calculation of non-adiabatic coupling by ab initio methods. The calculated vibrational levels were compared with those obtained from experimental data [J.A. Coxon and C.S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 9378]. Our best estimate of the potential curve results in vibrational energies with a RMS deviation of only ˜1 wn\\ for the entire set of all empirically determined vibrational levels known so far. These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels of ^7LiH up to dissociation, D_0, which was predicted to be 19594 Cm-1. In addition, rotational levels have also been calculated. The RMS deviation between our ab initio calculations and empirical results by Coxon and Dickinson for rotational spacings Δ E = E(v, J = 1)-E(v, J = 0) over all available vibrational states of ^7LiH from v = 0 to v= 20 is 0.010 wn (with nuclear masses) and 0.006 wn (with atomic masses). Note that for high vibrational states with v > 6 this falls within the uncertainty of the measurements.
Pacheco, Alexander B; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2011-02-21
We recently proposed a multistage ab initio wavepacket dynamics (MS-AIWD) treatment for the study of delocalized electronic systems as well as electron transport through donor-bridge-acceptor systems such as those found in molecular-wire/electrode networks. In this method, the full donor-bridge-acceptor open system is treated through a rigorous partitioning scheme that utilizes judiciously placed offsetting absorbing and emitting boundary conditions. In this manner, the electronic coupling between the bridge molecule and surrounding electrodes is accounted. Here, we extend MS-AIWD to include the dynamics of open-electronic systems in conjunction with (a) simultaneous treatment of nuclear dynamics and (b) external electromagnetic fields. This generalization is benchmarked through an analysis of wavepackets propagated on a potential modeled on an Al(27) - C(7) - Al(27) nanowire. The wavepacket results are inspected in the momentum representation and the dependence of momentum of the wavepacket as well as its transmission probabilities on the magnitude of external bias are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
H., Michael; | Isobel C., Palmer; Walker
2010-08-01
The electronic vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet valence, and Rydberg states of trans-buta-1,3-diene have been computed using ab initio multi-reference multi-root CI procedures with a [4s3p3d3f] set of Rydberg functions. Close numerical agreement between theory and experiment was found for a number of low-lying electronic states. The present CI and CASSCF [8MO,8e] calculations suggest that both the vertical and adiabatic order of the valence (ππ∗) states is: A˜1Aelectron energy-loss spectrum, reported here, in which the incident electrons have near-threshold energies, supports this order. Adiabatic excitation energies and structures were obtained for several singlet and triplet states using CASSCF and B3LYP procedures; the results from these methods are generally in good agreement with each other. The C 1C 2 to C 2C 3 bond length ratio in the excited states varies widely, and is discussed.
Ab initio study of cyanoguanidine isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbuznikov, A. V.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Burgina, E. B.
1995-06-01
An ab initio quantum chemical study of the geometric structure and stability of cyanoguanidine isomers was carried out at the Hartree-Fock and Møller-Plesset levels of theory. Two stable separable isomers ('cyanioime' and 'cyanoamine') are found. This gives evidence in favour of the vibrational spectroscopy data showing the existence of both isomers.
Ab initio study of cyanoguanidine isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbuznikov, A. V.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Burgina, E. B.
1995-06-01
An ab initio quantum chemical study of the geometric structure and stability of cyanoguanidine isomers was carried out at the Hartree-Fock and Møller-Plesset levels of theory. Two stable separable isomers (‘cyanioime' and ‘cyanoamine') are found. This gives evidence in favour of the vibrational spectroscopy data showing the existence of both isomers.
Tayran, Ceren; Zhu, Zhen; Baldoni, Matteo; Selli, Daniele; Seifert, Gotthard; Tománek, David
2013-04-26
We use ab initio density-functional calculations to determine the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the Si(111) surface. We find that graphene forms strong bonds to the bare substrate and accommodates the 12% lattice mismatch by forming a wavy structure consisting of free-standing conductive ridges that are connected by ribbon-shaped regions of graphene, which bond covalently to the substrate. We perform quantum transport calculations for different geometries to study changes in the transport properties of graphene introduced by the wavy structure and bonding to the Si substrate. Our results suggest that wavy graphene combines high mobility along the ridges with efficient carrier injection into Si in the contact regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatemizo, N.; Imada, S.; Miura, Y.; Yamane, H.; Tanaka, K.
2017-03-01
The valence band (VB) structures of wurtzite AlCrN (Cr concentration: 0-17.1%), which show optical absorption in the ultraviolet-visible-infrared light region, were investigated via photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS), x-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), and ab initio density of states (DOS) calculations. An obvious photoelectron emission threshold was observed ~5.3 eV from the vacuum level for AlCrN, whereas no emission was observed for AlN in the PYS spectra. Comparisons of XPS and UPS VB spectra and the calculated DOS imply that Cr 3d states are formed both at the top of the VB and in the AlN gap. These data suggest that Cr doping could be a viable option to produce new materials with relevant energy band structures for solar photoelectric conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shayesteh, Alireza; Alavi, S. Fatemeh; Rahman, Moloud; Gharib-Nezhad, Ehsan
2017-01-01
Ab initio potential energy curves have been calculated for the X2Σ+, A2Π, B2Σ+, 12Δ, E2Π and D2Σ+ states of CaH using the multi-reference configuration interaction method with large active space and basis sets. Transition dipole moments were calculated at Ca-H distances from 2.0 a0 to 14.0 a0, and excited state lifetimes were obtained. Our theoretical transition dipole moments can be combined with the available experimental data on the X2Σ+, A2Π and B2Σ+ states to calculate Einstein A coefficients for all rovibronic transitions of CaH appearing in solar and stellar spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, Michael H.; Ganzenmüller, Georg; Walker, Isobel C.
2007-04-01
The oxazole VUV absorption spectrum over the range 5-12 eV shows intense bands centred near 6.3, 7.5, 8.3, 9.6 and 10.8 eV. The electron energy-loss (EEL) spectrum shows additional structure with a strong peak (˜1.4 eV) arising from resonant vibrational excitation of the molecule via a shape resonance, and a spin-forbidden 3ππ ∗ state at 4.6 eV. Electronic excitation energies for valence and Rydberg-type states have been computed using ab initio multi-reference multi-root CI methods. The CI studies used a triple zeta + polarisation basis set, augmented by diffuse (Rydberg) orbitals, to generate the theoretical singlet and triplet energy manifolds. The correlation of theory and experiment shows the nature of the more intense Rydberg state types, and identification of the main valence and Rydberg bands. Calculated energies for low-lying Rydberg states are relatively close (SD 0.38) to those expected, and there is generally a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental envelopes. Two of the three lowest electronic states arise from ππ ∗ excitation of the outer (3a″ and 2a″) π-orbitals, with one state (LP Nπ ∗) originating from the lone pair on nitrogen (15a') between them.
Long, Run; Fang, Weihai; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2016-08-18
Experiments show both positive and negative changes in performance of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells upon exposure to moisture. Ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics reveals the influence of humidity on nonradiative electron-hole recombination. In small amounts, water molecules perturb perovskite surface and localize photoexcited electron close to the surface. Importantly, deep electron traps are avoided. The electron-hole overlap decreases, and the excited state lifetime increases. In large amounts, water forms stable hydrogen-bonded networks, has a higher barrier to enter perovskite, and produces little impact on charge localization. At the same time, by contributing high frequency polar vibrations, water molecules increase nonadiabatic coupling and accelerate recombination. In general, short coherence between electron and hole benefits photovoltaic response of the perovskites. The calculated recombination time scales show excellent agreement with experiment. The time-domain atomistic simulations reveal the microscopic effects of humidity on perovskite excited-state lifetimes and rationalize the conflicting experimental observations.
Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong
2015-09-21
We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, S.; Joshi, N.; Drera, G.; Ghosh, P.; Magnano, E.; Bondino, F.; Galinetto, P.; Mozzati, M. C.; Salvinelli, G.; Aguekian, V.; Sangaletti, L.
2016-03-01
The electronic properties of the Mn:GaSe interface, produced by evaporating Mn at room temperature on a ɛ -GaSe(0001) single-crystal surface, have been studied by soft x-ray spectroscopies, and the experimental results are discussed at the light of ab initio DFT+U calculations of a model Ga1 -xMnxSe (x =0.055 ) surface alloy. Consistently with these calculations that also predict a high magnetic moment for the Mn ions (4.73 -4.83 μB), XAS measurements at the Mn L edge indicate that Mn diffuses into the lattice as a Mn2 + cation with negligible crystal-field effects. Ab initio calculations also show that the most energetically favorable lattice sites for Mn diffusion are those where Mn substitutes Ga cations in the Ga layers of the topmost Se-Ga-Ga-Se sandwich. Mn s and p states are found to strongly hybridize with Se and Ga p states, while weaker hybridization is predicted for Mn d states with Se s and p orbitals. Furthermore, unlike other Mn-doped semiconductors, there is strong interaction between the Ga -s and Mn -dz2 states. The effects of hybridization of Mn 3 d electrons with neighboring atoms are still clearly detectable from the characteristic charge-transfer satellites observed in the photoemission spectra. The Mn 3 d spectral weight in the valence band is probed by resonant photoemission spectroscopy at the Mn L edge, which also allowed an estimation of the charge transfer (Δ =2.95 eV) and Mott-Hubbard (U =6.4 eV) energies on the basis of impurity-cluster configuration-interaction model of the photoemission process. The Mott-Hubbard correlation energy U is consistent with the Ueff on-site Coulomb repulsion parameter (5.84 eV) determined for the ab initio calculations.
The study of molecular spectroscopy by ab initio methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1991-01-01
This review illustrates the potential of theory for solving spectroscopic problems. The accuracy of approximate techniques for including electron correlation have been calibrated by comparison with full configuration-interaction calculations. Examples of the application of ab initio calculations to vibrational, rotational, and electronic spectroscopy are given. It is shown that the state-averaged, complete active space self-consistent field, multireference configuration-interaction procedure provides a good approach for treating several electronic states accurately in a common molecular orbital basis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dakkouri, Marwan; Typke, Volker
2010-08-01
The molecular structure of 1,1-dichlorosilacyclopentane (DCSCP) has been investigated by means of gas-phase electron diffraction and quantum mechanical calculation. We applied both a pseudorotation model to account for the dynamic and large amplitude motion in DCSCP, and a one-conformer model of C1 symmetry. Using the computational results we analyzed the dependency of the ring geometrical parameters and vibrational mean amplitudes on the phase angle φ. The joint electron diffraction and ab initio study has led to the following ra structural parameters of DCSCP ( C1 conformer): r(Si-Cl) = 2.047(2) Å, r(Si-C) = 1.867(4) Å, average r(C-C) ring = 1.548(4) Å, average r(C-H) = 1.103(7) Å, <(C-Si-C) = 97.4(6)°, <(Cl-Si-Cl) = 104.8(10)°, and effective phase angle φ = 74.8(58)°. The puckering amplitude for the five-membered ring was determined to be q = 0.480(24) Å. The quantum mechanical calculations were performed by utilizing the UHF, B3LYP, and MP2 methods in combination with basis sets 6-311++G(2df,2pd), 6-311++G(df,pd), 6-311++G(p,d), 6-311+G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and Dunning double and triple zeta (with and without augmentation). All these methods have consistently shown that the C2 conformer is more stable than the C s symmetric form. For all calculations we used the MOLPRO and Gaussian03 packages. NBO and AIM analyses were also carried out to explore the bond/anti-bond hyperconjugative interactions and the topological properties of the charge density distribution in DCSCP. NBO scheme including second-order perturbation analysis has shown that the major orbital stabilizing interactions are between the chlorine lone pair ( nπ) Cl and the low-lying σSi-C2∗ and σSi-C5∗ antibonding orbitals. It was found that remote σSi-C → σC-H∗ interactions are stabilized by 4.4 kcal mol -1 and contribute to the stabilization of the C2 conformer in DCSCP. Deletion analysis was performed using various deletion algorithms like NOSTAR, NOVIC, NOGEM (see text). The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Toyokazu
2008-09-01
In this study, we investigated the electronic character of protein environment in enzymatic processes by performing all-electron QM calculations based on the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. By introducing a new computational strategy combining all-electron QM analysis with ab initio QM/MM modeling, we investigated the details of molecular interaction energy between a reactive substrate and amino acid residues at a catalytic site. For a practical application, we selected the chorismate mutase catalyzed reaction as an example. Because the computational time required to perform all-electron QM reaction path searches was very large, we employed the ab initio QM/MM modeling technique to construct reliable reaction profiles and performed all-electron FMO calculations for the selected geometries. The main focus of the paper is to analyze the details of electrostatic stabilization, which is considered to be the major feature of enzymatic catalyses, and to clarify how the electronic structure of proteins is polarized in response to the change in electron distribution of the substrate. By performing interaction energy decomposition analysis from a quantum chemical viewpoint, we clarified the relationship between the location of amino acid residues on the protein domain and the degree of electronic polarization of each residue. In particular, in the enzymatic transition state, Arg7, Glu78, and Arg90 are highly polarized in response to the delocalized electronic character of the substrate, and as a result, a large amount of electrostatic stabilization energy is stored in the molecular interaction between the enzyme and the substrate and supplied for transition state stabilization.
Ishida, Toyokazu
2008-09-28
In this study, we investigated the electronic character of protein environment in enzymatic processes by performing all-electron QM calculations based on the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. By introducing a new computational strategy combining all-electron QM analysis with ab initio QM/MM modeling, we investigated the details of molecular interaction energy between a reactive substrate and amino acid residues at a catalytic site. For a practical application, we selected the chorismate mutase catalyzed reaction as an example. Because the computational time required to perform all-electron QM reaction path searches was very large, we employed the ab initio QM/MM modeling technique to construct reliable reaction profiles and performed all-electron FMO calculations for the selected geometries. The main focus of the paper is to analyze the details of electrostatic stabilization, which is considered to be the major feature of enzymatic catalyses, and to clarify how the electronic structure of proteins is polarized in response to the change in electron distribution of the substrate. By performing interaction energy decomposition analysis from a quantum chemical viewpoint, we clarified the relationship between the location of amino acid residues on the protein domain and the degree of electronic polarization of each residue. In particular, in the enzymatic transition state, Arg7, Glu78, and Arg90 are highly polarized in response to the delocalized electronic character of the substrate, and as a result, a large amount of electrostatic stabilization energy is stored in the molecular interaction between the enzyme and the substrate and supplied for transition state stabilization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çoban, C.; Çiftçi, Y. Ö.; Çolakoğlu, K.
2016-11-01
Structural, electronic, elastic, optical, and vibrational properties of ternary half-Heusler compounds HfXSb (X = Co, Rh, Ru) were studied with means of ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants were in good agreement with the available data. The electronic structure and corresponding density of states (DOS) were also calculated. Indirect band gaps were observed for HfCoSb and HfRhSb. Due to some valence bands crossing the Fermi level, HfRuSb has metallic character. In addition to the electronic structure, elastic and optical properties, phonon dispersion curves and phonon DOS were calculated. A detailed comparison was made between these three half-Heusler compounds.
Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics
Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.
2014-02-28
Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.
Ab-initio study of hexagonal apatites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderin, Lazaro; Stott, Malcom J.
2001-03-01
A silicon stabilized mixture of calcium phosphate phases has been recognized as playing an important role in actively resorbable coatings and in ceramics as bone materials. The nature of this material is being investigated using a variety of techniques including a combination of crystallographic analysis of measured x-ray diffraction spectra, and ab initio quantum mechanics simulations. We have used all-electron, density functional based calculations to investigate a group of hexagonal apatites. The fully relaxed crystallographic structures of hydroxyapatite, and related apatites have been obtained. We will present the results and discuss the nature of the bonding in these materials. The x-ray diffraction pattern and the infra-red spectra have also been obtained and will be compared with experiment. Acknowledgments:This work is part of a collaboration with the Applied Ceramics group of M.Sayer, and with Millenium Biologix Inc. Support of the NSERC of Canada through the award of a Co-operative R & D grant to the collaboration is acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G.; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Peterson, Kirk A.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.
2011-03-01
High level ab initio potential energy functions have been constructed for LiH in order to predict vibrational levels up to dissociation. After careful tests of the parameters of the calculation, the final adiabatic potential energy function has been composed from: (a) an ab initio nonrelativistic potential obtained at the multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles level including a size-extensivity correction and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolations of the basis, (b) a mass-velocity-Darwin relativistic correction, and (c) a diagonal Born-Oppenheimer (BO) correction. Finally, nonadiabatic effects have also been considered by including a nonadiabatic correction to the kinetic energy operator of the nuclei. This correction is calculated from nonadiabatic matrix elements between the ground and excited electronic states. The calculated vibrational levels have been compared with those obtained from the experimental data [J. A. Coxon and C. S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 9378 (2004)]. It was found that the calculated BO potential results in vibrational levels which have root mean square (rms) deviations of about 6-7 cm-1 for LiH and ˜3 cm-1 for LiD. With all the above mentioned corrections accounted for, the rms deviation falls down to ˜1 cm-1. These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels for all isotopologues of LiH.
Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Peterson, Kirk A; Tyuterev, Vladimir G
2011-03-07
High level ab initio potential energy functions have been constructed for LiH in order to predict vibrational levels up to dissociation. After careful tests of the parameters of the calculation, the final adiabatic potential energy function has been composed from: (a) an ab initio nonrelativistic potential obtained at the multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles level including a size-extensivity correction and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolations of the basis, (b) a mass-velocity-Darwin relativistic correction, and (c) a diagonal Born-Oppenheimer (BO) correction. Finally, nonadiabatic effects have also been considered by including a nonadiabatic correction to the kinetic energy operator of the nuclei. This correction is calculated from nonadiabatic matrix elements between the ground and excited electronic states. The calculated vibrational levels have been compared with those obtained from the experimental data [J. A. Coxon and C. S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 9378 (2004)]. It was found that the calculated BO potential results in vibrational levels which have root mean square (rms) deviations of about 6-7 cm(-1) for LiH and ∼3 cm(-1) for LiD. With all the above mentioned corrections accounted for, the rms deviation falls down to ∼1 cm(-1). These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels for all isotopologues of LiH.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shinji; Daigoku, Kota; Okai, Nobuhiro; Takahata, Akihiro; Sabu, Akiyoshi; Hashimoto, Kenro; Fuke, Kiyokazu
2002-11-01
Photodissociation spectra of Mg+(NH3)n (n=1-4) cluster ions are examined in the wavelength region of 240-1200 nm. From the comparison with the results of ab initio calculations for the structure and the excitation energies of these clusters, the observed absorption bands are assigned to the transitions derived from the 2P-2S transition of Mg+ ion. The extensive redshift of the observed spectra is ascribed to the formation of a one-center ion-pair state. In the photolysis of Mg+NH3, NH3+ and Mg+NH2 ions are produced via photoinduced charge transfer and intracluster reaction processes, respectively, in addition to the Mg+ ion generated by the evaporation of ammonia molecules. For n=2, both the intracluster reaction and evaporation are dominant decay processes, while the evaporation is the sole photodissociation channel for larger clusters. The branching fractions of these processes are found to depend strongly on the solvation number n and also on the photolysis wavelength. The energetics and the dynamics of the dissociation processes are discussed in relation to the redox reaction of metal ions.
2013-01-01
Ab initio second-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) calculations using the resolution of the identity (RI) method have been performed on poly-(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) oligomers with chain lengths up to eight phenyl rings. Vertical excitation energies for the four lowest π–π* excitations and geometry relaxation effects for the lowest excited state (S1) are reported. Extrapolation to infinite chain length shows good agreement with analogous data derived from experiment. Analysis of the bond length alternation (BLA) based on the optimized S1 geometry provides conclusive evidence for the localization of the defect in the center of the oligomer chain. Torsional potentials have been computed for the four excited states investigated and the transition densities divided into fragment contributions have been used to identify excitonic interactions. The present investigation provides benchmark results, which can be used (i) as reference for lower level methods and (ii) give the possibility to parametrize an effective Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian for quantum dynamical simulations of ultrafast exciton transfer dynamics in PPV type systems. PMID:23427902
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uǧurlu, Güventürk
2017-02-01
The molecular structure and conformational analysis of isonicotinic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)- hydrazide were investigated by Ab initio and density functional theory DFT/B3LYP levels of theory with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using varied basis set. The four stable conformers of the studied molecule (C1, C2, C3 and C4) were computed. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide as the C1 form. Molecular structure, dipole moment, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability of the four stable conformers have been calculated by using 6-311++G (d, p) basis set for both models. Besides, EHOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy) and HOMO-LUMO energy gap (ΔEg) are investigated. The dipole moment for C1, C2, C3 and C4 conformers are calculated at 2.44, 7.74, 7.75 and 6.58 with DFT/B3LYP level of the theory 6-311++G (d, p) basis set and at the HF/6-311++ G (d, p) 2.60, 7.42, 7.41 and 6.36 Debye, respectively. The structural parameters of the studied molecule compared with data in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayaprakash, A.; Arjunan, V.; Jose, Sujin P.; Mohan, S.
2011-12-01
The energy, geometrical parameters and vibrational wavenumbers of crotonaldehyde were calculated by using ab initio and B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra for liquid state crotonaldehyde have been recorded in the region 3400-400 cm -1 and 3400-100 cm -1, respectively and compared with the theoretical spectrographs constructed from the scaled harmonic vibrational frequencies calculated at HF and DFT levels. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. Detailed interpretations on vibrational modes have been made on the observed and theoretical spectra and PED for each mode was also reported more precisely. HOMO and LUMO energy levels are constructed and the corresponding theoretical frontier energy gaps are calculated to realise the charge transfer occurring in the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound have been calculated at different temperatures and the results reveals the standard heat capacities ( C0p), standard entropies ( S0) and standard enthalpy changes (Δ H0) increases with rise in temperature.
Ab initio study on the electronic states and laser cooling of AlCl and AlBr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Yang; Bin, Tang; Tao, Gao
2016-04-01
We investigate whether AlCl and AlBr are promising candidates for laser cooling. We report new ab initio calculations on the ground state X1Σ+ and two low-lying states (A1Π and a3Π) of AlCl and AlBr. The calculated spectroscopic constants show good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results. We also obtain the permanent dipole moments (PDMs) curve at multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level of theory. The transition properties of A1Π and a3Π states are predicted, including the transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors (FCFs), radiative times and radiative width. The calculated radiative lifetimes are of the order of a nanosecond, implying that they are sufficiently short for rapid laser cooling. Both AlCl and AlBr have highly diagonally distributed FCFs which are crucial requirement for molecular laser cooling. The results demonstrate the feasibility of laser cooling AlCl and AlBr, and we propose laser cooling schemes for AlCl and AlBr.
Ab Initio and Ab Exitu No-Core Shell Model
Vary, J P; Navratil, P; Gueorguiev, V G; Ormand, W E; Nogga, A; Maris, P; Shirokov, A
2007-10-02
We outline two complementary approaches based on the no core shell model (NCSM) and present recent results. In the ab initio approach, nuclear properties are evaluated with two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon interactions (TNI) derived within effective field theory (EFT) based on chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). Fitting two available parameters of the TNI generates good descriptions of light nuclei. In a second effort, an ab exitu approach, results are obtained with a realistic NN interaction derived by inverse scattering theory with off-shell properties tuned to fit light nuclei. Both approaches produce good results for observables sensitive to spin-orbit properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiganesh, G.; Jaya, S. Mathi
2015-06-01
The magnetism, structure and spin polarized electronic structure of Ti substituted MO (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) are studied using the ab-initio techniques within the framework of the density functional theory. Appropriately constructed supercell along with the full structural optimization of these cells is used for studying the influence of Ti substitution on the magnetism and electronic structure of these compounds. We find from our calculations that the Ti substituted MO compounds energetically favor magnetically ordered state. The Ti concentration is found to be important in deciding the magnetic order and we have observed antiferromagnetic order for the Ti concentration of 0.25. The Ti substituted MO compounds are thus an interesting class of materials that deserve further studies.
Jaiganesh, G. Jaya, S. Mathi
2015-06-24
The magnetism, structure and spin polarized electronic structure of Ti substituted MO (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) are studied using the ab-initio techniques within the framework of the density functional theory. Appropriately constructed supercell along with the full structural optimization of these cells is used for studying the influence of Ti substitution on the magnetism and electronic structure of these compounds. We find from our calculations that the Ti substituted MO compounds energetically favor magnetically ordered state. The Ti concentration is found to be important in deciding the magnetic order and we have observed antiferromagnetic order for the Ti concentration of 0.25. The Ti substituted MO compounds are thus an interesting class of materials that deserve further studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wu
2015-08-01
We demonstrate the ab initio electrical transport calculation limited by electron-phonon coupling by using the full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), which applies equally to metals and semiconductors. Numerical issues are emphasized in this work. We show that the simple linear interpolation of the electron-phonon coupling matrix elements from a relatively coarse grid to an extremely fine grid can ease the calculational burden, which makes the calculation feasible in practice. For the Brillouin zone (BZ) integration of the transition probabilities involving one δ function, the Gaussian smearing method with a physical choice of locally adaptive broadening parameters is employed. We validate the calculation in the cases of n -type Si and Al. The calculated conductivity and mobility are in good agreement with experiments. In the metal case we also demonstrate that the Gaussian smearing method with locally adaptive broadening parameters works excellently for the BZ integration with double δ functions involved in the Eliashberg spectral function and its transport variant. The simpler implementation is the advantage of the Gaussian smearing method over the tetrahedron method. The accuracy of the relaxation time approximation and the approximation made by Allen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 3725 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevB.17.3725] has been examined by comparing with the exact solution of BTE. We also apply our method to n -type monolayer MoS2, for which a mobility of 150 cm2 v-1 s-1 is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the mean free paths are less than 9 nm, indicating that in the presence of grain boundaries the mobilities should not be effectively affected if the grain boundary size is tens of nanometers or larger. The ab initio approach demonstrated in this paper can be directly applied to other materials without the need for any a priori knowledge about the electron-phonon scattering processes, and can be straightforwardly extended to study cases with
Kubas, Adam; Blumberger, Jochen; Hoffmann, Felix; Heck, Alexander; Elstner, Marcus; Oberhofer, Harald
2014-03-14
We introduce a database (HAB11) of electronic coupling matrix elements (H{sub ab}) for electron transfer in 11 π-conjugated organic homo-dimer cations. High-level ab inito calculations at the multireference configuration interaction MRCI+Q level of theory, n-electron valence state perturbation theory NEVPT2, and (spin-component scaled) approximate coupled cluster model (SCS)-CC2 are reported for this database to assess the performance of three DFT methods of decreasing computational cost, including constrained density functional theory (CDFT), fragment-orbital DFT (FODFT), and self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (FODFTB). We find that the CDFT approach in combination with a modified PBE functional containing 50% Hartree-Fock exchange gives best results for absolute H{sub ab} values (mean relative unsigned error = 5.3%) and exponential distance decay constants β (4.3%). CDFT in combination with pure PBE overestimates couplings by 38.7% due to a too diffuse excess charge distribution, whereas the economic FODFT and highly cost-effective FODFTB methods underestimate couplings by 37.6% and 42.4%, respectively, due to neglect of interaction between donor and acceptor. The errors are systematic, however, and can be significantly reduced by applying a uniform scaling factor for each method. Applications to dimers outside the database, specifically rotated thiophene dimers and larger acenes up to pentacene, suggests that the same scaling procedure significantly improves the FODFT and FODFTB results for larger π-conjugated systems relevant to organic semiconductors and DNA.
Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.
Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus
2012-06-12
We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].
Bylaska, Eric J.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Apra, Edoardo; Windus, Theresa L.; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tratnyek, Paul G.
2004-07-08
Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the aqueous reaction energies for hydrogenolysis, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH- of 4,4¢-DDT. Thermochemical properties ¢Hf° (298.15 K), S° (298.15 K, 1 bar), ¢GS (298.15 K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for a series of DDT type structures (p-C6H4Cl)2-CH-CCl3, (p-C6H4Cl)2-CH-CCl2¥, (p-C6H4Cl)2-CHCHCl2, (p-C6H4Cl)2-CdCCl2, (p-C6H4Cl)2-CH-CCl2OH, (p-C6H4Cl)2-CH-CCl(dO), and (p-C6H4-Cl)2-CH-COOH. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, the overall aqueous reaction energetics of hydrogenolysis, dehydrochlorination, and hydrolysis of 4,4¢-DDT were estimated. The results of this investigation showed that the dehydrochlorination and hydrolysis reactions have strongly favorable thermodynamics in the standard state, as well as under a wide range of pH conditions. For hydrogenolysis with the reductant aqueous Fe(II), the thermodynamics are strongly dependent on pH, and the stability region of the (p-C6H4Cl)2-CH-CCl2¥(aq) species is a key to controlling the reactivity in hydrogenolysis. These results illustrate the use of ab initio electronic structure methods to identify the potentially important environmental degradation reactions by calculation of the reaction energetics of a potentially large number of organic compounds with aqueous species in natural waters.
Thermochemical data for CVD modeling from ab initio calculations
Ho, P.; Melius, C.F.
1993-12-31
Ab initio electronic-structure calculations are combined with empirical bond-additivity corrections to yield thermochemical properties of gas-phase molecules. A self-consistent set of heats of formation for molecules in the Si-H, Si-H-Cl, Si-H-F, Si-N-H and Si-N-H-F systems is presented, along with preliminary values for some Si-O-C-H species.
Diffusion in liquid Germanium using ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, R. V.; Aulbur, W. G.; Stroud, D.
1996-03-01
We describe the results of calculations of the self-diffusion constant of liquid Ge over a range of temperatures. The calculations are carried out using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme which combines an LDA model for the electronic structure with the Bachelet-Hamann-Schlüter norm-conserving pseudopotentials^1. The energies associated with electronic degrees of freedom are minimized using the Williams-Soler algorithm, and ionic moves are carried out using the Verlet algorithm. We use an energy cutoff of 10 Ry, which is sufficient to give results for the lattice constant and bulk modulus of crystalline Ge to within 1% and 12% of experiment. The program output includes not only the self-diffusion constant but also the structure factor, electronic density of states, and low-frequency electrical conductivity. We will compare our results with other ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and discuss extension to impurity diffusion. ^1 We use the ab initio molecular dynamics code fhi94md, developed at 1cm the Fritz-Haber Institute, Berlin. ^2 Work supported by NASA, Grant NAG3-1437.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhen; Wei, Xinyuan; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Ji, Fuhao; Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhongqin; Qiao, Shan
2015-09-01
The local atomic and electronic structures around the dopants in Cr-doped (BixSb1 -x )2Te3 are studied by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements and first-principles calculations. Both Cr and Bi are confirmed substituting Sb sites (CrSb and BiSb). The six nearest Te atoms around Cr move towards Cr and shorten the Cr-Te bond lengths to 2.76 Å and 2.77 Å for x =0.1 and x =0.2 , respectively. Importantly, we reveal the hybridization between the Sb/Te p states and Cr d states by the presence of a pre-edge peak at Cr K -absorption edge, which is also supported by our ab initio calculations. These findings provide important clues to understand the mechanism of ferromagnetic order in this system with quantum anomalous Hall effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauhan, Mamta; Gupta, Dinesh C.
2015-12-01
The structural, electronic, mechanical, phase transition, and thermo-physical properties of refractory carbides, viz. VC, NbC, and TaC have been computed in stable B1 and high pressure B2 phases by means of two different ab initio calculations using pseudo- and full-potential schemes. These materials have mixed covalent-, metallic-, and ionic-type bonding. The calculations of elastic constants show the mechanical stability of these materials in B1 phase only. The brittle nature and anisotropy is observed in these materials in B1 phase. Non-central forces are present in both the phases. Elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature have also been calculated. The present results on structural, phase transition, elastic, and other properties are in reasonably good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The calculations in high pressure phase need experimental verification.
Le Page, Y
1992-04-01
A new method for the ab initio derivation of Buerger-reduced primitive cell parameters from coordinate measurements of spots on single convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is described, which does not involve trial-and-error. The pattern can be taken along any zone axis, and misorientations of the crystallite by as much as a few degrees are taken into account without loss of accuracy. This derivation of cell parameters by least-squares analysis of the measurements has been automated in a program called NRCBED. Present accuracy is about 1% on lengths and 2 degrees on angles, but could be significantly improved by modelling projector lens aberrations, or by using a microscope without a projector lens. With present technology, it is possible to obtain a CBED pattern and a semi-quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis simultaneously from a single microcrystal a few hundred Angströms across. It becomes therefore possible to identify the material of the crystal on a single CBED pattern: a cell parameter database for known compounds is searched with the primitive cell parameters obtained in the above way, and with a mask describing the EDX results qualitatively. Feasibility is demonstrated on a crystallite of CeO2 500 Angströms across. With this new approach, trial-and-error should disappear from the solution of other long-standing problems: interpretation of X-ray powder patterns for new compounds in the presence of impurity lines, or in the case of multiple phases should become straight-forward.
Belmonte, Donato; Gatti, Carlo; Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino
2016-11-10
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na2SiO3 in the Cmc21 structural state are computed ab initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies, viz., heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation. Acoustic branches are computed by solving the Christoffel determinant and are assumed to follow sine wave dispersion when traveling within the Brillouin zone. The procedure generates several thermo-physical properties of interest in materials science and geophysics (transverse and longitudinal wave velocities, shear modulus, Young modulus, Poisson ratio) all consistent with experimentally determined properties. A representative cluster is then abstracted from the cell and a detailed electron localization/delocalization analysis is performed on it, in the ground state geometry, and on deformed states imposed by two peculiar mixed asymmetric stretching/bending modes affecting the silicate chain that, according to literature data, have anomalous mode Grüneisen parameters. A Bader analysis reveals an intriguing feature associated with these deformations: an increase in the covalence of the Si-O bond that strengthens the linkage opposing the weakening induced by thermal stress. Finally, on the same cluster, the Ramsey contributions to the JNM coupling are evaluated by the gauge-independent atomic orbital method. The calculated isotropic chemical shifts of both (23)Na and (29)Si are again in substantial agreement with observations.
Skutterudites under pressure: An ab initio study
Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V.; Valsakumar, M. C.
2014-03-07
Ab initio results on the band structure, density of states, and Fermi surface (FS) properties of LaRu{sub 4}X{sub 12} (X = P, As, Sb) are presented at ambient pressure as well as under compression. The analysis of density of states reveals the major contribution at the Fermi level to be mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. We have a complicated Fermi surface with both electron and hole characters for all the three compounds which is derived mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. There is also a simpler FS with hole character derived from the P-p{sub z} orbital for LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} and Ru-d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital in the case of As and Sb containing compounds. More interestingly, Fermi surface nesting feature is observed only in the case of the LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. Under compression, we observe the topology of the complicated FS sheet of LaRu{sub 4}As{sub 12} to change around V/V{sub 0} = 0.85, leading to a behaviour similar to that of a multiband superconductor, and in addition, we have two more hole pockets centered around Γ at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 for the same compound. Apart from this, we find the hole pocket to vanish at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 in the case of LaRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the opening of the complicated FS sheet gets reduced. The de Haas van Alphen calculation shows the number of extremal orbits in the complicated sheet to change in As and Sb containing compounds under compression, where we also observe the FS topology to change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R.
2010-03-01
An algorithm for constructing a quasidiabatic, coupled electronic state Hamiltonian, in a localized region of nuclear coordinate space, suitable for determining bound state spectra, is generalized to determine a nonlocal Hamiltonian capable of describing, for example, multichannel nonadiabatic photodissociation. For Nstate coupled electronic states, the Hamiltonian, Hd, is a symmetric Nstate×Nstate matrix whose elements are polynomials involving: decaying exponentials exp(-ari,jn) n =1,2, where ri,j=Ri-Rj, ri,j=|ri,j|, Rj locates the jth nucleus; and scaled dot-cross product coordinates, proportional to ri,j×ri,k•ri,l. The constructed Hamiltonian is constrained to reproduce, exactly, the ab initio data, energies, gradients, and derivative coupling at selected points, or nodes, in nuclear coordinate space. The remainder of the ab initio data is approximated in a least-squares sense using a normal equations approach. The fitting procedure includes a damping term that precludes oscillations due to the nodal constraints or local excesses of parameters. To illustrate the potential of the fitting procedure an Hd is constructed, with the full nuclear permutation-inversion symmetry, which describes portions of the 1,2 A1 potential energy surfaces of NH3, including the minimum energy point on the 1,2 A1 seam of conical intersection and the NH2+H asymptote. Ab initio data at 239 nuclear configurations was used in the construction which was tested at 48 additional nuclear configurations. While the energy range on the ground and excited potential energy surface is each individually ˜45 000 cm-1, the root mean square error for the energies at all points is only 93.6 cm-1. The location and local conical topography of the minimum energy conical intersection is exactly reproduced. The derivative couplings are shown to be well reproduced, justifying the attribute quasidiabatic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krosley, Kevin; Hagen, Kolbjørn; Hedberg, Kenneth
1995-06-01
Gas-phase electron diffraction data at 23°C together with molecular mechanics (MM3) and ab initio (HF/6-31G∗, gaussian 86) calculations have been used to determine the structure and conformations of 1,4-difluorobutane. The object was to ascertain whether effects similar to the gauche effect in 1,2-difluoroethane, which serves to stabilize the gauche form with the fluorine atoms in close proximity, could also operate in 1,4-difluorobutane. It was found both theoretically and experimentally that the proportion of those conformers having close fluorine atoms was small, implying the absence of effects similar to the gauche effect. The conformational composition estimated from the theoretical calculations is in good agreement with the experimental data. The experimental electron diffraction results constrained by assumptions drawn from the theoretical calculations, ED/MM3 [ED/ab initio], for the principal distances ( {r g}/{Å}) and angles ( {∠ α}/{deg}) with estimated 2σ uncertainties are as follows: r(CH) = 1.105(3) [1.106(3)], r(CF) = 1.398(2) [1.398(2)], r(C 1C 2) = 1.513(2) [1.516(2)], r(C 2C 3) = 1.537(2) [1.532(2)], ∠FCC = 110.9(3) [111.1(3)], ∠CCC = 112.9(4) [112.9(4)], and ∠HCH = 100(3) [100(3)].
Germacrene D Cyclization: An Ab Initio Investigation
Setzer, William N.
2008-01-01
Essential oils that contain large concentrations of germacrene D are typically accompanied by cadinane sesquiterpenoids. The acid-catalyzed cyclization of germacrene D to give cadinane and selinane sesquiterpenes has been computationally investigated using both density functional (B3LYP/6-31G*) and post Hartree-Fock (MP2/6-31G* *) ab initio methods. The calculated energies are in general agreement with experimentally observed product distributions, both from acid-catalyzed cyclizations as well as distribution of the compounds in essential oils. PMID:19325722
Ab initio quantum chemistry: Methodology and applications
Friesner, Richard A.
2005-01-01
This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller–Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over the past decade. Incorporation of a condensed-phase environment by means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics or self-consistent reaction field techniques, is presented. A wide range of illustrative applications, focusing on materials science and biology, are discussed briefly. PMID:15870212
Molecular associations from ab initio pair potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, E.; Sordo, T. L.; Sordo, J. A.
1991-12-01
A method of building up stable molecular associations by using pair potentials from ab initio calculations is presented. The Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine potential has been chosen to emulate the water-water interactions while 1-6-12 potentials are used to compute both solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. Parameters for neutral-amino-acid-water and neutral- amino-acid-neutral-amino-acid interactions are provided by the program. Supermolecules are constructed by minimization of the interaction energy of the molecules involved. Both steepest-decent and Fletcher-Powell algorithms are available to carry out such a minimization.
Ab-initio phasing in protein crystallography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Plas, J. L.; Millane, Rick P.
2000-11-01
The central problem in the determination of protein structures form x-ray diffraction dada (x-ray crystallography) corresponds to a phase retrieval problem with undersampled amplitude data. Algorithms for this problem that have an increased radius of convergence have the potential for reducing the amount of experimental work, and cost, involved in determining protein structures. We describe such an algorithm. Application of the algorithm to a simulated crystallographic problem shows that it converges to the correct solution, with no initial phase information, where currently used algorithms fail. The results lend support to the possibility of ab initio phasing in protein crystallography.
Ab-initio Studies Of Lithium Oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, M. K.; Goel, Prabhatasree; Mittal, R.; Chaplot, S. L.
2010-12-01
Lithium oxide is an important material because of its high thermal conductivity and superionic behavior at high temperature. It behaves like a superionic conductor above 1200 K. Phonon frequencies have been calculated using ab-initio method. The calculations of phonon dispersion relation near unit cell volume corresponding to the superionic transition indicate softening of zone boundary transverse acoustic phonon mode along (110). The instability of phonon mode could lead to the dynamical disorder of lithium sub lattice. Thermal expansion and equation of states are also computed. The results compare well with our previous semi-empirical potential calculations.
High Level Ab Initio Kinetics as a Tool for Astrochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klippenstein, Stephen
2015-05-01
We will survey the application of ab initio theoretical kinetics to reactions of importance to astrochemistry. Illustrative examples will be taken from our calculations for (i) interstellar chemistry, (ii) Titan's atmospheric chemistry, and (iii) the chemistry of extrasolar giant planets. The accuracy of various aspects of the calculations will be summarized including (i) the underlying ab initio electronic structure calculations, (ii) the treatment of the high pressure recombination process, and (iii) the treatment of the pressure dependence of the kinetics. The applications will consider the chemistry of phosphorous on giant planets, the kinetics of water dimerization, the chemistry of nitrogen on Titan's atmosphere, as well as various reactions of interstellar chemistry interest such as the recombination of OH with H, and O(3P) reacting with C2H5, CH2, and CCS. Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubas, Adam; Hoffmann, Felix; Heck, Alexander; Oberhofer, Harald; Elstner, Marcus; Blumberger, Jochen
2014-03-01
We introduce a database (HAB11) of electronic coupling matrix elements (Hab) for electron transfer in 11 π-conjugated organic homo-dimer cations. High-level ab inito calculations at the multireference configuration interaction MRCI+Q level of theory, n-electron valence state perturbation theory NEVPT2, and (spin-component scaled) approximate coupled cluster model (SCS)-CC2 are reported for this database to assess the performance of three DFT methods of decreasing computational cost, including constrained density functional theory (CDFT), fragment-orbital DFT (FODFT), and self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (FODFTB). We find that the CDFT approach in combination with a modified PBE functional containing 50% Hartree-Fock exchange gives best results for absolute Hab values (mean relative unsigned error = 5.3%) and exponential distance decay constants β (4.3%). CDFT in combination with pure PBE overestimates couplings by 38.7% due to a too diffuse excess charge distribution, whereas the economic FODFT and highly cost-effective FODFTB methods underestimate couplings by 37.6% and 42.4%, respectively, due to neglect of interaction between donor and acceptor. The errors are systematic, however, and can be significantly reduced by applying a uniform scaling factor for each method. Applications to dimers outside the database, specifically rotated thiophene dimers and larger acenes up to pentacene, suggests that the same scaling procedure significantly improves the FODFT and FODFTB results for larger π-conjugated systems relevant to organic semiconductors and DNA.
Ab initio based polarizable force field parametrization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masia, Marco
2008-05-01
Experimental and simulation studies of anion-water systems have pointed out the importance of molecular polarization for many phenomena ranging from hydrogen-bond dynamics to water interfaces structure. The study of such systems at molecular level is usually made with classical molecular dynamics simulations. Structural and dynamical features are deeply influenced by molecular and ionic polarizability, which parametrization in classical force field has been an object of long-standing efforts. Although when classical models are compared to ab initio calculations at condensed phase, it is found that the water dipole moments are underestimated by ˜30%, while the anion shows an overpolarization at short distances. A model for chloride-water polarizable interaction is parametrized here, making use of Car-Parrinello simulations at condensed phase. The results hint to an innovative approach in polarizable force fields development, based on ab initio simulations, which do not suffer for the mentioned drawbacks. The method is general and can be applied to the modeling of different systems ranging from biomolecular to solid state simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarhaddi, Reza; Arabi, Hadi; Pourarian, Faiz
2014-05-01
The structural, stability and electronic properties of C15-AB2 (A = Ti, Zr; B = Cr) isomeric intermetallic compounds were systematically investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) and plane-wave pseudo-potential (PW-PP) method. The macroscopic properties including the lattice constant, bulk modulus and stability for these compounds were studied before and after hydrogenation. For parent compounds, the enthalpy of formation was evaluated with regard to their bulk modules and electronic structures. After hydrogenation of compounds at different interstitial tetrahedral sites (A2B2, A1B3, B4), a volume expansion was found for hydrides. The stability properties of hydrides characterized the A2B2 sites as the site preference of hydrogen atoms for both compounds. The Miedema's "reverse stability" rule is also satisfied in these compounds as lower the enthalpy of formation for the host compound, the more stable the hydride. Analysis of microscopic properties (electronic structures) after hydrogenation at more stable interstitial site (A2B2) shows that the H atoms interact stronger with the weaker (or non) hydride forming element B (Cr) than the hydride forming element A (Ti/Zr). A correlation was also found between the stability of the hydrides and their electronic structure: the deeper the hydrogen band, the less stable the hydride.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Schamps, Joël
2006-11-01
Ab initio study of excitation energies and oscillator strengths for absorption towards the P13 and P11 states of the Bi3+ ion has been performed for the Bi3+ ion in gas phase and as a dopant of the cubic elpasolite Cs2NaYCl6 and the yttria Y2O3 crystal using the ab initio embedded-cluster method. The ground and excited states were computed with a relativistic spin-orbit configuration interaction approach suited for heavy elements. Electron correlation was treated in the scalar relativistic scheme with perturbative, variational, and coupled-cluster methods. Intermediate coupling is included via an effective-Hamiltonian based spin-orbit configuration interaction approach. Small-core (60 electrons) and large-core (78 electrons) relativistic effective core potentials (ECPs) have been used to describe the bismuth ion. The best match with experiment was obtained with the small-core ECP. The accuracy of excitation energies strongly depends on the electron correlation method used. The agreement between experimental data and the results obtained using second-order multiconfigurational perturbation theory is greatly improved with the shifted zeroth-order Hamiltonian proposed by Ghido et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 396, 142 (2004)]. Although quite time consuming, coupled-cluster and variational methods yield good agreement with experimental data. The first absorption band recorded for the doped elpasolite crystal is positioned with an excellent accuracy while the computed energy of the second absorbing manifold is in poorer agreement with experimental data. This suggests that interactions with neglected close-lying excited states with a ligand-to-metal charge transfer character may be significant. Calculations of the spectrum of Bi3+ doping yttria in both the S6 and C2 site symmetries indicate that the absorbing manifold arises from electronic excitations localized on the Bi3+ doping ion with main triplet 6s6p character. Our results predict the first absorbing peak to lie about 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fathi, M. B.; Kanjouri, F.; Farhadi, G.
2015-07-01
Nitinol as a superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) has been the focus of physical-chemical studies in recent decades in respect to functionality of biocompatibility in the body. Superelastic properties of nitinol are the direct results of the electronic structure of this material while dealing with the ab initio behavior of microstructure. In the present work, the elastic properties and electronic structure of B2-phase binary TiNi(1-x)Cux (x = 0, 0.25 and 0.75) shape memory alloys are discussed aiming at understanding of the physical properties underlying superelastic behavior. The calculations have been performed with the program package WIEN2K, in the framework of first-principle, all-electron density functional theory (DFT) within the scheme of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The optimized lattice parameters and independent elastic constants are obtained for use in the calculation of the bulk and shear moduli, Young modulus, Poisson ratio and Zener anisotropy parameter. For different alloying fractions x, the tetragonal (C‧) and trigonal (C44) shear constants are calculated and brittle/ductile behavior of these compounds is discussed. Finally, a qualitative discussion of dependence of elastic behavior of these compounds upon the electronic density of states (DOS) is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
2016-06-01
In this work we achieve three milestones: (1) we present a subsystem DFT method capable of running ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations accurately and efficiently. (2) In order to rid the simulations of inter-molecular self-interaction error, we exploit the ability of semilocal frozen density embedding formulation of subsystem DFT to represent the total electron density as a sum of localized subsystem electron densities that are constrained to integrate to a preset, constant number of electrons; the success of the method relies on the fact that employed semilocal nonadditive kinetic energy functionals effectively cancel out errors in semilocal exchange-correlation potentials that are linked to static correlation effects and self-interaction. (3) We demonstrate this concept by simulating liquid water and solvated OH• radical. While the bulk of our simulations have been performed on a periodic box containing 64 independent water molecules for 52 ps, we also simulated a box containing 256 water molecules for 22 ps. The results show that, provided one employs an accurate nonadditive kinetic energy functional, the dynamics of liquid water and OH• radical are in semiquantitative agreement with experimental results or higher-level electronic structure calculations. Our assessments are based upon comparisons of radial and angular distribution functions as well as the diffusion coefficient of the liquid.
Ab initio calculations for industrial materials engineering: successes and challenges.
Wimmer, Erich; Najafabadi, Reza; Young, George A; Ballard, Jake D; Angeliu, Thomas M; Vollmer, James; Chambers, James J; Niimi, Hiroaki; Shaw, Judy B; Freeman, Clive; Christensen, Mikael; Wolf, Walter; Saxe, Paul
2010-09-29
Computational materials science based on ab initio calculations has become an important partner to experiment. This is demonstrated here for the effect of impurities and alloying elements on the strength of a Zr twist grain boundary, the dissociative adsorption and diffusion of iodine on a zirconium surface, the diffusion of oxygen atoms in a Ni twist grain boundary and in bulk Ni, and the dependence of the work function of a TiN-HfO(2) junction on the replacement of N by O atoms. In all of these cases, computations provide atomic-scale understanding as well as quantitative materials property data of value to industrial research and development. There are two key challenges in applying ab initio calculations, namely a higher accuracy in the electronic energy and the efficient exploration of large parts of the configurational space. While progress in these areas is fueled by advances in computer hardware, innovative theoretical concepts combined with systematic large-scale computations will be needed to realize the full potential of ab initio calculations for industrial applications.
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics.
Makhov, Dmitry V; Glover, William J; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes
Draayer, Jerry P.
2014-09-28
We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-09-01
A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of 12CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm-1. The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
Ab Initio Studies of Halogen and Nitrogen Oxide Species of Interest in Stratospheric Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
Ab Initio Infrared and Raman Spectra.
1982-08-01
tions. For parameters not depending on momenta, a parallel ab fhti Monte Carlo approach would use electronic energies and other parameters of... Monte Carlo approach. Specifically, as one of us has suggested,t I classical molecular dynamics may be integrated with ab iniHo quan- tum force...alternative approach, for phenomena which are not explicitly time dependent, is a Monte Carlo procedure in which at each trial nuclear configuration
Ab initio path integral ring polymer molecular dynamics: Vibrational spectra of molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiga, Motoyuki; Nakayama, Akira
2008-01-01
The path integral ring polymer molecular dynamics method is combined with 'on-the-fly' ab initio electronic structure calculations and applied to vibrational spectra of small molecules, LiH and H 2O, at the room temperature. The results are compared with those of the numerically exact solution and ab initio path integral centroid molecular dynamics calculation. The peak positions in the calculated spectra are found to be reasonable, showing the red-shift due to potential anharmonicity. This unification enables the investigation of real-time quantum dynamics of chemically complex molecular systems on the ab initio Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benahmed, A.; Bouhemadou, A.; Khenata, R.; Bin-Omran, S.
2017-02-01
We report the results of an ab initio study of the electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of the LiBaP and LiSrP compounds using the pseudopotential plane-wave method within the framework of the density functional theory with the GGA-PBEsol. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The energy band dispersions along the high symmetry directions in the k-space and the density of states diagrams are computed and analyzed. The obtained energy bands show that both examined crystals are indirect band gap semiconductors. The chemical bonding character is examined via electron density map plots. The optical properties are predicted for an incident radiation in an energy range up to 15 eV, and the origins of the main peaks in the optical spectra are discussed in terms of the calculated electronic band structure. We have also predicted the temperature and pressure dependencies of the unit-cell volume, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazyuk, Elena A.; Revina, Elena I.; Stolyarov, Andrey V.
2016-07-01
The spin allowed electronic transition dipole moments (ETDM) of rubidium and cesium dimers are calculated among the states converging to the lowest three dissociation limits. The ETDM functions are evaluated for a wide range of internuclear distances R in the basis of the spin-averaged wavefunctions corresponding to pure Hund's coupling case (a) by using small (including the 8 subvalence +1 valence electrons) effective core pseudopotentials (ECP). The dynamic correlation is accounted for in a large scale multi-reference configuration interaction (MR-CI) method applied to only two valence electrons. The core-polarization potentials (CPP) are implemented to implicitly take the residual core-valence effect into account. The reliability of the present EDTM functions is discussed through comparison with preceding ab initio calculations and their long range perturbation theory counterparts. The achieved accuracy allowed us to quantitatively support the asymptotic behavior of the ETDM functions predicted in Marinescu and Dalgarno (1995 [4]). The long R-range transition moments could be useful to optimize stimulated Raman processes employed in ultracold molecule production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zijlstra, E. S.; Kortus, J.; Krajčí, M.; Stadnik, Z. M.; Bose, S. K.
2004-03-01
We present a detailed analysis of electronic properties of the Cockayne model of icosahedral AlCuFe, both in its original form and after a structural relaxation using the ab initio density functional approach. The electronic density of states (DOS) and electric field gradients (EFG’s) of the Al and Fe atoms in the original and the relaxed Cockayne models were calculated and compared with available photoemission, Mössbauer, and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy data. The relaxed and the original models show significantly different electronic properties. Both models are deficient in describing the available experimental data. The DOS’s show two Fe-d peaks, where there is only one such peak in the photoemission spectroscopy data. These models also cannot account for the shape of the Mössbauer spectra. We show that the interchange between 12 Cu and 12 Fe atoms, each belonging to a single symmetry class, results in a smaller number of Cu-Fe nearest-neighbor pairs and a lowering of the total energy by an amount of ΔE˜50 meV/atom. This “modified” version of the Cockayne model was further relaxed for the final comparison between the calculation and experimental results. The modified model shows a considerable improvement: The DOS has only one Fe-d peak, in agreement with photoemission spectroscopy data, and the calculated EFG’s account very well for the experimental Mössbauer spectra.
Grimminger, Robert; Clouthier, Dennis J.; Sheridan, Phillip M.
2014-04-28
We have studied the B{sup ~} {sup 2}A{sub 1}–X{sup ~} {sup 2}B{sub 2} laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum of the jet-cooled F{sub 2}BO radical for the first time. The transition consists of a strong 0{sub 0}{sup 0} band at 446.5 nm and eight weak sequence bands to shorter wavelengths. Single vibronic level emission spectra obtained by laser excitation of individual levels of the B{sup ~} state exhibit two electronic transitions: a very weak, sparse B{sup ~}–X{sup ~} band system in the 450–500 nm region and a stronger, more extensive set of B{sup ~} {sup 2}A{sub 1}–A{sup ~} {sup 2}B{sub 1} bands in the 580–650 nm region. We have also performed a series of high level ab initio calculations to predict the electronic energies, molecular structures, vibrational frequencies, and rotational and spin-rotation constants in the X{sup ~} {sup 2}B{sub 2}, A{sup ~2}B{sub 1} and B{sup ~} {sup 2}A{sub 1} electronic states as an aid to the analysis of the experimental data. The theoretical results have been used as input for simulations of the rotationally resolved B{sup ~} {sup 2}A{sub 1}–X{sup ~} {sup 2}B{sub 2} 0{sub 0}{sup 0} LIF band and Franck-Condon profiles of the LIF and single vibronic level emission spectra. The agreement between the simulations obtained with purely ab initio parameters and the experimental spectra validates the geometries calculated for the ground and excited states and the conclusion that the radical has C{sub 2v} symmetry in the X{sup ~}, A{sup ~}, and B{sup ~} states. The spectra provide considerable new information about the vibrational energy levels of the X{sup ~} and A{sup ~} states, but very little for the B{sup ~} state, due to the very restrictive Franck-Condon factors in the LIF spectra.
Li, Junjie; Li, Xiaohu; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2014-06-10
We discuss a multiconfigurational treatment of the "on-the-fly" electronic structure within the quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics (QWAIMD) method for coupled treatment of quantum nuclear effects with electronic structural effects. Here, multiple single-particle electronic density matrices are simultaneously propagated with a quantum nuclear wavepacket and other classical nuclear degrees of freedom. The multiple density matrices are coupled through a nonorthogonal configuration interaction (NOCI) procedure to construct the instantaneous potential surface. An adaptive-mesh-guided set of basis functions composed of Gaussian primitives are used to simplify the electronic structure calculations. Specifically, with the replacement of the atom-centered basis functions positioned on the centers of the quantum-mechanically treated nuclei by a mesh-guided band of basis functions, the two-electron integrals used to compute the electronic structure potential surface become independent of the quantum nuclear variable and hence reusable along the entire Cartesian grid representing the quantum nuclear coordinates. This reduces the computational complexity involved in obtaining a potential surface and facilitates the interpretation of the individual density matrices as representative diabatic states. The parametric nuclear position dependence of the diabatic states is evaluated at the initial time-step using a Shannon-entropy-based sampling function that depends on an approximation to the quantum nuclear wavepacket and the potential surface. This development is meant as a precursor to an on-the-fly fully multireference electronic structure procedure embedded, on-the-fly, within a quantum nuclear dynamics formalism. We benchmark the current development by computing structural, dynamic, and spectroscopic features for a series of bihalide hydrogen-bonded systems: FHF(-), ClHCl(-), BrHBr(-), and BrHCl(-). We find that the donor-acceptor structural features are in good
Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David
2014-01-01
Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Todd
Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.
Ab Initio Calculation of the Hoyle State
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2011-05-13
The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars heavier than our Sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-12 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than a half century ago nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this Letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low-lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2 state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of the properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy.
Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
to Baben, M.; Achenbach, J. O.; von Lilienfeld, O. A.
2016-03-01
We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-01-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-12-03
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddadi, K.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin-Omran, S.; Maabed, S.; Khenata, R.
2015-01-01
The structural parameters, elastic constants, electronic structure and optical properties of the recently reported monoclinic quaternary nitridoaluminate LiCaAlN2 are investigated in detail using the ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential method within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which validate the reliability of the applied theoretical method. The chemical and structural stabilities of LiCaAlN2 are confirmed by calculating the cohesion energy and enthalpy of formation. Chemical band stiffness is calculated to explain the pressure dependence of the lattice parameters. Through the band structure calculation, LiCaAlN2 is predicted to be an indirect band gap of 2.725 eV. The charge-carrier effective masses are estimated from the band structure dispersions. The frequency-dependent dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity coefficient and electron energy loss function spectra are calculated for polarized incident light in a wide energy range. Optical spectra exhibit a noticeable anisotropy. Single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants and related properties, including isotropic sound velocities and Debye temperatures, are numerically estimated. The calculated elastic constants and elastic compliances are used to analyse and visualize the elastic anisotropy of LiCaAlN2. The calculated elastic constants demonstrate the mechanical stability and brittle behaviour of the considered material.
Gaenko, Alexander; DeFusco, Albert; Varganov, Sergey A.; Martínez, Todd J.; Gordon, Mark S.
2014-10-20
This work presents a nonadiabatic molecular dynamics study of the nonradiative decay of photoexcited trans-azomethane, using the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) program that has been interfaced with the General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS) quantum chemistry package for on-the-fly electronic structure evaluation. The interface strategy is discussed, and the capabilities of the combined programs are demonstrated with a nonadiabatic molecular dynamics study of the nonradiative decay of photoexcited trans-azomethane. Energies, gradients, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were obtained with the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method, as implemented in GAMESS. The influence of initial vibrational excitation on the outcome of the photoinduced isomerization is explored. Increased vibrational excitation in the CNNC torsional mode shortens the excited state lifetime. Depending on the degree of vibrational excitation, the excited state lifetime varies from ~60–200 fs. As a result, these short lifetimes are in agreement with time-resolved photoionization mass spectroscopy experiments.
Kumar, Vijay; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.; Inoue, A.; Konno, K.; Matsuura, M.; Kawazoe, Y.
2011-10-01
The atomic structure of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass has been simulated using an ab initio molecular dynamics method with projector-augmented wave pseudopotentials for electron-ion interaction and generalized gradient approximation for exchange-correlation energy. The calculated extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of Pd-K and Ni-K edges, the mass density, and the electronic structure agree remarkably well with the available experimental data and the EXAFS spectra measured at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. Our results show that the atomic structure can be described in terms of P-centered polyhedra. There are no two P atoms that are nearest neighbors at this composition, and this could be a reason for the observed optimal P concentration of about 20 at.%. The neighboring polyhedra share metal (M) atoms and form a polar covalently bonded random network of P-M-P favoring certain angles. The remaining M atoms act as metallic glue with a tendency of nanoscale clustering of Pd-Pd and Ni-Ni atoms.
Accelerating ab initio molecular dynamics simulations by linear prediction methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herr, Jonathan D.; Steele, Ryan P.
2016-09-01
Acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations can be reliably achieved by extrapolation of electronic data from previous timesteps. Existing techniques utilize polynomial least-squares regression to fit previous steps' Fock or density matrix elements. In this work, the recursive Burg 'linear prediction' technique is shown to be a viable alternative to polynomial regression, and the extrapolation-predicted Fock matrix elements were three orders of magnitude closer to converged elements. Accelerations of 1.8-3.4× were observed in test systems, and in all cases, linear prediction outperformed polynomial extrapolation. Importantly, these accelerations were achieved without reducing the MD integration timestep.
Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Špirko, Vladimír
2016-12-01
Effective (mass-dependent) potential energy curves of the ground electronic states of 9BeH, 9BeD, and 9BeT are constructed by morphing a very accurate MR-ACPF ab initio potential of Koput (2011) within the framework of the reduced potential energy curve approach of Jenč (1983). The morphing is performed by fitting the RPC parameters to available experimental ro-vibrational data. The resulting potential energy curves provide a fairly quantitative reproduction of the fitted data. This allows for a reliable prediction of the so-far unobserved molecular states in terms of only a small number of fitting parameters.
Ab initio evidence for nonthermal characteristics in ultrafast laser melting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Chao; Zhang, S. B.; Meng, Sheng
2016-11-01
Laser melting of semiconductors has been observed for almost 40 years; surprisingly, it is not well understood where most theoretical simulations show a laser-induced thermal process. Ab initio nonadiabatic simulations based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory reveal intrinsic nonthermal melting of silicon, at a temperature far below the thermal melting temperature of 1680 K. Both excitation threshold and time evolution of diffraction intensity agree well with experiment. Nonthermal melting is attributed to excitation-induced drastic changes in bonding electron density, and the subsequent decrease in the melting barrier, rather than lattice heating as previously assumed in the two-temperature models.
Ab Initio Calculations Applied to Problems in Metal Ion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Electronic structure calculations can provide accurate spectroscopic data (such as molecular structures) vibrational frequencies, binding energies, etc.) that have been very useful in explaining trends in experimental data and in identifying incorrect experimental measurements. In addition, ab initio calculations. have given considerable insight into the many interactions that make the chemistry of transition metal systems so diverse. In this review we focus on cases where calculations and experiment have been used to solve interesting chemical problems involving metal ions. The examples include cases where theory was used to differentiate between disparate experimental values and cases where theory was used to explain unexpected experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamioud, Farida; Alghamdi, Ghadah S.; Al-Omari, Saleh; Mubarak, A. A.
2016-03-01
We have performed ab initio investigation of some physical properties of the perovskite TlMnX3 (X = F, Cl) compounds using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is employed as exchange-correlation potential. The calculated lattice constant and bulk modulus agree with previous studies. Both compounds are found to be elastically stable. TlMnF3 and TlMnCl3 are classified as anisotropic and ductile compounds. The calculations of the band structure of the studied compounds showed the semiconductor behavior with the indirect (M-X) energy gap. Both compounds are classified as a ferromagnetic due to the integer value of the total magnetic moment of the compounds. The different optical spectra are calculated from the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function and connected to the electronic structure of the compounds. The static refractive index n(0) is inversely proportional to the energy bandgap of the two compounds. Beneficial optics technology applications are predicted based on the optical spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, Filippo; Sciascia, Luciana; Princivalle, Francesco; Merli, Marcello
2012-02-01
In order to characterize the pressure-induced decomposition of ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4), the topological analysis of the electron density ρ( r), based upon the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) developed by Bader in the framework of the catastrophe theory, has been performed. Calculations have been carried out by means of the ab initio CRYSTAL09 code at the HF/DFT level, using Hamiltonians based on the Becke- LYP scheme containing hybrid Hartree-Fock/density functional exchange-correlation terms. The equation of state at 0 K has been constructed for the three phases involved in the post-spinel phase transition (ringwoodite → Mg-perovskite + periclase) occurring at the transition zone-lower mantel boundary. The topological results show that the decomposition of the ringwoodite at high pressures is caused by a conflict catastrophe. Furthermore, topological evidences of the central role played by the oxygen atoms to facilitate the pressure-induced ringwoodite decomposition and the subsequent phase transition have been noticed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çiftci, Yasemin Ö.; Çoban, Cansu
2016-02-01
The structural, mechanical, electronic, dynamic, and optical properties of the ZrPdSn compound crystallising into the MgAgAs structure are investigated by the ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory. The lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first derivative of bulk modulus were obtained by fitting the calculated total energy-atomic volume results to the Murnaghan equation of state. These results were compared to the previous data. The band structure and corresponding density of states (DOS) were also calculated and discussed. The elastic properties were calculated by using the stress-strain method, which shows that the MgAgAs phase of this compound is mechanically stable. The presented phonon dispersion curves and one-phonon DOS confirms that this compound is dynamically stable. In addition, the heat capacity, entropy, and free energy of ZrPdSn were calculated by using the phonon frequencies. Finally, the optical properties, such as dielectric function, reflectivity function, extinction coefficient, refractive index, and energy loss spectrum, were obtained under different pressures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demkov, Alexander A.; Navrotsky, Alexandra
2001-03-01
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that the strategy of scaling complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices will come to an abrupt end around the year 2012. The main reason for this will be the unacceptably high leakage current through the silicon dioxide gate with a thickness below 20 ÅFinding a gate insulator alternative to SiO2 has proven to be far from trivial. Hafnium and zirconium dioxides and silicates have been recently considered as gate dielectrics with intermediate dielectric constants. Hafnia and ziconia are important ceramic materials as well, and their phase relations are rather well studied. There is also interest in hafnia as a constituent of ceramic waste forms for plutonium, based on its refractory nature and high neutron absorption cross section. We use a combination of the ab-initio calculations and calorimetry to investigate thermodynamic and electronic properties of hafnia and zirconia. We describe the cubic to tetragonal phase transition in the fluorite structure by computing the total energy surface for zone-edge distortions correct to fourth order in the soft-mode displacement with the strain coupling renormalization included. We compare the two materials using some simple chemical concepts.
Li, S N; Liu, J B; Li, J H; Wang, J; Liu, B X
2015-02-26
Recent progress in the synthesis of Mg-based metallic glasses (MGs) has allowed them to be considered as potential candidates for biodegradable and bioabsorbable implant materials. In this work, we use the Mg-Zn-Ca system as a representative to investigate the effect of composition on the atomic-level structure and local chemical environment in Mg-based MGs from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that the short-range order of Mg(95-x)Zn(x)Ca5 (x = 21, 25, 29, and 33) MGs is characterized by Zn-centered icosahedral and icosahedral-like clusters, which show an increasing number and a rising tendency to interpenetrate each other with the enrichment of Zn constituents. A considerable degree of charge transfer between Zn and the surrounding Mg/Ca atoms is observed through electronic structure and bonding character analysis. At Zn-rich compositions, a percolated Zn-Zn network extended throughout the entire sample is formed, upon which the accumulated charges around Zn atoms are associated into a continuous conductivity path. Such results may shed light on the improved corrosion resistance of the Zn-rich Mg-Zn-Ca MGs.
Ab initio molecular simulations with numeric atom-centered orbitals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Volker; Gehrke, Ralf; Hanke, Felix; Havu, Paula; Havu, Ville; Ren, Xinguo; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias
2009-11-01
We describe a complete set of algorithms for ab initio molecular simulations based on numerically tabulated atom-centered orbitals (NAOs) to capture a wide range of molecular and materials properties from quantum-mechanical first principles. The full algorithmic framework described here is embodied in the Fritz Haber Institute "ab initio molecular simulations" (FHI-aims) computer program package. Its comprehensive description should be relevant to any other first-principles implementation based on NAOs. The focus here is on density-functional theory (DFT) in the local and semilocal (generalized gradient) approximations, but an extension to hybrid functionals, Hartree-Fock theory, and MP2/GW electron self-energies for total energies and excited states is possible within the same underlying algorithms. An all-electron/full-potential treatment that is both computationally efficient and accurate is achieved for periodic and cluster geometries on equal footing, including relaxation and ab initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate the construction of transferable, hierarchical basis sets, allowing the calculation to range from qualitative tight-binding like accuracy to meV-level total energy convergence with the basis set. Since all basis functions are strictly localized, the otherwise computationally dominant grid-based operations scale as O(N) with system size N. Together with a scalar-relativistic treatment, the basis sets provide access to all elements from light to heavy. Both low-communication parallelization of all real-space grid based algorithms and a ScaLapack-based, customized handling of the linear algebra for all matrix operations are possible, guaranteeing efficient scaling (CPU time and memory) up to massively parallel computer systems with thousands of CPUs.
Bellinger, Daniel; Pflaum, Jens; Brüning, Christoph; Engel, Volker; Engels, Bernd
2017-01-18
Perylene-based compounds are promising materials for opto-electronic thin film devices but despite intense investigations, important details of their electronic structure are still under debate. For perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydrid (PTCDA), the theoretical models predict a different relative energetic order of Frenkel and Charge Transfer (CT) states. Additionally, while one model indicates strong differences between PTCDA on one hand and other perylene-based compounds on the other, recent ab initio computations indicate electronic properties of all perylene-based compounds to resemble each other. Finally, the models disagree about the amount of mixing between CT and Frenkel states. Definitive answers to these questions are difficult because the approaches use various approximations. Up to date, the ab initio based methods employ rather small model systems and neglect environmental effects. In the present work, we improve our former approach by analyzing the effects of the various simplifications. In more detail, we increase the size of the model systems, include environmental effects and investigate the influence of exciton-phonon couplings on the absorption spectrum. The computations for larger aggregates were performed with the ZINDO/S approach, because benchmark computations show that it provides accurate vertical excitation energies for Frenkel, as well as CT states.
Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gesell, Laurence E.
1995-01-01
Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)
Emission Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Calculations for TaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram, R. S.; Liévin, J.; Bernath, P. F.
2002-10-01
The emission spectra of TaN have been investigated in the region 3000-35 000 cm -1 using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra were observed in a tantalum hollow-cathode lamp by discharging a mixture of 1.5 Torr of Ne and about 6 mTorr of N 2. In addition to previously known bands, numerous additional bands were observed and assigned to a number of new transitions. The spectroscopic properties of the low-lying electronic states of TaN were also predicted by ab initio calculations. A 1Σ + state, with equilibrium constants of Be=0.457 852 1(48) cm -1, α e=0.002 235 9(67) cm -1, and Re=1.683 099 9(88) Å, has been identified as the ground state of TaN based on our experimental observations supported by the ab initio results. The first excited state has been identified as the a3Δ 1 spin component at 2827 cm -1 above the ground state. To higher energies, the states become difficult to assign because of their Hund's case (c) behavior and extensive interactions between the spin components of the electronic terms.
Ab initio phase diagram of iridium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.
2016-09-01
The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.
Ab Initio Quantum Simulations of Liquid Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gergely, John; Ceperley, David; Gygi, Francois
2007-03-01
Some recent efforts at simulating liquid water have employed ``ab initio'' molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods with forces from a version of density functional theory (DFT) and, in some cases, imaginary-time path integrals (PI) to study quantum effects of the protons. Although AIMD methods have met with many successes, errors introduced by the approximations and choices of simulation parameters are not fully understood. We report on path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) studies of liquid water using DFT energies that provide quantitative benchmarks for PI-AIMD work. Specifically, we present convergence studies of the path integrals and address whether the Trotter number can be reduced by improving the form of the (approximate) action. Also, we assess 1) whether typical AIMD simulations are sufficiently converged in simulation time, i.e., if there is reason to suspect that nonergodic behavior in PI-AIMD methods leads to poor convergence, and 2) the relative efficiency of the methods. E. Schwegler, J.C. Grossman, F. Gygi, G. Galli, J. Chem. Phys 121, 5400 (2004).
Ab initio calculations of nitramine dimers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh-Fallet, Sharon; Schweigert, Igor
2015-06-01
Elevated temperatures and pressures are typically thought to have opposing effects on the reaction channels of nitramine decomposition. These high temperatures promote reactions with loose transition structures (positive activation entropies and volumes), such as N-N bond homolysis. Elevated pressures promote reactions with tight transition structures (negative activation entropies and volumes), such as intramolecular and intermolecular H transfer. However, no quantitative data exists regarding the range of temperatures and pressures at which these effects become pronounced. We are pursuing ab initio calculations of the corresponding unimolecular and bimolecular transition structures with the objective of estimating the relevant thermochemical parameters and quantifying the effects of elevated temperature and pressures on the corresponding rate constants. Here, we present density functional theory and complete active space calculations of gas-phase molecular dimers of nitramines as an intermediate step toward modeling transition structures directly in the condensed phase. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory via the American Society for Engineering and Education and by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory.
de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio G S; Ornellas, Fernando R; Peterson, Kirk A
2012-05-07
In this work, we report the construction of potential energy surfaces for the (3)A('') and (3)A(') states of the system O((3)P) + HBr. These surfaces are based on extensive ab initio calculations employing the MRCI+Q/CBS+SO level of theory. The complete basis set energies were estimated from extrapolation of MRCI+Q/aug-cc-VnZ(-PP) (n = Q, 5) results and corrections due to spin-orbit effects obtained at the CASSCF/aug-cc-pVTZ(-PP) level of theory. These energies, calculated over a region of the configuration space relevant to the study of the reaction O((3)P) + HBr → OH + Br, were used to generate functions based on the many-body expansion. The three-body potentials were interpolated using the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The resulting surface for the (3)A('') electronic state contains van der Waals minima on the entrance and exit channels and a transition state 6.55 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. This barrier height was then scaled to reproduce the value of 5.01 kcal/mol, which was estimated from coupled cluster benchmark calculations performed to include high-order and core-valence correlation, as well as scalar relativistic effects. The (3)A(') surface was also scaled, based on the fact that in the collinear saddle point geometry these two electronic states are degenerate. The vibrationally adiabatic barrier heights are 3.44 kcal/mol for the (3)A('') and 4.16 kcal/mol for the (3)A(') state.
Hansen, Jared A.; Bauman, Nicholas P.; Shen, Jun; ...
2015-12-09
In this paper, the four, closely spaced, lowest energy electronic states of the challenging, D4h-symmetric, 1,2,3,4-cyclobutanetetraone (C4O4) molecule have been investigated using high-level ab initio methods. The calculated states include the closed-shell singlet 8π(1A1g) state, the singlet 10π(1A1g) state, in which the π-type lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the 8π(1A1g) reference is doubly occupied and the σ-type highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is empty, and the open-shell singlet and triplet states, designated as 9π(1B2u) and 9π(3B2u), respectively, originating from single occupancy of the HOMO and LUMO. Our focus is on single-reference coupled-cluster (CC) approaches capable of handling electronic near-degeneraciesmore » in diradicals, especially the completely renormalised CR-CC(2,3) and active-space CCSDt methods, along with their CCSD and EOMCCSD counterparts. The internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction calculations with a quasi-degenerate Davidson correction are performed as well. Our computations demonstrate that the state ordering is 9π(3B2u) < 8π(1A1g) < 9π(1B2u) < 10π(1A1g) and that the 8π(1A1g) - 9π(3B2u) gap is in the 7–11 kJ/mol range, in reasonable agreement with the negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, which give 6.27 ± 0.5 kJ/mol. Finally, in addition to the theory level used, geometry relaxation and basis set play a significant role in determining the state ordering and energy spacings. In particular, it is unsafe to use lower level, non-CC geometries and smaller basis sets.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klevak, E.; Mattern, B. A.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Seidler, G. T.
2014-03-01
We report new calculations of the electron momentum distribution n(p) for ordered and disordered materials of interest for warm dense matter research. The central role of the electron-ion interaction and the need to orthogonalize the valence-electron and core-electron wave functions has often been ignored in the interpretation of x-ray Thomson scattering studies of WDM.[2] This has led to substantial uncertainty in the inferred temperatures and ionization states in laser-shock generated dense plasmas. Real space Green's function calculations as a function of density and disorder are used to evaluate the possibility of a broadly applicable universal rescaling of the free-electron n(p) by an effective volume and effective temperature to approximate the effects of valence-core orthogonalization. Supported in part by DOE BES Grant DEFG03-97ER45623 (EK, JJR, JJK) and DOE-BES DE-SC0002194(BAM and GTS).
Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations
Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas
2015-12-14
We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.
Low-energy electron scattering from CO. 2: Ab-initio study using the frame-transformation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, N.
1976-01-01
The Wigner-Eisenbud R matrix method has been combined with the frame transformation theory to study electron scattering from molecular systems. The R matrix, calculated at the boundary point of the molecular core radius, has been transformed to the space frame in order to continue the solution of the scattering equations in the outer region where rotational motion of the nuclei is taken into account. This procedure has been applied to a model calculation of thermal energy electron scattering from CO.
Almeida, D; Kinzel, D; Ferreira da Silva, F; Puschnigg, B; Gschliesser, D; Scheier, P; Denifl, S; García, G; González, L; Limão-Vieira, P
2013-07-21
Electron transfer and dissociative electron attachment to 3-methyluracil (3meU) and 1-methylthymine (1meT) yielding anion formation have been investigated in atom-molecule collision and electron attachment experiments, respectively. The former has been studied in the collision energy range 14-100 eV whereas the latter in the 0-15 eV incident electron energy range. In the present studies, emphasis is given to the reaction channel resulting in the loss of the methyl group from the N-sites with the extra charge located on the pyrimidine ring. This particular reaction channel has neither been approached in the context of dissociative electron attachment nor in atom-molecule collisions yet. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed in order to provide some insight into the dissociation mechanism involved along the N-CH3 bond reaction coordinate. The calculations provide support to the threshold value derived from the electron transfer measurements, allowing for a better understanding of the role of the potassium cation as a stabilising agent in the collision complex. The present comparative study gives insight into the dynamics of the decaying transient anion and more precisely into the competition between dissociation and auto-detachment.
Ab Initio Study of Electronic Structure, Elastic and Transport Properties of Fluoroperovskite LiBeF3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmhidi, H.; Rached, H.; Rached, D.; Benkabou, M.
2016-12-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the electronic, mechanical, and transport properties of the fluoroperovskite compound LiBeF3 by first-principles calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method based on density functional theory within the local density approximation. The independent elastic constants and related mechanical properties including the bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (E), and Poisson's ratio (ν) have been studied, yielding the elastic moduli, shear wave velocities, and Debye temperature. According to the electronic properties, this compound is an indirect-bandgap material, in good agreement with available theoretical data. The electron effective mass, hole effective mass, and energy bandgaps with their volume and pressure dependence are investigated for the first time.
Ab Initio Study of Electronic Structure, Elastic and Transport Properties of Fluoroperovskite LiBeF3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmhidi, H.; Rached, H.; Rached, D.; Benkabou, M.
2017-04-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the electronic, mechanical, and transport properties of the fluoroperovskite compound LiBeF3 by first-principles calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method based on density functional theory within the local density approximation. The independent elastic constants and related mechanical properties including the bulk modulus ( B), shear modulus ( G), Young's modulus ( E), and Poisson's ratio ( ν) have been studied, yielding the elastic moduli, shear wave velocities, and Debye temperature. According to the electronic properties, this compound is an indirect-bandgap material, in good agreement with available theoretical data. The electron effective mass, hole effective mass, and energy bandgaps with their volume and pressure dependence are investigated for the first time.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E
2017-04-06
Understanding the reactivity and spectroscopy of aqueous solutions at the atomistic level is crucial for the elucidation and design of chemical processes. However, the simulation of these systems requires addressing the formidable challenges of treating the quantum nature of both the electrons and nuclei. Exploiting our recently developed methods that provide acceleration by up to 2 orders of magnitude, we combine path integral simulations with on-the-fly evaluation of the electronic structure at the hybrid density functional theory level to capture the interplay between nuclear quantum effects and the electronic surface. Here we show that this combination provides accurate structure and dynamics, including the full infrared and Raman spectra of liquid water. This allows us to demonstrate and explain the failings of lower-level density functionals for dynamics and vibrational spectroscopy when the nuclei are treated quantum mechanically. These insights thus provide a foundation for the reliable investigation of spectroscopy and reactivity in aqueous environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanna, J.; Yedukondalu, N.; Ramesh Babu, K.; Vaitheeswaran, G.
2013-06-01
We report the structural, elastic, electronic, and optical properties of antiperovskite alkali metal oxyhalides Na3OCl, Na3OBr, and K3OBr using two different density functional methods within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Plane wave pseudo potential (PW-PP) method has been used to calculate the ground state structural and elastic properties while the electronic structure and optical properties are calculated explicitly using full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculated ground state properties of the investigated compounds agree quite well with the available experimental data. The predicted elastic constants using both PW-PP and FP-LAPW methods are in good accord with each other and show that the materials are mechanically stable. The low values of the elastic moduli indicate that these materials are soft in nature. The bulk properties such as shear moduli, Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio are derived from the calculated elastic constants. Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential improves the band gaps over GGA and Engel-Vosko GGA. The computed TB-mBJ electronic band structure reveals that these materials are direct band gap insulators. The complex dielectric function of the metal oxyhalide compounds have been calculated and the observed prominent peaks are analyzed through the TB-mBJ electronic structures. By using the knowledge of complex dielectric function other important optical properties including absorption, reflectivity, refractive index and loss function have been obtained as a function of energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Amico, Pino; Agapito, Luis; Catellani, Alessandra; Ruini, Alice; Curtarolo, Stefano; Fornari, Marco; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno; Calzolari, Arrigo
2016-10-01
The calculations of electronic transport coefficients and optical properties require a very dense interpolation of the electronic band structure in reciprocal space that is computationally expensive and may have issues with band crossing and degeneracies. Capitalizing on a recently developed pseudoatomic orbital projection technique, we exploit the exact tight-binding representation of the first-principles electronic structure for the purposes of (i) providing an efficient strategy to explore the full band structure En(k ) , (ii) computing the momentum operator differentiating directly the Hamiltonian, and (iii) calculating the imaginary part of the dielectric function. This enables us to determine the Boltzmann transport coefficients and the optical properties within the independent particle approximation. In addition, the local nature of the tight-binding representation facilitates the calculation of the ballistic transport within the Landauer theory for systems with hundreds of atoms. In order to validate our approach we study the multivalley band structure of CoSb3 and a large core-shell nanowire using the ACBN0 functional. In CoSb3 we point the many band minima contributing to the electronic transport that enhance the thermoelectric properties; for the core-shell nanowire we identify possible mechanisms for photo-current generation and justify the presence of protected transport channels in the wire.
AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT
French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes
2012-09-15
We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.
Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques
2014-11-07
The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0–10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 1} results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the {sup 2}A{sub 1} ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic
Peterson, Kirk A.; Francisco, Joseph S.
2014-01-28
A systematic ab initio treatment of the nitryl halides (XNO{sub 2}) and the cis- and trans- conformers of the halide nitrites (XONO), where X = Cl, Br, and I, have been carried out using highly correlated methods with sequences of correlation consistent basis sets. Equilibrium geometries and harmonic frequencies have been accurately calculated in all cases at the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b level of theory, including the effects of core-valence correlation for the former. Where experimental values are available for the equilibrium structures (ClNO{sub 2} and BrNO{sub 2}), the present calculations are in excellent agreement; however, the X-O distances are slightly too long by about 0.01 Å due to missing multireference effects. Accurate predictions for the iodine species are made for the first time. The vertical electronic excitation spectra have been calculated using equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for the low-lying singlet states and multireference configuration interaction for both singlet and triplet states. The latter also included the effects of spin-orbit coupling to provide oscillator strengths for the ground state singlet to excited triplet transitions. While for ClNO{sub 2} the transitions to excited singlet states all occur at wavelengths shorter than 310 nm, there is one longer wavelength singlet transition in BrNO{sub 2} and two in the case of INO{sub 2}. The long wavelength tail in the XNO{sub 2} species is predicted to be dominated by transitions to triplet states. In addition to red-shifting from X = Cl to I, the triplet transitions also increase in oscillator strength, becoming comparable to many of the singlet transitions in the case of INO{sub 2}. Hence in particular, the latter species should be very photolabile. Similar trends are observed and reported for the halogen nitrites, many of which for the first time.
Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques
2014-11-07
The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0-10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores (2)A1 and (2)B1 results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the (2)B1 cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the (2)A1 ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic characterization of vinylidene.
Aguirrechu-Comerón, Amagoia; Hernández-Molina, Rita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Plácida; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises R; Lavín, Vı́ctor; Angel, Ross J; Gonzalez-Platas, Javier
2016-08-01
Copper(I) iodine compounds can exhibit interesting mechanochromic and thermochromic luminescent properties with important technological applications. We report the synthesis and structure determination by X-ray diffraction of a new polymeric staircase copper(I) iodine compound catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I), [C10H9CuIN]. The structure is composed of isolated polymeric staircase chains of copper-iodine coordinated to organic ligands through Cu-N bonds. High pressure X-ray diffraction to 6.45 GPa shows that the material is soft, with a bulk modulus K0 = 10.2(2)GPa and a first derivative K'0 = 8.1(3), typical for organometallic compounds. The unit-cell compression is very anisotropic with the stiffest direction [302] arising from a combination of the stiff CuI ladders and the shear of the planar quinolone ligands over one another. Full structure refinements at elevated pressures show that pressures reduce the Cu···Cu distances in the compound. This effect is detected in luminescence spectra with the appearance of four sub-bands at 515, 600, 647, and 712 nm above 3.5 GPa. Red-shifts are observed, and they are tentatively associated with interactions between copper(I) ions due to the shortening of the Cu···Cu distances induced by pressure, below twice the van der Waals limit (2.8 Å). Additionally, ab initio simulations were performed, and they confirmed the structure and the results obtained experimentally for the equation of state. The simulation allowed the band structure and the electronic density of states of this copper(I) iodine complex to be determined. In particular, the band gap decreases slowly with pressure in a quadratic way with dEg/dP = -0.011 eV/GPa and d(2)Eg/dP(2) = 0.001 eV/GPa(2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wortmann, Daniel; Blugel, Stefan; Ishida, Hiroshi
2003-03-01
An investigation of the Fe/MgO/Fe junction as a model system for tunnel-magneto-resistance (TMR) devices will be presented. We focus on the role of the electronic and geometric interface structure on the spin-dependent conductance by taking the interlayer relaxation at the Fe/MgO interface and the effect of a formation of interface FeO into account. We apply a recently developed efficient method for calculating the conductance of ballistic electrons through an interface from first-principles using the embedding approach of Inglesfield. In our method the Landauer-Büttiker formula for ballistic transport is expressed in terms of quantities that are available in the embedded Green-function calculations. The embedding approach is implemented within the full-potential linearized augmented plane method as realized in the FLEUR code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craco, L.; Laad, M. S.; Müller-Hartmann, E.
2003-12-01
Motivated by a study of various experiments describing the electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs, we investigate its physical response in detail using a combination of first-principles band structure with methods based on dynamical mean field theory to incorporate strong, dynamical correlations, and intrinsic as well as extrinsic disorder in one single theoretical picture. We show how ferromagnetism is driven by double exchange (DE), in agreement with very recent observations, along with a good quantitative description of the details of the electronic structure, as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and optical conductivity. Our results show how ferromagnetism can be driven by DE even in diluted magnetic semiconductors with small carrier concentration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berland, Kristian; Lee, Kyuho; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2015-03-01
With their unprecedented surface area, and their structural and chemical tunability, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are being thoroughly explored for applications related to gas storage. Less studied are their electronic, excited-state, and optical properties. Here we explored such properties of Mg-MOF-74 using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) approach. The near-gap electronic conduction states were found to fall into two distinct categories: molecular-like and 1d-dispersive. Further, using the BSE approach, we predict a strongly anisotropic absorption spectrum, which we link to the nature of its strongly-bound excitons. Our calculations are found to be in good agreement with experimental absorption spectra, validating our theoretical approach. This work is supported by Chalmers Area of Advance: Materials, Vetenskapsradet, DOE, and computational resources provided by NERSC.
Crystal, J.; Friesner, R.A.
2000-03-23
Ionization potentials (IP) and electron affinities (EA) are calculated for bacteriopheophytin (BPh) and bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) in the photosynthetic reaction center utilizing density functional methods implemented in a parallel version of the JAGUAR electronic structure code. These quantities are studied as a function of basis set size and molecular geometry. The results indicate the necessity of using large basis sets with diffuse functions in order to obtain reliable IP and EA in the gas phase. The relative reduction potentials of BChl and BPh in dimethylformamide solution are also calculated and compared with experimental results. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained when ligand binding of solvent molecules to the central Mg atom of BNhl is incorporated in the calculations.
Ab-initio study of structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Ba2YTaO6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Lifei; Du, Huiling
2016-07-01
The structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of cubic double perovskite Ba2YTaO6 are calculated by using the plane wave within density functional theory (DFT) framework employing the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The ground state quantities including the lattice parameter, bulk moduli and its pressure derivative are fitted by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The calculated energy band indicates that Ba2YTaO6 has a direct band gap of 3.42 eV at G point in the Brillouin zone and the energy band near Fermi level is determined by the density of states of O 2p, Ta 5d and Y 4d electrons. The thermodynamic properties including Debye temperature, bulk moduli and heat capacity of various pressures and temperatures are calculated and analyzed. Results indicate that the temperature and induced pressure have significant effect on the thermodynamic properties of Ba2YTaO6.
Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin
2014-09-07
Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.
Strak, Pawel; Sakowski, Konrad; Kempisty, Pawel
2015-09-07
Properties of bare and nitrogen-covered Al-terminated AlN(0001) surface were determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At a low nitrogen coverage, the Fermi level is pinned by Al broken bond states located below conduction band minimum. Adsorption of nitrogen is dissociative with an energy gain of 6.05 eV/molecule at a H3 site creating an overlap with states of three neighboring Al surface atoms. During this adsorption, electrons are transferred from Al broken bond to topmost N adatom states. Accompanying charge transfer depends on the Fermi level. In accordance with electron counting rule (ECR), the DFT results confirm the Fermi level is not pinned at the critical value of nitrogen coverage θ{sub N}(1) = 1/4 monolayer (ML), but it is shifted from an Al-broken bond state to Np{sub z} state. The equilibrium thermodynamic potential of nitrogen in vapor depends drastically on the Fermi level pinning being shifted by about 4 eV for an ECR state at 1/4 ML coverage. For coverage above 1/4 ML, adsorption is molecular with an energy gain of 1.5 eV at a skewed on-top position above an Al surface atom. Electronic states of the admolecule are occupied as in the free molecule, no electron transfer occurs and adsorption of a N{sub 2} molecule does not depend on the Fermi level. The equilibrium pressure of molecular nitrogen above an AlN(0001) surface depends critically on the Fermi level position, being very low and very high for low and high coverage, respectively. From this fact, one can conclude that at typical growth conditions, the Fermi level is not pinned, and the adsorption and incorporation of impurities depend on the position of Fermi level in the bulk.
Mathivon, Kevin; Linguerri, Roberto; Hochlaf, Majdi
2014-03-01
In the present theoretical work, we investigated the stationary points (minima and transition states) on the ground state potential energy surfaces of neutral and ionic 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO)--Ar(n)⁰,⁺¹ (n = 1-4) clusters. As established in our systematic work on DABCO--Ar cluster (Mathivon et al., J Chem Phys 139:164306, 2013), the (R)MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level is accurate enough for validating the prediction of stable forms. For n = 1 and 2, further computations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level confirm these assumptions. We show that some of the already known isomers of these heteroclusters derived using lower levels of theory are not realistic. More interestingly, our work reveals that DABCO is subject to slight deformations when binding to a small number of Ar atoms. Moreover, we computed the potential energy surfaces of the lowest singlet electronic states of DABCO--Ar(n)(n = 1-3) and of DABCO⁺--Ar(n)(n = 1-3), and the transition moments for the Sp(p = 1-3) ← S0 neutral transitions. These electronic states are found to be Rydberg in nature. The shape of their potentials is mainly repulsive with slight stabilization in the S2 potentials. Finally, the effects of microsolvation of DABCO in Ar clusters in ground and electronic excited states are discussed. The photophysical and photochemical dynamics of these electronic states may be complex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benlamari, S.; Amara Korba, S.; Lakel, S.; Meradji, H.; Ghemid, S.; El Haj Hassan, F.
2016-01-01
The structural, elastic, thermal and electronic properties of perovskite hydrides SrLiH3 and SrPdH3 have been investigated using the all-electron full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). For the exchange-correlation potential, local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) have been used to calculate theoretical lattice parameters, bulk modulus, and its pressure derivative. The present results are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental data. The three independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) are also reported. From electronic band structure and density of states (DOSs), it is found that SrLiH3 is an insulator characterized by an indirect gap of 3.48 eV, while SrPdH3 is metallic with a calculated DOSs at Fermi energy of 0.745 states/eV-unit cell. Poisson’s ratio (σ), Young’s modulus (E), shear modulus (G), anisotropy factor (A), average sound velocities (vm) and density (ρ) of these compounds are also estimated for the first time. The Debye temperature is deduced from the average sound velocity. Variation of elastic constants and bulk modulus of these compounds as a function of pressure is also reported. Pressure and thermal effects on some macroscopic properties are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
Phonon and electronic properties of the LiCaAlF6 crystal: Experiment and ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimin, S. A.; Mavrin, B. N.; Novikova, N. N.
2016-11-01
We have studied the IR polarized reflection spectra of LiCaAlF6 crystal in the range of 50-2000 cm-1 and have obtained parameters of dipole phonons. In order to calculate the electronic and vibrational properties of the crystal, we have applied the density functional method with the basis sets of Gaussian functions and plane waves. We have shown that the structure of electronic bands has a direct energy gap. The projected densities of electronic states of atoms, the Born effective charges, and the Mulliken populations have been found to be consistent with the ionic-covalent character of cation-fluorine interatomic bonds. The dielectric properties in high and low-frequency limits have been calculated. We have examined the longitudinal-transverse splitting of dipole modes and have revealed a phonon with an inverted splitting. The theoretical IR reflection and Raman spectra have been found to agree well with experiment. Based on the analysis of the dispersion of phonons in the Brillouin zone, we have revealed an effect of the "quasi-doubling" of the crystal cell along the z axis due to the competing interactions of atoms with nearest and next neighbors. We have found that phonons with frequencies higher than 500 cm-1 are separated by an energy gap and have predominantly stretching character of vibrations.
Liu, Jin; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-11-19
Rapid development in lead halide perovskites has led to solution-processable thin film solar cells with power conversion efficiencies close to 20%. Nonradiative electron-hole recombination within perovskites has been identified as the main pathway of energy losses, competing with charge transport and limiting the efficiency. Using nonadiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics, combined with time-domain density functional theory, we show that nonradiative recombination happens faster than radiative recombination and long-range charge transfer to an acceptor material. Doping of lead iodide perovskites with chlorine atoms reduces charge recombination. On the one hand, chlorines decrease the NA coupling because they contribute little to the wave functions of the valence and conduction band edges. On the other hand, chlorines shorten coherence time because they are lighter than iodines and introduce high-frequency modes. Both factors favor longer excited-state lifetimes. The simulation shows good agreement with the available experimental data and contributes to the comprehensive understanding of electronic and vibrational dynamics in perovskites. The generated insights into design of higher-efficiency solar cells range from fundamental scientific principles, such as the role of electron-vibrational coupling and quantum coherence, to practical guidelines, such as specific suggestions for chemical doping.
Patchkovskii, Serguei
2006-02-28
Potential energy surfaces for all Born-Oppenheimer electronic states of IBr molecule correlating to the neutral (2)P ((2)P(3/2) and (2)P(1/2)) iodine and bromine are calculated for the first time. Electric dipole and polarizability curves (static and transition) are also determined. Calculations include scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects within all-electron Douglas-Kroll two-component Hamiltonian. Electron correlation is treated with quasi-degenerate multi-reference second-order perturbation theory. Seven adiabatic electronic states (X (1)Sigma(+), A'(3)Pi(2), A (3)Pi(1), 1 (3)Pi(0-), B (3)Pi(0+), B'(3)Sigma, and 2 (3)Pi(0+)) exhibit significant covalent bonding, and can support vibrational states. Calculated spectroscopic parameters agree with experiment to better than 1000 cm(-1) (T(e)), 10 cm(-1) (omega(e)), and 0.05 Angstrom (r(e)). A new 1 (3)Pi(0-) state correlating to ground-state atoms is predicted at T(e) approximately 14 000 cm(-1), omega(e) approximately 80 cm(-1), and r(e) approximately 3.0 Angstrom. The second new state (2 (3)Pi(0+)) correlates to excited iodine atom, with T(e) approximately 20 000 cm(-1), omega(e) approximately 115 cm(-1), and r(e) approximately 3.3 Angstrom. Non-adiabatic coupling parameters are calculated for the four avoided crossings, which arise due to electronic spin-orbit interaction. Estimated parameters of the B (3)Pi(0+)/B'(3)Sigma crossing (R(c) approximately 3.32 Angstrom; V approximately 120 cm(-1)) agree with experimental values. The previously unsuspected 2 (3)Pi(0-)/1 (1)Sigma(-) crossing of two repulsive surfaces provides a new collisional deactivation channel for Br* atoms at relative velocities above 1000 m s(-1). Several repulsive states (including 1 (1)Pi(1) and 2 (3)Pi(1)) intersect the B/B' system near the avoided crossing point, and may affect dynamics of IBr in strong laser fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xue; Lu, Sheng-Jie; Liang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Xiaoming; Qin, Ying; Chen, Maodu; Zhao, Jijun; Xu, Hong-Guang; King, R. Bruce; Zheng, Weijun
2017-01-01
The anionic silicon clusters doped with three boron atoms, B3Sin- (n = 4-10), have been generated by laser vaporization and investigated by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) of these anionic clusters are determined. The lowest energy structures of B3Sin- (n = 4-10) clusters are globally searched using genetic algorithm incorporated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The photoelectron spectra, VDEs, ADEs of these B3Sin- clusters (n = 4-10) are simulated using B3LYP/6-311+G(d) calculations. Satisfactory agreement is found between theory and experiment. Most of the lowest-energy structures of B3Sin- (n = 4-10) clusters can be derived by using the squashed pentagonal bipyramid structure of B3Si4- as the major building unit. Analyses of natural charge populations show that the boron atoms always possess negative charges, and that the electrons transfer from the 3s orbital of silicon and the 2s orbital of boron to the 2p orbital of boron. The calculated average binding energies, second-order differences of energies, and the HOMO-LUMO gaps show that B3Si6- and B3Si9- clusters have relatively high stability and enhanced chemical inertness. In particular, the B3Si9- cluster with high symmetry (C3v) stands out as an interesting superatom cluster with a magic number of 40 skeletal electrons and a closed-shell electronic configuration of 1S21P61D102S22P61F14 for superatom orbitals.
Ab-initio study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CdTe doped transition metal Co
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zitouni, A.; Bentata, Samir; Benstaali, W.; Abbar, B.
2014-07-01
The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal Co doped CdTe. We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results show a Half-Metallic Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors (HM-DMS) character with an important magnetic moment. The results obtained, make the CoxCd1-xTe a potential promising candidate for application in spintronics.
Strong electron-phonon coupling in Be{1-x}B{2}C{2}: ab initio studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moudden, A. H.
2008-07-01
Several structures for off-stoichiometric beryllium diboride dicarbide Be{1-x}B2C2 have been designed, and their properties studied from first-principles density functional methods. Among the most stable phases examined, the layered hexagonal structures are shown to exhibit various features in the electronic properties and in the lattice dynamics reminiscent of the superconducting magnesium diboride and alkaline earth-intercalated graphites. For substoichiometric composition x˜ 1/3, the system is found metallic with a moderately strong electron-phonon coupling through a predominant contribution arising from high frequency streching modes modulating the σ-bonding of the B C network, and a weaker contribution at medium frequency range of the phonon spectra, arising from the intercalent motion coupled to the π-bonding states. Further, anharmonicities emerging from the proximity of the Fermi level to the σ-band edge, contributes to reduce the phonon softening hence stabilizing the structure. All these effects appear to combine favourably to produce a high temperature phonon-superconductivity.
Electronic structure, magnetism and stability of Co2CrX (X =Al, Ga, In) ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahmane, F.; Mesri, D.; Tadjer, A.; Khenata, R.; Benalia, S.; Djoudi, L.; Doumi, B.; Boumia, L.; Aourag, H.
2016-01-01
The structural, electronic as well as the magnetic properties of the Co2CrX (X =Al, Ga and In) full-Heusler alloy have been studied using first-principles calculations performed in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). It was taken into account both possible L21 structures (i.e. Hg2CuTi- and Cu2MnAl-type). Basically, for all compounds, the Cu2MnAl-type structure is energetically more stable than Hg2CuTi-type structure at the equilibrium volume. The electronic structure calculations for Co2CrAl reveal that half-metallic (HM) character in Cu2MnAl-type structure, Co2CrGa show nearly HM behavior and Co2CrIn has a metallic character. The predicted total magnetic moment is 3μB for Co2CrX (X =Al, Ga) which is in good convergence with the Slater-Pauling (SP) rule.
Structural and Electronic properties of β- In2 X 3 (X = O, S, Se, Te) using ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khare, S. V.; Marsillac, S.; Mangale, N. S.; Gade, V.
2011-03-01
Several III-VI body-centered tetragonal layered compounds belonging to space group I 4 1 /amd have been a subject of interest recently because of their potential applications in high efficiency and environmentally friendly copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) solar cells and molecules. Here we have studied the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of four compounds β - In 2 X3 (X = O, S, Se, Te), in this space group. Using first principles computations, we have fully determined the lattice constants a and c, as well as 10 internal parameters that define this unique structure of primitive unit cells of 40 atoms. For β - In 2 S3 our computed values are found to be consistent with experimental measurements. The bulk modulus B, local electronic density of states (LDOS), total density of states (DOS), and band gap Ef of these phases have been investigated. Supported by Ohio Supercomputing Center, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Wright Center for PVIC, National Science Foundation, DARPA.
Ab initio study of electron energy loss spectra of bulk bismuth up to 100 eV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timrov, Iurii; Markov, Maxime; Gorni, Tommaso; Raynaud, Michèle; Motornyi, Oleksandr; Gebauer, Ralph; Baroni, Stefano; Vast, Nathalie
2017-03-01
The dynamical charge-density response of bulk bismuth has been studied within time-dependent density functional perturbation theory, explicitly accounting for spin-orbit coupling. The use of the Liouville-Lanczos approach allows us to calculate electron energy loss spectra for excitation energies as large as 100 eV. Effects of 5 d semicore electronic states, spin-orbit coupling, exchange and correlation, local fields, and anisotropy are thoroughly investigated. The account of the 5 d states in the calculation turns out to be crucial to correctly describe the loss spectra above 10 eV and, in particular, the position and shape of the bulk-plasmon peak at 14.0 eV at vanishing transferred momentum. Our calculations reveal the presence of interband transitions at 16.3 eV, which had never been discussed before. The origin of the peak at 5.8 eV is revisited as due to mixed interband and collective excitations. Finally, our study supplements the lack of experiments at finite transferred momenta.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Li; Shan-Jun, Chen; Yan, Chen; Peng, Chen
2016-03-01
The SF radical and its singly charged cation and anion, SF+ and SF-, have been investigated on the MRCI/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = Q, 5, 6) levels of theory with Davidson correction. Both the core-valence correlation and the relativistic effect are considered. The extrapolating to the complete basis set (CBS) limit is adopted to remove the basis set truncation error. Geometrical parameters, potential energy curves (PECs), vibrational energy levels, spectroscopic constants, ionization potentials, and electron affinities of the ground electronic state for all these species are obtained. The information with respect to molecular characteristics of the SFn (n = -1, 0, +1) systems derived in this work will help to extend our knowledge and to guide further experimental or theoretical researches. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304023 and 11447172), the Young and Middle-Aged Talent of Education Burea of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. Q20151307), and the Yangtze Youth Talents Fund of Yangtze University, China (Grant No. 2015cqr21).
Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks
Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.
2016-01-01
The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140
Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.
2016-07-01
The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.
Bovhyra, Rostyslav; Popovych, Dmytro; Bovgyra, Oleg; Serednytski, Andrew
2017-12-01
Density functional theory studies of the structural and electronic properties of nanoclusters (ZnO) n (n = 34, 60) in different geometric configurations were conducted. For each cluster, an optimization (relaxation) of structure geometry was performed, and the basic properties of the band structure were investigated. It was established that for the (ZnO)34 nanoclusters, the most stable are fullerene-like hollow structures that satisfy the rule of six isolated quadrangles. For the (ZnO)60 nanoclusters, different types of isomers, including hollow structures and sodalite-like structures composed from (ZnO)12 nanoclusters, were investigated. It was determined that the most energetically favorable structure was sodalite-type structure composed of seven (ZnO)12 clusters with common quadrangle edges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bovhyra, Rostyslav; Popovych, Dmytro; Bovgyra, Oleg; Serednytski, Andrew
2017-01-01
Density functional theory studies of the structural and electronic properties of nanoclusters (ZnO) n ( n = 34, 60) in different geometric configurations were conducted. For each cluster, an optimization (relaxation) of structure geometry was performed, and the basic properties of the band structure were investigated. It was established that for the (ZnO)34 nanoclusters, the most stable are fullerene-like hollow structures that satisfy the rule of six isolated quadrangles. For the (ZnO)60 nanoclusters, different types of isomers, including hollow structures and sodalite-like structures composed from (ZnO)12 nanoclusters, were investigated. It was determined that the most energetically favorable structure was sodalite-type structure composed of seven (ZnO)12 clusters with common quadrangle edges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandasamy, M.; Velraj, G.
2012-08-01
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra have been recorded and extensive spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on 5-bromo-2-pyridinecarbonitrile (5B2PC). The optimized geometries, wavenumber and intensity of the vibrational bands of (5B2PC) have been calculated using density functional level of theory (DFT/B3LYP) employing 6-311G(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the comparison between calculated and experimental results, assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes are examined. The molecular stability and bond strength were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The electronic properties like HOMO-LUMO analysis of (5B2PC) have been reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bensadiq, A.; Zaari, H.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.
2016-09-01
Using the density functional theory, the electronic structure; density of states, band structure and exchange couplings of Tb Ni4 Si compound have been investigated. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of this material have been studied using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and Mean Field Approximation (MFA) within a three dimensional Ising model. We calculated the isothermal magnetic entropy change, adiabatic temperature change and relative cooling power (RCP) for different external magnetic field and temperature. The highest obtained isothermal magnetic entropy change is of -14.52 J kg-1 K-1 for a magnetic field of H=4 T. The adiabatic temperature reaches a maximum value equal to 3.7 K and the RCP maximum value is found to be 125.12 J kg-1 for a field magnetic of 14 T.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slassi, A.; Hammi, M.; El Rhazouani, O.
2017-02-01
The surface relaxations, surface energies and electronic structures of BaO- and SnO2-terminated BaSnO3 (001) surfaces have been studied by employing the first-principles density functional theory. For both terminations, we find that the upper-layer Ba and Sn atoms move inward, whereas upper-layer O atoms move outward from the surface. Moreover, the largest relaxations are occurred on the first-layer atoms of both terminations. The surface rumpling of BaO-terminated BaSnO3 (001) is slightly less than that of the SnO2-terminated BaSnO3 (001) surface. The surface energies show that both terminated surfaces are energetically stable and favorable. Finally, the surface band gap is slightly decreased for the BaO termination, while it is dramatically decreased for the SnO2 termination.
Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi
2012-08-01
Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free Λ-S states, X1Σ+, A1Σ+, 3Σ+, 1Π, and 3Π, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO Ω states, X0+, A0+, B0+, 0-(I), 0-(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the Λ-S and Ω state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X1Σ+ and X0+ PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X1Σ+ and X0+ PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics.
Haskins, Justin B; Bauschlicher, Charles W; Lawson, John W
2015-11-19
Density functional theory (DFT), density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD), and classical molecular dynamics using polarizable force fields (PFF-MD) are employed to evaluate the influence of Li(+) on the structure, transport, and electrochemical stability of three potential ionic liquid electrolytes: N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]). We characterize the Li(+) solvation shell through DFT computations of [Li(Anion)n]((n-1)-) clusters, DFT-MD simulations of isolated Li(+) in small ionic liquid systems, and PFF-MD simulations with high Li-doping levels in large ionic liquid systems. At low levels of Li-salt doping, highly stable solvation shells having two to three anions are seen in both [pyr14][TFSI] and [pyr13][FSI], whereas solvation shells with four anions dominate in [EMIM][BF4]. At higher levels of doping, we find the formation of complex Li-network structures that increase the frequency of four anion-coordinated solvation shells. A comparison of computational and experimental Raman spectra for a wide range of [Li(Anion)n]((n-1)-) clusters shows that our proposed structures are consistent with experiment. We then compute the ion diffusion coefficients and find measures from small-cell DFT-MD simulations to be the correct order of magnitude, but influenced by small system size and short simulation length. Correcting for these errors with complementary PFF-MD simulations, we find DFT-MD measures to be in close agreement with experiment. Finally, we compute electrochemical windows from DFT computations on isolated ions, interacting cation/anion pairs, and liquid-phase systems with Li-doping. For the molecular-level computations, we generally find the difference between ionization energy and electron affinity from isolated ions and interacting cation/anion pairs to
An ab initio investigation into the elastic, structural and electronic properties of MoS2 nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Malakpour, S.; Faghihnasiri, M.; Sahmani, S.
2015-06-01
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a unique semiconductor with a honeycomb structure like graphite, which has the ability to form various nanostructures with distinct characteristics. In the present study, the elastic, structural and electronic properties of armchair and zigzag MoS2 nanotubes with different diameters are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). The DFT calculations are performed within the framework of generalized gradient approximation and using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange model. It is demonstrated that for all of the considered MoS2 nanotubes anharmonicity exists, except for (6,6) MoS2 nanotube. Moreover, it is found that by increasing the tube diameter, Young's modulus of both armchair and zigzag MoS2 nanotubes increases. Also, it is observed that all of armchair MoS2 nanotubes are indirect band gap-type. On the other hand, all of zigzag MoS2 nanotubes have band gaps with the type of direct in Γ point.
Ab initio electronic transport study of two-dimensional silicon carbide-based p–n junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hanming; Lin, Xiao; Guo, Hongwei; Lin, Shisheng; Sun, Yiwei; Xu, Yang
2017-03-01
Two-dimensional silicon carbide (2d-SiC) is a viable material for next generation electronics due to its moderate, direct bandgap with huge potential. In particular, its potential for p–n junctions is yet to be explored. In this paper, three types of 2d-SiC-based p–n junctions with different doping configuration are modeled. The doping configurations refer to partially replacing carbon with boron or nitrogen atoms along the zigzag or armchair direction, respectively. By employing density functional theory, we calculate the transport properties of the SiC based p–n junctions and obtain negative differential resistance and high rectification ratio. We also find that the junction along the zigzag direction with lower doping density exhibits optimized rectification performance. Our study suggests that 2d-SiC is a promising candidate as a material platform for future nano-devices. Project supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474099, 61674127) and the ZJ-NSF (No. Z17F04003).
Chi, C.-C.; Hsiao, C.-H.; Ouyang, Chuenhou; Skoropata, E.; Lierop, J. van
2015-05-07
Significant efforts towards understanding bi-magnetic core-shell nanoparticles are underway currently as they provide a pathway towards properties unavailable with single-phased systems. Recently, we have demonstrated that the magnetism of γ-Fe2O3/CoO core-shell nanoparticles, in particular, at high temperatures, originates essentially from an interfacial doped iron-oxide layer that is formed by the migration of Co{sup 2+} from the CoO shell into the surface layers of the γ-Fe2O3 core [Skoropata et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 024410 (2014)]. To examine directly the nature of the intermixed layer, we have used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and first-principles calculations to examine the impact of the core-shell intermixing at the atomic level. By analyzing the HRTEM images and energy dispersive spectra, the level and nature of intermixing was confirmed, mainly as doping of Co into the octahedral site vacancies of γ-Fe2O3. The average Co doping depths for different processing temperatures (150 °C and 235 °C) were 0.56 nm and 0.78 nm (determined to within 5% through simulation), respectively, establishing that the amount of core-shell intermixing can be altered purposefully with an appropriate change in synthesis conditions. Through first-principles calculations, we find that the intermixing phase of γ-Fe2O3 with Co doping is ferromagnetic, with even higher magnetization as compared to that of pure γ-Fe2O3. In addition, we show that Co doping into different octahedral sites can cause different magnetizations. This was reflected in a change in overall nanoparticle magnetization, where we observed a 25% reduction in magnetization for the 235 °C versus the 150 °C sample, despite a thicker intermixed layer.
Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.
2016-01-14
In this work, we demonstrate that for moderate sized systems, here a system with 13 atoms, global coupled potential energy surfaces defined for several electronic states over a wide energy range and for distinct regions of nuclear coordinate space characterized by distinct electron configurations, can be constructed with precise energetics and an excellent description of non-adiabatic interactions in all regions. This is accomplished using a recently reported algorithm for constructing quasi-diabatic representations, H{sup d}, of adiabatic electronic states coupled by conical intersections. In this work, the algorithm is used to construct an H{sup d} to describe the photodissociation of phenol from its first and second excited electronic states. The representation treats all 33 internal degrees of freedom in an even handed manner. The ab initio adiabatic electronic structure data used to construct the fit are obtained exclusively from multireference configuration interaction with single and double excitation wave functions comprised of 88 × 10{sup 6} configuration state functions, at geometries determined by quasi-classical trajectories. Since the algorithm uses energy gradients and derivative couplings in addition to electronic energies to construct H{sup d}, data at only 7379 nuclear configurations are required to construct a representation, which describes all nuclear configurations involved in H atom photodissociation to produce the phenoxyl radical in its ground or first excited electronic state, with a mean unsigned energy error of 202.9 cm{sup −1} for electronic energies <60 000 cm{sup −1}.
The electron-spin magnetic moments (g factors) of O3-, O3Li, and O3Na: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruna, Pablo J.; Grein, Friedrich
1998-12-01
The electron-spin magnetic moments of O3-, O3Li, and O3Na, as parametrized by the g factors, are studied at the uncorrelated restricted open Hartree-Fock (ROHF) and correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) ab initio levels. The present method, which uses a perturbative approach complete to second order, is based on a Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The calculated Δg values, with Δg=g-ge, are very similar for all three species, confirming that the O3- moiety is retained in the ozonides O3M. In the standard C2v notation, Δgyy>Δgzz≫|Δgxx|. The perpendicular component Δgxx is small and negative, while the in-plane components Δgyy and Δgzz are large and positive. The MRCI results for Δgxx, Δgyy, Δgzz (in ppm) are: -475, 16 673, 10 121 for O3-; -679, 13 894, 9308 for O3Li; and -494, 12 298, 8690 for O3Na. The ROHF values of Δgyy and Δgzz are smaller than the MRCI data, due to a general overestimation of the excitation energies. The MRCI Δg values for isolated O3- reproduce the experimental results for O3- trapped in crystals or adsorbed on MgO surfaces (in ppm, -500-1200 for Δgxx, 12 400-16 400 for Δgyy, and 6900-10 000 for Δgzz). For O3Na, the experimental Δgxx, Δgyy, Δgzz data (-100, 14 200, 9800 ppm) are again satisfactorily described by our correlated results. No experimental g shifts are available for O3Li. In all systems studied here, the Δgxx component is dictated by first-order terms (ground state expectation values); Δgyy is governed by the second-order magnetic coupling between X 2B1 and 1 2A1 [electron excitation from the highest a1 molecular orbital (MO) into the b1(π*) singly occupied MO]; and Δgzz, by the coupling with two 2B2 states (excitations from the two highest b2 MOs into π*).
Liu, Ping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Meng; Bu, Yuxiang
2014-01-28
In view of the important implications of excess electrons (EEs) interacting with CO2-H2O clusters in many fields, using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation technique, we reveal the structures and dynamics of an EE associated with its localization and subsequent time evolution in heterogeneous CO2-H2O mixed media. Our results indicate that although hydration can increase the electron-binding ability of a CO2 molecule, it only plays an assisting role. Instead, it is the bending vibrations that play the major role in localizing the EE. Due to enhanced attraction of CO2, an EE can stably reside in the empty, low-lying π(*) orbital of a CO2 molecule via a localization process arising from its initial binding state. The localization is completed within a few tens of femtoseconds. After EE trapping, the ∠OCO angle of the core CO2 (-) oscillates in the range of 127°∼142°, with an oscillation period of about 48 fs. The corresponding vertical detachment energy of the EE is about 4.0 eV, which indicates extreme stability of such a CO2-bound solvated EE in [CO2(H2O)n](-) systems. Interestingly, hydration occurs not only on the O atoms of the core CO2 (-) through formation of O⋯H-O H-bond(s), but also on the C atom, through formation of a C⋯H-O H-bond. In the latter binding mode, the EE cloud exhibits considerable penetration to the solvent water molecules, and its IR characteristic peak is relatively red-shifted compared with the former. Hydration on the C site can increase the EE distribution at the C atom and thus reduce the C⋯H distance in the C⋯H-O H-bonds, and vice versa. The number of water molecules associated with the CO2 (-) anion in the first hydration shell is about 4∼7. No dimer-core (C2O4 (-)) and core-switching were observed in the double CO2 aqueous media. This work provides molecular dynamics insights into the localization and time evolution dynamics of an EE in heterogeneous CO2-H2O media.
Barrett, Bruce R.; Navrátil, Petr; Vary, James P.
2012-11-17
A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.
2014-12-01
The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice
Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki
2015-01-21
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.
Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, P.; Vidal, J.; Lincot, D.
2011-10-01
The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)2 dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe2 pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications.
Ab Initio Study of KCl and NaCl Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brownrigg, Clifton; Hira, Ajit; Pacheco, Jose; Salazar, Justin
2013-03-01
We continue our interest in the theoretical study of molecular clusters to examine the chemical properties of small KnCln and NanCln clusters (n = 2 - 15). The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is well known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations have been performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. The potential for design of new medicinal drugs is explored.
Ab initio quantum transport in atomic carbon chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botello-Méndez, Andrés R.; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Banhart, Florian; NAPS Team; Carbyne Collaboration
2015-03-01
Carbyne, the sp-hybridized phase of carbon, is still a missing link in the family of carbon allotropes. Recently, detailed electrical measurements and first-principles electronic transport calculations have been performed on monoatomic carbon chains. When the 1D system is under strain, the current-voltage curves exhibit a semiconducting behavior, which corresponds to the polyyne structure of the atomic chain with alternating single and triple bonds. Conversely, when the chain is unstrained, the ohmic behavior is observed in agreement with the metallic cumulene structure with double bonds, confirming recent theoretical predictions, namely that a metal-insulator transition can be induced by adjusting the strain. The key role of the contacting leads is also scrutinized by ab initio quantum conductance calculations, explaining the rectifying behavior measured in monoatomic carbon chains in a non-symmetric contact configuration.
Ab-initio theory of spin fluctuations in magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antropov, Vladimir; Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Katsnelson, Mikhael
2011-03-01
We propose a framework for a true ab initio theory of magnetism, based on many-body perturbation theory (MPBT). It fits in naturally with methods based MPBT such as the GW approximation; but the approach can be implemented as an extension to any existing static method for electronic structure such as the local spin density approximation to density functional theory, to include spin fluctuations. Initially we calculated the spin fluctuation contributions using random phase approximation. The self consistency procedure similar to the one used in Moryia-Kawabata theory can be naturally implemented. The fluctuation dissipation theorem is used to calculate the reduction of the mean field magnetic moment in itinerant magnets. The applications of the technique includes traditional 3d ferromagnetic metals, their alloys and compounds and 5f systems.
An Ab Initio Study of Alkali-C60 Complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frick, Nathan; Hira, A. S.; Ray, A. K.
2003-03-01
We extend our previous work on fullerene-alkali complexes1-2 by presenting the results of an ab initio theoretical study of the alkali LiC60+, LiC60, NaC60+, NaC60, KC60+, and KC60 complexes. In the endohedral complexes for Li and Na, there is displacement of the adatom from the center. Of the ions, exohedral Li+ will sit closest to the cage, and among the neutrals, exohedral K remains closest. Bond lengths are consistently longer for the fivefold and threefold approaches. Adsorbates inside the fullerene donate negative charge to the carbons, but ions outside obtain a small amount, resulting in a polarization of the molecule. In the ion complexes, there is lowering of the orbital energy levels by 3 to 4 eV, resulting in an increase in the number of bound, but unoccupied, electronic orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO gap, of interest in superconductivity studies, is reduced by about 50 1. A.S. Hira and A.K. Ray, Phys. Rev. A 52, 141(1995); A 54, 2205(1996). 2. Ajit Hira and A. K. Ray, "An Initio Modeling of the Endohedral and Exohedral Complexes of C60Na2+ Complexes", Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47 (March 2002).
Ab initio computations of photodissociation products of CFC alternatives
Tai, S.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E.
1995-12-31
Ab initio computations, have already been used to examine the energetics of the photodissociation of stratospheric chlorofluorocarbons. Our awn research has investigated the ab initio computation of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}H, and CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}; continuing research will attempt to expand these computations to the energetics of the photodissociation of these molecules, since sane of the most common types of chlorofluorocarbon substitutes are hydrofluoroethanes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, J. M.; de Andrés, J.; López, E.; Albertí, M.; Bofill, J. M.; Bassi, D.; Ascenzi, D.; Tosi, P.; Aguilar, A.
2009-08-01
The association reactions between Li+, K+, and Rb+ (M) and butanone and cyclohexanone molecules under single collision conditions have been studied using a radiofrequency-guided ion-beam apparatus, characterizing the adducts by mass spectrometry. The excitation function for the [M-(molecule)]+ adducts (in arbitrary units) has been obtained at low collision energies in the 0.10 eV up to a few eV range in the center of mass frame. The measured relative cross sections decrease when collision energy increases, showing the expected energy dependence for adduct formation. The energetics and structure of the different adducts have been calculated ab initio at the MP2(full) level, showing that the M+-molecule interaction takes place through the carbonyl oxygen atom, as an example of a nontypical covalent chemical bond. The cross-section energy dependence and the role of radiative cooling rates allowing the stabilization of the collision complexes are also discussed.
An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er
Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.; Shen, Huahai; Peng, Shuming; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2014-09-01
We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.
Ab Initio potential grid based docking: From High Performance Computing to In Silico Screening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, Marc R.; Vinkers, H. Maarten; van Lenthe, Joop H.; Daeyaert, Frits; Bush, Ian J.; van Dam, Huub J. J.; Sherwood, Paul; Guest, Martyn F.
2007-09-01
We present a new and completely parallel method for protein ligand docking. The potential of the docking target structure is obtained directly from the electron density derived through an ab initio computation. A large subregion of the crystal structure of Isocitrate Lyase, was selected as docking target. To allow the full ab initio treatment of this region special care was taken to assign optimal basis functions. The electrostatic potential is tested by docking a small charged molecule (succinate) into the binding site. The ab initio grid yields a superior result by producing the best binding orientation and position, and by recognizing it as the best. In contrast the same docking procedure, but using a classical point-charge based potential, produces a number of additional incorrect binding poses, and does not recognize the correct pose as the best solution.
A density functional and ab initio investigation of the p-aminobenzoic acid molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lago, A. F.; Dávalos, J. Z.; de Brito, A. Naves
2007-08-01
The p-aminobenzoic acid (C 7H 7NO 2) molecule has been investigated at different levels of theory. DFT methods (B3LYP and PBE1PBE), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and composite ab initio methods (G3MP2 and CBS) have been employed, in conjunction with large basis sets. Important informations on the electronic structure and thermochemistry of this molecule have been extracted, and the performance of the density functional and ab initio methods has been evaluated, based on the comparison of the calculated and the available experimental data.
Dispersion Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms: Testing the London Equation Using ab Initio Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halpern, Arthur M.
2011-01-01
A computational chemistry experiment is described in which students can use advanced ab initio quantum mechanical methods to test the ability of the London equation to account quantitatively for the attractive (dispersion) interactions between rare gas atoms. Using readily available electronic structure applications, students can calculate the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartocci, Alessio; Frati, Federica; Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Cappelletti, David; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo; Pirani, Fernando
2015-12-01
The main point of this paper concerns the theoretical characterisation of the effects induced by the intermolecular interaction on the electron density upon the formation of CH4-H2X (X=O,S) and CH4-Ng (Ng=Ar,Xe) complexes. The work has been stimulated by recent molecular scattering beams experiments, which point out differences in both strength and anisotropy of the intermolecular potential between CH4-H2X respect to reference CH4-Ng systems. Herein, attention is focused on the electronic charge polarisation and particularly charge transfer (CT) effects between involved partners, directly related to the topology of the full potential energy surface. The modification of electron density and the occurrence of CT have been evaluated via the charge displacement function worked out by high level ab initio calculations. Moreover, in the case of a specific configuration of CH4-H2O system, we define the leading interaction components, including their relative stabilising role and test our intermolecular potential model with reference to ab initio calculations. The results obtained indicate that CT clearly affects the strength and the anisotropy of CH4-H2O complex, and covers a minor and negligible role for CH4-H2S and the noble gas complexes, respectively.
Motif based Hessian matrixfor ab initio geometry optimization ofnanostructures
Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan
2006-04-05
A simple method to estimate the atomic degree Hessian matrixof a nanosystem is presented. The estimated Hessian matrix, based on themotif decomposition of the nanosystem, can be used to accelerate abinitio atomic relaxations with speedups of 2 to 4 depending on the sizeof the system. In addition, the programing implementation for using thismethod in a standard ab initio package is trivial.
Towards SiC Surface Functionalization: An Ab Initio Study
Cicero, G; Catellani, A
2005-01-28
We present a microscopic model of the interaction and adsorption mechanism of simple organic molecules on SiC surfaces as obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results open the way to functionalization of silicon carbide, a leading candidate material for bio-compatible devices.
The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent developments such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is shown that new developments in methodology combined with improvements in computer hardware are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.
The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed with an emphasis on recent developments, such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is found that new developments in methodology, combined with improvements in computer hardware, are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of chlorine oxide and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. In particular the geometrical structures, vibrational spectra, and heats of formation Of ClNO2, CisClONO, and trans-ClONO are shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the ab initio results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve the experimental controversy. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of ClONO2, HONO2, ClOOC17 ClOOH, and HOOH will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of the experimental studies.
An efficient and accurate molecular alignment and docking technique using ab initio quality scoring
Füsti-Molnár, László; Merz, Kenneth M.
2008-01-01
An accurate and efficient molecular alignment technique is presented based on first principle electronic structure calculations. This new scheme maximizes quantum similarity matrices in the relative orientation of the molecules and uses Fourier transform techniques for two purposes. First, building up the numerical representation of true ab initio electronic densities and their Coulomb potentials is accelerated by the previously described Fourier transform Coulomb method. Second, the Fourier convolution technique is applied for accelerating optimizations in the translational coordinates. In order to avoid any interpolation error, the necessary analytical formulas are derived for the transformation of the ab initio wavefunctions in rotational coordinates. The results of our first implementation for a small test set are analyzed in detail and compared with published results of the literature. A new way of refinement of existing shape based alignments is also proposed by using Fourier convolutions of ab initio or other approximate electron densities. This new alignment technique is generally applicable for overlap, Coulomb, kinetic energy, etc., quantum similarity measures and can be extended to a genuine docking solution with ab initio scoring. PMID:18624561
Properties of metals during the heating by intense laser irradiation using ab initio simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holst, Bastian; Recoules, Vanina; Torrent, Marc; Mazevet, Stephane
2011-10-01
Ultrashort laser pulses irradiating a target heat the electrons to very high temperatures. In contrast, the ionic lattice is unaffected on the time scale of the laser pulse since the heat capacity of electrons is much smaller than that of the lattice. This non-equilibrium system can be described as a composition of two subsystems: one consisting of hot electrons and the other of an ionic lattice at low temperature. We studied the effect of this intense electronic excitations on the optical properties of gold using ab initio simulations. We additionally use ab initio linear response to compute the phonon spectrum and the electron-phonon coupling constant within Density Functional Theory for several electronic temperatures of few eV. LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau, France.
Ab initio simulations of pseudomorphic silicene and germanene bidimensional heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debernardi, Alberto; Marchetti, Luigi
2016-06-01
Among the novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, silicene and germanene, which are two honeycomb crystal structures composed of a monolayer of Si and Ge, respectively, have attracted the attention of material scientists because they combine the advantages of the new 2D ultimate-scaled electronics with their compatibility with industrial processes presently based on Si and Ge. We envisage pseudomorphic lateral heterostructures based on ribbons of silicene and germanene, which are the 2D analogs of conventional 3D Si/Ge superlattices and quantum wells. In spite of the considerable lattice mismatch (˜4 % ) between free-standing silicene and germanene, our ab initio simulations predict that, considering striped 2D lateral heterostructures made by alternating silicene and germanene ribbons of constant width, the silicene/germanene junction remains pseudomorphic—i.e., it maintains lattice-matched edges—up to critical ribbon widths that can reach some tens of nanometers. Such critical widths are one order of magnitude larger than the critical thickness measured in 3D pseudomorphic Si/Ge heterostructures and the resolution of state-of-the-art lithography, thus enabling the possibility of lithography patterned silicene/germanene junctions. We computed how the strain produced by the pseudomorphic growth modifies the crystal structure and electronic bands of the ribbons, providing a mechanism for band-structure engineering. Our results pave the way for lithography patterned lateral heterostructures that can serve as the building blocks of novel 2D electronics.
Melting curves of metals by ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minakov, Dmitry; Levashov, Pavel
2015-06-01
In this work we used several ab initio approaches to reproduce melting curves and discussed their abilities, advantages and drawbacks. We used quasiharmonic appoximation and Lindemann criterion to build melting curves in wide region of pressures. This approach allows to calculate the total free energy of electrons and phonons, so it is possible to obtain all thermodynamic properties in the crystalline state. We also used quantum molecular dynamics simulations to investigate melting at various pressures. We explored the size-effect of the heat until it melts (HUM) method in detail. Special attention was paid to resolve the boundaries of the melting region on density. All calculations were performed for aluminum, copper and gold. Results were in good agreement with available experimental data. Also we studied the influence of electronic temperature on melting curves. It turned out that the melting temperature increased with the rise of electron temperature at normal density and had non-monotonic behavior at higher densities. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project No. 3.522.2014/K).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Hai-Ping; Zhang, Shuang
2009-11-01
Recently, a new switching characteristic of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) transistors is found in during experiments. We carry out a series of ab intio calculations on DWNTs' electronic properities, together with verification on the electronic response under the electric field. Our results reveal that the peculiar energy states relation in DWNTs and related contact modes should account for the distinct switching behavior of DWNT transistors. We believe these results have important implications in the fabrication and understanding of electronic devices with DWNTs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bannikov, V. V.; Beketov, A. R.; Baranov, M. V.; Elagin, A. A.; Kudyakova, V. S.; Shishkin, R. A.
2016-05-01
The phase stability, electronic structure, and magnetic properties of Al1- x Ti x N compositions based on the metastable aluminum nitride modification with the rock-salt structure at low ( x = 0.03) and high ( x = 0.25) concentrations of titanium in the system have been investigated using the results of ab initio band calculations. It has been shown that, at low values of x, the partial substitution is characterized by a positive enthalpy, which, however, changes sign with an increase in the titanium concentration. According to the results of the band structure calculations, the doped compositions have electronic conductivity. For x = 0.03, titanium impurity atoms have local magnetic moments (˜0.6 μB), and the electronic spectrum is characterized by a 100% spin polarization of near-Fermi states. Some of the specific features of the chemical bonding in Al1- x Ti x N cubic phases have been considered.
Lead-Chalcogenides Under Pressure: Ab-Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Dinesh C.; Hamid, Idris
ab-initio calculations using fully relativistic pseudo-potential have been performed to investigate the high pressure phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of lead-chalcogenides including the less known lead polonium. The calculated ground state parameters, for the rock-salt structure show good agreement with the experimental data. The enthalpy calculations show that these materials undergo a first-order phase transition from rock-salt to CsCl structure at 19.4, 15.5, 11.5 and 7.3 GPa for PbS, PbSe, PbTe and PbPo, respectively. Present calculations successfully predicted the location of the band gap at L-point of Brillouin zone as well as the value of the band gap in every case at ambient pressure. It is observed that unlike other lead-chalcogenides, PbPo is semi-metal at ambient pressure. The pressure variation of the energy gap indicates that these materials metalized under high pressures. For this purpose, the electronic structure of these materials has also been computed in parent as well as in high pressure phase.
Challenges for large scale ab initio Quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, Paul
2015-03-01
Ab initio Quantum Monte Carlo is an electronic structure method that is highly accurate, well suited to large scale computation, and potentially systematically improvable in accuracy. Due to increases in computer power, the method has been applied to systems where established electronic structure methods have difficulty reaching the accuracies desired to inform experiment without empiricism, a necessary step in the design of materials and a helpful step in the improvement of cheaper and less accurate methods. Recent applications include accurate phase diagrams of simple materials through to phenomena in transition metal oxides. Nevertheless there remain significant challenges to achieving a methodology that is robust and systematically improvable in practice, as well as capable of exploiting the latest generation of high-performance computers. In this talk I will describe the current state of the art, recent applications, and several significant challenges for continued improvement. Supported through the Predictive Theory and Modeling for Materials and Chemical Science program by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Department of Energy (DOE).
Ab Initio Study of Covalently Functionalized Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Sanjiv; Hammouri, Mahmoud; Vasiliev, Igor; Magedov, Igor; Frolova, Liliya; Kalugin, Nikolai
2014-03-01
The electronic and structural properties of carbon nanomaterials can be affected by chemical functionalization. We apply ab initio computational methods based on density functional theory to study the properties of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with benzyne. Our calculations are carried out using the SIESTA electronic structure code combined with the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange correlation functional. The calculated binding energies, densities of states, and band structures of functionalized graphene and carbon nanotubes are analyzed in comparison with the available experimental data. The surfaces of carbon nanotubes are found to be significantly more reactive toward benzyne molecules than the surface of graphene. The strength of interaction between benzyne and carbon nanotubes is affected by the curvature of the nanotube sidewall. The binding energies of benzyne molecules attached to both semiconducting zigzag and metallic armchair nanotubes increase with decreasing the nanotube diameter. Supported by NSF CHE-1112388, NMSU GREG Award, NSF ECCS-0925988, NIH-5P20RR016480-12, and NIH- P20 GM103451.
Perovskite transparent conducting oxides: an ab initio study.
Dabaghmanesh, S; Saniz, R; Amini, M N; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B
2013-10-16
We present an ab initio study of the electronic structure and of the formation energies of various point defects in BaSnO3 and SrGeO3. We show that La and Y impurities substituting Ba or Sr are shallow donors with a preferred 1 + charge state. These defects have a low formation energy within all the suitable equilibrium growth conditions considered. Oxygen vacancies behave as shallow donors as well, preferring the 2 + charge state. Their formation energies, however, are higher in most growth conditions, indicating a limited contribution to conductivity. The calculated electron effective mass in BaSnO3, with a value of 0.21 m(e), and the very high mobility reported recently in La-doped BaSnO3 single-crystals, suggest that remarkably low scattering rates can be achieved in the latter. In the case of SrGeO3, our results point to carrier density and mobility values in the low range for typical polycrystalline TCOs, in line with experiment.
Ab initio modeling of decomposition in iron based alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbatov, O. I.; Gornostyrev, Yu. N.; Korzhavyi, P. A.; Ruban, A. V.
2016-12-01
This paper reviews recent progress in the field of ab initio based simulations of structure and properties of Fe-based alloys. We focus on thermodynamics of these alloys, their decomposition kinetics, and microstructure formation taking into account disorder of magnetic moments with temperature. We review modern theoretical tools which allow a consistent description of the electronic structure and energetics of random alloys with local magnetic moments that become totally or partially disordered when temperature increases. This approach gives a basis for an accurate finite-temperature description of alloys by calculating all the relevant contributions to the Gibbs energy from first-principles, including a configurational part as well as terms due to electronic, vibrational, and magnetic excitations. Applications of these theoretical approaches to the calculations of thermodynamics parameters at elevated temperatures (solution energies and effective interatomic interactions) are discussed including atomistic modeling of decomposition/clustering in Fe-based alloys. It provides a solid basis for understanding experimental data and for developing new steels for modern applications. The precipitation in Fe-Cu based alloys, the decomposition in Fe-Cr, and the short-range order formation in iron alloys with s-p elements are considered as examples.
Ab initio calculation of the potential bubble nucleus 34Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duguet, T.; Somà, V.; Lecluse, S.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.
2017-03-01
the many-body correlations included in the calculation, is studied in detail. We eventually compare our predictions to state-of-the-art multireference energy density functional and shell model calculations. Results: The prediction regarding the (non)existence of the bubble structure in 34Si varies significantly with the nuclear Hamiltonian used. However, demanding that the experimental charge density distribution and the root-mean-square radius of 36S be well reproduced, along with 34Si and 36S binding energies, only leaves the NNLOsat Hamiltonian as a serious candidate to perform this prediction. In this context, a bubble structure, whose fingerprint should be visible in an electron scattering experiment of 34Si, is predicted. Furthermore, a clear correlation is established between the occurrence of the bubble structure and the weakening of the 1 /2--3 /2- splitting in the spectrum of 35Si as compared to 37S. Conclusions: The occurrence of a bubble structure in the charge distribution of 34Si is convincingly established on the basis of state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. This prediction will have to be reexamined in the future when improved chiral nuclear Hamiltonians are constructed. On the experimental side, present results act as a strong motivation to measure the charge density distribution of 34Si in future electron scattering experiments on unstable nuclei. In the meantime, it is of interest to perform one-neutron removal on 34Si and 36S in order to further test our theoretical spectral strength distributions over a wide energy range.
Guédira, F; Castellà-Ventura, M; Zaydoun, S; Elhajji, A; Lautié, A; Saidi Idrissi, M
2009-08-15
The conventional ab initio method at the closed restricted Hartree-Fock level (RHF) and the density functional theory (DFT) approach at the B3-LYP level, using the 6-31+G* basis set, are applied to predict the molecular structure and the energetic and the vibrational properties (harmonic wave numbers, force fields and potential energy distributions) of the 3,4'-bi-1,2,4-triazole and of two deuterated derivatives (ND and ND(CD)(3)). The theoretical results are compared to the Raman and infrared vibrational data. Using both methods, there is a very good agreement between theory and experiment concerning not only the wave numbers but also the isotopic shifts. This accordance allows us to validate the calculated structure of bTA. This molecule is characterized by an aromatic structure in which two triazolic rings are linked by a CN bond, intermediary between a single and double bond, in a planar conformation. From a methodological point of view, the B3-LYP method predicts more accurate structure and harmonic vibrational wave numbers than the RHF method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanelov, J.; Mohn, P.
2015-09-01
In this study we present ab initio density-functional theory calculations on stoichiometric, cation-doped, and strained GaFeO 3 . We start with a detailed discussion of the origin of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) superexchange in stoichiometric GaFeO 3 and give a molecular orbital description of the exchange mechanism derived from our calculations. In addition, we study the properties of the Fe-O-Fe bonds for different geometries to underline the angle and distance dependence of the AFM coupling as formulated in the Goodenough-Kanamori rules. We describe the AFM ground state of GaFeO 3 as a result of two intrinsic Fe-O-Fe chains that meander through the crystal along the c direction. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies are calculated for the stoichiometric phase with and without inner cationic site disorder, and the presence of a sublattice-dependent anisotropy is examined. Furthermore, we perform our studies of Ga2 -xFe xO3 for varying Fe concentrations x (0.0 ≤x ≤2.0 ) where at a value of x =0.0 and x =2.0 it transforms into the isomorphic ɛ -Ga 2O3 and ɛ -Fe 2O3 phases, respectively. The effect of strain was also studied. Incorporating dopants and applying strain to the simulation cell changes the intrinsic geometry and thus the magnetic properties of gallium ferrite.
Śmiałek, M A; Łabuda, M; Guthmuller, J; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; MacDonald, M A; Zuin, L; Mason, N J; Limão-Vieira, P
2015-08-13
The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of isobutyl formate, C5H10O2, yet reported is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-118.0 nm) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of isobutyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.0 to 27.0 eV). The value of the first ionization energy was determined to be 10.508 eV (adiabatic) and 10.837 eV (vertical). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band, predominantly resulting from C-O and C═O stretches of the molecule. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of isobutyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km), indicating that the hydroxyl radical processes will be the main loss process for isobutyl formate.
Separable metamaterials: analytical ab-initio homogenization and chirality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rago, Domenico; Rizza, Carlo
2016-11-01
We investigate the ab-initio homogenization of separable metamaterials with factorized dielectric permittivity profiles, which can be achieved through suitable grey-scale permittivity design techniques. Separability allows such metamaterials to be physically regarded as the superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, separable metamaterials admit a simple and analytical description of their electromagnetic bi-anisotropic response, which can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media. Our approach provides a strategy that allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex bianisotropic response by using the simple and well-known properties of 1D metamaterials.
Ab Initio Calculations Of Light-Ion Reactions
Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Roth, R; Horiuchi, W
2012-03-12
The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of nuclear forces, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. By combining the resonating-group method (RGM) with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM), we complement a microscopic cluster approach with the use of realistic interactions and a microscopic and consistent description of the clusters. We discuss applications to light nuclei scattering, radiative capture and fusion reactions.
Ab initio theories for light nuclei and neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gezerlis, Alexandros
2016-09-01
In this talk I will touch upon several features of modern ab initio low-energy nuclear theory. I will start by discussing what ``ab initio'' means in this context. Specifically, I will spend some time going over nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions and their connections with the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. I will then show how these interactions are used to describe light nuclei using essentially exact few-body methods. I will then discuss heavier systems, especially those of astrophysical relevance, as well as the methods used to tackle them. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI).
Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-03-01
Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.
Ab initio study of MoS2 nanotube bundles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstraete, Matthieu; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2003-07-01
Recently, the synthesis of a new phase of MoS2I1/3 stoichiometry was reported [M. Remskar, A. Mrzel, Z. Skraba, A. Jesih, M. Ceh, J. Demšar, P. Stadelmann, F. Lévy, and D. Mihailovic, Science 292, 479 (2001)]. Electron microscope images and diffraction data were interpreted to indicate bundles of sub-nanometer-diameter single-wall MoS2 nanotubes. After experimental characterization, the structure was attributed to an assembly of “armchair” nanotubes with interstitial iodine. Using first-principles total-energy calculations, bundles of MoS2 nanotubes with different topologies and stoichiometries are investigated. All of the systems are strongly metallic. Configurations with “zigzag” structures are found to be more stable energetically than the “armchair” ones, though all of the structures have similar stabilities. After relaxation, there remain several candidates which give a lattice parameter in relative agreement with experiment. Further, spin-polarized calculations indicate that a structure with armchair tubes iodine atoms in their center acquires a very large spontaneous magnetic moment of 12μB, while the other structures are nonmagnetic. Our ab initio calculations show that in most of the other structures, the tubes are very strongly bound together, and that the compounds should be considered as a crystal, rather than as a bundle of tubes in the habitual sense.
Volumic omit maps in ab initio dual-space phasing.
Oszlányi, Gábor; Sütő, András
2016-07-01
Alternating-projection-type dual-space algorithms have a clear construction, but are susceptible to stagnation and, thus, inefficient for solving the phase problem ab initio. To improve this behaviour new omit maps are introduced, which are real-space perturbations applied periodically during the iteration process. The omit maps are called volumic, because they delete some predetermined subvolume of the unit cell without searching for atomic regions or analysing the electron density in any other way. The basic algorithms of positivity, histogram matching and low-density elimination are tested by their solution statistics. It is concluded that, while all these algorithms based on weak constraints are practically useless in their pure forms, appropriate volumic omit maps can transform them to practically useful methods. In addition, the efficiency of the already useful reflector-type charge-flipping algorithm can be further improved. It is important that these results are obtained by using non-sharpened structure factors and without any weighting scheme or reciprocal-space perturbation. The mathematical background of volumic omit maps and their expected applications are also discussed.
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-06-28
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup HL}, and CBS-37{sup HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup HL} and CBS-37{sup HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.
Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Graphene Sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolev, S.; Balchev, I.; Cvetkov, K.; Tinchev, S.; Milenov, T.
2017-01-01
The study of graphene is important because it is a promising material for a variety of applications in the electronic industry. In the present work, the properties of а 2D periodic graphene sheet are studied with the use of ab initio molecular dynamics. DFT in the generalized gradient approximation is used in order to carry out the dynamical simulations. The PBE functional and DZVP-MOLOPT basis set are implemented in the CP2K/Quickstep package. A periodic box, consisting of 288 carbon atoms is chosen for the simulations. After geometry optimization it has dimensions 2964 x 2964 x 1500 pm and form angles of 90, 90, 60 degrees. The dynamical simulation is run for 1 ps in the NPT ensemble, at temperature T = 298.15 K. The radial distribution function shows a first peak at 142 pm, marking the bond length between carbon atoms. The density of states for the periodic systems is simulated as occupied orbitals represent the valence band and unoccupied ones the conduction band. The calculated bandgap, as expected is close to 0 eV.
Ab initio studies of niobium defects in uranium
Xiang, S; Huang, H; Hsiung, L
2007-06-01
Uranium (U), with the addition of small amount of niobium (Nb), is stainless. The Nb is fully miscible with the high temperature phase of U and tends to segregate upon cooling below 647 C. The starting point of segregation is the configuration of Nb substitutional or interstitial defects. Using density-functional-theory based ab initio calculations, the authors find that the formation energy of a single vacancy is 1.08 eV, that of Nb substitution is 0.59 eV, that of Nb interstitial at octahedral site is 1.58 eV, and that of Nb interstitial at tetrahedral site is 2.35 eV; all with reference to a reservoir of {gamma} phase U and pure Nb. The formation energy of Nb defects correlates with the local perturbation of electron distribution; higher formation energy to larger perturbation. Based on this study, Nb atoms thermodynamically prefer to occupy substitutional sites in {gamma} phase U, and they prefer to be in individual substitutional defects than clusters.
An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.
Ab Initio Atomistic Thermodynamics for Surfaces: A Primer
2006-02-01
Ab Initio Atomistic Thermodynamics for Surfaces: A Primer Jutta Rogal and Karsten Reuter Fritz - Haber -Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft... Fritz - Haber -Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Faradayweg 4-6 D-14195 Berlin Germany 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...of the Fritz - Haber -Institut, in particular Wei-Xue Li, Cathy Stampfl and Mira Todorova. Particular thanks go to Matthias Scheffler for his continued
GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.
1978-01-01
Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.
Ab initio molecular dynamics using hybrid density functionals.
Guidon, Manuel; Schiffmann, Florian; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2008-06-07
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with hybrid density functionals have so far found little application due to their computational cost. In this work, an implementation of the Hartree-Fock exchange is presented that is specifically targeted at ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of medium sized systems. We demonstrate that our implementation, which is available as part of the CP2K/Quickstep program, is robust and efficient. Several prescreening techniques lead to a linear scaling cost for integral evaluation and storage. Integral compression techniques allow for in-core calculations on systems containing several thousand basis functions. The massively parallel implementation respects integral symmetry and scales up to hundreds of CPUs using a dynamic load balancing scheme. A time-reversible multiple time step scheme, exploiting the difference in computational efficiency between hybrid and local functionals, brings further time savings. With extensive simulations of liquid water, we demonstrate the ability to perform, for several tens of picoseconds, ab initio molecular dynamics based on hybrid functionals of systems in the condensed phase containing a few thousand Gaussian basis functions.
Ab initio molecular dynamics using hybrid density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guidon, Manuel; Schiffmann, Florian; Hutter, Jürg; Vandevondele, Joost
2008-06-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with hybrid density functionals have so far found little application due to their computational cost. In this work, an implementation of the Hartree-Fock exchange is presented that is specifically targeted at ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of medium sized systems. We demonstrate that our implementation, which is available as part of the CP2K/Quickstep program, is robust and efficient. Several prescreening techniques lead to a linear scaling cost for integral evaluation and storage. Integral compression techniques allow for in-core calculations on systems containing several thousand basis functions. The massively parallel implementation respects integral symmetry and scales up to hundreds of CPUs using a dynamic load balancing scheme. A time-reversible multiple time step scheme, exploiting the difference in computational efficiency between hybrid and local functionals, brings further time savings. With extensive simulations of liquid water, we demonstrate the ability to perform, for several tens of picoseconds, ab initio molecular dynamics based on hybrid functionals of systems in the condensed phase containing a few thousand Gaussian basis functions.
Ab initio rotation-vibration spectra of HCN and HNC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Gregory J.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Tennyson, Jonathan
2002-03-01
We have calculated an ab initio HCN/HNC linelist for all transitions up to J=25 and 18 000 cm -1 above the zero point energy. This linelist contains more than 200 million lines each with frequencies and transition dipoles. The linelist has been calculated using our semi-global HCN/HNC VQZANO+PES and dipole moment surface, which were reported in van Mourik et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 115 (2001) 3706). With this linelist we synthesise absorption spectra of HCN and HNC at 298 K and we present the band centre and band transition dipoles for the bands which are major features in these spectra. Several of the HCN bands and many of the HNC bands have not been previously studied. Our line intensities reproduce via fully ab initio methods the unusual intensity structure of the HCN CN stretch fundamental (00 01) for the first time and also the forbidden (02 20) HCN bending overtone. We also compare the J=1→0 pure rotational transition dipole in the HCN/HNC ground and vibrationally excited states with experimental and existing ab initio results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoyo-Castillo, I.; Ramírez-Solís, A.
2010-10-01
The X 2Π g, 2Σ g+ and 2Δ g states of AgBr 2 have been studied through benchmark ab initio CASSCF + Averaged Coupled Pair Functional (ACPF) and DFT calculations using especially developed valence basis sets to study the transition energies, geometries, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges and spin densities. The spin-orbit (SO) effects were included through the effective hamiltonian formalism using the |ΛSΣ> ACPF energies as diagonal elements. At the ACPF level, the ground state is 2Π g, in contradiction with ligand-field theory and Hartree-Fock results. The ACPF adiabatic excitation energies of the 2Σ g+ and 2Δ g states are 3825 and 20 152 cm -1, respectively. The inclusion of the SO effects leads to a pure Ω = 3/2 ( 2Π g) ground state, a Ω = 1/2 (97% 2Π g + 3% 2Σ g+) A state, a Ω = 1/2 (3% 2Π g + 97% 2Σ g+) B state, a Ω = 5/2 ( 2Δ g) C state and a Ω = 3/2 (99% 2Δ g) D state. The B97, B3LYP and PBE0 functionals, which were shown to yield accurate transition energies for CuCl 2, overestimate the X 2Π g- 2Σ g+ T e by around 25% but provide a qualitative energetic ordering in agreement with CASSCF and ACPF results. The nature of the bonding in the X 2Π g ground state is different from that of AgCl 2 since the Mulliken charge on the metal is 0.95 while the spin density is only 0.39. DFT strongly delocalizes the spin density providing even smaller values of around 0.13 on Ag not only for the ground state, but also for the 2Σ g+ state.
Feller, D.F.
1993-07-01
This collection of benchmark timings represents a snapshot of the hardware and software capabilities available for ab initio quantum chemical calculations at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Molecular Science Research Center in late 1992 and early 1993. The ``snapshot`` nature of these results should not be underestimated, because of the speed with which both hardware and software are changing. Even during the brief period of this study, we were presented with newer, faster versions of several of the codes. However, the deadline for completing this edition of the benchmarks precluded updating all the relevant entries in the tables. As will be discussed below, a similar situation occurred with the hardware. The timing data included in this report are subject to all the normal failures, omissions, and errors that accompany any human activity. In an attempt to mimic the manner in which calculations are typically performed, we have run the calculations with the maximum number of defaults provided by each program and a near minimum amount of memory. This approach may not produce the fastest performance that a particular code can deliver. It is not known to what extent improved timings could be obtained for each code by varying the run parameters. If sufficient interest exists, it might be possible to compile a second list of timing data corresponding to the fastest observed performance from each application, using an unrestricted set of input parameters. Improvements in I/O might have been possible by fine tuning the Unix kernel, but we resisted the temptation to make changes to the operating system. Due to the large number of possible variations in levels of operating system, compilers, speed of disks and memory, versions of applications, etc., readers of this report may not be able to exactly reproduce the times indicated. Copies of the output files from individual runs are available if questions arise about a particular set of timings.
Ab initio characterization of C5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massó, H.; Veryazov, V.; Malmqvist, P.-A.˚.; Roos, B. O.; Senent, M. L.
2007-10-01
In this paper, the structure and spectroscopic parameters of the C5 cluster are determined using multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods as implemented in the MOLCAS software. A number of spectroscopic properties (band center positions, l-doubling parameters, and rotational constants) have been characterized. From the new results, the assignments of previous astrophysical observations [J. Goicoechea et al., Astrophys. J. 609, 225 (2004)] are discussed. A detailed exploration of the global potential energy surface confirms that C5 has a X 1Σg+ linear isomer of prominent stability and, at least, three minimum energy structures showing singlet electronic ground states. Two of them are cyclic and one has a nonplanar geometry. Vertical and adiabatic electronic transitions and vibrational spectroscopic parameters are determined for the most stable linear isomer using multiconfigurational second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) using an active space containing 12 valence orbitals with 12 active electrons and extended ANO-type basis sets. The infrared spectrum has been analyzed from an anharmonic force field derived form the local surface, determined from the energies of a grid of 1350 geometries. The force field includes four coupling terms. The CASPT2 band center position of the ν7(πu) anharmonic fundamental has been calculated to be at 102 cm-1, which validates the assignment to C5 of the pattern of bands centered at 102 cm-1 observed with the ISO telescope.
Lucas, José María; de Andrés, Jaime; Albertí, Margarita; Bofill, Josep Maria; Bassi, Davide; Aguilar, Antonio
2010-11-07
Reactive collisions between n-C(3)H(7)Cl molecules and lithium ions both in their ground electronic state have been studied in the 0.05-7.00 eV center of mass energy range using an octopole radio frequency guided-ion beam apparatus developed in our laboratory and recently modified. At low collision energies, dehydrohalogenation reactions leading to Li(C(3)H(6))(+) and Li(HCl)(+) are the main reaction channels, while on increasing energies C(3)H(7)(+) and C(2)H(3)(+) formation become dominant. Cross section energy dependences in arbitrary units for all these reactions have been measured. Also, ab initio electronic structure calculations at the MP2 level have been performed to obtain information about the potential energy surface on which the reactive processes take place. The reactants' entrance channel leads to the formation of a stable [Li-n-C(3)H(7)Cl](+) ion-molecule adduct that, following an intrinsic-reaction-coordinate pathway and surmounting a transition state, isomerizes to [Li-i-C(3)H(7)Cl](+). From this second minimum, dehydrohalogenation reactions for both n-C(3)H(7)Cl and i-C(3)H(7)Cl share a common reaction pathway leading to the same products. All potential barriers explored by reactions always lie below the reactants' energy. The entrance reaction channel [Li-n-C(3)H(7)Cl](+) adduct also leads adiabatically to C(3)H(7)(+) formation which, on increasing collision energy generates C(2)H(3)(+)via a unimolecular decomposition. A qualitative interpretation of the experimental results based on our ab initio calculations is also given.
Resonance and aromaticity: an ab initio valence bond approach.
Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H; Havenith, Remco W A
2012-05-17
Resonance energy is one of the criteria to measure aromaticity. The effect of the use of different orbital models is investigated in the calculated resonance energies of cyclic conjugated hydrocarbons within the framework of the ab initio Valence Bond Self-Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. The VB wave function for each system was constructed using a linear combination of the VB structures (spin functions), which closely resemble the Kekulé valence structures, and two types of orbitals, that is, strictly atomic (local) and delocalized atomic (delocal) p-orbitals, were used to describe the π-system. It is found that the Pauling-Wheland's resonance energy with nonorthogonal structures decreases, while the same with orthogonalized structures and the total mean resonance energy (the sum of the weighted off-diagonal contributions in the Hamiltonian matrix of orthogonalized structures) increase when delocal orbitals are used as compared to local p-orbitals. Analysis of the interactions between the different structures of a system shows that the resonance in the 6π electrons conjugated circuits have the largest contributions to the resonance energy. The VBSCF calculations also show that the extra stability of phenanthrene, a kinked benzenoid, as compared to its linear counterpart, anthracene, is a consequence of the resonance in the π-system rather than the H-H interaction in the bay region as suggested previously. Finally, the empirical parameters for the resonance interactions between different 4n+2 or 4n π electrons conjugated circuits, used in Randić's conjugated circuits theory or Herdon's semi-emprical VB approach, are quantified. These parameters have to be scaled by the structure coefficients (weights) of the contributing structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.
2015-02-01
The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.
Matsushita, Y. Murakawa, T. Shimamura, K. Oishi, M. Ohyama, T. Kurita, N.
2015-02-27
The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarighi Ahmadpour, Mahdi; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Rostamnejadi, Ali
2016-07-01
We use density functional computations to study the zero temperature structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of (5,0) finite carbon nanotubes (FCNT), with length in the range of 4-44 Å. It is found that the structural and electronic properties of (5,0) FCNTs, in the ground state, converge at a length of about 30 Å, while the excited state properties exhibit long-range edge effects. We discuss that curvature effects enhance energy gap of FCNTs, in contrast to the known trend in the periodic limit. It is seen that compensation of curvature effects in two special small sizes may give rise to spontaneous magnetization. The obtained cohesive energies provide some insights into the effects of environment on the growth of FCNTs. The second-order difference of the total energies reveals an important magic size of about 15 Å. The optical and dynamical magnetic responses of the FCNTs to polarized electromagnetic pulses are studied by time dependent density functional theory. The results show that the static and dynamic magnetic properties mainly come from the edge carbon atoms. The optical absorption properties are described in terms of local field effects and characterized by Casida linear response method.
Ab initio approach for gap plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenester, Ulrich; Draxl, Claudia
2016-10-01
Gap plasmonics deals with the properties of surface plasmons in the narrow region between two metallic nanoparticles forming the gap. For subnanometer gap distances, electrons can tunnel between the nanoparticles, leading to the emergence of novel charge-transfer plasmons. These are conveniently described within the quantum corrected model by introducing an artificial material with a tunnel conductivity inside the gap region. Here we develop a methodology for computing such tunnel conductivities within the first-principles framework of density functional theory and apply our approach to a jellium model representative for sodium. We show that the frequency dependence of the tunnel conductivity at infrared and optical frequencies can be significantly more complicated than previously thought.
Ab initio potential energy surface for the highly nonlinear dynamics of the KCN molecule
Párraga, H.; Arranz, F. J. Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.
2013-11-21
An accurate ab initio quantum chemistry study at level of quadratic configuration interaction method of the electronic ground state of the KCN molecule is presented. A fitting of the results to an analytical series expansion was performed to obtain a global potential energy surface suitable for the study of the associated vibrational dynamics. Additionally, classical Poincaré surfaces of section for different energies and quantum eigenstates were calculated, showing the highly nonlinear behavior of this system.
Ab initio equation of state of hydrogen for inertial fusion applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedict, Lorin X.; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric; Tamblyn, Isaac; Bonev, Stanimir A.; Correa, Alfredo A.; Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; LLNL Collaboration
2011-06-01
We describe ab initio electronic structure calculations (DFT molecular dynamics and quantum Monte Carlo) of the equation of state of hydrogen in a regime relevant for ICF applications. We find the computed EOS to be quite close to that of the most recent SESAME table (constructed by G. Kerley, 2004). A simple density-dependent correction brings the recent SESAME EOS into nearly perfect agreement with ours in the chosen region. Simulations of ICF applications with this corrected SESAME table are discussed.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point
Yuryev, Anatoly A.; Gelchinski, Boris R.
2015-08-17
Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuryev, Anatoly A.; Gelchinski, Boris R.
2015-08-01
Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.
Ab initio study of optical absorption spectra of semiconductors and conjugated polymers
Tiago, M.L.; Chang, Eric K.; Rohlfing, Michael; Louie, Steven G.
2000-04-30
The effects of electron-hole interaction on the optical properties of a variety of materials have been calculated using an ab initio method based on solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Results on selected semiconductors, insulators, and semiconducting polymers are presented. In the cases of alpha-quartz (SiO2) and poly-phenylene-vinylene, resonant excitonic states qualitatively alter the absorption spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salustro, S.; Nöel, Y.; Zicovich-Wilson, C. M.; Olivero, P.; Dovesi, R.
2016-11-01
The double defect in diamond, vacancy (V) plus <100> self-split-interstitial (V+I), is investigated at the ab initio quantum mechanical level, by considering the vicinal case VI1 (V is one of the first neighbors of one of the two C atoms constituting the I defect) and the two possible "second neighbors" cases, VI 2D , VI 2S , in which a carbon atom is a first neighbor of both V and I. The case in which the two defects are at a larger distance is simulated by considering the two isolated defects separately (VI∞). A 6-21G local Gaussian-type basis set and the B3LYP hybrid functional are used for most of the calculations; richer basis sets and other functionals (a global hybrid as PBE0, a range-separated hybrid as HSE06, LDA, PBE, and Hartree-Fock) have also been used for comparison. With this computational approach we evaluate the energy difference between the various spin states, the location of the corresponding bands in the energy gap of pristine diamond, as well as the defect formation energy of the four defects. The path for the recombination of V and I is explored for the vicinal case, by using the distinguished reaction coordinate strategy. A barrier as high as 0.75 eV is found with B3LYP between VI1 and the perfect diamond recombined structure; when other hybrids are used, as PBE0 or HSE06, the barrier increases up to 1.01 eV (pure density functional theory produces lower barriers: 0.62 and 0.67 for PBE and LDA, respectively). Such a barrier is lower than the one estimated in a very indirect way through experimental data, ranging from 1.3 to 1.7 eV. It confirms however the evidence of the extremely low recombination rate also at high temperature. The Raman (and IR) spectra of the various defects are generated, which permit one to unambiguously attribute to these defects (thanks also to the graphical animation of the modes) many of the peaks observed in damaged diamond above the dominant peak of perfect bulk. For the residual non-attributed peaks, more
Developmental AB Initio Molecular Orbital Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blurock, Edward (Ned) Samuel
The frozen core approximation (FCA) was applied to the main group elements of the first four rows of the periodic table (i.e., through Iodine). For hydride bond lengths, the results of the FCA calculation were consistently closer to experiment. The FCA calculation assumes that the core space is complete and restricts its further optimization. The standard calculation does not have this restriction and further completion of the core space (during the optimization procedure) by valence orbitals on neighboring atoms produced shorter (compared to FCA and experiment) hydride bond lengths. A new set of two-electron integrals was developed combining the use of Rys quadrature and the axis-switch algorithm. The combined algorithm was found to be advantageous only under higher contraction. Also, it was determined that extension of the algorithm to higher angular momentum functions would yield improvement in only selected cases. The SYMGEN program, a symbolic algebra program written by the author, was used to generate and globally optimize the newly developed code. The SYMGEN program is a general program with potential uses in a variety of other coding and global optimization problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tachikawa, Masanori; Shiga, Motoyuki
2004-09-01
We have applied the ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulation to study hydronium ion and its isotopes, which are the simplest systems for hydrated proton and deuteron. In this simulation, all the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom are treated fully quantum mechanically, while the potential energies of the respective atomic configurations are calculated "on the fly" using ab initio quantum chemical approach. With the careful treatment of the ab initio electronic structure calculation by relevant choices in electron correlation level and basis set, this scheme is theoretically quite rigorous except for Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This accurate calculation allows a close insight into the structural shifts for the isotopes of hydronium ion by taking account of both quantum mechanical and thermal effects. In fact, the calculation is shown to be successful to quantitatively extract the geometrical isotope effect with respect to the Walden inversion. It is also shown that this leads to the isotope effect on the electronic structure as well as the thermochemical properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiga, Motoyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Miura, Shinichi
2000-12-01
We present an accurate calculational scheme for many-body systems composed of electrons and nuclei, by path integral molecular dynamics technique combined with the ab initio molecular orbital theory. Based upon the scheme, the simulation of a water molecule at room temperature is demonstrated, applying all-electron calculation at the Hartree-Fock level of theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedziera, Dariusz; Mentel, Łukasz; Żuchowski, Piotr S.; Knoop, Steven
2015-06-01
We have obtained accurate ab initio +4Σ quartet potentials for the diatomic metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) systems, using all-electron restricted open-shell coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triples corrections CCSD(T) calculations and accurate calculations of the long-range C6 coefficients. These potentials provide accurate ab initio quartet scattering lengths, which for these many-electron systems is possible, because of the small reduced masses and shallow potentials that result in a small amount of bound states. Our results are relevant for ultracold metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal mixture experiments.
Ab initio Study of He Stability in hcp-Ti
Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.
2010-12-20
The stability of He in hcp-Ti was studied using ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results indicate that a single He atom prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site rather than the octahedral site. The interaction of He defects with Ti atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of He point defects in hcp-Ti. The relative stability of He defects in hcp-Ti is useful for He clustering and bubble nucleation in metal tritides, which provides the basis for development of improved atomistic models.
Ab Initio Study of Phase Equilibria in TiCx
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korzhavyi, P. A.; Pourovskii, L. V.; Hugosson, H. W.; Ruban, A. V.; Johansson, B.
2002-01-01
The phase diagram for the vacancy-ordered structures in the substoichiometric TiCx ( x = 0.5-1.0) has been established from Monte Carlo simulations with the long-range pair and multisite effective interactions obtained from ab initio calculations. Three ordered superstructures of vacancies ( Ti2C, Ti3C2, and Ti6C5) are found to be ground state configurations. Their stability has been verified by full-potential total energy calculations of the fully relaxed structures.
Pseudorotation motion in tetrahydrofuran: an ab initio study.
Rayón, Víctor M; Sordo, Jose A
2005-05-22
The use of different models based on experimental information about the observed level splitings, rotational constants, and far-infrared transition frequencies leads to different predictions on the equilibrium geometry for tetrahydrofuran. High-level ab initio calculations [coupled cluster singles, doubles (triples)/complete basis set (second order Moller-Plesset triple, quadrupole, quintuple)+zero-point energy(anharmonic)] suggest that the equilibrium conformation of tetrahydrofuran is an envelope C(s) structure. The theoretical geometrical parameters might be helpful to plan further microwave spectroscopic studies in order to get a physical interpretation of the measurements.
Communication: Ab initio Joule-Thomson inversion data for argon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiebke, Jonas; Senn, Florian; Pahl, Elke; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2013-02-01
The Joule-Thomson coefficient μH(P, T) is computed from the virial equation of state up to seventh-order for argon obtained from accurate ab initio data. Higher-order corrections become increasingly more important to fit the low-temperature and low-pressure regime and to avoid the early onset of divergence in the Joule-Thomson inversion curve. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for temperatures T > 250 K. The results also illustrate the limitations of the virial equation in regions close to the critical temperature.
Ab-Initio Shell Model with a Core
Lisetskiy, A F; Barrett, B R; Kruse, M; Navratil, P; Stetcu, I; Vary, J P
2008-06-04
We construct effective 2- and 3-body Hamiltonians for the p-shell by performing 12{h_bar}{Omega} ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations for A=6 and 7 nuclei and explicitly projecting the many-body Hamiltonians onto the 0{h_bar}{Omega} space. We then separate these effective Hamiltonians into 0-, 1- and 2-body contributions (also 3-body for A=7) and analyze the systematic behavior of these different parts as a function of the mass number A and size of the NCSM basis space. The role of effective 3- and higher-body interactions for A > 6 is investigated and discussed.
Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides
Sharma, Ramesh; Shukla, Seema Dwivedi, Shalini Sharma, Yamini
2014-04-24
We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.
Electric field response in bilayer graphene: Ab initio investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Yutaro; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi
2016-11-01
Stimulated by quantum capacitance measurements, we have investigated the electric properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) with carrier doping under an external electric field using ab initio calculations. We found that the relative permittivity of BLG depends weakly on the applied electric field, and that the BLG can be regarded as a dielectric material rather than a pair of metallic films. We also found that carrier doping affects the band gap of BLG under electric fields, although carrier doping has a much smaller effect on the band gap and density of states than the application of electric fields.
Communication: Ab initio Joule-Thomson inversion data for argon.
Wiebke, Jonas; Senn, Florian; Pahl, Elke; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2013-02-21
The Joule-Thomson coefficient μ(H)(P, T) is computed from the virial equation of state up to seventh-order for argon obtained from accurate ab initio data. Higher-order corrections become increasingly more important to fit the low-temperature and low-pressure regime and to avoid the early onset of divergence in the Joule-Thomson inversion curve. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for temperatures T > 250 K. The results also illustrate the limitations of the virial equation in regions close to the critical temperature.
Melting of sodium under high pressure. An ab-initio study
González, D. J.; González, L. E.
2015-08-17
We report ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of dense liquid/solid sodium for a pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa. The simulations have been performed with the orbital free ab-initio molecular dynamics method which, by using the electron density as the basic variable, allows to perform simulations with large samples and for long runs. The calculated melting curve shows a maximum at a pressure ≈ 30 GPa and it is followed by a long, steep decrease. These features are in good agreement with the experimental data. For various pressures along the melting curve, we have calculated several liquid static properties (pair distribution functions, static structure factors and short-range order parameters) in order to analyze the structural effects of pressure.
Ab initio calculations on the magnetic properties of transition metal complexes
Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin
2015-12-31
We present a protocol for the ab initio determination of the magnetic properties of mono- and polynuclear transition metal compounds. First, we obtain the low lying electronic states by multireference methods. Then, we include spin-orbit coupling and an external magnetic field for the determination of zero-field splitting and g-tensors. For the polynuclear complexes the magnetic exchange coupling constants are determined by a modified complete active space self consistent field method. Based on the results of the ab initio calculations, magnetic data such as magnetic susceptibility or magnetization are simulated and compared to experimental data. The results obtained for the polynuclear complexes are further analysed by calculations on model complexes where part of the magnetic centers are substituted by diamagnetic ions. The methods are applied to different Co and Ni containing transition metal complexes.
Ab initio study of AlxMoNbTiV high-entropy alloys.
Cao, Peiyu; Ni, Xiaodong; Tian, Fuyang; Varga, Lajos K; Vitos, Levente
2015-02-25
The Al(x)MoNbTiV (x = 0-1.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) adopt a single solid-solution phase, having the body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. Here we employ the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation to investigate the equilibrium volume, elastic constants, and polycrystalline elastic moduli of Al(x)MoNbTiV HEAs. A comparison between the ab initio and experimental equilibrium volumes demonstrates the validity and accuracy of the present approach. Our results indicate that Al addition decreases the thermodynamic stability of the bcc structure with respect to face-centered cubic and hexagonal close packed lattices. For the elastically isotropic Al(0.4)MoNbTiV HEAs, the valence electron concentration (VEC) is about 4.82, which is slightly different from VEC ∼ 4.72 obtained for the isotropic Gum metals and refractory--HEAs.
B28: the smallest all-boron cage from an ab initio global search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jijun; Huang, Xiaoming; Shi, Ruili; Liu, Hongsheng; Su, Yan; King, R. Bruce
2015-09-01
Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures.Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Planar isomer structures of B28 and spatial distributions of front molecular orbitals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04034e
Liquid Be, Ca and Ba. An orbital-free ab-initio molecular dynamics study
Rio, B. G. del; González, L. E.
2015-08-17
Several static and dynamic properties of liquid beryllium (l-Be), liquid calcium (l-Ca) and liquid barium (l-Ba) near their triple point have been evaluated by the orbital-free ab initio molecular dynamics method (OF-AIMD), where the interaction between valence electrons and ions is described by means of local pseudopotentials. These local pseudopotentials used were constructed through a force-matching process with those obtained from a Kohn-Sham ab initio molecular dynamics study (KS-AIMD) of a reduced system with non-local pseudopotentials. The calculated static structures show good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the structure factor which has been linked to the existence of a marked icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. As for the dynamic properties, we obtain collective density excitations whose associated dispersion relations exhibit a positive dispersion.
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon
2013-01-01
The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785
Li ion diffusion mechanisms in LiFePO4: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.
Yang, Jianjun; Tse, John S
2011-11-17
The mechanisms for thermal (self) diffusion of Li ions in fully lithiated LiFePO(4) have been investigated with spin polarized ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. The effect of electron correlation is taken into account with the GGA+U formalism. It was found that Li ion diffusion is not a continuous process but through a series of jumps from one site to another. A dominant process is the hopping between neighboring Li sites around the PO(4) groups, which results in a zigzag pathway along the crystallographic b-axis. This observation is in agreement with a recent neutron diffraction experiment. A second process involves the collaborative movements of the Fe ions leading to the formation of antisite defects and promotes Li diffusion across the Li ion channels. The finding of the second mechanism demonstrates the benefit of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation in sampling diffusion pathways that may not be anticipated.
The Pu-U-Am system: An ab initio informed CALPHAD thermodynamic study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; Söderlind, P.; Ravat, B.; Oudot, B.; Delaunay, F.
2015-03-01
Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of the Am-U system, that are experimentally unknown, are calculated using the CALPHAD method with input from ab initio electronic-structure calculations for the fcc and bcc phases. A strong tendency toward phase separation across the whole composition range is predicted. In addition, ab initio informed Pu-U and Am-Pu thermodynamic assessments are combined to build a Pu-U-Am thermodynamic database. Regarding the Pu-rich corner of the ternary system, predictions indicate that Am acts as a powerful δ-Pu (fcc) stabilizer. In the U-rich corner, similar predictions are made but to a lesser extent. In both cases, the bcc phase is destabilized and the fcc phase is enhanced. Finally, results and methodology are discussed and compared with previous assessments and guidelines are provided for further experimental studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitfield, T. W.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.
2006-03-01
In order to better understand the physical interactions that stabilize protein secondary structure, the neat liquid state of a peptidic fragment, N-methylacetamide (NMA), was studied using computer simulation. Three different descriptions of the molecular liquid were examined: an empirical force field treatment with classical nuclei, an empirical force field treatment with quantum mechanical nuclei, and an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) treatment. The DFT electronic structure was evaluated using the BLYP approximate functional and a plane wave basis set. The different physical effects probed by the three models, such as quantum dispersion, many-body polarization, and nontrivial charge distributions on the liquid properties, were compared. Much of the structural ordering in the liquid is characterized by hydrogen bonded chains of NMA molecules. Modest structural differences are present among the three models of liquid NMA. The average molecular dipole in the liquid under the ab initio treatment, however, is enhanced by 60% over the gas phase value.
Thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si and SiGe by ab initio based Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Lina; Minnich, Austin J.
2017-03-01
Nanocrystalline thermoelectric materials based on Si have long been of interest because Si is earth-abundant, inexpensive, and non-toxic. However, a poor understanding of phonon grain boundary scattering and its effect on thermal conductivity has impeded efforts to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit. Here, we report an ab-initio based computational study of thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si-based materials using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo method with the full phonon dispersion and intrinsic lifetimes from first-principles as input. By fitting the transmission profile of grain boundaries, we obtain excellent agreement with experimental thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline Si [Wang et al. Nano Letters 11, 2206 (2011)]. Based on these calculations, we examine phonon transport in nanocrystalline SiGe alloys with ab-initio electron-phonon scattering rates. Our calculations show that low energy phonons still transport substantial amounts of heat in these materials, despite scattering by electron-phonon interactions, due to the high transmission of phonons at grain boundaries, and thus improvements in ZT are still possible by disrupting these modes. This work demonstrates the important insights into phonon transport that can be obtained using ab-initio based Monte Carlo simulations in complex nanostructured materials.
Thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si and SiGe by ab initio based Monte Carlo simulation
Yang, Lina; Minnich, Austin J.
2017-01-01
Nanocrystalline thermoelectric materials based on Si have long been of interest because Si is earth-abundant, inexpensive, and non-toxic. However, a poor understanding of phonon grain boundary scattering and its effect on thermal conductivity has impeded efforts to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit. Here, we report an ab-initio based computational study of thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si-based materials using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo method with the full phonon dispersion and intrinsic lifetimes from first-principles as input. By fitting the transmission profile of grain boundaries, we obtain excellent agreement with experimental thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline Si [Wang et al. Nano Letters 11, 2206 (2011)]. Based on these calculations, we examine phonon transport in nanocrystalline SiGe alloys with ab-initio electron-phonon scattering rates. Our calculations show that low energy phonons still transport substantial amounts of heat in these materials, despite scattering by electron-phonon interactions, due to the high transmission of phonons at grain boundaries, and thus improvements in ZT are still possible by disrupting these modes. This work demonstrates the important insights into phonon transport that can be obtained using ab-initio based Monte Carlo simulations in complex nanostructured materials. PMID:28290484
Thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si and SiGe by ab initio based Monte Carlo simulation.
Yang, Lina; Minnich, Austin J
2017-03-14
Nanocrystalline thermoelectric materials based on Si have long been of interest because Si is earth-abundant, inexpensive, and non-toxic. However, a poor understanding of phonon grain boundary scattering and its effect on thermal conductivity has impeded efforts to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit. Here, we report an ab-initio based computational study of thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si-based materials using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo method with the full phonon dispersion and intrinsic lifetimes from first-principles as input. By fitting the transmission profile of grain boundaries, we obtain excellent agreement with experimental thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline Si [Wang et al. Nano Letters 11, 2206 (2011)]. Based on these calculations, we examine phonon transport in nanocrystalline SiGe alloys with ab-initio electron-phonon scattering rates. Our calculations show that low energy phonons still transport substantial amounts of heat in these materials, despite scattering by electron-phonon interactions, due to the high transmission of phonons at grain boundaries, and thus improvements in ZT are still possible by disrupting these modes. This work demonstrates the important insights into phonon transport that can be obtained using ab-initio based Monte Carlo simulations in complex nanostructured materials.
First fully ab initio potential energy surface of methane with a spectroscopic accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.
2016-09-01
Full 9-dimensional ab initio potential energy surfaces for the methane molecule are constructed using extended electronic structure coupled-cluster calculations with various series of basis sets following increasing X cardinal numbers: cc-pVXZ (X = 3, 4, 5, 6), aug-cc-ACVXZ (X = 3, 4, 5), and cc-pCVXZ-F12 (X = 3, 4). High-order dynamic electron correlations including triple and quadrupole excitations as well as relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer breakdown corrections were accounted for. Analytical potential functions are parametrized as non-polynomial expansions in internal coordinates in irreducible tensor representation. Vibrational energy levels are reported using global variational nuclear motion calculations with exact kinetic energy operator and a full account of the tetrahedral symmetry of CH4. Our best ab initio surface including above-mentioned contributions provides the rms (obs.-calc.) errors of less than 0.11 cm-1 for vibrational band centers below 4700 cm-1, and ˜0.3 cm-1 for all 229 assigned experimentally determined vibrational levels up to the Icosad range <7900 cm-1 without empirically adjusted parameters. These results improve the accuracy of ab initio methane vibrational predictions by more than an order of magnitude with respect to previous works. This is an unprecedented accuracy of first-principles calculations of a five-atomic molecule for such a large data set. New ab initio potential results in significantly better band center predictions even in comparison with best available empirically corrected potential energy surfaces. The issues related to the basis set extrapolation and an additivity of various corrections at this level of accuracy are discussed.
Santi, G; Dugdale, S B; Jarlborg, T
2001-12-10
The recent discovery of superconductivity coexisting with weak itinerant ferromagnetism in the d-electron intermetallic compound ZrZn2 strongly suggests spin-fluctuation mediated superconductivity. Ab initio electronic structure calculations of the Fermi surface and generalized susceptibilities are performed to investigate the viability of longitudinal spin-fluctuation-induced spin-triplet superconductivity in the ferromagnetic state. The critical temperature is estimated to be of the order of 1 K. Additionally, it is shown that in spite of a strong electron-phonon coupling ( lambda(ph) = 0.7), conventional s-wave superconductivity is inhibited by the presence of strong spin fluctuations.
Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework
Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr
2013-09-26
In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to amore » 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core (4He) polarization effects.« less
Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction
Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C
2015-01-01
The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis. PMID:25681906
Ab initio thermodynamic model for magnesium carbonates and hydrates.
Chaka, Anne M; Felmy, Andrew R
2014-09-04
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first-principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogues of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite, which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions
Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; ...
2016-04-13
The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Bemore » $${({\\rm{p}},\\gamma )}^{8}{\\rm{B}}$$ radiative capture. Lastly, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H$${({\\rm{d}},{\\rm{n}})}^{4}$$He fusion.« less
Implementation of renormalized excitonic method at ab initio level.
Zhang, Hongjiang; Malrieu, Jean-Paul; Ma, Haibo; Ma, Jing
2012-01-05
The renormalized excitonic method [Hajj et al., Phys Rev B 2005, 72, 224412], in which the excited state of the whole system may be described as a linear combination of local excitations, has been implemented at ab initio level. Its performance is tested on the ionization potential and the energy gap between singlet ground state and lowest triplet for linear molecular hydrogen chains and more realistic systems, such as polyenes and polysilenes, using full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions with a minimal basis set. The influence of different block sizes and the extent of interblock interactions are investigated. It has been demonstrated that satisfactory results can be obtained if the near degeneracies between the model space and the outer space are avoided and if interactions between the next-nearest neighbor blocks are considered. The method can be used with larger basis sets and other accurate enough ab initio evaluations (instead of FCI) of local excited states, from blocks, or from dimers or trimers of blocks. It provides a new possibility to accurately and economically describe the low-lying delocalized excited states of large systems, even inhomogeneous ones.
Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction
Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C
2015-02-14
The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates
Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2014-03-28
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremeev, S. V.; Chukurov, E. N.; Gruznev, D. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.
2015-08-01
Using ab initio calculations, atomic structure and electronic properties of Si(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} -Bi surface modified by adsorption of 1/3 monolayer of alkali metals, Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, have been explored. Upon adsorption of all metals, a similar atomic structure develops at the surface where twisted chained Bi trimers are arranged into a honeycomb network and alkali metal atoms occupy the {{T}4} sites in the center of each honeycomb unit. Among other structural characteristics, the greatest variation concerns the relative heights at which alkali metals reside with respect to Bi-trimer layer. Except for Li, the other metals reside higher than Bi layer and their heights increase with atomic number. All adsorbed surface structures display similar electron band structures of which the most essential feature is metallic surface-state band with a giant spin splitting. This electronic property allows one to consider the Si(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} -Bi surfaces modified by alkali metal adsorption as a set of material systems showing promise for spintronic applications.
Eremeev, S V; Chukurov, E N; Gruznev, D V; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A
2015-08-05
Using ab initio calculations, atomic structure and electronic properties of Si(1 1 1)[Formula: see text]-Bi surface modified by adsorption of 1/3 monolayer of alkali metals, Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, have been explored. Upon adsorption of all metals, a similar atomic structure develops at the surface where twisted chained Bi trimers are arranged into a honeycomb network and alkali metal atoms occupy the [Formula: see text] sites in the center of each honeycomb unit. Among other structural characteristics, the greatest variation concerns the relative heights at which alkali metals reside with respect to Bi-trimer layer. Except for Li, the other metals reside higher than Bi layer and their heights increase with atomic number. All adsorbed surface structures display similar electron band structures of which the most essential feature is metallic surface-state band with a giant spin splitting. This electronic property allows one to consider the Si(1 1 1)[Formula: see text]-Bi surfaces modified by alkali metal adsorption as a set of material systems showing promise for spintronic applications.
Resolution of ab initio shapes determined from small-angle scattering.
Tuukkanen, Anne T; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Svergun, Dmitri I
2016-11-01
Spatial resolution is an important characteristic of structural models, and the authors of structures determined by X-ray crystallography or electron cryo-microscopy always provide the resolution upon publication and deposition. Small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons (SAS) has recently become a mainstream structural method providing the overall three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and complexes in solution. However, no quantitative resolution measure is available for SAS-derived models, which significantly hampers their validation and further use. Here, a method is derived for resolution assessment for ab initio shape reconstruction from scattering data. The inherent variability of the ab initio shapes is utilized and it is demonstrated how their average Fourier shell correlation function is related to the model resolution. The method is validated against simulated data for proteins with known high-resolution structures and its efficiency is demonstrated in applications to experimental data. It is proposed that henceforth the resolution be reported in publications and depositions of ab initio SAS models.
Ab Initio Prediction of Adsorption Isotherms for Small Molecules in Metal-Organic Frameworks.
Kundu, Arpan; Piccini, GiovanniMaria; Sillar, Kaido; Sauer, Joachim
2016-10-17
For CO and N2 on Mg(2+) sites of the metal-organic framework CPO-27-Mg (Mg-MOF-74), ab initio calculations of Gibbs free energies of adsorption have been performed. Combined with the Bragg-Williams/Langmuir model and taking into account the experimental site availability (76.5%), we obtained adsorption isotherms in close agreement with those in experiment. The remaining deviations in the Gibbs free energy (about 1 kJ/mol) are significantly smaller than the "chemical accuracy" limit of about 4 kJ/mol. The presented approach uses (i) a DFT dispersion method (PBE+D2) to optimize the structure and to calculate anharmonic frequencies for vibrational partition functions and (ii) a "hybrid MP2:(PBE+D2)+ΔCCSD(T)" method to determine electronic energies. With the achieved accuracy (estimated uncertainty ±1.4 kJ/mol), the ab initio energies become useful benchmarks for assessing different DFT + dispersion methods (PBE+D2, B3LYP+D*, and vdW-D2), whereas the ab initio heats, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of adsorption are used to assess the reliability of experimental values derived from fitting isotherms or from variable-temperature IR studies.
Resolution of ab initio shapes determined from small-angle scattering
Tuukkanen, Anne T.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Svergun, Dmitri I.
2016-01-01
Spatial resolution is an important characteristic of structural models, and the authors of structures determined by X-ray crystallography or electron cryo-microscopy always provide the resolution upon publication and deposition. Small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons (SAS) has recently become a mainstream structural method providing the overall three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and complexes in solution. However, no quantitative resolution measure is available for SAS-derived models, which significantly hampers their validation and further use. Here, a method is derived for resolution assessment for ab initio shape reconstruction from scattering data. The inherent variability of the ab initio shapes is utilized and it is demonstrated how their average Fourier shell correlation function is related to the model resolution. The method is validated against simulated data for proteins with known high-resolution structures and its efficiency is demonstrated in applications to experimental data. It is proposed that henceforth the resolution be reported in publications and depositions of ab initio SAS models. PMID:27840683
Ab initio study of the optical properties of carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Eric
2006-03-01
We present an ab initio study of the optical properties of carbon nanotubes. We use state-of-the-art electronic structure methods based on many-body perturbation theory to compute the optical absorption and resonance Raman spectra of large tubes which have up to 200 atoms [1,2]. Our symmetry-based method makes the study of large tubes feasible within the many- body framework and also allows us to understand the symmetry properties of the excitons and selection rules. We include a study of the so-called dark excitons which are crucial for understanding luminescence efficiency in carbon nanotubes. The mechanism that explains the dark-bright splitting can be understood within our symmetry-based approach. Finally, we present an analysis of the two-photon spectra for several carbon nanotubes, a theoretical analysis which, in conjunction with combined one- and two-photon experiments, allows one to measure the binding energy of excitons. We find in all cases that the excitonic binding energy is large, ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 eV depending on the diameter of the tube, and that the excitonic wavefunction is Wannier-like and extended over many atoms. Our studies for the one- and two-photon absorption and resonance Raman spectra have been fruitful for understanding the corresponding experiments. In particular, our theoretical results are in good agreement with one- and two-photon absorption experiments [3-5]. The results for resonance Raman show that such a spectroscopic technique is a good alternative to optical absorption since it allows for the selection of tubes of a given diameter while probing the same excited states. 1. E.K. Chang, G. Bussi, A. Ruini, and E. Molinari, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 196401 (2004). 2. E.K. Chang, G. Bussi, A. Ruini, and E. Molinari, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195423 (2005). 3. M. Y. Sfeir et al., Science 306, 1540 (2004). 4. J. Maultzsch et al., to be published in Phys. Rev. B, see also cond-mat/0505150. 5. Z. M. Li et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 127401 (2001).
Ab initio computational applications to complex biomolecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Lei
A series of biomaterial related systems---including water and DNA molecules---have been studied using ab initio (first-principles) methods. By investigating the properties of water as the preliminary step, the hydrogen bond (HB) interactions, which play important roles in biomolecules, were better understood from the quantum mechanical viewpoint. The calculated K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of all 340 oxygen atoms in the model have been accumulated to reproduce the experimental one. The spectra were shown to be very sensitive to the HB configurations of O atoms, which could be used to elucidate the subtle structural variations in complex biomolecules. The simulation of single-molecule DNA overstretching experiments under torsionally constrained condition has been carried out afterwards. The initial DNA models were stretched stepwisely and eventually gained an extension of 1.5-fold (150% x the original length). The variation of total energy, atomic configuration, and the electronic structure during this process were analyzed in details. At the extension of ˜1.3-fold, the ring opening reactions occurred in the backbones. The backbone nicks appeared at elongations of ˜1.40-fold. The whole process was accompanied by HB breaking and charge transfers. We have proposed an overstretched structure named O-DNA (Opened-DNA) to clarify the confusion in understanding the behavior of DNA under high force load. With more experiences gained, a comprehensive methodology revealing the underlying principles of bioprocesses from the quantum mechanical viewpoint eventually come up. For the purpose of better computational accuracy, the scheme of implementing the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functionals into the Orthogonalized Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (OLCAO) program suite has been discussed, and the computational efficiency has been analyzed correspondingly. Moreover, the parallel strategy for performing
ab initio MD simulations of geomaterials with ~1000 atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, G. B.; Kirtman, B.; Spera, F. J.
2009-12-01
In the last two decades, ab initio studies of materials using Density Functional Theory (DFT) have increased exponentially in popularity. DFT codes are now used routinely to simulate properties of geomaterials--mainly silicates and geochemically important metals such as Fe. These materials are ubiquitous in the Earth’s mantle and core and in terrestrial exoplanets. Because of computational limitations, most First Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) calculations are done on systems of only ~100 atoms for a few picoseconds. While this approach can be useful for calculating physical quantities related to crystal structure, vibrational frequency, and other lattice-scale properties (especially in crystals), it is statistically marginal for duplicating physical properties of the liquid state like transport and structure. In MD simulations in the NEV ensemble, temperature (T), and pressure (P) fluctuations scale as N-1/2; small particle number (N) systems are therefore characterized by greater statistical state point location uncertainty than large N systems. Previous studies have used codes such as VASP where CPU time increases with N2, making calculations with N much greater than 100 impractical. SIESTA (Soler, et al. 2002) is a DFT code that enables electronic structure and MD computations on larger systems (N~103) by making some approximations, such as localized numerical orbitals, that would be useful in modeling some properties of geomaterials. Here we test the applicability of SIESTA to simulate geosilicates, both hydrous and anhydrous, in the solid and liquid state. We have used SIESTA for lattice calculations of brucite, Mg(OH)2, that compare very well to experiment and calculations using CRYSTAL, another DFT code. Good agreement between more classical DFT calculations and SIESTA is needed to justify study of geosilicates using SIESTA across a range of pressures and temperatures relevant to the Earth’s interior. Thus, it is useful to adjust parameters in
Multiferroicity in TTF-CA Organic Molecular Crystals Predicted through Ab Initio Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannetti, Gianluca; Kumar, Sanjeev; Stroppa, Alessandro; van den Brink, Jeroen; Picozzi, Silvia
2009-12-01
We show by means of ab initio calculations that the organic molecular crystal TTF-CA is multiferroic: it has an instability to develop spontaneously both ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. Ferroelectricity is driven by a Peierls transition of the TTF-CA in its ionic state. Subsequent antiferromagnetic ordering strongly enhances the opposing electronic contribution to the polarization. It is so large that it switches the direction of the total ferroelectric moment. Within an extended Hubbard model, we capture the essence of the electronic interactions in TTF-CA, confirm the presence of a multiferroic groundstate, and clarify how this state develops microscopically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, Maxim I.; Poddubnyy, Vladimir V.; Glebov, Ilya O.; Belov, Aleksandr S.; Khokhlov, Daniil V.
2016-02-01
The electronic properties of light-harvesting complexes determine the efficiency of energy transfer in photosynthetic antennae. Ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of bacteriochlorophylls (composing the LH1 complex of the purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum) were performed. Based on these calculations, the excitonic Hamiltonian of a native cyclic complex and the Hamiltonians of open complexes with several removed bacteriochlorophylls were constructed. Absorption spectra calculated based on these Hamiltonians agree well with the experimental data. We found that the parameters of interaction between the neighboring bacteriochlorophylls are significantly larger than the empirical parameters suggested previously.
Surface Segregation Energies of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2003-01-01
We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy method. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameterization. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. The ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation for the most part, but predicted relaxations from quantum approximate calculations are used in selected cases to compute approximate relaxed ab initio segregation energies. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with other quantum approximate and ab initio theoretical work, and available experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Yasuhito; Ohta, Koji; Kinugawa, Kenichi
2004-01-01
An ab initio centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) method is developed by combining the CMD method with the ab initio molecular orbital method. The ab initio CMD method is applied to vibrational dynamics of diatomic molecules, H2 and HF. For the H2 molecule, the temperature dependence of the peak frequency of the vibrational spectral density is investigated. The results are compared with those obtained by the ab initio classical molecular dynamics method and exact quantum mechanical treatment. It is shown that the vibrational frequency obtained from the ab initio CMD approaches the exact first excitation frequency as the temperature lowers. For the HF molecule, the position autocorrelation function is also analyzed in detail. The present CMD method is shown to well reproduce the exact quantum result for the information on the vibrational properties of the system.
Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys.
Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P
2016-03-11
We present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multicomponent alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high-entropy alloy chemistries. The SSOS method developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multicomponent materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches.
Quantum plasmonics: from jellium models to ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varas, Alejandro; García-González, Pablo; Feist, Johannes; García-Vidal, F. J.; Rubio, Angel
2016-08-01
Light-matter interaction in plasmonic nanostructures is often treated within the realm of classical optics. However, recent experimental findings show the need to go beyond the classical models to explain and predict the plasmonic response at the nanoscale. A prototypical system is a nanoparticle dimer, extensively studied using both classical and quantum prescriptions. However, only very recently, fully ab initio time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of the optical response of these dimers have been carried out. Here, we review the recent work on the impact of the atomic structure on the optical properties of such systems. We show that TDDFT can be an invaluable tool to simulate the time evolution of plasmonic modes, providing fundamental understanding into the underlying microscopical mechanisms.
Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.
2016-05-04
Here, we present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We also discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). Furthermore, we find that there are regions of state space formore » which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the “rare-event” character of chemical reactions.« less
Ab initio water pair potential with flexible monomers.
Jankowski, Piotr; Murdachaew, Garold; Bukowski, Robert; Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Leforestier, Claude; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2015-03-26
A potential energy surface for the water dimer with explicit dependence on monomer coordinates is presented. The surface was fitted to a set of previously published interaction energies computed on a grid of over a quarter million points in the 12-dimensional configurational space using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and coupled-cluster methods. The present fit removes small errors in published fits, and its accuracy is critically evaluated. The minimum and saddle-point structures of the potential surface were found to be very close to predictions from direct ab initio optimizations. The computed second virial coefficients agreed well with experimental values. At low temperatures, the effects of monomer flexibility in the virial coefficients were found to be much smaller than the quantum effects.
Ab initio study of helium behavior in titanium tritides
Liang, J. H.; Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Fan, K. M.; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2013-03-01
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to investigate the relative stability of titanium tritides and the helium behavior in stable titanium tritides. The results show that the β-phase TiT1.5 without two tritium along the [100] direction (TiT1.5[100]) is more stable than other possible structures. The stability of titanium tritides decrease with the increased generation of helium in TiT1.5[100]. In addition, helium generated by tritium decay prefers locating at a tetrahedral site, and favorably migrates between two neighbor vacant tetrahedral sites through an intermediate octahedral site in titanium tritides, with a migration energy of 0.23 eV. Furthermore, helium is easily accumulated on a (100) plane in β-phase TiT1.5[100].
Ab initio simulations of liquid carbon monoxide at high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonhardi, Tanis C.; Militzer, Burkhard
2017-03-01
Carbon monoxide occurs as a volatile species in the interiors of terrestrial planets, and as a disequilibrium atmospheric constituent in the giant planets. It plays an important role during the accretionary stages of planet formation reacting with gases to form compounds such as CH4 and H2O. The structure of carbon monoxide is unknown over the majority of the temperature and pressure regime in giant planet interiors. Here we perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to characterize CO to 140 GPa and 5,000 K. We find that CO is stable as a molecular liquid at lower P-T conditions, as a polymeric liquid at higher P-T conditions found in ice giant interiors, and as a plasma at high-T.
Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
An ab initio study on anionic aerogen bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Mohammadian-Sabet, Fariba
2017-01-01
An ab initio study is carried out to investigate the anionic aerogen bonds in complexes of KrO3, XeO3 and XeOF2 with F-, Cl-, Br-, CN-, NC-, N3-, SH-, SCN-, NCS-, OH- and OCH3- anions. All of the anionic aerogen bonds analyzed here have a partial covalent character. Charge transfer from the anion to the Kr-O or Xe-O σ∗ orbital stabilizes these complexes and leads to a sizable redshift in the corresponding stretching frequencies. The J(Kr-O) or J(Xe-O) spin-spin coupling constants can be regarded as a useful tool for the characterization of strength of the anionic aerogen-bonded complexes.
Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean
2015-03-01
We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003), 10.1063/1.1624057] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.062145]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.
High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane
2016-07-01
We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world.
Yao, Yongxin
2009-01-01
also plays an important role, as it may directly track the movement of every atom. Simulation time is a major limit for molecular dynamics, not only because of “slow” computer speed, but also because of the accumulation error in the numerical treatment of the motion equations. There is also a great concern about the reliability of the emperical potentials if using classical molecular dynamics. Ab initio methods based on density functional theory(DFT) do not have this problem, however, it suffers from small simulation cells and is more demanding computationally. When crystal phase is involved, size effect of the simulation cell is more pronounced since long-range elastic energy would be established. Simulation methods which are more efficient in computation but yet have similar reliability as the ab initio methods, like tight-binding method, are highly desirable. While the complexity of metallic glasses comes from the atomistic level, there is also a large field which deals with the complexity from electronic level. The only “ab initio” method applicable to solid state systems is density functional theory with local density approximation( LDA) or generalized gradient approximation(GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy. It is very successful for simple sp element, where it reaches an high accuracy for determining the surface reconstruction. However, there is a large class of materials with strong electron correlation, where DFT based on LDA or GGA fails in a fundamental way. An “ab initio” method which can generally apply to correlated materials, as LDA for simple sp element, is still to be developed. The thesis is prepared to address some of the above problems.
Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng; Xu Wenwu
2013-05-07
A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Asthana, B. P.
2011-12-01
(+)-Bicuculline (hereinafter referred to as bicuculline), a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid is of current interest as an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Its inhibitor properties have been studied through molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping of this molecule and GABA receptor. The hot site on the potential surface of bicuculline, which is also isosteric with GABA receptor, has been used to interpret the inhibitor property. A systematic quantum chemical study of the possible conformations, their relative stabilities, FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of bicuculline has been reported. The optimized geometries, wavenumber and intensity of the vibrational bands of all the conformers of bicuculline have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP functional and 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO gap Δ E, ionization potential, dipole moments and total energy have also been obtained for the optimized geometries of both the molecules. TD-DFT method is used to calculate the electronic absorption parameters in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) employing 6-31G basis set and the results thus obtained are compared with the UV absorption spectra. The combination of experimental and calculated results provides an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of bicuculline.
Hu, Mei; Xu, Wenwu; Liu, Xinguo; Tan, Ruishan; Li, Hongzheng
2013-05-07
A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1(2)A') of the Ar+H2(+)→ArH(+)+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.
Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground-state properties of manganese's oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vinit; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kent, P. R. C.; Reboredo, Fernando A.
One of the critical scientific challenges of contemporary research is to obtain an accurate theoretical description of the electronic properties of strongly correlated systems such as transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds, since state-of-art ab-initio methods based on approximate density functionals are not always sufficiently accurate. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods, which use statistical sampling to evaluate many-body wave functions, have the potential to answer this challenge. Owing to the few fundamental approximations made and the direct treatment of electron correlation, QMC methods are among the most accurate electronic structure methods available to date. We assess the accuracy of the diffusion Monte Carlo method in the case of rocksalt manganese oxide (MnO). We study the electronic properties of this strongly-correlated oxide, which has been identified as a suitable candidate for many applications ranging from catalysts to electronic devices. ``This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.'' Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground-state properties of manganese's oxides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKemmish, Laura K.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan
2016-11-01
Accurate knowledge of the rovibronic near-infrared and visible spectra of vanadium monoxide (VO) is very important for studies of cool stellar and hot planetary atmospheres. Here, the required ab initio dipole moment and spin-orbit coupling curves for VO are produced. This data forms the basis of a new VO line list considering 13 different electronic states and containing over 277 million transitions. Open shell transition, metal diatomics are challenging species to model through ab initio quantum mechanics due to the large number of low-lying electronic states, significant spin-orbit coupling and strong static and dynamic electron correlation. Multi-reference configuration interaction methodologies using orbitals from a complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation are the standard technique for these systems. We use different state-specific or minimal-state CASSCF orbitals for each electronic state to maximise the calculation accuracy. The off-diagonal dipole moment controls the intensity of electronic transitions. We test finite-field off-diagonal dipole moments, but found that (1) the accuracy of the excitation energies were not sufficient to allow accurate dipole moments to be evaluated and (2) computer time requirements for perpendicular transitions were prohibitive. The best off-diagonal dipole moments are calculated using wavefunctions with different CASSCF orbitals.
Nigam, Sandeep; Majumder, Chiranjib; Kulshreshtha, S K
2004-10-22
The geometric and electronic structures of Si(n), Si(n) (+), and AlSi(n-1) clusters (2< or =n< or =13) have been investigated using the ab initio molecular orbital theory under the density functional theory formalism. The hybrid exchange-correlation energy function (B3LYP) and a standard split-valence basis set with polarization functions [6-31G(d)] were employed for this purpose. Relative stabilities of these clusters have been analyzed based on their binding energies, second difference in energy (Delta (2)E) and fragmentation behavior. The equilibrium geometry of the neutral and charged Si(n) clusters show similar structural growth. However, significant differences have been observed in the electronic structure leading to their different stability pattern. While for neutral clusters, the Si(10) is magic, the extra stability of the Si(11) (+) cluster over the Si(10) (+) and Si(12) (+) bears evidence for the magic behavior of the Si(11) (+) cluster, which is in excellent agreement with the recent experimental observations. Similarly for AlSi(n-1) clusters, which is isoelectronic with Si(n) (+) clusters show extra stability of the AlSi(10) cluster suggesting the influence of the electronic structures for different stabilities between neutral and charged clusters. The ground state geometries of the AlSi(n-1) clusters show that the impurity Al atom prefers to substitute for the Si atom, that has the highest coordination number in the host Si(n) cluster. The fragmentation behavior of all these clusters show that while small clusters prefers to evaporate monomer, the larger ones dissociate into two stable clusters of smaller size.
Accelerating Ab Initio Path Integral Simulations via Imaginary Multiple-Timestepping.
Cheng, Xiaolu; Herr, Jonathan D; Steele, Ryan P
2016-04-12
This work investigates the use of multiple-timestep schemes in imaginary time for computationally efficient ab initio equilibrium path integral simulations of quantum molecular motion. In the simplest formulation, only every n(th) path integral replica is computed at the target level of electronic structure theory, whereas the remaining low-level replicas still account for nuclear motion quantum effects with a more computationally economical theory. Motivated by recent developments for multiple-timestep techniques in real-time classical molecular dynamics, both 1-electron (atomic-orbital basis set) and 2-electron (electron correlation) truncations are shown to be effective. Structural distributions and thermodynamic averages are tested for representative analytic potentials and ab initio molecular examples. Target quantum chemistry methods include density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, although any level of theory is formally amenable to this framework. For a standard two-level splitting, computational speedups of 1.6-4.0x are observed when using a 4-fold reduction in time slices; an 8-fold reduction is feasible in some cases. Multitiered options further reduce computational requirements and suggest that quantum mechanical motion could potentially be obtained at a cost not significantly different from the cost of classical simulations.
Ab initio research of energy loss for energetic protons in solid-density Be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Bin; Meng, Xu-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jian-Guo
2017-03-01
Ab initio research of energy loss for energetic protons in solid-density Be is made based on the average atom model. Our results are found in good agreement with the recent experiment for both warm and cool matter. Our results are compared with the local density approximation model and the reason for their difference is also explored. The energy loss at smaller projectile energies is predicted by our model and local density approximation, which helps probe the higher reliability of the proving model and judge the existence of the non-Fermi-Dirac velocity distribution for free electrons exists in dense plasmas in future.
A high-precision ab initio determination of the equilibrium geometry and force field of HOC(+)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defrees, D. J.; Bunker, P. R.; Binkley, J. S.; Mclean, A. D.
1987-01-01
The results of an ab initio molecular orbital investigation of the isoformyl cation, HOC(+), shape are reported. The effects of expanding the basis set to near the Hartree-Fock limit and of electron correlation were examined, and the results indicate that near the Hartree-Fock limit the HOC(+) is linear. An analytic potential function is presented, from which the calculated rotational energies are only 0.03 percent different from the experimental values. This represents a nearly two orders of magnitude reduction in error from earlier work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Rauer, Clemens; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Martínez, Todd J.
2016-03-01
Full multiple spawning is a formally exact method to describe the excited-state dynamics of molecular systems beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, it has been limited until now to the description of radiationless transitions taking place between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. This Communication presents a generalization of the full and ab initio multiple spawning methods to both internal conversion (mediated by nonadiabatic coupling terms) and intersystem crossing events (triggered by spin-orbit coupling matrix elements) based on a spin-diabatic representation. The results of two numerical applications, a model system and the deactivation of thioformaldehyde, validate the presented formalism and its implementation.
Superconductivity in an expanded phase of ZnO: an ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hapiuk, D.; Marques, M. A. L.; Mélinon, P.; Botti, S.; Masenelli, B.; Flores-Livas, J. A.
2015-04-01
It is known that covalent semiconductors become superconducting if conveniently doped with large concentration of impurities. In this article we investigate, using ab initio methods, if the same situation is possible for an ionic, large-band gap semiconductor such as ZnO. We concentrate on the cage-like sodalite phase, with very similar electronic and phononic properties as wurtzite ZnO, but allow for endohedral doping of the cages. We find that sodalite ZnO becomes superconducting for a variety of dopants, reaching a maximum critical temperature of 7 K. This value is comparable to the transition temperatures of doped silicon clathrates, cubic silicon, and diamond.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persico, Maurizio; Cacelli, Ivo; Ferretti, Alessandro
1991-04-01
We have determined ab initio potential energy surfaces of the S0 and S1 states of dimethylnitrosamine, with particular care for the N-N bond dissociation pathway. The electronic correlation has been taken into account by a multireference perturbation method, CIPSI. Classical trajectories in the S1 surface have been run with statistically determined initial conditions. Computed lifetimes and orientation parameters for the recoil velocity and the NO fragment angular momentum are in agreement with experimental data. Large amplitude internal motions are of primary importance in determining such quantities.
The role of Metals in Amyloid Aggregation: A Test Case for ab initio Simulations
Minicozzi, V.; Rossi, G. C.; Stellato, F.; Morante, S.
2007-12-26
First principle ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Car-Parrinello type have proved to be of invaluable help in understanding the microscopic mechanisms of chemical bonding both in solid state physics and in structural biophysics. In this work we present as test cases the study of the Cu coordination mode in two especially important examples: Prion protein and {beta}-amyloids. Using medium size PC-clusters as well as larger parallel platforms, we are able to deal with systems comprising 300 to 500 atoms and 1000 to 1500 electrons for as long as 2-3 ps. We present structural results which confirm indications coming from NMR and XAS data.
Electric-field control of magnetism in graphene quantum dots: Ab initio calculations
Agapito, Luis A.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2011-01-01
Employing ab initio calculations we predict that the magnetic states of hydrogenated diamond-shaped zigzag graphene quantum dots (GQDs), each exhibiting unique electronic structure, can be selectively tuned with gate voltage, through Stark or hybridization electric-field modulation of the spatial distribution and energy of the spin-polarized molecular orbitals, leading to transitions between these states. Electrical read-out of the GQD magnetic state can be accomplished by exploiting the distinctive electrical properties of the various magnetic configurations. PMID:21765631
Ab initio molecular simulations on specific interactions between amyloid beta and monosaccharides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Kazuya; Okamoto, Akisumi; Yano, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kondo, Takashi; Kamba, Seiji; Kurita, Noriyuki
2012-09-01
Aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which is a key pathogenetic event in Alzheimer's disease, can be caused by cell-surface saccharides. We here investigated stable structures of the solvated complexes of Aβ with some types of monosaccharides using molecular simulations based on protein-ligand docking and classical molecular mechanics methods. Moreover, the specific interactions between Aβ and the monosaccharides were elucidated at an electronic level by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results, we proposed which type of monosaccharide prefers to have large binding affinity to Aβ and inhibit the Aβ aggregation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shidong; Wang, Zhao; Setyawan, Wahyu; Mingo, Natalio; Curtarolo, Stefano
2011-10-01
Several thousand compounds from the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database have been considered as nanograined, sintered-powder thermoelectrics with the high-throughput ab-initio AFLOW framework. Regression analysis unveils that the power factor is positively correlated with both the electronic band gap and the carrier effective mass, and that the probability of having large thermoelectric power factors increases with the increasing number of atoms per primitive cell. Avenues for further investigation are revealed by this work. These avenues include the role of experimental and theoretical databases in the development of novel materials.
Ab initio insight into graphene nanofibers to destabilize hydrazine borane for hydrogen release
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Zhao; Raghubanshi, Himanshu; Sterlin Leo Hudson, M.; Srivastava, O. N.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ahuja, Rajeev
2017-02-01
We report the potential destabilizing effects of graphene nanofibers on the hydrogen release property of hydrazine borane via state-of-the-art ab initio calculations for the first time. Interactions of a hydrazine borane cluster with two types of graphene patch edges which exist abundantly in our synthesized graphene nanofibers have been investigated. It is found that both zigzag and armchair edges can greatly weaken the H-host bonds (especially the middle Nsbnd H bond) of hydrazine borane. The dramatic decrease in hydrogen removal energy is caused by the strong interaction between hydrazine borane and the graphene patch edges concerning the electronic charge density redistribution.
Ab Initio Calculations of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Chlorine Nitrate and Nitric Acid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grana, Ana M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low-lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the ClO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied.
Ab initio study of the elastic anomalies in Pd-Ag alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delczeg-Czirjak, E. K.; Delczeg, L.; Ropo, M.; Kokko, K.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Johansson, B.; Vitos, L.
2009-02-01
Ab initio total-energy calculations, based on the exact muffin-tin orbital method, are used to determine the elastic properties of Pd1-xAgx random alloys in the face-centered-cubic crystallographic phase. The compositional disorder is treated within the coherent-potential approximation. The single crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants and the Debye temperature are calculated for the whole range of concentration, 0≤x≤1 . It is shown that the variation in the elastic parameters of Pd-Ag alloys with chemical composition strongly deviates from a simple linear or parabolic trend. The complex electronic origin of these anomalies is demonstrated.
Ab initio calculations of elastic properties of Ru1-xNixAl superalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleskov, I. D.; Smirnova, E. A.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Korzhavyi, P. A.; Johansson, B.; Katsnelson, M.; Vitos, L.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Isaev, E. I.
2009-04-01
Ab initio total energy calculations based on the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, combined with the coherent potential approximation, have been used to study the thermodynamical and elastic properties of substitutional refractory Ru1-xNixAl alloys. We have found that the elastic constants C' and C11 exhibit pronounced peculiarities near the concentration of about 40 at. % Ni, which we ascribe to electronic topological transitions. Our suggestion is supported by the Fermi surface calculations in the whole concentration range. Results of our calculations show that one can design Ru-Ni-Al alloys substituting Ru by Ni (up to 40 at. %) with almost invariable elastic constants and reduced density.
Ab initio Path Integral Molecular Dynamics Based on Fragment Molecular Orbital Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Shigenori
2009-10-01
We have developed an ab initio path integral molecular dynamics method based on the fragment molecular orbital method. This “FMO-PIMD” method can treat both nuclei and electrons quantum mechanically, and is useful to simulate large hydrogen-bonded systems with high accuracy. After a benchmark calculation for water monomer, water trimer and glycine pentamer have been studied using the FMO-PIMD method to investigate nuclear quantum effects on structure and molecular interactions. The applicability of the present approach is demonstrated through a number of test calculations.
Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2007-10-18
We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.
Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2004-01-01
We compare dilute-limit heats of segregation for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent LMTO-based parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation, while the ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of a segregation model driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.
Ab initio calculations of the melting temperatures of refractory bcc metals.
Wang, L G; van de Walle, A
2012-01-28
We present ab initio calculations of the melting temperatures for bcc metals Nb, Ta and W. The calculations combine phase coexistence molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using classical embedded-atom method potentials and ab initio density functional theory free energy corrections. The calculated melting temperatures for Nb, Ta and W are, respectively, within 3%, 4%, and 7% of the experimental values. We compare the melting temperatures to those obtained from direct ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and see if they are in excellent agreement with each other. The small remaining discrepancies with experiment are thus likely due to inherent limitations associated with exchange-correlation energy approximations within density-functional theory.
Nigam, Sandeep; Majumder, Chiranjib; Kulshreshtha, S K
2006-08-21
The geometric and electronic structures of Si(n), Si(n)-, and PSi(n-1) clusters (2 < or = n < or = 13) have been investigated using the ab initio molecular orbital theory formalism. The hybrid exchange-correlation energy functional (B3LYP) and a standard split-valence basis set with polarization functions (6-31+G(d)) were employed to optimize geometrical configurations. The total energies of the lowest energy isomers thus obtained were recalculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Unlike positively charged clusters, which showed similar structural behavior as that of neutral clusters [Nigam et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 7756 (2004)], significant geometrical changes were observed between Si(n) and Si(n)- clusters for n = 6, 8, 11, and 13. However, the geometries of P substituted silicon clusters show similar growth as that of negatively charged Si(n) clusters with small local distortions. The relative stability as a function of cluster size has been verified based on their binding energies, second difference in energy (Delta2 E), and fragmentation behavior. In general, the average binding energy of Si(n)- clusters is found to be higher than that of Si(n) clusters. For isoelectronic PSi(n-1) clusters, it is found that although for small clusters (n < 4) substitution of P atom improves the binding energy of Si(n) clusters, for larger clusters (n > or = 4) the effect is opposite. The fragmentation behavior of these clusters reveals that while small clusters prefer to evaporate monomer, the larger ones dissociate into two stable clusters of smaller size. The adiabatic electron affinities of Si(n) clusters and vertical detachment energies of Si(n)- clusters were calculated and compared with available experimental results. Finally, a good agreement between experimental and our theoretical results suggests good prediction of the lowest energy isomeric structures for all clusters calculated in the present study.
Suturina, Elizaveta A; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Liu, Junjie; Atanasov, Mihail; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Maganas, Dimitrios; Hill, Stephen; Schnegg, Alexander; Bill, Eckhard; Long, Jeffrey R; Neese, Frank
2017-03-06
The magnetic properties of pseudotetrahedral Co(II) complexes spawned intense interest after (PPh4)2[Co(SPh)4] was shown to be the first mononuclear transition-metal complex displaying slow relaxation of the magnetization in the absence of a direct current magnetic field. However, there are differing reports on its fundamental magnetic spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters, which arise from inherent experimental challenges in detecting large zero-field splittings. There are also remarkable changes in the SH parameters of [Co(SPh)4](2-) upon structural variations, depending on the counterion and crystallization conditions. In this work, four complementary experimental techniques are utilized to unambiguously determine the SH parameters for two different salts of [Co(SPh)4](2-): (PPh4)2[Co(SPh)4] (1) and (NEt4)2[Co(SPh)4] (2). The characterization methods employed include multifield SQUID magnetometry, high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-EPR), variable-field variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH-MCD), and frequency domain Fourier transform THz-EPR (FD-FT THz-EPR). Notably, the paramagnetic Co(II) complex [Co(SPh)4](2-) shows strong axial magnetic anisotropy in 1, with D = -55(1) cm(-1) and E/D = 0.00(3), but rhombic anisotropy is seen for 2, with D = +11(1) cm(-1) and E/D = 0.18(3). Multireference ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations enable interpretation of the remarkable variation of D and its dependence on the electronic structure and geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F., III
1997-12-01
Four electronically lowest-lying ( X˜ 3B 1, ã 1A 1, b˜ 1B 1, and c˜ 1A 1) states of CH 2 have been investigated systematically using ab initio electronic structure theory. Complete active space (CAS) self-consistent-field (SCF) second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) and state-averaged (SA) CASSCF-SOCI levels of theory have been employed. The CASSCF reference wave function was constructed by minimizing the total energy of a specified state, while the SACASSCF reference wave function was obtained by minimizing the equally weighted total energy of the four ( X˜ 3B 1, ã 1A 1, b˜ 1B 1, and c˜ 1A 1) states. The third excited state ( c˜ 1A 1 or 2 1A 1) is of particular theoretical interest because it is represented by the second root of CASSCF and SOCI Hamiltonian matrices. Theoretical treatments of states not the lowest of their symmetry require special attention due to their tendency of variational collapse to the lower-lying state(s). For these four lowest-lying states total energies and physical properties including dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and associated infrared (IR) intensities were determined and compared with the results from the configuration interaction with single and double excitations (CISD) method and available experimental values. The CASSCF-SOCI method should provide the most reliable energetics and physical properties in the present study owing to its fully variational nature in the molecular orbital (MO) and CI spaces for a given state. It is demonstrated that the SACASSCF-SOCI wave functions produce results which are quite consistent with those from the CASSCF-SOCI method. Thus significantly increased application of the SACASSCF-SOCI method to the excited states of a wide variety of molecular systems is expected.
ab initio study of hot carriers in the first picosecond after sunlight absorption in silicon.
Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Lischner, Johannes; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G
2014-06-27
Hot carrier thermalization is a major source of efficiency loss in solar cells. Because of the subpicosecond time scale and complex physics involved, a microscopic characterization of hot carriers is challenging even for the simplest materials. We develop and apply an ab initio approach based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory to investigate hot carriers in semiconductors. Our calculations include electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, and require no experimental input other than the structure of the material. We apply our approach to study the relaxation time and mean free path of hot carriers in Si, and map the band and k dependence of these quantities. We demonstrate that a hot carrier distribution characteristic of Si under solar illumination thermalizes within 350 fs, in excellent agreement with pump-probe experiments. Our work sheds light on the subpicosecond time scale after sunlight absorption in Si, and constitutes a first step towards ab initio quantification of hot carrier dynamics in materials.
Time-domain ab initio modeling of photoinduced dynamics at nanoscale interfaces.
Wang, Linjun; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-04-01
Nonequilibrium processes involving electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in nanoscale materials are under active experimental investigation. Corresponding theoretical studies are much scarcer. The review starts with the basics of time-dependent density functional theory, recent developments in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and the fusion of the two techniques. Ab initio simulations of this kind allow us to directly mimic a great variety of time-resolved experiments performed with pump-probe laser spectroscopies. The focus is on the ultrafast photoinduced charge and exciton dynamics at interfaces formed by two complementary materials. We consider purely inorganic materials, inorganic-organic hybrids, and all organic interfaces, involving bulk semiconductors, metallic and semiconducting nanoclusters, graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, polymers, molecular crystals, molecules, and solvent. The detailed atomistic insights available from time-domain ab initio studies provide a unique description and a comprehensive understanding of the competition between electron transfer, thermal relaxation, energy transfer, and charge recombination processes. These advances now make it possible to directly guide the development of organic and hybrid solar cells, as well as photocatalytic, electronic, spintronic, and other devices relying on complex interfacial dynamics.
Iyengar, Srinivasan S; Jakowski, Jacek
2005-03-15
A methodology to efficiently conduct simultaneous dynamics of electrons and nuclei is presented. The approach involves quantum wave packet dynamics using an accurate banded, sparse and Toeplitz representation for the discrete free propagator, in conjunction with ab initio molecular dynamics treatment of the electronic and classical nuclear degree of freedom. The latter may be achieved either by using atom-centered density-matrix propagation or by using Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. The two components of the methodology, namely, quantum dynamics and ab initio molecular dynamics, are harnessed together using a time-dependent self-consistent field-like coupling procedure. The quantum wave packet dynamics is made computationally robust by using adaptive grids to achieve optimized sampling. One notable feature of the approach is that important quantum dynamical effects including zero-point effects, tunneling, as well as over-barrier reflections are treated accurately. The electronic degrees of freedom are simultaneously handled at accurate levels of density functional theory, including hybrid or gradient corrected approximations. Benchmark calculations are provided for proton transfer systems and the dynamics results are compared with exact calculations to determine the accuracy of the approach.
Time-Domain Ab Initio Modeling of Photoinduced Dynamics at Nanoscale Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Linjun; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2015-04-01
Nonequilibrium processes involving electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in nanoscale materials are under active experimental investigation. Corresponding theoretical studies are much scarcer. The review starts with the basics of time-dependent density functional theory, recent developments in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and the fusion of the two techniques. Ab initio simulations of this kind allow us to directly mimic a great variety of time-resolved experiments performed with pump-probe laser spectroscopies. The focus is on the ultrafast photoinduced charge and exciton dynamics at interfaces formed by two complementary materials. We consider purely inorganic materials, inorganic-organic hybrids, and all organic interfaces, involving bulk semiconductors, metallic and semiconducting nanoclusters, graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, polymers, molecular crystals, molecules, and solvent. The detailed atomistic insights available from time-domain ab initio studies provide a unique description and a comprehensive understanding of the competition between electron transfer, thermal relaxation, energy transfer, and charge recombination processes. These advances now make it possible to directly guide the development of organic and hybrid solar cells, as well as photocatalytic, electronic, spintronic, and other devices relying on complex interfacial dynamics.
Abu-Hasanayn, F.; Goldman, A.S.; Krogh-Jespersen, K.
1994-10-26
Ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to study substituent effects in Vaska-type complexes, trans-IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (1-X) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, CN, H, CH{sub 3}, SiH{sub 3}, OH, and SH; L = PH{sub 3}). Both the electron affinity and the ionization potential of 1-X are computed to increase upon descending the halogen series of complexes, which indicates, surprisingly, that the complexes with more electronegative halogens are more difficult to reduce and easier to oxidize. The computed electron affinity trend is consistent with the half-wave reduction potential trend known for 1-X (L = PPh{sub 3}; X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Computed carbonyl stretch frequencies for 1-X are greater than experimental values (L = PPh{sub 3}), but observed trends are well reproduced. The redox and spectroscopic trends are discussed in terms of the substituent effects on the electronic structure of 1-X, particularly as revealed in the molecular orbital energy level diagrams of these complexes. The reaction energy for H{sub 2} addition to 1-X, leading to the cis,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (2-X) product, has been computed. After electron correlation effects are included (MP4(SDTQ)), the reaction enthalpy computed for 1-CI is {minus}18.4 kcal/mol (L = PH{sub 3}) as compared to a reported experimental value of {minus}14 kcal/mol (L = PPh{sub 3}). Compared with available experimental data, the electronic effects of L(L = PH{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, or AsH{sub 3}) and X on the thermodynamics of the H{sub 2} addition reaction are accurately reproduced by the model calculations at all levels of theory (HF and MPn). Formation of the hypothetical products cis,trans- and trans,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X(2-X and 3-X) (X = BH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}, and PH{sub 2}) is used to demonstrate that {pi}-acceptor substituents promote the H{sub 2} addition reaction to 1-X while {pi}-donor substituents disfavor addition.
Protons in polar media: An ab initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Rosenvinge, Tycho
1998-10-01
The hydrates of hydrogen chloride are ionic crystals that contain hydronium (H3O+). The hydronium in the monohydrate has been reported to be statistically disordered between two possible sites related by inversion symmetry. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are presented for the monohydrate, as well as the di-, and tri-hydrates, of hydrogen chloride using the density functional based Car-Parrinello technique. The simulations were carried out with the goal of investigating proton disorder in these crystals. The possible role of nuclear quantum effects has been explored via path integral molecular dynamic simulations. The present results suggest that the proposed disordered sites in the monohydrate are dynamically unstable and therefore unlikely to be responsible for the reported disorder. No useful information was obtained for the dihydrate because the large unit cell leads to difficulties in carrying out the simulations. Nuclear quantum effects are shown to be important for characterizing the proton distributions in the trihydrate. The structure and dynamical behavior of liquid HF with dissolved KF have been investigated using the Car- Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. Specifically, a system with stoichiometry KFċ2HF was studied at temperatures of 400K and 1000K. This system, which was started from a phase separated mixture, rapidly formed into solvated potassium ions and HnFn+1/sp- polyfluoride anions with n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The resulting polyfluoride anions were classified, and their structures and dynamical behavior were compared with the known structures and spectra of crystalline compounds KF/cdot xHF and with theoretical predictions of isolated gas phase species. The present study reveals dramatic frequency shifts in the H atom vibrational modes with variation in the HF coordination number of the polyfluoride anion. In particular the FH wagging motion red shifts while the FH stretch blue shifts as n increases. The present calculations
A unified scheme for ab initio molecular orbital theory and path integral molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiga, Motoyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Miura, Shinichi
2001-11-01
We present a general approach for accurate calculation of chemical substances which treats both nuclei and electrons quantum mechanically, adopting ab initio molecular orbital theory for the electronic structure and path integral molecular dynamics for the nuclei. The present approach enables the evaluation of physical quantities dependent on the nuclear configuration as well as the electronic structure, within the framework of Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation. As an application, we give the path integral formulation of electric response properties—dipole moment and polarizability, which characterize the changes both in electronic structure and nuclear configuration at a given temperature when uniform electrostatic field is present. We also demonstrate the calculation of a water molecule using the present approach and the result of temperature and isotope effects is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demiray, Ferhat; Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar
2016-08-01
Density functional theory calculations at the LDA level have been performed to investigate the geometrical structure, stabilities and electronic properties of cyanide-coated fullerene C20@(CN) n, with n=0-20 in the ground state. From the binding energy, dissociation energy and second-order energy, even-number-coated fullerenes are more stable than odd-number ones. C20 has been successfully coated with electron-withdrawing group CN, achieving fullerene electron acceptors which have low-LUMO levels. The lowest LUMO value obtained for C20@(CN)12 is -5.89 eV, which is comparable with or lower than that of C60 and C60@(CN)2 fullerenes. Each of the cyanide coatings makes the fullerenes more stable with a larger HOMO-LUMO gap. Designed cyanide-coated fullerene compounds are promising and progressive to achieve a wider range of donor materials and high efficiencies in organic photovoltaic devices.
Jursic, B.S.
1996-12-31
Up to four ionization potentials of elements from the second-row of the periodic table were computed using the ab initio (HF, MP2, MP3, MP4, QCISD, GI, G2, and G2MP2) and DFT (B3LY, B3P86, B3PW91, XALPHA, HFS, HFB, BLYP, BP86, BPW91, BVWN, XAPLY, XAP86, XAPW91, XAVWN, SLYR SP86, SPW91 and SVWN) methods. In all of the calculations, the large 6-311++G(3df,3pd) gaussian type of basis set was used. The computed values were compared with the experimental results and suitability of the ab initio and DFF methods were discussed, in regard to reproducing the experimental data. From the computed ionization potentials of the second-row elements, it can be concluded that the HF ab initio computation is not capable of reproducing the experimental results. The computed ionization potentials are too low. However, by using the ab initio methods that include electron correlation, the computed IPs are becoming much closer to the experimental values. In all cases, with the exception of the first ionization potential for oxygen, the G2 computation result produces ionization potentials that are indistinguishable from the experimental results.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E.
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
Wang, Yaqin; Tang, Wu; Cheng, Jianli; Nazir, Safdar; Yang, Kesong
2016-11-23
We explored the possibility of producing a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the LaAlO3/SrGeO3 and LaGaO3/BaSnO3 heterostructures using first-principles electronic structure calculations. Our results show that the 2DEG occurs at n-type LaAlO3/SrGeO3 and LaGaO3/BaSnO3 interfaces. Compared to the prototype LaAlO3/SrTiO3, LaAlO3/SrGeO3 and LaGaO3/BaSnO3 systems yield comparable total interfacial charge carrier density but much lower electron effective mass (nearly half the value of LaAlO3/SrTiO3), thus resulting in about twice larger electron mobility and enhanced interfacial conductivity. This work demonstrates that SrGeO3 and BaSnO3 can be potential substrate materials to achieve a high-mobility 2DEG in the perovskite-oxide heterostructures.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Interaction between CO _{2} and the Acetate Ion
Steckel, Janice A.
2012-11-29
A series of ab initio calculations designed to investigate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with acetate are presented. The lowest energy structure, AC–CO{sub 2}-η{sup 2}, is predicted by CCSD(T)/aVTZ to be bound by -10.6 kcal/mol. Six of the bound complexes have binding energies on the order of -8 kcal/mol, but analysis shows that the η{sup 1}-CT complex is fundamentally different from the others. The η{sup 1}-CT complex is characterized by geometric distortion, large polarization and induction effects and charge transfer whereas the other five complexes have little geometric distortion and negligible charge transfer. The amount of charge that is transferred from the anion to the CO{sub 2} in the η{sup 1}-CT complex is estimated to be about half an electron by NPA, DMA, CHELPG, and Mulliken analyses, whereas the EDA-ALMO-CTA (B3LYP) approach predicts a charge transfer of 75 me{sup –}. However, the transfer of this small amount of charge leads to an energy lowering of -56 kcal/mol, without which the complex would not be bound. The RI-MP2 geometries closely approximate those resulting from the CCSD optimizations, and the optimized second-order opposite spin (O2) method performs well for all the complexes except for the η{sup 1}-CT complex. DFT methods do not reproduce all the ab initio geometries, binding energies and/or energy ordering of these complexes although the range-separated hybrid meta-GGA (M11) and nonlocal (VV10 and vdwDF10) functionals are shown to yield results significantly better than other functionals considered for this system. The fact that there is such variation among DFT methods has implications for DFT-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and for the parametrization of classical force fields based on DFT calculations.
Renison, C Alicia; Fernandes, Kyle D; Naidoo, Kevin J
2015-07-05
This article describes an extension of the quantum supercharger library (QSL) to perform quantum mechanical (QM) gradient and optimization calculations as well as hybrid QM and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. The integral derivatives are, after the two-electron integrals, the most computationally expensive part of the aforementioned calculations/simulations. Algorithms are presented for accelerating the one- and two-electron integral derivatives on a graphical processing unit (GPU). It is shown that a Hartree-Fock ab initio gradient calculation is up to 9.3X faster on a single GPU compared with a single central processing unit running an optimized serial version of GAMESS-UK, which uses the efficient Schlegel method for s- and l-orbitals. Benchmark QM and QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations are performed on cellobiose in vacuo and in a 39 Å water sphere (45 QM atoms and 24843 point charges, respectively) using the 6-31G basis set. The QSL can perform 9.7 ps/day of ab initio QM dynamics and 6.4 ps/day of QM/MM dynamics on a single GPU in full double precision. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ab initio calculations of the optical properties of crystalline and liquid InSb
Sano, Haruyuki; Mizutani, Goro
2015-11-15
Ab initio calculations of the electronic and optical properties of InSb were performed for both the crystalline and liquid states. Two sets of atomic structure models for liquid InSb at 900 K were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. To reduce the effect of structural peculiarities in the liquid models, an averaging of the two sets of the calculated electronic and optical properties corresponding to the two liquid models was performed. The calculated results indicate that, owing to the phase transition from crystal to liquid, the density of states around the Fermi level increases. As a result, the energy band gap opening near the Fermi level disappears. Consequently, the optical properties change from semiconductor to metallic behavior. Namely, owing to the melting of InSb, the interband transition peaks disappear and a Drude-like dispersion is observed in the optical dielectric functions. The optical absorption at a photon energy of 3.06 eV, which is used in Blu-ray Disc systems, increases owing to the melting of InSb. This increase in optical absorption is proposed to result from the increased optical transitions below 2 eV.
Ab initio study of structural and magnetic properties of Si-doped Fe2P
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delczeg-Czirjak, E. K.; Delczeg, L.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.; Vitos, L.
2010-08-01
Ab initio electronic-structure methods are used to study the properties of Fe2P1-xSix in ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. The site preference and lattice relaxation are calculated with the projector augmented wave method as implemented in the Vienna ab initio simulation package. The paramagnetic state is modeled by the disordered local magnetic moment scheme, and the chemical and magnetic disorder is treated using the coherent potential approximation in combination with the exact muffin-tin orbital formalism. The calculated lattice parameters, atomic positions, and magnetic properties are in good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results. In contrast to the observation, for the ferromagnetic state the body centered orthorhombic structure (bco, space group Imm2&barbelow; ) is predicted to have lower energy than the hexagonal structure (hex, space group P6¯2m ). The zero-point spin fluctuation energy difference is found to be large enough to stabilize the hex phase. For the paramagnetic state, the hex structure is calculated to be the stable phase and the computed total energy versus composition indicates a hex to bco crystallographic phase transition with increasing Si content. The phonon vibrational free energy, estimated from the theoretical equation of state, turns out to stabilize the hexagonal phase, whereas the electronic and magnetic entropies favor the low symmetry orthorhombic structure.
Ab initio solution of macromolecular crystal structures without direct methods.
McCoy, Airlie J; Oeffner, Robert D; Wrobel, Antoni G; Ojala, Juha R M; Tryggvason, Karl; Lohkamp, Bernhard; Read, Randy J
2017-04-04
The majority of macromolecular crystal structures are determined using the method of molecular replacement, in which known related structures are rotated and translated to provide an initial atomic model for the new structure. A theoretical understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio in likelihood-based molecular replacement searches has been developed to account for the influence of model quality and completeness, as well as the resolution of the diffraction data. Here we show that, contrary to current belief, molecular replacement need not be restricted to the use of models comprising a substantial fraction of the unknown structure. Instead, likelihood-based methods allow a continuum of applications depending predictably on the quality of the model and the resolution of the data. Unexpectedly, our understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio in molecular replacement leads to the finding that, with data to sufficiently high resolution, fragments as small as single atoms of elements usually found in proteins can yield ab initio solutions of macromolecular structures, including some that elude traditional direct methods.