Ab initio derivation of model energy density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobaczewski, Jacek
2016-08-01
I propose a simple and manageable method that allows for deriving coupling constants of model energy density functionals (EDFs) directly from ab initio calculations performed for finite fermion systems. A proof-of-principle application allows for linking properties of finite nuclei, determined by using the nuclear nonlocal Gogny functional, to the coupling constants of the quasilocal Skyrme functional. The method does not rely on properties of infinite fermion systems but on the ab initio calculations in finite systems. It also allows for quantifying merits of different model EDFs in describing the ab initio results.
Ab Initio Computation of the Energies of Circular Quantum Dots
Lohne, M. Pedersen; Hagen, Gaute; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Kvaal, S.; Pederiva, F.
2011-01-01
We perform coupled-cluster and diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the energies of circular quantum dots up to 20 electrons. The coupled-cluster calculations include triples corrections and a renormalized Coulomb interaction defined for a given number of low-lying oscillator shells. Using such a renormalized Coulomb interaction brings the coupled-cluster calculations with triples correlations in excellent agreement with the diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. This opens up perspectives for doing ab initio calculations for much larger systems of electrons.
Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
Ab initio potential energy surface and rovibrational states of HBO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Tae-Kyu; Makarewicz, Jan
1999-01-01
The potential energy surface describing the large-amplitude motion of H around the BO core in the HBO molecule has been determined from ab initio calculations. This surface has been sampled by a set of 170 grid points from a two-dimensional space defined by the stretching and the bending coordinates of the H nucleus. At each grid point, the BO bond length has been optimized using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with the basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The surface has a local minimum for the linear as well as the bent configuration of HBO. A low energy barrier to the linear configuration BOH causes a large-amplitude motion and a strong rovibrational interaction in the molecule. Its rovibrational dynamics is different from the dynamics in bent or quasilinear triatomic molecules.
Surface Segregation Energies of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2003-01-01
We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy method. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameterization. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. The ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation for the most part, but predicted relaxations from quantum approximate calculations are used in selected cases to compute approximate relaxed ab initio segregation energies. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with other quantum approximate and ab initio theoretical work, and available experimental results.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-06-28
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup HL}, and CBS-37{sup HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup HL} and CBS-37{sup HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride.
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-06-28
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH3 (35)Cl and CH3 (37)Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35( HL), and CBS-37( HL), are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY 3Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35( HL) and CBS-37( HL) PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm(-1), respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH3Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs. PMID:26133427
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-06-01
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH335Cl and CH337Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35 HL, and CBS-37 HL, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY 3Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35 HL and CBS-37 HL PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm-1, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH3Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.
Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of ion hydration free energies
Leung, Kevin; Rempe, Susan B.; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von
2009-05-28
We apply ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods in conjunction with the thermodynamic integration or '{lambda}-path' technique to compute the intrinsic hydration free energies of Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, and Ag{sup +} ions. Using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional, adapting methods developed for classical force field applications, and with consistent assumptions about surface potential ({phi}) contributions, we obtain absolute AIMD hydration free energies ({Delta}G{sub hyd}) within a few kcal/mol, or better than 4%, of Tissandier et al.'s [J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7787 (1998)] experimental values augmented with the SPC/E water model {phi} predictions. The sums of Li{sup +}/Cl{sup -} and Ag{sup +}/Cl{sup -} AIMD {Delta}G{sub hyd}, which are not affected by surface potentials, are within 2.6% and 1.2 % of experimental values, respectively. We also report the free energy changes associated with the transition metal ion redox reaction Ag{sup +}+Ni{sup +}{yields}Ag+Ni{sup 2+} in water. The predictions for this reaction suggest that existing estimates of {Delta}G{sub hyd} for unstable radiolysis intermediates such as Ni{sup +} may need to be extensively revised.
An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.
Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics.
Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A; Schwegler, Eric
2016-04-28
Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti. PMID:27131525
Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric
2016-04-01
Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti.
Sakane, Shinichi; Yezdimer, Eric M.; Liu, Wenbin; Barriocanal, Jose A.; Doren, Douglas J.; Wood, Robert H.
2000-08-15
The ab initio/classical free energy perturbation (ABC-FEP) method proposed previously by Wood et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1329 (1999)] uses classical simulations to calculate solvation free energies within an empirical potential model, then applies free energy perturbation theory to determine the effect of changing the empirical solute-solvent interactions to corresponding interactions calculated from ab initio methods. This approach allows accurate calculation of solvation free energies using an atomistic description of the solvent and solute, with interactions calculated from first principles. Results can be obtained at a feasible computational cost without making use of approximations such as a continuum solvent or an empirical cavity formation energy. As such, the method can be used far from ambient conditions, where the empirical parameters needed for approximate theories of solvation may not be available. The sources of error in the ABC-FEP method are the approximations in the ab initio method, the finite sample of configurations, and the classical solvent model. This article explores the accuracy of various approximations used in the ABC-FEP method by comparing to the experimentally well-known free energy of hydration of water at two state points (ambient conditions, and 973.15 K and 600 kg/m3). The TIP4P-FQ model [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6141 (1994)] is found to be a reliable solvent model for use with this method, even at supercritical conditions. Results depend strongly on the ab initio method used: a gradient-corrected density functional theory is not adequate, but a localized MP2 method yields excellent agreement with experiment. Computational costs are reduced by using a cluster approximation, in which ab initio pair interaction energies are calculated between the solute and up to 60 solvent molecules, while multi-body interactions are calculated with only a small cluster (5 to 12 solvent molecules). Sampling errors for the ab initio contribution to
Efficient ab initio free energy calculations by classically assisted trajectory sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Hugh F.
2015-12-01
A method for efficiently performing ab initio free energy calculations based on coupling constant thermodynamic integration is demonstrated. By the use of Boltzmann-weighted sums over states generated from a classical ensemble, the free energy difference between the classical and ab initio ensembles is readily available without the need for time-consuming integration over molecular dynamics trajectories. Convergence and errors in this scheme are discussed and characterised in terms of a quantity representing the degree of misfit between the classical and ab initio systems. Smaller but still substantial efficiency gains over molecular dynamics are also demonstrated for the calculation of average properties such as pressure and total energy for systems in equilibrium.
CVRQD ab initio ground-state adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the water molecule.
Barletta, Paolo; Shirin, Sergei V; Zobov, Nikolai F; Polyansky, Oleg L; Tennyson, Jonathan; Valeev, Edward F; Császár, Attila G
2006-11-28
The high accuracy ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground electronic state of the water molecule, determined originally by Polyansky et al. [Science 299, 539 (2003)] and called CVRQD, are extended and carefully characterized and analyzed. The CVRQD potential energy surfaces are obtained from extrapolation to the complete basis set of nearly full configuration interaction valence-only electronic structure computations, augmented by core, relativistic, quantum electrodynamics, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. We also report ab initio calculations of several quantities characterizing the CVRQD PESs, including equilibrium and vibrationally averaged (0 K) structures, harmonic and anharmonic force fields, harmonic vibrational frequencies, vibrational fundamentals, and zero-point energies. They can be considered as the best ab initio estimates of these quantities available today. Results of first-principles computations on the rovibrational energy levels of several isotopologues of the water molecule are also presented, based on the CVRQD PESs and the use of variational nuclear motion calculations employing an exact kinetic energy operator given in orthogonal internal coordinates. The variational nuclear motion calculations also include a simplified treatment of nonadiabatic effects. This sophisticated procedure to compute rovibrational energy levels reproduces all the known rovibrational levels of the water isotopologues considered, H(2) (16)O, H(2) (17)O, H(2) (18)O, and D(2) (16)O, to better than 1 cm(-1) on average. Finally, prospects for further improvement of the ground-state adiabatic ab initio PESs of water are discussed. PMID:17144700
Predicting materials for solar energy conversion: ab-initio spectroscopy of heterogeneous interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galli, Giulia
We will discuss some progress in predicting materials for solar energy conversion using ab initio calculations, in particular we will focus on heterogeneous interfaces between photo-electrodes and water and between nanocomposites. We will also address the problem of building much needed tighter connections between computational and laboratory experiments.
Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions
Changlani, Hitesh J.; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K.
2015-09-14
We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U{sup ∗}/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.
High-level ab initio potential energy surfaces and vibrational energies of H2CS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Ribeyre, Tristan; Thiel, Walter
2011-08-01
Six-dimensional (6D) potential energy surfaces (PESs) of H2CS have been generated ab initio using the recently proposed explicitly correlated (F12) singles and doubles coupled cluster method including a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T)-F12b [T. B. Adler, G. Knizia, and H.-J. Werner, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 221106 (2007)] in conjunction with F12-optimized correlation consistent basis sets. Core-electron correlation, high-order correlation, scalar relativistic, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer terms were included as additive high-level (HL) corrections. The resulting 6D PESs were represented by analytical functions which were used in variational calculations of the vibrational term values below 5000 cm-1. The best PESs obtained with and without the HL corrections, VQZ-F12* HL and VQZ-F12*, reproduce the fundamental vibrational wavenumbers with mean absolute deviations of 1.13 and 1.22 cm-1, respectively. A detailed analysis of the effects of the HL corrections shows how the VQZ-F12 results benefit from error cancellation. The present purely ab initio PESs will be useful as starting points for empirical refinements towards an accurate "spectroscopic" PES of H2CS.
In pursuit of the ab initio limit for conformational energy prototypes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Császár, Attila G.; Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, Henry F.
1998-06-01
The convergence of ab initio predictions to the one- and n-particle limits has been systematically explored for several conformational energy prototypes: the inversion barriers of ammonia, water, and isocyanic acid, the torsional barrier of ethane, the E/Z rotamer separation of formic acid, and the barrier to linearity of silicon dicarbide. Explicit ab initio results were obtained with atomic-orbital basis sets as large as [7s6p5d4f3g2h1i/6s5p4d3f2g1h] and electron correlation treatments as extensive as fifth-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP5), the full coupled-cluster method through triple excitations (CCSDT), and Brueckner doubles theory including perturbational corrections for both triple and quadruple excitations [BD(TQ)]. Subsequently, basis set and electron correlation extrapolation schemes were invoked to gauge any further variations in arriving at the ab initio limit. Physical effects which are tacitly neglected in most theoretical work have also been quantified by computations of non-Born-Oppenheimer (BODC), relativistic, and core correlation shifts of relative energies. Instructive conclusions are drawn for the pursuit of spectroscopic accuracy in theoretical conformational analyses, and precise predictions for the key energetic quantities of the molecular prototypes are advanced.
Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.
An ab initio method for locating potential energy minima
Bock, Nicolas; Peery, Travis; Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric; Wallace, Duane; Lizarraga, Raquel; Holmstrom, Erik
2009-01-01
We study the potential energy landscape underlying the motion of monatomic liquids by quenching from random initial configurations (stochastic configurations) to the nearest local minimum of the potential energy. We show that this procedure reveals the underlying potential energy surface directly. This is in contrast to the common technique of quenching from a molecular dynamics trajectory which does not allow a direct view of the underlying potential energy surface, but needs to be corrected for thermodynamic weighting factors.
Collective rotation from ab initio theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprio, M. A.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.; Smith, R.
2015-08-01
Through ab initio approaches in nuclear theory, we may now seek to quantitatively understand the wealth of nuclear collective phenomena starting from the underlying internucleon interactions. No-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei give rise to rotational bands, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments and electromagnetic transitions. In this review, NCCI calculations of 7-9Be are used to illustrate and explore ab initio rotational structure, and the resulting predictions for rotational band properties are compared with experiment. We highlight the robustness of ab initio rotational predictions across different choices for the internucleon interaction.
Accurate ab initio energy gradients in chemical compound space.
Anatole von Lilienfeld, O
2009-10-28
Analytical potential energy derivatives, based on the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, are presented for any pair of isoelectronic compounds. Since energies are not necessarily monotonic functions between compounds, these derivatives can fail to predict the right trends of the effect of alchemical mutation. However, quantitative estimates without additional self-consistency calculations can be made when the Hellmann-Feynman derivative is multiplied with a linearization coefficient that is obtained from a reference pair of compounds. These results suggest that accurate predictions can be made regarding any molecule's energetic properties as long as energies and gradients of three other molecules have been provided. The linearization coefficent can be interpreted as a quantitative measure of chemical similarity. Presented numerical evidence includes predictions of electronic eigenvalues of saturated and aromatic molecular hydrocarbons. PMID:19894922
Ho, T.; Rabitz, H.
1996-02-01
A general interpolation method for constructing smooth molecular potential energy surfaces (PES{close_quote}s) from {ital ab} {ital initio} data are proposed within the framework of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space and the inverse problem theory. The general expression for an {ital a} {ital posteriori} error bound of the constructed PES is derived. It is shown that the method yields globally smooth potential energy surfaces that are continuous and possess derivatives up to second order or higher. Moreover, the method is amenable to correct symmetry properties and asymptotic behavior of the molecular system. Finally, the method is generic and can be easily extended from low dimensional problems involving two and three atoms to high dimensional problems involving four or more atoms. Basic properties of the method are illustrated by the construction of a one-dimensional potential energy curve of the He{endash}He van der Waals dimer using the exact quantum Monte Carlo calculations of Anderson {ital et} {ital al}. [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 99}, 345 (1993)], a two-dimensional potential energy surface of the HeCO van der Waals molecule using recent {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations by Tao {ital et} {ital al}. [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 101}, 8680 (1994)], and a three-dimensional potential energy surface of the H{sup +}{sub 3} molecular ion using highly accurate {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations of R{umlt o}hse {ital et} {ital al}. [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 101}, 2231 (1994)]. In the first two cases the constructed potentials clearly exhibit the correct asymptotic forms, while in the last case the constructed potential energy surface is in excellent agreement with that constructed by R{umlt o}hse {ital et} {ital al}. using a low order polynomial fitting procedure. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics
Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric
2016-04-22
Efficient exploration of the configuration space and identification of metastable structures are challenging from both computational as well as algorithmic perspectives. Here, we extend the recently proposed orderparameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways within the framework of density functional theory based molecular dynamics. The sampling method is applied to explore the relevant parts of the configuration space in prototypical materials SiO2 and Ti to identify the different metastable structures corresponding to different phases in these materials. In addition, we use the string method inmore » collective variables to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hcp to fcc phase transition in Ti.« less
The ab initio potential energy surface and spectroscopic constants of HOCl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koput, Jacek; Peterson, Kirk A.
1998-02-01
The potential energy surface of hypochlorous acid, HOCl, has been determined from large-scale ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster method CCSD(T), with basis sets of quadruple- and quintuple-zeta quality. The effect of core-electron correlation on the calculated structural parameters has been investigated. The vibrational-rotational energy levels of the three isotopic species of HOCl have then been calculated using the variational method and have been further characterized by the spectroscopic constants determined using the perturbational approach. The spectroscopic constants determined, are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data.
Vibrational energy levels for CH4 from an ab initio potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, D. W.; Partridge, H.
2001-01-01
Many areas of astronomy and astrophysics require an accurate high temperature spectrum of methane (CH4). The goal of the present research is to determine an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for CH4. As a first step towards this goal, we have determined a PES including up to octic terms. We compare our results with experiment and to a PES based on a quartic expansion. Our octic PES gives good agreement with experiment for all levels, while the quartic PES only for the lower levels.
Effect of composition on antiphase boundary energy in Ni3Al based alloys: Ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbatov, O. I.; Lomaev, I. L.; Gornostyrev, Yu. N.; Ruban, A. V.; Furrer, D.; Venkatesh, V.; Novikov, D. L.; Burlatsky, S. F.
2016-06-01
The effect of composition on the antiphase boundary (APB) energy of Ni-based L 12-ordered alloys is investigated by ab initio calculations employing the coherent potential approximation. The calculated APB energies for the {111} and {001} planes reproduce experimental values of the APB energy. The APB energies for the nonstoichiometric γ' phase increase with Al concentration and are in line with the experiment. The magnitude of the alloying effect on the APB energy correlates with the variation of the ordering energy of the alloy according to the alloying element's position in the 3 d row. The elements from the left side of the 3 d row increase the APB energy of the Ni-based L 12-ordered alloys, while the elements from the right side slightly affect it except Ni. The way to predict the effect of an addition on the {111} APB energy in a multicomponent alloy is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, Moumita; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Manzhos, Sergei
2014-06-01
New potential energy surfaces for methane were constructed, represented as analytic fits to about 100,000 individual high-level ab initio data. Explicitly-correlated multireference data (MRCI-F12(AE)/CVQZ-F12) were computed using Molpro [1] and fit using multiple strategies. Fits with small to negligible errors were obtained using adaptations of the permutation-invariant-polynomials (PIP) approach [2,3] based on neural-networks (PIP-NN) [4,5] and the interpolative moving least squares (IMLS) fitting method [6] (PIP-IMLS). The PESs were used in full-dimensional vibrational calculations with an exact kinetic energy operator by representing the Hamiltonian in a basis of products of contracted bend and stretch functions and using a symmetry adapted Lanczos method to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Very close agreement with experiment was produced from the purely ab initio PESs. References 1- H.-J. Werner, P. J. Knowles, G. Knizia, 2012.1 ed. 2012, MOLPRO, a package of ab initio programs. see http://www.molpro.net. 2- Z. Xie and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Theory Comput 6, 26, 2010. 3- B. J. Braams and J. M. Bowman, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 577, 2009. 4- J. Li, B. Jiang and Hua Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 204103 (2013). 5- S Manzhos, X Wang, R Dawes and T Carrington, JPC A 110, 5295 (2006). 6- R. Dawes, X-G Wang, A.W. Jasper and T. Carrington Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 134304 (2010).
Han, Huixian; Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua
2014-12-28
A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S{sub 0}) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ∼37 000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm{sup −1}. The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies up to 12 700 cm{sup −1} above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction.
Full-dimensional (15-dimensional) ab initio analytical potential energy surface for the H7+ cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barragán, Patricia; Prosmiti, Rita; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2012-06-01
Full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface is constructed for the H_7^+ cluster. The surface is a fit to roughly 160 000 interaction energies obtained with second-order MöllerPlesset perturbation theory and the cc-pVQZ basis set, using the invariant polynomial method [B. J. Braams and J. M. Bowman, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 577 (2009), 10.1080/01442350903234923]. We employ permutationally invariant basis functions in Morse-type variables for all the internuclear distances to incorporate permutational symmetry with respect to interchange of H atoms into the representation of the surface. We describe how different configurations are selected in order to create the database of the interaction energies for the linear least squares fitting procedure. The root-mean-square error of the fit is 170 cm-1 for the entire data set. The surface dissociates correctly to the H_5^+ + H2 fragments. A detailed analysis of its topology, as well as comparison with additional ab initio calculations, including harmonic frequencies, verify the quality and accuracy of the parameterized potential. This is the first attempt to present an analytical representation of the 15-dimensional surface of the H_7^+ cluster for carrying out dynamics studies.
A new ab initio potential energy surface for the Ne-H 2 interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lique, François
2009-03-01
A new accurate three-dimensional potential energy surface for the Ne-H 2 system, which explicitly takes into account the r-dependence of the H 2 vibration, was determined from ab initio calculations. It was obtained with the single and double excitation coupled-cluster method with noniterative perturbational treatment of triple excitation [CCSD(T)]. Calculations was been performed using the augmented correlation-consistent polarized quintuple zeta basis set (aug-cc-pV5Z) for the three atoms. We checked the accuracy of the present ab initio calculations. We have determined, using the new Ne-H 2 potential energy surface, differential cross-sections for the rotational excitation of the H 2 and D 2 molecules in collision with Ne and we have compared them with experimental results of Faubel et al. [M. Faubel, F.A. Gianturco, F. Ragnetti, L.Y. Rusin, F. Sondermann, U. Tappe, J.P. Toennies, J. Chem. Phys. 101 (1994) 8800]. The overall agreement confirms that the new potential energy surface can be used for the simulation of molecular collisions and/or molecular spectroscopy of the van der Waals complex Ne-H 2.
An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics
Nakamura, Makoto Obata, Masao; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki
2014-05-14
We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.
Global ab initio ground-state potential energy surface of N4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paukku, Yuliya; Yang, Ke R.; Varga, Zoltan; Truhlar, Donald G.
2013-07-01
We present a global ground-state potential energy surface for N4 suitable for treating high-energy vibrational-rotational energy transfer and collision-induced dissociation in N2-N2 collisions. To obtain the surface, complete active space second-order perturbation theory calculations were performed for the ground singlet state with an active space of 12 electrons in 12 orbitals and the maug-cc-pVTZ triple zeta basis set. About 17 000 ab initio data points have been calculated for the N4 system, distributed along nine series of N2 + N2 geometries and three series of N3 + N geometries. The six-dimensional ground-state potential energy surface is fitted using least-squares fits to the many-body component of the electronic energies based on permutationally invariant polynomials in bond order variables.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces and the Calculation of Accurate Vibrational Frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Taylor, Peter R.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Due to advances in quantum mechanical methods over the last few years, it is now possible to determine ab initio potential energy surfaces in which fundamental vibrational frequencies are accurate to within plus or minus 8 cm(exp -1) on average, and molecular bond distances are accurate to within plus or minus 0.001-0.003 Angstroms, depending on the nature of the bond. That is, the potential energy surfaces have not been scaled or empirically adjusted in any way, showing that theoretical methods have progressed to the point of being useful in analyzing spectra that are not from a tightly controlled laboratory environment, such as vibrational spectra from the interstellar medium. Some recent examples demonstrating this accuracy will be presented and discussed. These include the HNO, CH4, C2H4, and ClCN molecules. The HNO molecule is interesting due to the very large H-N anharmonicity, while ClCN has a very large Fermi resonance. The ab initio studies for the CH4 and C2H4 molecules present the first accurate full quartic force fields of any kind (i.e., whether theoretical or empirical) for a five-atom and six-atom system, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard L.; Pattengill, Merle D.; Schwenke, David W.
1989-01-01
Strategies for constructing global potential energy surfaces from a limited number of accurate ab initio electronic energy calculations are discussed. Generally, these data are concentrated in small regions of configuration space (e.g., in the vicinity of saddle points and energy minima) and difficulties arise in generating a potential function that is globally well-behaved. Efficient computer codes for carrying out classical trajectory calculations on vector and parallel processors are also described. Illustrations are given from recent work on the following chemical systems: Ca + HF yields CaF + H, H + H + H2 yields H2 + H2, N + O2 yields NO + O and O + N2 yields NO + N. The dynamics and kinetics of metathesis, dissociation, recombination, energy transfer and complex formation processes will be discussed.
Ab initio cross sections for low-energy inelastic H+Na collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, A. K.; Grosser, J.; Hahne, J.; Menzel, T.
1999-09-01
We report ab initio results for the integral cross section of the process H+Na(3s)-->H+Na(3p) for collision energies from the threshold (2.1 eV) to 600 eV. We achieve a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, which are available for energies above 10 eV. The main contributions to the cross section come from a rotational coupling mechanism in the NaH triplet molecular system and from a curve-crossing mechanism in the singlet system. At very low energy (2.1-2.4 eV), the process is governed by a centrifugal barrier in the exit channel leading to orbital resonances. The Landau-Zener model provides a reasonable qualitative description of the radial coupling mechanism at high energies, but fails below 10 eV.
Ab initio adiabatic and diabatic energies and dipole moments of the KH molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khelifi, Neji; Oujia, Brahim; Gadea, Florent Xavier
2002-02-01
An ab initio adiabatic and diabatic study of the KH molecule is performed for all states below the ionic limit [i.e., K (4s, 4p, 5s, 3d, 5p, 4d, 6s, and 4f)+H(1s)] in 1Σ+ and 3Σ+ symmetries. Adiabatic results are also reported for 1Π, 3Π, 1Δ, and 3Δ symmetries. The ab initio calculations rely on pseudopotential, operatorial core valence correlation, and full valence CI approaches, combined to an efficient diabatization procedure. For the low-lying states, our vibrational level spacings and spectroscopic constants are in very good agreement with the available experimental data. Diabatic potentials and dipoles moments are analyzed, revealing the strong imprint of the ionic state in the 1Σ+ adiabatic states while improving the results. The undulations of the diabatic curves and of the triplet-singlet diabatic energy difference which we found positive, as in Hund's rule, are related to the Rydberg functions. As for LiH, the vibrational spacing of the A state is bracketed by our results with and without the improvement taking into account the diabatic representation. Experimental suggestions are also given.
Ab Initio determination of Cu 3d orbital energies in layered copper oxides
Hozoi, Liviu; Siurakshina, Liudmila; Fulde, Peter; van den Brink, Jeroen
2011-01-01
It has long been argued that the minimal model to describe the low-energy physics of the high Tc superconducting cuprates must include copper states of other symmetries besides the canonical one, in particular the orbital. Experimental and theoretical estimates of the energy splitting of these states vary widely. With a novel ab initio quantum chemical computational scheme we determine these energies for a range of copper-oxides and -oxychlorides, determine trends with the apical Cu–ligand distances and find excellent agreement with recent Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering measurements, available for La2CuO4, Sr2CuO2Cl2, and CaCuO2. PMID:22355584
Threshold displacement energy in GaN; Ab initio molecular dynamics study
Xiao, H. Y.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Weber, William J.
2009-06-25
Large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics method has been used to determine the threshold displacement energies, Ed, along five specific directions and to determine the defect configurations created during low energy events. The Ed shows a significant dependence on direction. The minimum Ed is determined to be 39 eV along the <-1010> direction for a gallium atom and 17.0 eV along the <-1010> direction for a nitrogen atom, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements. The average Ed values determined are 73.2 and 32.4 eV for gallium and nitrogen atoms, respectively. The N defects created at low energy events along different crystallographic directions have a similar configuration (a N-N dumbbell configuration), but various configurations for Ga defects are formed in GaN.
Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of nitrous oxide
Crusius, Johann-Philipp Hassel, Egon; Hellmann, Robert Bich, Eckard
2015-06-28
We present an analytical intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) for two rigid nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) molecules derived from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. Interaction energies for 2018 N{sub 2}O–N{sub 2}O configurations were computed utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ supplemented with bond functions. A site-site potential function with seven sites per N{sub 2}O molecule was fitted to the pair interaction energies. We validated our PES by computing the second virial coefficient as well as shear viscosity and thermal conductivity in the dilute-gas limit. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data.
Ab initio Study on Ionization Energies of 3-Amino-1-propanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ke-dong; Jia, Ying-bin; Lai, Zhen-jiang; Liu, Yu-fang
2011-06-01
Fourteen conformers of 3-amino-1-propanol as the minima on the potential energy surface are examined at the MP2/6-311++G** level. Their relative energies calculated at B3LYP, MP3 and MP4 levels of theory indicated that two most stable conformers display the intramolecular OH···N hydrogen bonds. The vertical ionization energies of these conformers calculated with ab initio electron propagator theory in the P3/aug-cc-pVTZ approximation are in agreement with experimental data from photoelectron spectroscopy. Natural bond orbital analyses were used to explain the differences of IEs of the highest occupied molecular ortibal of conformers. Combined with statistical mechanics principles, conformational distributions at various temperatures are obtained and the temperature dependence of photoelectron spectra is interpreted.
Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of nitrous oxide.
Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard
2015-06-28
We present an analytical intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) for two rigid nitrous oxide (N2O) molecules derived from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. Interaction energies for 2018 N2O-N2O configurations were computed utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ supplemented with bond functions. A site-site potential function with seven sites per N2O molecule was fitted to the pair interaction energies. We validated our PES by computing the second virial coefficient as well as shear viscosity and thermal conductivity in the dilute-gas limit. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data. PMID:26133428
Yu, Dequan; Chen, Jun; Cong, Shulin; Sun, Zhigang
2015-12-17
The FH2– anion has a stable structure that resembles a configuration in the vicinity of the transition state for neutral reaction F + H2 → HF + H. Electron photodetachment spectra of the FH2– anion reveal the neutral reaction dynamics in the critical transition-state region. Accurate quantum dynamics simulations of the photodetachment spectra using highly accurate new ab initio potential energy surfaces for both anionic and neutral FH2 are performed and compared with all available experimental results. The results provide reliable interpretations for the experimental observations of FH2– photoelectron detachment and reveal a detailed picture of the molecular dynamics around the transition state of the F + H2 reaction. The latest high-resolution photoelectron detachment spectra [Kim et al. Science, 2015, 349, 510-513] confirm the high accuracy of our new potential energy surface for describing the resonance-enhanced reactivity of the neutral F + H2 reaction. PMID:26550683
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokizaki, Chihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki
2016-05-01
The cyclooctatetraene (COT) anion has a stable D4h structure that is similar to the transition state configurations of the neutral C-C bond-alternation (D4h ↔ D8h ↔ D4h) and ring-inversion (D2d ↔ D4h ↔ D2d) unimolecular reactions. The previously measured photodetachment spectrum of COT- revealed the reaction dynamics in the vicinity of the two transition states on the neutral potential energy surface. In this work, the photodetachment spectrum is calculated quantum mechanically on ab initio-level potential energy surfaces within a three degree-of-freedom reduced-dimensionality model. Very good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment, providing reliable interpretations for the experimental spectrum. A detailed picture of the reactive molecular dynamics of the COT unimolecular reaction in the transition state region is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Eshet, Hagai; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele
2010-03-01
An interatomic potential for the diamond and graphite phases of carbon has been created using a neural-network (NN) representation of the ab initio potential energy surface. The NN potential combines the accuracy of a first-principles description of both phases with the efficiency of empirical force fields and allows one to perform a molecular-dynamics study, of ab initio quality, of the thermodynamics of graphite-diamond coexistence. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated coexistence curves is achieved if nuclear quantum effects are included in the simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, D. X. F.; Kumar, Sanjay
2010-08-01
Ab initio global adiabatic as well as quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces for the ground and the first excited electronic states of the H + + CO system have been computed as a function of the Jacobi coordinates ( R, r, γ) using Dunning's cc-pVTZ basis set at the internally contracted multi-reference (single and double) configuration interaction level of accuracy. In addition, nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements arising from radial motion, mixing angle and coupling potential have been computed using the ab initio procedure [Simah et al. (1999) [66
Stacking fault energy of face-centered cubic metals: thermodynamic and ab initio approaches.
Li, Ruihuan; Lu, Song; Kim, Dongyoo; Schönecker, Stephan; Zhao, Jijun; Kwon, Se Kyun; Vitos, Levente
2016-10-01
The formation energy of the interface between face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close packed (hcp) structures is a key parameter in determining the stacking fault energy (SFE) of fcc metals and alloys using thermodynamic calculations. It is often assumed that the contribution of the planar fault energy to the SFE has the same order of magnitude as the bulk part, and thus the lack of precise information about it can become the limiting factor in thermodynamic predictions. Here, we differentiate between the interfacial energy for the coherent fcc(1 1 1)/hcp(0 0 0 1) interface and the 'pseudo-interfacial energy' that enters the thermodynamic expression for the SFE. Using first-principles calculations, we determine the coherent and pseudo-interfacial energies for six elemental metals (Al, Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt, and Au) and three paramagnetic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Our results show that the two interfacial energies significantly differ from each other. We observe a strong chemistry dependence for both interfacial energies. The calculated pseudo-interfacial energies for the Fe-Cr-Ni steels agree well with the available literature data. We discuss the effects of strain on the description of planar faults via thermodynamic and ab initio approaches. PMID:27484794
Direct molecular simulation of nitrogen dissociation based on an ab initio potential energy surface
Valentini, Paolo Schwartzentruber, Thomas E. Bender, Jason D. Nompelis, Ioannis Candler, Graham V.
2015-08-15
The direct molecular simulation (DMS) approach is used to predict the internal energy relaxation and dissociation dynamics of high-temperature nitrogen. An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) is used to calculate the dynamics of two interacting nitrogen molecules by providing forces between the four atoms. In the near-equilibrium limit, it is shown that DMS reproduces the results obtained from well-established quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) analysis, verifying the validity of the approach. DMS is used to predict the vibrational relaxation time constant for N{sub 2}–N{sub 2} collisions and its temperature dependence, which are in close agreement with existing experiments and theory. Using both QCT and DMS with the same PES, we find that dissociation significantly depletes the upper vibrational energy levels. As a result, across a wide temperature range, the dissociation rate is found to be approximately 4–5 times lower compared to the rates computed using QCT with Boltzmann energy distributions. DMS calculations predict a quasi-steady-state distribution of rotational and vibrational energies in which the rate of depletion of high-energy states due to dissociation is balanced by their rate of repopulation due to collisional processes. The DMS approach simulates the evolution of internal energy distributions and their coupling to dissociation without the need to precompute rates or cross sections for all possible energy transitions. These benchmark results could be used to develop new computational fluid dynamics models for high-enthalpy flow applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Mariana; Blum, Volker; Scheffler, Matthias
2012-02-01
Helices are one of the most abundant secondary structure ``building blocks" of polypeptides and proteins. Here, we explore helix stabilization as a function of peptide length and temperature [harmonic approximation to the vibrational free energy (FE)], for the alanine-based peptide, Ac-Alan-LysH^+ n=4-15, in the gas phase. For n=4-8, we predict the lowest energy structures in density-functional theory, using the van der Waals (vdW) corrected[1] PBE exchange-correlation potential. α-helices become the lowest energy structures at n 7-8 on the potential energy surface, but only barely and if including vdW interactions. At finite temperatures, the helices are further stabilized over compact conformers. While the vibrational entropy is the leading stabilizing term at 300 K, also the zero-point-energies favor the helical structures. For n>=8, the α-helix should be the only accessible conformer in the FE surface at 300 K, in agreement with experiment[2] and with our own comparison[3] of calculated ab initio anharmonic IR spectra to experimental IR multiple photon dissociation data for n=5, 10, and 15. [1] Tkatchenko and Scheffler, PRL 102, 073055 (2009); [2] Kohtani and Jarrold, JACS 108, 8454 (2004); [3] Rossi et al., JPCL 1, 3465 (2010).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jensen, Per; Li, Yan; Hirsch, Gerhard; Buenker, Robert J.; Lee, Timothy J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
We report an ab initio investigation of the cluster effect (i.e., the formation of nearly degenerate, four member groups of rotation-vibration energy levels at higher J and K(sub a). values) in the H2Te molecule. The potential energy function has been calculated ab initio at a total of 334 molecular geometries by means of the CCSD(T) method where the (1s-4f) core electrons of Te were described by an effective core potential. The values of the potential energy function obtained cover the region up to around 10,000/cm above the equilibrium energy. On the basis of the ab initio potential, the rotation-vibration energy spectra of H2Te-130 and its deuterated isotopomers have been calculated with the MORBID (Morse Oscillator Rigid Bender Internal Dynamics) Hamiltonian and computer program. In particular, we have calculated the rotational energy manifolds for J less than or = 40 in the vibrational ground state, the upsilon(sub 2) state, the "first triad" (the upsilon(sub l)/upsilon(sub 3)/2upsilon(sub 2) interacting vibrational states), and the "second triad" (the upsilon(sub 1) + upsilon(sub 2/upsilon(sub 2) + upsilon(sub 3)/3upsilon(sub 2) states) of H2Te-130. We find that the cluster formation in H2Te is very similar to those of of H2Se and H2S, which we have studied previously. However, contrary to semiclassical predictions, we do not determine any significant displacement of the clusters towards lower J values relative to H2Se. Hence the experimental observation of the cluster states in H2Te will be at least as difficult as in H2Se.
Potential energy surface and second virial coefficient of methane-water from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2005-10-01
Six-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the interaction of CH4 with H2O are presented, obtained from ab initio calculations using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) at two different levels of intramonomer correlation and the supermolecular approach at three different levels of electron correlation. Both CH4 and H2O are assumed to be rigid molecules with interatomic distances and angles fixed at the average values in the ground-state vibration. A physically motivated analytical expression for each PES has been developed as a sum of site-site functions. The PES of the CH4-H2O dimer has only two symmetry-distinct minima. From the SAPT calculations, the global minimum has an energy of -1.03kcal /mol at a geometry where H2O is the proton donor, HO -H⋯CH4, with the O-H-C angle of 165°, while the secondary minimum, with an energy of -0.72kcal/mol, has CH4 in the role of the proton donor (H3C -H⋯OH2). We estimated the complete basis set limit of the SAPT interaction energy at the global minimum to be -1.06kcal/mol. The classical cross second virial coefficient B12(T) has been calculated for the temperature range 298-653K. Our best results agree well with some experiments, allowing an evaluation of the quality of experimental results.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of threshold displacement energies in SrTiO3
Liu, Bin; Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Weber, William J
2013-01-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study low-energy recoil events in SrTiO3. The threshold displacement energies are shown to be strongly dependent on both the orientation and the corresponding atomic arrangement. The minimum threshold displacement energies are 13 eV for an O recoil along the <100> O-O chain, 25 eV for a Sr recoil along the <100> Sr-Sr chain and 38 eV for a Ti recoil along the <110> Ti-Ti chain. The weighted average threshold displacement energies along the primary crystallographic directions are 35.7, 53.5 and > 64.9 eV for O, Sr and Ti, respectively. The interstitial configurations produced by the recoil events are <100> and <111> split-interstitials for O and Sr, respectively, together with a Ti interstitial occupying a distorted bridge position between two Sr sites. It is found that the recoil events in SrTiO3 are partial- charge transfer assisted processes, and the partial- charge transfer plays an important role in these recoil events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieterich, Johannes M.; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Mata, Ricardo A.; Metz, Sebastian; Thiel, Walter
2010-01-01
Energy and free energy barriers for acetaldehyde conversion in aldehyde oxidoreductase are determined for three reaction pathways using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations on the solvated enzyme. Ab initio single-point QM/MM energies are obtained at the stationary points optimized at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level. These ab initio calculations employ local correlation treatments [LMP2 and LCCSD(T0)] in combination with augmented triple- and quadruple-zeta basis sets, and the final coupled cluster results include MP2-based corrections for basis set incompleteness and for the domain approximation. Free energy perturbation (FEP) theory is used to generate free energy profiles at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level for the most important reaction steps by sampling along the corresponding reaction paths using molecular dynamics. The ab initio and FEP QM/MM results are combined to derive improved estimates of the free energy barriers, which differ from the corresponding DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy barriers by about 3 kcal mol-1. The present results confirm the qualitative mechanistic conclusions from a previous DFT(B3LYP)/MM study. Most favorable is a three-step Lewis base catalyzed mechanism with an initial proton transfer from the cofactor to the Glu869 residue, a subsequent nucleophilic attack that yields a tetrahedral intermediate (IM2), and a final rate-limiting hydride transfer. The competing metal center activated pathway has the same final step but needs to overcome a higher barrier in the initial step on the route to IM2. The concerted mechanism has the highest free energy barrier and can be ruled out. While confirming the qualitative mechanistic scenario proposed previously on the basis of DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy profiles, the present ab initio and FEP QM/MM calculations provide corrections to the barriers that are important when aiming at high accuracy.
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-01
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green's function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces.
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry.
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-28
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green's function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces. PMID:26723581
Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard
2008-06-01
A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid methane molecules was determined from high-level quantum-mechanical ab initio computations. A total of 272 points for 17 different angular orientations on the PES were calculated utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory with basis sets of aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ qualities. The calculated interaction energies were extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. An analytical site-site potential function with nine sites per methane molecule was fitted to the interaction energies. In addition, a semiempirical correction to the analytical potential function was introduced to take into account the effects of zero-point vibrations. This correction includes adjustments of the dispersion coefficients and of a single-parameter within the fit to the measured values of the second virial coefficient B(T) at room temperature. Quantitative agreement was then obtained with the measured B values over the whole temperature range of the measurements. The calculated B values should definitely be more reliable at very low temperatures (T<150 K) than values extrapolated using the currently recommended equation of state. PMID:18537418
Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of hydrogen sulfide.
Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard; Vesovic, Velisa
2011-08-14
A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid hydrogen sulfide molecules was determined from high-level quantum-mechanical ab initio computations. A total of 4016 points for 405 different angular orientations of two molecules were calculated utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory and extrapolating the calculated interaction energies to the complete basis set limit. An analytical site-site potential function with eleven sites per hydrogen sulfide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies. The PES has been validated by computing the second pressure virial coefficient, shear viscosity, thermal conductivity and comparing with the available experimental data. The calculated values of volume viscosity were not used to validate the potential as the low accuracy of the available data precluded such an approach. The second pressure virial coefficient was evaluated by means of the Takahashi and Imada approach, while the transport properties, in the dilute limit, were evaluated by utilizing the classical trajectory method. In general, the agreement with the primary experimental data is within the experimental error for temperatures higher than 300 K. For lower temperatures the lack of reliable data indicates that the values of the second pressure virial coefficient and of the transport properties calculated in this work are currently the most accurate estimates for the thermophysical properties of hydrogen sulfide. PMID:21720616
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-28
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green’s function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces.
Oreshko, A P; Ovchinnikova, E N; Beutier, G; Collins, S P; Nisbet, G; Kolchinskaya, A M; Dmitrienko, V E
2012-06-20
Thermal-motion induced (TMI) scattering is caused by the influence of atomic displacements on electronic states in crystals and strongly depends on temperature. It corresponds to dipole-dipole resonant x-ray scattering, but is usually accompanied by dipole-quadrupole scattering. The phenomenological theory supposes the dipole-quadrupole term to be temperature independent (TI). As a result, the transformation of the energy spectra with temperature observed experimentally in ZnO and GaN corresponds to the interference between the TMI and TI terms. In the present paper the direct confirmation of this theoretical prediction is given. Ab initio molecular dynamics was used to simulate the sets of atomic sites at various temperatures followed by quantum mechanical calculation of resonant Bragg reflection energy spectra. The results of simulation are in excellent coincidence with experimental energy spectra of forbidden reflections and confirm the earlier phenomenological conjecture about the interference between the TI dipole-quadrupole and TMI dipole-dipole contributions to the resonant atomic factor. PMID:22627099
Ab initio nuclear structure theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negoita, Gianina Alina
Ab initio no core methods have become major tools for understanding the properties of light nuclei based on realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) interactions. A brief description is provided for the inter-nucleon interactions that fit two-body scattering and bound state data, as well as NNN interactions. Major new progress, including the goal of applying these interactions to solve for properties of nuclei, is limited by convergence issues. That is, with the goal of obtaining high precision solutions of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian with no core methods (all nucleons treated on the same footing), one needs to proceed to very large basis spaces to achieve a convergence pattern suitable for extrapolation to the exact result. This thesis investigates (1) the similarity renormalization group (SRG) approach to soften the interaction, while preserving its phase shift properties, and (2) adoption of a realistic basis space using Woods-Saxon (WS) single-particle wavefunctions. Both have their advantages and limitations, discussed here. For (1), SRG was demonstrated by applying it to a realistic NN interaction, JISP16, in a harmonic oscillator (HO) representation. The degree of interaction softening achieved through a regulator parameter is examined. For (2), new results are obtained with the realistic JISP16 NN interaction in ab initio calculations of light nuclei 4He, 6He and 12C, using a WS basis optimized to minimize the ground-state energy within the truncated no core shell model. These are numerically-intensive many-body calculations. Finally, to gain insight into the potential for no core investigations of heavier nuclei, an initial investigation was obtained for the odd mass A = 47 - 49 region nuclei straddling 48Ca. The motivation for selecting these nuclei stems from the aim of preparing for nuclear double beta-decay studies of 48Ca. In these heavier systems, phenomenological additions to the realistic NN interaction determined by previous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Per; Buenker, Robert J.; Hirsch, Gerhard; Rai, Sachchida N.
We have calculated ab initio the three-dimensional potential-energy surface of the NH2 molecule at 145 nuclear geometries spanning energy ranges of about 18 000 cm-1 for the NH stretch and 12 000 cm-1 for the bend. The ab initio configuration-interaction calculations were done using the multireference MRD-CI method. The calculated equilibrium configuration has NH bond length re = 1·0207 Å and bond angle α = 103·1°. The rotational-vibrational energies for 14NH2, 14NHD and 14ND2 were calculated variationally using the Morse-oscillator rigid-bender internal-dynamics Hamiltonian. For 14NH2 we calculate that υ1 = 3267 (3219) cm-1, υ2 = 1462 (1497) cm-1 and υ3 = 3283 (3301) cm-1, where experimental values are given in parentheses.
Ab initio approach to effective single-particle energies in doubly closed shell nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duguet, T.; Hagen, G.
2012-03-01
The present work discusses, from an ab initio standpoint, the definition, the meaning, and the usefulness of effective single-particle energies (ESPEs) in doubly closed shell nuclei. We perform coupled-cluster calculations to quantify to what extent selected closed-shell nuclei in the oxygen and calcium isotopic chains can effectively be mapped onto an effective independent-particle picture. To do so, we revisit in detail the notion of ESPEs in the context of strongly correlated many-nucleon systems and illustrate the necessity of extracting ESPEs through the diagonalization of the centroid matrix, as originally argued by Baranger. For the purpose of illustration, we analyze the impact of correlations on observable one-nucleon separation energies and nonobservable ESPEs in selected closed-shell oxygen and calcium isotopes. We then state and illustrate the nonobservability of ESPEs. Similarly to spectroscopic factors, ESPEs can indeed be modified by a redefinition of inaccessible quantities while leaving actual observables unchanged. This leads to the absolute necessity of employing consistent structure and reaction models based on the same nuclear Hamiltonian to extract the shell structure in a meaningful fashion from experimental data.
Rahal-Sekkal, Majda; Sekkal, Nezha; Kleb, Dirk C; Bleckmann, Paul
2003-05-01
Optimized geometries and total energies of some conformers of alpha- and beta-D-galactose have been calculated using the RHF/6-31G* ab initio method. Vibrational frequencies were computed at the 6-31G* level for the conformers that favor internal hydrogen bonding, in order to evaluate their enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs free energies, and then their structural stabilities. The semiempirical AM1, PM3, MNDO methods have also been performed on the conformers GG, GT, and TG of alpha- and beta-D-galactose. In order to test the reliability of each semiempirical method, the obtained structures and energies from the AM1, PM3, and MNDO methods have been compared to those achieved using the RHF/6-31G* ab initio method. The MNDO method has not been investigated further, because of the large deviation in the structural parameters compared with those obtained by the ab initio method for the galactose. The semiempirical method that has yielded the best results is AM1, and it has been chosen to perform structural and energy calculations on the galabiose molecule (the disaccharides constituted by two galactose units alpha 1,4 linked). The goal of such calculations is to draw the energy surface maps for this disaccharide. To realize each map, 144 different possible conformations resulting from the rotations of the two torsional angles psi and phi of the glycosidic linkage are considered. In each calculation, at each increment of psi and phi, using a step of 30 degrees from 0 to 330 degrees, the energy optimization is employed. In this article, we report also calculations concerning the galabiose molecule using different ab initio levels such as RHF/6-31G*, RHF/6-31G**, and B3Lyp/6-31G*. PMID:12692790
Skokov, S.; Peterson, K.A.; Bowman, J.M.
1998-08-01
Accurate {ital ab initio} multireference configuration interaction (CI) calculations with large correlation-consistent basis sets are performed for HOCl. After extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, the {ital ab initio} data are precisely fit to give a semiglobal three-dimensional potential energy surface to describe HOCl{r_arrow}Cl+OH from high overtone excitation of the OH-stretch. The average absolute deviation between the {ital ab initio} and fitted energies is 4.2thinspcm{sup {minus}1} for energies up to 60 kcal/mol relative to the HOCl minimum. Vibrational energies of HOCl including the six overtones of the OH-stretch are computed using a vibrational-Cl method on the fitted potential and also on a slightly adjusted potential. Near-spectroscopic accuracy is obtained using the adjusted potential; the average absolute deviation between theory and experiment for 19 experimentally reported states is 4.8thinspcm{sup {minus}1}. Very good agreement with experiment is also obtained for numerous rotational energies for the ground vibrational state, the ClO-stretch fundamental, and the fifth overtone of the OH-stretch. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Muratov, L.S.; Cooper, B.R.; Wills, J.M.
1999-07-01
Vacancy formation and clustering significantly affect structural properties of transition-metal aluminides. Ab-initio quantum mechanical total-energy calculations using a full-potential linear combination of muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) technique provide a convenient method of studying relevant characteristics such as changes in density of states, and charge redistribution around defects. Augmented with Hellmann-Feymann forces, LMTO allows calculations of relaxation geometries and relaxation energies. The authors have performed such calculations for vacancies and antisite substitutional point defects in Fe{sub 3}Al with DO{sub 3} crystallographic structure. There are two limiting factors complicating calculations of defect formation energies directly from ab-initio calculations. The first is that a single defect, due to the lattice periodicity necessitated by the use of ab-initio total energy techniques, cannot be considered as an isolated defect, even in the maximum computable simulation cell. The second complication is the fact that chemical potentials of elements cannot be directly extracted from the total energy calculations for the compound. To deal with this problem, the authors considered two possible approximations and compared results, which were found to be quite similar for iron vacancies.
Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.
Pluharova, Eva; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel
2014-07-03
Understanding specific ion effects on proteins remains a considerable challenge. N-methylacetamide serves as a useful proxy for the protein backbone that can be well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The spectroscopic signatures in the amide I band reflecting the strength of the interaction of alkali cations and alkali earth dications with the carbonyl group remain difficult to assign and controversial to interpret. Herein, we directly compute the IR shifts corresponding to the binding of either sodium or calcium to aqueous N-methylacetamide using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the two cations interact with aqueous N-methylacetamide with different affinities and in different geometries. Since sodium exhibits a weak interaction with the carbonyl group, the resulting amide I band is similar to an unperturbed carbonyl group undergoing aqueous solvation. In contrast, the stronger calcium binding results in a clear IR shift with respect to N-methylacetamide in pure water. Support from the Czech Ministry of Education (grant LH12001) is gratefully acknowledged. EP thanks the International Max-Planck Research School for support and the Alternative Sponsored Fellowship program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PJ acknowledges the Praemium Academie award from the Academy of Sciences. Calculations of the free energy profiles were made possible through generous allocation of computer time from the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). Calculations of vibrational spectra were performed in part using the computational resources in the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant CHE-0431312. CJM is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. PNNL is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. MDB is
An ab initio potential energy surface and dynamics of the Ar+H2+ → ArH + + H reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xinguo; Liu, Huirong; Zhang, Qinggang
2011-04-01
An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state (1 2A') of the chemical reaction Ar+H2+ → ArH + + H has been constructed from a set of accurate ab initio data, which we have computed using the coupled-cluster theory including all single and double excitations plus perturbative corrections for the triples UCCSD(T) with a large orbital basis set of aug-cc-pV5Z. The new PES has a root-mean-square (rms) error of 0.5341 kcal/mol. The total integral reaction cross-sections have been calculated at three collision energies by means of the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculation based on the new PES and compared with previous TSH results.
Optimized energy landscape exploration using the ab initio based activation-relaxation technique.
Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Béland, Laurent Karim; Caliste, Damien; Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal
2011-07-21
Unbiased open-ended methods for finding transition states are powerful tools to understand diffusion and relaxation mechanisms associated with defect diffusion, growth processes, and catalysis. They have been little used, however, in conjunction with ab initio packages as these algorithms demanded large computational effort to generate even a single event. Here, we revisit the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and introduce a two-step convergence to the saddle point, combining the previously used Lanczós algorithm with the direct inversion in interactive subspace scheme. This combination makes it possible to generate events (from an initial minimum through a saddle point up to a final minimum) in a systematic fashion with a net 300-700 force evaluations per successful event. ART nouveau is coupled with BigDFT, a Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure code using a wavelet basis set with excellent efficiency on parallel computation, and applied to study the potential energy surface of C(20) clusters, vacancy diffusion in bulk silicon, and reconstruction of the 4H-SiC surface. PMID:21786982
Zhao, Hailiang; Pierloot, Kristine; Langner, Ernie H G; Swarts, Jannie C; Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik
2012-04-01
Manganese(V)-oxo corrole and corrolazine have been studied with ab initio multiconfiguration reference methods (CASPT2 and RASPT2) and large atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets. The calculations confirm the expected singlet d(δ)(2) ground states for both complexes and rule out excited states within 0.5 eV of the ground states. The lowest excited states are a pair of Mn(V) triplet states with d(δ)(1)d(π)(1) configurations 0.5-0.75 eV above the ground state. Manganese(IV)-oxo macrocycle radical states are much higher in energy, ≥1.0 eV relative to the ground state. The macrocyclic ligands in the ground states of the complexes are thus unambiguously 'innocent'. The approximate similarity of the spin state energetics of the corrole and corrolazine complexes suggests that the latter macrocycle on its own does not afford any special stabilization for the Mn(V)O center. The remarkable stability of an Mn(V)O octaarylcorrolazine thus appears to be ascribable to the steric protection afforded by the β-aryl groups. PMID:22432719
AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS
Turchi, P A
2004-04-14
Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Autrey, Daniel; Choo, Jaebum; Laane, Jaan
2000-10-01
The ring-twisting vibration of 1,3-cyclohexadiene has been studied using Raman and infrared spectroscopy of the molecule in the vapor phase. The Raman spectrum shows five ring-twisting transitions in the 150 - 200 cm-1 region. The far-infrared spectrum shows only two transitions for this vibration, which is infrared forbidden in the C_2v (planar) approximation. Three ring-twisting combination bands were also observed off a fundamental vibration at 926.1 cm-1. A coordinate dependent kinetic energy expansion for the ring-twisting motion was calculated, and this was used to determine the ring-twisting potential function. Ab initio calculations were performed using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) using different basis sets. The barrier to planarity of 1150 cm-1 was determined from the spectroscopic data. The various ab initio calculations gave barriers to planarity in the 1197 - 1593 cm-1 range.
Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredkin, Donald R.; Komornicki, Andrew; White, Steven R.; Wilson, Kent R.
1983-06-01
We discuss several ways in which molecular absorption and scattering spectra can be computed ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature. These methods can be divided into two general categories. In the first, or sequential, type of approach, one first solves the electronic part of the Schrödinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, mapping out the potential energy, dipole moment vector (for infrared absorption) and polarizability tensor (for Raman scattering) as functions of nuclear coordinates. Having completed the electronic part of the calculation, one then solves the nuclear part of the problem either classically or quantum mechanically. As an example of the sequential ab initio approach, the infrared and Raman rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed in the simplest rigid rotor, normal mode approximation. Quantum techniques are used to calculate the necessary potential energy, dipole moment, and polarizability information at the equilibrium geometry. A new quick, accurate, and easy to program classical technique involving no reference to Euler angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman band contours for any rigid rotor, including asymmetric tops. A second, or simultaneous, type of ab initio approach is suggested for large systems, particularly those for which normal mode analysis is inappropriate, such as liquids, clusters, or floppy molecules. Then the curse of dimensionality prevents mapping out in advance the complete potential, dipole moment, and polarizability functions over the whole space of nuclear positions of all atoms, and a solution in which the electronic and nuclear parts of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are simultaneously solved is needed. A quantum force classical trajectory (QFCT) molecular dynamic method, based on linear response theory, is described, in which the forces, dipole moment, and polarizability are computed quantum
Quantal Study of the Exchange Reaction for N + N2 using an ab initio Potential Energy Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Dunyou; Stallcop, James R.; Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The N + N2 exchange rate is calculated using a time-dependent quantum dynamics method on a newly determined ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the ground A" state. This ab initio PES shows a double barrier feature in the interaction region with the barrier height at 47.2 kcal/mol, and a shallow well between these two barriers, with the minimum at 43.7 kcal/mol. A quantum dynamics wave packet calculation has been carried out using the fitted PES to compute the cumulative reaction probability for the exchange reaction of N + N2(J=O). The J - K shift method is then employed to obtain the rate constant for this reaction. The calculated rate constant is compared with experimental data and a recent quasi-classical calculation using a LEPS PES. Significant differences are found between the present and quasiclassical results. The present rate calculation is the first accurate 3D quantal dynamics study for N + N2 reaction system and the ab initio PES reported here is the first such surface for N3.
Collective rotation from ab initio theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprio, Mark A.; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.
2015-10-01
The challenge of ab initio nuclear theory is to quantitatively predict the complex and highly-correlated behavior of the nuclear many-body system, starting from the underlying internucleon interactions. We may now seek to understand the wealth of nuclear collective phenomena through ab initio approaches. No-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei give rise to rotational bands, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. In this talk, the intrinsic structure of these bands is discussed, and the predicted rotational bands are compared to experiment. Supported by the US DOE under Award Nos. DE-FG02-95ER-40934, DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI), and DE-FG02-87ER40371 and the US NSF under Award No. 0904782. Computational resources provided by NERSC (US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231).
Muratov, L.S.; Cooper, B.R.; Wills, J.M.
1999-03-01
Vacancy formation and clustering significantly affect structural properties of transition-metal aluminides. Ab-initio quantum mechanical total-energy calculations using a full-potential linear combination of muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) technique provide a convenient method of studying relevant characteristics such as changes in density of states, and charge redistribution around defects. Augmented with Hellmann-Feymann forces, LMTO allows calculations of relaxation geometries and relaxation energies. The authors have performed such calculations for vacancies and antisite substitutional point defects in Fe{sub 3}Al with DO{sub 3} crystallographic structure. There are two limiting factors complicating calculations of defect formation energies directly from ab-initio calculations. The first is that a single defect, due to the lattice periodicity necessitated by the use of ab-initio total energy techniques, cannot be considered as an isolated defect, even in the maximum computable simulation cell. Unlike previous calculations, which did not find a dependency on the size of the simulation cell, the calculations have shown a significant difference in results for 32- and 16- atom cells. This difference provides information about vacancy clustering since it can be explained by a relatively small attractive interaction energy {approximately} 0.2 eV between two vacancies located in adjacent simulation cells and separated by the lattice constant distance (5.52 {angstrom}). By comparing the internal energies for two configurations of 30 atom cells (32 atom--2 vacancies), the authors were able to estimate that the attractive interaction between two vacancies could reach 1.2 eV. The second complication is the fact that chemical potentials of elements cannot be directly extracted from the total energy calculations for the compound. To deal with this problem, they considered two possible approximations and compared results, which were found to be quite similar for iron vacancies.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in ceramics
Gao, Fei; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.
2011-07-15
The recent progress in the use of large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to investigate low energy recoil events and determine threshold displacement energies, Ed, in ceramics is reviewed. In general, Ed shows a significant dependence on recoil direction and atom. In 3C-SiC, the minimum Ed for both C and Si atoms is found along the <100> direction, with a value of 20 and 49 eV, respectively. The results demonstrate that significant charge transfer occurs during the dynamics process, and defects can enhance charge transfer to surrounding atoms, which provides important insights into the formation of charged defects. It is found that the C vacancy is a positively charged defect, whereas the Si vacancy is in its neutral state. The minimum Ed in GaN is determined to be 17 and 39 eV for N and Ga atoms, respectively, both along the direction. The average Ed for N atoms (32.4 eV) is smaller than that for Ga atoms (73.2 eV). It is of interest to note that the N defects created along different crystallographic directions have a similar configuration (a N-N dumbbell configuration), but various configurations for Ga defects are formed. In Y2Ti2O7 prochlore, the minimum Ed for Y atoms is determined to be 27 eV for a recoil along the <100> direction, 31.5 eV for Ti atoms along the <100> direction, 14.5 eV for O48f atoms along the <110> direction and 13 eV for O8b atoms along the <111> direction. The average Ed values determined are 32.7, 34.2, 14.2 and 16.1 eV for yttrium, titanium, O48f and O8b atoms, respectively. Cation interstitials at vacant 8a sites, which are generally occupied by oxygen anions, and at the bridge sites between two neighboring cations along the <010> direction are observed after low energy recoil events.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in ceramics
Gao, Fei; Xiao, Haiyan; Weber, William J
2011-01-01
The recent progress in the use of large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to investigate low energy recoil events and determine threshold displacement energies, Ed, in ceramics is reviewed. In general, Ed shows a significant dependence on recoil direction and atom. In SiC, the minimum Ed for both C and Si atoms is found along the <100> direction, with a value of 20 and 49 eV, respectively. The results demonstrate that significant charge transfer occurs during the dynamics process, and defects can enhance charge transfer to surrounding atoms, which provides important insights into the formation of charged defects. It is found that the C vacancy is a positively charged defect, whereas the Si vacancy is in its neutral state. The minimum Ed in GaN is determined to be 17 and 39 eV for N and Ga atoms, respectively, both along the direction. The average Ed for N atoms (32.4 eV) is smaller than that for Ga atoms (73.2 eV). It is of interest to note that the N defects created along different crystallographic directions have a similar configuration (a N-N dumbbell configuration), but various configurations for Ga defects are formed. In Y2Ti2O7 prochlore, the minimum Ed for Y atoms is determined to be 27 eV for a recoil along the <100> direction, 31.5 eV for Ti atoms along the <100> direction, 14.5 eV for O48f atoms along the <110> direction and 13 eV for O8b atoms along the <111> direction. The average Ed values determined are 32.7, 34.2, 14.2 and 16.1 eV for yttrium, titanium, O48f and O8b atoms, respectively. Cation interstitials at vacant 8a sites, which are generally occupied by oxygen anions, and at the bridge sites between two neighboring cations along the <010> direction are observed after low energy recoil events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yu-Zhi; Li, Yong-Qing; Gao, Shou-Bao; Meng, Qing-Tian
2014-01-01
A globally accurate potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground-state HLi2 by fitting ab initio energies to double many-body expansion formalism. The total 3726 ab initio energies used to map the HLi2 potential energy surface are calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction method, with their dynamical correlation being semiempirically corrected by the double many-body expansion-scaled external correlation method. The current potential energy surface generates an excellent fit of the ab initio energies, showing a small root-mean squared derivation of 0.636 kcal mol-1. The topographical features of the HLi2 potential energy surface are examined in detail, which concludes that the H + Li2(X 1Σg) → Li + LiH(X 1Σ) reaction is essentially barrierless and the exothermicity is calculated to be 33.668 kcal mol-1, thus corroborates the available experimental and theoretical results.
AB INITIO Modeling of Thermomechanical Properties of Mo-Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Conversion
Ching, Wai-Yim
2013-12-31
In this final scientific/technical report covering the period of 3.5 years started on July 1, 2011, we report the accomplishments on the study of thermo-mechanical properties of Mo-based intermetallic compounds under NETL support. These include computational method development, physical properties investigation of Mo-based compounds and alloys. The main focus is on the mechanical and thermo mechanical properties at high temperature since these are the most crucial properties for their potential applications. In particular, recent development of applying ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations to the T1 (Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}) and T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}) phases are highlighted for alloy design in further improving their properties.
Kalemos, Apostolos; Prosmiti, Rita
2014-09-14
We present for the first time a coherent ab initio study of 39 states of valence, Rydberg, and ion-pair character of the diatomic interhalogen ICl species through large scale multireference variational methods including spin-orbit effects coupled with quantitative basis sets. Various avoided crossings are responsible for a non-adiabatic behaviour creating a wonderful vista for its theoretical description. Our molecular constants are compared with all available experimental data with the aim to assist experimentalists especially in the high energy regime of up to ∼95 000 cm{sup −1}.
Plotnikov, Nikolay; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn; Warshel, Arieh
2011-01-01
Recent years have seen tremendous effort in the development of approaches with which to obtain quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) free energies for reactions in the condensed phase. Nevertheless, there remain significant challenges to address, particularly the high computational cost involved in performing proper configurational sampling and in particular in obtaining ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free energy surfaces. One increasingly popular approach that seems to offer an ideal way to progress in this direction is the elegant metadynamics (MTD) approach. However, in the current work we point out the subtle efficiency problems associated with this approach, and illustrate that we have at hand what is arguably a more powerful approach. More specifically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of an updated version of our original idea of using a classical reference potential for QM(ai)/MM calculations [J. Phys. Chem. B. 102 (1998), 2293)], which we refer to as “paradynamics” (PD). This approach is based on the use of an empirical valence bond (EVB) reference potential, which is already similar to the real ab initio potential. The reference potential is fitted to the ab initio potential by an iterative and, to a great degree, automated refinement procedure. The corresponding free energy profile is then constructed using the refined EVB potential, and the linear response approximation (LRA) is used to evaluate the QM(ai)/MM activation free energy barrier. The automated refinement of the EVB surface (and thus the reduction of the difference between the reference and ab initio potentials) is a key factor in accelerating the convergence of the LRA approach. We apply our PD approach to a test reaction, namely the SN2 reaction between chloride ion and methyl chloride, and demonstrate that, at present, this approach is far more powerful and cost effective than the metadynamics approach (at least in its current implementation). We also discuss the general features
Wong, Kim F.; Sonnenberg, Jason L.; Paesani, Francesco; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Vaníček, Jiří; Zhang, Wei; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Case, David A.; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Miller, William H.; Voth, Gregory A.
2010-01-01
The rates of intramolecular proton transfer are calculated on a full-dimensional reactive electronic potential energy surface that incorporates high level ab initio calculations along the reaction path and by using classical Transition State theory, Path-Integral Quantum Transition State Theory, and the Quantum Instanton approach. The specific example problem studied is malonaldehyde. Estimates of the kinetic isotope effect using the latter two methods are found to be in reasonable agreement with each other. Improvements and extensions of this practical, yet chemically accurate framework for the calculations of quantized, reactive dynamics are also discussed. PMID:21116485
Peterson, Charles; Penchoff, Deborah A.; Wilson, Angela K.
2015-11-21
An effective approach for the determination of lanthanide energetics, as demonstrated by application to the third ionization energy (in the gas phase) for the first half of the lanthanide series, has been developed. This approach uses a combination of highly correlated and fully relativistic ab initio methods to accurately describe the electronic structure of heavy elements. Both scalar and fully relativistic methods are used to achieve an approach that is both computationally feasible and accurate. The impact of basis set choice and the number of electrons included in the correlation space has also been examined.
Lesinski, T.; Meyer, J.
2006-10-15
We study the effect of the splitting of neutron and proton effective masses with isospin asymmetry on the properties of the Skyrme energy density functional. We discuss the ability of the latter to predict observables of infinite matter and finite nuclei, paying particular attention to controlling the agreement with ab initio predictions of the spin-isospin content of the nuclear equation of state, as well as diagnosing the onset of finite size instabilities, which we find to be of critical importance. We show that these various constraints cannot be simultaneously fulfilled by the standard Skyrme force, calling at least for an extension of its P-wave part.
Communication: A benchmark-quality, full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for Ar-HOCO
Conte, Riccardo E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu; Bowman, Joel M. E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu; Houston, Paul L.
2014-04-21
A full-dimensional, global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the Ar-HOCO system is presented. The PES consists of a previous intramolecular ab initio PES for HOCO [J. Li, C. Xie, J. Ma, Y. Wang, R. Dawes, D. Xie, J. M. Bowman, and H. Guo, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5057 (2012)], plus a new permutationally invariant interaction potential based on fitting 12 432 UCCSD(T)-F12a/aVDZ counterpoise-corrected energies. The latter has a total rms fitting error of about 25 cm{sup −1} for fitted interaction energies up to roughly 12 000 cm{sup −1}. Two additional fits are presented. One is a novel very compact permutational invariant representation, which contains terms only involving the Ar-atom distances. The rms fitting error for this fit is 193 cm{sup −1}. The other fit is the widely used pairwise one. The pairwise fit to the entire data set has an rms fitting error of 427 cm{sup −1}. All of these potentials are used in preliminary classical trajectory calculations of energy transfer with a focus on comparisons with the results using the benchmark potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier, F. George D.; Kumar, Sanjay
2010-10-01
Ab initio global adiabatic and quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces of lowest four electronic (1-4 A3″) states of the H++O2 system have been computed in the Jacobi coordinates (R,r,γ) using Dunning's cc-pVTZ basis set at the internally contracted multireference (single and double) configuration interaction level of accuracy, which are relevant to the dynamics studies of inelastic vibrational and charge transfer processes observed in the scattering experiments. The computed equilibrium geometry parameters of the bound [HO2]+ ion in the ground electronic state and other parameters for the transition state for the isomerization process, HOO+⇌OOH+ are in good quantitative agreement with those available from the high level ab initio calculations, thus lending credence to the accuracy of the potential energy surfaces. The nonadiabatic couplings between the electronic states have been analyzed in both the adiabatic and quasidiabatic frameworks by computing the nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements and the coupling potentials, respectively. It is inferred that the dynamics of energy transfer processes in the scattering experiments carried out in the range of 9.5-23 eV would involve all the four electronic states.
Zhang, Chunfang; Fu, Mingkai; Shen, Zhitao; Ma, Haitao; Bian, Wensheng
2014-06-21
A new global ab initio potential energy surface (called ZMB-a) for the 1(1)A' state of the C((1)D)+H2 reactive system has been constructed. This is based upon ab initio calculations using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set, performed at about 6300 symmetry unique geometries. Accurate analytical fits are generated using many-body expansions with the permutationally invariant polynomials, except that the fit of the deep well region is taken from our previous fit. The ZMB-a surface is unique in the accurate description of the regions around conical intersections (CIs) and of van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The CIs between the 1(1)A' and 2(1)A' states cause two kinds of barriers on the ZMB-a surface: one is in the linear H-CH dissociation direction with a barrier height of 9.07 kcal/mol, which is much higher than those on the surfaces reported before; the other is in the C((1)D) collinearly attacking H2 direction with a barrier height of 12.39 kcal/mol. The ZMB-a surface basically reproduces our ab initio calculations in the vdW interaction regions, and supports a linear C-HH vdW complex in the entrance channel, and two vdW complexes in the exit channel, at linear CH-H and HC-H geometries, respectively. PMID:24952535
Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2.
Koput, Jacek
2016-10-01
The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3 = 16 state. PMID:27481562
Ab initio phonon limited transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstraete, Matthieu
We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1988-01-01
Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F+H2 yields HF+H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F + H2 yields HF + H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F + H2 yields HF + H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F+H2 yields HF+H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
Wang, Zhongquan; Feng, Eryin; Yu, Haijun; Zhang, Chunzao; Du, Jianming
2011-01-01
A new high quality three-dimensional potential energy surface for the Ne–CO van der Waals complex is developed using the CCSD(T) method and avqz/avqz+33221 basis set. The ab initio calculation is performed in a total of 1365 configurations with supermolecule method. There is a single global minimum located in a nearly T-shaped geometry. The global minimum energy is −49.4090 cm−1 at Re =6.40a0 and θe =82.5° for V00 . Using the three-dimensional potential energy surface, we have calculated bound rovibrational energy levels up to J = 10 including the Coriolis coupling terms. Compared with the experimental transition frequencies, the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21241112
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.
1986-01-01
The discovery of cyclopropenylidene in space suggests that other C3H2 isomers may be present, and a tentative detection of one such isomer, propargylene (HCCCH), has been reported. Ab initio molecular orbital theory has been used to characterize five low-lying, metastable isomers of cyclopropenylidene. Extended calculations including the electron correlation energy, show that the lowest in energy is singlet propadienylidene, followed by propargylene; the singlet and triplet of the latter are too close in energy to allow an assignment of the ground state; triplet propadienylidene is at a significantly higher energy. Rotational frequencies computed to an expected accuracy of + or - 1 -2 percent do not confirm the tentative detection of propargylene in space, although the discrepancy between theory and the observation is not so great as to unequivocally rule out this possibility.
Ab Initio Neutron Drops with Chiral Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potter, Hugh; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James
2015-04-01
Ab initio calculations for neutron drops are of interest for insights into neutron-rich nuclei and neutron star matter, and for examining the neutron-only sector of nucleon-nucleon and 3-nucleon interactions. I present ab initio results calculated using the no-core shell model with 2- and 3-body chiral Hamiltonians for neutron drops up to 20 neutrons confined in a 10 MeV harmonic trap. I discuss ground state energies, internal energies, radii, and evidence for pairing. In addition, excitation energies can be used to investigate the spin-orbit splittings in the p-shell and sd -shell. Prior Green's Function Monte Carlo calculations using the Argonne v8' potential with added 3-nucleon forces serve as a comparison. Supported by DOE Grants DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI), DE-FG02-87ER40371, and NSF Grant 0904782; computational resources provided by the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (DOE Office of Science Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725) under an INCITE award.
ab Initio Diabatic energies and dipole moments of the electronic states of RbLi molecule.
Dardouri, Riadh; Habli, Héla; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier
2013-09-15
For all states dissociating below the ionic limit Li(-) Rb(+) , we perform a diabatic study for (1) Σ(+) electronic states dissociating into Rb (5s, 5p, 4d, 6s, 6p, 5d, 7s, 4f) + Li (2s, 2p, 3s). Furthermore, we present the diabatic results for the 1-11 (3) σ, 1-8 (1,3) Π, and 1-4 (1,3) Δ states. The present calculations on the RbLi molecule are complementary to previous theoretical work on this system, including recently observed electronic states that had not been calculated previously. The calculations rely on ab-initio pseudopotential, core polarization potential operators for the core-valence correlation and full valence configuration interaction approaches, combined to an efficient diabatization procedure. For the low-lying states, diabatic potentials and permanent dipole moments are analyzed, revealing the strong imprint of the ionic state in the (1) Σ(+) adiabatic states. The transition dipole moment is used to evaluate the radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels trapped in the 2 (1) Σ(+) excited states for the first time. In addition to the bound-bound contribution, the bound-free term has been evaluated using the Franck-Condon approximation and also exactly added to the total radiative lifetime. PMID:23804208
Full-dimensional vibrational calculations for H5O2+ using an ab initio potential energy surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCoy, Anne B.; Huang, Xinchuan; Carter, Stuart; Landeweer, Marc Y.; Bowman, Joel M.
2005-02-01
We report quantum diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and variational calculations in full dimensionality for selected vibrational states of H5O2+ using a new ab initio potential energy surface [X. Huang, B. Braams, and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 044308 (2005)]. The energy and properties of the zero-point state are focused on in the rigorous DMC calculations. OH-stretch fundamentals are also calculated using "fixed-node" DMC calculations and variationally using two versions of the code MULTIMODE. These results are compared with infrared multiphoton dissociation measurements of Yeh et al. [L. I. Yeh, M. Okumura, J. D. Myers, J. M. Price, and Y. T. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 7319 (1989)]. Some preliminary results for the energies of several modes of the shared hydrogen are also reported.
Kolb, Brian; Guo, Hua
2016-07-01
Scattering and dissociative chemisorption of DCl on Au(111) are investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics with a slab model, in which the top two layers of Au are mobile. Substantial kinetic energy loss in the scattered DCl is found, but the amount of energy transfer is notably smaller than that observed in the experiment. On the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption probability reproduces the experimental trend with respect to the initial kinetic energy, but is about one order of magnitude larger than the reported initial sticking probability. While the theory-experiment agreement is significantly improved from the previous rigid surface model, the remaining discrepancies are still substantial, calling for further scrutiny in both theory and experiment. PMID:27394092
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolb, Brian; Guo, Hua
2016-07-01
Scattering and dissociative chemisorption of DCl on Au(111) are investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics with a slab model, in which the top two layers of Au are mobile. Substantial kinetic energy loss in the scattered DCl is found, but the amount of energy transfer is notably smaller than that observed in the experiment. On the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption probability reproduces the experimental trend with respect to the initial kinetic energy, but is about one order of magnitude larger than the reported initial sticking probability. While the theory-experiment agreement is significantly improved from the previous rigid surface model, the remaining discrepancies are still substantial, calling for further scrutiny in both theory and experiment.
Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Shrivastava, Keshav N.
2008-05-20
Polonium is the only element with a simple cubic (sc) crystal structure. Atoms in solid polonium sit at the corners of a simple cubic unit cell and no where else. Polonium has a valence electron configuration 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 4} (Z = 84). The low temperature {alpha}-phase transforms into the rhombohedral (trigonal) {beta} structure at {approx}348 K. The sc {alpha}-Po unit cell constant is a = 3.345 A. The beta form of polonium ({beta}-Po) has the lattice parameters, a{sub R} = 3.359 A and a rhombohedral angle 98 deg. 13'. We have performed an ab initio electronic structure calculation by using the density functional theory. We have performed the calculation with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling by using both the LDA and the GGA for the exchange-correlations. The k-points in a simple cubic BZ are determined by R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), M (0.5, 0.5, 0) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). Other directions of k-points are {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). The SO splittings of p states at the {gamma} point in the GGA+SO scheme for {alpha}-Po are 0.04 eV and 0.02 eV while for the {beta}-Po these are 0.03 eV and 0.97 eV. We have also calculated the vibrational spectra for the unit cells in both the structures. We find that exchanging of a Po atom by Pb atom produces several more bands and destabilizes the {beta} phase.
Song, Lingchun; Gao, Jiali
2009-01-01
A theoretical model is presented for deriving effective diabatic states based on ab initio self-consistent field valence bond (VBSCF) theory by reducing the multi-configurational VB Hamiltonian into an effective two-state model. We describe two computational approaches for the optimization of the effective diabatic configurations, resulting in two ways of interpreting such effective diabatic states. In the variational diabatic configuration (VDC) method, the energies of the individual diabatic states are variationally minimized. In the consistent diabatic configuration (CDC) method, both the configuration coefficients and orbital coefficients are simultaneously optimized to minimize the adiabatic ground-state energy in VBSCF calculations. In addition, we describe a mixed molecular orbital and valence bond (MOVB) approach to construct the CDC diabatic and adiabatic states for a chemical reaction, whereas the VDC-MOVB method has been described previously. Employing the symmetric SN2 reaction between NH3 and CH3NH3+ as a test system, we found that the results from ab initio VBSCF and from MOVB calculations are in good agreement, suggesting that the computationally efficient MOVB method is a reasonable model for VB simulations of condensed phase reactions. The results indicate that CDC and VDC diabatic states converge, respectively, to covalent and ionic states as the molecular geometries are distorted from the minimum of the respective diabatic state along the reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the resonance energy that stabilizes the energy of crossing between the two diabatic states, resulting in the transition state of the adiabatic ground-state reaction, has a strong dependence on the overlap integral between the two diabatic states and is a function of both the exchange integral and the total diabatic ground-state energy. PMID:18828577
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji; Tschumper, Gregory S.
2003-10-01
The mechanism of photodissociation of the vinyl radical, C2H3, starting from the first doublet excited (D1,Ã) state was studied with high-level ab initio methods as well as with ab initio direct dynamics. Geometry optimizations of stationary points and surface crossing seams were performed with complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, and the energies were re-evaluated with single-point multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction (MRCISD) calculations. Both internal conversion and intersystem crossing channels, which could bring the excited vinyl radical down to the ground state potential energy surface leading to dissociation on the ground state, have been identified within planar Cs, twisted Cs and C2v symmetry. Direct dynamics calculation indicates that the most feasible reaction channel is the direct internal conversion from D1 to the ground state (D0) within planar Cs symmetry, through a minimum of seam of crossing (conical intersection) at an energy of about 80 kcal/mol (with respect to the ground-state equilibrium geometry). The other internal conversions from D1 to D0 through conical intersections within twisted Cs symmetry require energies of about 80 and 75 kcal/mol at the two minima of seam of crossing, respectively, and they are not favored dynamically without initial out-of-plane vibrational excitation. The intersystem crossing channels between D1 and the lowest quartet state (Q1) and D0 and Q1 within twisted Cs and C2v symmetry are not efficient due to the high energy of the minima of seam of crossing as well as the small spin-orbit coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, R.; Marinica, M.-C.; Proville, L.; Willaime, F.; Arakawa, K.; Gilbert, M. R.; Dudarev, S. L.
2016-07-01
The size limitation of ab initio calculations impedes first-principles simulations of crystal defects at nanometer sizes. Considering clusters of self-interstitial atoms as a paradigm for such crystal defects, we have developed an ab initio-accuracy model to predict formation energies of defect clusters with various geometries and sizes. Our discrete-continuum model combines the discrete nature of energetics of interstitial clusters and continuum elasticity for a crystalline solid matrix. The model is then applied to interstitial dislocation loops with <100 > and 1 /2 <111 > Burgers vectors, and to C15 clusters in body-centered-cubic crystals Fe, W, and V, to determine their relative stabilities as a function of size. We find that in Fe the C15 clusters were more stable than dislocation loops if the number of self-interstitial atoms involved was fewer than 51, which corresponds to a C15 cluster with a diameter of 1.5 nm. In V and W, the 1 /2 <111 > loops represent the most stable configurations for all defect sizes, which is at odds with predictions derived from simulations performed using some empirical interatomic potentials. Further, the formation energies predicted by the discrete-continuum model are reparametrized by a simple analytical expression giving the formation energy of self-interstitial clusters as a function of their size. The analytical scaling laws are valid over a very broad range of defect sizes, and they can be used in multiscale techniques including kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and cluster dynamics or dislocation dynamics studies.
Bylaska, Eric J.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2000-01-01
The presence of different anionic species in natural waters can significantly alter the degradation rates of chlorinated methanes and other organic compounds. Favorable reaction energetics is a necessary feature of these nucleophilic substitution reactions that can result in the degradation of the chlorinated methanes. In this study, ab initio electronic structure theory is used to evaluate the free energies of reaction of a series of monovalent anionic species (OH-, SH-, NO3 -, HCO3 -, HSO3 -, HSO4 -, H2PO4 -, and F-) that can occur in natural waters with the chlorinated methanes, CCl4, CCl3H, CCl2H2, and CClH3. The results of this investigation show that nucleophilic substitution reactions of OH-, SH-, HCO3 -, and F- are significantly exothermic for chlorine displacement, NO3 - reactions are slightly exothermic to thermoneutral, HSO3
González-Cataldo, F.; Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, B.
2014-05-20
By combining density functional molecular dynamics simulations with a thermodynamic integration technique, we determine the free energy of metallic hydrogen and silica, SiO{sub 2}, at megabar pressures and thousands of degrees Kelvin. Our ab initio solubility calculations show that silica dissolves into fluid hydrogen above 5000 K for pressures from 10 and 40 Mbars, which has implications for the evolution of rocky cores in giant gas planets like Jupiter, Saturn, and a substantial fraction of known extrasolar planets. Our findings underline the necessity of considering the erosion and redistribution of core materials in giant planet evolution models, but they also demonstrate that hot metallic hydrogen is a good solvent at megabar pressures, which has implications for high-pressure experiments.
Dawes, R.; Thompson, D. L.; Guo, Y.; Wagner, A. F.; Minkoff, M.; Chemistry; Univ. of Missouri-Columbia; Oklahoma State Univ.
2007-05-11
A highly accurate and efficient method for molecular global potential energy surface (PES) construction and fitting is demonstrated. An interpolating-moving-least-squares (IMLS)-based method is developed using low-density ab initio Hessian values to compute high-density PES parameters suitable for accurate and efficient PES representation. The method is automated and flexible so that a PES can be optimally generated for classical trajectories, spectroscopy, or other applications. Two important bottlenecks for fitting PESs are addressed. First, high accuracy is obtained using a minimal density of ab initio points, thus overcoming the bottleneck of ab initio point generation faced in applications of modified-Shepard-based methods. Second, high efficiency is also possible (suitable when a huge number of potential energy and gradient evaluations are required during a trajectory calculation). This overcomes the bottleneck in high-order IMLS-based methods, i.e., the high cost/accuracy ratio for potential energy evaluations. The result is a set of hybrid IMLS methods in which high-order IMLS is used with low-density ab initio Hessian data to compute a dense grid of points at which the energy, Hessian, or even high-order IMLS fitting parameters are stored. A series of hybrid methods is then possible as these data can be used for neural network fitting, modified-Shepard interpolation, or approximate IMLS. Results that are indicative of the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability are presented for one-dimensional model potentials as well as for three-dimensional (HCN) and six-dimensional (HOOH) molecular PESs
Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.
Mills, Jeffrey D; Ben-Nun, Michal; Rollin, Kyle; Bromley, Michael W J; Li, Jiabo; Hinde, Robert J; Winstead, Carl L; Sheehy, Jeffrey A; Boatz, Jerry A; Langhoff, Peter W
2016-08-25
Continuing attention has addressed incorportation of the electronically dynamical attributes of biomolecules in the largely static first-generation molecular-mechanical force fields commonly employed in molecular-dynamics simulations. We describe here a universal quantum-mechanical approach to calculations of the electronic energy surfaces of both small molecules and large aggregates on a common basis which can include such electronic attributes, and which also seems well-suited to adaptation in ab initio molecular-dynamics applications. In contrast to the more familiar orbital-product-based methodologies employed in traditional small-molecule computational quantum chemistry, the present approach is based on an "ex-post-facto" method in which Hamiltonian matrices are evaluated prior to wave function antisymmetrization, implemented here in the support of a Hilbert space of orthonormal products of many-electron atomic spectral eigenstates familiar from the van der Waals theory of long-range interactions. The general theory in its various forms incorporates the early semiempirical atoms- and diatomics-in-molecules approaches of Moffitt, Ellison, Tully, Kuntz, and others in a comprehensive mathematical setting, and generalizes the developments of Eisenschitz, London, Claverie, and others addressing electron permutation symmetry adaptation issues, completing these early attempts to treat van der Waals and chemical forces on a common basis. Exact expressions are obtained for molecular Hamiltonian matrices and for associated energy eigenvalues as sums of separate atomic and interaction-energy terms, similar in this respect to the forms of classical force fields. The latter representation is seen to also provide a long-missing general definition of the energies of individual atoms and of their interactions within molecules and matter free from subjective additional constraints. A computer code suite is described for calculations of the many-electron atomic eigenspectra and
Bytautas, L.; Ruedenberg, K.
2008-06-06
A close approximation to the empirical potential energy curve of the neon dimer is obtained by coupled-cluster singles plus doubles plus noniterative triples calculations by using nonaugmented correlation-consistent basis sets without counterpoise corrections and complementing them by three-term extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. The potential energy is resolved into a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock contribution and a correlation contribution. The latter is shown to decay in the long-range region in accordance with the empirical dispersion expansion.
Bytautas, Laimutis; Ruedenberg, Klaus
2008-06-01
A close approximation to the empirical potential energy curve of the neon dimer is obtained by coupled-cluster singles plus doubles plus noniterative triples calculations by using nonaugmented correlation-consistent basis sets without counterpoise corrections and complementing them by three-term extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. The potential energy is resolved into a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock contribution and a correlation contribution. The latter is shown to decay in the long-range region in accordance with the empirical dispersion expansion. PMID:18537423
Ab initio molar volumes and Gaussian radii.
Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W
2009-02-12
Ab initio molar volumes are calculated and used to derive radii for ions and neutral molecules using a spatially diffuse model of the electron distribution with Gaussian spread. The Gaussian radii obtained can be used for computation of nonelectrostatic ion-ion dispersion forces that underlie Hofmeister specific ion effects. Equivalent hard-sphere radii are also derived, and these are in reasonable agreement with crystalline ionic radii. The Born electrostatic self-energy is derived for a Gaussian model of the electronic charge distribution. It is shown that the ionic volumes used in electrostatic calculations of strongly hydrated cosmotropic ions ought best to include the first hydration shell. Ionic volumes for weakly hydrated chaotropic metal cations should exclude electron overlap (in electrostatic calculations). Spherical radii are calculated as well as nonisotropic ellipsoidal radii for nonspherical ions, via their nonisotropic static polarizability tensors. PMID:19140766
Ab Initio Calculation of the Hoyle State
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2011-05-13
The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars heavier than our Sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-12 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than a half century ago nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this Letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low-lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2 state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of the properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy.
Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo
Liu, Bin; Yuan, Fenglin; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.
2015-10-06
Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atoms and a <1 0 0> split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the <1 0 0> split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation.
Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo
Liu, Bin; Yuan, Fenglin; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.
2015-10-06
Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atomsmore » and a <1 0 0> split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the <1 0 0> split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation.« less
Marquardt, Roberto; Sagui, Kenneth; Zheng, Jingjing; Thiel, Walter; Luckhaus, David; Yurchenko, Sergey; Mariotti, Fabio; Quack, Martin
2013-08-15
The analytical, full-dimensional, and global representation of the potential energy surface of NH(3) in the lowest adiabatic electronic state developed previously (Marquardt, R.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 8439–8451) is improved by adjustment of parameters to an enlarged set of electronic energies from ab initio calculations using the coupled cluster method with single and double substitutions and a perturbative treatment of connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) and the method of multireference configuration interaction (MRCI). CCSD(T) data were obtained from an extrapolation of aug-cc-pVXZ results to the basis set limit (CBS), as described in a previous work (Yurchenko, S.N.; et al. J. Chem. Phys 2005, 123, 134308); they cover the region around the NH3 equilibrium structures up to 20,000 hc cm(–1). MRCI energies were computed using the aug-cc-pVQZ basis to describe both low lying singlet dissociation channels. Adjustment was performed simultaneously to energies obtained from the different ab initio methods using a merging strategy that includes 10,000 geometries at the CCSD(T) level and 500 geometries at the MRCI level. Characteristic features of this improved representation are NH3 equilibrium geometry r(eq)(NH(3)) ≈ 101.28 pm, α(eq)(NH(3)) ≈ 107.03°, the inversion barrier at r(inv)(NH(3)) ≈ 99.88 pm and 1774 hc cm(–1) above the NH(3) minimum, and dissociation channel energies 41,051 hc cm(–1) (for NH(3) → ((2)B(2))NH(2) + ((2)S(1/2))H) and 38,450 hc cm(–1) (for NH(3) → ((3)Σ(–))NH +((1)Σ(g)(+))H(2)); the average agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational line positions is 11 cm(–1) for (14)N(1)H(3) in the spectral region up to 5000 cm(–1). A survey of our current knowledge on the vibrational spectroscopy of ammonia and its isotopomers is also given. PMID:23688044
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottonello, Giulio; Zuccolini, Marino Vetuschi
2009-11-01
The hexa-aqua complexes [Fe(H 2O) 6-m-n(OH) n] (2-n)+n = 0 → 3, m = 0 → 6 - n; [Fe(H 2O) 6-m-n(OH) n] (3-n)+n = 0 → 4, m = 0 → 6 - n were investigated by ab-initio methods with the aim of determining their ground-state geometries, total energies and vibrational properties by treating their inner solvation shell as part of their gaseous precursor (or " hybrid approach"). After a gas-phase energy optimization within the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the molecules were surrounded by a dielectric representing the Reaction Field through an implicit Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). The exploration of several structural ligand arrangements allowed us to quantify the relative stabilities of the various ionic species and the role of the various forms of energy (solute-solvent electronic interaction, cavitation, dispersion, repulsion, liberation free energy) that contribute to stabilize the aqueous complexes. A comparison with experimental thermochemistries showed that ab-initio gas-phase + solvation energies are quite consistent with experimental evidence and allow the depiction of the most stable form in solution and the eventual configurational disorder of water/hydroxyl species around central cations. A vibrational analysis performed on the 54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe and 58Fe isotopomers indicated important separative effects systematically affected by the extent of deprotonation. The role of the system's redox state (fO 2) and acidity (pH) on the isotopic imprinting of the aqueous species in solution was investigated by coupling the separative effects with speciation calculations. The observed systematics provided a tool of general utility in the interpretation of the iron isotopic signature of natural waters. Applications to the interpretation of isotopic fractionation in solution dictated by redox equilibria and to the significance of the Fe-isotopic imprinting of Banded Iron Formations are given. With "gaseous precursor" it is intended here the isolated gaseous
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of
Řezáč, Jan; Hobza, Pavel
2014-08-12
Hydrogen fluoride dimer is a perfect model system for studying hydrogen bonding. Its size makes it possible to apply the most advanced theoretical methods available, yet it is a full-featured complex of molecules with nontrivial electronic structure and dynamic properties. Moreover, the dissociation energy of the HF dimer has been measured experimentally with an unparalleled accuracy of ±1 cm(-1)(Bohac et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1992, 9, 6681). In this work, we attempt to reproduce it by purely ab initio means, using advanced quantum-mechanical computational methods free of any empiricism. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities of today's computational chemistry and to point out its limitations by identifying the contributions that introduce the largest uncertainty into the result. The dissociation energy is calculated using a composite scheme including large basis set CCSD(T) calculations, contributions of higher excitations up to CCSDTQ, relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections and anharmonic vibrational calculations. The error of the calculated dissociation energy is 0.07 kcal/mol (25 cm(-1), 2.5%) when compared to the experiment. The major part of this error can be attributed to the inaccuracy of the calculations of the zero-point vibrational energy. PMID:26588277
Ab initio Potential-Energy Surfaces and Electron-Spin-Exchange Cross Sections for H-O2 Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene
1996-01-01
Accurate quartet- and doublet-state potential-energy surfaces for the interaction of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen molecule in their ground states have been determined from an ab initio calculation using large-basis sets and the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method. These potential surfaces have been used to calculate the H-O2 electron-spin-exchange cross section; the square root of the cross section (in a(sub 0)), not taking into account inelastic effects, can be obtained approximately from the expressions 2.390E(sup -1/6) and 5.266-0.708 log10(E) at low and high collision energies E (in E(sub h)), respectively. These functional forms, as well as the oscillatory structure of the cross section found at high energies, are expected from the nature of the interaction energy. The mean cross section (the cross section averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution) agrees reasonably well with the results of measurements.
Makarewicz, Jan; Shirkov, Leonid
2016-05-28
The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy De of 392 cm(-1) is close to that of 387 cm(-1) calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, De for PAr becomes slightly lower than De for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics. PMID:27250287
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarewicz, Jan; Shirkov, Leonid
2016-05-01
The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy De of 392 cm-1 is close to that of 387 cm-1 calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, De for PAr becomes slightly lower than De for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics.
Malshe, M; Raff, L M; Hagan, M; Bukkapatnam, S; Komanduri, R
2010-05-28
The variation in the fitting accuracy of neural networks (NNs) when used to fit databases comprising potential energies obtained from ab initio electronic structure calculations is investigated as a function of the number and nature of the elements employed in the input vector to the NN. Ab initio databases for H(2)O(2), HONO, Si(5), and H(2)C[Double Bond]CHBr were employed in the investigations. These systems were chosen so as to include four-, five-, and six-body systems containing first, second, third, and fourth row elements with a wide variety of chemical bonding and whose conformations cover a wide range of structures that occur under high-energy machining conditions and in chemical reactions involving cis-trans isomerizations, six different types of two-center bond ruptures, and two different three-center dissociation reactions. The ab initio databases for these systems were obtained using density functional theory/B3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with extended basis sets. A total of 31 input vectors were investigated. In each case, the elements of the input vector were chosen from interatomic distances, inverse powers of the interatomic distance, three-body angles, and dihedral angles. Both redundant and nonredundant input vectors were investigated. The results show that among all the input vectors investigated, the set employed in the Z-matrix specification of the molecular configurations in the electronic structure calculations gave the lowest NN fitting accuracy for both Si(5) and vinyl bromide. The underlying reason for this result appears to be the discontinuity present in the dihedral angle for planar geometries. The use of trigometric functions of the angles as input elements produced significantly improved fitting accuracy as this choice eliminates the discontinuity. The most accurate fitting was obtained when the elements of the input vector were taken to have the form R(ij) (-n), where the R(ij) are the interatomic distances. When the Levenberg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malshe, M.; Raff, L. M.; Hagan, M.; Bukkapatnam, S.; Komanduri, R.
2010-05-01
The variation in the fitting accuracy of neural networks (NNs) when used to fit databases comprising potential energies obtained from ab initio electronic structure calculations is investigated as a function of the number and nature of the elements employed in the input vector to the NN. Ab initio databases for H2O2, HONO, Si5, and H2CCHBr were employed in the investigations. These systems were chosen so as to include four-, five-, and six-body systems containing first, second, third, and fourth row elements with a wide variety of chemical bonding and whose conformations cover a wide range of structures that occur under high-energy machining conditions and in chemical reactions involving cis-trans isomerizations, six different types of two-center bond ruptures, and two different three-center dissociation reactions. The ab initio databases for these systems were obtained using density functional theory/B3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with extended basis sets. A total of 31 input vectors were investigated. In each case, the elements of the input vector were chosen from interatomic distances, inverse powers of the interatomic distance, three-body angles, and dihedral angles. Both redundant and nonredundant input vectors were investigated. The results show that among all the input vectors investigated, the set employed in the Z-matrix specification of the molecular configurations in the electronic structure calculations gave the lowest NN fitting accuracy for both Si5 and vinyl bromide. The underlying reason for this result appears to be the discontinuity present in the dihedral angle for planar geometries. The use of trigometric functions of the angles as input elements produced significantly improved fitting accuracy as this choice eliminates the discontinuity. The most accurate fitting was obtained when the elements of the input vector were taken to have the form Rij-n, where the Rij are the interatomic distances. When the Levenberg-Marquardt procedure was modified
Bylaska, E.J.; Dixon, D.A.; Felmy, A.R.
2000-01-27
The presence of different anionic species in natural waters can significantly alter the degradation rates of chlorinated methanes and other organic compounds. favorable reaction energetics is a necessary feature of these nucleophilic substitution reactions that can result in the degradation of the chlorinated methanes. In this study, ab initio electronic structure theory is used to evaluate the free energies of reaction of a series of monovalent anionic species (OH{sup {minus}}, SH{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, HSO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and F{sup {minus}}) that can occur in natural waters with the chlorinated methanes, CCk{sub 4}, CCl{sub 3}H, CCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and CClH{sub 3}. The results of this investigation show that nucleophilic substitution reactions of OH{sup {minus}}, SH{sup {minus}}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and F{sup {minus}} are significantly exothermic for chlorine displacement, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} reactions are slightly exothermic to the thermoneutral, HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} reactions are slightly endothermic to thermoneutral and HSO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} reactions are significantly endothermic. In the case of OH{sup {minus}}, SH{sup {minus}}, and F{sup {minus}} where there are limited experimental data, these results agree well with experiment. The results for HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} are potentially important given the near ubiquitous occurrence of carbonate species in natural waters. The calculations reveal that the degree of chlorination, with the exception of substitution of OH{sup {minus}}, does not have a large effect on the Gibbs free energies of the substitution reactions. These results demonstrate that ab initio electronic structure methods can be used to calculate the reaction energetics of a potentially large number of organic compounds with other aqueous species in natural waters and can be used to help identify
Phonocatalysis. An ab initio simulation experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kwangnam; Kaviany, Massoud
2016-06-01
Using simulations, we postulate and show that heterocatalysis on large-bandgap semiconductors can be controlled by substrate phonons, i.e., phonocatalysis. With ab initio calculations, including molecular dynamic simulations, the chemisorbed dissociation of XeF6 on h-BN surface leads to formation of XeF4 and two surface F/h-BN bonds. The reaction pathway and energies are evaluated, and the sorption and reaction emitted/absorbed phonons are identified through spectral analysis of the surface atomic motion. Due to large bandgap, the atomic vibration (phonon) energy transfer channels dominate and among them is the match between the F/h-BN covalent bond stretching and the optical phonons. We show that the chemisorbed dissociation (the pathway activation ascent) requires absorption of large-energy optical phonons. Then using progressively heavier isotopes of B and N atoms, we show that limiting these high-energy optical phonons inhibits the chemisorbed dissociation, i.e., controllable phonocatalysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.; Kamarchik, Eugene
2016-03-01
We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na+H2O, F-H2O, and Cl-H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na+ and aVTZ basis for Cl- and F-), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.
Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M; Kamarchik, Eugene
2016-03-21
We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na(+)H2O, F(-)H2O, and Cl(-)H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20,000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na(+) and aVTZ basis for Cl(-) and F(-)), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs. PMID:27004880
Ab Initio Studies of Calcium Carbonate Hydration.
Lopez-Berganza, Josue A; Diao, Yijue; Pamidighantam, Sudhakar; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M
2015-11-25
Ab initio simulations of large hydrated calcium carbonate clusters are challenging due to the existence of multiple local energy minima. Extensive conformational searches around hydrated calcium carbonate clusters (CaCO3·nH2O for n = 1-18) were performed to find low-energy hydration structures using an efficient combination of Monte Carlo searches, density-functional tight binding (DFTB+) method, and density-functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level, or Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2 level. This multilevel optimization yields several low-energy structures for hydrated calcium carbonate. Structural and energetics analysis of the hydration of these clusters revealed a first hydration shell composed of 12 water molecules. Bond-length and charge densities were also determined for different cluster sizes. The solvation of calcium carbonate in bulk water was investigated by placing the explicitly solvated CaCO3·nH2O clusters in a polarizable continuum model (PCM). The findings of this study provide new insights into the energetics and structure of hydrated calcium carbonate and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms where calcium carbonate formation or dissolution is of relevance. PMID:26505205
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pai, Sung Jin; Bae, Young Chan
2014-08-01
A six-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for a rigid methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) dimer was developed from the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory. A total of 466 grid points distributed to 46 orientations were calculated from the complete basis set limit extrapolation based on up to aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. A modified site-site pair potential function was proposed for rapid representation of the high level ab initio calculations. A nonadditive three-body interaction was represented by the Axilrod-Teller-Muto expression for mixtures with the polarizability and the London dispersion constant of each molecule. Second to fourth virial coefficients of CH4 and CO2 mixtures were calculated using both the Mayer sampling Monte Carlo method and the present potential functions. The virial equation of state derived from these coefficients was used to predict the pVT values and showed good agreement with experimental data below 200 bar at 300 K. The vapor-liquid coexistence curves of pure CH4, CO2 and their mixtures were presented with the aid of Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The predicted tie lines agreed with the experimental data within the uncertainties up to near the critical point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, Dayana; Mebel, Alexander
2016-03-01
It has been recently shown that Titan provides a unique perspective in our solar system: its atmosphere is comparable to a model of prebiotic Earth's. Provided the organic cationic and anionic molecular species identified by the Cassini spacecraft, this research characterizes reaction pathways for the reactions of methyl derivatives of the cyclopropenyl cation, the methyl cation with methyl- and dimethyl-acetylene, and reactions of resonance structures of protonated acrylonitrile with CH2NH. Isomerization and dissociation reactions involving methyl-cyclopropenyl cations, the perinaphthenyl cation and anion, and cations of pyrimidine and purine precursors of nucleobases will be examined to locate reaction pathways, intermediates, transition states, and products of the reactions. Gaussian '09 software is used for ab initio calculations to map out the PES. Geometry optimizations and vibrational frequency computations are preformed via the double-hybrid density functional B2PLYP-D3. Single-point energies are refined by use of the explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster CCSD(T)-F12 method. Rate constants are calculated using microcanonical RRKM theory, and pressure effects evaluated used the Master Equation approach; these allow for prediction of absolute rate constants and product branching ratios at different pressures and temperatures.
Marinakis, Sarantos; Dean, Indigo Lily; Kłos, Jacek; Lique, François
2015-09-01
We present a new set of potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the CH(X(2)Π)-He van der Waals system. Ab initio calculations of the CH-He PES were carried out using the open-shell single- and double-excitation coupled cluster approach with non-iterative perturbational treatment of triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. The augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set was employed augmented by mid-bond functions. Integral cross sections for the rotational excitation in CH-He collisions were calculated using the new PES and compared with available experimental results. The newly constructed PES reproduces the available experimental results for CH(X(2)Π, v = 0)-He collisions better than any previously available PES. Differential cross sections (DCS) are presented for the first time for this system and discussed within the context of rotational rainbows. Finally, our work provides the first rate thermal coefficients for this system that are crucially needed for astrochemical modelling and future anticipated experiments in CH(X(2)Π)-He collisions. PMID:26220835
Dawes, R.; Wagner, A. F.; Thompson, D. L.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Missouri at Columbia
2009-04-23
We report here calculated J = 0 vibrational frequencies for {sup 1}CH{sub 2} and HCN with root-mean-square error relative to available measurements of 2.0 cm{sup -1} and 3.2 cm{sup -1}, respectively. These results are obtained with DVR calculations with a dense grid on ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). The ab initio electronic structure calculations employed are Davidson-corrected MRCI calculations with double-, triple-, and quadruple-{zeta} basis sets extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. In the {sup 1}CH{sub 2} case, Full CI tests of the Davidson correction at small basis set levels lead to a scaling of the correction with the bend angle that can be profitably applied at the CBS limit. Core-valence corrections are added derived from CCSD(T) calculations with and without frozen cores. Relativistic and non-Born-Oppenheimer corrections are available for HCN and were applied. CBS limit CCSD(T) and CASPT2 calculations with the same basis sets were also tried for HCN. The CCSD(T) results are noticeably less accurate than the MRCI results while the CASPT2 results are much poorer. The PESs were generated automatically using the local interpolative moving least-squares method (L-IMLS). A general triatomic code is described where the L-IMLS method is interfaced with several common electronic structure packages. All PESs were computed with this code running in parallel on eight processors. The L-IMLS method provides global and local fitting error measures important in automatically growing the PES from initial ab initio seed points. The reliability of this approach was tested for {sup 1}CH{sub 2} by comparing DVR-calculated vibrational levels on an L-IMLS ab initio surface with levels generated by an explicit ab initio calculation at each DVR grid point. For all levels ({approx}200) below 20000 cm{sup -1}, the mean unsigned difference between the levels of these two calculations was 0.1 cm{sup -1}, consistent with the L-IMLS estimated mean unsigned
Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fredkin, D. R.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.; Komornicki, A.
1983-01-01
It is pointed out that with increased computer power and improved computational techniques, such as the gradients developed in recent years, it is becoming practical to compute spectra ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature, for systems of increasing complexity. The present investigation has the objective to explore several possible ab initio approaches to spectra, giving particular attention to infrared and nonresonance Raman. Two approaches are discussed. The sequential approach, in which first the electronic part and then later the nuclear part of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is solved, is appropriate for small systems. The simultaneous approach, in which the electronic and nuclear parts are solved at the same time, is more appropriate for many-atom systems. A review of the newer quantum gradient techniques is provided, and the infrared and Raman spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed.
Peterson, Kirk A
2000-09-15
A global, analytical potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of HOBr has been determined using highly correlated multireference configuration interaction wave functions and explicit basis set extrapolations of large correlation consistent basis sets. The ab initio data have been fit to an analytical functional form that accurately includes both the HOBr and HBrO minima, as well as all dissociation asymptotes. Small adjustments to this surface are made based on the limited experimental data available and by indirectly taking into account the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the OH+Br dissociation channel. Vibrational energy levels are calculated variationally for both HOBr and HBrO up to the OH+Br dissociation limit using a truncation/recoupling method. The HOBr isomer is calculated to contain 708 bound vibrational energy levels, while the HBrO minimum lies above the OH+Br dissociation limit but is calculated to have 74 ''quasibound,'' localized eigenstates. Infrared intensities for all of these vibrational transitions are also calculated using MRCI dipole moment functions. The assignment of the HOBr states is complicated by strong stretch-bend resonances even at relatively low energies. In contrast to the HOCl case, these state mixings made it particularly difficult to assign the relatively intense OH overtone bands above v{sub 1}=2. The vibrational density of states of HOBr at the OH+Br dissociation limit is determined to be 0.16 states/cm-1. Comparisons to recent work on HOCl using similar methods are made throughout. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
An Accurate Global Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for the X(1)A' Electronic State of HOBr
Peterson, Kirk A.
1999-12-01
A global, analytical potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of HOBr has been determined using highly correlated multireference configuration interaction wave functions and explicit basis set extrapolations of large correlation consistent basis sets. The ab initio data have been fit to an analytical functional form that accurately includes both the HOBr and HBrO minima, as well as all dissociation asymptotes. Small adjustments to this surface are made based on the limited experimental data available and by indirectly taking into account the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the OH+Br dissociation channel. Vibrational energy levels are calculated variationally for both HOBr and HBrO up to the OH+Br dissociation limit using a truncation-recoupling method. The HOBr isomer is calculated to contain 708 bound vibrational energy levels, while the HBrO minimum lies above the OH+Br dissociation limit but is calculated to have 74 quasibound, localized eigenstates. Infrared intensities for all of these vibrational transitions are also calculated using MRCI dipole moment functions. The assignment of the HOBr states is complicated by strong stretch-bend resonances even at relatively low energies. In contrast to the HOCl case, these state mixings made it particularly difficult to assign the relatively intense OH overtone bands above v1=2. The vibrational density of states of HOBr at the OH+Br dissociation limit is determined to be 0.16 states/cm-1. Comparisons to recent work on HOCl using similar methods are made throughout.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.
Jedes initium wird durch experimenta crucis zum eventus. Jedes theoretisch interpretierbare ex-eventu-Resultat führt auf ein neues Initium. Gerade dies ist die gemeinsame Aussage von Atomistik, Quantenmechanik und Relativitätstheorie.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventu. IIEvery initium becomes an eventus by experimenta crucis. Every theoretically interpretable ex-eventu result leads to a new initium. Right this is the joint assertion of atomism, quantum mechanics, and relativity.
Ab initio Bogoliubov coupled cluster theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signoracci, Angelo; Hagen, Gaute; Duguet, Thomas
2014-09-01
Coupled cluster (CC) theory has become a standard method in nuclear theory for realistic ab initio calculations of medium mass nuclei, but remains limited by its requirement of a Slater determinant reference state which reasonably approximates the nuclear system of interest. Extensions of the method, such as equation-of-motion CC, permit the calculation of nuclei with one or two nucleons added or removed from a doubly magic core, yet still only a few dozen nuclei are accessible with modern computational restrictions. In order to extend the applicability of ab initio methods to open-shell systems, the superfluid nature of nuclei must be taken into account. By utilizing Bogoliubov algebra and employing spontaneous symmetry breaking with respect to particle number conservation, superfluid systems can be treated by a single reference state. An ab initio theory to include correlations on top of a Bogoliubov reference state has been developed in the guise of standard CC theory. The formalism and first results of this Bogoliubov coupled cluster theory will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method.
Li, Jun E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H. E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua
2015-05-28
We report a permutationally invariant global potential energy surface (PES) for the H + CH{sub 4} system based on ∼63 000 data points calculated at a high ab initio level (UCCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ) using the recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method. The small fitting error (5.1 meV) indicates a faithful representation of the ab initio points over a large configuration space. The rate coefficients calculated on the PES using tunneling corrected transition-state theory and quasi-classical trajectory are found to agree well with the available experimental and previous quantum dynamical results. The calculated total reaction probabilities (J{sub tot} = 0) including the abstraction and exchange channels using the new potential by a reduced dimensional quantum dynamic method are essentially the same as those on the Xu-Chen-Zhang PES [Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)].
Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics
Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.
2014-02-28
Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalugina, Yulia N.; Lokshtanov, Sergei E.; Cherepanov, Victor N.; Vigasin, Andrey A.
2016-02-01
We present new three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surfaces (DMSs) for the CH4-Ar van der Waals system. Ab initio calculations of the PES and DMS were carried out using the closed-shell single- and double-excitation coupled cluster approach with non-iterative perturbative treatment of triple excitations. The augmented correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D,T,Q) basis sets were employed, and the energies obtained were then extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The dipole moment surface was obtained using aug-cc-pVTZ basis set augmented with mid-bond functions for better description of exchange interactions. The second mixed virial coefficient was calculated and compared to available experimental data. The equilibrium constant for true dimer formation was calculated using classical partition function based on the knowledge of ab initio PES. Temperature variations of the zeroth spectral moment of the rototranslational collision-induced band as well as its true dimer constituent were traced with the use of the Boltzmann-weighted squared induced dipole properly integrated over respective phase space domains. Height profiles for N2-N2, N2-H2, CH4-N2, (CH4)2, and CH4-Ar true bound dimers in Titan's atmosphere were calculated with the use of reliable ab initio PESs.
Orimoto, Yuuichi; Xie, Peng; Liu, Kai; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imamura, Akira; Aoki, Yuriko
2015-03-14
An Elongation-counterpoise (ELG-CP) method was developed for performing accurate and efficient interaction energy analysis and correcting the basis set superposition error (BSSE) in biosystems. The method was achieved by combining our developed ab initio O(N) elongation method with the conventional counterpoise method proposed for solving the BSSE problem. As a test, the ELG-CP method was applied to the analysis of the DNAs’ inter-strands interaction energies with respect to the alkylation-induced base pair mismatch phenomenon that causes a transition from G⋯C to A⋯T. It was found that the ELG-CP method showed high efficiency (nearly linear-scaling) and high accuracy with a negligibly small energy error in the total energy calculations (in the order of 10{sup −7}–10{sup −8} hartree/atom) as compared with the conventional method during the counterpoise treatment. Furthermore, the magnitude of the BSSE was found to be ca. −290 kcal/mol for the calculation of a DNA model with 21 base pairs. This emphasizes the importance of BSSE correction when a limited size basis set is used to study the DNA models and compare small energy differences between them. In this work, we quantitatively estimated the inter-strands interaction energy for each possible step in the transition process from G⋯C to A⋯T by the ELG-CP method. It was found that the base pair replacement in the process only affects the interaction energy for a limited area around the mismatch position with a few adjacent base pairs. From the interaction energy point of view, our results showed that a base pair sliding mechanism possibly occurs after the alkylation of guanine to gain the maximum possible number of hydrogen bonds between the bases. In addition, the steps leading to the A⋯T replacement accompanied with replications were found to be unfavorable processes corresponding to ca. 10 kcal/mol loss in stabilization energy. The present study indicated that the ELG-CP method is promising for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orimoto, Yuuichi; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Xie, Peng; Liu, Kai; Imamura, Akira; Aoki, Yuriko
2015-03-01
An Elongation-counterpoise (ELG-CP) method was developed for performing accurate and efficient interaction energy analysis and correcting the basis set superposition error (BSSE) in biosystems. The method was achieved by combining our developed ab initio O(N) elongation method with the conventional counterpoise method proposed for solving the BSSE problem. As a test, the ELG-CP method was applied to the analysis of the DNAs' inter-strands interaction energies with respect to the alkylation-induced base pair mismatch phenomenon that causes a transition from G⋯C to A⋯T. It was found that the ELG-CP method showed high efficiency (nearly linear-scaling) and high accuracy with a negligibly small energy error in the total energy calculations (in the order of 10-7-10-8 hartree/atom) as compared with the conventional method during the counterpoise treatment. Furthermore, the magnitude of the BSSE was found to be ca. -290 kcal/mol for the calculation of a DNA model with 21 base pairs. This emphasizes the importance of BSSE correction when a limited size basis set is used to study the DNA models and compare small energy differences between them. In this work, we quantitatively estimated the inter-strands interaction energy for each possible step in the transition process from G⋯C to A⋯T by the ELG-CP method. It was found that the base pair replacement in the process only affects the interaction energy for a limited area around the mismatch position with a few adjacent base pairs. From the interaction energy point of view, our results showed that a base pair sliding mechanism possibly occurs after the alkylation of guanine to gain the maximum possible number of hydrogen bonds between the bases. In addition, the steps leading to the A⋯T replacement accompanied with replications were found to be unfavorable processes corresponding to ca. 10 kcal/mol loss in stabilization energy. The present study indicated that the ELG-CP method is promising for
Kaolin polytypes revisited ab initio.
Mercier, Patrick H J; Le Page, Yvon
2008-04-01
The well known 36 distinguishable transformations between adjacent kaolin layers are split into 20 energetically distinguishable transformations (EDT) and 16 enantiomorphic transformations, hereafter denoted EDT*. For infinitesimal energy contribution of interactions between non-adjacent layers, the lowest-energy models must result from either (a) repeated application of an EDT or (b) alternate application of an EDT and its EDT*. All modeling, quantum input preparation and interpretation was performed with Materials Toolkit, and quantum optimizations with VASP. Kaolinite and dickite are the lowest-energy models at zero temperature and pressure, whereas nacrite and HP-dickite are the lowest-enthalpy models under moderate pressures based on a rough enthalpy/pressure graph built from numbers given in the supplementary tables. Minor temperature dependence of this calculated 0 K graph would explain the bulk of the current observations regarding synthesis, diagenesis and transformation of kaolin minerals. Other stackings that we list have energies so competitive that they might crystallize at ambient pressure. A homometric pair of energetically distinguishable ideal models, one of them for nacrite, is exposed. The printed experimental structure of nacrite correctly corresponds to the stable member of the pair. In our opinion, all recent literature measurements of the free energy of bulk kaolinite are too negative by approximately 15 kJ mol(-1) for some unknown reason. PMID:18369284
Bylaska, Eric J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A.; Tratnyek, P. G.
2010-11-25
Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas-phase and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e. hydrogenolysis), reductive Beta-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH- of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties Delta Hof(298.15K), So(298.15K,1 bar), and Delta GS(298.15K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely metabolites. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive Beta-elimination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -27kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH- (Delta Gorxn ≈ -25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate CH2-CHCl-CH2Cl , and CH2Cl-CH-CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (Delta Gorxn ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely.
Kesharwani, Manoj K; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M L
2016-01-12
The relative energies of the YMPJ conformer database of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, with N- and C-termination, have been re-evaluated using explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods. Lower-cost ab initio methods such as MP2-F12 and CCSD-F12b actually are outperformed by double-hybrid DFT functionals; in particular, the DSD-PBEP86-NL double hybrid performs well enough to serve as a secondary standard. Among range-separated hybrids, ωB97X-V performs well, while B3LYP-D3BJ does surprisingly well among traditional DFT functionals. Treatment of dispersion is important for the DFT functionals; for the YMPJ set, D3BJ generally works as well as the NL nonlocal dispersion functional. Basis set sensitivity for DFT calculations on these conformers is weak enough that def2-TZVP is generally adequate. For conformer corrections to heats of formation, B3LYP-D3BJ and especially DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ or DSD-PBEP86-NL are adequate for all but the most exacting applications. The revised geometries and energetics for the YMPJ database have been made available as Supporting Information and should be useful in the parametrization and validation of molecular mechanics force fields and other low-cost methods. The very recent dRPA75 method yields good performance, without resorting to an empirical dispersion correction, but is still outperformed by DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ and particularly DSD-PBEP86-NL. Core-valence corrections are comparable in importance to improvements beyond CCSD(T*)/cc-pVDZ-F12 in the valence treatment. PMID:26653705
2014-01-01
Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting. PMID:25294975
Ab Initio Study of Defect Properties in YPO4
Gao, Fei; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhou, Yungang; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2012-03-01
Ab initio methods based on density functional theory have been used to calculate the formation energies of intrinsic defects, including vacancies, interstitials, antisites and Frenkel pairs in YPO4 under the O-rich and Y2O3-rich, and the O-rich and Y-rich conditions. The larger size of the yttrium atom may give rise to higher formation energy of the phosphorus antisite defect. In general, the formation energies of anion interstitials are much smaller than those of cation interstitials for both conditions considered. It is of greatly interest to find that the relative stabilities among the same types of interstitials are independent of the reference states. The most stable configuration for oxygen interstitials is an O-O split interstitial near the Ta site, while the most stable configuration for cation interstitials is a tetrahedral interstitial near the Ta site. The cation split interstitials are unfavorable in YPO4, with much higher formation energies. Furthermore, the properties of Frenkel pairs are compared with those calculated using empirical potentials. The results reveal that both ab initio and empirical potential calculations show a similar trend in the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, but the formation energies obtained by empirical potentials are much larger than those calculated by ab initio method.
Hua -Gen Yu; Han, Huixian; Guo, Hua
2016-03-29
Vibrational energy levels of the ammonium cation (NH4+) and its deuterated isotopomers are calculated using a numerically exact kinetic energy operator on a recently developed nine-dimensional permutation invariant semiglobal potential energy surface fitted to a large number of high-level ab initio points. Like CH4, the vibrational levels of NH4+ and ND4+ exhibit a polyad structure, characterized by a collective quantum number P = 2(v1 + v3) + v2 + v4. As a result, the low-lying vibrational levels of all isotopomers are assigned and the agreement with available experimental data is better than 1 cm–1.
Ab initio no core full configuration approach for light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngman; Shin, Ik Jae; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy
2014-07-01
Comprehensive understanding of the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses theoretical and computational challenges. Still, a number of ab initio approaches have been developed to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei using fundamental interactions among nucleons. Among them, we work with the ab initio no core full configuration (NCFC) method and ab initio no core Gamow Shell Model (GSM). We first review these approaches and present some recent results.
Ab initio no core full configuration approach for light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngman; Shin, Ik Jae; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy
2015-10-01
Comprehensive understanding of the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses theoretical and computational challenges. Still, a number of ab initio approaches have been developed to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei using fundamental interactions among nucleons. Among them, we work with the ab initio no core full configuration (NCFC) method and ab initio no core Gamow Shell Model (GSM). We first review these approaches and present some recent results.
A medium-energy photoemission and ab-initio investigation of cubic yttria-stabilised zirconia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cousland, G. P.; Cui, X. Y.; Smith, A. E.; Stampfl, C. M.; Wong, L.; Tayebjee, M.; Yu, D.; Triani, G.; Evans, P. J.; Ruppender, H.-J.; Jang, L.-Y.; Stampfl, A. P. J.
2014-04-01
Experimental and theoretical investigations into the electronic properties and structure of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia are presented. Medium-energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been carried out for material with a concentration of 8-9 mol. % yttria. Resonant photoemission spectra are obtained for a range of photon energies that traverse the L2 absorption edge for both zirconium and yttrium. Through correlation with results from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, based on structural models proposed in the literature, we assign photoemission peaks appearing in the spectra to core lines and Auger transitions. An analysis of the core level features enables the identification of shifts in the core level energies due to different local chemical environments of the constituent atoms. In general, each core line feature can be decomposed into three contributions, with associated energy shifts. Their identification with results of DFT calculations carried out for proposed atomic structures, lends support to these structural models. The experimental results indicate a multi-atom resonant photoemission effect between nearest-neighbour oxygen and yttrium atoms. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for zirconium and yttrium are also presented, which correlate well with calculated Zr- and Y-4d electron partial density-of-states and with Auger electron peak area versus photon energy curve.
A medium-energy photoemission and ab-initio investigation of cubic yttria-stabilised zirconia
Cousland, G. P.; Cui, X. Y.; Smith, A. E.; Stampfl, C. M.; Wong, L.; Tayebjee, M.; Yu, D.; Triani, G.; Evans, P. J.; Ruppender, H.-J.; Jang, L.-Y.; Stampfl, A. P. J.
2014-04-14
Experimental and theoretical investigations into the electronic properties and structure of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia are presented. Medium-energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been carried out for material with a concentration of 8-9 mol. % yttria. Resonant photoemission spectra are obtained for a range of photon energies that traverse the L2 absorption edge for both zirconium and yttrium. Through correlation with results from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, based on structural models proposed in the literature, we assign photoemission peaks appearing in the spectra to core lines and Auger transitions. An analysis of the core level features enables the identification of shifts in the core level energies due to different local chemical environments of the constituent atoms. In general, each core line feature can be decomposed into three contributions, with associated energy shifts. Their identification with results of DFT calculations carried out for proposed atomic structures, lends support to these structural models. The experimental results indicate a multi-atom resonant photoemission effect between nearest-neighbour oxygen and yttrium atoms. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for zirconium and yttrium are also presented, which correlate well with calculated Zr- and Y-4d electron partial density-of-states and with Auger electron peak area versus photon energy curve.
Liu, Fang; Lin, Lin; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Lischner, Johannes; Kemper, Alexander F.; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Jornada, Felipe H. da; Deslippe, Jack; Yang, Chao; and others
2015-04-01
We present a numerical integration scheme for evaluating the convolution of a Green's function with a screened Coulomb potential on the real axis in the GW approximation of the self energy. Our scheme takes the zero broadening limit in Green's function first, replaces the numerator of the integrand with a piecewise polynomial approximation, and performs principal value integration on subintervals analytically. We give the error bound of our numerical integration scheme and show by numerical examples that it is more reliable and accurate than the standard quadrature rules such as the composite trapezoidal rule. We also discuss the benefit of using different self energy expressions to perform the numerical convolution at different frequencies.
Carlin, Caleb M; Gordon, Mark S
2016-08-01
Protonation of the anion in an ionic liquid plays a key role in the hypergolic reaction between ionic liquids and oxidizers such as white fuming nitric acid. To investigate the influence of the cation on the protonation reaction, the deprotonation energy of a set of cations has been calculated at the MP2 level of theory. Specifically, guanidinium, dimethyltriazanium, triethylamine, N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium, N-ethyl-pyridinium, 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium, 1-ethyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium, and 1-butyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium were studied. In addition, the net proton transfer energies from the cations to a set of previously studied anions was calculated, demonstrating an inverse correlation between the net proton transfer energy and the likelihood that the cation/anion combination will react hypergolically with white fuming nitric acid. It is suggested that this correlation occurs due to a balance between the energy released by the proton transfer and the rate of proton transfer as determined by the ionicity of the ionic liquid. PMID:27397644
Ab initio melting curve of osmium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Preston, D. L.
2015-11-01
The melting curve of osmium up to a pressure P of 500 GPa is obtained from an extensive suite of ab initio quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations using the Z method. The ab initio P =0 melting point of Os is 3370 ±75 K; this range encompasses all of the available data in the literature and corroborates the conclusion of J. W. Arblaster [Platinum Metals Rev. 49, 166 (2005)], 10.1595/147106705X70264 that the melting temperature of pure Os is 3400 ±50 K and that the 3300 K typically quoted in the literature is the melting point of impure Os. The T =0 equation of state (EOS) of Os and the P dependence of the optimized c /a ratio for the hexagonal unit cell, both to pressures ˜900 GPa, are obtained in the ab initio approach as validation of its use. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (P ≲80 GPa) is found, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes the QMD data to higher pressures, in agreement with the more recent experimental EOS by Godwal et al. The theoretical melting curve of Os obtained earlier by Joshi et al. is shown to be inconsistent with our QMD results, and the possible reason for this discrepancy is suggested. Regularities in the melting curves of Os and five other third-row transition metals (Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au) could be used to estimate the currently unknown melting curves of Hf and Ir.
Structure and energy of point defects in TiC: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weiwei; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.
2015-04-01
We employ first-principles calculations to study the atomic and electronic structure of various point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, and antisites in the stoichiometric as well as slightly off-stoichiometric Ti1 -cCc (including both C-poor and C-rich compositions, 0.49 ≤c ≤0.51 ). The atomic structure analysis has revealed that both interstitial and antisite defects can exist in split conformations involving dumbbells. To characterize the electronic structure changes caused by a defect, we introduce differential density of states (dDOS) defined as a local perturbation of the density of states (DOS) on the defect site and its surrounding relative to the perfect TiC. This definition allows us to identify the DOS peaks characteristic of the studied defects in several conformations. So far, characteristic defect states have been discussed only in connection with carbon vacancies. Here, in particular, we have identified dDOS peaks of carbon interstitials and dumbbells, which can be used for experimental detection of such defects in TiC. The formation energies of point defects in TiC are derived in the framework of a grand-canonical formalism. Among the considered defects, carbon vacancies and interstitials are shown to have, respectively, the lowest and the second-lowest formation energies. Their formation energetics are consistent with the thermodynamic data on the phase stability of nonstoichiometric TiC. A cluster type of point defect is found to be next in energy, a titanium [100] dumbbell terminated by two carbon vacancies.
Ab initio calculations on collisions of low energy electrons with polyatomic molecules
Rescigno, T.N.
1991-08-01
The Kohn variational method is one of simplest, and oldest, techniques for performing scattering calculations. Nevertheless, a number of formal problems, as well as practical difficulties associated with the computation of certain required matrix elements, delayed its application to electron--molecule scattering problems for many years. This paper will describe the recent theoretical and computational developments that have made the complex'' Kohn variational method a practical tool for carrying out calculations of low energy electron--molecule scattering. Recent calculations on a number of target molecules will also be summarized. 41 refs., 7 figs.
Ab initio quantum chemistry: Methodology and applications
Friesner, Richard A.
2005-01-01
This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller–Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over the past decade. Incorporation of a condensed-phase environment by means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics or self-consistent reaction field techniques, is presented. A wide range of illustrative applications, focusing on materials science and biology, are discussed briefly. PMID:15870212
Ab initio design of low work function complex oxides for thermionic energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Stephanie; Li, Guo; Neaton, Jeffrey
Understanding and controlling work functions, or band edge energies, is of interest for a variety of applications in optoelectronics and energy conversion. In particular, while recent advances in device design have improved the feasibility of thermionic generators, new low work function materials are needed to enable their widespread use. Perovskite-based oxides (ABO3) are a diverse class of materials that, depending on the transition metal atoms on the A and B sites, can give rise to myriad emergent and collective phenomena. Here, we use density functional theory calculations to examine how the work function of one such oxide, SrRuO3 (SRO), can be tuned by monolayers of SrTiO3 (STO) and other polar or near-polar oxides. We find that SRO work functions can be tuned by over 1 eV with one layer of STO, although the calculated reduction in work function is an order of magnitude less than would be expected from the bulk polarization. We understand the variation in work function via a detailed analysis of Born effective charges at the surface, which are as small as 10% of their bulk values, and charge rearrangement at the STO surface and SRO/STO interface.
Ab-initio calculations on melting of thorium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.
2016-05-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics study has been performed on face centered cubic structured thorium to determine its melting temperature at room pressure. The ion-electron interaction potential energy calculated as a function of temperature for three volumes (a0)3 and (1.02a0)3 and (1.04a0)3 increases gradually with temperature and undergoes a sharp jump at ~2200 K, ~2100 K and ~1800 K, respectively. Here, a0 = 5.043 Å is the equilibrium lattice parameter at 0 K obtained from ab-initio calculations. These jumps in interaction energy are treated as due to the onset of melting and corresponding temperatures as melting point. The melting point of 2100 K is close to the experimental value of 2023K. Further, the same has been verified by plotting the atomic arrangement evolved at various temperatures and corresponding pair correlation functions.
Ab initio Monte Carlo investigation of small lithium clusters.
Srinivas, S.
1999-06-16
Structural and thermal properties of small lithium clusters are studied using ab initio-based Monte Carlo simulations. The ab initio scheme uses a Hartree-Fock/density functional treatment of the electronic structure combined with a jump-walking Monte Carlo sampling of nuclear configurations. Structural forms of Li{sub 8} and Li{sub 9}{sup +} clusters are obtained and their thermal properties analyzed in terms of probability distributions of the cluster potential energy, average potential energy and configurational heat capacity all considered as a function of the cluster temperature. Details of the gradual evolution with temperature of the structural forms sampled are examined. Temperatures characterizing the onset of structural changes and isomer coexistence are identified for both clusters.
Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.
2015-03-28
A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yung, Y. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Tang, K. T.
1980-01-01
Three dimensional quantum mechanical calculations are carried out for the reactive scattering of D+H2→DH+H on the ab initio potential energy surface calculated by Liu and Siegbahn and fitted by Truhlar and Horowitz. The differential and total cross sections as well as the S matrix elements are obtained from the adiabatic distorted wave method. Threshold energy, cross sections and product distributions over final states are all in good agreement with experimental measurements. Results are also compared with the corresponding ones obtained on the Porter-Karplus and the Yates-Lester semi-empirical surfaces.
Intrinsic errors in several ab initio methods. The dissociation energy of N{sub 2}
Peterson, K.A. |; Dunning, T.H. Jr.
1995-03-23
Using sequences of correlation consistent basis sets, complete basis set (CBS) limits for the dissociation energy D{sub c} of N{sub 2} have been estimated for a variety of commonly used electron correlation methods. After extrapolation to the CBS limit, the difference between theory and experiment corresponds to the error intrinsic to the chosen theoretical method. Correlated wave functions (valence electrons correlated only) for which intrinsic errors have been estimated include internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (CMRCI), singles and doubles coupled cluster theory with and without perturbative triple excitations [CCSD, CCSD(T)], and second-, third-, and fourth-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2, MP3, MP4). For CMRCI and CCSD(T), D{sub c} converges smoothly from below the experimental value and yields the smallest intrinsic errors, -0.8 and -1.6 kcal/mol, respectively. In contrast, for MP2 and MP4, D{sub c} exhibits fortuitously good agreement with experiment for small basis sets but leads to CBS limits that are 11.6 and 3.4 kcal/mol larger than experiment, respectively. Correlation of the 1s core electrons is predicted to yield intrinsic errors of less than 1 kcal/mol for CMRCI and CCSD(T), while those for MP2 and MP4 increase still further. 38 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Ab initio calculations of reactions with light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Calci, Angelo; Navrátil, Petr; Roth, Robert
2016-03-01
An ab initio (i.e., from first principles) theoretical framework capable of providing a unified description of the structure and low-energy reaction properties of light nuclei is desirable to further our understanding of the fundamental interactions among nucleons, and provide accurate predictions of crucial reaction rates for nuclear astrophysics, fusion-energy research, and other applications. In this contribution we review ab initio calculations for nucleon and deuterium scattering on light nuclei starting from chiral two- and three-body Hamiltonians, obtained within the framework of the ab initio no-core shell model with continuum. This is a unified approach to nuclear bound and scattering states, in which square-integrable energy eigenstates of the A-nucleon system are coupled to (A-a)+a target-plus-projectile wave functions in the spirit of the resonating group method to obtain an efficient description of the many-body nuclear dynamics both at short and medium distances and at long ranges.
Kalugina, Yulia N; Lokshtanov, Sergei E; Cherepanov, Victor N; Vigasin, Andrey A
2016-02-01
We present new three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surfaces (DMSs) for the CH4-Ar van der Waals system. Ab initio calculations of the PES and DMS were carried out using the closed-shell single- and double-excitation coupled cluster approach with non-iterative perturbative treatment of triple excitations. The augmented correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D,T,Q) basis sets were employed, and the energies obtained were then extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The dipole moment surface was obtained using aug-cc-pVTZ basis set augmented with mid-bond functions for better description of exchange interactions. The second mixed virial coefficient was calculated and compared to available experimental data. The equilibrium constant for true dimer formation was calculated using classical partition function based on the knowledge of ab initio PES. Temperature variations of the zeroth spectral moment of the rototranslational collision-induced band as well as its true dimer constituent were traced with the use of the Boltzmann-weighted squared induced dipole properly integrated over respective phase space domains. Height profiles for N2-N2, N2-H2, CH4-N2, (CH4)2, and CH4-Ar true bound dimers in Titan's atmosphere were calculated with the use of reliable ab initio PESs. PMID:26851918
Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.
2014-12-07
Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.
Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Frisch, Michael J.; Li, Xiaosong
2014-12-01
Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li3 molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.
Recent progress in ab initio density matrix renormalization group methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hachmann, Johannes; Dorando, Jonathan J.; Kin-Lic Chan, Garnet
2008-03-01
We present some recent developments in the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method for quantum chemical problems, in particular our local, quadratic scaling algorithm [1] for low dimensional systems. This method is particularly suited for the description of strong nondynamic correlation, and allows us to compute numerically exact (FCI) correlated energies for large active spaces, up to one order of magnitude larger then can be done by conventional CASCI techniques. Other features of this method are its inherent multireference nature, compactness, variational results, size-consistency and size-extensivity. In addition we will review the problems (predominantly organic electronic materials) on which we applied the ab initio DMRG: 1) metal-insulator transition in hydrogen chains [1] 2) all-trans polyacetylene [1] 3) acenes [2] 4) polydiacetylenes [3]. References [1] Hachmann, Cardoen, Chan, JCP 125 (2006), 144101. [2] Hachmann, Dorando, Avil'es, Chan, JCP 127 (2007), 134309. [3] unpublished.
Exploring complex chemical reactions by ab-initio simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parrinello, Michele
1998-03-01
Recent progress in the ab-initio molecular dynamics method and the power of parallel computing, allow the detailed study of complex chemical reaction of great industrial relevance. We illustrate this unprecedented capability by investigating the second generation Ziegler-Natta catalytic process. In this inhomogeneous catalyst, a polymerization reaction is induced by TiCl4 molecules deposited on an MgCl2 solid support. A density functional based ab-initio molecular dynamics calculation conducted with a minimum of initial assumption allows to understand the nature of the catalytic center and to determine the reaction path with the associated free energy barrier. Furthermore our calculation can explain in a nontrivial way the stereo-selectivity of the process.
Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard
2016-03-21
A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower. PMID:27004873
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard
2016-03-01
A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower.
Bylaska, Eric J; Glaesemann, Kurt R; Felmy, Andrew R; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A; Tratnyek, Paul G
2010-11-25
Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e., hydrogenolysis), reductive β-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH− of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties ΔH(f)°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K, 1 bar), and ΔG(S)(298.15 K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely degradation products: CH3−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CH2−CH2Cl, C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2Cl, cis-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, CH2═CH−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CHCl−CH2OH, CH2Cl−CHOH−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2OH, CH2═COH−CH2Cl, cis-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, CH(═O)−CH2−CH2Cl, and CH3−C(═O)−CH2Cl. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive β-elimination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH− (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl and the CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely. PMID:21038905
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.
2014-08-01
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics.
Makhov, Dmitry V; Glover, William J; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2014-08-01
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions. PMID:25106573
Peterson, K.A.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.M.
1999-10-01
A new, global analytical potential energy surface is constructed for the X&hthinsp;{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} electronic ground state of HOCl that accurately includes the HClO isomer. The potential is obtained by using accurate {ital ab initio} data from a previously published surface [Skokov {ital et al.}, J. Chem. Phys. {bold 109}, 2662 (1998)], as well as a significant number of new data for the HClO region of the surface at the same multireference configuration interaction, complete basis set limit level of theory. Vibrational energy levels and intensities are computed for both HOCl and HClO up to the OH+Cl dissociation limit and above the isomerization barrier. After making only minor adjustments to the {ital ab initio} surface, the errors with respect to experiment for HOCl are generally within a few cm{sup {minus}1} for 22 vibrational levels with the largest error being 26 cm{sup {minus}1}. A total of 813 bound vibrational states are calculated for HOCl. The HClO potential well supports 57 localized states, of which only the first 3 are bound. The strongest dipole transitions for HClO were computed for the fundamentals{emdash}33, 2.9, and 25 km/mol for {nu}{sub 1}, {nu}{sub 2}, and {nu}{sub 3}, respectively. From exact J=1 ro-vibrational calculations, state dependent rotational constants have been calculated for HClO. Lastly, resonance calculations with the new potential demonstrate that the presence of the HClO minimum has a negligible effect on the resonance states of HOCl near the dissociation threshold due to the relatively high and wide isomerization barrier. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2004-01-01
We compare dilute-limit heats of segregation for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent LMTO-based parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation, while the ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of a segregation model driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.
Ab initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potter, H. D.; Fischer, S.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.; Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Langhammer, J.; Roth, R.
2014-12-01
We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2- 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8 , 16 , 20 , 28 , 40 , 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparisons with quantum Monte Carlo results, where available, using Argonne v8‧ with three-nucleon interactions reveal important dependences on the chosen Hamiltonian.
Ivanov, Sergei D; Grant, Ian M; Marx, Dominik
2015-09-28
With the goal of computing quantum free energy landscapes of reactive (bio)chemical systems in multi-dimensional space, we combine the metadynamics technique for sampling potential energy surfaces with the ab initio path integral approach to treating nuclear quantum motion. This unified method is applied to the double proton transfer process in the formic acid dimer (FAD), in order to study the nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures without imposing a one-dimensional reaction coordinate or reducing the dimensionality. Importantly, the ab initio path integral metadynamics technique allows one to treat the hydrogen bonds and concomitant proton transfers in FAD strictly independently and thus provides direct access to the much discussed issue of whether the double proton transfer proceeds via a stepwise or concerted mechanism. The quantum free energy landscape we compute for this H-bonded molecular complex reveals that the two protons move in a concerted fashion from initial to product state, yet world-line analysis of the quantum correlations demonstrates that the protons are as quantum-uncorrelated at the transition state as they are when close to the equilibrium structure. PMID:26429008
Ivanov, Sergei D. Grant, Ian M.; Marx, Dominik
2015-09-28
With the goal of computing quantum free energy landscapes of reactive (bio)chemical systems in multi-dimensional space, we combine the metadynamics technique for sampling potential energy surfaces with the ab initio path integral approach to treating nuclear quantum motion. This unified method is applied to the double proton transfer process in the formic acid dimer (FAD), in order to study the nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures without imposing a one-dimensional reaction coordinate or reducing the dimensionality. Importantly, the ab initio path integral metadynamics technique allows one to treat the hydrogen bonds and concomitant proton transfers in FAD strictly independently and thus provides direct access to the much discussed issue of whether the double proton transfer proceeds via a stepwise or concerted mechanism. The quantum free energy landscape we compute for this H-bonded molecular complex reveals that the two protons move in a concerted fashion from initial to product state, yet world-line analysis of the quantum correlations demonstrates that the protons are as quantum-uncorrelated at the transition state as they are when close to the equilibrium structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Sergei D.; Grant, Ian M.; Marx, Dominik
2015-09-01
With the goal of computing quantum free energy landscapes of reactive (bio)chemical systems in multi-dimensional space, we combine the metadynamics technique for sampling potential energy surfaces with the ab initio path integral approach to treating nuclear quantum motion. This unified method is applied to the double proton transfer process in the formic acid dimer (FAD), in order to study the nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures without imposing a one-dimensional reaction coordinate or reducing the dimensionality. Importantly, the ab initio path integral metadynamics technique allows one to treat the hydrogen bonds and concomitant proton transfers in FAD strictly independently and thus provides direct access to the much discussed issue of whether the double proton transfer proceeds via a stepwise or concerted mechanism. The quantum free energy landscape we compute for this H-bonded molecular complex reveals that the two protons move in a concerted fashion from initial to product state, yet world-line analysis of the quantum correlations demonstrates that the protons are as quantum-uncorrelated at the transition state as they are when close to the equilibrium structure.
Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives.
to Baben, M; Achenbach, J O; von Lilienfeld, O A
2016-03-14
We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects. PMID:26979677
Ab initio determination of light hadron masses.
Dürr, S; Fodor, Z; Frison, J; Hoelbling, C; Hoffmann, R; Katz, S D; Krieg, S; Kurth, T; Lellouch, L; Lippert, T; Szabo, K K; Vulvert, G
2008-11-21
More than 99% of the mass of the visible universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Both particles are much heavier than their quark and gluon constituents, and the Standard Model of particle physics should explain this difference. We present a full ab initio calculation of the masses of protons, neutrons, and other light hadrons, using lattice quantum chromodynamics. Pion masses down to 190 mega-electron volts are used to extrapolate to the physical point, with lattice sizes of approximately four times the inverse pion mass. Three lattice spacings are used for a continuum extrapolation. Our results completely agree with experimental observations and represent a quantitative confirmation of this aspect of the Standard Model with fully controlled uncertainties. PMID:19023076
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Todd
Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-01-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881
Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
to Baben, M.; Achenbach, J. O.; von Lilienfeld, O. A.
2016-03-01
We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor.
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S; Martínez, Todd J
2014-12-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor--a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-12-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor—a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.
Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David
2014-01-01
Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.
2015-10-01
The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.
Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B
2015-10-14
The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range. PMID:26472380
Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; and others
2015-10-14
The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowman, Joel M.; Gazdy, Bela; Bentley, Joseph A.; Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.
1993-01-01
A potential energy surface for the HCN/HNC system which is a fit to extensive, high-quality ab initio, coupled-cluster calculations is presented. All HCN and HNC states with energies below the energy of the first delocalized state are reported and characterized. Vibrational transition energies are compared with all available experimental data on HCN and HNC, including high CH-overtone states up to 23,063/cm. A simulation of the (A-tilde)-(X-tilde) stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectrum is also reported, and the results are compared to experiment. Franck-Condon factors are reported for odd bending states of HCN, with one quantum of vibrational angular momentum, in order to compare with the recent assignment by Jonas et al. (1992), on the basis of axis-switching arguments of a number of previously unassigned states in the SEP spectrum.
Potential Dependence of Electrochemical Barriers from ab Initio Calculations.
Chan, Karen; Nørskov, Jens K
2016-05-01
We present a simple and computationally efficient method to determine the potential dependence of the activation energies for proton-electron transfer from a single ab initio barrier calculation. We show that the potential dependence of the activation energy is given by the partial charge transferred at the transition state. The method is evaluated against the potential dependence determined explicitly through multiple calculations at varying potential. We show that the transfer coefficient is given by the charge transferred from the initial to transition state, which has significant implications for electrochemical kinetics. PMID:27088442
Ab initio study of hydrogen on beryllium surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachurin, D. V.; Vladimirov, P. V.
2015-11-01
Static ab initio calculations were performed for five principal hexagonal close-packed beryllium surfaces: basal, prismatic (type I and II) and pyramidal (type I and II). The basal plane was found to be the most energetically favorable, while the energies of the prismatic (type I) and pyramidal (type I) planes were slightly higher followed by the type II planes. Beryllium is known to show extreme interlayer distance relaxation near the surface. Up to five outermost atomic layers were involved in surface relaxation. The presence of hydrogen on the beryllium surfaces led to a noticeable reduction of the surface energy.
Structural Analysis of SiGe and SiGeC Alloys by Ab Initio Total-Energy Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Nagako
1999-04-01
The structural properties of SiGe and SiGeC alloysare studied byab initio total-energy calculations.It is found from these calculations that the Ge cluster isa stable structure in a SiGe alloy. Furthermore, it is alsodemonstrated that Vegard's law is validin a SiGeC system whose C content is less than 3%.The total-energy calculation of the Si0.72Ge0.25C0.03alloy in which the number of Ge C bonds around a C atom variesshows that the energy increases on increasing the number of Ge C bonds.The mechanism of this increase is considered, taking into account thecohesive energy difference of the SiC and GeC alloys and the atomicconfiguration around the C atom.
Paul, Amit Kumar; Ray, Somrita; Mukhopadhyay, Debasis; Adhikari, Satrajit
2011-07-21
We perform ab initio calculation using quantum chemistry package (MOLPRO) on the excited states of Na(3) cluster and present the adiabatic PESs for the electronic states 2(2)E' and 1(2)A(1)', and the non-adiabatic coupling (NAC) terms among those states. Since the ab initio calculated NAC elements for the states 2(2)E' and 1(2)A(1)' demonstrate the numerical validity of so called "Curl Condition," such states closely form a sub-Hilbert space. For this subspace, we employ the NAC terms to solve the "adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT)" equations to obtain the functional form of the transformation angles and pave the way to construct the continuous and single valued diabatic potential energy surface matrix by exploiting the existing first principle based theoretical means on beyond Born-Oppenheimer treatment. Nuclear dynamics has been carried out on those diabatic surfaces to reproduce the experimental spectrum for system B of Na(3) cluster and thereby, to explore the numerical validity of the theoretical development on beyond Born-Oppenheimer approach for adiabatic to diabatic transformation. PMID:21786987
Accurate proton affinities - Ab initio proton binding energies for N2, CO, CO2, and CH4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komornicki, Andrew; Dixon, David A.
1992-07-01
A set of large-scale ab initio molecular orbital calculations on the title molecules and their protonated forms has been performed. The aim of the present study has been to help establish very accurate absolute proton affinities for each of these molecules. For each molecule a series of calculations was performed using increasingly larger atomic natural orbital (ANO) one-particle spaces. The energetics of protonation were then evaluated using four methods. These include self-consistent-field (SCF), second-order perturbation theory (MP2), the singles and doubles coupled-cluster (CCSD) ansatz, and the CCSD(T) method, which includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations. At each of these levels of theory the incompleteness of the one and N-particle spaces was ascertained by an evaluation of the basis set superposition error (BSSE) for the protonation reaction. It is believed that the final proton affinities all attain chemical accuracy in that they contain less than 1 kcal/mol error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duguet, T.; Bender, M.; Ebran, J.-P.; Lesinski, T.; Somà, V.
2015-12-01
This programmatic paper lays down the possibility to reconcile the necessity to resum many-body correlations into the energy kernel with the fact that safe multi-reference energy density functional (EDF) calculations cannot be achieved whenever the Pauli principle is not enforced, as is for example the case when many-body correlations are parametrized under the form of empirical density dependencies. Our proposal is to exploit a newly developed ab initio many-body formalism to guide the construction of safe, explicitly correlated and systematically improvable parametrizations of the off-diagonal energy and norm kernels that lie at the heart of the nuclear EDF method. The many-body formalism of interest relies on the concepts of symmetry breaking and restoration that have made the fortune of the nuclear EDF method and is, as such, amenable to this guidance. After elaborating on our proposal, we briefly outline the project we plan to execute in the years to come.
Wu, Ying; Zhang, Chunfang; Cao, Jianwei; Bian, Wensheng
2014-06-19
Quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations have been performed on a new global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the singlet ground state (1(1)A') of the CH2 reactive system. Our new PES can give a very good description of the well and asymptote regions, and particularly regions around conical intersections (CIs) and of van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The integral cross sections, differential cross sections, and product rovibrational state distributions for the C((1)D) + H2 → CH + H reaction have been investigated in a wide range of collision energies. The present integral cross sections are much larger than the previous QCT results at low collision energies, which can be attributed to the differences of the PESs in the regions around the CIs and vdW complexes. The thermal rate coefficients in the temperature range 200-1500 K have also been calculated and very good agreement with experiment is obtained. PMID:24878310
Ab Initio Calculations Applied to Problems in Metal Ion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Electronic structure calculations can provide accurate spectroscopic data (such as molecular structures) vibrational frequencies, binding energies, etc.) that have been very useful in explaining trends in experimental data and in identifying incorrect experimental measurements. In addition, ab initio calculations. have given considerable insight into the many interactions that make the chemistry of transition metal systems so diverse. In this review we focus on cases where calculations and experiment have been used to solve interesting chemical problems involving metal ions. The examples include cases where theory was used to differentiate between disparate experimental values and cases where theory was used to explain unexpected experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Tohru; Nagayoshi, Kanade; Kitaura, Kazuo
2003-03-01
A computational procedure is proposed for calculating the lattice energy of molecular crystals using the ab initio MO method. Our method does not require any adjustable parameters and provides a general description for various molecular crystals including electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes. Using the method, the packing structure of H 3N-BF 3 crystal was optimized at the HF/3-21 + G level and the lattice energy was calculated at the MP2/6-311 + G * level. The calculation reproduced the experimental lattice constants with reasonable accuracy. Moreover, the structural feature of the H 3N-BF 3 crystal was discussed based on the molecular interactions in the crystal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrongolo, Carlo; Ranghino, Graziella; Scordamaglia, Raimondo
1980-01-01
The potential energy surface of the β-lactam + OH - reaction, related to the mode of action of β-lactam antibiotics, was investigated using the ab initio Hartree—Fock method with the STO-3G basis set. Three possible reaction paths for the B A C2 breaking of the amidic CN bond were obtained and discussed. The minimum-energy reaction path is characterized by the following processes: (1) the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate, ≈ 121 kcal mol -1 more stable than the reagents; (2) a barrier, ≈ 15 kcal mol -1 above the intermediate, which is mainly due to the partial breaking of the amidic bond; (3) the complete breaking of the amidic bond concerted with a proton transfer till the formation of the final product, ≈ 34 kcal mol -1 more stable than the intermediate. The evolution of some molecular orbitals and of the electron population along the reaction path was also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saheer, V. C.; Kumar, Sanjay
2016-01-01
The global ground and first three excited electronic state adiabatic as well as the corresponding quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces is reported as a function of nuclear geometries in the Jacobi coordinates ( R → , r → , γ ) using Dunning's cc-pVTZ basis set at the internally contracted multi-reference (single and double) configuration interaction level of accuracy. Nonadiabatic couplings, arising out of relative motion of proton and the vibrational motion of CO, are also reported in terms of coupling potentials. The quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces and the coupling potentials have been obtained using the ab initio procedure [Simah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4523 (1999)] for the purpose of dynamics studies.
Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gesell, Laurence E.
1995-01-01
Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)
Kraisler, Eli; Makov, Guy; Kelson, Itzhak
2010-10-15
The total energies and the spin states for atoms and their first ions with Z=1-86 are calculated within the the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) and the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) energy in density-functional theory. Atoms and ions for which the ground-state density is not pure-state v-representable are treated as ensemble v-representable with fractional occupations of the Kohn-Sham system. A recently developed algorithm which searches over ensemble v-representable densities [E. Kraisler et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 032115 (2009)] is employed in calculations. It is found that for many atoms, the ionization energies obtained with the GGA are only modestly improved with respect to experimental data, as compared to the LSDA. However, even in those groups of atoms where the improvement is systematic, there remains a non-negligible difference with respect to the experiment. The ab initio electronic configuration in the Kohn-Sham reference system does not always equal the configuration obtained from the spectroscopic term within the independent-electron approximation. It was shown that use of the latter configuration can prevent the energy-minimization process from converging to the global minimum, e.g., in lanthanides. The spin values calculated ab initio fit the experiment for most atoms and are almost unaffected by the choice of the xc functional. Among the systems with incorrectly obtained spin, there exist some cases (e.g., V, Pt) for which the result is found to be stable with respect to small variations in the xc approximation. These findings suggest a necessity for a significant modification of the exchange-correlation functional, probably of a nonlocal nature, to accurately describe such systems.
Ab initio prediction of the critical thickness of a precipitate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampath, S.; Janisch, R.
2013-09-01
Segregation and precipitation of second phases in metals and metallic alloys is an important phenomenon that has a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the material. Models exist that describe the growth of coherent, semi-coherent and incoherent precipitates. One important parameter of these models is the energy of the interface between matrix and precipitate. In this work we apply ab initio density functional theory calculations to obtain this parameter and to understand how it depends on chemical composition and mechanical strain at the interface. Our example is a metastable Mo-C phase, the body-centred tetragonal structure, which exists as a semi-coherent precipitate in body-centred cubic molybdenum. The interface of this precipitate is supposed to change from coherent to semi-coherent during the growth of the precipitate. We predict the critical thickness of the precipitate by calculating the different contributions to a semi-coherent interface energy by means of ab initio density functional theory calculations. The parameters in our model include the elastic strain energy stored in the precipitate, as well as a misfit dislocation energy that depends on the dislocation core width and the dislocation spacing. Our predicted critical thickness agrees well with experimental observations.
Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong
2015-09-01
We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H2 and O2. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.
Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong
2015-09-21
We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Eckhard; Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard
2010-12-01
A recent argon-argon interatomic potential energy curve determined from quantum-mechanical ab initio calculations and described with an analytical representation [B. Jäger, R. Hellmann, E. Bich, and E. Vogel, Mol. Phys. 107, 2181 (2009); 108, 105 (2010)] was used to calculate the most important thermophysical properties of argon governed by two-body interactions. Second pressure, acoustic, and dielectric virial coefficients as well as viscosity and thermal conductivity in the limit of zero density were computed for natural argon from 83 to 10,000 K. The calculated values for the different thermophysical properties are compared with available experimental data and values computed for other argon-argon potentials. This extensive analysis shows that the proposed potential is superior to all previous ones and that the calculated thermophysical property values are accurate enough to be applied as standard values for the complete temperature range of the calculations.
Puzzarini, Cristina; Taylor, Peter R
2005-02-01
Highly accurate ab initio computations of the molecular structure and properties, torsional potential energy function, and harmonic force field of disilane and ethane have been carried out. Equilibrium parameters as well as vibrational corrections have been evaluated. In addition, for these systems a vibrational averaging procedure has been employed for calculating the dipole moment of molecules which have no permanent dipole moment, i.e., SiH(3)SiD(3) and CH(3)CD(3). The molecular and spectroscopic properties calculated for ethane and its isotopomers provide a calibration against known experimental data, allowing us to estimate the reliability of our computed results for disilane for which there is much less experimental data. The goal of the present study is to predict the molecular parameters, with estimated uncertainties, that determine the microwave spectrum of SiH(3)SiD(3). PMID:15740330
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puzzarini, Cristina; Taylor, Peter R.
2005-02-01
Highly accurate ab initio computations of the molecular structure and properties, torsional potential energy function, and harmonic force field of disilane and ethane have been carried out. Equilibrium parameters as well as vibrational corrections have been evaluated. In addition, for these systems a vibrational averaging procedure has been employed for calculating the dipole moment of molecules which have no permanent dipole moment, i.e., SiH3SiD3 and CH3CD3. The molecular and spectroscopic properties calculated for ethane and its isotopomers provide a calibration against known experimental data, allowing us to estimate the reliability of our computed results for disilane for which there is much less experimental data. The goal of the present study is to predict the molecular parameters, with estimated uncertainties, that determine the microwave spectrum of SiH3SiD3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.
2012-10-01
Accurate isomerization energies are obtained for a set of 45 C8H8 isomers by means of the high-level, ab initio W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The 45 isomers involve a range of hydrocarbon functional groups, including (linear and cyclic) polyacetylene, polyyne, and cumulene moieties, as well as aromatic, anti-aromatic, and highly-strained rings. Performance of a variety of DFT functionals for the isomerization energies is evaluated. This proves to be a challenging test: only six of the 56 tested functionals attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) below 3 kcal mol-1 (the performance of MP2), namely: 2.9 (B972-D), 2.8 (PW6B95), 2.7 (B3PW91-D), 2.2 (PWPB95-D3), 2.1 (ωB97X-D), and 1.2 (DSD-PBEP86) kcal mol-1. Isomers involving highly-strained fused rings or long cumulenic chains provide a 'torture test' for most functionals. Finally, we evaluate the performance of composite procedures (e.g. G4, G4(MP2), CBS-QB3, and CBS-APNO), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g. MP2, SCS-MP2, MP4, CCSD, and SCS-CCSD). Both connected triples and post-MP4 singles and doubles are important for accurate results. SCS-MP2 actually outperforms MP4(SDQ) for this problem, while SCS-MP3 yields similar performance as CCSD and slightly bests MP4. All the tested empirical composite procedures show excellent performance with RMSDs below 1 kcal mol-1.
Oxidation of GaN: An ab initio thermodynamic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Adam J.; Walsh, Aron
2013-10-01
GaN is a wide-band-gap semiconductor used in high-efficiency light-emitting diodes and solar cells. The solid is produced industrially at high chemical purities by deposition from a vapor phase, and oxygen may be included at this stage. Oxidation represents a potential path for tuning its properties without introducing more exotic elements or extreme processing conditions. In this work, ab initio computational methods are used to examine the energy potentials and electronic properties of different extents of oxidation in GaN. Solid-state vibrational properties of Ga, GaN, Ga2O3, and a single substitutional oxygen defect have been studied using the harmonic approximation with supercells. A thermodynamic model is outlined which combines the results of ab initio calculations with data from experimental literature. This model allows free energies to be predicted for arbitrary reaction conditions within a wide process envelope. It is shown that complete oxidation is favorable for all industrially relevant conditions, while the formation of defects can be opposed by the use of high temperatures and a high N2:O2 ratio.
Hu, Hao; Yang, Weitao
2013-01-01
Determining the free energies and mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution and enzymes is a major challenge. For such complex reaction processes, combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method is the most effective simulation method to provide an accurate and efficient theoretical description of the molecular system. The computational costs of ab initio QM methods, however, have limited the application of ab initio QM/MM methods. Recent advances in ab initio QM/MM methods allowed the accurate simulation of the free energies for reactions in solution and in enzymes and thus paved the way for broader application of the ab initio QM/MM methods. We review here the theoretical developments and applications of the ab initio QM/MM methods, focusing on the determination of reaction path and the free energies of the reaction processes in solution and enzymes. PMID:24146439
Skutterudites under pressure: An ab initio study
Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V.; Valsakumar, M. C.
2014-03-07
Ab initio results on the band structure, density of states, and Fermi surface (FS) properties of LaRu{sub 4}X{sub 12} (X = P, As, Sb) are presented at ambient pressure as well as under compression. The analysis of density of states reveals the major contribution at the Fermi level to be mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. We have a complicated Fermi surface with both electron and hole characters for all the three compounds which is derived mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. There is also a simpler FS with hole character derived from the P-p{sub z} orbital for LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} and Ru-d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital in the case of As and Sb containing compounds. More interestingly, Fermi surface nesting feature is observed only in the case of the LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. Under compression, we observe the topology of the complicated FS sheet of LaRu{sub 4}As{sub 12} to change around V/V{sub 0} = 0.85, leading to a behaviour similar to that of a multiband superconductor, and in addition, we have two more hole pockets centered around Γ at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 for the same compound. Apart from this, we find the hole pocket to vanish at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 in the case of LaRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the opening of the complicated FS sheet gets reduced. The de Haas van Alphen calculation shows the number of extremal orbits in the complicated sheet to change in As and Sb containing compounds under compression, where we also observe the FS topology to change.
Holme, Alf; Børve, Knut J; Sæthre, Leif J; Thomas, T Darrah
2011-12-13
A database of 77 adiabatic carbon 1s ionization energies has been prepared, covering linear and cyclic alkanes and alkenes, linear alkynes, and methyl- or fluoro-substituted benzenes. Individual entries are believed to carry uncertainties of less than 30 meV in ionization energies and less than 20 meV for shifts in ionization energies. The database provides an unprecedented opportunity for assessing the accuracy of theoretical schemes for computing inner-shell ionization energies and their corresponding chemical shifts. Chemical shifts in carbon 1s ionization energies have been computed for all molecules in the database using Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset (MP) many-body perturbation theory of order 2 and 3 as well as various approximations to full MP4, and the coupled-cluster approximation with single- and double-excitation operators (CCSD) and also including a perturbational estimate of the energy effect of triple-excitation operators (CCSD(T)). Moreover, a wide range of contemporary density functional theory (DFT) methods are also evaluated with respect to computing experimental shifts in C1s ionization energies. Whereas the top ab initio methods reproduce the observed shifts almost to within the experimental uncertainty, even the best-performing DFT approaches meet with twice the root-mean-squared error and thrice the maximum error compared to CCSD(T). However, a number of different density energy functionals still afford sufficient accuracy to become tools in the analysis of complex C1s photoelectron spectra. PMID:26598356
Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs.
Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G
2015-04-28
Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials. PMID:25870287
Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction
Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C
2015-01-01
The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis. PMID:25681906
Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework
Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr
2013-09-26
In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to amore » 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core (4He) polarization effects.« less
Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C.
2015-02-01
The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.
Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction
Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C
2015-02-14
The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.
Ab initio tight-binding Hamiltonian for transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Shiang; Kuate Defo, Rodrick; Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Lieu, Simon; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2015-11-01
We present an accurate ab initio tight-binding Hamiltonian for the transition metal dichalcogenides, MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2, with a minimal basis (the d orbitals for the metal atoms and p orbitals for the chalcogen atoms) based on a transformation of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory Hamiltonian to a basis of maximally localized Wannier functions. The truncated tight-binding Hamiltonian, with only on-site, first, and partial second neighbor interactions, including spin-orbit coupling, provides a simple physical picture and the symmetry of the main band-structure features. Interlayer interactions between adjacent layers are modeled by transferable hopping terms between the chalcogen p orbitals. The full-range tight-binding Hamiltonian can be reduced to hybrid-orbital k .p effective Hamiltonians near the band extrema that capture important low-energy excitations. These ab initio Hamiltonians can serve as the starting point for applications to interacting many-body physics including optical transitions and Berry curvature of bands, of which we give some examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czakó, Gábor
2013-04-01
Chemically accurate full-dimensional non-spin-orbit and spin-orbit (SO) ground-state potential energy surfaces (PESs) are obtained for the Br + CH4 → HBr + CH3 reaction by fitting 21 574 composite ab initio energy points. The composite method considers electron correlation methods up to CCSD(T), basis sets up to aug-cc-pwCVTZ-PP, correlation of the core electrons, scalar relativistic effects via an effective core potential (ECP), and SO corrections, thereby achieving an accuracy better than 0.5 kcal/mol. Benchmark structures and relative energies are computed for the stationary points using the ab initio focal-point analysis (FPA) scheme based on both ECP and Douglas-Kroll approaches providing all-electron relativistic CCSDT(Q)/complete-basis-set quality energies. The PESs accurately describe the saddle point of the abstraction reaction and the van der Waals complexes in the entrance and product channels. The SO-corrected PES provides a classical barrier height of 7285(7232 ± 50) cm-1, De values of 867(799 ± 10) and 399(344 ± 10) cm-1 for the complexes CH3-HBr and CH3-BrH, respectively, and reaction endothermicity of 7867(7857 ± 50) cm-1, in excellent agreement with the new, FPA-based benchmark data shown in parentheses. The difference between the Br + CH4 asymptotes of the non-SO and SO PESs is 1240 cm-1, in good agreement with the experiment (1228 cm-1). Quasiclassical trajectory calculations based on more than 13 million trajectories for the late-barrier Br + CH4(vk = 0, 1) [k = 1, 2, 3, 4] reactions show that the vibrational energy, especially the excitation of the stretching modes, activates the reaction much more efficiently than translational energy, in agreement with the extended Polanyi rules. Angular distributions show dominant backward scattering for the ground-state reaction and forward scattering for the stretching-excited reactions. The reactivity on the non-SO PES is about 3-5 times larger than that on the SO PES in a wide collision energy
Ab initio calculations of grain boundaries in bcc metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheiber, Daniel; Pippan, Reinhard; Puschnig, Peter; Romaner, Lorenz
2016-03-01
In this study, we compute grain boundary (GB) properties for a large set of GBs in bcc transition metals with a special focus on W, Mo and Fe using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and semi-empirical second nearest neighbour modified embedded atom method (2NN-MEAM) potentials. The GB properties include GB energies, surface energies, GB excess volume and work of separation, which we analyse and then compare to experimental data. We find that the used 2NN-MEAM potentials can predict general trends of GB properties, but do not always reproduce the GB ground state structure and energy found with DFT. In particular, our results explain the experimental finding that W and Mo prefer intergranular fracture, while other bcc metals prefer transgranular cleavage.
Le, Hung M; Dinh, Thach S; Le, Hieu V
2011-10-13
The singlet-triplet transformation and molecular dissociation of ozone (O(3)) gas is investigated by performing quasi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) with visible and near-infrared excitations. MP4(SDQ) level of theory with the 6-311g(2d,2p) basis set is executed for three different electronic spin states (singlet, triplet, and quintet). In order to simplify the potential energy function, an approximation is adopted by ignoring the spin-orbit coupling and allowing the molecule to switch favorably and instantaneously to the spin state that is more energetically stable (lowest in energy among the three spin states). This assumption has previously been utilized to study the SiO(2) system as reported by Agrawal et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124 (13), 134306). The use of such assumption in this study probably makes the upper limits of computed rate coefficients the true rate coefficients. The global PES for ozone is constructed by fitting 5906 ab initio data points using a 60-neuron two-layer feed-forward neural network. The mean-absolute error and root-mean-squared error of this fit are 0.0446 eV (1.03 kcal/mol) and 0.0756 eV (1.74 kcal/mol), respectively, which reveal very good fitting accuracy. The parameter coefficients of the global PES are reported in this paper. In order to identify the spin state with high confidence, we propose the use of a pattern-recognition neural network, which is trained to predict the spin state of a given configuration (with a prediction accuracy being 95.6% on a set of testing data points). To enhance the prediction effectiveness, a buffer series of five points are validated to confirm the spin state during the MD process to gain better confidence. Quasi-classical MD simulations from 1.2 to 2.4 eV of total internal energy (including zero-point energy) result in rate coefficients of singlet-triplet transformation in the range of 0.027 ps(-1) to 1.21 ps(-1). Also, we find very
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiancheng; Hu, Hao; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao
2009-04-01
A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) method was developed to calculate the redox free energies of large systems in solution with greatly enhanced efficiency for conformation sampling. The QM/MM-MFEP method describes the thermodynamics of a system on the potential of mean force surface of the solute degrees of freedom. The molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is only carried out with the QM subsystem fixed. It thus avoids "on-the-fly" QM calculations and thus overcomes the high computational cost in the direct QM/MM MD sampling. In the applications to two metal complexes in aqueous solution, the new QM/MM-MFEP method yielded redox free energies in good agreement with those calculated from the direct QM/MM MD method. Two larger biologically important redox molecules, lumichrome and riboflavin, were further investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The enhanced efficiency and uncompromised accuracy are especially significant for biochemical systems. The QM/MM-MFEP method thus provides an efficient approach to free energy simulation of complex electron transfer reactions.
Zeng Xiancheng; Hu Hao; Hu Xiangqian; Yang Weitao
2009-04-28
A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) method was developed to calculate the redox free energies of large systems in solution with greatly enhanced efficiency for conformation sampling. The QM/MM-MFEP method describes the thermodynamics of a system on the potential of mean force surface of the solute degrees of freedom. The molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is only carried out with the QM subsystem fixed. It thus avoids 'on-the-fly' QM calculations and thus overcomes the high computational cost in the direct QM/MM MD sampling. In the applications to two metal complexes in aqueous solution, the new QM/MM-MFEP method yielded redox free energies in good agreement with those calculated from the direct QM/MM MD method. Two larger biologically important redox molecules, lumichrome and riboflavin, were further investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The enhanced efficiency and uncompromised accuracy are especially significant for biochemical systems. The QM/MM-MFEP method thus provides an efficient approach to free energy simulation of complex electron transfer reactions.
Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY
Turchi, P A
2004-09-24
Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.
Feng, Yong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jin-Ti; Huang, Hao; Guo, Qing-Xiang
2003-01-01
Composite ab initio CBS-Q and G3 methods were used to calculate the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of over 200 compounds listed in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (2002 ed.). It was found that these two methods agree with each other excellently in the calculation of BDEs, and they can predict BDEs within 10 kJ/mol of the experimental values. Using these two methods, it was found that among the examined compounds 161 experimental BDEs are valid because the standard deviation between the experimental and theoretical values for them is only 8.6 kJ/mol. Nevertheless, 40 BDEs listed in the Handbook may be highly inaccurate as the experimental and theoretical values for them differ by over 20 kJ/mol. Furthermore, 11 BDEs listed in the Handbook may be seriously flawed as the experimental and theoretical values for them differ by over 40 kJ/mol. Using the 161 cautiously validated experimental BDEs, we then assessed the performances of the standard density functional (DFT) methods including B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91, and BH&HLYP in the calculation of BDEs. It was found that the BH&HLYP method performed poorly for the BDE calculations. B3LYP, B3P86, and B3PW91, however, performed reasonably well for the calculation of BDEs with standard deviations of about 12.1-18.0 kJ/mol. Nonetheless, all the DFT methods underestimated the BDEs by 4-17 kJ/mol in average. Sometimes, the underestimation by the DFT methods could be as high as 40-60 kJ/mol. Therefore, the DFT methods were more reliable for relative BDE calculations than for absolute BDE calculations. Finally, it was observed that the basis set effects on the BDEs calculated by the DFT methods were usually small except for the heteroatom-hydrogen BDEs. PMID:14632451
Bytautas, Laimutis; Matsunaga, Nikita; Ruedenberg, Klaus
2010-02-21
In the first paper of this series, a very accurate ab initio potential energy curve of the (3)Sigma(g)(-) ground state of O(2) has been determined in the approximation that all valence shell electron correlations were calculated at the complete basis set limit. In the present study, the corrections arising from core electron correlations and relativity effects, viz., spin-orbit coupling and scalar relativity, are determined and added to the potential energy curve. From the 24 points calculated on this curve, an analytical expression in terms of even-tempered Gaussian functions is determined and, from it, the vibrational and rotational energy levels are calculated by means of the discrete variable representation. We find 42 vibrational levels. Experimental data (from the Schumann-Runge band system) only yield the lowest 36 levels due to significant reduction in the transition intensities of higher levels. For the 35 term values G(v), the mean absolute deviation between theoretical and experimental data is 12.8 cm(-1). The dissociation energy with respect to the lowest vibrational energy is calculated within 25 cm(-1) of the experimental value of 41,268.2+/-3 cm(-1). The theoretical crossing between the (3)Sigma(g)(-) state and the (1)Sigma(g)(+) state is found to occur at 2.22 A and the spin-orbit coupling in this region is analyzed. PMID:20170227
Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P
2011-04-11
A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN
Ab initio water pair potential with flexible monomers.
Jankowski, Piotr; Murdachaew, Garold; Bukowski, Robert; Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Leforestier, Claude; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2015-03-26
A potential energy surface for the water dimer with explicit dependence on monomer coordinates is presented. The surface was fitted to a set of previously published interaction energies computed on a grid of over a quarter million points in the 12-dimensional configurational space using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and coupled-cluster methods. The present fit removes small errors in published fits, and its accuracy is critically evaluated. The minimum and saddle-point structures of the potential surface were found to be very close to predictions from direct ab initio optimizations. The computed second virial coefficients agreed well with experimental values. At low temperatures, the effects of monomer flexibility in the virial coefficients were found to be much smaller than the quantum effects. PMID:25687650
Li, Y Q; Ma, F C; Sun, M T
2013-10-21
A full three-dimensional global potential energy surface is reported first time for the title system, which is important for the photodissociation processes. It is obtained using double many-body expansion theory and an extensive set of accurate ab initio energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Such a work can be recommended for dynamics studies of the N((2)D) + H2 reaction, a reliable theoretical treatment of the photodissociation dynamics and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen containing systems. In turn, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction N((2)D)+H2(X(1)Σg (+))(ν=0,j=0)→NH(a(1)Δ)+H((2)S) has been carried out with the method of quasi-classical trajectory on the new potential energy surface. Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants have been calculated, providing perhaps the most reliable estimate of the integral cross sections and the rate constants known thus far for such a reaction. PMID:24160511
Song, Hongwei; Lu, Yunpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Guo, Hua
2016-04-28
An initial state selected time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the dynamics of the OH + CHD3 reaction with a six-dimensional model on a newly developed full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface (PES). This quantum dynamical (QD) study is complemented by full-dimensional quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations on the same PES. The QD results indicate that both translational energy and the excitation of the CH stretching mode significantly promote the reaction while the excitation of the umbrella mode has a negligible effect on the reactivity. For this early barrier reaction, interestingly, the CH stretching mode is more effective than translational energy in promoting the reaction except at very low collision energies. These QD observations are supported by QCT results. The higher efficacy of the CH stretching model in promoting this early barrier reaction is inconsistent with the prediction of the naively extended Polanyi's rules, but can be rationalized by the recently proposed sudden vector projection model. PMID:27131546
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hongwei; Lu, Yunpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Guo, Hua
2016-04-01
An initial state selected time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the dynamics of the OH + CHD3 reaction with a six-dimensional model on a newly developed full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface (PES). This quantum dynamical (QD) study is complemented by full-dimensional quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations on the same PES. The QD results indicate that both translational energy and the excitation of the CH stretching mode significantly promote the reaction while the excitation of the umbrella mode has a negligible effect on the reactivity. For this early barrier reaction, interestingly, the CH stretching mode is more effective than translational energy in promoting the reaction except at very low collision energies. These QD observations are supported by QCT results. The higher efficacy of the CH stretching model in promoting this early barrier reaction is inconsistent with the prediction of the naively extended Polanyi's rules, but can be rationalized by the recently proposed sudden vector projection model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y. Q.; Ma, F. C.; Sun, M. T.
2013-10-01
A full three-dimensional global potential energy surface is reported first time for the title system, which is important for the photodissociation processes. It is obtained using double many-body expansion theory and an extensive set of accurate ab initio energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Such a work can be recommended for dynamics studies of the N(2D) + H2 reaction, a reliable theoretical treatment of the photodissociation dynamics and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen containing systems. In turn, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction N(^2D)+H_2(X^1Σ _g^+)(ν =0,j=0)rArr NH(a^1Δ )+H(^2S) has been carried out with the method of quasi-classical trajectory on the new potential energy surface. Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants have been calculated, providing perhaps the most reliable estimate of the integral cross sections and the rate constants known thus far for such a reaction.
Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Kalugina, Yulia; Stoecklin, Thierry; Vera, Mario Hernández; Lique, François
2013-12-14
We present a new four-dimensional potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by H{sub 2}. Ab initio calculations of the HCN–H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, considering both molecules as rigid rotors, were carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] level of theory using an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The equilibrium structure is linear HCN–H{sub 2} with the nitrogen pointing towards H{sub 2} at an intermolecular separation of 7.20 a{sub 0}. The corresponding well depth is −195.20 cm{sup −1}. A secondary minimum of −183.59 cm{sup −1} was found for a T-shape configuration with the H of HCN pointing to the center of mass of H{sub 2}. We also determine the rovibrational energy levels of the HCN–para-H{sub 2} and HCN–ortho-H{sub 2} complexes. The calculated dissociation energies for the para and ortho complexes are 37.79 cm{sup −1} and 60.26 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated ro-vibrational transitions in the HCN–H{sub 2} complex are found to agree by more than 0.5% with the available experimental data, confirming the accuracy of the potential energy surface.
Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Good, Brian S.
2003-01-01
We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.
Ab initio simulation of transport phenomena in rarefied gases.
Sharipov, Felix; Strapasson, José L
2012-09-01
Ab initio potentials are implemented into the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Such an implementation allows us to model transport phenomena in rarefied gases without any fitting parameter of intermolecular collisions usually extracted from experimental data. Applying the method proposed by Sharipov and Strapasson [Phys. Fluids 24, 011703 (2012)], the use of ab initio potentials in the DSMC requires the same computational efforts as the widely used potentials such as hard spheres, variable hard sphere, variable soft spheres, etc. At the same time, the ab initio potentials provide more reliable results than any other one. As an example, the transport coefficients of a binary mixture He-Ar, viz., viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusion factor, have been calculated for several values of the mole fraction. PMID:23030889
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2014-10-01
The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals.
Brüssel, Marc; di Dio, Philipp J.; Muñiz, Kilian; Kirchner, Barbara
2011-01-01
We carried out ab initio molecular dynamic simulations in order to determine the free energy surfaces of two selected reactions including solvents, namely a rearrangement of a ruthenium oxoester in water and a carbon dioxide addition to a palladium complex in carbon dioxide. For the latter reaction we also investigated the gas phase reaction in order to take solvent effects into account. We used two techniques to reconstruct the free energy surfaces: thermodynamic integration and metadynamics. Furthermore, we gave a reasonable error estimation of the computed free energy surface. We calculated a reaction barrier of ΔF = 59.5 ± 8.5 kJ mol−1 for the rearrangement of a ruthenium oxoester in water from thermodynamic integration. For the carbon dioxide addition to the palladium complex in carbon dioxide we found a ΔF = 44.9 ± 3.3 kJ mol−1 from metadynamics simulations with one collective variable. The investigation of the same reactions in the gas phase resulted in ΔF = 24.9 ± 6.7 kJ mol−1 from thermodynamic integration, in ΔF = 26.7 ± 2.3 kJ mol−1 from metadynamics simulations with one collective variable, and in ΔF = 27.1 ± 5.9 kJ mol−1 from metadynamics simulations with two collective variables. PMID:21541065
Westphal, Eduard; Pliego, Josefredo R. Jr.
2005-08-15
The solvation of the lithium and sodium ions in dimethyl sulfoxide solution was theoretically investigated using ab initio calculations coupled with the hybrid cluster-continuum model, a quasichemical theory of solvation. We have investigated clusters of ions with up to five dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecules, and the bulk solvent was described by a dielectric continuum model. Our results show that the lithium and sodium ions have four and five DMSO molecules into the first coordination shell, and the calculated solvation free energies are -135.5 and -108.6 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively. These data suggest a solvation free energy value of -273.2 kcal mol{sup -1} for the proton in dimethyl sulfoxide solution, a value that is more negative than the present uncertain experimental value. This and previous studies on the solvation of ions in water solution indicate that the tetraphenylarsonium tetraphenylborate assumption is flawed and the absolute value of the free energy of transfer of ions from water to DMSO solution is higher than the present experimental values.
Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B
2014-10-01
The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals. PMID:25296777
Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2014-10-07
The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals.
Ab initio computations of photodissociation products of CFC alternatives
Tai, S.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E.
1995-12-31
Ab initio computations, have already been used to examine the energetics of the photodissociation of stratospheric chlorofluorocarbons. Our awn research has investigated the ab initio computation of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}H, and CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}; continuing research will attempt to expand these computations to the energetics of the photodissociation of these molecules, since sane of the most common types of chlorofluorocarbon substitutes are hydrofluoroethanes.
Ab Initio Structure Analysis Using Laboratory Powder Diffraction Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Akito
Today, laboratory X-ray diffractometers are seeing increasingly wide use in the ab initio crystal structure analysis of organic powder samples. This is because optics and optical devices have been improved, making it possible to obtain precise integrated intensities of reflections in high 2-theta ranges. Another reason is that one can use direct-space methods, which do not require “high-resolution diffraction data”, much more easily than before. Described here are some key points to remember when performig ab initio crystal structure analysis using powder diffraction data from organic compounds.
Isofulminic acid, HONC: Ab initio theory and microwave spectroscopy.
Mladenović, Mirjana; Lewerenz, Marius; McCarthy, Michael C; Thaddeus, Patrick
2009-11-01
Isofulminic acid, HONC, the most energetic stable isomer of isocyanic acid HNCO, higher in energy by 84 kcal/mol, has been detected spectroscopically by rotational spectroscopy supported by coupled cluster electronic structure calculations. The fundamental rotational transitions of the normal, carbon-13, oxygen-18, and deuterium isotopic species have been detected in the centimeter band in a molecular beam by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, and rotational constants and nitrogen and deuterium quadrupole coupling constants have been derived. The measured constants agree well with those predicted by ab initio calculations. A number of other electronic and spectroscopic parameters of isofulminic acid, including the dipole moment, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and centrifugal distortion constants have been calculated at a high level of theory. Isofulminic acid is a good candidate for astronomical detection with radio telescopes because it is highly polar and its more stable isomers (HNCO, HOCN, and HCNO) have all been identified in space. PMID:19895013
Ab initio study of helium behavior in titanium tritides
Liang, J. H.; Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Fan, K. M.; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2013-03-01
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to investigate the relative stability of titanium tritides and the helium behavior in stable titanium tritides. The results show that the β-phase TiT1.5 without two tritium along the [100] direction (TiT1.5[100]) is more stable than other possible structures. The stability of titanium tritides decrease with the increased generation of helium in TiT1.5[100]. In addition, helium generated by tritium decay prefers locating at a tetrahedral site, and favorably migrates between two neighbor vacant tetrahedral sites through an intermediate octahedral site in titanium tritides, with a migration energy of 0.23 eV. Furthermore, helium is easily accumulated on a (100) plane in β-phase TiT1.5[100].
An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er
Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.; Shen, Huahai; Peng, Shuming; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2014-09-01
We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.
Arismendi-Arrieta, Daniel J; Riera, Marc; Bajaj, Pushp; Prosmiti, Rita; Paesani, Francesco
2016-03-01
New potential energy functions (i-TTM) describing the interactions between halide ions and water molecules are reported. The i-TTM potentials are derived from fits to electronic structure data and include an explicit treatment of two-body repulsion, electrostatics, and dispersion energy. Many-body effects are represented through classical polarization within an extended Thole-type model. By construction, the i-TTM potentials are compatible with the flexible and fully ab initio MB-pol potential, which has recently been shown to accurately predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase. The accuracy of the i-TTM potentials is assessed through extensive comparisons with CCSD(T)-F12, DF-MP2, and DFT data as well as with results obtained with common polarizable force fields for X(-)(H2O)n clusters with X(-) = F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-), and n = 1-8. By construction, the new i-TTM potentials will enable direct simulations of vibrational spectra of halide-water systems from clusters to bulk and interfaces. PMID:26560189
Chen, Liuyang; Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Dong H
2016-05-21
This work performs a time-dependent wavepacket study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is constructed using neural network method based on 68 478 geometries with energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level and covers H2 + C2H↔H + C2H2, H + C2H2 → HCCH2, and HCCH2 radial isomerization reaction regions. The reaction dynamics of H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 are investigated using full-dimensional quantum dynamics method. The initial-state selected reaction probabilities are calculated for reactants in eight vibrational states. The calculated results showed that the H2 vibrational excitation predominantly enhances the reactivity while the excitation of bending mode of C2H slightly inhibits the reaction. The excitations of two stretching modes of C2H molecule have negligible effect on the reactivity. The integral cross section is calculated with J-shift approximation and the mode selectivity in this reaction is discussed. The rate constants over 200-2000 K are calculated and agree well with the experimental measured values. PMID:27208951
Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Song, Hongwei; Ma, Jianyi; Zhao, Bin; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua
2015-05-21
We survey the recent advances in theoretical understanding of quantum state resolved dynamics, using the title reactions as examples. It is shown that the progress was made possible by major developments in two areas. First, an accurate analytical representation of many high-level ab initio points over a large configuration space can now be made with high fidelity and the necessary permutation symmetry. The resulting full-dimensional global potential energy surfaces enable dynamical calculations using either quasi-classical trajectory or more importantly quantum mechanical methods. The second advance is the development of accurate and efficient quantum dynamical methods, which are necessary for providing a reliable treatment of quantum effects in reaction dynamics such as tunneling, resonances, and zero-point energy. The powerful combination of the two advances has allowed us to achieve a quantitatively accurate characterization of the reaction dynamics, which unveiled rich dynamical features such as steric steering, strong mode specificity, and bond selectivity. The dependence of reactivity on reactant modes can be rationalized by the recently proposed sudden vector projection model, which attributes the mode specificity and bond selectivity to the coupling of reactant modes with the reaction coordinate at the relevant transition state. The deeper insights provided by these theoretical studies have advanced our understanding of reaction dynamics to a new level. PMID:25886142
Mauney, Christopher; Lazzati, Davide; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco
2015-02-10
The binding energies of n < 100 carbon clusters are calculated using the ab initio density functional theory code Quantum Espresso. Carbon cluster geometries are determined using several levels of classical techniques and further refined using density functional theory. The resulting energies are used to compute the work of cluster formation and the nucleation rate in a saturated, hydrogen-poor carbon gas. Compared to classical calculations that adopt the capillary approximation, we find that nucleation of carbon clusters is enhanced at low temperatures and depressed at high temperatures. This difference is ascribed to the different behavior of the critical cluster size. We find that the critical cluster size is at n = 27 or n = 8 for a broad range of temperatures and saturations, instead of being a smooth function of such parameters. The results of our calculations can be used to follow carbonaceous cluster/grain formation, stability, and growth in hydrogen-poor environments, such as the inner layers of core-collapse supernovae and supernova remnants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauney, Christopher; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Lazzati, Davide
2015-02-01
The binding energies of n < 100 carbon clusters are calculated using the ab initio density functional theory code Quantum Espresso. Carbon cluster geometries are determined using several levels of classical techniques and further refined using density functional theory. The resulting energies are used to compute the work of cluster formation and the nucleation rate in a saturated, hydrogen-poor carbon gas. Compared to classical calculations that adopt the capillary approximation, we find that nucleation of carbon clusters is enhanced at low temperatures and depressed at high temperatures. This difference is ascribed to the different behavior of the critical cluster size. We find that the critical cluster size is at n = 27 or n = 8 for a broad range of temperatures and saturations, instead of being a smooth function of such parameters. The results of our calculations can be used to follow carbonaceous cluster/grain formation, stability, and growth in hydrogen-poor environments, such as the inner layers of core-collapse supernovae and supernova remnants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liuyang; Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Dong H.
2016-05-01
This work performs a time-dependent wavepacket study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is constructed using neural network method based on 68 478 geometries with energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level and covers H2 + C2H↔H + C2H2, H + C2H2 → HCCH2, and HCCH2 radial isomerization reaction regions. The reaction dynamics of H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 are investigated using full-dimensional quantum dynamics method. The initial-state selected reaction probabilities are calculated for reactants in eight vibrational states. The calculated results showed that the H2 vibrational excitation predominantly enhances the reactivity while the excitation of bending mode of C2H slightly inhibits the reaction. The excitations of two stretching modes of C2H molecule have negligible effect on the reactivity. The integral cross section is calculated with J-shift approximation and the mode selectivity in this reaction is discussed. The rate constants over 200-2000 K are calculated and agree well with the experimental measured values.
Varandas, A J C
2013-04-01
The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005)] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures. PMID:23574218
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, John S.; Bowman, Joel M.
2013-03-01
We report a global, full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy surface describing the HCl-H2O dimer. The potential is constructed from a permutationally invariant fit, using Morse-like variables, to over 44 000 CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ energies. The surface describes the complex and dissociated monomers with a total RMS fitting error of 24 cm-1. The normal modes of the minima, low-energy saddle point and separated monomers, the double minimum isomerization pathway and electronic dissociation energy are accurately described by the surface. Rigorous quantum mechanical diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations are performed to determine the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the complex and the separated fragments. The calculated zero-point energies together with a De value calculated from CCSD(T) with a complete basis set extrapolation gives a D0 value of 1348 ± 3 cm-1, in good agreement with the recent experimentally reported value of 1334 ± 10 cm-1 [B. E. Casterline, A. K. Mollner, L. C. Ch'ng, and H. Reisler, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 9774 (2010), 10.1021/jp102532m]. Examination of the DMC wavefunction allows for confident characterization of the zero-point geometry to be dominant at the C2v double-well saddle point and not the Cs global minimum. Additional support for the delocalized zero-point geometry is given by numerical solutions to the 1D Schrödinger equation along the imaginary-frequency out-of-plane bending mode, where the zero-point energy is calculated to be 52 cm-1 above the isomerization barrier. The D0 of the fully deuterated isotopologue is calculated to be 1476 ± 3 cm-1, which we hope will stand as a benchmark for future experimental work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, Mark A.; Hillier, Ian H.; Morgado, Claudio A.; Burton, Neil A.; Shan, Xiao
2008-01-01
We have investigated, using both ab initio and density functional theory methods, the minimum energy structures and corresponding binding energies of the van der Waals complexes between phenol and argon or the nitrogen molecule, and the corresponding complexes involving the phenol cation. Structures were obtained at the MP2 level using a large basis, and the corresponding energies were corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), higher order electron correlation effects, and for basis set size. The structures of the global minima were further refined for the effects of BSSE and the corresponding binding energies were evaluated. For each neutral species, we find only a single true minimum, π bonded for argon and OH bonded for nitrogen. For both cationic species, we find that the OH-bonded complex is preferred over other minima which we have identified as having Ar or N2 between exogeneous atoms. The ab initio calculations are generally in excellent agreement with experimental binding energies and rotational constants. We find that the B3LYP functional is particularly poor at describing these complexes, while a density functional theory (DFT) method with an empirical correction for dispersive interactions (DFT-D) is very successful, as are some of the new functionals proposed by Zhao and Truhlar [J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 5656 (2005); J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2, 1009 (2006); Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 2701 (2005); J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6908 (2004)]. Both the ab initio and DFT-D methods accurately predict the intermolecular vibrational modes.
Ab initio methods for nuclear properties - a computational physics approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maris, Pieter
2011-04-01
A microscopic theory for the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses formidable challenges for high-performance computing. Several ab-initio methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The ab-initio no-core full configuration (NCFC) approach is based on basis space expansion methods and uses Slater determinants of single-nucleon basis functions to express the nuclear wave function. In this approach, the quantum many-particle problem becomes a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalues of this matrix give us the binding energies, and the corresponding eigenvectors the nuclear wave functions. These wave functions can be employed to evaluate experimental quantities. In order to reach numerical convergence for fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds 1 billion, and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. I discuss different strategies for distributing and solving this large sparse matrix on current multicore computer architectures, including methods to deal with with memory bottleneck. Several of these strategies have been implemented in the code MFDn, which is a parallel fortran code for nuclear structure calculations. I will show scaling behavior and compare the performance of the pure MPI version with the hybrid MPI/OpenMP code on Cray XT4 and XT5 platforms. For large core counts (typically 5,000 and above), the hybrid version is more efficient than pure MPI. With this code, we have been able to predict properties of the unstable nucleus 14F, which have since been confirmed by experiments. I will also give an overview of other recent results for nuclei in the A = 6 to 16 range with 2- and 3-body interactions. Supported in part by US DOE Grant DE-FC02-09ER41582.
Motif based Hessian matrixfor ab initio geometry optimization ofnanostructures
Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan
2006-04-05
A simple method to estimate the atomic degree Hessian matrixof a nanosystem is presented. The estimated Hessian matrix, based on themotif decomposition of the nanosystem, can be used to accelerate abinitio atomic relaxations with speedups of 2 to 4 depending on the sizeof the system. In addition, the programing implementation for using thismethod in a standard ab initio package is trivial.
Towards SiC Surface Functionalization: An Ab Initio Study
Cicero, G; Catellani, A
2005-01-28
We present a microscopic model of the interaction and adsorption mechanism of simple organic molecules on SiC surfaces as obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results open the way to functionalization of silicon carbide, a leading candidate material for bio-compatible devices.
Ab initio pseudopotential band calculation of organic conductors
Ishibashi, Shoji; Kohyama, Masanori
1999-12-01
The authors have calculated the band structures of organic conductors TTF-TCNQ and {beta}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} using the ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential method within the local-density approximation (LDA). The Fermi-surface shape and the origin of bands near the Fermi level are investigated for each compound.
Takahasi, S. ); Curtiss, L.A.; Gosztola, D.; Koura, N. ); Loong, C.K.; Saboungi, M.L. . Materials Science Div.)
1993-04-01
The Raman and neutron scattering spectra of 46 mol% AlCl[sub 3] -54 mol% 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) and 67 mol% AlCl[sub 3] - 33 mol% EMIC melts are presented. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been carried out on structures of chloroaluminate anion and EMI cation and the interaction between anion and cation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boilleau, Corentin; Suaud, Nicolas; Guihéry, Nathalie
2012-12-01
In spin-crossover (SCO) compounds exhibiting a light induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) effect, the thermodynamic T1/2 and kinetic T(LIESST) temperature values depend on the features of the potential energy surfaces (PES) of the two lowest singlet and quintet states but also on vibrational contributions, collective effects, such as electrostatics, for instance, spin-orbit couplings to a lesser extent, etc. In this work, the question of the link between the shape of the PES of SCO compounds exhibiting a LIESST effect and their first coordination sphere structure is addressed from wave function theory based ab initio calculations. Fe(II) complexes based on model ligands suited to reproduce the main characteristics of the PES of such compounds are distorted to emphasize selectively the role played by the metal-ligand distances and the ligand-metal-ligand angles. The studied angular deformations are those usually observed in many Fe(L)2(NCS)2 complexes. It is shown that the larger the deformation between the low spin and high spin equilibrium geometries, the higher the energy barrier from the high spin state and the weaker the energy difference between the bottom of the wells. These results corroborate observations made by experimentalists on a large number of complexes. While the PES features only constitutes one of the contributions to these temperatures, it is worth noticing that, relating T1/2 to the energy difference between the bottoms of the singlet and quintet wells and the T(LIESST) to the energy barrier from the quintet bottom well, the same slope of the empirical law T(LIESST) = -0.3T1/2+T0 is observed.
Boschen, Jeffery S.; Theis, Daniel; Ruedenberg, Klaus; Windus, Theresa L.
2013-12-07
The diatomic carbon molecule has a complex electronic structure with a large number of low-lying electronic excited states. In this work, the potential energy curves (PECs) of the four lowest lying singlet states (X-1 Sigma(+)(g), A(1)Pi(u), B-1 Delta(g), and B'(1)Sigma(+)(g)) were obtained by high-level ab initio calculations. Valence electron correlation was accounted for by the correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling (CEEIS) method. Additional corrections to the PECs included core-valence correlation and relativistic effects. Spin-orbit corrections were found to be insignificant. The impact of using dynamically weighted reference wave functions in conjunction with CEEIS was examined and found to give indistinguishable results from the even weighted method. The PECs showed multiple curve crossings due to the B-1 Delta(g) state as well as an avoided crossing between the two (1)Sigma(+)(g) states. Vibrational energy levels were computed for each of the four electronic states, as well as rotational constants and spectroscopic parameters. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results showed excellent agreement overall. Equilibrium bond distances are reproduced to within 0.05 %. The dissociation energies of the states agree with experiment to within similar to 0.5 kcal/mol, achieving "chemical accuracy." Vibrational energy levels show average deviations of similar to 20 cm(-1) or less. The B-1 Delta(g) state shows the best agreement with a mean absolute deviation of 2.41 cm(-1). Calculated rotational constants exhibit very good agreement with experiment, as do the spectroscopic constants.
Ab initio calculation of double ionization of atoms
Serov, V. V.
2013-02-15
The Solov'ev-Vinitsky method was used to perform an ab initio calculation of the triple-differential cross section for the double single-photon photoionization of helium for the case of equal emitted-electron energies. A Gaussian width {gamma} describing angular electron-electron correlations at the total electron energy E taking values in range between 0.1 and 100 eV was obtained for this cross section. The results agree with available experimental data, but they raise a doubt as to whether the well-known Wannier law {gamma} {proportional_to} E{sup 1/4} is applicable at experimentally accessible energies. The Gaussian width {gamma} was investigated as a function of the total emitted-electron energy for targets that have a strongly asymmetric configuration of the initial state-specifically, a negative atomic-hydrogen ion H{sup -} and heliumin the 1s2s{sup 1}S and 1s3s{sup 1}S excited states. It was found that this function, {gamma}(E), had a maximum at low energies. It was also shown that, at low energies, the dependence of the double-differential cross section on the angle between the emitted-electron momenta for the targets indicated above differed substantially from the Gaussian dependence, featuring maxima whose number was equal to the number of radial nodes in the initial state. This opens new possibilities for a qualitative analysis of the electron structure of targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchachenko, A. A.; Grinev, T. A.; Kłos, J.; Bieske, E. J.; Szczȩśniak, M. M.; Chałasiński, G.
2003-12-01
Three-dimensional potential energy and dipole moment surfaces of the Cl--H2 system are calculated ab initio by means of a coupled cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative correction to triple excitations with augmented correlation consistent quadruple-zeta basis set supplemented with bond functions, and represented in analytical forms. Variational calculations of the energy levels up to the total angular momentum J=25 provide accurate estimations of the measured rotational spectroscopic constants of the ground van der Waals levels n=0 of the Cl-⋯H2/D2 complexes although they underestimate the red shifts of the mid-infrared spectra with v=0→v=1 vibrational excitation of the monomer. They also attest to the accuracy of effective radial interaction potentials extracted previously from experimental data using the rotational RKR procedure. Vibrational predissociation of the Cl-⋯H2/D2(v=1) complexes is shown to follow near-resonant vibrational-to-rotational energy transfer mechanism so that more than 97% of the product monomers are formed in the highest accessible rotational level. This mechanism explains the strong variation of the predissociation rate with isotopic content and nuclear spin form of the complex. Strong deviation of the observed relative abundances of ortho and para forms of the complexes from those of the monomers is qualitatively explained by the secondary ligand exchange reactions in the ionic beam, within the simple thermal equilibrium model. Positions and intensities of the hot v=0, n=1→v=1, n=1 and combination v=0, n=0→v=1, n=1 bands are predicted, and implications to the photoelectron spectroscopy of the complex are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Carmona-Novillo, Estela; Hernández, Marta I.; Campos-Martínez, José; Hernandez-Lamoneda, Ramón
2008-06-01
A new potential energy surface (PES) for the quintet state of rigid O2(3Σg-)+O2(3Σg-) has been obtained using restricted coupled-cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. A large number of relative orientations of the monomers (65) and intermolecular distances (17) have been considered. A spherical harmonic expansion of the interaction potential has been built from the ab initio data. It involves 29 terms, as a consequence of the large anisotropy of the interaction. The spherically averaged term agrees quite well with the one obtained from analysis of total integral cross sections. The absolute minimum of the PES corresponds to the crossed (D2d) structure (X shape) with an intermolecular distance of 6.224 bohrs and a well depth of 16.27 meV. Interestingly, the PES presents another (local) minimum close in energy (15.66 meV) at 6.50 bohrs and within a planar skewed geometry (S shape). We find that the origin of this second structure is due to the orientational dependence of the spin-exchange interactions which break the spin degeneracy and leads to three distinct intermolecular PESs with singlet, triplet, and quintet multiplicities. The lowest vibrational bound states of the O2-O2 dimer have been obtained and it is found that they reflect the above mentioned topological features of the PES: The first allowed bound state for the 16O isotope has an X structure but the next state is just 0.12 meV higher in energy and exhibits an S shape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuzawa, Kaori; Matsushita, Toshio; Morokuma, Keiji; Levandier, Dale J.; Chiu, Yu-hui; Dressler, Rainer A.; Murad, Edmond; Midey, Anthony; Williams, Skip; Viggiano, Albert A.
2001-08-01
Theoretical and experimental studies are performed to elucidate the low energy charge-transfer dynamics of the reaction, O+(4S)+C2H2(X 1Σg+)→O+C2H2+. In particular, the role of the low-frequency acetylene bending modes (612 and 730 cm-1) in promoting charge transfer was examined. High-temperature guided-ion beam measurements are carried out over the energy range from near-thermal to 3 eV at 310 and 610 K. The charge-transfer cross sections are found to decrease up to 0.5 eV, to have a constant value at intermediate energies between 0.5 and 1.5 eV, and then to dramatically increase above a threshold of a spin-allowed process determined to be at 1.7 eV. A bending vibrational enhancement of ˜8 is observed at intermediate energies. Thermal energy rate co-efficients are measured in a variable temperature-selected ion flow drift tube apparatus from 193 to 500 K. At each temperature, a negative energy dependence is observed. In order to elucidate the reaction mechanism in detail, high level ab initio calculations using Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field and Multi-Reference Single- and Double-excitation Configuration Interaction methods have been performed. The results indicate that the charge transfer reaction occurs at an early stage via nonadiabatic transition between quartet and doublet states. There is a weak van der Waals minimum at the entrance channel between O+(4S) and C2H2 with the relative energy of -1.51 kcal/mol. The minimum of the quartet/doublet crossing seam (Q/D MSX), where the spin-forbidden nonadiabatic transition is most likely to take place, lies very near this minimum at RCO=4.06 Å, RCC=1.20 Å, and ∠CCH=166.6° with a relative energy of -1.48 kcal/mol. After the nonadiabatic transition, the system propagates on the doublet surface to reach the exothermic O(1D)+C2H2+(X˜2Πu) products. No energy barrier exists on the reaction pathway, strongly suggesting that the reaction should occur at low energy with a negative energy dependence
Operator evolution for ab initio theory of light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, Micah; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin; Jurgenson, Eric; Navrátil, Petr
2014-09-01
The past two decades have seen a revolution in ab initio calculations of nuclear properties. One key element has been the development of a rigorous effective interaction theory, applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence as a function of the model space size. For consistency, however, one ought to apply the same transformation to other operators when calculating transitions and mean values from the eigenstates of the renormalized Hamiltonian. Working in a translationally invariant harmonic oscillator basis for the two- and three-nucleon systems, we evolve the Hamiltonian, square radius, and total dipole strength operators by the similarity renormalization group (SRG). The inclusion of up to three-body matrix elements in the 4He nucleus all but completely restores the invariance of the expectation values under the transformation. We also consider a Gaussian operator with adjustable range; short ranges have the largest absolute renormalization when including two- and three-body induced terms, while at long ranges the induced three-body contribution takes on increased relative importance. The past two decades have seen a revolution in ab initio calculations of nuclear properties. One key element has been the development of a rigorous effective interaction theory, applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence as a function of the model space size. For consistency, however, one ought to apply the same transformation to other operators when calculating transitions and mean values from the eigenstates of the renormalized Hamiltonian. Working in a translationally invariant harmonic oscillator basis for the two- and three-nucleon systems, we evolve the Hamiltonian, square radius, and total dipole strength operators by the similarity renormalization group (SRG). The inclusion of up to three-body matrix elements in the 4He nucleus all but completely restores
Ab initio charge-carrier mobility model for amorphous molecular semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massé, Andrea; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Liu, Feilong; Nitsche, Robert; Coehoorn, Reinder; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Bobbert, Peter A.
2016-05-01
Accurate charge-carrier mobility models of amorphous organic molecular semiconductors are essential to describe the electrical properties of devices based on these materials. The disordered nature of these semiconductors leads to percolative charge transport with a large characteristic length scale, posing a challenge to the development of such models from ab initio simulations. Here, we develop an ab initio mobility model using a four-step procedure. First, the amorphous morphology together with its energy disorder and intermolecular charge-transfer integrals are obtained from ab initio simulations in a small box. Next, the ab initio information is used to set up a stochastic model for the morphology and transfer integrals. This stochastic model is then employed to generate a large simulation box with modeled morphology and transfer integrals, which can fully capture the percolative charge transport. Finally, the charge-carrier mobility in this simulation box is calculated by solving a master equation, yielding a mobility function depending on temperature, carrier concentration, and electric field. We demonstrate the procedure for hole transport in two important molecular semiconductors, α -NPD and TCTA. In contrast to a previous study, we conclude that spatial correlations in the energy disorder are unimportant for α -NPD. We apply our mobility model to two types of hole-only α -NPD devices and find that the experimental temperature-dependent current density-voltage characteristics of all devices can be well described by only slightly decreasing the simulated energy disorder strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varandas, A. J. C.
2013-04-01
The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005), 10.1063/1.1944290] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures.
Efficient conformational space exploration in ab initio protein folding simulation.
Ullah, Ahammed; Ahmed, Nasif; Pappu, Subrata Dey; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Ullah, A Z M Dayem; Rahman, M Sohel
2015-08-01
Ab initio protein folding simulation largely depends on knowledge-based energy functions that are derived from known protein structures using statistical methods. These knowledge-based energy functions provide us with a good approximation of real protein energetics. However, these energy functions are not very informative for search algorithms and fail to distinguish the types of amino acid interactions that contribute largely to the energy function from those that do not. As a result, search algorithms frequently get trapped into the local minima. On the other hand, the hydrophobic-polar (HP) model considers hydrophobic interactions only. The simplified nature of HP energy function makes it limited only to a low-resolution model. In this paper, we present a strategy to derive a non-uniform scaled version of the real 20×20 pairwise energy function. The non-uniform scaling helps tackle the difficulty faced by a real energy function, whereas the integration of 20×20 pairwise information overcomes the limitations faced by the HP energy function. Here, we have applied a derived energy function with a genetic algorithm on discrete lattices. On a standard set of benchmark protein sequences, our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for similar models. Our approach has been able to explore regions of the conformational space which all the previous methods have failed to explore. Effectiveness of the derived energy function is presented by showing qualitative differences and similarities of the sampled structures to the native structures. Number of objective function evaluation in a single run of the algorithm is used as a comparison metric to demonstrate efficiency. PMID:26361554
Efficient conformational space exploration in ab initio protein folding simulation
Ullah, Ahammed; Ahmed, Nasif; Pappu, Subrata Dey; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Ullah, A. Z. M. Dayem; Rahman, M. Sohel
2015-01-01
Ab initio protein folding simulation largely depends on knowledge-based energy functions that are derived from known protein structures using statistical methods. These knowledge-based energy functions provide us with a good approximation of real protein energetics. However, these energy functions are not very informative for search algorithms and fail to distinguish the types of amino acid interactions that contribute largely to the energy function from those that do not. As a result, search algorithms frequently get trapped into the local minima. On the other hand, the hydrophobic–polar (HP) model considers hydrophobic interactions only. The simplified nature of HP energy function makes it limited only to a low-resolution model. In this paper, we present a strategy to derive a non-uniform scaled version of the real 20×20 pairwise energy function. The non-uniform scaling helps tackle the difficulty faced by a real energy function, whereas the integration of 20×20 pairwise information overcomes the limitations faced by the HP energy function. Here, we have applied a derived energy function with a genetic algorithm on discrete lattices. On a standard set of benchmark protein sequences, our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for similar models. Our approach has been able to explore regions of the conformational space which all the previous methods have failed to explore. Effectiveness of the derived energy function is presented by showing qualitative differences and similarities of the sampled structures to the native structures. Number of objective function evaluation in a single run of the algorithm is used as a comparison metric to demonstrate efficiency. PMID:26361554
Ab initio studies of niobium defects in uranium
Xiang, S; Huang, H; Hsiung, L
2007-06-01
Uranium (U), with the addition of small amount of niobium (Nb), is stainless. The Nb is fully miscible with the high temperature phase of U and tends to segregate upon cooling below 647 C. The starting point of segregation is the configuration of Nb substitutional or interstitial defects. Using density-functional-theory based ab initio calculations, the authors find that the formation energy of a single vacancy is 1.08 eV, that of Nb substitution is 0.59 eV, that of Nb interstitial at octahedral site is 1.58 eV, and that of Nb interstitial at tetrahedral site is 2.35 eV; all with reference to a reservoir of {gamma} phase U and pure Nb. The formation energy of Nb defects correlates with the local perturbation of electron distribution; higher formation energy to larger perturbation. Based on this study, Nb atoms thermodynamically prefer to occupy substitutional sites in {gamma} phase U, and they prefer to be in individual substitutional defects than clusters.
Ab initio studies of phoshorene island single electron transistor.
Ray, S J; Venkata Kamalakar, M; Chowdhury, R
2016-05-18
Phosphorene is a newly unveiled two-dimensional crystal with immense potential for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Its unique electronic structure and two dimensionality also present opportunities for single electron devices. Here we report the behaviour of a single electron transistor (SET) made of a phosphorene island, explored for the first time using ab initio calculations. We find that the band gap and the charging energy decrease monotonically with increasing layer numbers due to weak quantum confinement. When compared to two other novel 2D crystals such as graphene and MoS2, our investigation reveals larger adsorption energies of gas molecules on phosphorene, which indicates better a sensing ability. The calculated charge stability diagrams show distinct changes in the presence of an individual molecule which can be applied to detect the presence of different molecules with sensitivity at a single molecular level. The higher charging energies of the molecules within the SET display operational viability at room temperature, which is promising for possible ultra sensitive detection applications. PMID:27093536
Ab initio studies of phosphorene island single electron transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, S. J.; Venkata Kamalakar, M.; Chowdhury, R.
2016-05-01
Phosphorene is a newly unveiled two-dimensional crystal with immense potential for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Its unique electronic structure and two dimensionality also present opportunities for single electron devices. Here we report the behaviour of a single electron transistor (SET) made of a phosphorene island, explored for the first time using ab initio calculations. We find that the band gap and the charging energy decrease monotonically with increasing layer numbers due to weak quantum confinement. When compared to two other novel 2D crystals such as graphene and MoS2, our investigation reveals larger adsorption energies of gas molecules on phosphorene, which indicates better a sensing ability. The calculated charge stability diagrams show distinct changes in the presence of an individual molecule which can be applied to detect the presence of different molecules with sensitivity at a single molecular level. The higher charging energies of the molecules within the SET display operational viability at room temperature, which is promising for possible ultra sensitive detection applications.
Predicting lattice thermal conductivity with help from ab initio methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broido, David
2015-03-01
The lattice thermal conductivity is a fundamental transport parameter that determines the utility a material for specific thermal management applications. Materials with low thermal conductivity find applicability in thermoelectric cooling and energy harvesting. High thermal conductivity materials are urgently needed to help address the ever-growing heat dissipation problem in microelectronic devices. Predictive computational approaches can provide critical guidance in the search and development of new materials for such applications. Ab initio methods for calculating lattice thermal conductivity have demonstrated predictive capability, but while they are becoming increasingly efficient, they are still computationally expensive particularly for complex crystals with large unit cells . In this talk, I will review our work on first principles phonon transport for which the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity is limited only by phonon-phonon scattering arising from anharmonicity. I will examine use of the phase space for anharmonic phonon scattering and the Grüneisen parameters as measures of the thermal conductivities for a range of materials and compare these to the widely used guidelines stemming from the theory of Liebfried and Schölmann. This research was supported primarily by the NSF under Grant CBET-1402949, and by the S3TEC, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0001299.
Plotnikov, Nikolay V.; Prasad, B. Ram; Chakrabarty, Suman; Chu, Zhen T.; Warshel, Arieh
2013-01-01
Understanding the nature of the free energy surfaces for phosphate hydrolysis is a prerequisite for understanding the corresponding key chemical reactions in biology. Here the challenge has been to move to careful ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free energy calculations, where obtaining converging results is very demanding and computationally expensive. This work describes such calculations, focusing on the free energy surface for the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters, paying a special attention to the comparison between the one water (1W) and two water (2W) paths for the proton transfer (PT) step. This issue has been explored before by energy minimization with implicit solvent models and by non-systematic QM/MM energy minimization, as well as by non-systematic free energy mapping. However, no study has provided the needed reliable 2D (3D) surfaces which are necessary for reaching concrete conclusions. Our study generated in a systematic way the 2D (3D) free energy maps for several relevant systems, comparing the results of QM(ai)/MM and QM(ai)/implicit solvent surfaces, and provides an advanced description of the relevant energetics. It is found that the 1W path for the hydrolysis of methyl diphosphate (MDP) trianion is 6–9 kcal/mol higher than the 2W path. This difference becomes slightly larger in the presence of Mg2+ ion, since this ion reduces the pKa of the conjugated acid form of the phosphate oxygen that accepts the proton. Interestingly, the BLYP approach (which has been used extensively in some studies) gives much smaller difference between the 1W and 2W activation barriers. At any rate, it is worth to point out that the 2W transition state for the PT is not much higher that the common plateau that serves as the starting point of both the 1W and 2W PT paths. Thus, the calculated catalytic effects of proteins based on the 2W PT mechanistic models are not expected to be different from the catalytic effects predicted using the 1W PT mechanistic models
Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.
Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni
2014-09-16
Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling
Towards an ab initio description of correlated materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Chuck-Hou
Strongly-correlated materials are a rich playground for physical phenomena, exhibiting complex phase diagrams with many competing orders. Ab initio insights into materials combined with physical ideas provide the ability to identify the organizing principles driving the correlated electronic behavior and pursue first-principles design of new compounds. Realistic modeling of correlated materials is an active area of research, especially with the recent merger of density functional theory (DFT) with dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). This thesis is structured in two parts. The first describes the methods and algorithmic developments which drive advances in DFT+DMFT. In Ch. 2 and 3, we provide an overview of the two foundational theories, DMFT and DFT. In the second half of Ch. 3, we describe some of the principles guiding the combination of the two theories to form DFT+DMFT. In Ch. 4, we describe the algorithm lying at the heart of modern DFT+DMFT implementations, the hybridization expansion formulation of continuous-time quantum monte carlo (CTQMC) for the general Anderson impurity problem, as well as a fast rejection algorithm for speeding-up the local trace evaluation. The final chapter in the methods section describes an algorithm for direct sampling of the partition function, and thus the free energy and entropy, of simple Anderson impurity models within CTQMC. The second part of the thesis is a collection of applications of our ab initio approach to key correlated materials. We first apply our method to plutonium binary alloys (Ch. 6), which when supplemented with slave-boson mean-field theory, allows us to understand the observed photoemission spectra. Ch. 7 describes the computation of spectra and optical conductivity for rare-earth nickelates grown as epitaxial thin films. In the final two chapters, we turn our attention to the high-temperature superconductors. In the first, we show that the charge-transfer energy is a key chemical variable which controls
Ab initio molecular dynamics: concepts, recent developments, and future trends.
Iftimie, Radu; Minary, Peter; Tuckerman, Mark E
2005-05-10
The methodology of ab initio molecular dynamics, wherein finite-temperature dynamical trajectories are generated by using forces computed "on the fly" from electronic structure calculations, has had a profound influence in modern theoretical research. Ab initio molecular dynamics allows chemical processes in condensed phases to be studied in an accurate and unbiased manner, leading to new paradigms in the elucidation of microscopic mechanisms, rationalization of experimental data, and testable predictions of new phenomena. The purpose of this work is to give a brief introduction to the technique and to review several important recent developments in the field. Several illustrative examples showing the power of the technique have been chosen. Perspectives on future directions in the field also will be given. PMID:15870204
Understanding phonon transport in thermoelectric materials using ab initio approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broido, David
Good thermoelectric materials have low phonon thermal conductivity, kph. Accurate theories to describe kph are important components in developing predictive models of thermoelectric efficiency that can help guide synthesis and measurement efforts. We have developed ab initio approaches to calculate kph, in which phonon modes and phonon scattering rates are computed using interatomic force constants determined from density functional theory, and a full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is implemented. A recent approach to calculate interatomic force constants using ab initio molecular dynamics has yielded a good description of the thermal properties of Bi2Te3. But, the complexity of new promising candidate thermoelectric materials introduces computational challenges in assessing their thermal properties. An example is germanane, a germanium based hydrogen-terminated layered semiconductor, which we will discuss in this talk.
Ab Initio Calculations Of Light-Ion Reactions
Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Roth, R; Horiuchi, W
2012-03-12
The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of nuclear forces, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. By combining the resonating-group method (RGM) with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM), we complement a microscopic cluster approach with the use of realistic interactions and a microscopic and consistent description of the clusters. We discuss applications to light nuclei scattering, radiative capture and fusion reactions.
Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-03-01
Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.
Ab Initio Electronic Relaxation Times and Transport in Noble Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafa, Jamal I.; Bernardi, Marco; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.
Relaxation times employed to study electron transport in metals are typically assumed to be constants and obtained empirically using the Drude model. Here, we employ ab initio calculations to compute the electron-phonon relaxation times of Cu, Ag, and Au, and find that they vary significantly on the Fermi surface, spanning ~15 -45 fs. We compute room temperature resistivities in excellent agreement with experiment by combining GW bandstructures, Wannier-interpolated band velocities, and ab initio relaxation times. Our calculations are compared to other approximations used for the relaxation times. Additionally, an importance sampling scheme is introduced to speed up the convergence of resistivity and transport calculations by sampling directly points on the Fermi surface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR15-1508412 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at LBNL's NERSC facility.
Towards AB Initio Calculation of the Circular Dichroism of Peptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molteni, E.; Onida, G.; Tiana, G.
2012-08-01
In this work we plan to use ab initio spectroscopy calculations to compute circular dichroism (CD) spectra of peptides. CD provides information on protein secondary structure content; peptides, instead, remain difficult to address, due to their tendency to adopt multiple conformations in equilibrium. Therefore peptides are an interesting test-case for ab initio calculation of CD spectra. As a first application, we focus on the (83-92) fragment of HIV-1 protease, which is known to be involved in the folding and dimerization of this protein. As a preliminary step, we performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in order to obtain a set of representative conformers of the peptide. Then, on some of the obtained conformations, we calculated absorption spectra at the independent particle, RPA and TDLDA levels, showing the presence of charge transfer excitations, and their influence on spectral features.
Wang, Hao; Kohyama, Masanori; Tanaka, Shingo; Shiihara, Yoshinori
2013-07-31
The energy-density and stress-density schemes (Shiihara et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 075441) within the projector augmented wave (PAW) method based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) have been applied to tilt and twist grain boundaries (GBs) and single vacancies in Cu and Al. Local energy and local stress at GBs and defects are obtained by integrating the energy and stress densities in each local region by the Bader integration using a recent algorithm (Yu et al 2011 J. Chem. Phys. 134 064111) as well as by the layer-by-layer integration so as to settle the gauge-dependent problem in the kinetic terms. Results are compared with those by the fuzzy-Voronoi integration and by the embedded atom method (EAM). The features of local energy and local stress at GBs and vacancies depend on the bonding nature of each material. Valence electrons in Al mainly located in the interatomic regions show remarkable response to structural disorder as significant valence charge redistribution or bond reconstruction, often leading to long-range variations of charges, energies and stresses, quite differently from d electrons in Cu mainly located near nuclei. All these features can be well represented by our local energy and local stress. The EAM potential for Al does not reproduce correct local energy or local stress, while the EAM potential for Cu provides satisfactory results. PMID:23835349
Ab initio study of optical excitations in VO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulter, John; Gali, Adam; Manousakis, Efstratios
2014-03-01
Motivated by recent experimental efforts to fabricate p-n junctions from transition metal oxides (TMOs) and a recent theoretical study claiming TMOs to be good absorbers and promising materials for efficient carrier multiplication, we study the optical properties of a prototypical TMO, the insulator M1 phase of vanadium dioxide (VO2), by ab initio methods. We applied the Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) to calculate the optical properties, starting from self-consistent GW quasi-particle energy levels and states. In contrast to expectations, the exciton binding energy obtained by BSE is in good agreement with the experiment. We find that the electron-electron interaction is very strong which makes this material promising for efficient carrier multiplication that might lead to an enhanced efficiency in photo-voltaics applications. To illustrate this more quantitatively, we calculated the impact ionization rate within the independent quasiparticle approximation, and find that the rate is significantly higher than silicon in the region of highest solar intensity, due to the strong multiple carrier excitations.
Ab initio study of the bonding in diatomic nickel
Noell, J.O.; Newton, M.D.; Hay, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Bobrowicz, F.W.
1980-09-01
Hartree--Fock, GVB, and configuration interaction calculations were performed for diatomic nickel using an ab initio effective core potential. A basis set specifically optimized for the /sup 3/D state of atomic nickel is found to be far superior to the more common basis obtained from the /sup 3/F atomic state. Correlation effects are found to be significant in determining the bond energy. In particular, the two electrons of the s--s bond must be appropriately correlated. In addition, correlation effects which one would interpret as being principally intra-atomic in character are found to have a marked effect on the molecular properties. The theoretically predicted bond dissociation energy (D/sub e/) of 43.4 kcal/mol is significantly lower than the experimental estimate of 55 +- 5 kcal/mol. However, molecular partition functions calculated using the present results indicate that the experimental value should be revised downward to a value of approx.46 +- 5 kcal/mol, in good agreement with our calculations. An interatomic distance of 4.27 bohr is computed and compared with experimental estimates. Spectroscopic parameters for dipole-allowed transitions from the ground state were determined from SCF and GVB calculations and discussed in relation to the experimentally observed visible and ultraviolet spectra attributed to Ni/sub 2/.
GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.
1978-01-01
Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.
Thermochemical data for CVD modeling from ab initio calculations
Ho, P.; Melius, C.F.
1993-12-31
Ab initio electronic-structure calculations are combined with empirical bond-additivity corrections to yield thermochemical properties of gas-phase molecules. A self-consistent set of heats of formation for molecules in the Si-H, Si-H-Cl, Si-H-F, Si-N-H and Si-N-H-F systems is presented, along with preliminary values for some Si-O-C-H species.
The study of molecular spectroscopy by ab initio methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1991-01-01
This review illustrates the potential of theory for solving spectroscopic problems. The accuracy of approximate techniques for including electron correlation have been calibrated by comparison with full configuration-interaction calculations. Examples of the application of ab initio calculations to vibrational, rotational, and electronic spectroscopy are given. It is shown that the state-averaged, complete active space self-consistent field, multireference configuration-interaction procedure provides a good approach for treating several electronic states accurately in a common molecular orbital basis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dezerald, L.; Ventelon, Lisa; Clouet, E.; Denoual, C.; Rodney, D.; Willaime, F.
2014-01-01
A density functional theory (DFT) study of the 1/2<111> screw dislocation was performed in the following body-centered cubic transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Fe. The energies of the easy, hard, and split core configurations, as well as the pathways between them, were investigated and used to generate the two-dimensional (2D) Peierls potential, i.e. the energy landscape seen by the dislocation as a function of its position in the (111) plane. In all investigated elements, the nondegenerate easy core is the minimum energy configuration, while the split core configuration, centered in the immediate vicinity of a <111> atomic column, has a high energy near or above that of the hard core. This unexpected result yields 2D Peierls potentials very different from the usually assumed landscapes. The 2D Peierls potential in Fe differs from the other transition metals, with a monkey saddle instead of a local maximum located at the hard core. An estimation of the Peierls stress from the shape of the Peierls barrier is presented in all investigated metals. A strong group dependence of the core energy is also evidenced, related to the position of the Fermi level with respect to the minimum of the pseudogap of the electronic density of states.
Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes
Draayer, Jerry P.
2014-09-28
We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
A Complete and Accurate Ab Initio Repeat Finding Algorithm.
Lian, Shuaibin; Chen, Xinwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Dai, Xianhua
2016-03-01
It has become clear that repetitive sequences have played multiple roles in eukaryotic genome evolution including increasing genetic diversity through mutation, changes in gene expression and facilitating generation of novel genes. However, identification of repetitive elements can be difficult in the ab initio manner. Currently, some classical ab initio tools of finding repeats have already presented and compared. The completeness and accuracy of detecting repeats of them are little pool. To this end, we proposed a new ab initio repeat finding tool, named HashRepeatFinder, which is based on hash index and word counting. Furthermore, we assessed the performances of HashRepeatFinder with other two famous tools, such as RepeatScout and Repeatfinder, in human genome data hg19. The results indicated the following three conclusions: (1) The completeness of HashRepeatFinder is the best one among these three compared tools in almost all chromosomes, especially in chr9 (8 times of RepeatScout, 10 times of Repeatfinder); (2) in terms of detecting large repeats, HashRepeatFinder also performed best in all chromosomes, especially in chr3 (24 times of RepeatScout and 250 times of Repeatfinder) and chr19 (12 times of RepeatScout and 60 times of Repeatfinder); (3) in terms of accuracy, HashRepeatFinder can merge the abundant repeats with high accuracy. PMID:26272474
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel
The structures and energies of the four planar conformers of glyoxylic acid and the glyoxylate ion have been studied ab initio using the unsealed 4-31G basis set with full geometry optimization. Changes in the C-O, O-H and CObond lengths in the conversion of the cc conformer into the ct and tt conformers, and into the tc conformer, are consistent with the formation of four-membered and five-membered hydrogen-bonded ring structures, respectively. Changes in the distances between the nearest non-bonded atoms around each C atom reveal that the internal geometry of the CHO and COOH groups is significantly affected by cis-trans isomerization with respect to the OC-CO backbone, and that the geometry of the CHO group is affected by proton dissociation from the COOH group. Furthermore, the movement of the component atoms in each functional group, characterized as clockwise or anticlockwise about the C atom, results in some cases in a rotation of the functional group as a whole. Whereas experiment shows the tc conformer to be more stable than the tt by 1.2 ± 0.5 kcal mol -1 , the calculations find the tt conformer to be the most stable, separated in energy from the ct, tc and cc conformers by 0.4, 1.4 and 10.7 kcal mol -1, respectively. Augmentation of the 4—31G basis set in several forms, and use of (9,5/4) and (9,5/4,1) basis sets, only served to decrease slightly the tt/tc energy difference, not change the sign. The calculated proton affinity of the glyoxylate ion with respect to the tt conformer is 342.7 kcal mol -1, compared to 357.7 kcal mol -1 for the formate ion. The expectation energy differences Δ V nn, Δ ee and ΔV en for the cis-trans isomerization of the et and cc conformers are opposite in sign to those for the glyoxal reaction, and in magnitude they all far exceed the ΔE T values, which shows that hydroxyl group substitution has a much greater influence than a comparison or only the ΔE T values would suggest.
Yang, Jun; Hu, Weifeng; Usvyat, Denis; Matthews, Devin; Schütz, Martin; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2014-08-01
Computation of lattice energies to an accuracy sufficient to distinguish polymorphs is a fundamental bottleneck in crystal structure prediction. For the lattice energy of the prototypical benzene crystal, we combined the quantum chemical advances of the last decade to attain sub-kilojoule per mole accuracy, an order-of-magnitude improvement in certainty over prior calculations that necessitates revision of the experimental extrapolation to 0 kelvin. Our computations reveal the nature of binding by improving on previously inaccessible or inaccurate multibody and many-electron contributions and provide revised estimates of the effects of temperature, vibrations, and relaxation. Our demonstration raises prospects for definitive first-principles resolution of competing polymorphs in molecular crystal structure prediction. PMID:25104379
ForceFit: a code to fit classical force fields to ab-initio potential energy surfaces
Henson, Neil Jon; Waldher, Benjamin; Kuta, Jadwiga; Clark, Aurora; Clark, Aurora E
2009-01-01
The ForceFit program package has been developed for fitting classical force field parameters based upon a force matching algorithm to quantum mechanical gradients of configurations that span the potential energy surface of the system. The program, which runs under Unix and is written in C++, is an easy to use, nonproprietary platform that enables gradient fitting of a wide variety of functional force field forms to quantum mechanical information obtained from an array of common electronic structure codes. All aspects of the fitting process are run from a graphical user interface, from the parsing of quantum mechanical data, assembling of a potential energy surface database, setting the force field and variables to be optimized, choosing a molecular mechanics code for comparison to the reference data, and finally, the initiation of a least squares minimization algorithm. Furthermore, the code is based on a modular templated code design that enables the facile addition of new functionality to the program.
Low-energy electron scattering from CO. 2: Ab-initio study using the frame-transformation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, N.
1976-01-01
The Wigner-Eisenbud R matrix method has been combined with the frame transformation theory to study electron scattering from molecular systems. The R matrix, calculated at the boundary point of the molecular core radius, has been transformed to the space frame in order to continue the solution of the scattering equations in the outer region where rotational motion of the nuclei is taken into account. This procedure has been applied to a model calculation of thermal energy electron scattering from CO.
A new ab initio potential energy surface and infrared spectra for the Ar–CS{sub 2} complex
Yuan, Ting; Sun, Xueli; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Hua
2014-09-14
We report a new three-dimensional potential energy surface for Ar–CS{sub 2} involving the Q{sub 3} normal mode for the υ{sub 3} antisymmetric stretching vibration of the CS{sub 2} molecule. The potential energies were calculated using the supermolecular method at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level with noniterative inclusion of connected triples, using augmented correlation-consistent quadruple-zeta basis set plus midpoint bond functions. Two vibrationally averaged potentials with CS{sub 2} at both the ground (υ = 0) and the first excited (υ = 1)υ{sub 3} vibrational states were generated from the integration of the three-dimensional potential over the Q{sub 3} coordinate. Each potential was found to have a T-shaped global minimum and two equivalent linear local minima. The radial discrete variable representation /angular finite basis representation method and the Lanczos algorithm were applied to calculate the rovibrational energy levels. The calculated band origin shift of the complex (0.0622 cm{sup −1}) is very close to the observed one (0.0671 cm{sup −1}). The predicted infrared spectra and spectroscopic parameters based on the two averaged potentials are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isegawa, Miho; Liu, Fengyi; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji
2014-06-01
Photodissociation pathways of nitromethane following π → π* electronic excitation are reported. The potential energy surfaces for four lowest singlet states are explored, and structures of many intermediates, dissociation limits, transition states, and minimum energy conical intersections were determined using the automated searching algorism called the global reaction route mapping strategy. Geometries are finally optimized at CASSCF(14e,11o) level and energies are computed at CAS(14o,11e)PT2 level. The calculated preferable pathways and important products qualitatively explain experimental observations. The major photodissociation product CH3 and NO2 (2B2) is formed by direct dissociation from the S1 state. Important pathways involving S1 and S0 states for production of various dissociation products CH3NO + O (1D), CH3O(X2E) + NO (X2Π), CH2NO + OH, and CH2O + HNO, as well as various isomerization pathways have been identified. Three roaming processes also have been identified: the O atom roaming in O dissociation from CH3NO2, the OH radical roaming in OH dissociation from CH2N(O)(OH), and the NO roaming in NO dissociation from CH3ONO.
Isegawa, Miho; Liu, Fengyi; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji
2014-06-28
Photodissociation pathways of nitromethane following π → π(*) electronic excitation are reported. The potential energy surfaces for four lowest singlet states are explored, and structures of many intermediates, dissociation limits, transition states, and minimum energy conical intersections were determined using the automated searching algorism called the global reaction route mapping strategy. Geometries are finally optimized at CASSCF(14e,11o) level and energies are computed at CAS(14o,11e)PT2 level. The calculated preferable pathways and important products qualitatively explain experimental observations. The major photodissociation product CH3 and NO2 ((2)B2) is formed by direct dissociation from the S1 state. Important pathways involving S1 and S0 states for production of various dissociation products CH3NO + O ((1)D), CH3O(X(2)E) + NO (X(2)Π), CH2NO + OH, and CH2O + HNO, as well as various isomerization pathways have been identified. Three roaming processes also have been identified: the O atom roaming in O dissociation from CH3NO2, the OH radical roaming in OH dissociation from CH2N(O)(OH), and the NO roaming in NO dissociation from CH3ONO. PMID:24985641
Isegawa, Miho; Liu, Fengyi; Morokuma, Keiji; Maeda, Satoshi
2014-06-28
Photodissociation pathways of nitromethane following π → π{sup *} electronic excitation are reported. The potential energy surfaces for four lowest singlet states are explored, and structures of many intermediates, dissociation limits, transition states, and minimum energy conical intersections were determined using the automated searching algorism called the global reaction route mapping strategy. Geometries are finally optimized at CASSCF(14e,11o) level and energies are computed at CAS(14o,11e)PT2 level. The calculated preferable pathways and important products qualitatively explain experimental observations. The major photodissociation product CH{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} ({sup 2}B{sub 2}) is formed by direct dissociation from the S{sub 1} state. Important pathways involving S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} states for production of various dissociation products CH{sub 3}NO + O ({sup 1}D), CH{sub 3}O(X{sup 2}E) + NO (X{sup 2}Π), CH{sub 2}NO + OH, and CH{sub 2}O + HNO, as well as various isomerization pathways have been identified. Three roaming processes also have been identified: the O atom roaming in O dissociation from CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}, the OH radical roaming in OH dissociation from CH{sub 2}N(O)(OH), and the NO roaming in NO dissociation from CH{sub 3}ONO.
Melting curves of metals by ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minakov, Dmitry; Levashov, Pavel
2015-06-01
In this work we used several ab initio approaches to reproduce melting curves and discussed their abilities, advantages and drawbacks. We used quasiharmonic appoximation and Lindemann criterion to build melting curves in wide region of pressures. This approach allows to calculate the total free energy of electrons and phonons, so it is possible to obtain all thermodynamic properties in the crystalline state. We also used quantum molecular dynamics simulations to investigate melting at various pressures. We explored the size-effect of the heat until it melts (HUM) method in detail. Special attention was paid to resolve the boundaries of the melting region on density. All calculations were performed for aluminum, copper and gold. Results were in good agreement with available experimental data. Also we studied the influence of electronic temperature on melting curves. It turned out that the melting temperature increased with the rise of electron temperature at normal density and had non-monotonic behavior at higher densities. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project No. 3.522.2014/K).
Ab initio description of the exotic unbound 7He nucleus
Baroni, Simone; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia
2013-01-11
In this study, the neutron-rich unbound 7He nucleus has been the subject of many experimental investigations. While the ground-state 3/2– resonance is well established, there is a controversy concerning the excited 1/2– resonance reported in some experiments as low lying and narrow (ER~1 MeV, Γ≤1 MeV) while in others as very broad and located at a higher energy. This issue cannot be addressed by ab initio theoretical calculations based on traditional bound-state methods. We introduce a new unified approach to nuclear bound and continuum states based on the coupling of the no-core shell model, a bound-state technique, with the no-coremore » shell model combined with the resonating-group method, a nuclear scattering technique. Our calculations describe the ground-state resonance in agreement with experiment and, at the same time, predict a broad 1/2– resonance above 2 MeV.« less
Ab initio investigation of grain boundary cohesion in Al alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shengjun; Kontsevoi, Oleg Y.; Freeman, A. J.; Olson, G. B.
2010-03-01
Strength and hardness of aluminum alloys can be substantially increased by alloying with Mg, Zn, Cu, Si, and other elements. The main drawback of Al alloys is their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, which is caused by alloying impurities segregated at grain boundaries. We investigated the embrittling and cohesion-enhancing effects of impurities on a σ5(012)[100] grain boundary in Al by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method within the framework of the Rice-Wang thermodynamic model and within the ab initio tensile test approach. We calculated segregation energies, analyzed local atomic configurations, electronic structures and spatial charge density distributions around segregated impurities, and identified the roles of atomic size and the bonding behavior of the impurity with the surrounding Al atoms. The results show that He, H and Na are strong embrittlers, Zn is a weak embrittler, while Sc, B, Cu and Mg are cohesion enhancers. We further evaluated the effect of co-alloying with two or more elements on grain boundary strength. This work provides a fundamental basis for the design of high strength Al alloys.
Ab Initio Simulation of the Photoelectron Spectrum for Methoxy Radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Lan; Weichman, Marissa L.; Kim, Jongjin B.; Ichino, Takatoshi; Neumark, Daniel; Stanton, John F.
2015-06-01
A theoretical simulation of the photoelectron spectrum for the ground state of methoxy radical is reported based on the quasidiabatic model Hamiltonian originally proposed by Köppel, Domcke, and Cederbaum. The parameters in the model Hamiltonian have been obtained from ab initio coupled-cluster calculations. The linear and quadratic force constants have been calculated using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster ionization potential method with the singles, doubles, and triples (EOMIP-CCSDT) truncation scheme together with atomic natural orbital basis sets of triple-zeta quality (ANO1). The cubic and quartic force constants have been obtained from EOMIP-CCSD calculations with ANO basis sets of double-zeta quality (ANO0), and the spin-orbit coupling constant has been computed at the EOMIP-CCSD/pCVTZ level. The nuclear Schroedinger equation has been solved using the Lanzcos algorithm to obtain vibronic energy levels as well as the corresponding intensities. The simulated spectrum compares favorably with the recent high-resolution slow electron velocity-map imaging experiment for vibronic levels up to 2000 cm-1.
Microsolvation of methyl hydrogen peroxide: Ab initio quantum chemical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Anant D.; Rai, Dhurba; Bartolotti, Libero J.; Pathak, Rajeev K.
2009-08-01
Methyl hydrogen peroxide (MHP), one of the simplest organic hydroperoxides, is a strong oxidant, with enhanced activity in aqueous ambience. The present study investigates, at the molecular level, the role of hydrogen bonding that is conducive to cluster formation of MHP with water molecules from its peroxide end, with the methyl group remaining hydrophobic for up to five water molecules. Ab initio quantum chemical computations on MHP⋯(H2O)n, [n =1-5] are performed at second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory employing the basis sets 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(2d,2p) to study the cluster formation of MHP with water molecules from its peroxide end and hydrophobic hydration due to the methyl group. Successive addition of water molecules alters the hydrogen bonding pattern, which leads to changes in overall cluster geometry and in turn to IR vibrational frequency shifts. Molecular co-operativity in these clusters is gauged directly through a detailed many-body interaction energy analysis. Molecular electrostatic potential maps are shown to have a bearing on predicting further growth of these clusters, which is duly corroborated through sample calculations for MHP⋯(H2O)8. Further, a continuum solvation model calculation for energetically stable clusters suggests that this study should serve as a precursor for pathways to aqueous solvation of MHP.
Ab initio study of MoS2 nanotube bundles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstraete, Matthieu; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2003-07-01
Recently, the synthesis of a new phase of MoS2I1/3 stoichiometry was reported [M. Remskar, A. Mrzel, Z. Skraba, A. Jesih, M. Ceh, J. Demšar, P. Stadelmann, F. Lévy, and D. Mihailovic, Science 292, 479 (2001)]. Electron microscope images and diffraction data were interpreted to indicate bundles of sub-nanometer-diameter single-wall MoS2 nanotubes. After experimental characterization, the structure was attributed to an assembly of “armchair” nanotubes with interstitial iodine. Using first-principles total-energy calculations, bundles of MoS2 nanotubes with different topologies and stoichiometries are investigated. All of the systems are strongly metallic. Configurations with “zigzag” structures are found to be more stable energetically than the “armchair” ones, though all of the structures have similar stabilities. After relaxation, there remain several candidates which give a lattice parameter in relative agreement with experiment. Further, spin-polarized calculations indicate that a structure with armchair tubes iodine atoms in their center acquires a very large spontaneous magnetic moment of 12μB, while the other structures are nonmagnetic. Our ab initio calculations show that in most of the other structures, the tubes are very strongly bound together, and that the compounds should be considered as a crystal, rather than as a bundle of tubes in the habitual sense.
Ab Initio Investigation of NH_3-O_2 Exciplex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haupert, L. M.; Simpson, G.; Slipchenko, L. V.
2010-06-01
In their recent investigation of fluorescence from poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, Chu and Imae suggested an exciplex composed of tertiary amine and oxygen molecules might be responsible for fluorescence in PAMAM dendrimers. In this work, we present an ab initio investigation of the electronic structure of a possible ammonia-oxygen exciplex model system using equation-of-motion coupled cluster techniques. Geometry optimization of the triplet ground state produced a weakly bound state with an equilibrium separation of ˜ 3.5 Å, and an excited state geometry scan revealed a bound, excited triplet state with an equilibrium separation of 2.02 Å, consistent with results of earlier PM3 work by Juranic et al. The energy gap between the triplet ground state and first triplet excited state of the exciplex at 2.02 Å is 412.8 nm, lending support to the exciplex hypothesis. C.-C. Chu, and T. Imae, Macromol. Rapid. Commun., 30, 89-93 (2009). I. Juranic, H. S. Rzepa, and Y. MinYan, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans., 2 (1990)
Ab initio description of p-shell hypernuclei.
Wirth, Roland; Gazda, Daniel; Navrátil, Petr; Calci, Angelo; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert
2014-11-01
We present the first ab initio calculations for p-shell single-Λ hypernuclei. For the solution of the many-baryon problem, we develop two variants of the no-core shell model with explicit Λ and Σ(+),Σ(0),Σ(-) hyperons including Λ-Σ conversion, optionally supplemented by a similarity renormalization group transformation to accelerate model-space convergence. In addition to state-of-the-art chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions, we use leading-order chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions and a recent meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon interaction. We validate the approach for s-shell hypernuclei and apply it to p-shell hypernuclei, in particular to (Λ)(7)Li, (Λ)(9)Be, and (Λ)(13)C. We show that the chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions provide ground-state and excitation energies that generally agree with experiment within the cutoff dependence. At the same time we demonstrate that hypernuclear spectroscopy provides tight constraints on the hyperon-nucleon interactions. PMID:25415901
Ab initio SCF calculations on hydrogen bonded cresol isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pohl, M.; Kleinermanns, K.
1988-12-01
Ab initio GAUSSIAN 80 calculations with two different basis sets (STO-3G and 4 31 G*) were performed on hydrogen bonded cresol isomers for comparison with experimental data from free jet fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. For m-cresol, the calculated barriers for hindered internal rotation of the OH-group and the CH3-group are in good agreement with experiment. The calculations show the trans-linear configuration of p-cresol· B-clusters ( B = H2O, CH3OH) to be more stable than the all-planar configuration. This agrees with CI calculations and microwave spectroscopic investigations of the water dimer. Calculations of both the intermolecular stretch and bend frequencies of p-cresol· B-clusters show little dependence on the all-planar or trans-linear configuration but a strong dependence on the choice of the basis set. With the minimal basis set STO-3G, the vibrational energies are generally too high. The agreement between the calculated vibrational frequencies from the 4 31 G* basis set and the experimental values is fair.
Ab initio study of the phenol-water cation radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobza, Pavel; Burcl, Rudolf; Špirko, Vladimír; Dopfer, Otto; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus; Schlag, Edward W.
1994-07-01
The phenol-water cation radical has been investigated by ab initio theory using the spin-restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock and spin-restricted open-shell second-order Møller-Plesset theories with 3-21G*(O) and 6-31G* basis sets. The full geometrical optimization was performed for several hydrogen-bonded structures and one hemibonded structure. Clearly, the most stable structure has been found for Cs symmetry with the linear hydrogen bond between the proton of the OH group of the phenol cation radical and the oxygen of the water, and the water hydrogens pointing away from the phenyl ring. For this structure harmonic (and for some intermolecular modes anharmonic) vibrational frequencies have been computed for various isotopic complexes. The computed shifts of phenol-localized intramolecular modes on complexation and on deuteration as well as the calculated intermolecular frequencies of the different isotopic complexes allow for an assignment of vibrational frequencies observed in the experimental zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectra. Five out of a possible six intermolecular vibrations and several intramolecular modes have been assigned, including the 18b vibration which shows a strong blue shift in frequency upon complexation. Structure and properties of the phenol-water cation radical are compared with those of the corresponding neutral complex.
Lead-Chalcogenides Under Pressure: Ab-Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Dinesh C.; Hamid, Idris
ab-initio calculations using fully relativistic pseudo-potential have been performed to investigate the high pressure phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of lead-chalcogenides including the less known lead polonium. The calculated ground state parameters, for the rock-salt structure show good agreement with the experimental data. The enthalpy calculations show that these materials undergo a first-order phase transition from rock-salt to CsCl structure at 19.4, 15.5, 11.5 and 7.3 GPa for PbS, PbSe, PbTe and PbPo, respectively. Present calculations successfully predicted the location of the band gap at L-point of Brillouin zone as well as the value of the band gap in every case at ambient pressure. It is observed that unlike other lead-chalcogenides, PbPo is semi-metal at ambient pressure. The pressure variation of the energy gap indicates that these materials metalized under high pressures. For this purpose, the electronic structure of these materials has also been computed in parent as well as in high pressure phase.
Amide N-oxides: an ab initio molecular orbital study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenberg, Arthur; DuBois, Thomas D.
2001-06-01
There are no known examples of amide N-oxides. The present study employs ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the 6-3G ∗ level to explore potential target molecules in this class. Bridgehead bicyclic lactams appear to be attractive targets for oxidation to form the corresponding N-oxides because they have reduced (or zero) amide resonance energy. The amide N-oxide linkage is predicted to have a ca. 9-10 kcal/mol rotational barrier due to eclipsing of nonbonded oxygen atoms in the transition state. The linkage has a nearly flat conformational ( ΦON-CO) profile in the range 120-240° and this suggests that a very sterically hindered acyclic amide N-oxide may be a practical synthetic target. The oxidation of strained amides is calculated to be highly exothermic if dimethyldioxirane is employed. This reagent is predicted to react appreciably exothermically with normal, stable amides such as N, N-dimethylacetamide, thus offering the potential for generating and studying such relatively unstable amide N-oxides at low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Faghihnasiri, M.; Malakpour, S.; Sahmani, S.
2015-07-01
In the current investigation, ab initio calculations are performed to explore the influence of electric field on the mechanical properties of bilayer boron nitride with AB stacking order (AB-2LBN). To accomplish this, density functional theory (DFT) within the framework of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is implemented. It is demonstrated that the electric field has significant effects on Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of AB-2LBN when its magnitude is small. With increasing the magnitude of electric field, these effects diminish so that the mechanical properties with and without considering the electric field become approximately identical. Also, it is shown that the equilibrium strain energy decreases linearly by increasing the magnitude of applied electric field.
Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Metz, Ricardo B.
2008-12-05
In this work we report on the detection and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of gas phase SiO2 generated in situ via laser ablation of silicon in a CO2 molecular beam. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable VUV synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for SiO and SiO2 and ionization energy estimates are revealed from such measurements. A state-to-state ionizationenergy of 12.60 (+-0.05) eV is recorded by fitting two prominent peaks in the PIE curve for the following process: 1SUM O-Si-O --> 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the photoionization process and allow for identification of the symmetric stretch of 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+ which is observed in the PIE spectrum to be 0.11 eV (890 cm-1) above the ground state of the cation and agrees with the 892 cm-1 symmetric stretch frequency calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindh, Roland; Lee, Timothy J.; Bernhardsson, Anders; Persson, B. Joakim; Karlstroem, Gunnar; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The autoaromatization of (Z)-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne to the singlet biradical para-benzyne has been reinvestigated by state of the art ab initio methods. Previous CCSD(T)/6-31G(d,p) and CASPT2[0]/ANO[C(5s4p2d1f)/H(3s2p)] calculations estimated the the reaction heat at 298 K to be 8-10 and 4.9 plus or minus 3.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Recent NO- and oxygen-dependent trapping experiments and collision-induced dissociation threshold energy experiments estimate the heat of reaction to be 8.5 plus or minus 1.0 at 470 K (recomputed to 9.5 plus or minus 1.0 at 298 K) and 8.4 plus or minus 3.0 kcal/mol at 298 K, respectively. New theoretical estimates at 298 K predict the values at the basis set limit for the CCSD(T) and CASPT2(g1) methods to be 12.7 plus or minus 2.0 and 5.4 plus or minus 2.0 kcal/mol, respectively. The experimentally predicted electronic contribution to the heat of activation is 28.6 kcal/mol. This can be compared with 25.5 and 29.8 kcal/mol from the CASPT2[g1] and the CCSD(T) methods, respectively. The new study has in particular improved on the one-particle basis set for the CCSD(T) method as compared to earlier studies. For the CASPT2 investigation the better suited CASPT2[g1] approximation is utilized. The original CASPT2 method, CASPT2[0], systematically favors open shell systems relative to closed shell systems. This was previously corrected empirically. The study shows that the energy difference between CCSD(T) and CASPT2[g1] at the basis set limit is estimated to be 7 plus or minus 2 kcal/mol. The study also demonstrates that the estimated heat of reaction is very sensitive to the quality of the basis set.
Hydrogen adsorption in ZIF-7: A DFT and ab-initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, Mudit; Major, Dan Thomas; Pal, Sourav
2016-05-01
Primary H2 adsorption sites in a zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-7, are identified using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics annealing simulations. The simulations suggest several low energy adsorption sites. The effect of light transition metal decoration on hydrogen storage properties was studied. Our ab-intio DFT calculations illustrate that decorating the ZIF with Sc increases both the number of H2 molecules, as well as the H2 binding energy. The binding energy (∼25 kJ/mol per H2) at 8H2 loading in the pore, suggests that Sc-ZIFs can be potential candidates for hydrogen storage.
Ab initio study of the ν(CO 2) mode in EDA complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamróz, M. H.; Dobrowolski, J. Cz.; Bajdor, K.; Borowiak, M. A.
1995-04-01
Stabilization energy, geometry and ν2 mode of CO 2 molecule in EDA complexes with organic electron donors are ab initio modeled using SPARTAN program. We prove that the splitting of ν2 mode, observed previously in IR spectra, is an effect of removing the double degeneracy of this mode in the complex resulted from the deformation of CO 2 moiety. The dependence of the deformation on complex stabilization energy is discussed.
Ab initio of the intramolecular dynamics trifluoronitromethane
Roehrig, M.A.; McCarthy, W.J.; Kukolich, S.G.; Adamowicz, L.
1993-12-31
Several experimental studies of trifluoronitromethane have indicated that this molecule undergoes a low energy motion corresponding to an internal rotation of the CF{sub 3} relative to the NO{sub 2} group. Values for the V{sub 6} barrier have been obtained by electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy to be 3 kcal/mol and 74 cal/mol respectively. A theoretical study of this molecule investigating this and possible other low energy motions is currently underway. Results from this study should reveal new information on the low barrier dynamics and shed some light on this large discrepancy on the V{sub 6} barriers. Preliminary calculations seem to indicate that a simple V{sub 6} barrier does not adequately describe the intramolecular dynamics of this molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borchert, Manuela; Wilke, Max; Schmidt, Christian; Kvashnina, Kristina; Jahn, Sandro
2014-10-01
Although fluid-melt partitioning of trace elements like Sr, Ba, La, and Y is known to be strongly influenced by the fluid and melt chemical composition, their speciation in silicate-saturated fluids is studied insufficiently at high temperatures and pressures. Here, high energy-resolution fluorescence detection-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS) has been applied to investigate the local environment of strontium in crystalline model compounds, silicate glasses, and aqueous solutions. Acquisition of Sr K-edge HERFD-XAS spectra of aqueous solutions of SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2, and three aqueous fluids with dissolved silicate components was done in situ at temperatures to 780 °C and pressures to ∼800 MPa using hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells. Experiments were complemented by theoretical spectroscopy calculations using the finite difference method near edge structure (FDMNES) code. This approach was validated for a number of crystalline model compounds. For the silicate glasses and aqueous solutions (SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2), small clusters were examined. Either symmetric or distorted SrO6 clusters were found to describe Sr complexation in peraluminous or peralkaline glasses. However, small ‘static’ clusters seem not to be fully suited to account for the dynamically changing atomic arrangements in aqueous solutions at high temperature. Therefore, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed and used as input for modeling of X-ray absorption spectra. Analyses of these simulations indicated [SrCl(H2O)6]+ and Sr(OH)2(H2O)4 as the most likely complexes in the chloride and hydroxide solutions, respectively. Analysis of the spectra of the silicate-rich fluids shows that both melt and fluid composition strongly influence Sr complexation. For the silicate-rich fluids, formation of Sr-Cl complexes occurs at low (Na + K)/Cl and (Si + Al)/(Na + K) ratios in the fluid, whereas Sr hydroxide and possibly silicate complexes (similar to those in the silicate glass) are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.
2007-04-01
Intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) torsional potentials were calculated for N2O4 and N2O3 based on optimized B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ geometries of the respective 90°-twisted saddle points. These potentials were refined by obtaining CCSD(T )/aug-cc-pVXZ energies [in the complete basis set (CBS) limit] of points along the IRC. A comparison is made between these ab initio potentials and an analytical form based on a two-term cosine expansion in terms of the N-N dihedral angle. The shapes of these two potential curves are in close agreement. The torsional barriers in N2O4 and N2O3 obtained from the CCSD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations are 2333 and 1704cm-1, respectively. For N2O4 the torsion fundamental frequency from the IRC potential is 87.06cm-1, which is in good agreement with the experimentally reported value of 81.73cm-1. However, in the case of N2O3 the torsional frequency found from the IRC potential, 144cm-1, is considerably larger than the reported experimental values 63-76cm-1. Consistent with this discrepancy, the torsional barrier obtained from several different calculations, 1417-1718cm-1, is higher than the value of 350cm-1 deduced from experimental studies. It is suggested that the assignment of the torsional mode in N2O3 should be reexamined. N2O4 and N2O3 exhibit strong hyperconjugative interactions of in-plane O lone pairs with the central N-N σ* antibond. Hyperconjugative stabilization is somewhat stronger at the planar geometries because 1,4 interactions of lone pairs on cis O atoms promote delocalization of electrons into the N-N antibond. Calculations therefore suggest that the torsional barriers in these molecules arise principally from a combination of 1,4 interactions and hyperconjugation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Hua Y.
2015-02-01
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model-the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of rs = 0.912.
Geng, Hua Y.
2015-02-15
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model—the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of r{sub s}=0.912.
Ab initio DFT calculations of vibrational properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Story, S. M.; Vila, F. D.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.
2014-03-01
Vibrational properties such as EXAFS and crystallographic Debye-Waller factors, vibrational free energies, phonon self-energies, and phonon contributions to the electron spectral function, are key to understanding many aspects of materials beyond ground state electronic structure. Thus, their simulation using first principles methods is of particular importance. Many of these vibrational properties can be calculated from the dynamical matrix and electron-phonon coupling coefficients obtained from DFT calculations. Here we present a code DMVP that calculates these properties from the output of electronic structure codes such as ABINIT, Gaussian, Quantum Espresso and VASP. Our modular interfacing tool AI2PS allows us to translate the different outputs into a DMVP compatible format and generate vibrational properties in an automated way. Finally, we present some current applications that take advantage of the modular form of AI2PS to extend its capabilities to the calculation of coefficients of thermal expansion and other properties of interest such as infrared spectra. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45623.
Ab initio cluster study of crystalline NaF
Temple, D.K.
1992-01-01
A highly-accurate ab initio cluster model of crystalline NaF has been constructed to explore the limits of cluster methods in the treatment of ionic solids. The focus of this model was the characterization of the lattice environment and its influence on the easily-polarizable fluorine anion. The model consisted of a central all-electron fluorine anion coordinated by pseudopotentials, to represent the nearest-neighbor sodium cations, and a finite array of point charges chosen to generate the correct crystal field from the surrounding infinite ionic lattice. The wavefunction and properties of the anion were calculated using the restricted Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction techniques from quantum chemistry. An extensive analysis of basis set incompleteness errors in the anion wavefunction was performed. Important features were identified in the embedded anion, such as its distortion under the influence of the lattice compressions, its stabilization from the Madelung potential, and its changes in size due to electron correlations. Bulk properties of the rocksalt-structure (B1) NaF crystal were derived from the total mode energies, calculated as a function of the crystal volume. The properties included the zero-pressure lattice constant, cohesive energy, and bulk modulus, and the pressure-volume equation-of-state. A series of test calculations explored the relationships, and their underlying physical mechanisms, between the features of the embedded anion and the bulk properties of the crystal. These features often produced opposing changes in the properties, demonstrating the importance of a thorough and systematic treatment of the embedded anion. The most thorough test calculation gave bulk properties that were within 1% of experiment. Using an embedded anion model for the high-pressure cesium-chloride (B2) phase of NaF, the B1-to-B2 structural transition was correctly predicted at 25 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimental values of 23 to 27 GPa.
Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker
2016-09-01
Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2 - 5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.
Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Carmona-Novillo, Estela; Hernández, Marta I; Campos-Martínez, José; Moszyński, Robert
2014-08-21
A detailed characterization of the interaction between the most abundant molecules in air is important for the understanding of a variety of phenomena in atmospherical science. A completely ab initio global potential energy surface (PES) for the O2((3)Σg(–)) + N2((1)Σg(+)) interaction is reported for the first time. It has been obtained with the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory utilizing a density functional description of monomers [SAPT(DFT)] extended to treat the interaction involving high-spin open-shell complexes. The computed interaction energies of the complex are in a good agreement with those obtained by using the spin-restricted coupled cluster methodology with singles, doubles, and noniterative triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. A spherical harmonics expansion of the interaction potential containing a large number of terms due to the anisotropy of the interaction has been built from the ab initio data. The expansion coefficients, which are functions of the intermolecular distance, are matched in the long-range with the analytical functions based on the recent ab initio calculations of the electric properties of the monomers [M. Bartolomei et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 279]. The PES is tested against the second virial coefficient B(T) data and the integral cross sections measured with rotationally hot effusive beams, leading in both cases to a very good agreement. The lowest lying states of the complex have been computed and relevant spectroscopic features of the interacting complex are reported. A comparison with a previous experimentally derived PES is also provided. PMID:24824559
Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure
Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel
2015-01-01
Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors’ approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a ‘still-life’, but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein’s true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases. PMID:25610631
The implementation of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations on transporters.
Cooper, M D; Hillier, I H
1991-06-01
The RHF and geometry optimization sections of the ab initio quantum chemistry code, GAMESS, have been optimized for a network of parallel microprocessors, Inmos T800-20 transputers, using both indirect and direct SCF techniques. The results indicate great scope for implementation of such codes on small parallel computer systems, very high efficiencies having been achieved, particularly in the cases of direct SCF and geometry optimization with large basis sets. The work, although performed upon one particular parallel system, the Meiko Computing Surface, is applicable to a wide range of parallel systems with both shared and distributed memory. PMID:1919615
Ab initio electronic properties of dual phosphorus monolayers in silicon
2014-01-01
In the midst of the epitaxial circuitry revolution in silicon technology, we look ahead to the next paradigm shift: effective use of the third dimension - in particular, its combination with epitaxial technology. We perform ab initio calculations of atomically thin epitaxial bilayers in silicon, investigating the fundamental electronic properties of monolayer pairs. Quantitative band splittings and the electronic density are presented, along with effects of the layers’ relative alignment and comments on disordered systems, and for the first time, the effective electronic widths of such device components are calculated. PMID:25246862
Ab initio vibrational and dielectric properties of Y V O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vali, R.
2009-10-01
For the yttrium orthovanadate Y V O with a tetragonal zircon-type structure, the first complete set of Raman-active and IR-active phonon modes has been calculated using ab initio density functional perturbation theory. The calculated IR reflectivity spectra are in good agreement with available experimental data. We report the calculated frequencies of three Raman-active modes that could not be detected experimentally and a new assignment of the experimental Raman data. The contributions of each IR-active phonon modes to static dielectric tensor have been determined.
Ab-Initio Shell Model with a Core
Lisetskiy, A F; Barrett, B R; Kruse, M; Navratil, P; Stetcu, I; Vary, J P
2008-06-04
We construct effective 2- and 3-body Hamiltonians for the p-shell by performing 12{h_bar}{Omega} ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations for A=6 and 7 nuclei and explicitly projecting the many-body Hamiltonians onto the 0{h_bar}{Omega} space. We then separate these effective Hamiltonians into 0-, 1- and 2-body contributions (also 3-body for A=7) and analyze the systematic behavior of these different parts as a function of the mass number A and size of the NCSM basis space. The role of effective 3- and higher-body interactions for A > 6 is investigated and discussed.
Ab initio Study of He Stability in hcp-Ti
Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.
2010-12-20
The stability of He in hcp-Ti was studied using ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results indicate that a single He atom prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site rather than the octahedral site. The interaction of He defects with Ti atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of He point defects in hcp-Ti. The relative stability of He defects in hcp-Ti is useful for He clustering and bubble nucleation in metal tritides, which provides the basis for development of improved atomistic models.
An improved ab initio structure for fluorine peroxide (FOOF)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Hans-Georg; Oberhammer, Heinz
1988-03-01
Ab initio calculations with the 6-31G* and Dunning (9s5p/4s2p) basis sets augmented with p and d functions at various levels of theory (RHF, MP2, MP3, and MP4) were carried out on F 2O 2. The best result was obtained at the MP2 level with the Dunning basis plus one set of d functions on fluorine and two sets of d functions on oxygen. These calculations reproduce the experimental bond lengths to within 0.01 Å and the angles to within the experimental uncertainties.
Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides
Sharma, Ramesh; Shukla, Seema Dwivedi, Shalini Sharma, Yamini
2014-04-24
We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.
B28: the smallest all-boron cage from an ab initio global search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jijun; Huang, Xiaoming; Shi, Ruili; Liu, Hongsheng; Su, Yan; King, R. Bruce
2015-09-01
Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures.Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Planar isomer structures of B28 and spatial distributions of front molecular orbitals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04034e
Dayou, Fabrice; Duflot, Denis; Rivero-Santamaría, Alejandro; Monnerville, Maurice
2013-11-28
We report the first global potential energy surface (PES) for the X{sup 2}A{sup ′} ground electronic state of the Si({sup 3}P) + OH(X{sup 2}Π) → SiO(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) + H({sup 2}S) reaction. The PES is based on a large number of ab initio energies obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations plus Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. Corrections were applied to the ab initio energies in the reactant channel allowing a proper description of long-range interactions between Si({sup 3}P) and OH(X{sup 2}Π). An analytical representation of the global PES has been developed by means of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The reaction is found barrierless. Two minima, corresponding to the SiOH and HSiO isomers, and six saddle points, among which the isomerization transition state, have been characterized on the PES. The vibrational spectra of the SiOH/HSiO radicals have been computed from second-order perturbation theory and quantum dynamics methods. The structural, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of the two isomers are in good agreement with experimental data and previous high quality calculations.
Internal dynamics in azetidine: A microwave and ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, Juan C.; Blanco, Susana; Lesarri, Alberto; Alonso, José L.
2001-02-01
The internal dynamics of interconversion between equivalent conformations due to the coupling between ring puckering and NH inversion in azetidine has been investigated by rotational spectroscopy and ab initio computations. Analysis of the rotational spectra in the 8-220 GHz region has been completed for the ground state and first four excited states of the ring-puckering vibration. Rotational transitions exhibit a characteristic doubling originated by tunneling between equivalent conformations through a C2v barrier, which is related to symmetric (A1) and antisymmetric (B1) inversion states. Additionally, nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure arising from the N nucleus could be resolved for low-J transitions. Accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters together with the energy difference between inversion states derived from μc-type inversion transitions have been derived for each ring-puckering state using a two-state Hamiltonian. An effective monodimensional reduced potential function for the ring-puckering vibration V(X)=10.82(X4+14.29X-8.93X2-0.28X3) has been found consistent with the observed experimental variation of the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants with ring-puckering. This asymmetric single minimum potential function supports the existence of only one stable equatorial form. The barrier to interconversion between equivalent equatorial conformers, related to the C2v conformation of azetidine in which the ring atoms and the NH group are coplanar, has been estimated to range between 1900 and 2600 cm-1. The strong dependence of the dipole moment and quadrupole coupling constants with ring-puckering vibrational state evidence structural changes that occur along the ring-puckering coordinate.
Cosmic-Ray Modulation: an Ab Initio Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2014-10-01
A better understanding of cosmic-ray modulation in the heliosphere can only be gained through a proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic rays. We present an ab initio model for cosmic-ray modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. This model is solved for periods of minimum solar activity, utilizing boundary values chosen so that model results are in fair to good agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities, not only in the solar ecliptic plane but also along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modelled slab and 2D turbulence energy spectra. The latter spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers commencing at the 2D outerscale. There currently exist no models or observations for this quantity, and it is the only free parameter in this study. The modelled turbulence spectra are used as inputs for parallel mean free path expressions based on those derived from quasi-linear theory and perpendicular mean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. Furthermore, the effects of turbulence on cosmic-ray drifts are modelled in a self-consistent way, employing a recently developed model for drift along the wavy current sheet. The resulting diffusion coefficients and drift expressions are applied to the study of galactic cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons using a three-dimensional, steady-state cosmic-ray modulation code, and sample solutions in fair agreement with multiple spacecraft observations are presented.
Chiroptical properties of unsubstituted carbohydrates: Ab initio and semiempirical studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra C., Alejandro
Ab initio calculations support assignment of the vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) of simple saccharides to 11A 1 --> 21B1 and 11A 1 --> 11A2 transitions centered on the oxygen atoms of the acetal group treated as two weakly coupled ether chromophores. The calculations are consistent with assignments previously made on the basis of a deconvolution of CD spectra. Estimates of the oxygen centered contributions to magnetic transition dipole moments were made. Semiempirical calculations were performed to model the NaD molar optical rotation of 1,6- and 3,6- anhydrosugars. For 1,6-anhydrosugars, current parameters produce reasonable agreement with experimental values. For 3,6-anhydrosugars, modifications to the ether parameters had to be introduced. The most relevant included a reorientation of the bond-centered s-->s* transition dipole charges in the ether chromophore to a C2v orientation, and a shift from prolate polarizability ellipsoids to general ellipsoids. These changes result in good agreement with experimental Na D molar rotations for 3,6-anhydrosugars. A low energy CD band arises in 3,6- and 1,6-anhydrosugars when agreement with the experimental NaD molar rotations is achieved. It is proposed that this band is a real feature in the spectrum. The origin of the band is primarily the interaction between b1 symmetry- oriented transition dipoles in the COC groups with other transition dipoles in the molecule. Comparison with experimental spectra leads to an assignment of this band to 11A1 --> 21B1 transitions centered on the COC groups.
AN AB INITIO MODEL FOR COSMIC-RAY MODULATION
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2013-07-20
A proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic rays (CRs) is of vital importance for a better understanding of CR modulation in the heliosphere. This study presents an ab initio model for CR modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. This model is solved for solar minimum heliospheric conditions, utilizing boundary values chosen so that model results are in reasonable agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities in the solar ecliptic plane and along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modeled slab and two-dimensional (2D) turbulence energy spectra. The modeled 2D spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers. There currently exist no models or observations for the wavenumber where this drop-off occurs, and it is considered to be the only free parameter in this study. The modeled spectra are used as inputs for parallel mean free path expressions based on those derived from quasi-linear theory and perpendicular mean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. Furthermore, the effects of turbulence on CR drifts are modeled in a self-consistent way, also employing a recently developed model for wavy current sheet drift. The resulting diffusion and drift coefficients are applied to the study of galactic CR protons and antiprotons using a 3D, steady-state CR modulation code, and sample solutions in fair to good agreement with multiple spacecraft observations are presented.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point
Yuryev, Anatoly A.; Gelchinski, Boris R.
2015-08-17
Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.
Ab initio calculations in a uniform magnetic field using periodic supercells
Cai, W; Galli, G
2003-10-21
We present a formulation of ab initio electronic structure calculations in a finite magnetic field, which retains the simplicity and efficiency of techniques widely used in first principles molecular dynamics simulations, based on plane-wave basis sets and Fourier transforms. In addition we discuss results obtained with this method for the energy spectrum of interacting electrons in quantum wells, and for the electronic properties of dense fluid deuterium in a uniform magnetic field.
Ab initio thermodynamic model for magnesium carbonates and hydrates.
Chaka, Anne M; Felmy, Andrew R
2014-09-01
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first-principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogues of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite, which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation. PMID:24679248
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates
Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2014-03-28
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT
French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes
2012-09-15
We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.
Entropy of Liquid Water from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spanu, Leonardo; Zhang, Cui; Galli, Giulia
2012-02-01
The debate on the structural properties of water has been mostly based on the calculation of pair correlation functions. However, the simulation of thermodynamic and spectroscopic quantities may be of great relevance for the characterization of liquid water properties. We have computed the entropy of liquid water using a two-phase thermodynamic model and trajectories generated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations [1]. In an attempt to better understand the performance of several density functionals in simulating liquid water, we have performed ab initio molecular dynamics using semilocal, hybrid [2] and van der Waals density functionals [3]. We show that in all cases, at the experimental equilibrium density and at temperatures in the vicinity of 300 K, the computed entropies are underestimated, with respect to experiment, and the liquid exhibits a degree of tetrahedral order higher than in experiments. We also discuss computational strategies to simulate spectroscopic properties of water, including infrared and Raman spectra.[4pt] [1] C.Zhang, L.Spanu and G.Galli, J.Phys.Chem. B 2011 (in press)[0pt] [2] C.Zhang, D.Donadio, F.Gygi and G.Galli, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1443 (2011)[0pt] [3] C.Zhang, J.Wu, G.Galli and F.Gygi, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 3061 (2011)
Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Calci, Angelo
2016-05-01
The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Be {({{p}},γ )}8{{B}} radiative capture. Finally, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H{({{d}},{{n}})}4He fusion.
Polysiloxanes: ab initio force field and structural, conformational and thermophysical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Huai; Rigby, David
1997-07-01
Various levels of ab initio calculation have been performed to determine the optimum strategy for parameterization of the valence parameters of a CFF-type force field for siloxanes and polysiloxanes. Electrostatic nonbond parameters have been determined using scaled electrostatic potential (ESP) charges adjusted for known systematic differences between ab initio and experimental data, while van der Waals nonbond parameters have been determined using a classical approach involving fitting to experimental liquid density and cohesive energy density data measured at atmospheric pressure and a single temperature for a set of four small molecules. Simulations have been performed on molecular crystals, liquids and isolated molecules, yielding results which agree favorably with available experimental data. Properties calculated include unit cell parameters and crystal densities, liquid densities from 303-473 K and 0-1800 bar, dependence of oligomer density and solubility parameters on chain length and temperature, gas-phase geometries and vibrational frequencies, and gas and liquid-phase conformational behavior.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo
Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye Mazzola, Guglielmo Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo
2015-04-14
Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems.
Ab initio NMR Confirmed Evolutionary Structure Prediction for Organic Molecular Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Cong-Huy; Kucukbenli, Emine; de Gironcoli, Stefano
2015-03-01
Ab initio crystal structure prediction of even small organic compounds is extremely challenging due to polymorphism, molecular flexibility and difficulties in addressing the dispersion interaction from first principles. We recently implemented vdW-aware density functionals and demonstrated their success in energy ordering of aminoacid crystals. In this work we combine this development with the evolutionary structure prediction method to study cholesterol polymorphs. Cholesterol crystals have paramount importance in various diseases, from cancer to atherosclerosis. The structure of some polymorphs (e.g. ChM, ChAl, ChAh) have already been resolved while some others, which display distinct NMR spectra and are involved in disease formation, are yet to be determined. Here we thoroughly assess the applicability of evolutionary structure prediction to address such real world problems. We validate the newly predicted structures with ab initio NMR chemical shift data using secondary referencing for an improved comparison with experiments.
Knockout reactions from p-shell nuclei : tests of ab initio structure models.
Grinyer, G. F.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Adrich, P.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; McDaniel, S.; Navratil, P.; Obertelli, A.; Quaglioni, S.; Siwek, K.; Terry, J. R.; Weisshaar, D.; Wiringa, R. B.
2011-04-22
Absolute cross sections have been determined following single neutron knockout reactions from {sup 10}Be and {sup 10}C at intermediate energy. Nucleon density distributions and bound-state wave function overlaps obtained from both variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and no core shell model (NCSM) ab initio calculations have been incorporated into the theoretical description of knockout reactions. Comparison to experimental cross sections demonstrates that the VMC approach, with the inclusion of 3-body forces, provides the best overall agreement while the NCSM and conventional shell-model calculations both overpredict the cross sections by 20% to 30% for {sup 10}Be and by 40% to 50% for {sup 10}C, respectively. This study gains new insight into the importance of 3-body forces and continuum effects in light nuclei and provides a sensitive technique to assess the accuracy of ab initio calculations for describing these effects.
Knockout Reactions from p-Shell Nuclei: Tests of Ab Initio Structure Models
Grinyer, G. F.; Bazin, D.; Adrich, P.; Obertelli, A.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; McDaniel, S.; Siwek, K.; Terry, J. R.; Tostevin, J. A.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.; Wiringa, R. B.
2011-04-22
Absolute cross sections have been determined following single neutron knockout reactions from {sup 10}Be and {sup 10}C at intermediate energy. Nucleon density distributions and bound-state wave function overlaps obtained from both variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and no core shell model (NCSM) ab initio calculations have been incorporated into the theoretical description of knockout reactions. Comparison to experimental cross sections demonstrates that the VMC approach, with the inclusion of 3-body forces, provides the best overall agreement while the NCSM and conventional shell-model calculations both overpredict the cross sections by 20% to 30% for {sup 10}Be and by 40% to 50% for {sup 10}C, respectively. This study gains new insight into the importance of 3-body forces and continuum effects in light nuclei and provides a sensitive technique to assess the accuracy of ab initio calculations for describing these effects.
Ab initio studies of equations of state and chemical reactions of reactive structural materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaharieva, Roussislava
subject of studies of the shock or thermally induced chemical reactions of the two solids comprising these reactive materials, from first principles, is a relatively new field of study. The published literature on ab initio techniques or quantum mechanics based approaches consists of the ab initio or ab initio-molecular dynamics studies in related fields that contain a solid and a gas. One such study in the literature involves a gas and a solid. This is an investigation of the adsorption of gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO) on Tungsten. The motivation for these studies is to synthesize alternate or synthetic fuel technology by Fischer-Tropsch process. In this thesis these studies are first to establish the procedure for solid-solid reaction and then to extend that to consider the effects of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energy and chemisorptions of CO on tungsten. Then in this thesis, similar studies are also conducted on the effect of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energies of Titanium and hydrogen. The motivations are again to understand the method and extend the method to such solid-solid reactions. A second motivation is to seek strained conditions that favor hydrogen storage and strain conditions that release hydrogen easily when needed. Following the establishment of ab initio and ab initio studies of chemical reactions between a solid and a gas, the next step of research is to study thermally induced chemical reaction between two solids (Ni+Al). Thus, specific new studies of the thesis are as follows: (1) Ab initio Studies of Binding energies associated with chemisorption of (a) CO on W surfaces (111, and 100) at elevated temperatures and strains and (b) adsorption of hydrogen in titanium base. (2) Equations of state of mixtures of reactive material structures from ab initio methods. (3) Ab initio studies of the reaction initiation, transition states and reaction products of intermetallic mixtures of (Ni+Al) at elevated
Song, Lingchun; Han, Jaebeom; Lin, Yen-lin; Xie, Wangshen; Gao, Jiali
2010-01-01
The explicit polarization (X-Pol) method has been examined using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. The X-Pol potential was designed to provide a novel theoretical framework for developing next-generation force fields for biomolecular simulations. Importantly, the X-Pol potential is a general method, which can be employed with any level of electronic structure theory. The present study illustrates the implementation of the X-Pol method using ab initio Hartree—Fock theory and hybrid density functional theory. The computational results are illustrated by considering a set of bimolecular complexes of small organic molecules and ions with water. The computed interaction energies and hydrogen bond geometries are in good accord with CCSD(T) calculations and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ optimizations. PMID:19618944
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon.
Drumm, Daniel W; Budi, Akin; Per, Manolo C; Russo, Salvy P; L Hollenberg, Lloyd C
2013-01-01
: The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon
2013-01-01
The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785
Yuxiang Bu; Zhaohua Cao; Zailun Yang
1995-08-15
This article presents an application of the accurate calculation scheme proposed recently for the inner-sphere reorganization energies of molecules of the type AH{sub 2} (A = Al, Si, P, and S). A reasonable extension has been made. The inner-sphere reorganization energies for the title thermal electron self-exchange reactions are calculated in terms of ab initio MO self-consistent field method (HFSCF) at different basis-set levels (6-31G**, 6-31 + G**, DZ, and DZP) and the involved parameters are also determined. These calculated results have been calibrated by comparing optimized molecular geometrical parameters and corresponding energy properties with the experimental findings or other theoretical values. An approximation, in which the contribution from the bond length-bond angle to the potential energy surface is neglected, is adopted in constructing the calculation formulas via the function model. Its adequacy is discussed. Agreement among different calculation schemes is analyzed. 32 refs., 2 tabs.
Development of Novel Analytical Method for Ab Initio Powder Structural Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakata, Makoto; Nishibori, Eiji; Sawa, Hiroshi
Genetic Algorithm (GA) applied to ab initio structure determination from synchrotron powder diffraction is described. It seems to have an advantage over other real space methods for ab initio structure determination because of the existence of schema theorem. As an example, the case of Prednisolone Succinate is shown in some detail. Future development of GA in crystallography is briefly described.
Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua
2014-06-14
An accurate full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) is developed for the title reaction. While the long-range interactions in the reactant asymptote are represented by an analytical expression, the interaction region of the PES is fit to more than 81 000 of ab initio points at the UCCSD(T)-F12b/AVTZ level using the permutation invariant polynomial neural network approach. Fully symmetric with respect to permutation of all four hydrogen atoms, the PES provides a faithful representation of the ab initio points, with a root mean square error of 1.8 meV or 15 cm{sup −1}. The reaction path for this exoergic reaction features an attractive and barrierless entrance channel, a submerged saddle point, a shallow H{sub 4}O{sup +} well, and a barrierless exit channel. The rate coefficients for the title reaction and kinetic isotope effect have been determined on this PES using quasi-classical trajectories, and they are in good agreement with available experimental data. It is further shown that the H{sub 2}O{sup +} rotational enhancement of reactivity observed experimentally can be traced to the submerged saddle point. Using our recently proposed Sudden Vector Projection model, we demonstrate that a rotational degree of freedom of the H{sub 2}O{sup +} reactant is strongly coupled with the reaction coordinate at this saddle point, thus unraveling the origin of the pronounced mode specificity in this reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Carvajal, Miguel; Thiel, Walter; Jensen, Per
2006-09-01
We report a six-dimensional CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ dipole moment surface for the electronic ground state of PH 3 computed ab initio on a large grid of 10 080 molecular geometries. Parameterized, analytical functions are fitted through the ab initio data, and the resulting dipole moment functions are used, together with a potential energy function determined by refining an existing ab initio surface in fittings to experimental wavenumber data, for simulating absorption spectra of the first three polyads of PH 3, i.e., ( ν2, ν4), ( ν1, ν3, 2 ν2, 2 ν4, ν2 + ν4), and ( ν1 + ν2, ν3 + ν2, ν1 + ν4, ν3 + ν4, 2 ν2 + ν4, ν2 + 2 ν4, 3 ν2, 3 ν4). The resulting theoretical transition moments show excellent agreement with experiment. A line-by-line comparison of the simulated intensities of the ν2/ ν4 band system with 955 experimental intensity values reported by Brown et al. [L.R. Brown, R.L. Sams, I. Kleiner, C. Cottaz, L. Sagui, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 215 (2002) 178-203] gives an average absolute percentage deviation of 8.7% (and a root-mean-square deviation of 0.94 cm -1 for the transition wavenumbers). This is very remarkable since the calculations rely entirely on ab initio dipole moment surfaces and do not involve any adjustment of these surfaces to reproduce the experimental intensities. Finally, we predict the line strengths for transitions between so-called cluster levels (near-degenerate levels formed at high rotational excitation) for J up to 60.
Dominant Modes in Light Nuclei - Ab Initio View of Emergent Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draayer, J. P.; Dytrych, T.; Launey, K. D.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Langr, D.
2015-01-01
An innovative symmetry-guided concept is discussed with a focus on emergent symmetry patterns in complex nuclei. In particular, the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which capitalizes on exact as well as partial symmetries that underpin the structure of nuclei, provides remarkable insight into how simple symmetry patterns emerge in the many-body nuclear dynamics from first principles. This ab initio view is complemented by a fully microscopic no-core symplectic shell-model framework (NCSpM), which, in turn, informs key features of the primary physics responsible for the emergent phenomena of large deformation and alpha-cluster substructures in studies of the challenging Hoyle state in Carbon-12 and enhanced collectivity in intermediate-mass nuclei. Furthermore, by recognizing that deformed configurations often dominate the low-energy regime, the SA-NCSM provides a strategy for determining the nature of bound states of nuclei in terms of a relatively small subspace of the symmetry-reorganized complete model space, which opens new domains of nuclei for ab initio investigations, namely, the intermediate-mass region, including isotopes of Ne, Mg, and Si.
Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya
2009-06-01
Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Fazio, Dario; de Castro-Vitores, Miguel; Aguado, Alfredo; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Cavalli, Simonetta
2012-12-01
In this work we critically revise several aspects of previous ab initio quantum chemistry studies [P. Palmieri et al., Mol. Phys. 98, 1835 (2000);, 10.1080/00268970009483387 C. N. Ramachandran et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 469, 26 (2009)], 10.1016/j.cplett.2008.12.035 of the HeH_2^+ system. New diatomic curves for the H_2^+ and HeH+ molecular ions, which provide vibrational frequencies at a near spectroscopic level of accuracy, have been generated to test the quality of the diatomic terms employed in the previous analytical fittings. The reliability of the global potential energy surfaces has also been tested performing benchmark quantum scattering calculations within the time-independent approach in an extended interval of energies. In particular, the total integral cross sections have been calculated in the total collision energy range 0.955-2.400 eV for the scattering of the He atom by the ortho- and para-hydrogen molecular ion. The energy profiles of the total integral cross sections for selected vibro-rotational states of H_2^+ (v = 0, …,5 and j = 1, …,7) show a strong rotational enhancement for the lower vibrational states which becomes weaker as the vibrational quantum number increases. Comparison with several available experimental data is presented and discussed.
A coupled channel study of HN2 unimolecular decay based on a global ab initio potential surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Schatz, George C.; Walch, Stephen P.
1991-01-01
The unimolecular decay lifetimes of several vibrational states of HN2 are determined on the basis of an accurate coupled channel dynamics study using a global analytical potential surface. The surface reproduces the ab initio points with an rms error of 0.08 kcal/mol for energies below 20 kcal/mol. Modifications to the potential that describe the effect of improving the basis set in the ab initio calculations are provided. Converged coupled channel calculations are performed for the ground rotational state of HN2 to determine the lifetimes of the lowest ten vibrational states. Only the ground vibrational state (000) and first excited bend (001) are found to have lifetimes longer than 1 ps. The lifetimes of these states are estimated at 3 x 10 to the -9th and 2 x 10 to the -10th s, respectively. Variation of these results with quality of the ab initio calculations is not more than a factor of 5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maes, G.; Smets, J.; Adamowicz, L.; McCarthy, W.; Van Bael, M. K.; Houben, L.; Schoone, K.
1997-06-01
Correlations between selected ab initio predicted and experimentally observed properties of 1:1 H-bonded complexes of pyridines, pyrimidines, and imidazoles with water are investigated. Relationships are found between the experimental properties of proton affinity and water frequency shift, and the ab initio calculated bond distances, interaction energies and water frequency shifts. It is also found that well-defined relations can be established between calculated and observed properties for the pyridine complexes, but these cannot be reliably extended to the other N-base systems. The similarities demonstrate that the presently available ab initio methods are useful in predicting the experimental behaviour of H-bonded systems, but only for closely related molecules.
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice
Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki
2015-01-21
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.
Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks.
Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N
2016-01-01
The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140
Ab Initio Calculations of Excited Carrier Dynamics in Gallium Nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jhalani, Vatsal; Bernardi, Marco
Bulk wurtzite GaN is the primary material for blue light-emission technology. The radiative processes in GaN are regulated by the dynamics of excited (or so-called ``hot'') carriers, through microscopic processes not yet completely understood. We present ab initio calculations of electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering rates for hot carriers in GaN. Our work combines density functional theory to compute the electronic states, and density functional perturbation theory to obtain the phonon dispersions and e-ph coupling matrix elements. These quantities are interpolated on fine Brillouin zone grids with maximally localized Wannier functions, to converge the e-ph scattering rates within 5 eV of the band edges. We resolve the contribution of the different phonon modes to the total scattering rate, and study the impact on the relaxation times of the long-range Fröhlich interaction due to the longitudinal-optical phonon modes.
Highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of arsenene: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeraati, Majid; Vaez Allaei, S. Mehdi; Abdolhosseini Sarsari, I.; Pourfath, Mahdi; Donadio, Davide
2016-02-01
Elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit intriguing heat transport and phononic properties. Here we have investigated the lattice thermal conductivity of newly proposed arsenene, the 2D honeycomb structure of arsenic, using ab initio calculations. Solving the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, we predict a highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of 30.4 and 7.8 W/mK along the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively, at room temperature. Our calculations reveal that phonons with mean free paths between 20 nm and 1 μ m provide the main contribution to the large thermal conductivity in the zigzag direction; mean free paths of phonons contributing to heat transport in the armchair directions range between 20 and 100 nm. The obtained anisotropic thermal conductivity and feasibility of synthesis, in addition to high electron mobility reported elsewhere, make arsenene a promising material for nanoelectronic applications and thermal management.
Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides.
Olsson, P; Vidal, J; Lincot, D
2011-10-12
The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)(2) dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe(2) pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications. PMID:21937783
Ab initio study of guanine damage by hydroxyl radical.
Chaban, Galina M; Wang, Dunyou; Huo, Winifred M
2015-01-15
Multiconfigurational ab initio methods are used in this study to examine two initial reactions that take place during the OH radical attack of the DNA base guanine: a ring opening reaction and a hydrogen transfer reaction. The same reactions are also studied in the presence of a single water molecule. The ring opening reaction has a moderate barrier height of ∼20-25 kcal/mol that is relatively insensitive to the presence of water. The barrier of the H-transfer reaction, on the other hand, is lowered from ∼50 to ∼22 kcal/mol when one water molecule is added, thus becoming comparable to the barrier height of the ring opening reaction. PMID:25517252
Vibrational and ab initio molecular dynamics studies of bradykinin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Święch, Dominika; Kubisiak, Piotr; Andrzejak, Marcin; Borowski, Piotr; Proniewicz, Edyta
2016-07-01
In this study, the comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigations of Raman (RS) and infrared absorption (IR) spectra of bradykinin (BK) are presented. The ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) calculations, in the presence of water molecules that form the first coordination sphere, were used for conformational analysis of the BK structure. Based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) level the vibrational spectra were interpreted. The calculated frequencies were scaled by means of the effective scaling frequency factor (ESFF) method. The theoretical data, which confirm the compact structure of BK in the presence of the water molecules revealed the remarkable effect of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the BK structural properties.
Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.
2016-05-01
We present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). We find that there are regions of state space for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the "rare-event" character of chemical reactions.
Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P.
2016-03-01
We present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multicomponent alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high-entropy alloy chemistries. The SSOS method developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multicomponent materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches.
Ab initio H2O in realistic hydrophilic confinement.
Allolio, Christoph; Klameth, Felix; Vogel, Michael; Sebastiani, Daniel
2014-12-15
A protocol for the ab initio construction of a realistic cylindrical pore in amorphous silica, serving as a geometric nanoscale confinement for liquids and solutions, is presented. Upon filling the pore with liquid water at different densities, the structure and dynamics of the liquid inside the confinement can be characterized. At high density, the pore introduces long-range oscillations into the water density profile, which makes the water structure unlike that of the bulk across the entire pore. The tetrahedral structure of water is also affected up to the second solvation shell of the pore wall. Furthermore, the effects of the confinement on hydrogen bonding and diffusion, resulting in a weakening and distortion of the water structure at the pore walls and a slowdown in diffusion, are characterized. PMID:25208765
High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database
Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane
2016-01-01
We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world. PMID:27434308
Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks
Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.
2016-01-01
The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140
Ab initio calculation of the shock Hugoniot of bulk silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickson, Oliver; Artacho, Emilio
2016-03-01
We describe how ab initio molecular dynamics can be used to determine the Hugoniot locus (states accessible by a shock wave) for materials with a number of stable phases, and with an approximate treatment of plasticity and yield, without having to simulate these phenomena directly. We consider the case of bulk silicon, with forces from density-functional theory, up to 70 GPa. The fact that shock waves can split into multiple waves due to phase transitions or yielding is taken into account here by specifying the strength of any preceding waves explicitly based on their yield strain. Points corresponding to uniaxial elastic compression along three crystal axes and a number of postshock phases are given, including a plastically yielded state, approximated by an isotropic stress configuration following an elastic wave of predetermined strength. The results compare well to existing experimental data for shocked silicon.
Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations
Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas
2015-12-14
We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.
Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations.
Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas
2015-12-14
We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green's function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states. PMID:26671378
Ab initio calculation of thermodynamic properties of silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Siqing; Li, Changlin; Chou, M. Y.
1994-11-01
We present a fully ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties for silicon within the quasiharmonic approximation, making use of volume-dependent phonon frequencies obtained from pseudopotential local-density calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal-expansion coefficient, specific heat (at constant volume), and other related quantities are studied. We confirm that the thermal-expansion coefficient behaves differently in three temperature regions: positive for temperature below 15 K, negative between 15 and 125 K, and positive again above 125 K. This finding agrees with experiment. The abnormal (negative) thermal-expansion coefficient at low temperatures is explained through a detailed study of mode Grüneisen parameters. Both specific-heat and thermal-expansion-coefficient values calculated are in excellent agreement with experiment up to a few hundred kelvin.
XMVB: a program for ab initio nonorthogonal valence bond computations.
Song, Lingchun; Mo, Yirong; Zhang, Qianer; Wu, Wei
2005-04-15
An ab initio nonorthogonal valence bond program, called XMVB, is described in this article. The XMVB package uses Heitler-London-Slater-Pauling (HLSP) functions as state functions, and calculations can be performed with either all independent state functions for a molecule or preferably a few selected important state functions. Both our proposed paired-permanent-determinant approach and conventional Slater determinant expansion algorithm are implemented for the evaluation of the Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements among VB functions. XMVB contains the capabilities of valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF), breathing orbital valence bond (BOVB), and valence bond configuration interaction (VBCI) computations. The VB orbitals, used to construct VB functions, can be defined flexibly in the calculations depending on particular applications and focused problems, and they may be strictly localized, delocalized, or bonded-distorted (semidelocalized). The parallel version of XMVB based on MPI (Message Passing Interface) is also available. PMID:15704237
Ab initio theory of NMR chemical shifts in solids
Louie, S.G. |
1997-12-31
A new formalism for ab initio calculation of the orbital magnetic susceptibility and the NMR chemical shifts in solids and liquids is presented. The approach can be applied to periodic systems such as crystals, surfaces or polymers, and with a supercell technique, to nonperiodic systems such as amorphous materials, liquids, or solids with defects. The formalism is based on the density functional theory in the local density approximation and makes use of a generalized f-sum rule to eliminate the divergent terms that plagued previous theories. Calculations have been successfully carried out for the diamagnetic susceptibility of a number of insulators and for the NMR chemical shifts of a variety of systems including free molecules, ionic crystals, hydrogen-bonded materials and amorphous carbon.
Transport coefficients in diamond from ab-initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löfâs, Henrik; Grigoriev, Anton; Isberg, Jan; Ahuja, Rajeev
2013-03-01
By combining the Boltzmann transport equation with ab-initio electronic structure calculations, we obtain transport coefficients for boron-doped diamond. We find the temperature dependence of the resistivity and the hall coefficients in good agreement with experimental measurements. Doping in the samples is treated via the rigid band approximation and scattering is treated in the relaxation time approximation. In contrast to previous results, the acoustic phonon scattering is the dominating scattering mechanism for the considered doping range. At room temperature, we find the thermopower, S, in the range 1-1.6 mV/K and the power factor, S2σ, in the range 0.004-0.16 μW /cm K2.
Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.
2016-07-01
The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.
Ab initio electronic stopping power of protons in bulk materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukri, Abdullah Atef; Bruneval, Fabien; Reining, Lucia
2016-01-01
The electronic stopping power is a crucial quantity for ion irradiation: it governs the deposited heat, the damage profile, and the implantation depth. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. Here we develop a fully ab initio computational scheme based on linear response time-dependent density-functional theory to predict the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. We show that the calculated RESP compares well with experimental data, when at full convergence, with the inclusion of the core states and of the exchange correlation. We evaluate the unexpectedly limited magnitude of the nonlinear terms in the RESP by comparing with other approaches based on the time propagation of time-dependent density-functional theory. Finally, we check the validity of a few empirical rules of thumbs that are commonly used to estimate the electronic stopping power.
High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database.
Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane
2016-01-01
We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world. PMID:27434308
Ab initio quantum dynamics using coupled-cluster.
Kvaal, Simen
2012-05-21
The curse of dimensionality (COD) limits the current state-of-the-art ab initio propagation methods for non-relativistic quantum mechanics to relatively few particles. For stationary structure calculations, the coupled-cluster (CC) method overcomes the COD in the sense that the method scales polynomially with the number of particles while still being size-consistent and extensive. We generalize the CC method to the time domain while allowing the single-particle functions to vary in an adaptive fashion as well, thereby creating a highly flexible, polynomially scaling approximation to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The method inherits size-consistency and extensivity from the CC method. The method is dubbed orbital-adaptive time-dependent coupled-cluster, and is a hierarchy of approximations to the now standard multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method for fermions. A numerical experiment is also given. PMID:22612082
Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys.
Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P
2016-03-11
We present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multicomponent alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high-entropy alloy chemistries. The SSOS method developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multicomponent materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches. PMID:27015491
Ab initio correlated calculations of rare-gas dimer quadrupoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donchev, Alexander G.
2007-10-01
This paper reports ab initio calculations of rare gas ( RG=Kr , Ar, Ne, and He) dimer quadrupoles at the second order of Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The study reveals the crucial role of the dispersion contribution to the RG2 quadrupole in the neighborhood of the equilibrium dimer separation. The magnitude of the dispersion quadrupole is found to be much larger than that predicted by the approximate model of Hunt. As a result, the total MP2 quadrupole moment is significantly smaller than was assumed in virtually all previous related studies. An analytical model for the distance dependence of the RG2 quadrupole is proposed. The model is based on the effective-electron approach of Jansen, but replaces the original Gaussian approximation to the electron density in an RG atom by an exponential one. The role of the nonadditive contribution in RG3 quadrupoles is discussed.
Ab Initio Screening of CO2-philic Groups.
Tian, Ziqi; Saito, Tomonori; Jiang, De-En
2015-04-23
Ab initio calculations were used to identify CO2-philic groups. Over 55 neutral molecules were screened for CO2 affinity via binding energetics. It is found that poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO) oligomers with more than three repeating units are good CO2-binding groups, consistent with the high-performance of PEO-based materials for CO2/N2 separation. More interestingly, two triazole groups linked with a methylene chain are also excellent for CO2 binding with a favorable interaction of more than 28 kJ/mol, indicating that polymers or covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) with triazoles may be utilized for CO2 capture. This work provides a useful guide to introduce promising organic groups into polymeric membranes and COFs for CO2/N2 separation media. PMID:25825811
Ab initio study on electronically excited states of lithium isocyanide, LiNC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasumatsu, Hisato; Jeung, Gwang-Hi
2014-01-01
The electronically excited states of the lithium isocyanide molecule, LiNC, were studied by means of ab initio calculations. The bonding nature of LiNC up to ˜10 eV is discussed on the basis of the potential energy surfaces according to the interaction between the ion-pair and covalent states. The ion-pair states are described by Coulomb attractive interaction in the long distance range, while the covalent ones are almost repulsive or bound with a very shallow potential dent. These two states interact each other to form adiabatic potential energy surfaces with non-monotonic change in the potential energy with the internuclear distance.
Xiao, Haiyan J.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Weber, William J.
2009-06-17
The high-pressure induced phase transformation from the zinc blende to rocksalt structure in SiC has been studied by ab initio molecular dynamics. The simulations show that SiC passes through tetragonal and then monoclinic intermediate states before finally forming the rock salt structure at 160 GPa. The mechanism for this phase transformation agrees well with recent ab initio MD simulations, in which the applied pressure was as high as ~600 GPa, but in the present study the transformation occurs at much lower pressure. It is found that the phase transition has to overcome an energy barrier of 0.44 eV/pair.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.
2014-12-01
The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Sottile, F.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Olevano, V.
2014-12-01
The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO{sub 2}) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO{sub 2}, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO{sub 2} may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua
2016-05-01
We report new and more accurate adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the ground X˜ 1A1 and electronically excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of the SO2 molecule. Ab initio points are calculated using the explicitly correlated internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI-F12) method. A second less accurate PES for the ground X ˜ state is also calculated using an explicitly correlated single-reference coupled-cluster method with single, double, and non-iterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]. With these new three-dimensional PESs, we determine energies of the vibrational bound states and compare these values to existing literature data and experiment.
Periodic arrays of intercalated atoms in twisted bilayer graphene: An ab initio investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miwa, R. H.; Venezuela, P.; Morell, Eric Suárez
2015-09-01
We have performed an ab initio investigation of transition metals (TMs =Mo ,Ru ,Co ,andPt ) embedded in twisted bilayer graphene (tBG) layers. Our total energy results reveal that, triggered by the misalignment between the graphene layers, Mo and Ru atoms may form a quasiperiodic (triangular) array of intercalated atoms. In contrast, the formation of those structures is not expected for the other TMs, the Co and Pt atoms. The net magnetic moment (m ) of Mo and Ru atoms may be quenched upon intercalation, depending on the stacking region (AA or AB). For instance, we find a magnetic moment of 0.3 μB(1.8 μB) for Ru atoms intercalated between the AA (AB) regions of the stacked twisted layers. Through simulated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, we verify that the presence of intercalated TMs can be identified by the formation of bright (hexagonal) spots lying on the graphene surface.
4He Thermophysical Properties: New Ab Initio Calculations
Hurly, John J.; Mehl, James B.
2007-01-01
Since 2000, atomic physicists have reduced the uncertainty of the helium-helium “ab initio” potential; for example, from approximately 0.6 % to 0.1 % at 4 bohr, and from 0.8 % to 0.1 % at 5.6 bohr. These results led us to: (1) construct a new inter-atomic potential ϕ07, (2) recalculate values of the second virial coefficient, the viscosity, and the thermal conductivity of 4He from 1 K to 10,000 K, and (3), analyze the uncertainties of the thermophysical properties that propagate from the uncertainty of ϕ07 and from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of the electron-nucleon quantum mechanical system. We correct minor errors in a previous publication [J. J. Hurly and M. R. Moldover, J. Res. Nat. Inst. Standards Technol. 105, 667 (2000)] and compare our results with selected data published after 2000. The ab initio results tabulated here can serve as standards for the measurement of thermophysical properties. PMID:27110456
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czakó, Gábor; Bowman, Joel M.
2012-01-01
We report a high-quality, ab initio, full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the Cl(2P, 2P3/2) + CH4 reaction, which describes both the abstraction (HCl + CH3) and substitution (H + CH3Cl) channels. The analytical PES is a least-squares fit, using a basis of permutationally invariant polynomials, to roughly 16 000 ab initio energy points, obtained by an efficient composite method, including counterpoise and spin-orbit corrections for the entrance channel. This composite method is shown to provide accuracy almost equal to all-electron CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pCVQZ results, but at much lower computational cost. Details of the PES, as well as additional high-level benchmark characterization of structures and energetics are reported. The PES has classical barrier heights of 2650 and 15 060 cm-1 (relative to Cl(2P3/2) + CH4(eq)), respectively, for the abstraction and substitution reactions, in good agreement with the corresponding new computed benchmark values, 2670 and 14 720 cm-1. The PES also accurately describes the potential wells in the entrance and exit channels for the abstraction reaction. Quasiclassical trajectory calculations using the PES show that (a) the inclusion of the spin-orbit corrections in the PES decreases the cross sections by a factor of 1.5-2.5 at low collision energies (Ecoll); (b) at Ecoll ≈ 13 000 cm-1 the substitution channel opens and the H/HCl ratio increases rapidly with Ecoll; (c) the maximum impact parameter (bmax) for the abstraction reaction is ˜6 bohr; whereas bmax is only ˜2 bohr for the substitution; (d) the HCl and CH3 products are mainly in the vibrational ground state even at very high Ecoll; and (e) the HCl rotational distributions are cold, in excellent agreement with experiment at Ecoll = 1280 cm-1.
Ab initio R-matrix calculations of e+-molecule scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danby, Grahame; Tennyson, Jonathan
1990-01-01
The adaptation of the molecular R-matrix method, originally developed for electron-molecule collision studies, to positron scattering is discussed. Ab initio R-matrix calculations are presented for collisions of low energy positrons with a number of diatomic systems including H2, HF and N2. Differential elastic cross sections for positron-H2 show a minimum at about 45 deg for collision energies between 0.3 and 0.5 Ryd. The calculations predict a bound state of positronHF. Calculations on inelastic processes in N2 and O2 are also discussed.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Interaction between CO _{2} and the Acetate Ion
Steckel, Janice A.
2012-11-29
A series of ab initio calculations designed to investigate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with acetate are presented. The lowest energy structure, AC–CO{sub 2}-η{sup 2}, is predicted by CCSD(T)/aVTZ to be bound by -10.6 kcal/mol. Six of the bound complexes have binding energies on the order of -8 kcal/mol, but analysis shows that the η{sup 1}-CT complex is fundamentally different from the others. The η{sup 1}-CT complex is characterized by geometric distortion, large polarization and induction effects and charge transfer whereas the other five complexes have little geometric distortion and negligible charge transfer. The amount of charge that is transferred from the anion to the CO{sub 2} in the η{sup 1}-CT complex is estimated to be about half an electron by NPA, DMA, CHELPG, and Mulliken analyses, whereas the EDA-ALMO-CTA (B3LYP) approach predicts a charge transfer of 75 me{sup –}. However, the transfer of this small amount of charge leads to an energy lowering of -56 kcal/mol, without which the complex would not be bound. The RI-MP2 geometries closely approximate those resulting from the CCSD optimizations, and the optimized second-order opposite spin (O2) method performs well for all the complexes except for the η{sup 1}-CT complex. DFT methods do not reproduce all the ab initio geometries, binding energies and/or energy ordering of these complexes although the range-separated hybrid meta-GGA (M11) and nonlocal (VV10 and vdwDF10) functionals are shown to yield results significantly better than other functionals considered for this system. The fact that there is such variation among DFT methods has implications for DFT-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and for the parametrization of classical force fields based on DFT calculations.
An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry
Matthew Neurock; David A. Walthall
2006-05-07
One of the greatest societal challenges over the next decade is the production of cheap, renewable energy for the 10 billion people that inhabit the earth. This will require the development of various different energy sources potentially including fuels derived from methane, coal, and biomass and alternatives sources such as solar, wind and nuclear energy. One approach will be to synthesize gasoline and other fuels from simpler hydrocarbons such as CO derived from methane or other U.S. based sources such as coal. Syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) can be readily converted into higher molecular weight hydrocarbons through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the initiation or activation of CO and H{sub 2} bonds, the subsequent propagation steps including hydrogenation and carbon-carbon coupling, followed by chain termination reactions. Commercially viable catalysts include supported Co and Co-alloys. Over the first two years of this project we have used ab initio methods to determine the adsorption energies for all reactants, intermediates, and products along with the overall reaction energies and their corresponding activation barriers over the Co(0001) surface. Over the third year of the project we developed and advanced an ab initio-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulation code to simulate Fischer Tropsch synthesis. This report details our work over the last year which has focused on the derivation of kinetic parameters for the elementary steps involved in FT synthesis from ab initio density functional theoretical calculations and the application of the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the initial rates of reaction for FT over the ideal Co(0001) surface. The results from our simulations over Co(0001) indicate the importance of stepped surfaces for the activation of adsorbed CO. In addition, they demonstrate that the dominant CH{sub x}* surface intermediate under steady state conditions is CH*. This strongly suggests that hydrocarbon coupling
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2015-05-21
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2015-05-01
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H2O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0-4000 cm-1 is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
Ab initio calculation and anharmonic force field of hypochlorous acid, HOCl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halonen, L.; Ha, T.-K.
1988-03-01
Ab initio calculations on HOCl have been performed at the third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level to determine the equilibrium structure and the anharmonic force field. An empirical anharmonic force field based on the ab initio results is obtained using available experimental vibration-rotation data. Four of the six harmonic and six of the ten cubic force constants have been determined experimentally, the remaining values being fixed at the ab initio values. A good fit to the experimental vibration-rotation data of four isotopic species is obtained.
Electronic Structures of Anti-Ferromagnetic Tetraradicals: Ab Initio and Semi-Empirical Studies.
Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Chungen
2016-04-12
The energy relationships and electronic structures of the lowest-lying spin states in several anti-ferromagnetic tetraradical model systems are studied with high-level ab initio and semi-empirical methods. The Full-CI method (FCI), the complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), and the n-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) are employed to obtain reference results. By comparing the energy relationships predicted from the Heisenberg and Hubbard models with ab initio benchmarks, the accuracy of the widely used Heisenberg model for anti-ferromagnetic spin-coupling in low-spin polyradicals is cautiously tested in this work. It is found that the strength of electron correlation (|U/t|) concerning anti-ferromagnetically coupled radical centers could range widely from strong to moderate correlation regimes and could become another degree of freedom besides the spin multiplicity. Accordingly, the Heisenberg-type model works well in the regime of strong correlation, which reproduces well the energy relationships along with the wave functions of all the spin states. In moderately spin-correlated tetraradicals, the results of the prototype Heisenberg model deviate severely from those of multi-reference electron correlation ab initio methods, while the extended Heisenberg model, containing four-body terms, can introduce reasonable corrections and maintains its accuracy in this condition. In the weak correlation regime, both the prototype Heisenberg model and its extended forms containing higher-order correction terms will encounter difficulties. Meanwhile, the Hubbard model shows balanced accuracy from strong to weak correlation cases and can reproduce qualitatively correct electronic structures, which makes it more suitable for the study of anti-ferromagnetic coupling in polyradical systems. PMID:26963572
Ab initio potentials of F+Li2 accessible at ultracold temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, K. W. A.; Lane, Ian C.
2010-09-01
Ab initio calculations for the strongly exoergic Li2+F harpoon reaction are presented using density-functional theory, complete active space self-consistent field, and multireference configuration interaction methods to argue that this reaction would be an ideal candidate for investigation with ultracold molecules. The lowest six states are calculated with the aug-correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta basis set and at least two can be accessed by a ground rovibronic Li2 molecule with zero collision energy at all reaction geometries. The large reactive cross section (characteristic of harpoon reactions) and chemiluminescent products are additional attractive features of these reactions.
Electronic states of Zn2 - Ab initio calculations of a prototype for Hg2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hay, P. J.; Dunning, T. H., Jr.; Raffenetti, R. C.
1976-01-01
The electronic states of Zn2 are investigated by ab initio polarization configuration-interaction calculations. Molecular states dissociating to Zn(1S) + Zn(1S, 3P, 1P) and Zn(3P) + Zn(3P) are treated. Important effects from states arising from Zn(+)(25) + Zn(-)(2P) are found in the potential-energy curves and electronic-transition moments. A model calculation for Hg2 based on the Zn2 curves and including spin-orbit coupling leads to a new interpretation of the emission bands in Hg vapor.
Simple synthesis, structure and ab initio study of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jadidi, Khosrow; Aryan, Reza; Mehrdad, Morteza; Lügger, Thomas; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Ng, Seik Weng
2004-04-01
A simple procedure for the synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-6,12-dione ( 1) and 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones ( 2a- 2d), using microwave irradiation and/or conventional heating is reported. The configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A detailed ab initio B3LYP/6-31G* calculation of structural parameters and substituent effects on ring inversion barriers (Δ G#) and also free energy differences (Δ G0) for benzodiazepines are reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, Maxim I.; Poddubnyy, Vladimir V.; Glebov, Ilya O.; Belov, Aleksandr S.; Khokhlov, Daniil V.
2016-02-01
The electronic properties of light-harvesting complexes determine the efficiency of energy transfer in photosynthetic antennae. Ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of bacteriochlorophylls (composing the LH1 complex of the purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum) were performed. Based on these calculations, the excitonic Hamiltonian of a native cyclic complex and the Hamiltonians of open complexes with several removed bacteriochlorophylls were constructed. Absorption spectra calculated based on these Hamiltonians agree well with the experimental data. We found that the parameters of interaction between the neighboring bacteriochlorophylls are significantly larger than the empirical parameters suggested previously.
Initial oxidation of TiAl: An ab-initio investigation
Bakulin, Alexander V. Kulkova, Svetlana E.; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui
2014-11-14
We present ab-initio investigation of oxygen adsorption up to two monolayer coverage on the stoichiometric TiAl(100) surface to illustrate the initial oxidation stage. The formation of band gap near the Fermi level demonstrates the transformation from metal to oxide surface with increasing oxygen coverage. The oxidation of Ti rather than Al is observed from our electronic structure calculations. The energy barriers of oxygen diffusion between different sites on surface as well as in subsurface and bulk region are derived. It is shown that the diffusion of oxygen is much easier on the surface than that into the subsurface region.
A comparative ab initio and DFT study of polyaniline leucoemeraldine base and its oligomers.
Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Tandon, Poonam
2009-11-01
Ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are being performed to investigate the geometric, vibrational, and electronic properties of the polyaniline leucoemeraldine base (PANI-LB). Vibrational spectra of PANI-LB have been analyzed using the DFT oligomer approach, and complete assignments are being reported. Lower region spectral assignments of the PANI-LB which were not being reported earlier are being done in the present work. DFT calculations with the 6-31G** basis set produce very good results of not only vibrational modes but also of energy band gap. PMID:19827802
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietrucci, Fabio; Andreoni, Wanda
2011-08-01
Social permutation invariant coordinates are introduced describing the bond network around a given atom. They originate from the largest eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of the contact matrix, are invariant under permutation of identical atoms, and bear a clear signature of an order-disorder transition. Once combined with ab initio metadynamics, these coordinates are shown to be a powerful tool for the discovery of low-energy isomers of molecules and nanoclusters as well as for a blind exploration of isomerization, association, and dissociation reactions.
An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the roaming mechanism of the H2+HOC+ reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Hua-Gen
2011-08-01
We report here a direct ab initio molecular dynamics study of the p-/o-H2+HOC+ reaction on the basis of the accurate SAC-MP2 potential energy surface. The quasi-classical trajectory method was employed. This work largely focuses on the study of reaction mechanisms. A roaming mechanism was identified for this molecular ion-molecule reaction. The driving forces behind the roaming mechanism were thoroughly investigated by using a trajectory dynamics approach. In addition, the thermal rate coefficients of the H2+HOC+ reaction were calculated in the temperature range [25, 300] K and are in good agreement with experiments.
Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory
Vary, J. P.; Maris, P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, J.; Shirokov, A. M.; Brodsky, S. J.; Harindranath, A.
2009-12-17
Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually, we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.
Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory
Vary, J.P.; Maris, P.; Shirokov, A.M.; Honkanen, H.; li, J.; Brodsky, S.J.; Harindranath, A.; Teramond, G.F.de; /Costa Rica U.
2009-08-03
Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually,we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.
Ab initio potentials of F+Li{sub 2} accessible at ultracold temperatures
Wright, K. W. A.; Lane, Ian C.
2010-09-15
Ab initio calculations for the strongly exoergic Li{sub 2}+F harpoon reaction are presented using density-functional theory, complete active space self-consistent field, and multireference configuration interaction methods to argue that this reaction would be an ideal candidate for investigation with ultracold molecules. The lowest six states are calculated with the aug-correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta basis set and at least two can be accessed by a ground rovibronic Li{sub 2} molecule with zero collision energy at all reaction geometries. The large reactive cross section (characteristic of harpoon reactions) and chemiluminescent products are additional attractive features of these reactions.
Ab initio pseudopotential calculation for TTF-TCNQ and TSeF-TCNQ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibashi, Shoji; Kohyama, Masanori
2000-09-01
We have investigated the electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ [at room temperature (RT) and 100 K] and TSeF-TCNQ (RT), which have isomorphic crystal structure, by an ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential band calculation. To express the exchange and correlation energy for electrons, we used both the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation for comparison. For each case, electronic band dispersions were calculated along several symmetric lines and tight-binding parameters were evaluated. The Fermi surface shape was also obtained. The six sets of results (for three structures and two approximations) were compared systematically.
Ab initio based force field and molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline TATB.
Gee, Richard H; Roszak, Szczepan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan; Fried, Laurence E
2004-04-15
An all-atom force field for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) is presented. The classical intermolecular interaction potential for TATB is based on single-point energies determined from high-level ab initio calculations of TATB dimers. The newly developed potential function is used to examine bulk crystalline TATB via molecular dynamics simulations. The isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compression under hydrostatic pressures obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations are in good agreement with experiment. The calculated volume-temperature expansion is almost one dimensional along the c crystallographic axis, whereas under compression, all three unit cell axes participate, albeit unequally. PMID:15267608
Stoddard, Nathan; Pichler, Peter; Duscher, Gerd J M; Windl, Wolfgang
2005-01-01
In this Letter, we present ab initio results identifying a new diffusion path for the nitrogen pair complex in silicon, resulting in an effective diffusivity of 67exp(-2.38 eV/kT) cm{sup 2}/s. This nudged elastic band result is compared with other nitrogen diffusion paths and mechanisms, and is determined to have unmatched agreement with experimental results. It is also shown that careful consideration of total energy corrections and use of a fully temperature-dependent diffusion prefactor have modest but important effects on the calculation of diffusivity for paired and for interstitial nitrogen.
Electronic and transport properties edge functionalized graphene nanoribbons-An ab initio approach
Chauhan, Satyendra Singh; Srivastava, Pankaj; Shrivastva, A. K.
2014-04-24
With the help of ab initio approach we have investigated the electronic and transport properties of edge functionalized zigzag graphene nanoribbons using density functional theory. We have studied the energetic stability and Fermi energy of ZGNRs. We have reported that the edge functionalization of zigzag graphene nanoribbons can break the degeneracy that can be used to promote the onset of a semiconducting to metal transition or a half metal to semiconducting state. The edge functionalization also promotes a metal-semimetal transition. It has also been observed that the transmission spectrum of the edge functionalized ZGNRs are different from those of pristine.
Velaga, Srinath C; Anderson, Brian J
2014-01-16
Gas hydrate deposits are receiving increased attention as potential locations for CO2 sequestration, with CO2 replacing the methane that is recovered as an energy source. In this scenario, it is very important to correctly characterize the cage occupancies of CO2 to correctly assess the sequestration potential as well as the methane recoverability. In order to predict accurate cage occupancies, the guest–host interaction potential must be represented properly. Earlier, these potential parameters were obtained by fitting to experimental equilibrium data and these fitted parameters do not match with those obtained by second virial coefficient or gas viscosity data. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations provide an independent means to directly obtain accurate intermolecular potentials. A potential energy surface (PES) between H2O and CO2 was computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), an error caused due to the lower basis set, by using the half counterpoise method. Intermolecular potentials were obtained by fitting Exponential-6 and Lennard-Jones 6-12 models to the ab initio PES, correcting for many-body interactions. We denoted this model as the “VAS” model. Reference parameters for structure I carbon dioxide hydrate were calculated using the VAS model (site–site ab initio intermolecular potentials) as Δμ(w)(0) = 1206 ± 2 J/mol and ΔH(w)(0) = 1260 ± 12 J/mol. With these reference parameters and the VAS model, pure CO2 hydrate equilibrium pressure was predicted with an average absolute deviation of less than 3.2% from the experimental data. Predictions of the small cage occupancy ranged from 32 to 51%, and the large cage is more than 98% occupied. The intermolecular potentials were also tested by calculating the pure CO2 density and diffusion of CO2 in water using molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24328234
Ab Initio Studies of Halogen and Nitrogen Oxide Species of Interest in Stratospheric Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
Ab initio prediction of the critical thickness of a precipitate.
Sampath, S; Janisch, R
2013-09-01
Segregation and precipitation of second phases in metals and metallic alloys is an important phenomenon that has a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the material. Models exist that describe the growth of coherent, semi-coherent and incoherent precipitates. One important parameter of these models is the energy of the interface between matrix and precipitate. In this work we apply ab initio density functional theory calculations to obtain this parameter and to understand how it depends on chemical composition and mechanical strain at the interface.Our example is a metastable Mo-C phase, the body-centred tetragonal structure, which exists as a semi-coherent precipitate in body-centred cubic molybdenum. The interface of this precipitate is supposed to change from coherent to semi-coherent during the growth of the precipitate. We predict the critical thickness of the precipitate by calculating the different contributions to a semi-coherent interface energy by means of ab initio density functional theory calculations. The parameters in our model include the elastic strain energy stored in the precipitate, as well as a misfit dislocation energy that depends on the dislocation core width and the dislocation spacing. Our predicted critical thickness agrees well with experimental observations. PMID:23896820
Ab initio simulation of gap discrete breathers in strained graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobzenko, I. P.; Chechin, G. M.; Bezuglova, G. S.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Korznikova, E. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.
2016-03-01
The methods of the density functional theory were used for the first time for the simulation of discrete breathers in graphene. It is demonstrated that breathers can exist with frequencies lying in the gap of the phonon spectrum, induced by uniaxial tension of a monolayer graphene sheet in the "zigzag" direction (axis X), polarized in the "armchair" direction (axis Y). The found gap breathers are highly localized dynamic objects, the core of which is formed by two adjacent carbon atoms located on the Y axis. The atoms surrounding the core vibrate at much lower amplitudes along both the axes ( X and Y). The dependence of the frequency of these breathers on amplitude is found, which shows a soft type of nonlinearity. No breathers of this type were detected in the gap induced by stretching along the Y axis. It is shown that the breather vibrations may be approximated by the Morse oscillators, the parameters of which are determined from ab initio calculations. The results are of fundamental importance, as molecular dynamics calculations based on empirical potentials cannot serve as a reliable proof of the existence of breathers in crystals.
Volumic omit maps in ab initio dual-space phasing.
Oszlányi, Gábor; Sütő, András
2016-07-01
Alternating-projection-type dual-space algorithms have a clear construction, but are susceptible to stagnation and, thus, inefficient for solving the phase problem ab initio. To improve this behaviour new omit maps are introduced, which are real-space perturbations applied periodically during the iteration process. The omit maps are called volumic, because they delete some predetermined subvolume of the unit cell without searching for atomic regions or analysing the electron density in any other way. The basic algorithms of positivity, histogram matching and low-density elimination are tested by their solution statistics. It is concluded that, while all these algorithms based on weak constraints are practically useless in their pure forms, appropriate volumic omit maps can transform them to practically useful methods. In addition, the efficiency of the already useful reflector-type charge-flipping algorithm can be further improved. It is important that these results are obtained by using non-sharpened structure factors and without any weighting scheme or reciprocal-space perturbation. The mathematical background of volumic omit maps and their expected applications are also discussed. PMID:27357850
TOPICAL REVIEW: Ab initio symplectic no-core shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dytrych, T.; Sviratcheva, K. D.; Draayer, J. P.; Bahri, C.; Vary, J. P.
2008-12-01
The no-core shell model (NCSM) is a prominent ab initio method that yields a good description of the low-lying states in few-nucleon systems as well as in more complex p-shell nuclei. Nevertheless, its applicability is limited by the rapid growth of the many-body basis with larger model spaces and increasing number of nucleons. The symplectic no-core shell model (Sp-NCSM) aspires to extend the scope of the NCSM beyond the p-shell region by augmenting the conventional spherical harmonic oscillator basis with the physically relevant symplectic \\SpR{3} symmetry-adapted configurations of the symplectic shell model that describe naturally the monopole-quadrupole vibrational and rotational modes, and also partially incorporate α-cluster correlations. In this review, the models underpinning the Sp-NCSM approach, namely, the NCSM, the Elliott SU(3) model and the symplectic shell model, are discussed. Following this, a prescription for constructing translationally invariant symplectic configurations in the spherical harmonic oscillator basis is given. This prescription is utilized to unveil the extent to which symplectic configurations enter into low-lying states in 12C and 16O nuclei calculated within the framework of the NCSM with the JISP16 realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The outcomes of this proof-of-principle study are presented in detail.
Ab initio modelling of methane hydrate thermophysical properties.
Jendi, Z M; Servio, P; Rey, A D
2016-04-21
The key thermophysical properties of methane hydrate were determined using ab initio modelling. Using density functional theory, the second-order elastic constants, heat capacity, compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated. A wide and relevant range of pressure-temperature conditions were considered, and the structures were assessed for stability using the mean square displacement and radial distribution functions. Methane hydrate was found to be elastically isotropic with a linear dependence of the bulk modulus on pressure. Equally significant, multi-body interactions were found to be important in hydrates, and water-water interactions appear to strongly influence compressibility like in ice Ih. While the heat capacity of hydrate was found to be higher than that of ice, the thermal expansion coefficient was significantly lower, most likely due to the lower rigidity of hydrates. The mean square displacement gave important insight into stability, heat capacity, and elastic moduli, and the radial distribution functions further confirmed stability. The presented results provide a much needed atomistic thermoelastic characterization of methane hydrates and are essential input for the large-scale applications of hydrate detection and production. PMID:27019976
Engineering Room-temperature Superconductors Via ab-initio Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulian, Mamikon; Melkonyan, Gurgen; Gulian, Armen
The BCS, or bosonic model of superconductivity, as Little and Ginzburg have first argued, can bring in superconductivity at room temperatures in the case of high-enough frequency of bosonic mode. It was further elucidated by Kirzhnitset al., that the condition for existence of high-temperature superconductivity is closely related to negative values of the real part of the dielectric function at finite values of the reciprocal lattice vectors. In view of these findings, the task is to calculate the dielectric function for real materials. Then the poles of this function will indicate the existence of bosonic excitations which can serve as a "glue" for Cooper pairing, and if the frequency is high enough, and the dielectric matrix is simultaneously negative, this material is a good candidate for very high-Tc superconductivity. Thus, our approach is to elaborate a methodology of ab-initio calculation of the dielectric function of various materials, and then point out appropriate candidates. We used the powerful codes (TDDF with the DP package in conjunction with ABINIT) for computing dielectric responses at finite values of the wave vectors in the reciprocal lattice space. Though our report is concerned with the particular problem of superconductivity, the application range of the data processing methodology is much wider. The ability to compute the dielectric function of existing and still non-existing (though being predicted!) materials will have many more repercussions not only in fundamental sciences but also in technology and industry.
Ab initio simulations of pseudomorphic silicene and germanene bidimensional heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debernardi, Alberto; Marchetti, Luigi
2016-06-01
Among the novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, silicene and germanene, which are two honeycomb crystal structures composed of a monolayer of Si and Ge, respectively, have attracted the attention of material scientists because they combine the advantages of the new 2D ultimate-scaled electronics with their compatibility with industrial processes presently based on Si and Ge. We envisage pseudomorphic lateral heterostructures based on ribbons of silicene and germanene, which are the 2D analogs of conventional 3D Si/Ge superlattices and quantum wells. In spite of the considerable lattice mismatch (˜4 % ) between free-standing silicene and germanene, our ab initio simulations predict that, considering striped 2D lateral heterostructures made by alternating silicene and germanene ribbons of constant width, the silicene/germanene junction remains pseudomorphic—i.e., it maintains lattice-matched edges—up to critical ribbon widths that can reach some tens of nanometers. Such critical widths are one order of magnitude larger than the critical thickness measured in 3D pseudomorphic Si/Ge heterostructures and the resolution of state-of-the-art lithography, thus enabling the possibility of lithography patterned silicene/germanene junctions. We computed how the strain produced by the pseudomorphic growth modifies the crystal structure and electronic bands of the ribbons, providing a mechanism for band-structure engineering. Our results pave the way for lithography patterned lateral heterostructures that can serve as the building blocks of novel 2D electronics.
Ab initio calculation of infrared intensities for hydrogen peroxide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.
1982-01-01
Results of an ab initio SCF quantum mechanical study are used to derive estimates for the infrared intensities of the fundamental vibrations of hydrogen peroxide. Atomic polar tensors (APTs) were calculated on the basis of a 4-31G basis set, and used to derive absolute intensities for the vibrational transitions. Comparison of the APTs calculated for H2O2 with those previously obtained for H2O and CH3OH, and of the absolute intensities derived from the H2O2 APTs with those derived from APTs transferred from H2O and CH3OH, reveals the sets of values to differ by no more than a factor of two, supporting the validity of the theoretical calculation. Values of the infrared intensities obtained correspond to A1 = 14.5 km/mol, A2 = 0.91 km/mol, A3 = 0.058 km/mol, A4 = 123 km/mol, A5 = 46.2 km/mol, and A6 = 101 km/mol. Charge, charge flux and overlap contributions to the dipole moment derivatives are also computed.
Ab initio simulations of peptide-mineral interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hug, Susanna; Hunter, Graeme K.; Goldberg, Harvey; Karttunen, Mikko
We performed Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics (CPMD) simulations of two amino acids, aspartic acid (Asp) and phophoserine (pSer), on a calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) surface as a model of the interactions of phosphoproteins with biominerals. In our earlier work using in vitro experiments and classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations we have demonstrated the importance of phosphorylation of serine on the interactions of osteopontin (OPN) with COM. We used configurations from our previous classical MD simulations as a starting point for the ab initio simulations. In the case of Asp we found that the α-carboxyl and amine groups form temporary close contacts with the surface. For the dipeptide Asp-pSer the carboxyl groups form permanent close contacts with the surface and the distances of its other functional groups do not vary much. We show how the interaction of carboxyl groups with COM crystal is established and confirm the importance of phosphorylation in mediating the interactions between COM surfaces and OPN.
An efficient approach to ab initio Monte Carlo simulation
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.
2014-01-21
We present a Nested Markov chain Monte Carlo (NMC) scheme for building equilibrium averages based on accurate potentials such as density functional theory. Metropolis sampling of a reference system, defined by an inexpensive but approximate potential, was used to substantially decorrelate configurations at which the potential of interest was evaluated, thereby dramatically reducing the number needed to build ensemble averages at a given level of precision. The efficiency of this procedure was maximized on-the-fly through variation of the reference system thermodynamic state (characterized here by its inverse temperature β{sup 0}), which was otherwise unconstrained. Local density approximation results are presented for shocked states of argon at pressures from 4 to 60 GPa, where—depending on the quality of the reference system potential—acceptance probabilities were enhanced by factors of 1.2–28 relative to unoptimized NMC. The optimization procedure compensated strongly for reference potential shortcomings, as evidenced by significantly higher speedups when using a reference potential of lower quality. The efficiency of optimized NMC is shown to be competitive with that of standard ab initio molecular dynamics in the canonical ensemble.
Ab initio effective interactions for s d -shell valence nucleons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Maris, P.; Shirokov, A. M.; Vary, J. P.
2015-06-01
We perform ab initio no-core shell-model calculations for A =18 and 19 nuclei in a 4 ℏ Ω , or Nmax=4 , model space by using the effective JISP16 and chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon potentials and transform the many-body effective Hamiltonians into the 0 ℏ Ω model space to construct the A -body effective Hamiltonians in the s d shell. We separate the A -body effective Hamiltonians with A =18 and A =19 into inert core, one-, and two-body components. Then we use these core, one-, and two-body components to perform standard shell-model calculations for the A =18 and A =19 systems with valence nucleons restricted to the s d shell. Finally, we compare the standard shell-model results in the 0 ℏ Ω model space with the exact no-core shell-model results in the 4 ℏ Ω model space for the A =18 and A =19 systems and find good agreement.
FTIR, Raman spectra and ab initio calculations of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.
Rai, Amareshwar K; Singh, Rachana; Singh, K N; Singh, V B
2006-02-01
FTIR and Raman spectra of a rubber vulcanization accelerator, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), were recorded in the solid phase. The harmonic vibrational wavenumbers, for both the toutomeric forms of MBT, as well as for its dimeric complex, have been calculated, using ab initio RHF and density functional B3LYP methods invoking different basis sets upto RHF/6-31G** and B3LYP/6-31G** and the results were compared with the experimental values. Conformational studies have been also carried out regarding its toutomeric monomer forms and its dimer form. With all the basis sets the thione form of MBT (II) is predicted to be more stable than thiol form (I) and dimeric conformation (III) is predicted to be more stable with monomeric conformations (I) and (II). Vibrational assignments have been made, and it has been found that the calculated normal mode frequencies of dimeric conformation (III) are required for the analysis of IR and Raman bands of the MBT. The predicted shift in NH- stretching vibration towards the lower wave number side with the B3LYP/6-31G** calculations for the most stable dimer form (III), is in better agreement with experimental results. The intermolecular sulfur-nitrogen distance in N-H...S hydrogen bond was found to be 3.35 angstroms from these calculations, is also in agreement to the experimental value. PMID:16098806
Ab initio simulations on rutile-based titania nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhukovskii, Yu F.; Evarestov, R. A.
2012-08-01
The rod symmetry groups for monoperiodic (1D) nanostructures have been applied for construction of models for bulk-like TiO2 nanowires (NWs) cut from a rutile-based 3D crystal along the chosen [001] and [110] directions of crystallographic axes. In this study, we have considered nanowires described by both the Ti-atom centered rotation axes as well as the hollow site centered axes passing through the interstitial positions between the Ti and O atoms closest to the axes. The most stable [001]-oriented TiO2 NWs with rhombic cross sections are found to display the energetically preferable {110} facets only while the nanowires with quasi-square sections across the [110] axis are formed by the alternating { 1bar 10 } and {001} facets. For simulations on rutile-based nanowires possessing different diameters for each NW type, we have performed large-scale ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) and hybrid DFT-Hartree Fock (DFT-HF) calculations with total geometry optimization within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) in the form of the Perdew-Becke-Ernzenhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functionals (PBE and PBE0, respectively), using the formalism of linear combination of localized atomic functions (LCAO). We have simulated both structural and electronic properties of TiO2 NWs depending both on orientation and position of symmetry axes as well as on diameter and morphology of nanowires.
Ab initio study of ice catalyzation of HOCl + HCl reaction
Zhou, Y.F.; Liu, C.B.
2000-06-15
The observations by Farman et al. revealed remarkable depletions in the total atmospheric ozone content in Antarctica. The observed total ozone decreased smoothing during the spring season from about 1975. Satellite observations have proved Antarctic ozone depletions over a very extended region, in general agreement with the local ground-based data of Farman et al. It was suggested that heterogeneous reactions occurring on particles in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a central role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Experiments proved that the reaction of HOCl + HCl was very slow in the gas phase, but on ice surface it was rapid. In this work the ice catalysis of HOCl + HCl reaction was investigated by using ab initio molecular orbital theory. The authors applied the Hartree-Fock self-consistent field and the second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory with the basis sets of 6-31G* to the model system. The complexes and transition state were obtained along the reaction with and without the presence of ice surface. By comparing the results, a possible catalyzation mechanism of ice on the reaction is proposed.
Ab initio Raman spectroscopy of water under extreme conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozsa, Viktor; Pan, Ding; Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia
Water exhibits one of the most complex phase diagrams of any binary compound. Despite extensive studies, the melting lines of high-pressure ice phases remain very controversial, with reports differing by hundreds of Kelvin. The boundary between ice VII and liquid phase is particularly disputed, with recent work exploring plasticity and amorphization mediating the transition. Raman measurements are often used to fingerprint melting, yet their interpretation is difficult without atomistic modeling. Here, we report a study of high P/T water where we computed Raman spectra using a method combining ab initio molecular dynamics and density functional perturbation theory, as implemented in the Qbox code. Spectra were computed for the liquid at 10 and 20 GPa, both at 1000 K, and for solid ice VII (20 GPa, 500 K). Decomposing the spectra into inter and intra molecular contributions provided insight into the dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded network at extreme conditions. The relevance of our simulation results for models of water in Earth, Uranus, and Neptune will be discussed, and an interpretation of existing experiments at high pressure will be presented.
Ab initio modeling of the motional Stark effect on MAST
De Bock, M. F. M.; Conway, N. J.; Walsh, M. J.; Carolan, P. G.; Hawkes, N. C.
2008-10-15
A multichord motional Stark effect (MSE) system has recently been built on the MAST tokamak. In MAST the {pi} and {sigma} lines of the MSE spectrum overlap due to the low magnetic field typical for present day spherical tokamaks. Also, the field curvature results in a large change in the pitch angle over the observation volume. The measured polarization angle does not relate to one local pitch angle but to an integration over all pitch angles in the observation volume. The velocity distribution of the neutral beam further complicates the measurement. To take into account volume effects and velocity distribution, an ab initio code was written that simulates the MSE spectrum on MAST. The code is modular and can easily be adjusted for other tokamaks. The code returns the intensity, polarized fraction, and polarization angle as a function of wavelength. Results of the code are presented, showing the effect on depolarization and wavelength dependence of the polarization angle. The code is used to optimize the design and calibration of the MSE diagnostic.
Experimental and ab initio infrared study of chi-, kappa- and alpha-aluminas formed from gibbsite
Favaro, L.; Boumaza, A.; Roy, P.; Ledion, J.; Sattonnay, G.; Brubach, J.B.; Huntz, A.M.; Tetot, R.
2010-04-15
chi-, kappa- and alpha-alumina phases formed by dehydration of micro-grained gibbsite between 773 and 1573 K are studied using infrared spectroscopy (IR). The structural transitions evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD) were interpreted by comparing IR measurements with ab initio simulations (except for the chi form whose complexity does not allow a reliable simulation). For each phase, IR spectrum presents specific bands corresponding to transverse optical (TO) modes of Al-O stretching and bending under 900 cm{sup -1}. The very complex chi phase, obtained at 773 K, provides a distinctive XRD pattern in contrast with the IR absorbance appearing as a broad structure extending between 200 and 900 cm{sup -1} resembling the equivalent spectra for gamma-alumina phase. kappa-alumina is forming at 1173 K and its rich IR spectrum is in good qualitative agreement with ab initio simulations. This complexity reflects the large number of atoms in the kappa-alumina unit cell and the wide range of internuclear distances as well as the various coordinances of both Al and O atoms. Ab initio simulations suggest that this form of transition alumina demonstrates a strong departure from the simple pattern observed for other transition alumina. At 1573 K, the stable alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3} develops. Its IR spectra extends in a narrower energy range as compared to transition alumina and presents characteristics features similar to model alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3}. Ab initio calculations show again a very good general agreement with the observed IR spectra for this phase. In addition, for both kappa- and alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3}, extra modes, measured at high energy (above 790 cm{sup -1} for kappa and above 650 cm{sup -1} for alpha), can originate from either remnant chi-alumina or from surface modes. - Graphical abstract: Infrared spectra of the sequence Gibbsite ->chi->kappa->alpha-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} obtained from 24 h calcinations of Gibbsite at 773 K, 1173 K
An ab Initio Benchmark and DFT Validation Study on Gold(I)-Catalyzed Hydroamination of Alkynes.
Ciancaleoni, Gianluca; Rampino, Sergio; Zuccaccia, Daniele; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belanzoni, Paola; Belpassi, Leonardo
2014-03-11
High level ab initio calculations have been carried out on an archetypal gold(I)-catalyzed reaction: hydroamination of ethyne. We studied up to 12 structures of possible gold(I)-coordinated species modeling different intermediates potentially present in a catalytic cycle for the addition of a protic nucleophile to an alkyne. The benchmark is used to evaluate the performances of some popular density functionals for describing geometries and relative energies of stationary points along the reaction profile. Most functionals (including hybrid or meta-hybrid) give accurate structures but large nonsystematic errors (4-12 kcal/mol) along the reaction energy profile. The double hybrid functional B2PLYP outperforms all considered functionals and compares very nicely with our reference ab initio benchmark energies. Moreover, we present an assessment of the accuracy of commonly used approaches to include relativistic effects, such as relativistic effective potentials and a scalar ZORA Hamiltonian, by a comparison with the results obtained using a relativistic all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham method. The contribution of nonscalar relativistic effects in gold(I)-catalyzed reactions, as we investigated here, is expected to be on the order of 1 kcal/mol. PMID:26580180
Ab initio calculation of the ro-vibrational spectrum of H2F+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Polyansky, Oleg L.
2015-10-01
An ab initio study of the rotation-vibrational spectrum of the electronic ground state of the (gas-phase) fluoronium ion H2F+ is presented. A new potential energy surface (PES) and a new dipole moment surface (DMS) were produced and used to compute rotation-vibrational energy levels, line positions and line intensities. Our computations achieve an accuracy of 0.15 cm-1 for the fundamental vibrational frequencies, which is about 50 times more accurate than previous ab initio results. The computed room-temperature line list should facilitate the experimental observations of new H2F+ lines, in particular of yet unobserved overtone transitions. The H2F+ molecular ion, which is isoelectronic to water, has a non-linear equilibrium geometry but a low-energy barrier to linearity at about 6000 cm-1. As a result the effects of so-called quantum monodromy become apparent already at low bending excitations. An analysis of excited bends in terms of quantum monodromy is presented.
Ab initio study of weakly bound halogen complexes: RX⋯PH3.
Georg, Herbert C; Fileti, Eudes E; Malaspina, Thaciana
2013-01-01
Ab initio calculations were employed to study the role of ipso carbon hybridization in halogenated compounds RX (R=methyl, phenyl, acetyl, H and X=F, Cl, Br and I) and its interaction with a phosphorus atom, as occurs in the halogen bonded complex type RX⋯PH3. The analysis was performed using ab initio MP2, MP4 and CCSD(T) methods. Systematic energy analysis found that the interaction energies are in the range -4.14 to -11.92 kJ mol(-1) (at MP2 level without ZPE correction). Effects of electronic correlation levels were evaluated at MP4 and CCSD(T) levels and a reduction of up to 27% in interaction energy obtained in MP2 was observed. Analysis of the electrostatic maps confirms that the PhCl⋯PH3 and all MeX⋯PH3 complexes are unstable. NBO analysis suggested that the charge transfer between the moieties is bigger when using iodine than bromine and chlorine. The electrical properties of these complexes (dipole and polarizability) were determined and the most important observed aspect was the systematic increase at the dipole polarizability, given by the interaction polarizability. This increase is in the range of 0.7-6.7 u.a. (about 3-7%). PMID:22895850
Ab initio molecular dynamics of solvation effects on reactivity at electrified interfaces.
Herron, Jeffrey A; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Mavrikakis, Manos
2016-08-23
Using ab initio molecular dynamics as implemented in periodic, self-consistent (generalized gradient approximation Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) density functional theory, we investigated the mechanism of methanol electrooxidation on Pt(111). We investigated the role of water solvation and electrode potential on the energetics of the first proton transfer step, methanol electrooxidation to methoxy (CH3O) or hydroxymethyl (CH2OH). The results show that solvation weakens the adsorption of methoxy to uncharged Pt(111), whereas the binding energies of methanol and hydroxymethyl are not significantly affected. The free energies of activation for breaking the C-H and O-H bonds in methanol were calculated through a Blue Moon Ensemble using constrained ab initio molecular dynamics. Calculated barriers for these elementary steps on unsolvated, uncharged Pt(111) are similar to results for climbing-image nudged elastic band calculations from the literature. Water solvation reduces the barriers for both C-H and O-H bond activation steps with respect to their vapor-phase values, although the effect is more pronounced for C-H bond activation, due to less disruption of the hydrogen bond network. The calculated activation energy barriers show that breaking the C-H bond of methanol is more facile than the O-H bond on solvated negatively biased or uncharged Pt(111). However, with positive bias, O-H bond activation is enhanced, becoming slightly more facile than C-H bond activation. PMID:27503889
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ion-solid interactions in zirconate pyrochlores
Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; Zu, X. T.
2015-01-31
In this paper, an ab initio molecular dynamics method is employed to study low energy recoil events in zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7, A = La, Nd and Sm). It shows that both cations and anions in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 are generally more likely to be displaced than those in La2Zr2O7. The damage end states mainly consist of Frenkel pair defects, and the Frenkel pair formation energies in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 are lower than those in La2Zr2O7. These results suggest that the order–disorder structural transition more easily occurs in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 resulting in a defect-fluorite structure, which agrees well with experimentalmore » observations. Our calculations indicate that oxygen migration from 48f and 8b to 8a sites is dominant under low energy irradiation. A number of new defects, including four types of cation Frenkel pairs and six types of anion Frenkel pairs, are revealed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The present findings may help to advance the fundamental understanding of the irradiation response behavior of zirconate pyrochlores.« less
Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng; Xu Wenwu
2013-05-07
A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, De-Heng; Liu, Yu-Fang; Sun, Jin-Feng; Zhu, Zun-Lue; Yang, Xiang-Dong
2006-12-01
The reasonable dissociation limit of the second excited singlet state B1Π of 7LiH molecule is obtained. The accurate dissociation energy and equilibrium geometry of the B1Π state are calculated using a symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction method in full active space. The whole potential energy curve for the B1Π state is obtained over the internuclear distance ranging from about 0.10 nm to 0.54 nm, and has a least-square fit to the analytic Murrell-Sorbie function form. The vertical excitation energy is calculated from the ground state to the B1Π state and compared with previous theoretical results. The equilibrium internuclear distance obtained by geometry optimization is found to be quite different from that obtained by single-point energy scanning under the same calculation condition. Based on the analytic potential energy function, the harmonic frequency value of the B1Π state is estimated. A comparison of the theoretical calculations of dissociation energies, equilibrium interatomic distances and the analytic potential energy function with those obtained by previous theoretical results clearly shows that the present work is more comprehensive and in better agreement with experiments than previous theories, thus it is an improvement on previous theories.
Ground state analytical ab initio intermolecular potential for the Cl{sub 2}-water system
Hormain, Laureline; Monnerville, Maurice Toubin, Céline; Duflot, Denis; Pouilly, Brigitte; Briquez, Stéphane; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I.; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón
2015-04-14
The chlorine/water interface is of crucial importance in the context of atmospheric chemistry. Modeling the structure and dynamics at this interface requires an accurate description of the interaction potential energy surfaces. We propose here an analytical intermolecular potential that reproduces the interaction between the Cl{sub 2} molecule and a water molecule. Our functional form is fitted to a set of high level ab initio data using the coupled-cluster single double (triple)/aug-cc-p-VTZ level of electronic structure theory for the Cl{sub 2} − H{sub 2}O complex. The potential fitted to reproduce the three minima structures of 1:1 complex is validated by the comparison of ab initio results of Cl{sub 2} interacting with an increasing number of water molecules. Finally, the model potential is used to study the physisorption of Cl{sub 2} on a perfectly ordered hexagonal ice slab. The calculated adsorption energy, in the range 0.27 eV, shows a good agreement with previous experimental results.
Ab Initio Simulations of Hydrogen in Crystalline and Amorphous Metal Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huhn, William; Widom, Mike
2011-03-01
Solid metallic membranes are used to separate hydrogen from other gases for clean energy applications. In order to create cheaper, more effective membranes for hydrogen separation, it is desirable to model hydrogen transport through the membrane. Amorphous metal membranes in particular have potential for this type of application due to low expense and high theoretical hydrogen capacity. We computationally model hydrogen absorption and transport through materials in order to find materials that can be used to construct effective membranes for hydrogen capture. In this talk, we will obtain hydrogen binding sites and diffusion barriers in order to model the hydrogen diffusion through various nickel-based amorphous alloys and compare them to associated crystalline structures as well as elemental palladium, which is favored for this application despite its high expense. Ab initio methods (specifically the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package, VASP) are used to develop the hydrogen binding energy spectrum, from which thermodynamic models can be constructed. Kinetic Monte Carlo methods are used to model the hydrogen transport through the bulk, from which we can obtain the permeability.
Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground-state properties of manganese's oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vinit; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kent, P. R. C.; Reboredo, Fernando A.
One of the critical scientific challenges of contemporary research is to obtain an accurate theoretical description of the electronic properties of strongly correlated systems such as transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds, since state-of-art ab-initio methods based on approximate density functionals are not always sufficiently accurate. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods, which use statistical sampling to evaluate many-body wave functions, have the potential to answer this challenge. Owing to the few fundamental approximations made and the direct treatment of electron correlation, QMC methods are among the most accurate electronic structure methods available to date. We assess the accuracy of the diffusion Monte Carlo method in the case of rocksalt manganese oxide (MnO). We study the electronic properties of this strongly-correlated oxide, which has been identified as a suitable candidate for many applications ranging from catalysts to electronic devices. ``This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.'' Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground-state properties of manganese's oxides.
Ab initio calculations of the optical properties of crystalline and liquid InSb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sano, Haruyuki; Mizutani, Goro
2015-11-01
Ab initio calculations of the electronic and optical properties of InSb were performed for both the crystalline and liquid states. Two sets of atomic structure models for liquid InSb at 900 K were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. To reduce the effect of structural peculiarities in the liquid models, an averaging of the two sets of the calculated electronic and optical properties corresponding to the two liquid models was performed. The calculated results indicate that, owing to the phase transition from crystal to liquid, the density of states around the Fermi level increases. As a result, the energy band gap opening near the Fermi level disappears. Consequently, the optical properties change from semiconductor to metallic behavior. Namely, owing to the melting of InSb, the interband transition peaks disappear and a Drude-like dispersion is observed in the optical dielectric functions. The optical absorption at a photon energy of 3.06 eV, which is used in Blu-ray Disc systems, increases owing to the melting of InSb. This increase in optical absorption is proposed to result from the increased optical transitions below 2 eV.
Ab initio calculations of the optical properties of crystalline and liquid InSb
Sano, Haruyuki; Mizutani, Goro
2015-11-15
Ab initio calculations of the electronic and optical properties of InSb were performed for both the crystalline and liquid states. Two sets of atomic structure models for liquid InSb at 900 K were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. To reduce the effect of structural peculiarities in the liquid models, an averaging of the two sets of the calculated electronic and optical properties corresponding to the two liquid models was performed. The calculated results indicate that, owing to the phase transition from crystal to liquid, the density of states around the Fermi level increases. As a result, the energy band gap opening near the Fermi level disappears. Consequently, the optical properties change from semiconductor to metallic behavior. Namely, owing to the melting of InSb, the interband transition peaks disappear and a Drude-like dispersion is observed in the optical dielectric functions. The optical absorption at a photon energy of 3.06 eV, which is used in Blu-ray Disc systems, increases owing to the melting of InSb. This increase in optical absorption is proposed to result from the increased optical transitions below 2 eV.
Operator evolution for ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4 He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, Micah; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin; Jurgenson, Eric; Navratil, Petr
2015-04-01
A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopicinternucleon forces. Modern effective interaction theory, applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size, is a major element of such an effort. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theory, particularly for non-scalar transitions. We study the evolution of the electric dipole operator in the framework of the similarity-renormalization group method and apply the renormalized matrix elements to the calculation of the 4 He total photo absorption cross section and electric dipole polarizability. All observables are calculated within the ab initio no-core shell model. We find that, although seemingly small, the effects of induced operators on the photo absorption cross section are comparable in magnitude to the correction produced by including the three-nucleon force and cannot be neglected. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon scattering on ^16O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Roth, Robert
2008-10-01
We develop a new ab initio many-body approachootnotetextS. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, arXiv:0804.1560. capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group methodootnotetextY. C. Tang et al., Phys. Rep. 47, 167 (1978); K. Langanke and H. Friedrich, Advances in Nuclear Physics, Plenum, New York, 1987. with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM).ootnotetextP. Navratil, J. P. Vary, and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5728 (2000); Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000). In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, while preserving Pauli principle and translational symmetry. We will present results for low-energy nucleon scattering on ^16O and for A=17 bound states obtained using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The ^16O wave functions are calculated within the importance-truncated NCSMootnotetextR. Roth and P. Navratil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092501 (2007). that allows the use of model spaces up to 18φ and ultimately enables to reach convergence of phase-shifts and other observables. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support from the U.S. DOE/SC/NP (Work Proposal No. SCW0498), and from the U. S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FC02-07ER41457 is acknowledged.
Emergent properties of nuclei from ab initio coupled-cluster calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagen, G.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Jansen, G. R.; Papenbrock, T.
2016-06-01
Emergent properties such as nuclear saturation and deformation, and the effects on shell structure due to the proximity of the scattering continuum and particle decay channels are fascinating phenomena in atomic nuclei. In recent years, ab initio approaches to nuclei have taken the first steps towards tackling the computational challenge of describing these phenomena from Hamiltonians with microscopic degrees of freedom. This endeavor is now possible due to ideas from effective field theories, novel optimization strategies for nuclear interactions, ab initio methods exhibiting a soft scaling with mass number, and ever-increasing computational power. This paper reviews some of the recent accomplishments. We also present new results. The recently optimized chiral interaction NNLO{}{{sat}} is shown to provide an accurate description of both charge radii and binding energies in selected light- and medium-mass nuclei up to 56Ni. We derive an efficient scheme for including continuum effects in coupled-cluster computations of nuclei based on chiral nucleon–nucleon and three-nucleon forces, and present new results for unbound states in the neutron-rich isotopes of oxygen and calcium. The coupling to the continuum impacts the energies of the {J}π =1/{2}-,3/{2}-,7/{2}-,3/{2}+ states in {}{17,23,25}O, and—contrary to naive shell-model expectations—the level ordering of the {J}π =3/{2}+,5/{2}+,9/{2}+ states in {}{53,55,61}Ca. ).
Li, Y. Q.; Ma, F. C.; Sun, M. T.
2013-10-21
A full three-dimensional global potential energy surface is reported first time for the title system, which is important for the photodissociation processes. It is obtained using double many-body expansion theory and an extensive set of accurate ab initio energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Such a work can be recommended for dynamics studies of the N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2} reaction, a reliable theoretical treatment of the photodissociation dynamics and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen containing systems. In turn, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +})(ν=0,j=0)→NH(a{sup 1}Δ)+H({sup 2}S) has been carried out with the method of quasi-classical trajectory on the new potential energy surface. Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants have been calculated, providing perhaps the most reliable estimate of the integral cross sections and the rate constants known thus far for such a reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, De-Heng; Liu, Yu-Fang; Sun, Jin-Feng; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhu, Zun-Lue
2006-05-01
The reasonable dissociation limit of the A1Σ+ state 7LiH molecule is obtained. The accurate dissociation energy and the equilibrium geometry of this state are calculated using a symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction method in complete active space for the first time. The whole potential energy curve and the dipole moment function for the A1Σ+ state are calculated over a wide internuclear separation range from about 0.1 to 1.4 nm. The calculated equilibrium geometry and dissociation energy of this potential energy curve are of Re=0.2487 nm and De=1.064 eV, respectively. The unusual negative values of the anharmonicity constant and the vibration-rotational coupling constant are of ωeχe=-4.7158cm-1 and αe=-0.08649cm-1, respectively. The vertical excitation energy from the ground to the A1Σ+ state is calculated and the value is of 3.613 eV at 0.15875 nm (the equilibrium position of the ground state). The highly anomalous shape of this potential energy curve, which is exceptionally flat over a wide radial range around the equilibrium position, is discussed in detail. The harmonic frequency value of 502.47cm-1 about this state is approximately estimated. Careful comparison of the theoretical determinations with those obtained by previous theories about the A1Σ+ state dissociation energy clearly shows that the present calculations are much closer to the experiments than previous theories, thus represents an improvement.
Ab initio quantum transport calculations using plane waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Lekue, A.; Vergniory, M. G.; Jiang, X. W.; Wang, L. W.
2015-08-01
We present an ab initio method to calculate elastic quantum transport at the nanoscale. The method is based on a combination of density functional theory using plane wave nonlocal pseudopotentials and the use of auxiliary periodic boundary conditions to obtain the scattering states. The method can be applied to any applied bias voltage and the charge density and potential profile can either be calculated self-consistently, or using an approximated self-consistent field (SCF) approach. Based on the scattering states one can straightforwardly calculate the transmission coefficients and the corresponding electronic current. The overall scheme allows us to obtain accurate and numerically stable solutions for the elastic transport, with a computational time similar to that of a ground state calculation. This method is particularly suitable for calculations of tunneling currents through vacuum, that some of the nonequilibrium Greens function (NEGF) approaches based on atomic basis sets might have difficulty to deal with. Several examples are provided using this method from electron tunneling, to molecular electronics, to electronic devices: (i) On a Au nanojunction, the tunneling current dependence on the electrode-electrode distance is investigated. (ii) The tunneling through field emission resonances (FERs) is studied via an accurate description of the surface vacuum states. (iii) Based on quantum transport calculations, we have designed a molecular conformational switch, which can turn on and off a molecular junction by applying a perpendicular electric field. (iv) Finally, we have used the method to simulate tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) based on two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), where we have studied the performance and scaling limits of such nanodevices and proposed atomic doping to enhance the transistor performance.
Ab initio no-core shell model with continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navratil, Petr
2008-04-01
The ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) is a many-body approach to nuclear structure of light nuclei. The NCSM adopts an effective interaction theory to transform fundamental inter-nucleon interactions into effective interactions for a specified nucleus in a selected harmonic oscillator basis space [1]. The method is capable of predicting nuclear structure from inter-nucleon forces derived from quantum chromodynamics by means of chiral effective field theory [2]. NCSM extensions to the microscopic description of nuclear reactions are now under development. In my talk, I will first discuss our recent calculations of the ^4He total photo-absorption cross section using two- and three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory [3]. I will then outline our effort to augment the NCSM by the resonating group method (RGM) technique to develop a new method capable of describing simultaneously both bound states and nuclear reactions on light nuclei [4]. This approach, which preserves translational symmetry and the Pauli principle, will allow us to calculate cross sections of reactions important for astrophysics and describe weakly-bound systems from first principles. I will present our first phase shift results for neutron scattering off ^3H, ^4He and ^7Li and proton scattering off ^3He, ^4He and ^7Be using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. 3mm [1] P. Navr'atil, J. P. Vary and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000). [2] P. Navr'atil and V. G. Gueorguiev and J. P. Vary, W. E. Ormand and A. Nogga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 042501 (2007). [3] S. Quaglioni and P. Navr'atil, Phys. Lett. B 652, 370 (2007). [4] S. Quaglioni and P. Navr'atil, arXiv:0712.0855.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, Pär A. T.; Kese, Kwadwo; Alvarez Holston, Anna-Maria
2015-12-01
In this work we report the results of an ab initio study of the influence of hydrogen filled vacancies on the mechanical properties of zirconium. The modelling shows that hydrogen filled vacancies contribute to a lowering of the surface energy and an increase in the unstable stacking fault energy, which implies a reduction in ductility. The increase in unstable stacking fault energy suggests that the defects promote a change in the dislocation glide mechanism from prismatic to basal slip. To investigate the cleavage energetics, we model the decohesion process. For describing the interplanar interaction we adopt an extended version of Rose's universal binding energy relation, which is found to reproduce the behaviour accurately. The results of the modelling imply that the work of fracture and peak stress decrease as a result of the presence of hydrogen filled vacancies.
Shimamura, K; Shibuta, Y; Ohmura, S; Arifin, R; Shimojo, F
2016-04-13
The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed. PMID:26953616
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamura, K.; Shibuta, Y.; Ohmura, S.; Arifin, R.; Shimojo, F.
2016-04-01
The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N.
2016-01-01
Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]+ structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH+ asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.
An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing
2016-09-01
The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.
Ab Initio Values of the Thermophysical Properties of Helium as Standards
Hurly, John J.; Moldover, Michael R.
2000-01-01
Recent quantum mechanical calculations of the interaction energy of pairs of helium atoms are accurate and some include reliable estimates of their uncertainty. We combined these ab initio results with earlier published results to obtain a helium-helium interatomic potential that includes relativistic retardation effects over all ranges of interaction. From this potential, we calculated the thermophysical properties of helium, i.e., the second virial coefficients, the dilute-gas viscosities, and the dilute-gas thermal conductivities of 3He, 4He, and their equimolar mixture from 1 K to 104 K. We also calculated the diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients of mixtures of 3He and 4He. For the pure fluids, the uncertainties of the calculated values are dominated by the uncertainties of the potential; for the mixtures, the uncertainties of the transport properties also include contributions from approximations in the transport theory. In all cases, the uncertainties are smaller than the corresponding experimental uncertainties; therefore, we recommend the ab initio results be used as standards for calibrating instruments relying on these thermophysical properties. We present the calculated thermophysical properties in easy-to-use tabular form.
Ab initio calculation of oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in uranium dioxide UO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorado, Boris; Garcia, Philippe; Torrent, Marc
Uranium dioxide UO2 is the most widely used nuclear fuel worldwide and its atomic transport properties are relevant to practically all engineering aspects of the material. Although transport properties have already been studied in UO2 by means of first-principles calculations, the ab initio determination of self-diffusion coefficients has up to now remained unreachable because the relevant computational tools were neither available or adapted. The present work reports our results related to the ab initio calculation of the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in UO2. We first determine the Gibbs free energies of formation of oxygen charged defects by calculating both the electronic and vibrational (hence entropic) contributions. Then, we use the transition state theory in order to compute the effective jump frequency of the defects, which in turn provides us with the value of the pre-exponential factor. The results are compared to self-diffusion data obtained experimentally with a careful monitoring of the relevant thermodynamic conditions (oxygen partial pressure, temperature, impurity content).
Can an ab initio three-body virial equation describe the mercury gas phase?
Wiebke, J; Wormit, M; Hellmann, R; Pahl, E; Schwerdtfeger, P
2014-03-27
We report a sixth-order ab initio virial equation of state (EOS) for mercury. The virial coefficients were determined in the temperature range from 500 to 7750 K using a three-body approximation to the N-body interaction potential. The underlying two-body and three-body potentials were fitted to highly accurate Coupled-Cluster interaction energies of Hg2 (Pahl, E.; Figgen, D.; Thierfelder, C.; Peterson, K. A.; Calvo, F.; Schwerdtfeger, P. J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 114301-1) and equilateral-triangular configurations of Hg3. We find the virial coefficients of order four and higher to be negative and to have large absolute values over the entire temperature range considered. The validity of our three-body, sixth-order EOS seems to be limited to small densities of about 1.5 g cm(-3) and somewhat higher densities at higher temperatures. Termwise analysis and comparison to experimental gas-phase data suggest a small convergence radius of the virial EOS itself as well as a failure of the three-body interaction model (i.e., poor convergence of the many-body expansion for mercury). We conjecture that the nth-order term of the virial EOS is to be evaluated from the full n-body interaction potential for a quantitative picture. Consequently, an ab initio three-body virial equation cannot describe the mercury gas phase. PMID:24547987
Operator evolution for ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4He
Schuster, Micah D.; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin W.; Jurgenson, Eric D.; Navartil, Petr
2015-07-24
A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopic internucleon forces. A major element of such an effort is applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theory, particularly for nonscalar transitions. We study the evolution of the electric dipole operator in the framework of the similarity renormalization group method and apply the renormalized matrix elements to the calculationmore » of the 4He total photoabsorption cross section and electric dipole polarizability. All observables are calculated within the ab initio no-core shell model. Furthermore, we find that, although seemingly small, the effects of evolved operators on the photoabsorption cross section are comparable in magnitude to the correction produced by including the chiral three-nucleon force and cannot be neglected.« less
4He+n+n continuum within an ab initio framework
Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume
2014-07-16
In this study, the low-lying continuum spectrum of the 6He nucleus is investigated for the first time within an ab initio framework that encompasses the 4He+n+n three-cluster dynamics characterizing its lowest decay channel. This is achieved through an extension of the no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method, in which energy-independent nonlocal interactions among three nuclear fragments can be calculated microscopically, starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with three-body scattering boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonics method on a Lagrange mesh. Using amore » soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we find the known Jπ = 2+ resonance as well as a result consistent with a new low-lying second 2+ resonance recently observed at GANIL at ~2.6 MeV above the He6 ground state. We also find resonances in the 2–, 1+, and 0– channels, while no low-lying resonances are present in the 0+ and 1– channels.« less
Ab initio, density functional theory and structural studies of 4-amino-2-methylquinoline.
Arjunan, V; Saravanan, I; Ravindran, P; Mohan, S
2009-10-01
The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 4-amino-2-methylquinoline (AMQ) have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. The experimental vibrational frequency was compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically by ab initio HF and DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31 G** and high level 6-311 ++G** basis sets for optimised geometry of the compound. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data, and quantum mechanical studies. The geometry and normal modes of vibration obtained from the HF and DFT methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The potential energy distribution of the fundamental modes was calculated with ab initio force fields utilising Wilson's FG matrix method. The NH-pi interactions and the influence of amino and methyl groups on the skeletal modes are investigated. PMID:19581121
Ab initio, density functional theory and structural studies of 4-amino-2-methylquinoline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arjunan, V.; Saravanan, I.; Ravindran, P.; Mohan, S.
2009-10-01
The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 4-amino-2-methylquinoline (AMQ) have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm -1, respectively. The experimental vibrational frequency was compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically by ab initio HF and DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G** and high level 6-311++G** basis sets for optimised geometry of the compound. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data, and quantum mechanical studies. The geometry and normal modes of vibration obtained from the HF and DFT methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The potential energy distribution of the fundamental modes was calculated with ab initio force fields utilising Wilson's FG matrix method. The NH -π interactions and the influence of amino and methyl groups on the skeletal modes are investigated.
Time-domain ab initio modeling of photoinduced dynamics at nanoscale interfaces.
Wang, Linjun; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-04-01
Nonequilibrium processes involving electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in nanoscale materials are under active experimental investigation. Corresponding theoretical studies are much scarcer. The review starts with the basics of time-dependent density functional theory, recent developments in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and the fusion of the two techniques. Ab initio simulations of this kind allow us to directly mimic a great variety of time-resolved experiments performed with pump-probe laser spectroscopies. The focus is on the ultrafast photoinduced charge and exciton dynamics at interfaces formed by two complementary materials. We consider purely inorganic materials, inorganic-organic hybrids, and all organic interfaces, involving bulk semiconductors, metallic and semiconducting nanoclusters, graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, polymers, molecular crystals, molecules, and solvent. The detailed atomistic insights available from time-domain ab initio studies provide a unique description and a comprehensive understanding of the competition between electron transfer, thermal relaxation, energy transfer, and charge recombination processes. These advances now make it possible to directly guide the development of organic and hybrid solar cells, as well as photocatalytic, electronic, spintronic, and other devices relying on complex interfacial dynamics. PMID:25622188
An hybrid computing approach to accelerating the multiple scattering theory based ab initio methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yang; Stocks, G. Malcolm
2014-03-01
The multiple scattering theory method, also known as the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method, is considered an elegant approach to the ab initio electronic structure calculation for solids. Its convenience in accessing the one-electron Green function has led to the development of locally-self consistent multiple scattering (LSMS) method, a linear scaling ab initio method that allows for the electronic structure calculation for complex structures requiring tens of thousands of atoms in unit cell. It is one of the few applications that demonstrated petascale computing capability. In this presentation, we discuss our recent efforts in developing a hybrid computing approach for accelerating the full potential electronic structure calculation. Specifically, in the framework of our existing LSMS code in FORTRAN 90/95, we explore the many core resources on GPGPU accelerators by implementing the compute intensive functions (for the calculation of multiple scattering matrices and the single site solutions) in CUDA, and move the computational tasks to the GPGPUs if they are found available. We explain in details our approach to the CUDA programming and the code structure, and show the speed-up of the new hybrid code by comparing its performances on CPU/GPGPU and on CPU only. The work was supported in part by the Center for Defect Physics, a DOE-BES Energy Frontier Research Center.
Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework
Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr
2013-09-26
In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to a ^{4}He+n+n description of ^{6}He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core (^{4}He) polarization effects.
Ab initio many-body calculations of light nuclei neutron and proton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quaglioni, Sofia
2008-10-01
One of the greatest challenges of nuclear physics today is the development of a quantitative microscopic theory of low-energy reactions on light nuclei. At the same time, technical progress on the theoretical front is urgent to match the major experimental advances in the study of exotic nuclei at the radioactive beam facilities. We build a new ab initio many-body approachootnotetextS. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, arXiv:0804.1560. capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group methodootnotetextY. C. Tang et al., Phys. Rep. 47, 167 (1978); K. Langanke and H. Friedrich, Advances in Nuclear Physics, chapter 4., Plenum, New York, 1987. with the ab initio no-core shell model.ootnotetextP. Navratil, J. P. Vary, and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5728 (2000); Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000).. In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, while preserving Pauli principle and translational symmetry. I will present results for neutron and proton scattering on light nuclei, including n- and p-^4He phase shifts, and low-lying states of one-neutron halo p-shell nuclei, obtained using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. In particular, I will address the parity inversion of the ^11Be ground state.
Electron transport in extended carbon-nanotube/metal contacts: Ab initio based Green function method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2015-04-01
We have developed a new method that is able to predict the electrical properties of the source and drain contacts in realistic carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs). It is based on large-scale ab initio calculations combined with a Green function approach. For the first time, both internal and external parts of a realistic CNT-metal contact are taken into account at the ab initio level. We have developed the procedure allowing direct calculation of the self-energy for an extended contact. Within the method, it is possible to calculate the transmission coefficient through a contact of both finite and infinite length; the local density of states can be determined in both free and embedded CNT segments. We found perfect agreement with the experimental data for Pd and Al contacts. We have explained why CNTFETs with Pd electrodes are p -type FETs with ohmic contacts, which can carry current close to the ballistic limit (provided contact length is large enough), whereas in CNT-Al contacts transmission is suppressed to a significant extent, especially for holes.
An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry
Matthew Neurock
2005-06-13
As petroleum prices continue to rise and the United States seeks to reduce its dependency on foreign oil, there is a renewed interest in the research and development of more efficient and alternative energy sources, such as fuel cells. One approach is to utilize processes that can produce long-chain hydrocarbons from other sources. One such reaction is Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process by which syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) is converted to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The reaction involves a complex set of bond-breaking and bond-making reactions, such as CO and H{sub 2} activation, hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions, and hydrocarbon coupling reactions. This report details our initial construction of an ab initio based kinetic Monte Carlo code that can be used to begin to simulate Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over model Co(0001) surfaces. The code is based on a stochastic kinetic formalism that allows us to explicitly track the transformation of all reactants, intermediates and products. The intrinsic kinetics for the simulations were derived from the ab initio results that we reported in previous year summaries.
Ab Initio Atomic Simulations of Antisite Pair Recovery in Cubic Silicon Carbide
Gao, Fei; Du, Jincheng; Bylaska, Eric J.; Posselt, Matthias; Weber, William J.
2007-05-28
The thermal stability of an antisite pair in 3C-SiC is studied using ab initio molecular dynamics within the framework of density functional theory. The lifetime of the antisite pair configuration is calculated for temperatures between 1800 and 2250 K, and the effective activation energy for antisite pair recombination is determined to be 2.52 eV. The recombination energy path and static energy barrier are also calculated using the nudged elastic band method, along with the dimer method to accurately locate the transition states. The consistency of the results suggests that the antisite pair cannot be correlated with the DI photoluminescence center, as proposed by previously theoretical interpretations. An extended exchange mechanism is found for the antisite pair recombination, and this may be a dominant mechanism for antisite pair recombination and diffusion of impurities in compound semiconductors.
Casolo, S; Tantardini, G F; Martinazzo, R
2016-07-14
We studied Eley-Rideal molecular hydrogen formation on graphite using ab initio molecular dynamics, in the energy range relevant for the chemistry of the interstellar medium and for terrestrial experiments employing cold plasma (0.02-1 eV). We found substantial projectile steering effects that prevent dimer formation at low energies, thereby ruling out any catalytic synthetic pathways that form hydrogen molecules. Ortho and para dimers do form efficiently thanks to preferential sticking, but only at energies that are too high to be relevant for the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Computed reaction cross sections and ro-vibrational product populations are in good agreement with available experimental data and capable of generating adsorbate configurations similar to those observed with scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. PMID:26905385
AM1 and ab initio molecular orbital study of water dimer
Dannenberg, J.J.
1988-12-01
Several structures for the water dimer, including trifurcated structures similar to the optimized AM1 geometry, have been calculated by using the MP4/6-311G** level of ab initio molecular orbital theory. The relative energies of the structures become quite close at the higher levels of calculation. The best trifurcated is only 0.2 kcal/mol higher than the optimized HF/6-31G* structure and only 0.4 kcal/mol higher than the lowest energy structure found (optimized by using AM1 with the H bond constrained to be linear). It appears likely that the potential surface of the water dimer is extremely flat. The experimental geometry, which corresponds to the minimum on the free energy surface, is likely to be dominated by entropy contributions.
Ab initio spectroscopic characterization of borane, BH, in its X1Σ+ electronic state.
Koput, Jacek
2015-11-15
The accurate potential energy and electric dipole moment functions of borane, BH, in its X1Σ+ electronic state have been determined from ab initio calculations using the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional method in conjunction with the correlation-consistent core-valence basis sets up to septuple-zeta quality. The higher-order electron correlation, scalar relativistic, adiabatic, and nonadiabatic effects were discussed. Vibration-rotation energy levels of the (11)BH, (11)BD, (10)BH, and (10)BD isotopologues were predicted to near "spectroscopic" accuracy. For the main isotopologue (11)BH, the adiabatic dissociation energy D0 and the effective equilibrium internuclear distance r(e) were predicted to be 28,469 ± 10 cm(-1) and 1.23214 ± 0.0001 Å, respectively. PMID:26444679
Ab initio Ti-Zr-Ni phase diagram predicts stability of icosahedral TiZrNi quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, R. G.; Carlsson, A. E.; Kelton, K. F.; Henley, C. L.
2005-04-01
The ab initio phase diagram determines the energetic stability of the icosahedral TiZrNi quasicrystal. The complete ab initio zero-temperature ternary phase diagram is constructed from the calculated energies of the elemental, binary and ternary Ti-Zr-Ni phases. For this, the icosahedral i -TiZrNi quasicrystal is approximated by periodic structures of up to 123 atoms/unit cell, based on a decorated-tiling model [R. G. Hennig, K. F. Kelton, A. E. Carlsson, and C. L. Henley, Phys. Rev. B 67, 134202 (2003)]. The approximant structures containing the 45-atom Bergman cluster are nearly degenerate in energy, and are all energetically stable against the competing phases. It is concluded that i -TiZrNi is a ground-state quasicrystal, as it is experimentally the low-temperature phase for its composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philipp, Dean Michael
Methodology is discussed for mixed ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling of systems where the quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) regions are within the same molecule. The ab initio QM calculations are at the restricted Hartree-Fock level using the pseudospectral method of the Jaguar program while the MM part is treated with the OPLS force fields implemented in the IMPACT program. The interface between the QM and MM regions, in particular, is elaborated upon, as it is dealt with by ``breaking'' bonds at the boundaries and using Boys-localized orbitals found from model molecules in place of the bonds. These orbitals are kept frozen during QM calculations. The mixed modeling presented here can be used for single point energy calculations and geometry optimizations. Results from tests of the method to find relative conformational energies and geometries of alanine tetrapeptides are presented along with comparisons to pure QM and pure MM calculations.
Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches.
Ramírez-Solís, A; Poteau, R; Vela, A; Daudey, J P
2005-04-22
The X2Pi g-2Sigma g+, X2Pi g-2Delta g, X2Pi g-2Sigma u+, X2Pi g-2Pi u transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the same relativistic effective core potentials and especially developed basis sets to study the electronic structure of the five lowest states and the corresponding vertical and adiabatic transition energies. The calculated transition energies for three of the hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B97-2, and PBE0) are in very good agreement with the benchmark ab initio results and experimental figures. All of the other functionals largely overestimate the X2Pi g-2Sigma g+ and X2Pi g-2Delta g transition energies, many of them even placing the 2Delta g ligand field state above the charge transfer 2Pi u and 2Sigma u+ states. The relative weight of the Hartree-Fock exchange in the definition of the functional used appears to play a key role in the accurate description of the LambdaSSigma density defined by the orientation of the 3d hole (sigma, pi, or delta) on Cu in the field of both chlorine atoms, but no simple connection of this weight with the quality of the spectra has been found. Mulliken charges and spin densities are carefully analyzed; a possible link between the extent of spin density on the metal for the X2Pi g state and the performance of the various functionals was observed, suggesting that those that lead to the largest values (close to 0.65) are the ones that best reproduce these four transitions. Most functionals lead to a remarkably low ionicity for the three ligand field states even for the best performing functionals, compared to the complete active space (SCF) (21, 14) ab initio
Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-Solís, A.; Poteau, R.; Vela, A.; Daudey, J. P.
2005-04-01
The XΠg2-Σg +2, XΠg2-Δg2, XΠg2-Σu +2, XΠg2-Πu2 transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the same relativistic effective core potentials and especially developed basis sets to study the electronic structure of the five lowest states and the corresponding vertical and adiabatic transition energies. The calculated transition energies for three of the hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B97-2, and PBE0) are in very good agreement with the benchmark ab initio results and experimental figures. All of the other functionals largely overestimate the XΠg2-Σg +2 and XΠg2-Δg2 transition energies, many of them even placing the Δg2 ligand field state above the charge transfer Πu2 and Σu +2 states. The relative weight of the Hartree-Fock exchange in the definition of the functional used appears to play a key role in the accurate description of the ΛSΣ density defined by the orientation of the 3d hole (σ, π, or δ) on Cu in the field of both chlorine atoms, but no simple connection of this weight with the quality of the spectra has been found. Mulliken charges and spin densities are carefully analyzed; a possible link between the extent of spin density on the metal for the XΠg2 state and the performance of the various functionals was observed, suggesting that those that lead to the largest values (close to 0.65) are the ones that best reproduce these four transitions. Most functionals lead to a remarkably low ionicity for the three ligand field states even for the best performing functionals, compared to the complete active space (SCF) (21, 14) ab initio values. These findings show that not only large
Ab initio investigation of electronic properties of the magnesium hydride molecular ion.
Khemiri, Noura; Dardouri, Riadh; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier
2013-09-12
In this work, adiabatic potential energy curves, spectroscopic constants, dipole moments, and vibrational levels for numerous electronic states of magnesium hydride molecular ion (MgH(+)) are computed. These properties are determined by the use of an ab initio method involving a nonempirical pseudopotential for the magnesium core (Mg), the core polarization potential (CPP), the l-dependent cutoff functions and the full valence configuration interaction (FCI). The molecular ion is thus treated as a two-electron system. Our calculations on the MgH(+) molecular ion extend previous theoretical works to numerous electronic excited states in the various symmetries. A good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental works is obtained for the spectroscopic constants, the adiabatic potential energy curves, and the dipole moments for the lowest states of MgH(+). PMID:23944679