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Sample records for ab lund sweden

  1. A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for bird flight experiments at Lund University, Sweden

    PubMed

    Pennycuick; Alerstam; HedenstrÖM

    1997-01-01

    A new wind tunnel for experiments on bird flight was completed at Lund University, Sweden, in September 1994. It is a closed-circuit design, with a settling section containing five screens and a contraction ratio of 12.25. The test section is octagonal, 1.20 m wide by 1.08 m high. The first 1.2 m of its length is enclosed by acrylic walls, and the last 0.5 m is open, giving unrestricted access. Experiments can be carried out in both the open and closed parts, and comparison between them can potentially be used to measure the lift effect correction. The fan is driven by an a.c. motor with a variable-frequency power supply, allowing the wind speed to be varied continuously from 0 to 38 m s-1. The whole machine can be tilted to give up to 8 ° descent and 6 ° climb. A pitot-static survey in the test section showed that the air speed was within ±1.3 % of the mean at 116 out of 119 sample points, exceeding this deviation at only three points at the edges. A hot-wire anemometer survey showed that the turbulence level in the closed part of the test section was below 0.04 % of the wind speed throughout most of the closed part of the test section, rising to approximately 0.06 % in the middle of the open part. No residual rotation from the fan could be detected in the test section. No decrease in wind speed was detectable beyond 3 cm from the side walls of the closed part, and turbulence was minimal beyond 10 cm from the walls. The installation of a safety net at the entrance to the test section increased the turbulence level by a factor of at least 30, to 1.2 % longitudinally and 1.0 % transversely.

  2. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Liquid Matter Conference (Lund, Sweden, 27 June 1 July 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Sciortino, Francesco; Ullner, Magnus

    2008-12-01

    The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The previous meeting was held in 2005 in Utrecht. The original aim of the Liquid Matter Conference was to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. A closer analysis of the program booklets over the past 18 years reveals that new and highly active research fields that are closely related to liquid matter have been successfully integrated in the scope of the conference, notably the rapidly developing fields of soft matter and biophysics. Concomitantly, a broadening of the spectrum from the classical liquid state to a wide spectrum of phases and systems could be observed. Therefore, the rapidly growing field covered by this conference series at present includes physics, chemistry, biology, and chemical engineering as well as various applied research areas. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many research fields. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and encounter at the Liquid Matter Conference a community where they can meet experts from other research areas. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) transdisciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The Lund meeting, organized in collaboration with Lund University, had 574 registered participants from five continents. During the conference, and following the tradition established at the Utrecht meeting, the second Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society was awarded to Professor Henk Lekkerkerker

  3. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Liquid Matter Conference (Lund, Sweden, 27 June 1 July 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Sciortino, Francesco; Ullner, Magnus

    2008-12-01

    The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The previous meeting was held in 2005 in Utrecht. The original aim of the Liquid Matter Conference was to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. A closer analysis of the program booklets over the past 18 years reveals that new and highly active research fields that are closely related to liquid matter have been successfully integrated in the scope of the conference, notably the rapidly developing fields of soft matter and biophysics. Concomitantly, a broadening of the spectrum from the classical liquid state to a wide spectrum of phases and systems could be observed. Therefore, the rapidly growing field covered by this conference series at present includes physics, chemistry, biology, and chemical engineering as well as various applied research areas. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many research fields. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and encounter at the Liquid Matter Conference a community where they can meet experts from other research areas. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) transdisciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The Lund meeting, organized in collaboration with Lund University, had 574 registered participants from five continents. During the conference, and following the tradition established at the Utrecht meeting, the second Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society was awarded to Professor Henk Lekkerkerker

  4. Preface: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering (Lund, Sweden, 25 29 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adrian R.

    2008-03-01

    Approximately 700 delegates came to the small university city of Lund in southern Sweden at the end of June 2007 to attend the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering. The majority of these participants are primarily interested in specific areas of condensed matter science and use neutron techniques as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamic behaviour of materials. These range from liquids, superconductors, magnetic materials and archaeological artefacts. The diversity of scientific problems is reflected by the attendance of many laboratories with specializations in numerous different disciplines. The maturity of the technique is shown by the fact that neutron scattering is now applied widely in so many areas. Most results from neutron scattering experiements are published as articles that primarily relate to a specific scientific discipline in the context of problem oriented research. The neutron scattering conference provided an opportunity to exchange ideas between different fields. It is hoped that this collection of papers, from participants that submitted articles on applications of neutron scattering, will continue to promote the exchange of ideas for new studies, as was seen at the conference. The papers that describe instrumentation and advances in methods of neutron scattering will appear separately in Measurement Science and Technology Worldwide activity in developing new facilities for neutron scattering and the motivation for substantial projects, such as the new target station at the ISIS facility in the UK or the proposed European Spallation Source, comes from unique information obtained from working with neutrons. The results reported in the following papers show that there is substantial exciting work still to be performed as the community of users expands into new fields. The participants, as well as the organizers, are extremely grateful to the numerous sponsors that helped to make the conference a resounding success. We are

  5. EDITORIAL: Instrumentation and Methods for Neutron Scattering—papers from the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering in Lund, Sweden, June 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adrian R.

    2008-03-01

    Neutron scattering is used as a tool to study problems in disciplines that include chemistry, materials science, biology and condensed matter physics as well as problems from neighbouring disciplines such as geology, environmental sciences and archaeology. Equipment for these studies is found at laboratories with research reactors or spallation neutron sources and there are many recent or current developments with new instruments and even entirely new facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge, USA, the OPAL reactor at Lucas Heights, Australia and the second target station at the ISIS facility in the UK. Design and optimization of the instruments at these facilities involves work with many research laboratories and groups in universities. Every four years the European Conference on Neutron Scattering (ECNS) brings together both the specialists in neutron instrumentation and the community of users (in intervening years there are International and American conferences). In June 2007 about 700 delegates came to the 4th ECNS that was held in Lund, Sweden. There were more than 600 presentations as talks and posters. The opportunity to publish papers in Measurement Science and Technology that relate to neutron scattering instrumentation and method development was offered to the participants, and the papers that follow describe some of the recent activity in this field. Accounts of work on condensed matter science and the applications of neutron scattering appear separately in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. There are, of course, many features of neutron instrumentation that are specific to this particular field of measurement. However, there are also many elements of apparatus and experiment design that can usefully be shared with a broader community. It is hoped that this issue with papers from ECNS will find a broad community of interest. Apart from descriptions of overall design of diffractometers and spectrometers there are accounts of new

  6. Sweden.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector. PMID:12177946

  7. Regional Warning Center Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    RWC-Sweden is operated by the Lund division of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics located at IDEON, a Science Research Technology Park. The Institute of Technology of Lund and Lund University are just adjacent to IDEON. This creates a lot of synergy effects. Copenhagen, with the Danish National Space Center DNSC), and Atmosphere Space Research Division of Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), is 45 min away via the bridge. The new LOIS Space Centre is located two hours away by car, north of Lund and just outside V¨xj¨. The IRF Lund a o division is aiming at becoming a "Solar and Space Weather Center". We focus on solar magnetic activity, its influence on climate and on space weather effects such the effect of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). Basic research: A PostDoc position on "Solar Magnetic Activity: Topology and Predictions has recently been created. Research is carried on to improve predictions of solar magnetic activity. Preparations for using upcoming SDO vector magnetic fields are ongoing. Predictions: RWC-Sweden offers real-time forecasts of space weather and space weather effects based on neural networks. We participated in the NASA/NOAA Cycle 24 Prediction Panel. We have also participated in several ESA/EU solar-climate projects New observation facilities: Distributed, wide-area radio facility (LOIS) for solar (and other space physics) observations and a guest prof: Radio facility about 200 km distant, outside V¨xj¨ (Sm˚ a o aland), in Ronneby (Blekinge) and Lund (Sk˚ ane) is planned to be used for tracking of CMEs and basic solar physics studies of the corona. The LOIS station outside V¨xj¨ has a o been up and running for the past three years. Bo Thidé has joined the Lund division e as a guest prof. A new magnetometer at Risinge LOIS station has been installed an calibrated and expected to be operational in March, 2008.

  8. Astronomical journey to the Skåne district in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2006-09-01

    In September of 2005, we had a chance to travel to the Skåe district of Sweden. This short paper briefly reports what we saw there, along with historical episodes relating to Lund Observatory, the medieval astronomical clock preserved at the Lund Cathedral, and the Hven island where Tycho Brahe constructed in the late 16th century the first modern astronomical observatory called Uraniborg.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in precipitation in Southern Sweden (Skåne, Lund)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Schure, Arnout F. H.; Larsson, Per

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in total deposition (wet+dry) was assessed with the simultaneous use of three bulk samplers during a 2 week period. The particle associated and the 'dissolved' phase were separated during sampling. Volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ∑PBDE (9 congeners) in rain were 209 pg l -1. Total deposition rates were 2±1 ng ∑PBDE m -2 day -1. The total PBDE deposition was dominated by decaBDE(209) and thereafter 2,2'4,4'-tetraBDE(47) and 2,2'4,4',5-pentaBDE(99). Concentrations of particle associated and 'dissolved' PBDEs in total deposition were used to calculate filter/adsorbent ratios ( F/ A). We found that 65±18% of the total PBDEs were particle associated. Low F/ A ratios for higher brominated congeners (Br>5) were observed. This is contradictory with predictions based on the PBDEs' physico-chemical properties and was attributed to sampling artefacts, such as particle size distribution, and/or non-equilibrium processes. There was a negative relationship between the particulate ∑PBDE concentration and rain volume suggesting a dilution effect and the importance of particle scavenging for wet deposition of PBDEs.

  10. (26)Al investigations at the AMS-laboratory in Lund.

    PubMed

    Faarinen, M; Magnusson, C E; Hellborg, R; Mattsson, S; Kiisk, M; Persson, P; Schütz, A; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2001-11-01

    At the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Lund, a facility for (26)Al analysis is under development. The sensitivity is expected to be several orders of magnitude higher than with standard mass spectrometry. The planned biomedical program includes studies of aluminium uptake, distribution and retention in man. The initial work has been concentrated on the construction and testing of a new dedicated injector for the accelerator and on the preparation of biological samples for aluminium analysis. The current quality of the facility is presented and the first experimental results reported. PMID:11709214

  11. An external beam setup for the Lund proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövestam, N. E. Göran; Swietlicki, Erik

    1989-08-01

    An external beam setup for the proton microprobe in Lund is described. This setup has been added as an option to the current scanning proton microprobe setup for the analysis of fragile samples, such as art objects, and for X-ray imaging of larger areas of a sample. The feasibility of the setup is demonstrated by the analysis of a papyrus document. Missing Greek characters in the text of the document have been detected by processing the data obtained by particle induced X-ray emission analysis using partial least-squares regression: a multivariate statistical data procedure.

  12. Severe traumatic brain injury management and clinical outcome using the Lund concept.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, L-O D; Olivecrona, M; Grände, P O

    2014-12-26

    This review covers the main principles of the Lund concept for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. This is followed by a description of results of clinical studies in which this therapy or a modified version of the therapy has been used. Unlike other guidelines, which are based on meta-analytical approaches, important components of the Lund concept are based on physiological mechanisms for regulation of brain volume and brain perfusion and to reduce transcapillary plasma leakage and the need for plasma volume expanders. There have been nine non-randomized and two randomized outcome studies with the Lund concept or modified versions of the concept. The non-randomized studies indicated that the Lund concept is beneficial for outcome. The two randomized studies were small but showed better outcome in the groups of patients treated according to the modified principles of the Lund concept than in the groups given a more conventional treatment.

  13. Providing Transportation for the Elderly and Handicapped in Sweden: Experiences Gained and Future Trends. TFB-Report 1991:17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Agneta

    This report summarizes results of research and development projects concerning disabled and elderly people and transportation services carried out at the Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering in Lund, Sweden. This summary is based on 12 previous reports. The first section examines Swedish policy which stresses enabling elderly and…

  14. Ultraforward particle production from color glass condensate and Lund fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Guerrero Rodríguez, Pablo; Nara, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    We present an analysis of data on single inclusive pion production measured by the LHCf Collaboration in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus at ultraforward rapidities, 8.8 ≤y ≤10.8 . We also analyze forward RHIC data for calibration purposes. Our analysis relies on the use of a Monte Carlo event generator that combines a perturbative description of the elementary scattering process at partonic level based on the hybrid formalism of the color glass condensate with an implementation of hadronization in the framework of the Lund string fragmentation model. This procedure allows us to reach values of the momenta of the produced particles as low as detected experimentally, pt˜0.1 GeV . We achieve a good description of single inclusive spectra of charged particles and neutral pions at the RHIC and the LHC, respectively, and nuclear modification factors for proton-lead collisions at the LHC. Our results add evidence to the idea that particle production in the domain of a very small Bjorken x is dominated by the saturation effects encoded in the unintegrated gluon distribution of the target. With forward particle production being of key importance in the development of air showers, we stress that this approach allows for a theoretically controlled extrapolation of our results to the scale of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, thus serving as the starting point for future works on this topic.

  15. International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, 8th, Lunds Universitet, Sweden, Aug. 4-8, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Per-Olof; Nordgren, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The interactions of VUV radiation with solids are explored in reviews and reports of recent theoretical and experimental investigations from the fields of atomic and molecular physics, solid-state physics, and VUV instrumentation. Topics examined include photoabsorption and photoionization, multiphoton processes, plasma physics, VUV lasers, time-resolved spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation centers, solid-state spectroscopy, and dynamical processes involving localized levels. Consideration is given to the fundamental principles of photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission, inverse photoemission, semiconductors, organic materials, and adsorbates.

  16. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  17. Recycling overview in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

  18. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  19. Elemental analysis of single phytoplankton cells using the Lund nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallon, Jan; Elfman, Mikael; Kristiansson, Per; Malmqvist, Klas; Granéli, Edna; Sellborn, Anders; Karlsson, Chatarina

    1999-10-01

    The occurrence of annual marine phytoplankton blooms is becoming a global problem. In Europe, the NUTOX project supported by the EC investigates if unbalanced nutrient compositions in the water promote the dominance of harmful phytoplankton species. One of the tasks is the determination of the elemental composition of single phytoplankton cells. This is carried out using the Lund Nuclear Microprobe with a special focus on C, N, P and K. The overall aim is to understand the mechanism leading to toxin production, model it and eventually propose a counteracting method. The preparative method, used to isolate single living cells while reducing their salt environment, is an important part of the analytical procedure. A comparison of light element detection using backscattering from protons and nuclear reaction analysis using deuterons is made.

  20. The oligocene Lund Tuff, Great Basin, USA: A very large volume monotonous intermediate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maughan, L.L.; Christiansen, E.H.; Best, M.G.; Gromme, C.S.; Deino, A.L.; Tingey, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual monotonous intermediate ignimbrites consist of phenocryst-rich dacite that occurs as very large volume (> 1000 km3) deposits that lack systematic compositional zonation, comagmatic rhyolite precursors, and underlying plinian beds. They are distinct from countless, usually smaller volume, zoned rhyolite-dacite-andesite deposits that are conventionally believed to have erupted from magma chambers in which thermal and compositional gradients were established because of sidewall crystallization and associated convective fractionation. Despite their great volume, or because of it, monotonous intermediates have received little attention. Documentation of the stratigraphy, composition, and geologic setting of the Lund Tuff - one of four monotonous intermediate tuffs in the middle-Tertiary Great Basin ignimbrite province - provides insight into its unusual origin and, by implication, the origin of other similar monotonous intermediates. The Lund Tuff is a single cooling unit with normal magnetic polarity whose volume likely exceeded 3000 km3. It was emplaced 29.02 ?? 0.04 Ma in and around the coeval White Rock caldera which has an unextended north-south diameter of about 50 km. The tuff is monotonous in that its phenocryst assemblage is virtually uniform throughout the deposit: plagioclase > quartz ??? hornblende > biotite > Fe-Ti oxides ??? sanidine > titanite, zircon, and apatite. However, ratios of phenocrysts vary by as much as an order of magnitude in a manner consistent with progressive crystallization in the pre-eruption chamber. A significant range in whole-rock chemical composition (e.g., 63-71 wt% SiO2) is poorly correlated with phenocryst abundance. These compositional attributes cannot have been caused wholly by winnowing of glass from phenocrysts during eruption, as has been suggested for the monotonous intermediate Fish Canyon Tuff. Pumice fragments are also crystal-rich, and chemically and mineralogically indistinguishable from bulk tuff. We

  1. Country Profiles, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svala, Gertrud

    A profile of Sweden is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  2. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  3. Group Psychotherapy in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Göran

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the national developments of group psychotherapy (GPS) in Sweden during the period from World War II until the present time. Methods and concepts, imported primarily from England and the United States, inspired trainings and widespread psychodynamic and group analytic applications in schools, health treatment, and social care. Education in psychotherapy and GPS at universities opened new therapeutic and vocational areas during the period 1970-2005. Increasing criticism of psychodynamics, as in other Western societies, but more radical in Sweden, has in the last decades made group analytic GPS diminish in favor of cognitive behavioral therapy models. Prospects for GPS further development may presently look bleak but, in a longer perspective, are promising.

  4. Sweden considers wind power

    SciTech Connect

    Baurrau, P.

    1989-09-01

    During 1988, Sweden increased its number of wind generating facilities from 13 to 22, reflecting a new attitude toward wind power developing in the country. Last fall, a 750 kW wind turbine installed in the archipelago of Gothenburg was connected to the grid. The turbine is the biggest in use in Sweden, operated and maintained by the local energy authority of Gothenburg. Most turbines being manufactured have a capacity of 20 to 200 kW. The Maglarp turbine in the south of Sweden has a capacity of 3,000 kW, and the Naesudden turbine on an island in the Baltic Sea has 2,000 kW. The two projects are considered experimental by the owner, Vattenfall, the State Power Board. On the basis of energy production, Maglarp may be the largest in the world. Its highest production, 4,400 MWh, was achieved in 1988. In January 1989, the production was 900 MWh, the third highest monthly production so far since September 1983. The State Power Board, the members of the Swedish Power Association, Sydkraft, together with a number of municipal power companies and stations, have formed the Swedish Energy Development Corporation, SWEDCO. One goal for the new corporation is to include wind power in the Swedish energy system. SWEDCO will provide economic and operation data to pursue wind technology.

  5. The ICOS Sweden technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelle, Achim; Norén, Bengt

    2015-04-01

    In ICOS Sweden, all 6 sites are equipped with a novel, standardized system for high-quality measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations and fluxes of energy and greenhouse gases along with environmental variables needed to understand the underlying ecosystem processes. Turbulent fluxes are determined from 20-Hz data of wind components and scalar concentrations, all sampled digitally and synchronously by a newly developed digital datalogger (ISDL). Vertical concentration gradients of greenhouse gases are measured by an infrared gas analyzer through a multi-level air sampling system. Relevant components of the radiation balance are measured at different levels above ecosystems as well as along transects below forest canopies. To determine energy storage within vegetation, a large number of thermocouples are installed in different parts of selected trees. At several locations in each ecosystem, groundwater level and depth profiles of soil temperature and soil water content are measured. Meteorological driving variables such as air temperature profiles, air pressure, and precipitation are also measured at each site. With regard to the long-term perspective of ICOS RI, the entire measurement system is constructed with emphasis on reliability, durability, and robustness with respect to wearing and strain caused by harsh Nordic environment. In particular, a specialist lightning protection system efficiently prevents instrument damage and data gaps. Fulfilling these needs, the ICOS Sweden system represents the high end of technological requirements for measurement systems in all European regions and climatic zones, providing a new standard for harmonized data collection along climatic and geographic transects.

  6. [Primary care in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first European Union countries that saw the opportunity in the free movement of professionals. First offers for jobs were managed in 2000. Since then, a large number of professionals have taken the opportunity of a decent job and have moved from Spain to Sweden. The Swedish health care model belongs to the group of national health systems. The right to health care is linked to legal citizenship. Health is financed through regional taxes, but there is a compulsory co-payment regardless of the financial situation of the patient. The provision of health care is decentralised at a regional level, and there is a mixture of private and public medical centres. Primary care is similar to that in Spain. Health professionals work as a team with a division of tasks. Like in Spain, waiting lists and coordination between primary and specialised care are a great problem. Patients may register with any public or private primary care centre and hospital provider within their region. Access to diagnostic tests and specialists are restricted to those selected by specialists. Doctors are salaried and their job and salary depend on their experience, professional abilities and regional needs. Medicine is curative. General practitioners are the gateway to the system, but they do not act as gatekeeper. Hospitals offer a number of training post, and the access is through an interview. Continuing medical education is encouraged and financed by the health centre in order to increase its revenues.

  7. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  8. Mentally disordered offenders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lidberg, L; Belfrage, H

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the laws in Sweden concerning mentally disordered offenders. It also contains some figures on the relationship between mentally disordered offenders and other offenders sentenced to prison. The rules in Sweden are very different from other countries in that the responsibility concept has been abolished and thus there is no acquittal on a psychiatric basis.

  9. Porphyria in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  10. Dissemination of research results from Lund University to industry and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlander, Mirka

    2016-07-01

    Sweden is top ranked as the third most innovative nation in the world according to Global Innovation Index 2015. The academic staff at Swedish universities has the right to their inventions (research-ownership of patent rights) as opposed to far more diffuse university-ownership. Since 1977 the Swedish Higher Education Act imposes Swedish universities a so-called Third task. In addition to education and research they shall collaborate with the society and to inform the society about their activities. How does the largest university in Scandinavia deal with dissemination of research results to industry and society? The presentation will touch upon technology transfer, professional education and regional development as well as commercialization of research results.

  11. Sweden: growing interest in ethics.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, B Ingemar

    1989-01-01

    Lindahl's bibliographic essay highlights five books, two doctoral theses, and several journal articles that are Sweden's major contributions to the bioethics literature. The books are H. Fagerberg's edited work on medical ethics (1984), widely used as a textbook in Sweden's medical and nursing schools; G. Wretmark, A. Wretmark, and J. Ludvigsson's co-authored text on ethics in medical care (1983); physician A. Andrén-Sandberg's case book (1986); theologian B. Hanson's collection of essays (1988); and Fagerberg's edited work on the ethics of prenatal diagnosis (1980). The theses are C. Blomquist's (1971), the first in Sweden on medical ethics, and C. Kjellstrand's 1988 work on high technology medicine. The articles include two on medical ethics in Sweden written by Lindahl and published in issues of Theoretical Medicine, the only cited works in English.

  12. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  13. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  14. Medical education in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  15. [Patient safety in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Rutberg, H; Eckhardt, M; Biermann, O

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the patient safety work in Sweden and the cooperation between the Nordic countries in the area of patient safety. It depicts the national infrastructure, methods and partners in patient safety work as well as the development in key areas. Since 2000, the interest in patient safety and quality issues has significantly increased. A national study (2009) showed that more than 100,000 patients (8.6 %) experienced preventable harm in hospitals. Since 2007, all Swedish counties and regions work on the "National commitment for increased patient safety" to systematically minimize adverse events in the healthcare system. Also, a national strategy for patient safety has been proposed based on a new law regulating the responsibility for patient safety (2011) and a zero vision in terms of preventable harm and adverse events. The Nordic collaboration in this field currently focuses on the development of indicators and quality measurement with respect to nosocomial infections, harm in inpatient somatic care, patient safety culture, hospital mortality and polypharmacy in the elderly. The Nordic collaboration is driven by the development, exchange and documentation of experiences and evidence on patient safety indicators. The work presented in this article is only a part of the Swedish and the Nordic efforts related to patient safety and provides an interesting insight into how this work can be carried out.

  16. Usability Testing and Redesign of Library Web Pages at Lund University, Faculty of Engineering: A Case Study Applying a Two-Phase, Systematic Quality Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Ann-Christin; Langh, Maria; Nilsson, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The Lund University Faculty of Engineering's LibQual+[R] survey 2007 showed that students and faculty had difficulties finding the information they needed at the libraries' Websites. To be able to improve the Websites, we needed to find out how the users navigated the Websites, as well as what content they needed. Method: Twenty-four…

  17. Family Planning in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet explores attitudes in Sweden toward sexuality and childbirth from a historical perspective. After describing the strict social control over abortion and contraception in place 100 years ago, and the gradual easing of those controls in response to the low birth rate, the paper goes on to discuss the 1974 Abortion Act, which…

  18. Primary and Secondary Education in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    In addition to giving pertinent historical background, this document describes the current educational system in Sweden. Specifically described are reform efforts since World War II; responsibilities of the federal, county and municipal governments; features held in common by schools in the municipalities; organization and curriculum of compulsory…

  19. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    The aims and principles of normalization and integration of the mentally retarded in Sweden are discussed in terms of implications for services and programs. The historical background of the present care for the mentally handicapped notes legislative actions, responsibilities of the Board of Provisions and County Councils, the development of the…

  20. Nuclear Energy Encore in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishlock, David

    1991-01-01

    This article traces Sweden's decision to indefinitely delay their previous plan to phase out nuclear power generators which had been scheduled for 1995. Discussed as major factors in this delay are the excellent safety record of current reactors and the unacceptable economic, as well as environmental, consequences of switching to other power…

  1. Sweden: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in Sweden, International Petroleum Corp. completed a study for Gotlandsolja, operator of Block BKB 88, which identified prospects in the Lower Paleozoic that are similar to producing zones onshore in the Baltic Republics of the USSR. An application to drill has been submitted, and pending approval, a well is scheduled for the second half of 1991.

  2. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  3. Memories of AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.

    2013-06-01

    I had the good fortune to be a student of A. B. Migdal - AB, as we called him in person or in his absence - and to work in the sector he headed at the Kurchatov Institute, along with his other students and my friends, including Vitya Galitsky, Spartak Belyayev and Tolya Larkin. I was especially close with AB in the second half of the 1950s, the years most important for my formation, and AB's contribution to this formation was very great. To this day, I've often quoted AB on various occasions, as it's hard to put things better or more precisely than he did; I tell friends stories heard from AB, because these stories enhance life as AB himself enhanced it; my daughter is named Tanya after AB's wife Tatyana Lvovna, and so on. In what follows, I'll recount a few episodes in my life in which AB played an important or decisive role, and then will share some other memories of AB...

  4. Effect of electron transport properties on unipolar CdZnTe radiation detectors: LUND, SpectrumPlus, and Coplanar Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph B. James

    2000-01-07

    Device simulations of (1) the laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector (LUND), (2) the SpectrumPlus, (3) and the coplanar grid made of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) were performed for {sup 137}Cs irradiation by 662.15 keV gamma-rays. Realistic and controlled simulations of the gamma-ray interactions with the CZT material were done using the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo program, and the detector responses were simulated using the Sandia three-dimensional multielectrode simulation program (SandTMSP). The simulations were done for the best and the worst expected carrier nobilities and lifetimes of currently commercially available CZT materials for radiation detector applications. For the simulated unipolar devices, the active device volumes were relatively large and the energy resolutions were fairly good, but these performance characteristics were found to be very sensitive to the materials properties. The internal electric fields, the weighting potentials, and the charge induced efficiency maps were calculated to give insights into the operation of these devices.

  5. Sweden's Siljan ring well evaluated

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, T.

    1991-01-14

    The final results are in from the first major drilling operation undertaken to explore the deeper levels of the Siljan ring impactor crater in Central Sweden. The results demonstrate that hydrocarbon gases from methane to pentane-as well as a light, largely saturated oil-are present deep in the granitic rock. The impact crater, generated 360 million year ago by a major meteorite, is now a circular area about 44 km across.

  6. 3-D volumetric computed tomographic scoring as an objective outcome measure for chronic rhinosinusitis: Clinical correlations and comparison to Lund-Mackay scoring

    PubMed Central

    Pallanch, John; Yu, Lifeng; Delone, David; Robb, Rich; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon; Edwards, Phil; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Ponikau, Jens; Dearking, Amy; Lane, John; Primak, Andrew; Shinkle, Aaron; Hagan, John; Frigas, Evangelo; Ocel, Joseph J.; Tombers, Nicole; Siwani, Rizwan; Orme, Nicholas; Reed, Kurtis; Jerath, Nivedita; Dhillon, Robinder; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to test the hypothesis that 3-D volume-based scoring of computed tomographic (CT) images of the paranasal sinuses was superior to Lund-Mackay CT scoring of disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We determined correlation between changes in CT scores (using each scoring system) with changes in other measures of disease severity (symptoms, endoscopic scoring, and quality of life) in patients with CRS treated with triamcinolone. Methods The study group comprised 48 adult subjects with CRS. Baseline symptoms and quality of life were assessed. Endoscopy and CT scans were performed. Patients received a single systemic dose of intramuscular triamcinolone and were reevaluated 1 month later. Strengths of the correlations between changes in CT scores and changes in CRS signs and symptoms and quality of life were determined. Results We observed some variability in degree of improvement for the different symptom, endoscopic, and quality-of-life parameters after treatment. Improvement of parameters was significantly correlated with improvement in CT disease score using both CT scoring methods. However, volumetric CT scoring had greater correlation with these parameters than Lund-Mackay scoring. Conclusion Volumetric scoring exhibited higher degree of correlation than Lund-Mackay scoring when comparing improvement in CT score with improvement in score for symptoms, endoscopic exam, and quality of life in this group of patients who received beneficial medical treatment for CRS. PMID:24106202

  7. How Sweden Saves So Much Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, James

    1978-01-01

    Swedens necessity for and present efforts toward energy conservation are discussed. The district system for space heating and certain Swedish laws that promote energy conservation are described. (MDR)

  8. Sweden sees Arctic, subsea challenges

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    Marine research organizations in Sweden are developing solutions in three broad areas of maritime research - Artic and sub-Arctic technology, underwater engineerng and marine environment monitoring. One of the Arctic projects already under way is a solution to safe navigation through the Arctic ice pack. Icebergs and deep-keeled ice ridges are imbedded in the ice pack and present a hazard to transiting vessels. Underwater programs are being established to deal with the problem of poor underwater visibilty due to turbid water conditions near the bottom. A device is being tested which will allow a diver or submerged vehicle to be accurately tracked using short-baseline acoustics.

  9. Inclusive Education in Sweden? A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goransson, Kerstin; Nilholm, Claes; Karlsson, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the…

  10. School Improvement in Sweden: Longitudinal Research Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekholm, Mats

    This paper reports the results of research examining the long-term success of Sweden's educational reforms. The paper's first section describes the Swedish educational system's structure, noting the roles played by the national government, local governments, and the National Board of Education. The second section of the paper looks at Sweden's…

  11. Undergraduate Student Involvement in International Research - The IRES Program at MAX-lab, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William; O'Rielly, Grant; Fissum, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Undergraduate students associated with The George Washington University and UMass Dartmouth have had the opportunity to participate in nuclear physics research as a part of the PIONS@MAXLAB Collaboration performing experiments at MAX-lab at Lund University in Sweden. This project has supported thirteen undergraduate students during 2009 - 2011. The student researchers are involved with all aspects of the experiments performed at the laboratory, from set-up to analysis and presentation at national conferences. These experiments investigate the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon through the study of pion photoproduction off the nucleon and high-energy Compton scattering. Along with the US and Swedish project leaders, members of the collaboration (from four different countries) have contributed to the training and mentoring of these students. This program provides students with international research experiences that prepare them to operate successfully in a global environment and encourages them to stay in areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) that are crucial for our modern, technology-dependent society. We will present the history, goals and outcomes in both physics results and student success that have come from this program. This work supported by NSF OISE/IRES award 0553467.

  12. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L. |; Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L.; Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. |

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  13. Omega-AB

    SciTech Connect

    Siirola, John D.; Slepoy, Alexander; Sprigg, Jr., James A.; Jorgensen, Craig R.; Selzler, Gene; Pryor, Richard J.

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" concept which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.

  14. Omega-AB

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" conceptmore » which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.« less

  15. Public Library Services for Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Hanna S.; Schulte-Albert, Hans G.

    1982-01-01

    Several new ideas regarding public library services for helping immigrants adjust to life in Sweden are discussed with respect to standards, selection, and acquisition of materials, children's services, and future plans. A bibliography of 19 references is included. (CHC)

  16. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden.

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, an introduction to ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) has been given. Many of the basic concepts, like the Hellman-Feynman forces, the difference between the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and AIMD, have been explained. Also a very versatile AIMD code, the CP2K, has been introduced. On the application, the emphasis was on the aqueous systems and chemical reactions. The biochemical applications have not been discussed in depth.

  18. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  19. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  20. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  1. Three common CFTR mutations should be included in a neonatal screening programme for cystic fibrosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, C; Hjelte, L; de Monestrol, I; Johannesson, M; Kollberg, H; Kornfält, R; Holmberg, L

    1999-10-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed by neonatal screening have a better nutritional development and other advantages compared with those in a nonscreened group. The two-tier immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT)/DNA screening protocol has been found superior to the single-tier IRT approach, improving the positive predictive value and thus reducing the false-positive rate. However, variations of the DNA test are required for different populations. In this study we examined CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) mutations in 331 CF patients attending the centres in Stockholm, Lund and Uppsala, comprising about 75% of the CF population in Sweden. The frequency of deltaF508 among CF alleles was 68.3%. There were two other mutations, 394delTT and 3659delC, found to be fairly frequent, amounting to 8.5 and 7.9%, respectively. Other mutations were comparatively rare. A simple and effective method of analysing the three mutations from Guthrie cards has been developed. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 90% of our CF patients will be expected to carry at least one deltaF508 allele and 97.6% to carry at least one deltaF508, 394delTT or 3659delC copy. Including the latter two in a screening programme would thus substantially reduce the risk of a false-negative outcome.

  2. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  3. Recognition of Prior Vocational Learning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas; Ahn, Song-Ee

    2004-01-01

    Initiatives in the recognition of prior learning (RPL) have been taken in Sweden in recent years, mainly focusing on prior vocational learning among immigrants. The government started different projects to find methods for recognising a person's prior learning in the field of vocational competence. This article presents a study of how these…

  4. Handicapped Immigrant Preschool Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Gunilla

    1988-01-01

    Examines provisions made in Sweden for the education of handicapped and immigrant students and the services offered to their families. Stating that all handicapped persons have the right to receive government services, the article discusses preschool education, day nurseries, mother-tongue language activities, family services, and courses for…

  5. Decisive Factors for Language Teaching in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabau-Lampa, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    Examines why language teaching, including foreign languages, home languages, and Swedish as a second language, holds a prominent position in the Swedish school system. Provides information on teaching home languages and Swedish as a second language to immigrants. Discusses foreign language teaching in Sweden. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  7. Adult Education in Sweden: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Adult education in Sweden encompasses study circles, folk high schools, municipal programs, job training, and educational radio and television. The noncompetitive ethos of Swedish adult education is threatened by the current economic climate and pressures resulting from the influx of refugees. (SK)

  8. Language Choice among Iranians in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namei, Shidrokh

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the language choice among Iranians in Sweden, both inside and outside the home domain. The data are collected from 188 participants through structured interviews and questionnaires. The results show that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the home domain between parents and children. However, some Swedish is…

  9. Bilingual Education for Deaf Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartholm, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In 1981, Swedish Sign Language gained recognition by the Swedish Parliament as the language of deaf people, a decision that made Sweden the first country in the world to give a sign language the status of a language. Swedish was designated as a second language for deaf people, and the need for bilingualism among them was officially asserted. This…

  10. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  11. Outcomes of Family Group Conferencing in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut; Vinnerljung, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Between 1995 and 1997, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities implemented Family Group Conferences (FGC) in 10 local authorities throughout Sweden. This study reports on client outcomes of this implementation. Method: 97 children involved in 66 FGCs between November 1996 and October 1997 were compared with 142 children from a…

  12. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  13. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  14. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  15. Regulation in Sweden and institutional changes

    SciTech Connect

    Goethe, S. )

    1993-10-01

    This article addresses changes to the structure and competitive nature that have recently occurred in Sweden. The changes were introduced to lower the costs to the customer and increase the efficiency of the production and distribution systems, while opening the market to nonutility generators. In principle, the competition will be on the production side, while network costs will be supplied for and through new monopolies.

  16. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  17. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  18. Ab interno trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Pantcheva, Mina B; Kahook, Malik Y

    2010-10-01

    Anterior chamber drainage angle surgery, namely trabeculotomy and goniotomy, has been commonly utilized in children for many years. Its' reported success has ranged between 68% and 100% in infants and young children with congenital glaucoma. However, the long-term success of these procedures has been limited in adults presumably due to the formation of anterior synechiae (AS) in the postoperative phase. Recently, ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome™ has emerged as a novel surgical approach to effectively and selectively remove and ablate the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of the Schlemm's canal in an attempt to avoid AS formation or other forms of wound healing with resultant closure of the cleft. This procedure seems to have an appealing safety profile with respect to early hypotony or infection if compared to trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device implantation. This might be advantageous in some of the impoverish regions of the Middle East and Africa where patients experience difficulties keeping up with their postoperative visits. It is important to note that no randomized trial comparing the Trabectome to other glaucoma procedures appears to have been published to date. Trabectome surgery is not a panacea, however, and it is associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may require additional glaucoma surgery as well as a high incidence of hyphema. Reported results show that postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) remains, at best, in the mid-teen range making it undesirable in patients with low-target IOP goals. A major advantage of Trabectome surgery is that it does not preclude further glaucoma surgery involving the conjunctiva, such as a trabeculectomy or drainage device implantation. As prospective randomized long-term clinical data become available, we will be better positioned to elucidate the exact role of this technique in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium. PMID:21180426

  19. Autonomous Biological System (ABS) experiments.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, T K; Anderson, G A; Poynter, J E; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1998-12-01

    Three space flight experiments have been conducted to test and demonstrate the use of a passively controlled, materially closed, bioregenerative life support system in space. The Autonomous Biological System (ABS) provides an experimental environment for long term growth and breeding of aquatic plants and animals. The ABS is completely materially closed, isolated from human life support systems and cabin atmosphere contaminants, and requires little need for astronaut intervention. Testing of the ABS marked several firsts: the first aquatic angiosperms to be grown in space; the first higher organisms (aquatic invertebrate animals) to complete their life cycles in space; the first completely bioregenerative life support system in space; and, among the first gravitational ecology experiments. As an introduction this paper describes the ABS, its flight performance, advantages and disadvantages.

  20. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility - Hardware and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-01

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC's), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC's), Time to Digital Converters (TDC's), scaler's, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  1. Radiofrequency tonsillotomy in Sweden 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Sunnergren, Ola; Hemlin, Claes; Ericsson, Elisabeth; Hessén-Söderman, Anne-Charlotte; Hultcrantz, Elisabeth; Odhagen, Erik; Stalfors, Joacim

    2014-06-01

    The Swedish National Registry for Tonsil Surgery has been operational since 1997. All ENT clinics in Sweden are encouraged to submit data for all patients scheduled for tonsil surgery. Preoperatively, age, gender and indication are recorded. Postoperatively, method (tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy), technique, and perioperative complications are recorded. Postoperative bleedings, pain, infections, and symptom relief are assessed through questionnaires. An earlier report from this registry showed that tonsillotomy had become more common than tonsillectomy in children with tonsil-related upper airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to categorize which instruments were used for tonsillotomy in Sweden and to compare their outcome and complication rate. All children 2-18 years, reported to the registry from March 2009 until September 2012, who underwent tonsillotomy on the indication upper airway obstruction, were included in the study. 1,676 patients were identified. In 1,602 cases (96%), a radiofrequency instrument was used. The postoperative bleeding rate was low (1.2%) and the degree of symptom relief was high (95.1%). Three different radiofrequency instruments (ArthroCare Coblation(®), Ellman Surgitron(®), and Sutter CURIS(®)) were used in 96% of the patients. There were no significant differences in the number of postoperative bleedings, postoperative infections or symptom relief between the instruments. The only difference found was in the number of days on analgesics, where more days were registered after use of Coblation(®). In Sweden, radiofrequency tonsillotomy is the dominant surgical technique used for tonsil hypertrophy causing upper airway obstruction in children. There are no significant differences in outcome between the different radiofrequency instruments except for number of days on analgesics after surgery.

  2. The Market Comes to Education in Sweden: An Evaluation of Sweden's Surprising School Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Anders; Clark, Melissa A.; Edin, Per-Anders; Fredriksson, Peter; Krueger, Alan B.

    2006-01-01

    A large central government providing numerous public services has long been a hallmark of Swedish society, which is also well-known for its pursuit of equality. Yet in the 1990s, Sweden moved away from this tradition in education, introducing market-oriented reforms that decentralized authority over public schools and encouraged competition…

  3. Epidemiological measures in planning: observations from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, M

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews how epidemiological measures can be used in health planning. Theoretical considerations are discussed together with empirical data from Sweden. Formulation of targets, priority settings, resource allocation and monitoring systems are some ways in which epidemiological data can improve health planning. One important lesson for planning is that problems related to health, inequalities in health, and access to care, must be made visible to politicians, health personnel and the public. Further, there is a need to complement a national health policy with a decentralized planning system that takes local conditions and needs into consideration.

  4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, P. O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To find and investigate, retrospectively, as many cases as possible of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Sweden dying during the period 1 January 1985 to 31 December 1996 and to detect any possible case(s) of new variant CJD.
METHODS—The patients were found through computer search of all death certificates in Sweden on which CJD was mentioned, through information from the Swedish neuropathologists, and spontaneous reports from Swedish doctors and hospitals. Data concerning the patients were then collected from patients' case records and from brain histopathology reports.
RESULTS—In total 72 cases of spongiform encephalopathy were confirmed as definite by neuropathology, one of them with Gerstmann-Stäussler-Scheinker disease. In 51 further cases there were no brain pathology data but the diagnosis "probable" (37 patients) or "possible" (14 patients) CJD according to WHO criteria could be made on clinical grounds. There was a variation in number of deaths/year, from a minimum of five (1985) to a maximum of 16 (1990). Sixty patients died during the period 1985-90 and 62 during 1991-6. The sex ratio was nearly 1:1. Calculated for a population of 8.6 million (mean of 12 years) in Sweden this gives 1.18/million/year. Age at the time of the presenting symptoms ranged from 34 to 84 years. Only one patient was under 40 at the onset of symptoms. He had a spongiform encephalopathy but prion protein staining was negative. The duration of symptoms that could be attributed to CJD was 6 months or less in 75 cases, 7-12 months in 16 cases, 1 to 2 years in 15 cases, and more than 2 years in 16 patients. By definition all patients were demented. Other more common symptoms and signs were aphasia, dysphasia, dysathria, ataxia, myoclonus, pareses of the extremities, rigidity or spasticity, different types of hyperkinesias, and other psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness). Less common symptoms were hallucinations (mainly visual), visual

  5. The organization of work in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, B

    1988-01-01

    The well-being of workers in Sweden is extensively protected through legislation and through the activities of organized labor which represents the great majority of Swedish workers. Despite the comparatively advanced state of Swedish social legislation and the large percentage of women represented by trade unions, women remain at a disadvantage both in terms of job advancement and the quality of working life. The author of this article, a trade union official who works in the area of women's equality, provides case examples and personal insights as to the current and future needs of women workers, particularly with regard to the organization of work.

  6. Imported Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Örtqvist, Åke; Ringberg, Håkan; Larsson, Leif; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Hæggman, Sara; Kalin, Mats; Ekdahl, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Countries such as Sweden that have a low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) offer the opportunity to discern and study transmission of imported cases of MRSA. We analyzed 444 imported cases of MRSA acquisition reported in Sweden during 2000–2003. Risk for MRSA in returning travelers ranged from 0.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01–0.4) per 1 million travelers to Nordic countries to 59.4 (95% CI 44.5–79.3) per 1 million travelers to North Africa and the Middle East. Most imported cases (246, 55%) were healthcare acquired, but regions with the highest risk for MRSA in travelers showed a correlation with community acquisition (r = 0.81, p = 0.001). Characteristic differences in MRSA strains acquired were dependent on the region from which they originated and whether they were community or healthcare acquired. Knowledge of differences in transmission of MRSA may improve control measures against imported cases. PMID:20113546

  7. Unintentional firearm hunting deaths in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Eriksson, Anders

    2012-03-10

    This study examined all unintentional firearm fatalities while hunting that occurred in Sweden between 1983 through 2008. The circumstances as well as the impact of the hunter's exam on fatality frequency were analysed. During these 26 years, there were 48 such fatalities, representing 53% of all (n=90) unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The average annual number of fatalities decreased over the last few decades. Very restrictive firearm legislation in Sweden combined with the introduction of a mandatory hunter's exam since 1985 accounted, at least partly, for this finding. Moose hunting accounted for 46% of the fatalities and small game hunting for the remaining cases. The mean age of the victims was 50 years and 96% of them were males; all shooters were males. During moose hunting, most of the victims were mistaken for game, whereas in small game hunting most of the fatalities were related to falls and improper handling of the weapon. Human error was thus the main cause of these fatalities. PMID:21908112

  8. Adjustment Failures in an Immigrant Population: Finns in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarela, Jan; Finnas, Fjalar

    2007-01-01

    Using data sets from both Sweden and Finland, which have been linked at the individual level, we analyse whether Finnish immigrants who lived in Sweden in 1990 were employed, non-employed, return-migrated, or dead by 2001. The aim is to see how they interrelate with socio-demographic characteristics, and to compare Finnish-speaking and…

  9. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  10. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  11. Fertility and perinatal health among Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gissler, Mika; Pakkanen, Milla; Olausson, Petra Otterblad

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have reported poorer infant outcome among immigrants, but contrary evidence also exists. Between 1940 and 1999 more than a half million Finns emigrated to Sweden, which made Finns the largest minority group in Sweden. Our aim was to investigate fertility trends, parturients' background and pregnancy outcomes among Finns in Sweden, and to compare the findings with those obtained among Swedes in Sweden and Finns in Finland. The data came from the Finnish and Swedish Medical Birth Registers for the years 1987-1998. All deliveries by women born in Finland and having given birth in Sweden (N=33874) were compared with a 10% sample of all deliveries by Swedish parturients in Sweden (N=108549) and of all Finnish deliveries (n=75133). Among Finns in Sweden, the number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49 years declined significantly in the late 1990s. The change in the total fertility rate was less dramatic: the rate for Finns in Sweden followed the total Swedish rate although it remained from 5% to 10% higher up to the mid-1990s. Finns who had given birth in Sweden were older, had a higher parity and a higher prevalence of previous miscarriages, and smoked more often than did Swedes in Sweden or Finns in Finland. The crude infant outcomes of Finns having given birth in Sweden were equal to those among Swedes in Sweden (except for the incidence of small for gestational age), but poorer than in Finland. Biological factors explained the differences between Finns in Sweden and Finland in being small for gestational age, and biological factors and smoking explained the difference in prematurity. The difference in low birth weight remained statistically significant (3.9% versus 3.6% among singletons). In conclusion, fertility trends followed the pattern prevailing in the resident country. The relatively good outcome of children whose mothers were born in Finland but who had given birth in Sweden can partly be explained by the healthy migrant effect. PMID

  12. A family-based intervention targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity: conceptual framework and study design of LOOPS- Lund overweight and obesity preschool study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As the rate of overweight among children is rising there is a need for evidence-based research that will clarify what the best interventional strategies to normalize weight development are. The overall aim of the Lund Overweight and Obesity Preschool Study (LOOPS) is to evaluate if a family-based intervention, targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity, has a long-term positive effect on weight development of the children. The hypothesis is that preschool children with overweight and obesity, whose parents participate in a one-year intervention, both at completion of the one-year intervention and at long term follow up (2-, 3- and 5-years) will have reduced their BMI-for-age z-score. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial, including overweight (n=160) and obese (n=80) children 4-6-years-old. The intervention is targeting the parents, who get general information about nutrition and exercise recommendations through a website and are invited to participate in a group intervention with the purpose of supporting them to accomplish preferred lifestyle changes, both in the short and long term. To evaluate the effect of various supports, the parents are randomized to different interventions with the main focus of: 1) supporting the parents in limit setting by emphasizing the importance of positive interactions between parents and children and 2) influencing the patterns of daily activities to induce alterations of everyday life that will lead to healthier lifestyle. The primary outcome variable, child BMI-for-age z-score will be measured at referral, inclusion, after 6 months, at the end of intervention and at 2-, 3- and 5-years post intervention. Secondary outcome variables, measured at inclusion and at the end of intervention, are child activity pattern, eating habits and biochemical markers as well as parent BMI, exercise habits, perception of health, experience of parenthood and level of parental stress. Discussion

  13. AB 1725: A Comprehensive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    A summary and analysis is provided of California Assembly Bill (AB) 1725, a reform bill that provides new direction and support for the state's community colleges. The analysis addresses each of the eight sections of the bill: (1) mission, highlighting reforms related to mission statements, transfer core curriculum, remedial limits, articulation…

  14. Acid rain mitigation strategies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The methods and costs of measures to restore acidified water areas or prevent further acidification to lakes and streams in Sweden are presented, along with the results of a five-year liming test period. The reduction of sulfur emissions is considered in terms of reducing sulfur content in home heating oils to a 1% maximum, the use of purifiers in industry, and international cooperation to reduce transboundary pollution. A total of over 300 liming projects consuming more than 200,000 tons of liming agents were placed in waters, in bogs and on farms, and on marshes, nominally by use of a centrifugal distributor on land and various spreading methods on water, principally with crushed limestone. Other methods are suggested, and liming results were found to be an improvement of farm soil fertility, a decrease in forest growth, and positive effects on fish populations. Full scale liming is recommended wherever natural buffering has been found to be insufficient.

  15. The Decline in Maternal Mortality in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy. PMID:15284032

  16. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  17. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

  18. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  19. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  20. Ecological half-time of radiocesium from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout as measured in a group of subjects from the south of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hemdal, B; Mattsson, S

    2001-10-01

    From 1960 to 1980 and between 1987 and 1994 the whole-body content of 17Cs, and when possible also 134Cs, was measured in a group of subjects living in the city of Lund, Sweden (55.7 degrees N, 13.2 degrees E). The results have been analyzed to estimate the effective ecological half-time of fallout radiocesium in humans living in the area. The Lund area (The Province of Skåne) was subjected to a deposition of about 2 kBq m(-2) of pre-Chernobyl 137Cs from nuclear weapons testing and 1 kBq m(-2) of 137Cs from Chernobyl fallout in May 1986. The radiocesium from the nuclear weapons tests in the 1950's and 1960's still gave a significant contribution to the total 137Cs levels in humans in the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994) of about 0.4 Bq per kg body weight, which was about 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of 137Cs (3.5-4 Bq kg(-1)) in 1987. The effective ecological half-time for 137Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8 +/- 0.2 y. The aggregate transfer factor from deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 3.6 Bq kg(-1)/kBq m(-2). These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 y found in the reference group in the 1960's, and an aggregate transfer factor of 10 Bq kg(-1)/kBq m(-2). This difference is largely explained by the continuous nature of the global fallout leading to contamination on growing crops whereas the Chernobyl fallout occurred just prior to the South Swedish growing season, leading to less efficient transfer to crops and to human diet. The average committed individual effective dose (50 y) from ingested 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout was estimated to be 0.02 mSv and from the nuclear weapons fallout (1945-1995) to be 0.20 mSv.

  1. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  2. Release of alien populations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Palme, Anna; Josefsson, Melanie; Utter, Fred; Ryman, Nils

    2006-08-01

    Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

  3. The state of psychiatry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Stefenson, Anne; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-08-01

    The number of practising psychiatrists in Sweden has increased by nearly 30% between the years 1995-2009; however, the profession has suffered serious recruitment difficulties. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare estimated that about 5-10% of the population is in need of psychiatric treatment, but only 3-4% seek psychiatric care. Among patients who receive psychiatric care, approximately 47% are treated with psychopharmacology, 13% are treated with psychotherapy and 40% receive both treatments. There are still challenges facing Swedish psychiatry: reduction in waiting times for psychiatric care, broader accessibility of evidence-based treatment methods for all groups of psychiatric patients both in rural and urban areas, and targeting the needs of immigrants and refugees. The allocation of resources to psychiatric research, and development of novel treatment methods are crucially needed. The Swedish government is strongly committed to decreasing the number of suicides, as there are approximately 1,400 individuals lost to suicide every year in a country with a population of around 10 million. Given that nearly 20% of all suicides are amongst psychiatric inpatients, a regulation has been passed regarding the analysis of all completed suicides in the healthcare system. Results from these analyses can be used for increasing quality of treatment.

  4. AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-04-14

    Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.

  5. Cycling of molecular hydrogen in subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Varner, R. K.; Steele, K.; Crill, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, significant warming has caused organic-rich permafrost to thaw thereby increasing the amount of soil carbon available for decomposition. The release of greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), is predicted to also increase, resulting in a positive feedback cycle due to increased thaw caused by higher atmospheric temperatures. Little is known however about the effect of permafrost thaw on the release of molecular hydrogen (H2) from wetland ecosystems. Vegetated surfaces are thought to be sinks for atmospheric H2. However, as permafrost soils thaw and precipitation events become more frequent, resulting in an increase in inundated areas under anoxic conditions, soils could quickly shift from a sink of atmospheric H2 to a source. This project focused on the effect of changes in soil moisture following precipitation events on the consumption or release of H2 in a subarctic mire in the discontinuous permafrost region near Abisko, Sweden during July 2012. Different habitats were sampled using existing soil gas profiling arrays and a sipper device. In addition, soil temperature and pH data were collected as well as autochamber flux measurements of H2, carbon dioxide, and CH4. All sipper and soil gas profiling array samples were analyzed with a reduced gas (HgO) detector for H2 and a flame ionization detector for CH4. Methane data were collected at all sites and depths to better understand the tight coupling between H2 and CH4. On July 14th and 15th, the site received record precipitation for any 48 hour period. In a thawed Carex spp, dominated site, the concentration of H2 in porewater decreased substantially immediately after the precipitation and slightly more throughout the following week indicating a significant dilution event. A similar effect was observed in an Eriophorum dominated site; however, the behavior of CH4 at these two sites differed in that CH4 responded similarly to H2 after the precipitation event at the Carex spp. site, but CH4

  6. News Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

  7. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma; Gomes, Rachel L R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno.

  8. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno. PMID:27293878

  9. Recovery of streams from episodic acidification in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Hemond, Harry F

    2002-03-01

    Between 1990 and 1999, SO4(2-) deposition in northern Sweden decreased by over 50%. To determine if a corresponding amelioration of stream acidity has occurred, we analyzed trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification in five streams during the same time period, using the Boreal Dilution Model (BDM) (Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Kohler, S. Water Resour. Res. 2000, 36, 1873-1884). Although there was no significant change in the annual average streamwater chemistry, the anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with spring flood runoff decreased by between 40% and 80%. A strong correlation between winter SO4(2-) deposition and the anthropogenic component of episodic acidification in these five streams suggests that future reductions of acid deposition will further improve the spring flood acidification situation in northern Sweden. These results argue that reduced emissions of acid precursors have generated significant improvements in the surface water chemistry during episodes associated with spring runoff in northern Sweden.

  10. Transferrin C subtypes and ethnic heterogeneity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sikström, C; Nylander, P O

    1990-01-01

    Transferrin (TF) C subtypes were studied in Swedish Lapps (Saami) and in Swedes from northern, central and southern Sweden, and the allele frequencies were compared with those in other European populations. The Swedish Lapps were found to have the lowest frequency of the TF*C3 allele (1-2%) so far observed in Europe. Most European populations have TF*C3 allele frequencies between 5 and 7%. Finns differ by having high TF*C3 frequencies (13-14%). The relatively high TF*C3 frequencies found in northeastern Sweden (13%) and in central Sweden (9%) are most likely due to eastern influence. Unlike other genetic markers of eastern influence (e.g. TF*DCHI), which are of Asiatic Mongoloid origin, TF*C3 appears to originate from Finno-Ugric populations.

  11. Return migration on the policy agenda in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, A T

    1995-07-01

    "Explicit policies on return migration are of rather recent date in most European countries, including Sweden. During the last few years a number of new policy initiatives have been taken in this field. The purpose of this paper is to examine how official Swedish policies on return migration have changed during the last 20 years. The conclusion is that Sweden has moved from a ¿non-policy' in the 1970s, much in opposition to ¿guestworker' or rotation systems, towards an active and explicit policy promoting return in the mid-1990s. The major trends in the country's immigration, emigration and return flows are also presented."

  12. Ad Hoc Conference on the Education of Migrants. Country Report (Sweden).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education, Strasbourg (France).

    Sweden, like most European countries, never set out to be an immigration country. Since its Government and Parliament have subscribed to the principle of maximum mobility across national frontiers, more than 400,000 foreign citizens and 200,000 former aliens reside in Sweden today. Immigration to Sweden is not completely free, though. A policy of…

  13. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  14. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  15. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  16. Ab initio phonon limited transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Matthieu

    We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011)

  17. Constructing Learning Spaces? Videoconferencing at Local Learning Centres in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logdlund, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    This article explores videoconferencing in the context of local learning centres in Sweden. The practice is described as a "learning space" in which adult learners construct socio-spatial relations. The study goes beyond a sociological apprehension of actors and opposes the idea of the material as neutral, passive and conformed by practice. On the…

  18. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  19. Bilingual-Bicultural Education of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, I.

    1975-01-01

    Current research emphasizes the importance of the mother tongue in second language teaching. This paper describes a longitudinal project which studies 4 groups of Finnish children in Malmo, Sweden, who are receiving a bilingual education starting from the pre-school. (Editor)

  20. Everyday Classroom Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…

  1. Lise Meitner in Sweden 1938-1960: Exile from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1994-08-01

    Lise Meitner fled Germany for Sweden in 1938. Her professional difficulties in Stockholm coupled with her exclusion from the discovery of fission diminished her ability to work, damaged her reputation and, in the opinion of many of her contemporaries, kept her from a Nobel prize.

  2. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  3. Government policies for the environment: The Sweden case

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, D.

    1997-12-31

    Sweden is one of the world leaders in environmental protection. This has been Impossible through public information and interest, industrial responsibility, and the use of various economic measures that offer incentives to increase recycling and reduce emissions. The author describes some of these measures and the results that have been obtained in his native land.

  4. Expectations and Experiences of Inbound Students: Perspectives from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores expectations and outcomes for inbound students at Umeå University, Sweden, comparing their expectations with what they actually experienced. Based on an initial sample of 296 students, 116 answered surveys before and after experiencing of studying abroad. The same individuals have been followed. Most of the respondents'…

  5. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  6. National-Scale Professional Development in Sweden: Theory, Policy, Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesen, J.; Helenius, O.; Johansson, B.

    2015-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016 all teachers of mathematics, in primary through to upper secondary and adult education, in Sweden are to be given the opportunity of receiving state-coordinated professional development (PD), generally involving around one meeting per week for a year. We examine the ways in which this programme and its content are research-based…

  7. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  8. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden (70 FR 39734). The Commission is conducting reviews... suspension, and carboxymethylcellulose that is cross-linked through heat treatment. (4) The Domestic...

  9. Between Empowerment and Powerlessness: Separated Minors in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Kristina; Fioretos, Ingrid; Norstrom, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration experiences of thirteen separated minors who arrived in Sweden between 1943 and 2008. Using the framework of "dislocation" and the "liberated self," this chapter shows that the experiences of separated minors are shaped in the intersection between contexts and conditions of transnational migration and the…

  10. The State and Higher Education: A Sociological Critique from Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic history of Sweden's higher education is outlined from the perspective of various factions trying to maintain control. Decentralization of the traditional power structure and social and technological change pose a challenge for a new educational strategy and policy. (MSE)

  11. Inclusive and Exclusive Education in Sweden: Principals' Opinions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Hansen, Audrey Malmgren

    2009-01-01

    To support the national and international aims of inclusion, "special teacher" training in Sweden was replaced in 1990 by "special educator" training. These special educators would supervise the teachers in their school and would not exclusively teach students. The aim of this study was to investigate what the principals of 14 municipal compulsory…

  12. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  14. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  15. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  16. Health care expenditure in Sweden--an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Jönsson, B

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses health care expenditure in Sweden and compares this with the corresponding expenditure in OECD countries. The definition and measurement problems of health care expenditure are discussed, new figures for the development of health care expenditure are presented and different measures of health care expenditure are provided. We found that health care expenditure has increased by about 20% in constant prices for Sweden between 1980 and 1988, but that health care expenditure as a share of the GDP has dropped during the same period in current prices. Health care expenditure disaggregated on different age groups show for Sweden that in the age group 15-64 years, health care expenditure has not increased in constant prices between 1976 and 1985, but in the oldest age group, health care expenditure has increased considerable during this period. Health care expenditure in Sweden is as high as would be expected, taking into account the degree of economic development and the growth of expenditure during the 80s, and has followed that in comparable OECD countries. However, the relative price is lower, which means that the input of real resources are greater than in other countries. PMID:10115993

  17. The Utilization of Home Help in Sweden: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorslund, Mats; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Estimated effect of variety of factors on the utilization of home help among the elderly in Sweden using a sample (n=421) of people 75 years and older. Results indicated physical functioning (instrumental activities of daily living) and living alone were most important. (Author/ABL)

  18. Day Care for Children in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leira, Arnlaug

    Based on information gathered in 1986, this report describes day care in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The focus of the report is on structural aspects of day care, including provision, management and finances, and questions concerning supply, demand, and distribution. Part I provides an introduction to the report and discusses the Scandinavian…

  19. Day Care in Scandinavia: Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Steen B.

    Day care programs in the Scandinavian countries have been viewed as exemplary models to transfer to Canada and the United States. This publication, which provides an overview of day care in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, discusses conditions, facts, and programs contributing to the widespread acclaim. It is pointed out that day care in Denmark is an…

  20. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  1. Scuba diving accidents in Sweden 1960--1976.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, K; Lidholm, S O; Maehly, A C

    1978-01-01

    Thirty "scuba" diving accidents (29 of them fatal) which occurred in Sweden during 1960--76 are listed. Nine of these are described in some detail. The probable causes of these accidents are evaluated, and suggestions for prophylactic measures are made.

  2. Individualized Mathematics Teaching. Results from the IMU Project in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Inger

    The Individual Mathematics Teaching Project (IMU) has been under development in the upper level (grades 7-9) of the comprehensive school in Sweden since 1964. Its goals are (1) to construct and test self-instruction study material in mathematics, (2) to find suitable teaching methods and work forms for the use of this material, (3) to try out…

  3. Conflict Experience: A Phenomenological Study among Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szklarski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how young people in Sweden experience conflicts. The study is phenomenological, which means that the focus is on the essence of the investigated experience. Data have been collected by self-reports and analyzed with the help of an empirical phenomenological method. The research process has resulted in…

  4. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  5. Corporatism and health care: a comparison of Sweden and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; González-Block, M A

    1992-01-01

    Up to now, the Swedish health care system has been used as a model for comparisons with other developed nations, chiefly in Northern Europe and the United States. This article departs from the mainstream and poses that similarities along the political factor of corporatism warrant a comparative analysis between the Swedish and Mexican cases. The most widely accepted definitions and typologies of corporatism are reviewed. The arena of manpower policy is used to illustrate the effects of alternative modes of interest representation on health care organization. The final aim of this comparative exercise is to enrich the empirical basis required to build a theory about the complex determinants of health care systems. State corporatism has acted in Mexico largely unchecked by geographical interest representation, in contrast with Sweden where centralist and decentralist forces are more balanced. This finding helps to understand why Sweden and Mexico mark extreme points along the health equity continuum. The comparison underscores the need for Sweden to avoid the risk of weakening the equity basis of its health care system as it moves along its current reform. The importance of these transformations go beyond Sweden, since they will undoubtedly offer new models of thinking and acting for the rest of the world. PMID:10119963

  6. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wadmann, Sarah; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues. PMID:19340328

  7. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  8. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  9. Inclusive Education in Sweden: Responses, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berhanu, Girma

    2011-01-01

    This paper maps out the challenges and responses to inclusive education in Sweden from a cultural/historical point of view. Core concepts that have bearing on inclusive education practices are discussed. The analysis incorporates varied materials. As the current Swedish political and educational discourses reflect contradictions and dilemmas among…

  10. Serologic analysis of returned travelers with fever, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Askling, Helena H; Lesko, Birgitta; Vene, Sirkka; Berndtson, Angerd; Björkman, Per; Bläckberg, Jonas; Bronner, Ulf; Follin, Per; Hellgren, Urban; Palmerus, Maria; Ekdahl, Karl; Tegnell, Anders; Struwe, Johan

    2009-11-01

    We studied 1,432 febrile travelers from Sweden who had returned from malaria-endemic areas during March 2005-March 2008. In 383 patients, paired serum samples were blindly analyzed for influenza and 7 other agents. For 21% of 115 patients with fever of unknown origin, serologic analysis showed that influenza was the major cause.

  11. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Educational Reforms in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the successes and problems of educational reforms in Sweden. Examiners from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) collected data and information for the report from published and unpublished documents and from a two-week tour of the country. The reforms are judged by three main objectives: equality;…

  12. Johanna and Tommy: Two Preschoolers in Sweden with Brittle Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millde, Kristina; Brodin, Jane

    Information is presented for caregivers of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and their families. Approximately five children with brittle bones are born in Sweden annually. Two main types of brittle bone disease have been identified: congenita and tarda. Typical symptoms include numerous and unexpected fractures, bluish…

  13. Educational Research and Educational Change: The Case of Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Ulf P.

    In the history of the scientific approach to educational issues in Sweden, educational research has been viewed as a scientific activity either because it is based in scientific institutions, because it uses scientific procedures, or because it is seen as a process of mapping reality. Initially, the creation of a specific discipline of education…

  14. Health care expenditure in Sweden--an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Jönsson, B

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses health care expenditure in Sweden and compares this with the corresponding expenditure in OECD countries. The definition and measurement problems of health care expenditure are discussed, new figures for the development of health care expenditure are presented and different measures of health care expenditure are provided. We found that health care expenditure has increased by about 20% in constant prices for Sweden between 1980 and 1988, but that health care expenditure as a share of the GDP has dropped during the same period in current prices. Health care expenditure disaggregated on different age groups show for Sweden that in the age group 15-64 years, health care expenditure has not increased in constant prices between 1976 and 1985, but in the oldest age group, health care expenditure has increased considerable during this period. Health care expenditure in Sweden is as high as would be expected, taking into account the degree of economic development and the growth of expenditure during the 80s, and has followed that in comparable OECD countries. However, the relative price is lower, which means that the input of real resources are greater than in other countries.

  15. Student Essay Sleeping in Snow, Swimming in Ice: Welcom to Sweden--Duchy College, Cornwall, Visits Bollerup College, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Mark; Petitt, Ed; Thompson, Andy

    2001-01-01

    In Sweden, winter survival is taught to children from age 3 upwards. Bollerup College students learn extreme survival and then teach the skills to children. Two students from Duchy College (Cornwall, England) and their professor describe a week they spent at Bollerup College learning winter survival skills and the effects of winter conditions on…

  16. Ab Initio Study of Polonium

    SciTech Connect

    Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2008-05-20

    Polonium is the only element with a simple cubic (sc) crystal structure. Atoms in solid polonium sit at the corners of a simple cubic unit cell and no where else. Polonium has a valence electron configuration 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 4} (Z = 84). The low temperature {alpha}-phase transforms into the rhombohedral (trigonal) {beta} structure at {approx}348 K. The sc {alpha}-Po unit cell constant is a = 3.345 A. The beta form of polonium ({beta}-Po) has the lattice parameters, a{sub R} = 3.359 A and a rhombohedral angle 98 deg. 13'. We have performed an ab initio electronic structure calculation by using the density functional theory. We have performed the calculation with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling by using both the LDA and the GGA for the exchange-correlations. The k-points in a simple cubic BZ are determined by R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), M (0.5, 0.5, 0) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). Other directions of k-points are {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). The SO splittings of p states at the {gamma} point in the GGA+SO scheme for {alpha}-Po are 0.04 eV and 0.02 eV while for the {beta}-Po these are 0.03 eV and 0.97 eV. We have also calculated the vibrational spectra for the unit cells in both the structures. We find that exchanging of a Po atom by Pb atom produces several more bands and destabilizes the {beta} phase.

  17. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2011-05-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  18. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2010-12-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  19. An ab initio MO study of butalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Katsuhisa; Shima, Toru

    1994-01-01

    Butalene as a structural isomer of p-benzyne has been studied by using an ab initio GVB wavefunction. The geometry of butalene, which is shown to be almost rectangular, is first optimized as a local minimum on the energy surface at the ab initio level. However, the energy barrier of conversion to p-benzyne is as small as 1.6 kcal/mol, and experimental isolation of butalene is predicted to be difficult from a force-constant analysis.

  20. Aspects of the history of the nerves: Bell's theory, the Bell-Magendie law and controversy, and two forgotten works by P.W. Lund and D.F. Eschricht.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, C Barker

    2003-09-01

    The French physiologist François Magendie showed, in 1822, that the anterior roots of the spinal nerves are motor and the posterior sensory. The English anatomist Charles Bell claimed the discovery, but his claim was based on republications of papers in which the wording had been altered to be consistent with Magendie's findings. Bell also appropriated Herbert Mayo's discoveries of the functions of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. Bell repeated his claims in a number of influential publications, supported by his brothers-in-law John and Alexander Shaw. And for a century and a half, Bell figured as the discoverer in most references to the subject. During this period, several reviewers did go back to Bell's original papers, disclosing Bell's falsifications in the republished texts. But Magendie was not definitely acknowledged as the discoverer of the function of the spinal nerve roots until Cranefield's (1974) treatise. Cranefield, as did all other reviewers, overlooked accounts from 1825 by P.W. Lund and F.D. Eschricht. They critically reviewed Bell's early publications and reached conclusions similar to those of Cranefield concerning the roles of Bell and Magendie in the discovery of the function of the spinal nerve roots.

  1. Heat Wave–Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G.H.; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  2. Incidence, age distribution and complications of gonorrhoea in Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Gisslén, H.; Hellgren, L.; Starck, V.

    1961-01-01

    The incidence of gonorrhoea in Sweden has shown a tendency to increase in recent years, particularly in the age-groups 15-19 and 20-24 years. However, an extrapolation of the annual incidence curve to 1970 for the 15-19-year age-group suggests that some deceleration in that increase may be expected. Study of gonococcal complications seen at Göteborg hospitals during the period 1950-59 indicates that the frequency of gonococcal salpingitis is higher than had previously been reported; this is attributed to the inclusion in the material studied of patients from departments other than those exclusively concerned with the venereal diseases. The authors conclude that, in view of the high frequency of gonorrhoea in the young and of gonococcal complications, gonorrhoea in Sweden cannot be considered an unimportant public health problem. PMID:13705767

  3. Hard habits to break energy conservation patterns in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Loefstedt, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Investigation of energy conservation behavior started much later in Scandinavian countries than in the United States. There is little research under way in Scandinavian on the conditions under which individuals might be willing to decrease their energy use. Nor is there much information available about how consumers would respond to increases in electricity fees. An energy analyst recently suggested that the greatest potential to save energy in Sweden lies in lifestyle changes because the buildings already meet some of the highest thermal standards in the world. Lifestyle changes would certainly be necessary were Sweden to phase out its nuclear power plants because of environmental concerns. Thus, to find out if a phaseout of nuclear power is feasible in Scandinavia, it is necessary to examine the potential for lifestyle changes in the domestic, or household, sector. 2 tabs.

  4. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  5. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  6. Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Kerstin; Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-03-01

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  7. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny. PMID:26924220

  8. The organic geochemistry of the Alum Shale, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, J.E.P.

    1990-01-01

    Organic matter in the Alum Shale of Sweden has been affected post-depositionally by irradiation from U decay. Effects include: (1) lowering of kerogen H/C ratios; (2) decrease in amount of extractable bitumen; (3) increased aromaticity. Higher thermal maturity of Alum Shale bitumen than kerogen in Central Sweden suggest bitumen migration into the shale. The thermal immaturity of both Alum Shale bitumen and kerogen in Eastern Sweden (Gotland and Oland) indicate that Gotland's oil has either migrated from an area of higher thermal maturity or is the result of very localized heating, possibly from an igneous intrusion. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations in asphaltenes from the Alum Shale show an inverse relationship with thermal maturity. Experimental hydrous pyrolysis of Alum Shale suggest that Zn, Cu and, to a lesser extent Pb, are mobile during petroleum generation in both bitumen and brine, whereas U is immobile. Nitrogen in naturally occurring gases from the Alum Shale of Ostergotland, Sweden is atmospheric in origin based on ratios of N{sub 2}/Ar. Helium is derived from the radioactive decay of U-based on He{sub 3} He{sub 4} ratios. {delta}{sup 34}S values of Alum Shale pyrite show a fractionation with coeval seawater of approximately 35 per mil, which along with high total S concentrations of over 15% in some samples, implies extensive metabolism of organic matter during early diagenesis by sulfate reducing bacteria. Pyrite {delta}{sup 34}S values are lighter than coexisting organic sulfur in the kerogen by an average of near 7 per mil. The difference is believed to be the result of rite formation earlier and at a relatively shallower sediment depth than organo-sulfur compounds due to the greater reactivity of iron with bacterially released hydrogen sulfide than organic matter.

  9. Procedures and experiences with preoperative skin preparation in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tunevall, T G

    1988-04-01

    The current situation with preoperative skin preparation in Sweden is described. Patients are given two preoperative washes with chlorhexidine scrub, and are sent to theatre on a clean bed, so no extra linen is required. Wound infection rates are acceptably low, and use of chlorhexidine has also assisted in reduction of infection associated with central venous catheters. Use of chlorhexidine scrub is recommended to help healing of infected wounds.

  10. Effects of climate change on tularaemia disease activity in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by blood-feeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbreak activity. The five high-endemic counties: Dalarna, Gävleborg, Norrbotten, Värmland and Örebro represent only 14.6% of the total population of Sweden, but have recorded 40.1–81.1% of the number of annual human tularaemia in Sweden from 1997 until 2008. We project here earlier starts and a later termination of future tularaemia outbreaks for the time period 2010–2100. For five localised outbreak areas; Gagnef (Dalarna), Ljusdal (Gävleborg), Harads (Norrbotten), Karlstad (Värmland) and Örebro municipality (Örebro), the climate scenario suggests an approximately 2°C increase in monthly average summer temperatures leading to increases in outbreak durations ranging from 3.5 weeks (Harads) to 6.6 weeks (Karlstad) between 2010 and 2100. In contrast, an analysis of precipitation scenarios indicates fairly stable projected levels of precipitation during the summer months. Thus, there should not be an increased abundance of late summer mosquitoes that are believed to be main vectors for transmission to humans in these areas. In conclusion, the results indicate that the future climate changes will lead to an increased burden of tularaemia in high-endemic areas of Sweden during the coming decades. PMID:20052432

  11. Psychotherapy in Sweden: historical background, current status, and future projections.

    PubMed

    Seeman, K; Lauren, K

    1984-01-01

    From medieval times, care of the emotionally disturbed in Sweden has shifted between moralistic and enlightened approaches. In this century through the 1960s, organic methods have predominated, with emphasis on description and precise diagnosis. Psychodynamic treatment has been only reluctantly accepted until the past decade, with child psychiatrists and psychologists at the forefront. Norway has typically been most progressive in the establishment of psychoanalytic and other psychodynamic movements in Scandinavia, with Sweden following and Denmark often lagging behind. In 1970, Norway became the first Scandinavian country to require training in psychotherapy for psychiatrists. Sweden remained more conservative for years, both in adherence to the organic model at one extreme, and in supporting one of the most orthodox psychoanalytic movements in the world, at the other. During the 1970s, however, it became increasingly more common for psychiatrists in Sweden to seek training in psychotherapy through a variety of organizations, established since the early 1930s and operating independently of each other. In 1978, a uniform state program in psychotherapy was developed with theoretical and practical requirements, and is scheduled in the near future to become obligatory for psychiatrists, psychologists, and various other mental health professionals. The paramedical personnel has become increasingly more involved in mental health care during the past decade. In delivery of care, the "sectorization" principle has become central, and is likely to set the tone for the future. With the entire country divided into local catchment areas, the direction will be toward psychodynamic approaches integrated with traditional organic models, open care, decentralization, planned prophylaxis, and full collaboration of all mental health professionals and social agencies. PMID:6369994

  12. Increased occurrence of lightning flashes in Sweden during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, S.; Schuette, T.; Pisler, E.; Lundquist, S.

    1987-09-20

    As a result of the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, USSR, a considerable increase in radioactive background radiation was noted in some regions of Sweden. In areas with high radioactive fallout an increase in the amount of lightning flashes was observed during the 1986 thunderstorm season. A statistical test shows that there is a risk of less than 1% that the observed difference has occurred by mere chance. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  13. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    PubMed

    Lindau, L

    1977-08-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  14. Specialist paediatric dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer

    2010-09-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.

  15. The impact of health economic evaluations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results.

  16. Serum PDGF-AB in pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Neri, Monica; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Betta, Pier Giacomo; Cafferata, Mara A; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Puntoni, Riccardo; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Paganuzzi, Michela

    2005-01-01

    Overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been observed in lung and pleural tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum PDGF in pleural mesothelioma (PM). Four groups of subjects were studied: 93 malignant PM patients, 33 primary non small cell lung cancer patients, 51 subjects exposed to asbestos, defined as high-risk controls, and 24 healthy controls. PDGF-AB mean concentration was higher in PM patients (45.8 ng/ml) than in high-risk controls (33.1 ng/ml) and healthy controls (26.8 ng/ml). Using the cut-off level of 49.8 ng/ml, corresponding to the mean+2SD of PDGF-AB in healthy controls, 43% of PM patients showed positive PDGF-AB levels. Survival was evaluated in 82 PM patients. At the end of the follow-up (median 9.8 months) 80.5% of patients had died. Median survival was 13.1 and 7.9 months for patients with PDGF-AB lower and higher than the cut-off, respectively. Adjusting for age, sex, histology and platelet count, positive PDGF-AB levels were associated with lower survival (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0.9-1.6), even if not significantly so. In conclusion, serum PDGF may represent a useful additional parameter to prognostic factors already available for PM.

  17. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm's canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  18. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: Aerosol experiments ABCOVE AB5, AB6, AB7, and LACE LA2

    SciTech Connect

    Souto, F.J.; Haskin, F.E.; Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-10-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been used to model four of the large-scale aerosol behavior experiments conducted in the Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) vessel. Tests AB5, AB6 and AB7 of the ABCOVE program simulate the dry aerosol conditions during a hypothetical severe accident in an LMFBR. Test LA2 of the LACE program simulates aerosol behavior in a condensing steam environment during a postulated severe accident in an LWR with failure to isolate the containment. The comparison of code results to experimental data show that MELCOR is able to correctly predict most of the thermal-hydraulic results in the four tests. MELCOR predicts reasonably well the dry aerosol behavior of the ABCOVE tests, but significant disagreements are found in the aerosol behavior modelling for the LA2 experiment. These results tend to support some of the concerns about the MELCOR modelling of steam condensation onto aerosols expressed in previous works. During these analyses, a limitation in the MELCOR input was detected for the specification of the aerosol parameters for more than one component. A Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) sensitivity study of the aerosol dynamic constants is presented for test AB6. The study shows the importance of the aerosol shape factors in the aerosol deposition behavior, and reveals that MELCOR input/output processing is highly labor intensive for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses based on LHS.

  19. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colby A.; Sundh, Martin; Mikko, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    In Sweden, knowledge of the location and timing of glacially induced faulting and seismicity is critical to effective engineering of a long-term nuclear disposal facility. To improve understanding and modeling of the complex ice-induced and tectonic stresses associated with glacially induced faulting, field studies detailing the location and timing of movement of such structures are required. Although the fault has not been confirmed in the bedrock, multi-proxy surficial geologic evidence indicates that the recently discovered scarp in Bollnäs is such a structure. Machine-excavated trenches across the scarp reveal landsliding down the scarp and, in one location, faulted and vertically offset fine-grained glacial sediments. The presence of water-escape structures in trenches excavated on a topographic high strongly suggests a co-seismic origin derived from earthquake magnitudes >5.5. Numerous landslides in till exist in the region as well. Four slopes with landslides were examined in detail, and the factors of safety for these slopes indicate stable conditions and suggest a seismic trigger. Basal radiocarbon dates from peat bogs located stratigraphically above the landslides provide minimum limiting ages for the co-seismic landslides. The oldest date indicates sliding prior to 10,180 calendar years before the present. The proposed Bollnäs Fault is 400 km south of the so called Lapland Fault Province. To date, it is the southernmost confirmed glacially induced fault in Sweden. The results of this study are consistent with existing modeling results that indicate fault instability in this region of central Sweden following deglaciation.

  20. Uranium in the Upper Cambrian black shale of Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1955-01-01

    The Peltura zone of the Upper Cambrian black shales of Sweden contains about 0.02 percent uranium. Maximum amounts are present in rocks deposited in an embayment in the sea and in rocks in or closely adjacent to that part of the vertical sequence that contains maximum amounts of distillable oil, total organic matter, pyrite, and a black highly uraniferous kerogen called "kolm". Available data suggest that the precipitation of uranium is favored by a low redox potential and that the uranium in the shale matrix may be in fine-grained kolm.

  1. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. PMID:25201049

  2. Privatization and quality: Evidence from elderly care in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Mats A; Johansson, Per; Lundberg, Sofia; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2016-09-01

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates - an important and not easily contractible quality dimension - using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. PMID:27394007

  3. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  4. Family carers. 1: Difficulties and levels of support in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundh, U

    Sweden has a well developed welfare system and until fairly recently the needs of family carers have received limited attention. However, there is now a growing acceptance of the need to provide better and more sensitive support services. Using questionnaires validated in the UK and translated into Swedish, this series of four articles considers the difficulties, satisfactions and coping mechanisms of a sample of Swedish carers, identifying the implications of the results for the design and delivery of healthcare interventions. This article focuses on carers' perceived difficulties and their satisfaction with existing levels of help.

  5. Sweden beyond oil: nuclear commitments and solar options.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, M; Johansson, T B; Steen, P

    1980-05-01

    The project "Energy and Society," sponsored by the Swedish Secretariat for Futures Studies, has studied different indigenous energy sources as alternatives to imported oil in Sweden. One alternative is nuclear energy, antoer is renewable energy. Large uncertainties are associated with both alternatives today. The main characteristics of an energy policy for the rest of the century that does not foreclose either of these options have been identified. Such a policy will have to be based on an understanding of similarities and differences between the alternatives. A nuclear and a solar energy system have been outlined as a basis for an analysis of technical, economic, and institutional issues.

  6. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  7. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  8. Masses and activity of AB Doradus B a/b. The age of the AB Dor quadruple system revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, U.; Czesla, S.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Robrade, J.; Engels, D.; Wieringa, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the close binary AB Dor Ba/b (Rst137B). Our study comprises astrometric orbit measurements, optical spectroscopy, X-ray and radio observations. Using all available adaptive optics images of AB Dor B taken with VLT/NACO from 2004 to 2009, we tightly constrain its orbital period to 360.6 ± 1.5 days. We present the first orbital solution of Rst 137B and estimate the combined mass of AB Dor Ba+b as 0.69+0.02-0.24 M⊙, slightly exceeding previous estimates based on IR photometry. Our determined orbital inclination of Rst 137B is close to the axial inclination of AB Dor A inferred from Doppler imaging. Our VLT/UVES spectra yield high rotational velocities of ≥30 km s-1 for both components Ba and Bb, in accord with previous measurements, which corresponds to rotation periods significantly shorter than one day. Our combined spectral model, using PHOENIX spectra, yields an effective temperature of 3310 ± 50 K for the primary and approximately 60 K less for the secondary. The optical spectra presumably cover a chromospheric flare and show that at least one component of Rst 137B is significantly active. Activity and weak variations are also found in our simultaneous XMM-Newton observations, while our ATCA radio data yield constant fluxes at the level of previous measurements. Using evolutionary models, our newly determined stellar parameters confirm that the age of Rst 137B is between 50 and 100 Myr. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 383.D-1002(A) and the ESO Science Archive Facility. Using data obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and NASA. Using data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).

  9. Epidemiology and ecology of tularemia in Sweden, 1984-2012.

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984-2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984-1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999-2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers.

  10. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services. PMID:26460449

  11. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services.

  12. Molecular epidemiology and clinical manifestations of human cryptosporidiosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Insulander, M; Silverlås, C; Lebbad, M; Karlsson, L; Mattsson, J G; Svenungsson, B

    2013-05-01

    This study describes the epidemiology and symptoms in 271 cryptosporidiosis patients in Stockholm County, Sweden. Species/genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S rRNA genes. Species were C. parvum (n=111), C. hominis (n=65), C. meleagridis (n=11), C. felis (n=2), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype 1 (n=2), and a recently described species, C. viatorum (n=2). Analysis of the Gp60 gene revealed five C. hominis allele families (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, If), and four C. parvum allele families (IIa, IIc, IId, IIe). Most C. parvum cases (51%) were infected in Sweden, as opposed to C. hominis cases (26%). Clinical manifestations differed slightly by species. Diarrhoea lasted longer in C. parvum cases compared to C. hominis and C. meleagridis cases. At follow-up 25-36 months after disease onset, 15% of the patients still reported intermittent diarrhoea. In four outbreaks and 13 family clusters, a single subtype was identified, indicating a common infection source, which emphasizes the value of genotyping for epidemiological investigations.

  13. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Evander, Magnus; Putkuri, Niina; Eliasson, Mats; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Vapalahti, Olli; Ahlm, Clas

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45–54 years for men and 55–64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus. PMID:26928830

  14. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  15. Trends in "avoidable" mortality in Sweden, 1974-1985.

    PubMed Central

    Westerling, R

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to analyse trends in "avoidable" mortality in Sweden, and to contribute to the methodology of avoidable mortality as an index of the quality of care. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Swedish citizens and other residents in Sweden during the period 1974-1985 were analysed as to causes of death between ages 0 and 64 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Total mortality delined during the 12 year period studied. Avoidable causes of death were grouped into preventable and treatable causes according to Rutstein's classification. In men, treatable diseases declined more during the 12 year period studied than did total mortality. When lung cancer was excluded, preventable diseases declined for both sexes. Certain avoidable causes of death decreased compared to total mortality, while some others showed an increase. The death rate increased for some avoidable causes of death such as pneumonia other than viral. In women death rates increased for chronic bronchitis and emphysema as well as for malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung, while for boys aged 1-14 years bronchitis NOS and asthma showed an increasing death rate. CONCLUSIONS--The study indicates that the avoidable mortality method is sensitive enough to describe important changes in the mortality pattern. The explicit definition of treatable and preventable causes of death constitutes a methodological development in epidemiological analysis of this type. Further studies on the quality of care should combine this method with other methods examining the structure and process of health care. PMID:1479317

  16. Misclassified maternal deaths among East African immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elebro, Karin; Rööst, Mattias; Moussa, Kontie; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2007-11-01

    Western countries have reported an increased risk of maternal mortality among African immigrants. This study aimed to identify cases of maternal mortality among immigrants from the Horn of Africa living in Sweden using snowball sampling, and verify whether they had been classified as maternal deaths in the Cause of Death Registry. Three "locators" contacted immigrants from Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia to identify possible cases of maternal mortality. Suspected deaths were scrutinised through verbal autopsy and medical records. Confirmed instances, linked by country of birth, were compared with Registry statistics. We identified seven possible maternal deaths of which four were confirmed in medical records, yet only one case had been classified as such in the Cause of Death Registry. At least two cases, a significant number, seemed to be misclassified. The challenges of both cultural and medical competence for European midwives and obstetricians caring for non-European immigrant mothers should be given more attention, and the chain of information regarding maternal deaths should be strengthened. We propose a practice similar to the British confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. In Sweden, snowball sampling was valuable for contacting immigrant communities for research on maternal mortality; by strengthening statistical validity, it can contribute to better maternal health policy in a multi-ethnic society.

  17. European Linguistic Diversity--For Whom? The Cases of Finland and Sweden. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainio, Jarmo

    Linguistic diversity in the Nordic countries has several dimensions. One main division is between what the majority group thinks it is about versus what the minority group thinks it is about. This paper examines the situation in Finland and Sweden, noting implications for linguistic diversity. Finland and Sweden contain five main varieties of…

  18. The Planetspeak Discourse of Lifelong Learning in Sweden: What Is an Educable Adult?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of the educable adult subject in Sweden and the ways this idea has re-emerged in different practices during the twentieth century. It's a policy analysis where official documents from the twentieth century and early twenty-first century concerned with adult education in Sweden are analysed based on the Foucauldian…

  19. The Narrative of Special Education in Sweden: History and Trends in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjörne, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Access to public education that provides equal opportunities for all is a democratic right for every person living in Sweden. In addition, every child should as far as possible be included in the mainstream school. An official story that is taken for granted in Sweden is that an extremely low proportion of children are in need of special support,…

  20. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  1. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  2. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  3. Consultation in Special Needs Education in Sweden and Finland: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Christel; von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée; Ström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The article compares the conditions and implementation of special education professionals' consulting task in Sweden and Finland. The article first describes the background of the consulting teacher role and special education in Sweden and in Finland. Two different perspectives in the continuum on consultation are presented, followed by a…

  4. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  5. A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

  6. Educational Reform and Class Cleavages in Social Democratic Regimes: The Case of Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between the educational system of Sweden and its social class structure. The first section provides background information on Sweden's social democratic system which exhibits a strong tendency towards pragmatism, practicality, rationality, efficiency, competence, and educational planning.…

  7. Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredkin, D. R.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.; Komornicki, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that with increased computer power and improved computational techniques, such as the gradients developed in recent years, it is becoming practical to compute spectra ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature, for systems of increasing complexity. The present investigation has the objective to explore several possible ab initio approaches to spectra, giving particular attention to infrared and nonresonance Raman. Two approaches are discussed. The sequential approach, in which first the electronic part and then later the nuclear part of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is solved, is appropriate for small systems. The simultaneous approach, in which the electronic and nuclear parts are solved at the same time, is more appropriate for many-atom systems. A review of the newer quantum gradient techniques is provided, and the infrared and Raman spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed.

  8. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm’s canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  9. Towards a LiDAR based geomorphological database of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gustaf; Smith, Colby A.

    2013-04-01

    Geomorphological maps can be important for both societal development and scientific research especially with the use of new technology and consideration for the end user's needs. Since 2009, the Swedish mapping agency (Lantmäteriet) has been using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to create a detailed "bare earth" digital elevation model (DEM) of Sweden. Presently, a LiDAR derived DEM with 2 m horizontal and 0.25 m vertical resolution exist for about half of the country. This data set enables viewing of the landscape in a new more detailed way; landforms never before seen can now be delineated easily in a desktop environment. We are using this DEM to map the geomorphology, bringing into existence a highly detailed, digitial, geomorphologic database and map. While prior geomorphological maps exist for Sweden, the new map being compiled by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) will be the first one to be derived from and presented in an entirely digital format. With the use of GIS technology, it is possible to present a map with different layers and symbology depending on the scale of the area of interest. For example, when looking at a map at a small scale, every moraine within a moraine complex is visible, but when viewed at a larger scale the moraine complex is presented as a single object. The digital presentation allows users to select scale-appropriate geomorphological data to their needs. By coupling other SGU or external databases with the geomorphological database it is possible to produce a wide range of products suitable for a wide range of uses. For example, by adding bedrock or geochemical data to landforms indicative of ice flow direction, a product useful for mineral prospecting is created. Other derivative applications may include groundwater studies or evaluation of geoheritage areas. Regarding scientific applications, the new LiDAR data have enabled mapping of geomorphic landforms in greater detail than previous Swedish maps. In addition

  10. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  11. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  12. Early retirement pensions in Sweden: trends and regional variations.

    PubMed

    Berglind, H

    1978-01-01

    The total number of early retirement pensiones has risen sharply since the end of the 1960s. The increase was greatest during the early 1970s following a reform in 1970 which extended the right to early retirement pension to older workers because of labour market considerations. This article discusses various conceivable explanations for the growth in the number of early retirement pensioners and regional variations of this phenomenon. The following explanatory factors are considered: (a) The prospects of getting (keeping) a job. (b) Work capacity. (c) The nature of the pension scheme. (d) Alternative possibilities of support. (e) Preferences concerning early retirement pensions. The discussion focuses on two explanations highlighted in the public debate in Sweden: changes in pension legislation and the role of the solidarity wages policy. An empirical analysis of variations at the provincial level reveals a definite correlation between the proportion of early retirement pensioners and various indices of unemployment and underemployment. PMID:635502

  13. Pathological withdrawl of refugee children seeking asylum in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2006 there was an 'epidemic' of complete withdrawal from daily life among numerous children in refugee families seeking asylum in Sweden. It became embedded in many distinct controversies, including the politics of immigration, and acrimonious disagreements between pediatricians dealing with individual families, and government-employed sociologists commissioned to report on what was going on. Most of the cases resolved themselves when an amnesty was agreed in 2006, although there remain many doubts about the statistics. After describing this phenomenon, the paper proposes a (non-exclusive) model called Imitation & Internalisation. Most of the children may have begun by imitating others who had fallen ill, but soon internalized it to the extent that it became an integral part of their psychophysical and social constitution. The model can be applied to phenomena as diverse as hypnotism, the placebo effect, and catching faith by association with believers (Pascal's wager). PMID:21112004

  14. Reflecting the World Report on Disability: a report from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant

    2014-01-01

    There is a range of statistics in Sweden regarding people with functional limitations available from different authorities presenting diverging information. Although healthcare and social welfare legislations aim for equal access and treatment, surveys about unmet needs show that opportunities for rehabilitation are unequal among diagnoses and around the country and insufficient in the long-term. There is also a law granting certain supports and services to those people who are considered to be in need of having someone to speak for them. Disability-related services are tax financed with a symbolic fee. Rehabilitation is performed by not only physical and rehabilitation medicine specialists. Rehabilitation research is mainly within healthcare science but also in social science. Disability services need better coordination, and an agency has recently been founded with this responsibility. More politicians should engage in disability-related issues, and more people with disability should get into politics.

  15. Pathological withdrawl of refugee children seeking asylum in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2006 there was an 'epidemic' of complete withdrawal from daily life among numerous children in refugee families seeking asylum in Sweden. It became embedded in many distinct controversies, including the politics of immigration, and acrimonious disagreements between pediatricians dealing with individual families, and government-employed sociologists commissioned to report on what was going on. Most of the cases resolved themselves when an amnesty was agreed in 2006, although there remain many doubts about the statistics. After describing this phenomenon, the paper proposes a (non-exclusive) model called Imitation & Internalisation. Most of the children may have begun by imitating others who had fallen ill, but soon internalized it to the extent that it became an integral part of their psychophysical and social constitution. The model can be applied to phenomena as diverse as hypnotism, the placebo effect, and catching faith by association with believers (Pascal's wager).

  16. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change. PMID:26334698

  17. Morphometry and hydrology of the four large lakes of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kvarnäs, H

    2001-12-01

    The four largest Swedish lakes Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren and Hjälmaren all have a tectonic origin with multidirectional fault fissures, which influence the topography of the bottoms and the creation of subbasins. All the four lakes have been subject to several glacials, the latest of which started to recede from central Sweden c. 10,000 years ago. The many differences between the four lakes can be explained by their shapes, sizes and the relation between the sizes of the drainage basins and the size of the lakes. This paper focuses on processes considered relevant to aquatic organisms of the lakes: water balance, water residence time, water temperature, water exchange between subbasins within the lakes, and other internal water movements. Links between pollution, water exchange and retention of nutrients are discussed with an example from Lake Vänern.

  18. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  19. Mortality pattern in a glass producing area in SE Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Wingren, G; Axelson, O

    1985-01-01

    Because of discharges, mainly of lead, from glassworks in an otherwise rural and unpolluted area in southeast Sweden the population became concerned about the potential risks of cancer and an epidemiological study was requested. The total and the specific cancer mortality in the three parishes around the glassworks were found to be approximately normal, both by comparison with national death rates and the death rates of another, similarly rural, area. More interesting results, however, were obtained in several case-referent studies also undertaken to study mortality from specific cancer sites and cardiovascular disease with regard to employment in the glassworks. A significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer, especially in glassblowers, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease was observed among the glassworkers. Occupational exposures in the glassworks, especially to arsenic, may be of aetiological importance. PMID:4005195

  20. Occupational risks for pleural mesothelioma in Sweden, 1961-79.

    PubMed

    Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Erickson, J L; Blot, W J

    1985-01-01

    From national population-based registries linking cancer incidence from 1961 to 1979 with 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, a systematic assessment was made of pleural mesothelioma occurrence according to occupational and industrial classifications. There were 318 cases of pleural mesothelioma recorded during the 19-year follow-up period among males employed in 1960, with significant variation by industrial and occupational categorizations. The observed number of pleural mesotheliomas for men employed in the sugar refining, cellulose, wood and pulp, shipbuilding, and railroad equipment manufacturing industries was more than three times the number expected. Occupations with at least twofold excess of mesotheliomas included the craftsman categories of plumbers, mechanics and repairmen, electricians, painters, tire makers, and stationary equipment operators. Our findings are consistent with available data relating mesothelioma to occupational asbestos exposure in other countries, although unexpected associations were found that deserve further epidemiologic study.

  1. Recent data on cancer due to asbestos in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Englund, A

    1995-01-01

    Asbestos exposure in Sweden rapidly grew in the '50s and '60s, and then began to drop at the beginning of the '70s. The number of pleural mesotheliomas due to this exposure increased to some 80 a year during the second half of the '80s, and is rapidly increasing. The jobs with the highest risk are the wood and pulp industry, plumbing, shipbuilding, and, most of all, railroad manufacturing and sugar refineries. Data dealing with peritoneal mesotheliomas are more uncertain, and possibly misleading. As far as lung cancer incidence is concerned, it remains high in plumbers and insulators, while it declined to the expected levels in the other categories of exposed workers.

  2. The development of new psychiatric legislation in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johanson, E

    1993-01-01

    The development of Swedish psychiatric legislation is summarized, from the law that came into force on 1 January 1967 to the new law promulgated on 1 January 1992. There are now separate laws for (a) patients who are seriously mentally disturbed and urgently in need of psychiatric hospital care; who oppose care or evidently lack capacity to express a well-grounded opinion as to their needs; and (b) patients sentenced by court to forensic psychiatric care, who have to be seriously mentally disturbed but need not oppose care. As earlier, it seems to be possible to take care of them in general psychiatric wards but special wards for forensic psychiatric care are anticipated. Sweden so far has few such facilities.

  3. Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, Asa

    2014-01-01

    After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been "in control" of their senses or not "in complete control" of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged.

  4. Unintentional Nonhunting Firearm Deaths in Sweden, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Sjöberg, Ameli; Eriksson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    We examined the association between unintentional nonhunting firearm deaths and changes in firearm legislation in Sweden. There were 43 fatalities during the study time frame 1983-2012, representing 46% of all unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The victims were predominantly young males (mean age 25 years). Slightly more than half of the deaths were caused by another person and were inflicted at close range. The main cause of the incidents was human error. The majority of the involved firearms were legal; however, most victims killed with illegal firearms were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time. The death rate decreased significantly following the introduction of the hunter's examination in 1985. Education and training associated with the hunter's examination was at least partially responsible for the decline in fatalities after 1985. Future prevention should target the availability of illegal firearms. PMID:27364274

  5. Recurrent education policy in Sweden: A moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenson, Kjell

    1994-05-01

    The initiative to establish a programme of recurrent education in Sweden arose from a government commission appointed in 1968. The idea received strong support from certain sections of the Swedish trade union movement, who saw it as a way of sharing the benefits of education more equitably among the population. The scheme, however, ran into opposition and was never implemented as a comprehensive strategy. In the 1980s, with the shift of emphasis towards the private sector and the rapid development of information technology, the idea of recurrent education reappeared, although not explicitly acknowledged as official policy. During this period there was a rapid expansion of courses sponsored by employers. Under the present government, recurrent education has ceased to play an important role in education policy. The author argues that these shifts in priorities illustrate how education, and especially adult and recurring education, acts as an arena for ideological struggle.

  6. Unintentional Nonhunting Firearm Deaths in Sweden, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Sjöberg, Ameli; Eriksson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    We examined the association between unintentional nonhunting firearm deaths and changes in firearm legislation in Sweden. There were 43 fatalities during the study time frame 1983-2012, representing 46% of all unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The victims were predominantly young males (mean age 25 years). Slightly more than half of the deaths were caused by another person and were inflicted at close range. The main cause of the incidents was human error. The majority of the involved firearms were legal; however, most victims killed with illegal firearms were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time. The death rate decreased significantly following the introduction of the hunter's examination in 1985. Education and training associated with the hunter's examination was at least partially responsible for the decline in fatalities after 1985. Future prevention should target the availability of illegal firearms.

  7. Burnout: from popular culture to psychiatric diagnosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2009-12-01

    This article aims to understand how burn-out became an object of thought, through the study of certain processes of legitimization. It traces the genealogy of the burn-out concept from the initial article from 1974, via its confirmation as a "disease" in the 1980s, to its appearance as a legitimate diagnosis in Sweden in 1997. The theoretical framework is that of applied metaphysics, which means a study on how a specific phenomenon came into being. Consequently, I take departure from ontology in motion with an approach that concerns the legitimization processes. The conclusion will show the underlying processes of legitimization in relation to the making of a psychiatric object of thought in Swedish society.

  8. Use of creative activities in occupational therapy practice in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Ivarsson, Ann Britt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of creative activities in occupational therapy in Sweden and how often Swedish occupational therapists use creative activities as a means of intervention. A web-mail survey was sent to 2975 Swedish occupational therapists working in health care at regional, county council or primary health care level, and those working in vocational rehabilitation. A total of 1867 (63%) answered the questionnaire and showed that 44% did use creative activities as a means of intervention and most often by practitioners working in psychiatric health care. The most commonly used form of creative activity was arts and crafts followed by gardening. This web-mail survey was based on a limited amount of items regarding creative activities. Further research should focus on in-depth inquiries about how occupational therapists and their patients perceive the use of creative activities as a means of treatment in occupational therapy. PMID:22489029

  9. Reflecting the World Report on Disability: a report from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant

    2014-01-01

    There is a range of statistics in Sweden regarding people with functional limitations available from different authorities presenting diverging information. Although healthcare and social welfare legislations aim for equal access and treatment, surveys about unmet needs show that opportunities for rehabilitation are unequal among diagnoses and around the country and insufficient in the long-term. There is also a law granting certain supports and services to those people who are considered to be in need of having someone to speak for them. Disability-related services are tax financed with a symbolic fee. Rehabilitation is performed by not only physical and rehabilitation medicine specialists. Rehabilitation research is mainly within healthcare science but also in social science. Disability services need better coordination, and an agency has recently been founded with this responsibility. More politicians should engage in disability-related issues, and more people with disability should get into politics. PMID:24356082

  10. Understanding intraplate earthquakes in Sweden: the where and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Björn; Tryggvason, Ari; Chan, NeXun; Högdahl, Karin; Buhcheva, Darina; Bödvarsson, Reynir

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) underwent a rapid expansion and modernization between the years 2000 - 2010. The number of stations increased from 6 to 65, all broadband or semi-broadband with higher than standard sensitivity and all transmitting data in real-time. This has lead to a significant increase in the number of detected earthquakes, with the magnitude of completeness being approximately ML 0.5 within the network. During the last 15 years some 7,300 earthquakes have been detected and located, which can be compared to the approximately 1,800 earthquakes in the Swedish catalog from 1375 to 1999. We have used the recent earthquake catalog and various antropogenic sources (e.g. mine blasts, quarry blasts and infrastructure construction blast) to derive low resolution 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for entire Sweden. Including the blasts provides a more even geographical distribution of sources as well as good constraints on the locations. The resolution of the derived velocity models is in the 20 km range in the well resolved areas. A fairly robust feature observed in the Vp/Vs ratio of the derived models is a difference between the Paleoproterozoic rocks belonging to the TIB (Transscanidinavian Igneous Belt) and the Svecofennian rocks east and north of this region (a Vp/Vs ratio about 1.72 prevail in the former compared to a value below 1.70 in the latter) at depths down to 15 km. All earthquakes occurring since 2000 have been relocated in the 3D velocity model. The results show very clear differences in how earthquakes occur in different parts of Sweden. In the north, north of approximately 64 degrees latitude, most earthquakes occur on or in the vicinity of the Holocene postglacial faults. From 64N to approximately 60N earthquake activity is concentrated along the northeast coast line, with some relation to the offset in the bedrock from the onshore area to the offshore Bay of Bothnia. In southern Sweden earthquake activity is more widely

  11. Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, Asa

    2014-01-01

    After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been "in control" of their senses or not "in complete control" of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged. PMID:24315847

  12. [Voluntary versus compulsory sterilization in sweden then and now].

    PubMed

    Sjövall, H

    1975-01-22

    On June 27, 1974, the Commission on Sterilization submitted its report entitled "Voluntary Sterilization" to the Ministry of Justice. The present situation in Sweden exists because the original reasons for the law have been found untenable in practice, and the law itself is an obstacle to a sensible application. Consequently, the granting committee is now restricted as a practice which has "to a remarkable degree diverged from the working of the law and the intentions of the legislator" (Report, p. 82). The author illustrates this judgement by reviewing the Board of Health statistics on sterilization between 1935 and 1973, on legal abortion, including sterilizations compulsory for eugenically indicated abortion, and adds some critical comments on the proposals of the Commission. (Author's modified)

  13. New ways of financing and organizing health care in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, S

    1994-01-01

    The health care system in Sweden has been undergoing radical change since 1991. The mainly public financed (90%) system with 26 autonomous counties spent 8.5% of its gross domestic product on health care in 1991. The main features of the 'paradigm shift' are: separation of production and financing; resource allocation to health districts in relation to the needs of the population; and introduction of public competition between health districts (purchasers) and hospitals (providers). The health district boards are responsible for the health care of the population in their district hospitals financed by their activities (e.g. through diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)) and quality aspects monitored by central authorities. A parliamentary committee (HSU 2000) is investigating how Sweden's health care system can be organized and financed in the future. Three models are analyzed: a reformed county council court model, a primary care-managed model, and a compulsory insurance model. Each model must be consistent with equity and public financing. From 1992 in the Stockholm county, five surgical specialties were paid for their activities according to DRGs for inpatient care and another system for outpatient care. The number of treated patients during 1992 increased by 8% in inpatient care, 50% in day surgery and by 15% in outpatient care. Taken together, the activities increased by 11%, which is slightly more than the expected 10% increase in productivity. (There was a 10% decrease in DRG prices from 1 January 1992.) The total costs decreased by 1% due to fewer personnel. Nothing has been reported concerning the quality of care, neither before nor after the model was introduced. From 1993, all somatic acute specialties are paid by DRGs and the equivalent outpatient classification systems. The results from 1993 will be presented in the autumn of 1994.

  14. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  15. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Kollberg, Linnea; Kerekes, Nora; Palm, Camilla; Carlström, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Halldner, Linda; Bölte, Sven; Gillberg, Christopher; Gumpert, Clara; Råstam, Maria; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems. PMID:22506305

  16. Trends in diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Fadl, Helena E; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes in pregnancy has been shown to increase in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity. In this national population-based study, we analyzed the trends for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes in pregnancy, and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden between 1998 and 2012. Research design and methods A population-based cohort study using the Swedish national medical birth registry data. The time periods were categorized into 3-year intervals and adjusted for maternal body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age in a logistic regression. Results Each type of diabetes increased over the studied 15-year period. Type 1 diabetes increased by 33.2% (22.2–45.3) and type 2 diabetes by 111% (62.2–174.4) in the adjusted model. Nordic women had the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes (0·47%) compared with other ethnic groups. The increase in GDM and, to a lesser extent, type 2 diabetes was explained by country of birth, BMI, and maternal age. The prevalence of GDM in Nordic women (0.7–0.8%) did not increase significantly over the time period. Conclusions All types of diabetes in pregnancy increased over the 15-year time period in Sweden. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI remains the key factor explaining the increase in GDM/type 2 diabetes. How to turn around the growing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy, with its short-term and long-term health effects on both mother and child, requires population-based interventions that reduce the likelihood of entering pregnancy with a raised BMI. PMID:27547412

  17. Nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma risk among immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-12-15

    Environmental exposures, particularly infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and tobacco, are known risk factors for oral cancer. Studies in migrants may provide valuable insight into the environmental and genetic etiology of cancer. We wanted to define nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma among immigrants in Sweden. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database (FCD) was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas among the first-generation immigrants compared to the native Swedes. The FCD included 1969 and 691 cases of nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma in the male and female Swedes and 178 and 65 cases in immigrants, respectively. The median age at diagnosis (years) was 63 among Swedes and 55 among immigrants. The risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was significantly higher in male (SIR = 35.6) and female (24.6) Southeast Asians, male (12.4) and female (34.7) North Africans, male (4.9) and female (10.9) Asian Arabs and some other male Asians immigrants (6.2 to 6.7). Among immigrants from European countries, only the men from former Yugoslavian showed an elevated risk (2.7). Hypopharyngeal carcinoma risk was only increased among the male immigrants from the Indian Subcontinent (5.4). Early life infection with EBV in countries of origin and probably a minor contribution by tobacco smoking may be the main environmental exposures influencing nasopharyngeal carcinoma risks among immigrants to Sweden. The high rates of hypopharyngeal carcinoma among Indian immigrants may point to a continued using of smokeless tobacco.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ljung, Rickard; Peterson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Johan; Heimerson, Inger; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences, measured by socioeconomic position, to assess the burden of disease using DALYs. We found that in Sweden one-third of the burden of the diseases we studied is unequally distributed. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of disease that take both mortality and morbidity into account can help policy-makers understand the magnitude of inequalities in health for different disease groups. PMID:15744401

  19. Suicide among young people aged 10-29 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hultén, A; Wasserman, D

    1992-06-01

    This study analyses the incidence of suicide among children and young people aged between 10 and 29 in Sweden, during the period 1974-1986. The study comprises 4,624 individuals whose deaths were the outcome of verified, E950-E959 (n = 3,511) and undetermined, E980-E989 (n = 1,113) suicides. Regression analysis of different age groups separately and all age groups combined shows that the frequency of suicide among children and young people in Sweden did not increase in this period. Nonetheless, mortality figures are high, especially for boys and young men aged 15-29. The maximum suicide-mortality rate (43.2 per 10,000) is noted for young men aged 25-29 in 1984. The male-female ratio with respect to deaths from suicide is 2.5 for the entire group, the smallest difference being in the 15-19 age group (1.7) and the largest in the 25-29 age group (2.8). Methods of committing suicide vary between the sexes and the various age groups. Boys and young men use violent methods more often, and this situation has remained stable throughout the 13-year period. Girls use non-violent methods to a greater extent, but young women aged 18-29 use violent and non-violent methods to almost the same extent. During the 13-year period studied, a change took place in the girls' and young women's choice of methods towards more violent methods in the 1980s compared with the 1970s. Regardless of sex, there are significantly (p less than 0.001) fewer married and more divorced people among those committing suicide compared with corresponding age groups in the overall population. PMID:1496332

  20. Familial cancer among consecutive uterine cancer patients in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uterine cancer (UC) represents 5.1% of all female malignancies in Sweden. Accumulation of UC in families occurs in around 5% of cases. We wanted to identify any familial association between UC and other selected cancers and to study the frequency of Lynch,Cowden and cancer syndromes among consecutive UC patients in Sweden. Methods 481 UC patients were included. Information on the cancer diagnoses of their relatives (first- (FDRs) and second-degree (SDRs) relatives and first cousins) was obtained. The relative frequencies of different cancers among relatives were compared to those in the Swedish general cancer population in 1970 and 2010. Families that fulfilled the criteria for hereditary cancer syndromes were tested for mutations in the causative genes. Families with at least one case of UC in addition to the index patient were compared to families with no additional cases to investigate possible characteristics of putative hereditary cancer syndromes. Results There was an increased prevalence of UC in our study population compared to the Swedish general cancer population in 1970 and 2010 (6% vs. 4% and 3%, respectively). Seven families had Lynch Syndrome according to the Amsterdam II criteria. No families fulfilled the criteria for Cowden syndrome. In total 13% of index patients had at least one relative with UC and these families tended to have more cases of early onset cancer among family members. In addition, 16% of index patients were diagnosed with at least one other cancer. No families fulfilled the criteria for Cowden syndrome. Conclusion We showed a familial clustering of UC among relatives of our index patients. Of the seven families with mutation-verified Lynch Syndrome, only one had been previously diagnosed, highlighting the need to increase gynecologists’ awareness of the importance of taking family history. Our data on multiple cancers and young age of onset in families with uterine cancer is compatible with the existence of additional

  1. Discontinued dental attendance among elderly people in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Grönbeck-Linden, Ingela; Hägglin, Catharina; Petersson, Anita; Linander, Per O.; Gahnberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to study the loss of dental attendance and a possible age trend among patients aged ≥65 years in Sweden. Regular dental check-ups are considered to be an important factor in maintaining oral health. Approximately 80% of the adult population in Sweden are enrolled in a regular check-up system; however, dental practitioners often find that older patients attend fewer check-ups. Old people may naturally lose contact with dental services as they move to special housing or die. In this systematic study, these factors were investigated and used as exclusion criteria. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for all patients (n = 4759) aged 65 or older from the electronic journal system in 3 large public dental clinics in 3 communities. Their dental records for the years 2004–2009 were studied longitudinally by 1 person at each clinic; 1111 patients were excluded (patients died during study period, wanted emergency care only, obtained special dental care allowance, moved from the community or moved to special housing, or left the clinic for another caregiver). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM). Results: Of the 3648 patients (1690 men and 1958 women) included in the study, 13% lost contact with their dental service over the course of the study (10% of those were aged 65–79 and 21% ≥80). The decrease in regular dental contact had a statistically significant association with increasing age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable number of older people living independently or with moderate supportive care in their own homes lost contact with dental service despite enrolment in a recall system. PMID:27382538

  2. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  3. Undoing Gender Through Legislation and Schooling: the Case of AB 537 and AB 394 IN California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-11-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools have an unconscious acceptance of heteronormativity and gendered norms, which undermines both the spirit and language of these laws. This paper examines how California schools can both change standard practices and realise the transformative social change that laws like AB 537 and AB 394 can instigate. I assert that the systemic implementation of these laws, through the adoption, enforcement and evaluation of existing AB 537 Task Force Recommendations, is necessary for their success. My second assertion is that AB 537 and AB 394 have the potential to change and reconstitute gender-based and heteronormative standards at school sites.

  4. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  5. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  6. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  7. Ab initio melting curve of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Preston, D. L.

    2015-11-01

    The melting curve of osmium up to a pressure P of 500 GPa is obtained from an extensive suite of ab initio quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations using the Z method. The ab initio P =0 melting point of Os is 3370 ±75 K; this range encompasses all of the available data in the literature and corroborates the conclusion of J. W. Arblaster [Platinum Metals Rev. 49, 166 (2005)], 10.1595/147106705X70264 that the melting temperature of pure Os is 3400 ±50 K and that the 3300 K typically quoted in the literature is the melting point of impure Os. The T =0 equation of state (EOS) of Os and the P dependence of the optimized c /a ratio for the hexagonal unit cell, both to pressures ˜900 GPa, are obtained in the ab initio approach as validation of its use. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (P ≲80 GPa) is found, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes the QMD data to higher pressures, in agreement with the more recent experimental EOS by Godwal et al. The theoretical melting curve of Os obtained earlier by Joshi et al. is shown to be inconsistent with our QMD results, and the possible reason for this discrepancy is suggested. Regularities in the melting curves of Os and five other third-row transition metals (Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au) could be used to estimate the currently unknown melting curves of Hf and Ir.

  8. Ab-initio phasing in protein crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, J. L.; Millane, Rick P.

    2000-11-01

    The central problem in the determination of protein structures form x-ray diffraction dada (x-ray crystallography) corresponds to a phase retrieval problem with undersampled amplitude data. Algorithms for this problem that have an increased radius of convergence have the potential for reducing the amount of experimental work, and cost, involved in determining protein structures. We describe such an algorithm. Application of the algorithm to a simulated crystallographic problem shows that it converges to the correct solution, with no initial phase information, where currently used algorithms fail. The results lend support to the possibility of ab initio phasing in protein crystallography.

  9. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  10. Relationship of Plummer-Vinson disease to cancer of the upper alimentary tract in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, L G; Sandström, A; Westling, P

    1975-11-01

    Sideropenic anemia with epithelial lesions (Plummer-Vinson syndrome) was previously very common among women in northern Sweden. The incidence of this condition is decreasing, however, because of better nutrition and improved health care. Plummer-Vinson syndrome as a sequela of previous sideropenic anemia still influences the pattern of hypopharyngeal and oral cancer in northern Sweden where the female/male ratio in these diseases is remarkably high and where cancer in the postcricoid part of the hypopharynx is relatively common. In Sweden as a whole, a decreasing trend in the incidence of hypopharyngeal cancer in women can be demonstrated, which is probably due to diminished prevalence of Plummer-Vinson syndrome.

  11. New challenges to medicare beneficiary access to mAbs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Precision binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to biological targets, their relative clinical success, and expansion of indications following initial approval, are distinctive clinical features. The relatively high cost of mAbs, together with the absence of a regulatory pathway to generics, stand out as distinctive economic features. Based on both literature review and primary data collection we enumerated mAb original approvals, supplemental indications and off-label uses, assessed payer formulary management of mAbs, and determined new challenges to Medicare beneficiary access to mAbs. We found that the FDA has approved 22 mAbs and 30 supplemental indications pertaining to the originally approved mAbs. In addition, there are 46 off-label use citations in officially recognized pharmaceutical compendia. Across Part B carriers and Part D plans, we found considerable variation in terms of coverage and conditions of reimbursement related to on- and off-label uses of mAbs. Our results point to four major challenges facing mAb developers, health care providers, Medicare beneficiaries, payers and policymakers. These include administrative price controls, coverage variation, projected shift from physician- to self-administered mAbs, and comparative effectiveness. We suggest more systematic use of “coverage with evidence development” as a means of optimally addressing these challenges. PMID:20046575

  12. Ab initio Study of HZnF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Léonard, C.; Chambaud, G.

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of highly correlated ab initio calculations, an accurate determination of the electronic structure and of the rovibrational spectroscopy has been performed for the electronic ground state of the HZnF system. Using effective core pseudopotentials for the Zn and F atoms and associated aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets, we have calculated, at the multireference configuration interaction level including the Davidson correction, the three-dimensional potential energy surface of the X1Σ+ ground state. The rovibrational energy levels have been obtained variationally, and the results have been discussed and compared with existing experimental data on the ground state of the close system HZnCl, which exhibits a complicated vibration-rotation spectrum. Our analysis shows that the nature of the H-ZnF bond is quite similar to that of the H-ZnCl bond, according to their bond lengths, harmonic frequencies of the H-Zn stretching mode, and dissociation energies into H and ZnF/ZnCl. The ab initio study of the electronic ground and excited states of ZnH and ZnH+ are also presented using similar level of calculations. Characteristic constants are given for the first bounded electronic states correlating to the first two dissociation asymptotes of the neutral and ionic diatomics.

  13. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  14. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-12-07

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  15. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Frisch, Michael J.; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-12-01

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li3 molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  16. Quantum phases of AB 2 fermionic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia-Correa, L. S.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-02-01

    A fermionic chain is a one-dimensional system with fermions that interact locally and can jump between sites in the lattice, in particular an AB n chain type, where A and B are sites that exhibit a difference in energy level of Δ and site B is repeated n-times, such that the unit cell has n +1 sites. A limit case of this model, called the ionic Hubbard model (n = 1), has been widely studied due to its interesting physics and applications. In this paper, we study the ground state of an AB 2 chain, which describes the material R 4[Pt 2(P 2O5H2)4X] · nH 2 O. Specifically, we consider a filling with two electrons per unit cell, and using the density matrix renormalization group method we found that the system exhibits the band insulator and Mott correlated insulator phases, as well as an intermediate phase between them. For couplings of Δ = 2,10 and 20, we estimate the critical points that separate these phases through the structure factor and the energy gap in the sector of charge and spin, finding that the position of the critical point rises as a function of Δ.

  17. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Gönül; Turabik, Meral

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 degrees C and 3.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  18. Structure, Biological Functions and Applications of the AB5 Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Beddoe, Travis; Paton, Adrienne W.; Le Nours, Jérôme; Rossjohn, Jamie; Paton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    AB5 toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of Escherichia coli. The AB5 toxins are so termed because they comprise a catalytic A-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric B-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. The molecular mechanisms by which these AB5 toxins cause disease have been largely unraveled, including recent insights into a novel AB5 toxin family, subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB). Furthermore, AB5 toxins have become a valuable tool for studying fundamental cellular functions, and are now being investigated for potential applications in the clinical treatment of human diseases. PMID:20202851

  19. Shocked Quartz Grains in the Early Cambrian Vakkejokk Brecccia, Sweden — Evidence of an Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwmark, C.; Ormö, J.; Nielsen, A. T.

    2016-08-01

    Here we present evidence, in the form of planar deformation features in quartz grains, that the Vakkejokk breccia, a 25 m thick, Lower Cambrian polymict breccia, situated in northernmost Sweden, was formed by an impact.

  20. Increasing risk for negative ozone impacts on vegetation in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, P E; Tang, L; Sundberg, J; Chen, D; Lindskog, A; Pleijel, H

    2007-11-01

    Trends were found for increasing surface ozone concentrations during April-September in northern Sweden over the period 1990-2006 as well as for an earlier onset of vegetation growing season. The highest ozone concentrations in northern Sweden occurred in April and the ozone concentrations in April showed a strong increasing trend. A model simulation of ozone flux for Norway spruce indicated that the provisional ozone flux based critical level for forests in Europe is exceeded in northern Sweden. Future climate change would have counteracting effects on the stomatal conductance and needle ozone uptake, mediated on the one hand by direct effect of increasing air temperatures and on the other through increasing water vapour pressure difference between the needles and air. Thus, there is a substantial and increasing risk for negative impacts of ozone on vegetation in northern Sweden, related mainly to increasing ozone concentrations and an earlier onset of the growing season.

  1. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... review (75 FR 57815, September 22, 2010). Due to a scheduling conflict with the hearing in another... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...

  2. Pharmaceutical management through environmental product labeling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wennmalm, Ake; Gunnarsson, Bo

    2009-07-01

    There is an increased awareness that medicinal products for human use may cause negative effects in the environment. In Sweden a voluntary environmental classification system for drugs has been established in collaboration between producers, authorities and the public health care, and used for five years. The idea is to enhance the market demand for medicines with less environmental impact, which in turn will stimulate the producers to design future medicines to be more environmentally friendly. The system is open to the public and based on assessment of the active ingredient in the medicinal product into several classes of risk and hazard, respectively. It is closely related to the EMEA guidelines. Risk is expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of the active ingredient (AI) and its predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The hazard is expressed in terms of the AI's persistence, potential to bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity. Drug data for the classification are delivered by the respective producers. Hitherto more than 300 AI, representing more than 50% of the Swedish volume of drug use, have been classified. Data for risk assessment were missing in 47% of AI. Among drugs with data 7% had a PEC/PNEC ratio >1, and another 7% had a ratio between 0.1 and 1. The AIs with highest ratio (>10) were two estrogens. Data for hazard assessment were lacking in 16% of the AI. Among drugs with environmental data 92% were not ready biodegradable, 23% had potential to bioaccumulation, and 61% were toxic to aquatic organisms at a concentration below 1 mg/l. These data are utilized by regional pharmaceutical expert groups when selecting substances to be recommended in public health care in Sweden. They may also be used by prescribing doctors who want to identify the environmentally most favourable substance among several with equivalent medical effect. We conclude that environmental data on human medicinal products are often missing, or

  3. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. PMID:26840007

  4. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  5. Anti-GD2 mAbs and next-generation mAb-based agents for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Horta, Zulmarie Perez; Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated efficacy in the clinic, becoming an important approach for cancer immunotherapy. Due to its limited expression on normal tissue, the GD2 disialogangloside expressed on neuroblastoma cells is an excellent candidate for mAb therapy. In 2015, dinutuximab (an anti-GD2 mAb) was approved by the US FDA and is currently used in a combination immunotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we review the extensive preclinical and clinical development of anti-GD2 mAbs and the different mechanisms by which they mediate tumor cell killing. In addition, we discuss different mAb-based strategies that capitalize on the targeting ability of anti-GD2 mAbs to potentially deliver, as monotherapy, or in combination with other treatments, improved antitumor efficacy.

  6. Vector-borne viral diseases in Sweden--a short review.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, B; Vene, S

    1996-01-01

    Ockelbo disease, caused by a Sindbis-related virus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, was first described in the central part of Sweden in the 1960s as clusters of patients with fever, arthralgia and rash. An average annual rate of 30 cases was recorded in the 1980s but no cases have been diagnosed during the last few years. Nephropathia epidemica (NE) characterized by fever, abdominal pain and renal dysfunction has been known to cause considerable morbidity in Sweden during the last 60 years but the etiologic agent (Puumala virus) was not isolated until 1983. This virus's main reservoir is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). NE is endemic in the northern two thirds of Sweden where more than a hundred cases are diagnosed each year. Tick-borne encephalitis transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks is restricted to the archipelago and Lake M-alaren on the east coast close to Stockholm. Between 30 and 110 cases are diagnosed every year. Inkoo virus, a California encephalitis group virus, has been isolated from mosquitoes in Sweden. The antibody prevalence to Inkoo virus is very high in a normal population, but no disease has as yet been associated with this virus in Sweden. Among the vector-borne virus diseases imported to Sweden, dengue is the most important, with approximately 50 cases recorded every year.

  7. Vector-borne viral diseases in Sweden--a short review.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, B; Vene, S

    1996-01-01

    Ockelbo disease, caused by a Sindbis-related virus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, was first described in the central part of Sweden in the 1960s as clusters of patients with fever, arthralgia and rash. An average annual rate of 30 cases was recorded in the 1980s but no cases have been diagnosed during the last few years. Nephropathia epidemica (NE) characterized by fever, abdominal pain and renal dysfunction has been known to cause considerable morbidity in Sweden during the last 60 years but the etiologic agent (Puumala virus) was not isolated until 1983. This virus's main reservoir is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). NE is endemic in the northern two thirds of Sweden where more than a hundred cases are diagnosed each year. Tick-borne encephalitis transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks is restricted to the archipelago and Lake M-alaren on the east coast close to Stockholm. Between 30 and 110 cases are diagnosed every year. Inkoo virus, a California encephalitis group virus, has been isolated from mosquitoes in Sweden. The antibody prevalence to Inkoo virus is very high in a normal population, but no disease has as yet been associated with this virus in Sweden. Among the vector-borne virus diseases imported to Sweden, dengue is the most important, with approximately 50 cases recorded every year. PMID:8800805

  8. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  9. The epidemiology of anophthalmia and microphthalmia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Källén, Bengt; Tornqvist, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Infants with a clinical diagnosis of anophthalmia or microphthalmia were identified from four health registers in Sweden, covering different parts of the period 1965-2001. During the observation period, the rate of anophthalmia decreased from the early 1970s from 0.4 to 0.2 per 10,000 births. The registered rate of microphthalmia increased markedly during the observation period to reach a maximum in 1987 of about 1.5 per 10,000. About 10% of the 432 identified children had a chromosome anomaly. There was no geographical variation in prevalence and infants born in urban or rural districts had, if anything, a lower risk than infants born in cities (0.93 and 1.13 per 10,000, respectively). Non-eye malformations were more common at anophthalmia (63%) than at microphthalmia (30%). Sex ratio was normal and no statistically significant variation between sub-groups (anophthalmia, microphthalmia, isolated, associated with non-eye malformations) could be demonstrated. There was a marked risk increase with maternal age but no certain parity effect, no effect of maternal education, but a possible association with subfertility. Maternal smoking in early pregnancy seemed to increase the risk for anophthalmia or microphthalmia in the absence of a coloboma.

  10. First reported foodborne outbreak associated with microsporidia, Sweden, October 2009.

    PubMed

    Decraene, V; Lebbad, M; Botero-Kleiven, S; Gustavsson, A-M; Löfdahl, M

    2012-03-01

    Microsporidia are spore-forming intracellular parasites that infrequently cause disease in immunocompetent persons. This study describes the first report of a foodborne microsporidiosis outbreak which affected persons visiting a hotel in Sweden. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified in stool samples from 7/11 case-patients, all six sequenced samples were genotype C. To confirm that this was not a chance finding, 19 stool samples submitted by healthy persons from a comparable group who did not visit the hotel on that day were tested; all were negative for microsporidia. A retrospective cohort study identified 135 case-patients (attack rate 30%). The median incubation period was 9 days. Consumption of cheese sandwiches [relative risk (RR) 4·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4-12·2] and salad (RR 2·1, 95% CI 1·1-4) were associated with illness. Both items contained pre-washed, ready-to-eat cucumber slices. Microsporidia may be an under-reported cause of gastrointestinal outbreaks; we recommend that microsporidia be explored as potential causative agents in food- and waterborne outbreaks, especially when no other organisms are identified. PMID:21733266

  11. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  12. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Goeran Bjoerklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Soerbom, Adrienne

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  13. Variability of Methane in Stordalen Mire Stream Sediments, Abisko, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, A. J. D.; Horruitiner, C. D.; Lundgren, D. J.; Sinclair, S. N.; Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions from Stordalen Mire in subarctic Sweden have been increasing over the last century with rising atmospheric temperatures. Methane emissions from lakes in this region have shown a positive correlation with sediment and air temperatures. Previous studies have examined CH4 emissions of these lakes but the primary stream that flows along the edge the mire is understudied. Streams and rivers that exist in permafrost peatland environments are thought to be a pathway for the release of older carbon deposits from thawing permafrost. To understand the potential role of stream morphology and stratigraphy on CH4 concentrations and contributions to carbon cycling in this system, seven sediment cores were extracted from the stream and one from the adjacent lake. Cores were subsampled at 5cm depth intervals and analyzed for CH4 concentration, δ13CH4 isotopes, elemental CHNS and sediment grain size. Results from these analyses show that maximum CH4 concentrations in stream sediments occur at greater depths than in the adjacent lake sediments. Higher CH4 concentrations are observed in organic C rich layers in both environments. However, in stream sediments, CH4 appears to be produced within some stratigraphic intervals, but exists in others as the result of transport. Organic C/N ratios of the sediments indicate a predominance of terrestrial organic C but it is unclear whether the sediment organic C is the result of deposition of C from permafrost thaw or C that was deposited through the degradation of modern plant material.

  14. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives. PMID:18649447

  15. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives. PMID:20666303

  16. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B.

    1993-12-31

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished.

  17. Everyday places, heterosexist spaces and risk in contemporary Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Katarina Giritli; Öhman, Susanna; Olofsson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Subjective feelings of risk are a central feature of everyday life, and evidence shows that people who do not conform to contemporary normative notions are often more exposed to everyday risks than others. Despite this, normative notions are rarely acknowledged as risk objects. By drawing on the theory of 'doing' and 'undoing' risk, which combines intersectional and risk theory, this study contributes new perspectives on the everyday risks in contemporary society that face people who many would label as being 'at risk' - lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. The study consists of five focus group interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people of different ages in Sweden. Findings pinpoint risks and how these are done and un-done in different spheres of interviewees' lives: the emotional risks prevailing in their private lives; the risk of discrimination at work and in relations with other institutions; and the risk of violence and harassment in public places. These risks are all related to the heteronormative order in which the mere fact of being lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender is perceived as a risk. PMID:26242996

  18. Alcopops in Sweden--a supply side initiative.

    PubMed

    Romanus, G

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the introduction of alcopops and sweet ciders in Sweden in 1996, as a result of the membership of the European Union. Special attention is given to its effect on youth drinking. Surveys of young people show that alcopops and sweet ciders are perceived to be easy to drink and to have a sweet and pleasant taste, which tends to conceal the taste of alcohol. These results suggest that alcopops and sweet ciders should be regarded as one category of drinks. Alcopops and sweet ciders have penetrated the youth market rapidly. The introduction of these beverages accounted for approximately half of the increase in alcohol consumption by 15-16-year-old boys from 1996 to 1999, and two-thirds of the increase among girls, according to the surveys. A large proportion of the youth answered that alcopops and ciders did not replace any other alcoholic beverage. The paper also describes the public debate on alcopops and cider. The introduction of alcopops was criticized by the media and the responsible minister. Prominent spokesmen of the alcohol industry put themselves at a distance from these, primarily imported, products. The sales of alcopops have been declining since 1997. Sweet ciders, on the other hand, which in reality are synonymous with alcopops, have continued to increase during the whole period since 1996, and have not been subject to the same public criticism. PMID:11218355

  19. Cancer incidence in a petrochemical industry area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Gösta; Barregard, Lars; Holmberg, Erik; Sallsten, Gerd

    2010-09-15

    Emissions from petrochemical industries may contain suspected or established carcinogens. As increased incidence of cancer in residential areas close to petrochemical industries has been reported in the literature, we conducted a study of cancer incidence in Stenungsund, Sweden, where petrochemical industries were established in the mid 1960s. A number of cancer cases in the central parts of Stenungsund were collected from the regional cancer registry for each year between 1974 and 2005. In addition to the total number of cases, the numbers of leukemia, lymphoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, and brain cancer were also collected. Expected numbers for each year were calculated based on age- and sex-specific incidence rates in reference areas. Levels of carcinogenic volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) were estimated from measurements and emission data. A dispersion model was used to classify Stenungsund into a "low" and "high" ethylene level area. Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) for all cancer for the entire period was 1.02 (95% CI 0.97-1.08). The occurrence of leukemia, lymphoma, and cancer in the central nervous system was slightly lower than expected for the entire period. SIR for lung cancer was 1.37 (95% CI 1.10-1.69), and SIR for liver cancer was 1.50 (0.82-2.53). VOC levels were low. Taking estimated exposure and demographic factors into account, our assessment is that occurrence of cancer was not affected by industrial emissions in any of the studied sites.

  20. Strong association between glucocerebrosidase mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ran, Caroline; Brodin, Lovisa; Forsgren, Lars; Westerlund, Marie; Ramezani, Mehrafarin; Gellhaar, Sandra; Xiang, Fengqing; Fardell, Camilla; Nissbrandt, Hans; Söderkvist, Peter; Puschmann, Andreas; Ygland, Emil; Olson, Lars; Willows, Thomas; Johansson, Anders; Sydow, Olof; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Galter, Dagmar; Svenningsson, Per; Belin, Andrea Carmine

    2016-09-01

    Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA), originally implicated in Gaucher's disease, and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have investigated the possible involvement of genetic GBA variations in PD in the Swedish population. Three GBA variants, E326K, N370S, and L444P were screened in the largest Swedish Parkinson cohort reported to date; 1625 cases and 2025 control individuals. We found a significant association with high effect size of the rare variant L444P with PD (odds ratio 8.17; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-26.23; p-value = 0.0020) and a significant association of the common variant E326K (odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; p-value = 0.026). The rare variant N370S showed a trend for association. Most L444P carriers (68%) were found to reside in northern Sweden, which is consistent with a higher prevalence of Gaucher's disease in this part of the country. Our findings support the role of GBA mutations as risk factors for PD and point to lysosomal dysfunction as a mechanism contributing to PD etiology. PMID:27255555

  1. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539

  2. Timing and duration of autumn leaf development in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    The growing season is changing in both ends and autumn phases seem to be responding in more diverse ways than spring events. Indeed, we know little about autumn leaf phenological strategies and how they are correlated with fitness components or ecosystem properties, and how they vary between species and over bioclimatic gradients. In this study more than 10 000 students were involved in observing autumn leaf development at 378 sites all over Sweden (55-68°N). They followed an image based observation protocol classifying autumn leaf development into five levels, from summer green (level 0) to 100% autumn leaf colored (level 4) canopy. In total, they submitted almost 12 000 observations between August 9 and November 15. 75% of the observations were made on the common species of Populus tremula, Betula pendula/pubescens and Sorbus aucuparia. The expected (negative) correlation between latitude and start of leaf senescence (level 2) was found in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. The duration of the leaf senescence period, defined as the period between 1/3 (level 2) and 100% (level 4) of the canopy autumn leaf colored, was negatively correlated with latitude in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. There was also a strong (negative) correlation of the start (level 2) and the duration of the leaf senescence in the early senescing Sorbus and Betula, while this effect was weaker in the late senescing Populus.

  3. Airborne VLF measurements and mapping of ground conductivity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Laust B.; Persson, Lena; Bastani, Mehrdad; Byström, Sören

    2009-03-01

    Airborne VLF data are routinely collected by The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) as part of its bedrock mapping programme. In this paper we demonstrate that the novel Tensor VLF technique developed at Uppsala University and SGU can provide useful qualitative and quantitative information about the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper few hundred meters. Single transmitter scalar VLF maps emphasize those conductive structures that have dominant strikes in the direction of the transmitter. The tensor tipper (essentially the vertical magnetic field from currents along the strike direction) calculated from multiple transmitters is dependent only upon the underlying conductivity structure. Transformation of the tipper into the peaker (the horizontal divergence) has proven to enhance the lateral resolution while the transformation to the apparent resistivity can be used to discriminate different rock types. Two case histories from the application of VLF data are presented in this study. Two dimensional structures can be quantitatively modelled by modern inversion methods developed originally for deep electromagnetic MT soundings. Direct inversion of the real and imaginary parts of the tipper provides more quantitative information about the subsurface resistivity distribution.

  4. Inland transport of marine aerosols in southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Mats E. R.; Franzén, Lars G.

    The transport of marine aerosols across southern Sweden was studied using six meteorological stations in a transect from west- to east-coast. Measurements were made during dry westerlies on 10 occasions during 1995. The concentration and flux of salt in the air was measured using "salt vanes". It is concluded that marine salt is transported along the whole transect at all occasions and that the concentration and flux of salt decrease with downwind distance from the coast as an inversed power function. The two easternmost stations show a slight increase towards the east-coast. Variability of the data is high on the west coast due to strong influence from the coastal production of aerosols. This effect diminishes along downwind forming lower, less variable concentration further inland. Statistical models based on the data are in relatively good agreement with previous models and data. Further, salt content on Scots Pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L) needles after two westerly gale occasions, in profiles from west- to east-coast, were analysed. The Cl -/Na +, Ca 2+/Na +, K +/Na +, Mg 2+/Na + and SO 42-/Na + ratios were studied revealing a clear downwind decrease in Ca 2+/Na + and Mg 2+/Na +, a close to sea water ratio for Cl -/Na + and an excess of SO 42- along the profile. Also, the importance of degree of exposure was studied concluding that the roughness of the upwind surface is an important factor for the deposition onto trees in forest edges.

  5. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Finnveden, Göran; Björklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials. PMID:17412580

  6. Geohydrological data from the macropermeability experiment at Stripa, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.R.; Long, J.C.S.; Galbraith, R.M.; Karasaki, K.; Endo, H.K.; DuBois, A.O.; McPherson, M.J.; Ramqvist, G.

    1981-03-01

    The Macropermeability Experiment was conducted in a granite body adjacent to a recently abandoned iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. This experiment was conducted to measure the permeability of a large volume of low permeability, fractured rock. The experiment was conducted over 11 months in an approximately 4m x 4m x 33m drift at the 335 m level of the mine. Groundwater seepage into the drift was measured as the net moisture pickup of the ventilation system. Water pressure and temperature were monitored at 95 locations in the rock surrounding the drift. The data collection system was designed to provide in-situ averaging of the measured parameters, to ultimately estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the rock as if it were a porous medium. This report is limited to data presentation. It describes the types of data collected, the methods of measurement, and procedures used for data collection, storage, and reduction. Experimental errors are reviewed for all principal types of data. The data presented are sufficient to estimate (1) the rate of seepage of moisture into the drift; (2) the three-dimensional distribution of hydraulic head in the rock mass to a radial distance of 30 m from the drift; and (3) the three-dimensional distribution of temperature in the rock mass, also to a radial distance of 30 m. These data can in turn be used to estimate the intrinsic permeability of the monitored rock mass. Analysis and interpretation of these results will be presented in subsequent reports.

  7. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  8. Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.

  9. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  10. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  11. Dissecting the A-B personality type.

    PubMed

    Ray, J J; Bozek, R

    1980-06-01

    It is suggested that 'freneticism' might be an appropriate name for the type of personality said by Rosenman, Friedman and Jenkins to be at risk from coronary heart disease. In study 1 the measure of this personality type (the JAS) was given a uniform answer format and, as such, was found to give improved reliability. It was administered to a random postal sample of Australians. A short form of 24 items was also produced. In study 2 a similar sample received the 24-item form and scales to measure achievement motivation, dominance and extraversion. 'A' types were found to be very much achievement motivated and dominant. A factor analysis showed these two traits as the main components of the A-B concept with only a third factor of 'freneticism'. This factor was measured in a third study which showed that the factor could be used as a scale in its own right.

  12. Ab Initio Calculation of the Hoyle State

    SciTech Connect

    Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2011-05-13

    The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars heavier than our Sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-12 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than a half century ago nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this Letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low-lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2 state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of the properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy.

  13. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  14. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  15. Identification of AB-FUBINACA metabolites in authentic urine samples suitable as urinary markers of drug intake using liquid chromatography quadrupole tandem time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vikingsson, Svante; Gréen, Henrik; Brinkhagen, Linda; Mukhtar, Shahzabe; Josefsson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of psychoactive drugs presently widespread among drug users in Europe. Analytical methods to measure these compounds in urine are in demand as urine is a preferred matrix for drug testing. For most synthetic cannabinoids, the parent compounds are rarely detected in urine. Therefore urinary metabolites are needed as markers of drug intake. AB-FUBINACA was one of the top three synthetic cannabinoids most frequently found in seizures and toxicological drug screening in Sweden (2013-2014). Drug abuse is also reported from several other countries such as the USA and Japan. In this study, 28 authentic case samples were used to identify urinary markers of AB-FUBINACA intake using liquid chromatography quadrupole tandem time of flight mass spectrometry and human liver microsomes. Three metabolites suitable as markers of drug intake were identified and at least two of them were detected in all but one case. In total, 15 urinary metabolites of AB-FUBINACA were reported, including hydrolxylations on the indazole ring and the amino-oxobutane moiety, dealkylations and hydrolysis of the primary amide. No modifications on the fluorobenzyl side-chain were observed. The parent compound was detected in 54% of the case samples. Also, after three hours of incubation with human liver microsomes, 77% of the signal from the parent compound remained. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. AB1402: Design-Build Project Guidelines. 2002 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of School Facilities Planning.

    Assembly Bill (AB) 1402 authorized California's school districts to enter into design-build contracts for projects with design and construction costs exceeding $10 million. These guidelines are intended to accomplish the following purposes: (1) inform school districts of the design-build process under AB 1402; (2) help school districts to…

  17. History of California's AB 1725 and Its Major Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Tab

    This paper addresses the history of California's Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725) legislation and describes its major provisions. Signed in 1988 by Governor George Deukmejian, AB 1725's focus is to emphasize the new role of California community colleges as postsecondary institutions committed to transferring students, offering remedial courses, and…

  18. Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.

  19. Immigrants and the Mass Media in Sweden. Interviews with Yugoslav, Greek and Turkish Families in the South of Sweden. No. 9-76/77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowander, Birgitta

    This study builds on the findings of a prior study of the information needs of immigrant families in Sweden to explore the manner in which immigrants come in contact with and use the various channels of information available to them in their new surroundings, especially those channels carrying messages in the major migrant languages. Intended to…

  20. Lifelong Learning in Sweden: The Extent to Which Vocational Education and Training Policy Is Nurturing Lifelong Learning in Sweden. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann Kristin; Boudard, Emmanuel; Siminou, Petroula

    The extent to which vocational education and training (VET) policy is nurturing lifelong learning in Sweden was examined through a review of recent policy documents issued by various Swedish government agencies and data from comparative studies compiled by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Adult…

  1. How Do Teacher Students for Compulsory School Learn Compared to Music Teacher Students in Sweden? A Comparative Study of Two Different Student Teacher Groups in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. The teacher education systems are currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. Hence, it is importance for educational institutions to be aware of the different ways that their student teachers learn and it is importance…

  2. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  3. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Pershagen, G.; Akerblom, G.; Axelson, O.; Clavensjoe, B.D.; Damber, L.; Desai, G.; Enflo, A.; Lagarde, F.; Mellander, H.; Svartengren, M. )

    1994-01-20

    BACKGROUND. Residential radon is the principal source of exposure to ionizing radiation in most countries. To determine the implications for the risk of lung cancer, we performed a nationwide case-control study in Sweden. METHODS. The study included 586 women and 774 men 35 to 74 years of age with lung cancer that was diagnosed between 1980 and 1984. For comparison, 1380 female and 1467 male controls were studied. Radon was measured in 8992 dwellings occupied by the study subjects at some time since 1947. Information on smoking habits and other risk factors for lung cancer was obtained from questionnaires. RESULTS. Radon levels followed a log-normal distribution, with geometric and arithmetic means of 1.6 and 2.9 pCi per liter (60.5 and 106.5 Bq per cubic meter), respectively. The risk of lung cancer increased in relation to both estimated cumulative and time-weighted exposure to radon. In comparison with time-weighted average radon concentrations up to 1.4 pCi per liter (50 Bq per cubic meter), the relative risk was 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.6) for average radon concentrations of 3.8 to 10.8 pCi per liter (140 to 400 Bq per cubic meter), and it was 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.9) at concentrations exceeding 10.8 pCi per liter. The estimates of risk were in the same range as those projected from data in miners. The interaction between radon exposure and smoking with regard to lung cancer exceeded additivity and was closer to a multiplicative effect. CONCLUSIONS. Residential exposure to radon is an important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The risks appear consistent with earlier estimates based on data in miners.

  4. Birth weight and mammographic density among postmenopausal women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Rulla M; Eriksson, Louise; Lagiou, Pagona; Czene, Kamila; Ekbom, Anders; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Adami, Hans-Olov; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hall, Per

    2010-02-15

    Birth weight is a significant predictor of breast cancer risk in adult life and mammary gland mass could be an intermediate stage in this long process. We have studied the association of birth size measurements with mammographic density, a marker of mammary gland mass. For a population-based sample of 893 postmenopausal women without previous cancer in Sweden, we retrieved information on birth size from birth records and their most recent mammography. Film mammograms of the medio-lateral oblique view were digitized and the Cumulus software was used for computer-assisted semi-automated thresholding of mammographic density. Results were analyzed using generalized linear models controlling for possible confounders. Mean percent mammographic density increased when comparing the extreme categories of birth weight (from 15.6% to 18.6%) and head circumference (from 15.5% to 20.4%), and the corresponding linear trends were statistically significant (p values 0.02 and 0.007, respectively). The associations were particularly strong when the cutoff for high versus low mammographic density was set at the relatively high value of 50%. Compared to women weighing 3001-3500 grams at birth, women with birth weights >4000g were at almost 3-fold risk of developing high mammographic density (odds ratio: 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 7.9). No association with mammographic density was evident with respect to birth length which, however, is known to be less accurately measured. These results indicate that adult breast density, a powerful predictor of breast cancer risk, has intrauterine roots, as reflected in birth size. PMID:19642103

  5. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities.

  6. Understanding conditions behind speleothem formation in Korallgrottan, northwestern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, Hanna S.; Seibert, Jan; Holmgren, Karin

    2007-12-01

    SummaryIn this study we investigate and characterise the environmental factors that control active speleothem growth in Korallgrottan, northwestern Sweden, in order to get a better understanding of seepage processes in karst areas and to determine whether the fossil speleothems from this site are suitable as palaeoclimatic archives. The drip rates from fast-dripping stalactites (>100 ml/day) vary substantially with the season and the snow regime. Comparisons with measurements of river discharge and simulated ground water recharge show that the drip rate from fast-dripping stalactites can be used as an estimation of the weekly to monthly ground water recharge. Slow-dripping stalactites however, have a steadier drip rate, with almost no seasonal variations. The δ 18O composition of the drip water from both fast- and slow-dripping stalactites show some seasonal variation (±1.2‰), but is fairly stable compared to outside precipitation (±11.1‰). The δ 18O signal from fast-dripping stalactites is biased towards summer conditions, while the signal is dampened at slow-dripping sites and an annual or even longer signal is evident. This holds true even though calcite precipitation may not occur continuously throughout the year. Similarly, the trace elemental composition of drip water is more stable in the slow-dripping stalactites, reflecting mean annual values or longer. Generally the drip water reaches the highest saturation level during the summer and autumn when biological activity in the soil zone is most intense, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, which controls limestone dissolution, is high.

  7. Undoing Gender through Legislation and Schooling: The Case of AB 537 and AB 394 in California, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools…

  8. Alvar variable compression engine development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-30

    The Alvar engine is an invention by Mr. Alvar Gustafsson of Skarblacka, Sweden. It is a four stroke spark ignition internal combustion engine, having variable compression ratio and variable displacements. The compression ratio can be varied by means of small secondary cylinders and pistons which are communicating with the main combustion chambers. The secondary pistons can be phase shifted with respect to the main pistons. The engine is suitable for multi-fuel operation. Invention rights are held by Alvar Engine AB of Sweden, a company created to handle the development of the Alvar Engine. A project was conceived wherein an optimised experimental engine would be built and tested to verify the advantages claimed for the Alvar engine and also to reveal possible drawbacks, if any. Alvar Engine AB appointed Gunnar Lundholm, professor of Combustion Engines at Lund University, Lund, Sweden as principal investigator. The project could be seen as having three parts: (1) Optimisation of the engine combustion chamber geometry; (2) Design and manufacturing of the necessary engine parts; and (3) Testing of the engine in an engine laboratory NUTEK, The Swedish Board for Industrial and Technical Development granted Gunnar Lundholm, SEK 50000 (about $6700) to travel to the US to evaluate potential research and development facilities which seemed able to perform the different project tasks.

  9. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1

    PubMed Central

    Kelker, Matthew S.; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L.; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G.; Wang, Nick X.; Russell, Joshua C.; Baker, Matthew D.; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J. W.; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J.; Narva, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins. PMID:25390338

  10. Structural and biophysical characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1.

    PubMed

    Kelker, Matthew S; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G; Wang, Nick X; Russell, Joshua C; Baker, Matthew D; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J W; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J; Narva, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins.

  11. Ab initio calculations of nitramine dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh-Fallet, Sharon; Schweigert, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Elevated temperatures and pressures are typically thought to have opposing effects on the reaction channels of nitramine decomposition. These high temperatures promote reactions with loose transition structures (positive activation entropies and volumes), such as N-N bond homolysis. Elevated pressures promote reactions with tight transition structures (negative activation entropies and volumes), such as intramolecular and intermolecular H transfer. However, no quantitative data exists regarding the range of temperatures and pressures at which these effects become pronounced. We are pursuing ab initio calculations of the corresponding unimolecular and bimolecular transition structures with the objective of estimating the relevant thermochemical parameters and quantifying the effects of elevated temperature and pressures on the corresponding rate constants. Here, we present density functional theory and complete active space calculations of gas-phase molecular dimers of nitramines as an intermediate step toward modeling transition structures directly in the condensed phase. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory via the American Society for Engineering and Education and by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory.

  12. Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-09-21

    We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.

  13. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  14. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  15. ABS_PDv14.0 beta

    2008-07-30

    ABS_PD stands for Adaptive Background Suppression and Peak Detection algorithm. This algorithm uses an iterative process to simultaneously estimate the background and identify peaks in signals where the bakground is slowly varying relative to the peaks to be detected. This is sone on an automated manner. The algorithm can be applied to many physical processes where the desired signal is superimposed on a background. The main advantage of this algorithm is that the background canmore » be variable and doesn't have to be known. All that is required is that a set of basis function,s capa ble of representing the background, needs to be defined. Depending on the signals to be processed, the basis functions can be as simple as low order polynomials. The current algorithm has polynomials built-in and allows for additional basis functions to be defined by the user. An additional advantage is that the algorithm does not use any derivatives in detection of peaks and thus allows for analysis of noisy data. The noise level in the data is automatically taken into account when setting thresholds for peak detection.« less

  16. Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-09-01

    We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H2 and O2. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.

  17. Ab Initio Studies of Calcium Carbonate Hydration.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Berganza, Josue A; Diao, Yijue; Pamidighantam, Sudhakar; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M

    2015-11-25

    Ab initio simulations of large hydrated calcium carbonate clusters are challenging due to the existence of multiple local energy minima. Extensive conformational searches around hydrated calcium carbonate clusters (CaCO3·nH2O for n = 1-18) were performed to find low-energy hydration structures using an efficient combination of Monte Carlo searches, density-functional tight binding (DFTB+) method, and density-functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level, or Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2 level. This multilevel optimization yields several low-energy structures for hydrated calcium carbonate. Structural and energetics analysis of the hydration of these clusters revealed a first hydration shell composed of 12 water molecules. Bond-length and charge densities were also determined for different cluster sizes. The solvation of calcium carbonate in bulk water was investigated by placing the explicitly solvated CaCO3·nH2O clusters in a polarizable continuum model (PCM). The findings of this study provide new insights into the energetics and structure of hydrated calcium carbonate and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms where calcium carbonate formation or dissolution is of relevance.

  18. Phonocatalysis. An ab initio simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangnam; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-06-01

    Using simulations, we postulate and show that heterocatalysis on large-bandgap semiconductors can be controlled by substrate phonons, i.e., phonocatalysis. With ab initio calculations, including molecular dynamic simulations, the chemisorbed dissociation of XeF6 on h-BN surface leads to formation of XeF4 and two surface F/h-BN bonds. The reaction pathway and energies are evaluated, and the sorption and reaction emitted/absorbed phonons are identified through spectral analysis of the surface atomic motion. Due to large bandgap, the atomic vibration (phonon) energy transfer channels dominate and among them is the match between the F/h-BN covalent bond stretching and the optical phonons. We show that the chemisorbed dissociation (the pathway activation ascent) requires absorption of large-energy optical phonons. Then using progressively heavier isotopes of B and N atoms, we show that limiting these high-energy optical phonons inhibits the chemisorbed dissociation, i.e., controllable phonocatalysis.

  19. The impact of a deregulated European electricity market on Volvo in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dag, S.

    1998-07-01

    The member countries within the European Union (EU) have agreed to open all national electricity markets for competition, starting January 1, 1999. The electricity market in Sweden is deregulated since January 1, 1996. The deregulation of the electricity markets will gradually shift the electricity price levels in different countries towards an equal price level, which will most likely be close to the levels on the Continental Europe. A deregulated European electricity market may change the competition situation for Swedish industries dramatically. The capacity in electric generation with low operating costs in Sweden has led to very low electricity prices and high usage level compared to other EU countries. The consumption level of electric energy per capita is nearly three times higher in Sweden than the average per capita EU usage. The high level of electricity consumption is typical also of industrial customers in Sweden. Studies of Volvo Car Corporation have shown that the Volvo car plant in Torslanda, Sweden utilizes substantially more electric energy per manufactured car than the Volvo car plant in Gent, Belgium. A method is developed to transform the Torslanda plant from a low energy efficiency state to a higher energy efficiency state by modeling. The method is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) concept and includes optimization models of the two plants with mixed integer linear programming (MILP).

  20. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-09-24

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients' graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications. PMID:27683633

  1. Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling.

  2. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients’ graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications. PMID:27683633

  3. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients’ graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications.

  4. Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2009-07-01

    Cry1ab/ac gene was fused by both the cry1ab gene (GenBank Accession No. X54939) and the cry1ac gene (GenBank Accession No. Y09787), which was widely used in genetically modified (GM) rice, cotton, maize and so on. In order to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing Cry1Ab/Ac protein, sufficient quantities of Cry1Ab/Ac protein were produced in Escherichia coli for in vitro evaluation and animal studies. The Cry1Ab/Ac protein does not possess the characteristics associated with food toxins or allergens, i.e., it has no sequence homology with any known allergens or toxins, and no N-glycosylation sites, can be rapidly degraded in gastric and intestinal fluids, and is devoid of adverse effects in mice by gavage at a high dose level of 5g (Cry1Ab/Ac protein)/kg body weight. In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the Cry1Ab/Ac protein in human food or animal feed.

  5. Structural Basis of Subtilase Cytotoxin SubAB Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Le Nours, Jérôme; Paton, Adrienne W.; Byres, Emma; Troy, Sally; Herdman, Brock P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Paton, James C.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli produce a number of toxins that belong to the AB5 toxin family, which comprise a catalytic A-subunit that induces cellular dysfunction and a B-pentamer that recognizes host glycans. Although the molecular actions of many of the individual subunits of AB5 toxins are well understood, how they self-associate and the effect of this association on cytotoxicity are poorly understood. Here we have solved the structure of the holo-SubAB toxin that, in contrast to other AB5 toxins whose molecular targets are located in the cytosol, cleaves the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP. SubA interacts with SubB in a similar manner to other AB5 toxins via the A2 helix and a conserved disulfide bond that joins the A1 domain with the A2 helix. The structure revealed that the active site of SubA is not occluded by the B-pentamer, and the B-pentamer does not enhance or inhibit the activity of SubA. Structure-based sequence comparisons with other AB5 toxin family members, combined with extensive mutagenesis studies on SubB, show how the hydrophobic patch on top of the B-pentamer plays a dominant role in binding the A-subunit. The structure of SubAB and the accompanying functional characterization of various mutants of SubAB provide a framework for understanding the important role of the B-pentamer in the assembly and the intracellular trafficking of this AB5 toxin. PMID:23921389

  6. Ab initio derivation of model energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobaczewski, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    I propose a simple and manageable method that allows for deriving coupling constants of model energy density functionals (EDFs) directly from ab initio calculations performed for finite fermion systems. A proof-of-principle application allows for linking properties of finite nuclei, determined by using the nuclear nonlocal Gogny functional, to the coupling constants of the quasilocal Skyrme functional. The method does not rely on properties of infinite fermion systems but on the ab initio calculations in finite systems. It also allows for quantifying merits of different model EDFs in describing the ab initio results.

  7. On the hierarchical parallelization of ab initio simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Ishimura, Kazuya; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-02-01

    A hierarchical parallelization has been implemented in a new unified code PIMD-SMASH for ab initio simulation where the replicas and the Born-Oppenheimer forces are parallelized. It is demonstrated that ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations can be carried out very efficiently for systems up to a few tens of water molecules. The code was then used to study a Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and butenone by ab initio string method. A reduction in the reaction energy barrier is found in the presence of hydrogen-bonded water, in accordance with experiment.

  8. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas. PMID:26207834

  9. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  10. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  11. Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semadeni-Davies, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from cold regions in North America has shown that the performance of stormwater ponds differs between winter and summer. The pond hydraulics change seasonally, and winters have lowered removal efficiency due to a combination of an ice cover, cold water and de-icing salts. This study examines the function of the Bäckaslov stormwater pond under the more mild conditions of southern Sweden, where there are several snow and melt cycles per year.Event sampling in the summer of 1997 showed good removal efficiencies for nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS) and a selection of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), but winter grab-tests taken in 1995-96 and 1997-98 suggest that the pond acts as a pollutant source under cold conditions. To better assess winter and spring pond performance, water at the inflow and outflow was sampled from January to April 2003. The low intensity of runoff delivery and slow inflow velocities meant that time- rather than flow-weighted sampling was used. Five consecutive events were sampled and analysed for TSS, chloride and the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. YSI probes were in place at both the inlet (pH, temperature) and outlet (pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) to determine the timing of pollution flows. In addition, profiles of the same quality indicators allowed snapshots of pond processes.De-icing salt has a major effect on pond hydraulics. Strong stratification occurred after each snowmelt-generated flow event and up to 80% of chloride could be retained by the pond. However, continuous conductivity measurements show that chloride is flushed between events. Ice changes retention times and causes oxygen depletion, but bed scour was not observed. Pond performance decreased during the winter and spring, albeit not as badly as the grab tests suggest. A seasonal comparison of the removal efficiencies showed that removal of Cd (75%) and Cu (49%) was about the same for summer and winter-spring, but removal of Pb, Zn and TSS

  12. Microseismic activity after blasting at Zinkgruvan Mine (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erguncu Güçlü, İrem; Dineva, Savka; Hansen-Haug, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Local seismic system consisting of 18 sensors 4.5 Hz was installed in Zinkgruvan Mine (Sweden) in 2015 at depth ˜1140 m. The system is concentrated in a small area of 40 x 50 m and is able to record very small seismic events (magnitude -4 or lower) induced by the mining activity. This study is related to two larger seismic events with moment magnitudes 0.6 and 1.2 that occurred in two consecutive days and their aftershock series on July 1 and 2, 2015. The first seismic events occurred seconds after a blast and the second one during blasting. The latter one caused a rockburst and extensive damage in the mine. More than 3000 seismic events were recorded at distances up to 100 m from the local seismic system during these two days. Manual data processing was done only for the events recorded by more than 15 sensors following the larger events and 3 hours before them. In total approximately 240 events have been analyzed. Seismic event locations and other source parameters were obtained by IMS Trace software. The aftershock areas of the two seismic events formed two separate aftershock areas, The first series (Mw -3 to -1) lasted about one hour but the second one (Mw -3 to 0) was more complicated with two larger aftershocks (Mw 0.3 and 0.7) with their own aftershock series within 90 minutes. Based on the Es/Ep energy ratio the main events were classified as shear seismic events (Es/Ep ˜10). The other events were approximately equally divided between shear and not-shear (tensile) events. No apparent correlation was found between the type of the events and the magnitude. The apparent stress of both series varied within four orders (from 6.7*103 to 2.4*107 Pa) with a weak trend of increase with the magnitude. The configuration and source parameters of the aftershock series were related to the observed damage due to the rockburst on July 2, 2015. The results were used to obtain a possible mechanism of the main events.

  13. Mercury export pathways in thawing Peatlands: Insights from Stordalen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, M. F.; Varner, R. K.; Bryce, J. G.; McCalley, C. K.; Erickson, L. M.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change in northern high latitudes plays a significant role in enhancing the mobilization of previously sequestered mercury (Hg) in peatlands to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The magnitude and mechanics of Hg mobilization, however, remain poorly constrained. To investigate the coupling of different export pathways and the major fate and transport of Hg in a subarctic ecosystem, we measured atmospheric Hg fluxes across a permafrost thaw gradient and compared these fluxes with exchangeable Hg from peat cores collected in July 2012 and July 2013 at the Stordalen Mire, Abisko, Sweden (68°21'N). Mercury flux measurements were estimated using a Tekran 2537 ambient air mercury analyzer integrated into a dynamic chamber system. The nine chamber array is divided into three sites, three chambers per site: (1) palsa site: dwarf-shrub dominated hummocks overlying permafrost, (2) Sphagnum : semi-wet hollows with 100% sphagnum cover with minor Eriophorum vaginatum, and (3) Eriophorum: wet hollows dominated by Carex rostrata and Eriophorum angustifolium. Continuous ambient air Hg measurements were made for multiple days at each site prior to flux chamber measurements. All three sites show a diel pattern characterized by Hg deposition during lows of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ground temperature and a release of Hg during the peak PAR and ground temperature periods (13:00-15:00h). The palsa site yielded the highest Hg flux accompanied with the least amount of Hg deposition in the evening. The Eriophorum releases the least amount of Hg and is associated with the highest Hg deposition. The Sphagnum shows the most variability of the three sites, at times releasing as much as the palsa site but absorbing more than the Eriophorum in one instance. Consideration of the Hg flux measurements together with exchangeable Hg concentrations of the peat suggests that the palsa has the highest amount of stored Hg and given the aerobic

  14. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  15. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    PubMed Central

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  16. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.

  17. Skutterudites under pressure: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2014-03-07

    Ab initio results on the band structure, density of states, and Fermi surface (FS) properties of LaRu{sub 4}X{sub 12} (X = P, As, Sb) are presented at ambient pressure as well as under compression. The analysis of density of states reveals the major contribution at the Fermi level to be mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. We have a complicated Fermi surface with both electron and hole characters for all the three compounds which is derived mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. There is also a simpler FS with hole character derived from the P-p{sub z} orbital for LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} and Ru-d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital in the case of As and Sb containing compounds. More interestingly, Fermi surface nesting feature is observed only in the case of the LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. Under compression, we observe the topology of the complicated FS sheet of LaRu{sub 4}As{sub 12} to change around V/V{sub 0} = 0.85, leading to a behaviour similar to that of a multiband superconductor, and in addition, we have two more hole pockets centered around Γ at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 for the same compound. Apart from this, we find the hole pocket to vanish at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 in the case of LaRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the opening of the complicated FS sheet gets reduced. The de Haas van Alphen calculation shows the number of extremal orbits in the complicated sheet to change in As and Sb containing compounds under compression, where we also observe the FS topology to change.

  18. Ab Initio Calculations of Water Line Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry

    1998-01-01

    We report on the determination of a high quality ab initiu potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function for water. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base with J less than 6 for H2O. The changes in the PES are small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Using this adjusted PES, we can match 30,092 of the 30,117 transitions in the HITRAN 96 data base for H2O with theoretical lines. The 10,25,50,75, and 90 percentiles of the difference between the calculated and tabulated line positions are -0.11, -0.04, -0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 l/cm. Non-adiabatic effects are not explicitly included. About 3% of the tabulated line positions appear to be incorrect. Similar agreement using this adjusted PES is obtained for the oxygen 17 and oxygen 18 isotopes. For HDO, the agreement is not as good, with root-mean-square error of 0.25 l/cm for lines with J less than 6. This error is reduced to 0.02 l/cm by including a small asymmetric correction to the PES, which is parameterized by simultaneously fitting to HDO md D2O data. Scaling this correction by mass factors yields good results for T2O and HTO. The intensities summed over vibrational bands are usually in good agreement between the calculations and the tabulated results, but individual lines strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature list consisting of 307,721,352 lines is generated for H2O using our PES and dipole moment function.

  19. Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, T G T; Eisen, L; Comstedt, P; Mejlon, H A; Lindgren, E; Bergström, S; Olsen, B

    2009-09-01

    The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Tick sampling localities were characterized on the basis of the density of Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs, presence of specific mammals, dominant vegetation and climate. Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. Analysis of data from this and other studies suggests that high densities of Borrelia-infected nymphs typically occur in coastal, broadleaf vegetation and in mixed deciduous/spruce vegetation in southern Sweden. Ixodes ricinus populations consistently infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. can occur in: (a) biotopes with shrews, rodents, hares and birds; (b) biotopes with shrews, rodents, hares, deer and birds, and (c) island locations where the varying hare (Lepus timidus) is the

  20. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  1. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  2. [Reports on eye diseases and their care in Sweden in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rehn, Nils O

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the physicians, active in the 1800 century in Sweden, who have reported in the annual proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, dealing with diseases and care of the eye. These articles, earlier described in a paper by the author, show a wide panorama in this field, discussing cataract surgery as well as surgery of other parts of the eye, injuries and diseases and ways of treatment. Most physicians have gone through their basic medical education in Sweden, completed with often many years studying abroad at well-known universities or hospital clinics. Some of them, particulary Acrel and Odhelius, specialized in eye surgery. PMID:17153173

  3. Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)

  4. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  5. Near Nativeness and Stylistic Lexical Competence in Swedish of First and Second Generation Finnish Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Characterizes the perception of stylistic nuances of lexical items in both Swedish and Finnish among members of the Sweden Finnish minority in Sweden, with special emphasis on Swedish. Results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate on immigrants and integration, and suggest a more similar language use may indicate a higher degree of…

  6. From Conflicting Interests to Collective Consent in Advanced Vocational Education: Policymaking and the Role of Stakeholders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2004-01-01

    This study considers the policymaking process of forming a new tertiary vocational education and training (VET) policy in Sweden during the 1990s, and the influence that external stakeholders played in that process. Since the late 1960s onwards, the VET system in Sweden has been mainly integrated with general and school-based education. Due to the…

  7. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  8. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  9. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  10. 78 FR 62660 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan Institution of... retarded, by reason of imports from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan of non-oriented... subsidized by the Governments of China, Korea, and Taiwan. The products subject to the petitions...

  11. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P

    2011-04-11

    A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN

  12. Ab-initio calculation of electronic structure and optical properties of AB-stacked bilayer α-graphyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer α-graphyne is a new two-dimensional carbon allotrope with many special features. In this work the electronic properties of AA- and AB-stacked bilayers of this material and then the optical properties are studied, using first principle plane wave method. The electronic spectrum has two Dirac cones for AA stacked bilayer α-graphyne. For AB-stacked bilayer, the interlayer interaction changes the linear bands into parabolic bands. The optical spectra of the most stable AB-stacked bilayer closely resemble to that of the monolayer, except for small shifts of peak positions and increasing of their intensity. For AB-stacked bilayer, a pronounced peak has been found at low energies under the perpendicular polarization. This peak can be clearly ascribed to the transitions at the Dirac point as a result of the small degeneracy lift in the band structure.

  13. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  14. A well-preserved Cambrian impact exposed in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, Maurits; Ekvall, Johan; Hagenfeldt, Stefan E.; Säwe, Brigitta; Sturkell, Erik F. F.

    1991-02-01

    The Lockne impact crater south of Östersund formed in the early Middle Cambrian with a diameter of 7 km. It is identified by its rim wall of crushed Precambrian basement granite, by fragments of impact melt, and by grains of shocked quartz. The exceptional preservation, in particular of the rim wall, is due to a complicated geological history, the first stage of which consisted of burial by marine sediments. This stage lasted until the Middle Ordovician, or over 50 million years. An early Caradoc lowering of the sea-level may have induced debris flows that stripped the rim wall of much of its sedimentary cover. Because normal marine sedimentation recommenced soon after this event, the structure was not seriously damaged, as it was buried again. The Caledonian orogeny emplaced an overthrust nappe as ultimate protection, which was removed by a recent erosion episode from all but the center of the structure. Structures formed by the impact of extraterrestrial bodies are very rare throughout much of Europe, because such structures are neither well preserved nor displayed in young mountain belts or sedimentary basins. However, northern Europe has several ascertained structures of this kind ( Svensson & Wickman, 1965; Svensson, 1968; Bruun & Dahlman, 1982; Kala et al., 1984; Flodén et al., 1986; Wickman, 1988). Unfortunately, the hitherto known structures are either poorly preserved or hidden by younger deposits. We are reporting the discovery of a well-preserved exposed and accessible impact structure that has escaped the notice of geologists although important features of it have been described and puzzled over by generations of researchers ( Wiman, 1900; Hadding, 1927; Thorslund, 1940; Lindström et al., 1983). The structure is located in the Lockne area to the south of Östersund in central Sweden. It has a diameter of 7 km and its center is near Tramsta on the northwest shore of Lake Locknesjön (Fig. 1). Its middle is covered by folded Lower to Middle Ordovician

  15. Challenging Changes: Responses of Three Upper Secondary Schools to Sweden's Decentralization Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wettersten, Jill A.

    Sweden is undergoing a school decentralization process from a formerly centralized system. This report examines how school personnel are adapting to the changes. Schoolteachers, administrators, and staff members were interviewed, and, where appropriate, responses were coded for numerical assessment. Additional data include school-reform plans for…

  16. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  17. Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Tord

    1979-01-01

    Studies were carried out in Japan, United States, and Sweden regarding comparability of analytical methods for cadmium, daily intake of cadmium via food, daily amount of cadmium in feces, concentrations of cadmium in different tissues and the body burden of cadmium, urinary excretion of cadmium and cadmium concentrations in blood. It was found that the cadmium intake via food among adults is about 35 μg/day in Japan (Tokyo) and about 17 μg/day in the U.S. (Dallas) and Sweden (Stockholm). It varies with age in a way similar to calorie intake. Body burden increases rapidly with age. The half-time of cadmium is longer in muscles than in liver or kidneys. In the cross-sectional population samples studied (smokers and nonsmokers mixed) the average cadmium body burden at age 45 was about 21 mg in Japan, 9 mg in the U.S., and 6 mg in Sweden. Among nonsmokers in the U.S. and Sweden the body burden at age 45 was about 5–6 mg. The difference in average body burden for smokers and nonsmokers is explained by differences in smoking habits. Cadmium excretion in urine was closely correlated with body burden and about 0.005–0.01% of body burden is excreted daily in urine. Cadmium concentration in the blood was a good indicator of average recent intake over a 3-month period. Neither blood cadmium nor urine cadmium changed immediately after an increase of exposure level. PMID:226355

  18. Inclusion Functioning as Exclusion: New Students Entering the Academy of Music in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pioneer study addressing the first co-action between students with intellectual disabilities and an Academy of Music in Sweden. The aim of the article is to study and discuss subject positions that are constructed in rhythmic lessons related to a gathering where students with intellectual disabilities interact…

  19. Learning Style Differences between Nursing and Teaching Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Hallin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. Teacher education, as well as nursing education, is currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. At the university where the research was conducted, teaching and nursing programs are two priority educational programs and…

  20. Early Childhood Curricula in Sweden from the 1850s to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ann-Christine Vallberg

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the curriculum history of early childhood education in Sweden. The study is based on curriculum theory and gender theory. A broad curricular concept is used. The period analysed ranges from approximately the 1850s to the present day. Examples of key-texts analysed are National curricula, Handbooks, one journal (The…

  1. Discourse in Adult Education: The Language Education of Adult Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Hannah

    1990-01-01

    A shortcoming of adult education theories is lack of attention to social, historical, and institutional contexts. A case study of language education programs for adult immigrants in Sweden illustrates how assumptions about participant-centered, needs-based education justified and legitimated the use of these programs as a tool for employment…

  2. Toward an Equal Level of Educational Attainment between Deaf and Hearing People in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C.; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from…

  3. Catching Up with the Swedes: Probing the Canada-Sweden Literacy Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapsalis, Constantine

    A study was conducted to determine what factors account for the wide Canada-Sweden literacy gap, and what lessons can be learned from such a comparison that may help reduce the incidence of low literacy skills in Canada. The study found that the incidence of low literacy skills (failing to exceed level 2 in all three literacy domains--prose,…

  4. The Compleat University: Break from Tradition in Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Harry, Ed.; And Others

    Different models of integrated education in the United States, Sweden, and Germany, including open admissions systems, are discussed in 16 conference papers. Titles include the following: "Opportunity and Achievement: An Analysis of Labor Market Experiences among Recent Graduates from the City University of New York" (James Murtha, Barry Kaufman);…

  5. Voices of Special Educators in Sweden: A Total-Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Göransson, Kerstin; Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are two occupational groups in Sweden that are expected to have significant impact on educational work related to children in need of special support. These two groups are special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name "special educators" to…

  6. Is It Ever Too Late to Study? The Economic Returns on Late Tertiary Degrees in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallsten, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic returns on tertiary degrees obtained in ages above 30 for individuals with upper-secondary schooling in light of current ideas on lifelong learning. Sweden is a case in point: Swedish tertiary education is open to older students, and labor market legislation supports employees who take a leave to study. The…

  7. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  8. Study Circles for Families in Sweden. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boye-Moller, Monica

    1974-01-01

    Programs, particularly, language teaching, undertaken in Sweden with a view to promoting immigrant adjustment, involve folk high schools, voluntary adult education associations, and municipal adult education. Reaching the isolated immigrant woman and arranging family courses are some of the avenues explored. (JH)

  9. Situation Report - Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth…

  10. How Does Medical Care in Sweden Compare with that in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puretz, Donald H.

    1976-01-01

    While comparisons are difficult, Sweden's socialized health care delivery system produces superior health results when compared with the United States, and its concentration on optimization of cost-benefit ratios, with centralized research, planning, and resource aid, presents concepts the U.S. could adopt while maintaining free-enterprise…

  11. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  12. Sweden Faces Zero Population Growth. Population Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 2, June, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendell, Murray

    This bulletin examines the causes of the fertility decline in Sweden and the concerns and ambivalence of Swedes about zero population growth (ZPG). The fertility decline is attributed to many causes. In recent years there has been a drop in marriage rates and a sharp increase in non-marital cohabitation. The decline is also related to the…

  13. Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants' long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on…

  14. In drastic reversal, Sweden looks to halt nuclear phase-out

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In early February, Sweden's coalition government announced that it would introduce a bill in the parliament in March to halt the nuclear phase-out. The bill would also make it possible to build new nuclear plants. Similar sentiments are appearing elsewhere in Europe.

  15. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  16. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  17. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  18. Speculative Pedagogy: Education, Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Inclusion in Contemporary Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors focus on the consequences of economies and cultures of speculation in the field of education. Education is one of the arenas where the logics of speculation are being played out. It is argued that the major shifts in educational policy over the past decades in Sweden derive from what Ian Baucom aptly called "speculative…

  19. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin in the United Kingdom and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, T I; Redekop, W K; Langenskiold, S; Kamali, F; Wadelius, M; Burnside, G; Maitland-van der Zee, A-H; Hughes, D A; Pirmohamed, M

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United Kingdom and Sweden. Data from EU-PACT, a randomized controlled trial in newly diagnosed AF patients, were used to model the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained by pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing versus standard treatment over a lifetime horizon. Incremental lifetime costs were £26 and 382 Swedish kronor (SEK) and incremental QALYs were 0.0039 and 0.0015 in the United Kingdom and Sweden, respectively. The corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were £6 702 and 253 848 SEK per QALY gained. The ICER was below the willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained in 93% of the simulations in the United Kingdom and below 500 000 SEK in 67% of the simulations in Sweden. Our data suggest that pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin is a cost-effective strategy to improve outcomes of patients with AF treated with warfarin in the United Kingdom and in Sweden.

  20. Distance Education and the Role of the State: A Sweden/USA Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Henrik; Mihailidis, Paul; Holmberg, Carl

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to comparatively explore the role of the state (federal policy) in distance-education initiatives in the higher education communities of Sweden and the United States. In a globalized context, education institutes now have the capabilities to provide education and educational resources more efficiently and to a wide-ranging and…

  1. Youth Athletes, Bodies and Gender: Gender Constructions in Textbooks Used in Coaching Education Programmes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on analyses of ideas about girls and boys in sports as they are presented in textbooks used in coaching education programmes in Sweden. Specifically, it explores gender in relation to descriptions of girls' and boys' bodies and bodily development during puberty. Texts construct gender differences. Masculinity is…

  2. Personal Assistant Service Programs in Germany, Sweden and the USA. Differences and Similarities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Theresia

    This report compares personal assistance services to enable independent living for people with disabilities in Sweden, West Germany, and the United States. The report focuses on kinds of personal assistant services available, laws governing these services, the extent to which these services are met by each country's social security and welfare…

  3. Music Teachers--in Training and at Work: A Longitudinal Study of Music Teachers in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladh, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author makes a short presentation of an ongoing longitudinal research project in Sweden. However, he wants to focus on the theoretical perspective he has found fruitful for his understanding of music teachers' professional socialisation, and on the question whether the music teacher must also be a musician in order to possess…

  4. Slippage and/or Symbolism: Gender, Policy and Educational Governance in Scotland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Ohrn, Elisabet; Weiner, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of the relationship between gender, educational policy, and governance in Scotland and Sweden and the two countries' response to European Union and global legislative and policy change. In Scotland, gender is mainly invisible in recent policies on inclusion, achievement beyond academic attainment, and…

  5. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  6. Intercultural Education in Sweden through the Lenses of the National Minorities and of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Bromssen, Kerstin; Olgac, Christina Rodell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss two perspectives in relation to intercultural education and diversity in Sweden. One of the perspectives concerns the historical and current situation of the five Swedish national minorities with a special focus on education. The second perspective is related to religious diversity and education, as connected to…

  7. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of…

  8. Causes of Educational Segregation in Sweden--School Choice or Residential Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang Hansen, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine changes in school segregation across different types of municipalities between 1998 and 2011 in Sweden, and to explore the extent to which these changes are the consequences of school choice. Multilevel models were applied to register data using a counterfactual approach. The results showed that school…

  9. Data-driven regionalization of river discharges and emergent land cover-evapotranspiration relationships across Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, Ype; Lyon, Steve W.; Destouni, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    in river discharge and river water quality, due to climate change and other drivers such as land cover change, pose both societal and ecosystem threats. Analyses of measured terrestrial river fluxes are key for identifying the drivers and quantifying the magnitudes of such riverine changes. In this paper, we develop and apply a data-driven regionalization approach using the dense network of discharge measurements in Sweden. The developed regionalization approach facilitates detailed mapping of discharges (Q) and change trends in Q across Sweden. Combining these with estimates of precipitation (P) and change trends in P, we estimated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and change trends in AET via catchment-scale water balance constraints. We identified characteristic land cover-evapotranspiration relationships by plotting water use efficiency (AET/P) against energy use efficiency (AET/potential ET) for areas with unique land cover across Sweden. Our results show that wetlands have clearly lower water and energy use efficiencies compared to open waters, forests, and agriculture, and that agriculture has water and energy use efficiencies closest to those of open waters. We further compared the data-driven regionalization estimates of different water balance components with estimates of regional climate models (RCMs). The RCMs do not describe well the observed change trends in Sweden. In particular, for evapotranspiration, the observed change trends are not reproduced by any of the investigated 24 RCMs.

  10. Further Education and Training of the Labour Force. Country Report: Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Education is the strategic instrument for the overriding aim of Sweden's economic policy--full employment. The fundamental idea of the Swedish school system is to include all citizens. Youth education is intended to take the form of comprehensive, integrated schooling with no dead ends. Adult education occupies a strong position by international…

  11. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  12. Performativity as Pretence: A Study of Testing Practices in a Compulsory School in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneblad, Johannes; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to analyse the impact of the standardised test on classroom practices in grade 5 in a compulsory school in western Sweden. In our analysis, the use of the concept of the pedagogical device (Bernstein 1996) provides a framework for understanding how high-stakes, standardised testing regulates classroom discourse and…

  13. Comparing Hong Kong and Sweden ICT Policy in Education; Reaching the Third Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, W. Craig

    2005-01-01

    In this study I address the problem of the implementation and the foreseeable success of the July 2004 document from the Education and Manpower Bureau of Hong Kong, "Empowering Learning and Teaching with Information Technology" (EMB 2004). The statements in this policy will be compared to Sweden's ICT policy and a report completed by Peter Kearns…

  14. 76 FR 29194 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005). On June 2, 2010, the Department initiated its five-year... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010). As a result of these sunset reviews, the... the Antidumping Duty Orders, 75 FR 61700 (October 6, 2010), and Purified Carboxymethylcellulose...

  15. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  16. Lessons from a Concurrent Evaluation of Eight Antibullying Programs Used in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Erik; Gill, Peter Edward; Johansson, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Sweden has a low prevalence of bullying and Swedish schools are legally obliged to have anti-bullying policies. Many commercial programs are available. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental, concurrent evaluation of 8 programs, chosen from a pool of 21 widely used anti-bullying programs, was planned. Preliminary data, based on 835 stakeholder…

  17. A Study of Commitment and Relationship Quality in Sweden and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Bernhardt, Eva; Noack, Turid

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries are often cited as examples of countries where cohabitation is largely indistinguishable from marriage. Using survey data from Norway and Sweden (N = 2,923) we analyzed differences between cohabitors and married individuals in relationship seriousness, relationship satisfaction, and dissolution plans. Our analyses reveal…

  18. Educational Organization, School Localization and the Process of Urbanization in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrae, Annika

    Traditionally Sweden's educational system has been highly centralized; physical characteristics, administrative factors, and teacher qualifications have been generally standardized as have curriculums, though local implementation has been afforded considerable freedom. In 1971 the upper secondary school (9-12) consolidated three previously…

  19. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...

  20. Residential mobility among foreign-born persons living in Sweden is associated with lower mortality

    PubMed Central

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Ekberg, Jan; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2010-01-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the effect of within-country mobility on patterns of mortality in deceased foreign-born individuals. The results have varied; some studies have found that individuals who move around within the same country have better health status than those who do not change their place of residence. Other studies have shown that changing one’s place of residence leads to more self-reported health problems and diseases. Our aim was to analyze the pattern of mortality in deceased foreign-born persons living in Sweden during the years 1970–1999 in relation to distance mobility. Data from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the study population consisted of 281,412 foreign-born persons aged 16 years and over who were registered as living in Sweden in 1970. Distance mobility did not have a negative effect on health. Total mortality was lower (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.69–0.73) in foreign-born persons in Sweden who had changed their county of residence during the period 1970–1990. Higher death rates were observed, after adjustment for age, in three ICD diagnosis groups “Injury and poisoning”, “External causes of injury and poisoning”, and “Diseases of the digestive system” among persons who had changed county of residence. PMID:20865116

  1. Psst, Have You Ever Cheated? A Study of Academic Dishonesty in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Kari

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that academic dishonesty is a prevalent problem that crosses all disciplines at the university level. But, how prevalent is it in Sweden? Little is published in the literature about lying, cheating, and plagiarism amongst Swedish university students. This paper focuses on the frequency of past specific academically dishonest…

  2. Reflections on the Revised National Curriculum for Preschool in Sweden--Interviews with the Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Renblad, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden a Revised National Curriculum for Preschool (Lpfö 98, revised 2010) was implemented on 1 July 2011. The purpose of the revised curriculum was to increase the quality in the Swedish preschool by stressing the scientific basis. The aim was to explore how four heads of preschool reflect on the curriculum and the quality in preschool. This…

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia. Report of nine cases from Sweden and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, G

    1984-05-01

    Nine cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia ( FEH ) from the northern part of Sweden are reported. Four of these occurred within the same Caucasian family. In one case FEH was diagnosed in a Laplander , ethnically related to Eskimos. The results of follow-up after surgical removal of the lesions are presented.

  4. The Expansion of the Education Sector in Sweden During the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsson, Rolf

    1985-01-01

    Three investigations on quantitative changes in higher education in Sweden are described. In Anders Nilsson's dissertation, "Study Financing and Social Recruitment to Higher Education (1920-1976)," attention was focused on changes in college recruitment from 1920 until reforms in 1977; the effect of various college financing conditions on…

  5. Attitudes toward Older People among Nursing Students and Registered Nurses in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderhamn, Olle; Lindencrona, Catharina; Gustavsson, Siw Merit

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 151 undergraduate nursing students and 41 registered nurses in Sweden found that those who were under 25, male, or had limited prior experience caring for older people had less favorable attitudes toward the elderly. First-year students were more negative than third-year students. No differences among nurses in different practice…

  6. Towards a Dynamic Analysis of the Content of Schooling: Narrow and Broad Didactics in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and an examination of educational didactics in Sweden. In this context, didactics refers to the study of what content is chosen and how it is taught. Some theorists have extended this to include how students conceptualize what they are taught. Discusses the conflicting schools of thought. (MJP)

  7. The Preparation of School Psychologists and Specialists in Educational Psychology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists have a new and stronger position in Sweden's educational system than earlier. For example, as of July 2011, all Swedish students ages 6 through 18 have guaranteed access to school psychology services. The school psychologists' roles are to be active participants and coworkers in the student health service team, working to…

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  9. Successful School Leadership in Sweden and the US: Contexts of Social Responsibility and Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Betty; Arlestig, Helene; Garza, Encarnacion; Johansson, Olof; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Tornsren, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-cultural study of schools in Sweden and Texas is to examine the cultural contexts of schools in both settings, and the leadership role of principals in creating and sustaining inclusive schools for diverse populations. Design/methodology/approach: The data were drawn from two studies; the first involving school…

  10. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  11. Framework for Optimizing the Evaluation of Data From Contaminated Soil in Sweden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Swedish guidelines for the evaluation of data for the purpose of a risk assessment at contaminated sites are of a qualitative character, as opposed to the USEPA’s Data Quality Objective Process. In Sweden, this can sometimes be a problem because the demands on data quality ar...

  12. School Choice in Sweden: Effects on Student Performance, School Costs, and Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents empirical analyses of the effects of independent schools in Sweden. The most important result is that the impact--both the positive and the negative--is relatively marginal. This said, there are now a number of studies that show that when independent schools are established the pupils in municipal schools perform better.…

  13. Music Education--A Personal Matter? Examining the Current Discourses of Music Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgii-Hemming, Eva; Westvall, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The embedding of informal practices in music education in school relates to significant issues concerning students' engagement, participation, inclusion and the role of the teacher. This article addresses these issues by presenting and discussing current music education in compulsory comprehensive schooling in Sweden. It does so by drawing upon…

  14. Clinical Physiology: A Successful Academic and Clinical Discipline is Threatened in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Clinical physiologists in Sweden are physicians (the majority with a PhD degree) with thorough training in system physiology and pathophysiology. They investigate patients in a functional approach and are engaged in basic and applied physiology teaching and research. In 1954, clinical physiology was founded as an independent academic and clinical…

  15. A Decade of Reading Research in Sweden. Svenska unescoradets skriftserie. Nr. 1/1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar

    Covering studies from psychology, education, linguistics, and literature, this review of reading research in Sweden published in the 1980s includes sections on early reading development or emergent literacy, reading disabilities, and reading comprehension. Material in the review was selected using the following criteria: (1) only research…

  16. From Vocational Training to Academic Education: The Situation of the Schools of Nursing in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    1999-01-01

    The success of the change from vocational training to academic education for nurses in Sweden depends on faculty competence. Observations at three Swedish nursing schools and interviews with 59 nurse educators identified strategies educators used to maintain teaching competence: being "real" nurses, being prepared in different subjects, and having…

  17. The Silenced Discourse: Students with Intellectual Disabilities at the Academy of Music in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Marie-Helene Zimmerman; Ericsson, Claes

    2012-01-01

    In this article, based on a larger research project, the ambition is to critically discuss the first collaboration between students with intellectual disabilities and the Academy of Music in Sweden. The article presents an analysis of video observations of lessons in rhythmics, related to an encounter between the students with intellectual…

  18. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  19. The Fading of a Teaching Profession? Reforms of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlsson

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, working with young children in institutions outside the home dates back to the late nineteenth century when public child care provision developed in a context of industrialization, urbanization and democratization. Out of the charitable work of unmarried women in these early institutions, pre-schools and teacher education programmes…

  20. HIV-Infected African Parents Living in Stockholm, Sweden: Disclosure and Planning for Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asander, Ann-Sofie; Bjorkman, Anders; Belfrage, Erik; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, most HIV-infected parents are of African origin. The present study explored the frequency of HIV-infected African parents' disclosure of their status to their children and custody planning for their children's future to identify support needs among these families. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 parents (41 families).…

  1. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  2. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  3. Continuing Professional Development in Context: Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Culture in Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the continuing professional development (CPD) culture of teachers, and asks how it is influenced by properties of the school system. It reports the results of a questionnaire study with 418 secondary teachers from Sweden and Germany. The results show highly significant differences between Swedish and German teachers'…

  4. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  5. The Impact on Annual Earnings of Adult Upper Secondary Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The public supply of adult education is very different between countries, making it likely that there is scope for efficiency gains. The contribution of this paper is to provide an economic evaluation of the earnings impact of adult education at upper secondary level (AE) in Sweden, where the supply is plausibly larger than in any other country.…

  6. [Report on Studies in the History of Adult Education in Sweden].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddman, Ralph

    In 1966, a campaign called "Operation Popular Education Memory" (Operation Folkbildningsminnen) was begun in Sweden. Its aim was to save old material and oral memories. The operation developed into nationwide cooperation among popular educational associations, universities, archives, and libraries. It continued under the management of the National…

  7. Mathematics in VET Programmes: The Tensions Associated with Reforms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lisbeth; Grevholm, Barbro

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a new curriculum and set of school organisational structures were introduced in Sweden. One consequence is a much stronger separation of the theoretical and vocational programmes in the upper secondary school. The paper explores the nature of the changes that have occurred particularly in relation to mathematics studies, the background…

  8. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  9. Sex-Role Contravention and Sex Education Directed toward Young Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Maureen J.

    1979-01-01

    Sweden's sex-role ideology and policy of counteracting sex-role learning through the schools are described. Correspondence between policy and practice is reported. Parents tended to affirm some non-sex-determined standards, while reinforcing sex-typed behavior more than cross-sex-typed behavior. Most teachers made efforts to counteract sex roles.…

  10. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's…

  11. Biochemical characterization of the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Griot-Wenk, M; Pahlsson, P; Chisholm-Chait, A; Spitalnik, P F; Spitalnik, S L; Giger, U

    1993-12-01

    The biochemical nature of the feline AB blood group system was characterized by analysing red blood cells from homozygous (genotype A/A) and heterozygous (A/B) type A, type B (B/B), and type AB cats. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of red cell glycolipids revealed that specific neuraminic acids (NA) on gangliosides, containing ceramide dihexoside (CDH) as a backbone, correlated with the feline AB blood group antigens. Although disialogangliosides predominated, mono- and trisialogangliosides were also isolated. B cats expressed solely N-acetyl-NA (NeuNAc) on these gangliosides. In addition to expressing N-glycolyl-NA (NeuNGc) containing gangliosides, A red cells have gangliosides with only NeuNAc or mixtures of both NA. HPTLC profiles of disialogangliosides from homozygous and heterozygous A cats differed slightly in the quantity of disialogangliosides. Equal amounts of NeuNAc and NeuNGc containing disialogangliosides, as well as two intermediary forms, were recovered from AB erythrocytes. Analysing disialogangliosides from red cells belonging to 17 genetically related cats, we consistently obtained the expected disialoganglioside profile, based on blood typing and pedigree information. SDS-PAGE of red cell membrane proteins and blotting with Triticum vulgaris, a lectin recognizing NeuNAc, revealed glycoproteins of approximately 51, 53, and 80 kD in B and AB cats but only a faint band of approximately 53 kD in A cats. By haemagglutination, Triticum vulgaris could also distinguish different blood types by specifically binding to B and AB cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8273913

  12. Trends in the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis isolates from Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Rasmussen, S R; Artursson, K; Jensen, N E

    1998-08-28

    This study was conducted to determine the MIC values of historical and contemporary Streptoccocus suis (serotypes 2 and 7) from Denmark and S. suis (serotype 2) from Sweden. A total of 52 isolates originating from 1967 through 1981 and 156 isolates from 1992 through 1997 in Denmark and 13 isolates from Sweden were examined for their MICs against 20 different antimicrobial agents. Most antimicrobials were active against most isolates. A frequent occurrence of resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed, with most resistance among historic isolates of serotype 7 and least resistance among isolates from Sweden. A large number of the isolates was resistant to macrolides. However, all historic serotype 2 isolates from Denmark were susceptible, whereas 20.4% of the contemporary isolates were resistant. Among serotype 7 isolates 23.3% of the historic isolates were resistant to macrolides, whereas resistance was found in 44.8% of the contemporary isolates. All isolates from Sweden were susceptible to macrolides. Time-associated frequency of resistance to tetracycline was also found. Only a single historic isolate of serotype 2 was resistant to tetracycline, whereas 43.9% of the contemporary serotype 2 isolates and 15.5% of the contemporary serotype 7 isolates were resistant. Only one (7.7%) of the isolates from Sweden was resistant. The differences in resistance between historic and contemporary isolates from Denmark were statistically significant. This study demonstrated a significant serotype-associated difference in the susceptibility to macrolides and tetracycline and demonstrated that an increase in resistance among S. suis isolates has taken place during the last 15 years to the two most commonly used antimicrobial agents (tylosin and tetracycline) in pig production in Denmark. PMID:9810623

  13. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrea L.; Olsson, Gert E.; Walburg, Marion R.; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Ley, Cecilia; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%), 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6%) Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6%) Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3%) Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%). The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance. PMID:27054089

  14. Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden - a long-time perspective.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Andreas O; Wallerström, Thomas; Götherström, Anders; Holmlund, Gunilla

    2006-08-01

    Sixteen Y-chromosomal binary markers and nine Y-chromosome short tandem repeats were analyzed in a total of 383 unrelated males from seven different Swedish regions, one Finnish region and a Swedish Saami population in order to address questions about the origin and genetic structure of the present day population in Sweden. Haplogroup I1a* was found to be the most common haplogroup in Sweden and accounted, together with haplogroups R1b3, R1a1 and N3, for over 80% of the male lineages. Within Sweden, a minor stratification was found in which the northern region Västerbotten differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the other Swedish regions. A flow of N3 chromosomes into Västerbotten mainly from Saami and Finnish populations could be one explanation for this stratification. However, the demographic history of Västerbotten involving a significant male absence during the 17th Century may also have had a large impact. Immigration of young men from elsewhere to Värmland at the same time, can be responsible for a similar deviation with I1a* haplotypes. Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1b3 were found to have the highest STR variation among all haplogroups and could thus be considered to be one of the earliest major male lineages present in Sweden. Regional haplotype variation, within R1b3, also showed a difference between two regions in the south of Sweden. This can also be traced from historical time and is visible in archaeological material. Overall this Y chromosome study provides interesting information about the genetic patterns and demographic events in the Swedish population.

  15. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea L; Olsson, Gert E; Walburg, Marion R; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Ley, Cecilia; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013-2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0-2.9%), 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8-3.6%) Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0-0.6%) Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0-1.3%) Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%). The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance. PMID:27054089

  16. Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.

  17. THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-09-24

    Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.

  18. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.506...

  19. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.506...

  20. Double-membraned Liposomes Sculpted by Poliovirus 3AB Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Ptacek, Jennifer B.; Kirkegaard, Karla; Bullitt, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Infection with many positive-strand RNA viruses dramatically remodels cellular membranes, resulting in the accumulation of double-membraned vesicles that resemble cellular autophagosomes. In this study, a single protein encoded by poliovirus, 3AB, is shown to be sufficient to induce the formation of double-membraned liposomes via the invagination of single-membraned liposomes. Poliovirus 3AB is a 109-amino acid protein with a natively unstructured N-terminal domain. HeLa cells transduced with 3AB protein displayed intracellular membrane disruption; specifically, the formation of cytoplasmic invaginations. The ability of a single viral protein to produce structures of similar topology to cellular autophagosomes should facilitate the understanding of both cellular and viral mechanisms for membrane remodeling. PMID:23908350

  1. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  2. Control Performance of Vehicle Abs Featuring ER Valve Pressure Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Wereley, N. M.

    In this work, an electrically controllable anti-lock brake system (ABS) for passenger vehicle is developed by utilizing electrorheological (ER) fluid. A pressure modulator which consists of a cylindrical ER valve and the hydraulic booster is constructed in order to achieve sufficient brake pressure variation during ABS operation. The principal design parameters of the modulator are determined by considering ER properties as well as required braking pressure. After investigating pressure controllability of the modulator, a vehicle model which is integrated with the proposed pressure modulator is formulated to design yaw rate controller. A sliding mode controller is designed to obtain desired yaw rate, and the friction forces between roads and wheels are estimated via the estimator. Braking performances of the proposed ABS under various roads are evaluated through the hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) and the steering stability during braking operation is demonstrated by undertaking split-μ test.

  3. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  4. Stimulation of UvrD helicase by UvrAB.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; Guy, Colin P; Cadman, Chris J; Moolenaar, Geri F; Goosen, Nora; McGlynn, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Helicases play critical roles in all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism by catalyzing the remodeling of DNA and RNA structures. UvrD is an abundant helicase in Escherichia coli with well characterized functions in mismatch and nucleotide excision repair and a possible role in displacement of proteins such as RecA from single-stranded DNA. The mismatch repair protein MutL is known to stimulate UvrD. Here we show that the nucleotide excision repair proteins UvrA and UvrB can together stimulate UvrD-catalyzed unwinding of a range of DNA substrates containing strand discontinuities, including forked DNA substrates. The stimulation is specific for UvrD, as UvrAB failed to stimulate Rep helicase, a UvrD homologue. Moreover, although UvrAB can promote limited strand displacement, stimulation of UvrD did not require the strand displacement function of UvrAB. We conclude that UvrAB, like MutL, modulate UvrD helicase activity. This stimulation likely plays a role in DNA strand and protein displacement by UvrD in nucleotide excision repair. Promotion of UvrD-catalyzed unwinding of nicked duplexes by UvrAB may also explain the need for UvrAB and UvrD in Okazaki fragment processing in cells lacking DNA polymerase I. More generally, these data support the idea that helicase activity is regulated in vivo, with helicases acting as part of multisubunit complexes rather than in isolation. PMID:19208629

  5. 1984 AB - A unique Mars-crossing asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, E. F.; Dunbar, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Asteroid 1984 AB, discovered in January 1984, proved to be a unique object with a close dynamical relationship to Mars. A brief history of the discovery and subsequent 'evolution' of the orbit as it was refined is presented. The preliminary orbit of 1984 AB indicated that it might be a Mars Trojan, and an extended discussion of this interesting possibility is presented, but this hypothesis had to be dismissed after further observations had refined the orbit. The semimajor axis and orbital eccentricity are very similar to that of Mars. No other known Mars-crossing asteroid exists with an orbit as closely associated to Mars.

  6. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  7. Ab initio computations of photodissociation products of CFC alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, S.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ab initio computations, have already been used to examine the energetics of the photodissociation of stratospheric chlorofluorocarbons. Our awn research has investigated the ab initio computation of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}H, and CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}; continuing research will attempt to expand these computations to the energetics of the photodissociation of these molecules, since sane of the most common types of chlorofluorocarbon substitutes are hydrofluoroethanes.

  8. GJ 282 AB (WDS 07400-0336 AB = BGH 3 AB) and GICLAS 112-29: A Very Wide System in Process of Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rica, F. M.; Benavides, R.

    2016-04-01

    Very wide binaries are interesting objects that shed light on the binary formation process and their dynamical evolution. Poveda et al. (2009) studied the possible physical relation of the near (14.2 pc) and wide (~58") binary star GJ 282 AB and the extremely wide (1.09º; ~55,000 AU) companion, NLTT 18149, and they concluded that this very wide system is in the process of dynamical disintegration. In this work, we confirm the same conclusion but using a different method. We first study dynamically GJ 282 AB, confirmed that it is a bound system and then we determine possible orbital solutions. Later, we calculate the relative velocity of NLTT 18149 with respect to the GJ 282 AB's center mass using their (U, V, W) galactocentric velocity. The relative velocity, Vrel = 1.98 ± 0.16 km s-1, is much larger than the escape velocity (0.25 ± 0.01 km s-1). Therefore, with a significance level of 11s, we also conclude that this very wide system is in a process of dynamical disintegration.

  9. DC-8 and ER-2 in Sweden for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 48 second video shows Dryden's Airborne Science aircraft in Kiruna Sweden in January 2000. The DC-8 and ER-2 conducted atmospheric studies for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE).

  10. Genetic counsellors in Sweden: their role and added value in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Pestoff, Rebecka; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Skirton, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Genetic testing is becoming more commonplace in general and specialist health care and should always be accompanied by genetic counselling, according to Swedish law. Genetic counsellors are members of the multi-disciplinary team providing genetic counselling. This study examined the role and added value of genetic counsellors in Sweden, using a cross-sectional on-line survey. The findings showed that the genetic counsellors added value in the clinical setting by acting as the 'spider-in-the-web' regarding case management, having a more holistic, ethical and psychological perspective, being able to offer continuous support and build a relationship with the patient, and being more accessible than medical geneticists. The main difference between a genetic counsellor and medical geneticist was that the doctor had the main medical responsibility. Thus genetic counsellors in Sweden contribute substantially to the care of patients in the clinical genetic setting. PMID:26014428

  11. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden.

  12. A practical approach to low protein diets in Sweden- 45 years of clinical use.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Sintra; Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Attman, Per-Ola; Evans, Marie; Windahl, Karin; Wegener, Sigrid; Andersén, Charlotte; Nykvist-Raanaes, Karin; Einemo, Sara; Carrero, Juan-Jesus

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the development, implementation and practise of low protein diets (LPD) in Sweden. While the current practice is discussed in general terms emphasizing the interplay between nephrologists and dieticians, the "self-selected" LPD model is explained as a practical approach to facilitated patient's adherence to the nutritional therapy. This model is currently implemented in most clinics of the country and gives considerable flexibility regarding variation in meal planning, food selection, amounts consumed, cooking methods as well as adaptations to day-to-day changes. Current LPD use in Sweden is presented through analysis of the Swedish Renal Registry. Finally two patient cases are illustrated, with examples on their diets, attempts to reduce the protein content to the desired thresholds and their clinical course. PMID:27435012

  13. Recycling behaviour of householders living in multicultural urban area: a case study of Jarva, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Andersson, Mari

    2013-05-01

    The recycling behaviour of multicultural householders was investigated in the urban area of Järva, northwest Stockholm, Sweden, which is home to a significant proportion of immigrants from different parts of the world. Different ethnic minorities currently make up an important proportion of the urban population in Sweden, but little is known about their recycling behaviour and attitudes. Using quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews) methodology, possible determinants of recycling behaviour were investigated among Järva householders. It was found that attitude toward the importance of recycling had a positive correlation and was the main determinant of recycling behaviour among these householders. In contrast, environmental concern, satisfaction with the facilities provided, recycling confidence, community identity and socio-demographical factors showed no correlation with their recycling behaviour. Other results of the study indicated a need to investigate the specific behaviour of multicultural householders regarding source-separated collection and the recycling of hazardous, electronic and bulky wastes.

  14. Senior housing in Sweden: a new concept for aging in place.

    PubMed

    Henning, Cecilia; Ahnby, Ulla; Osterstrom, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Demographic projections of elder care in Sweden necessitate new and creative approaches to accommodate this rapidly growing population. This article describes a unique aging-in-place care and housing policy initiative for the elderly. Using a case example in Eksjo, Sweden, the authors used a future workshop (FW) method to help seniors plan their future housing in the community. The FW is based on a collective democratic process involving full participation, open communication, organizational development, and leadership. The process steps of the three-stage FW method are described. Results indicated that empowerment, collaboration, autonomy, social education, and decision making can be achieved in a community-network-based policy model. This demonstrates the devolution of national policy and how, at the grass roots level, local participation and public accountability can take root. Devolution created an opportunity for creatively addressing local needs.

  15. Motif based Hessian matrixfor ab initio geometry optimization ofnanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan

    2006-04-05

    A simple method to estimate the atomic degree Hessian matrixof a nanosystem is presented. The estimated Hessian matrix, based on themotif decomposition of the nanosystem, can be used to accelerate abinitio atomic relaxations with speedups of 2 to 4 depending on the sizeof the system. In addition, the programing implementation for using thismethod in a standard ab initio package is trivial.

  16. Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-02-28

    Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.

  17. Ab initio calculations in three-body cluster systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Redondo, C.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.

    2013-06-10

    In this work we briefly outline the extension of the ab initio no-core shell model/Resonating group method (NCSM/RGM) to three-body cluster states. We present the results for {sup 6}He ground state within a {sup 4}He+n+n cluster basis under this approach.

  18. Information Manual: Procedures, Planning Concepts, Subsystems. ABS Publication No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report, the third in a series which presents the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level, is a technical manual for using the Academic Building Systems (ABS) approach in programing, designing, and constructing such facilities. The document presents (1) planning…

  19. Discovery of New Substrates for LuxAB Bacterial Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianyu; Wang, Weishan; Wu, Xingkang; Wu, Wenxiao; Bai, Haixiu; Ma, Zhao; Shen, Yuemao; Yang, Keqian; Li, Minyong

    2016-08-01

    In this article, four novel substrates with long halftime have been designed and synthesized successfully for luxAB bacterial bioluminescence. After in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation, these molecules can emit obvious bioluminescence emission with known bacterial luciferase, thus indicating a new promising approach to developing the bacterial bioluminescent system.

  20. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  1. Food for Thought on the "ABS Academic Journal Quality Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to the use of the Association of Business Schools' (ABS) "Academic Journal Quality Guide" within UK business schools. It also looks at several specific issues raised by the Chair of the British Accounting Association/British Accounting and Finance Association regarding the ratings for top…

  2. Further Food for Thought on the "ABS Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper replies to points raised by the editors of the "ABS Guide", Huw Morris, Charles Harvey, Aidan Kelly and Michael Rowlinson (2011) "Accounting Education: an international journal", 20(6), pp. 561-573) in response to a paper published in a previous issue of "Accounting Education" (Hussain, S. (2011)…

  3. Environmental Study: Science and Engineering Buildings. ABS Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report is the first of a series which present the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level conducted by the Academic Building Systems (ABS) program. The document includes (1) a user survey (data and conclusions from a series of studies involving a spectrum of…

  4. AB 1725 Model Accountability System. California Community Colleges. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    This report proposes a model accountability system for the California community colleges to comply with the directives of Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725). The purpose of the accountability system is to provide colleges and districts, the board of governors, and the California legislature with information that will allow for the continued improvement…

  5. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  6. Comparing and improving chronic illness primary care in Sweden and the USA.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, John; Ramsay, Patricia; Shortell, Stephen M; Brommels, Mats

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify opportunities for improving primary care services for people with chronic illnesses by comparing how Sweden and US services use evidence-based practices (EBPs), including digital health technologies (DHTs). Design/methodology/approach - A national primary healthcare center (PHCC) heads surveys in 2012-2013 carried out in both countries in 2006. Findings - There are large variations between the two countries. The largest, regarding effective DHT use in primary care centers, were that few Swedish primary healthcare compared to US heads reported having reminders or prompts at the point of care (38 percent Sweden vs 84 percent USA), despite Sweden's established electronic medical records (EMR). Swedish heads also reported 30 percent fewer centers receiving laboratory results (67 percent Sweden vs 97 percent USA). Regarding following other EBPs, 70 percent of Swedish center heads reported their physicians had easy access to diabetic patient lists compared to 14 percent in the USA. Most Swedish PHCC heads (96 percent) said they offered same day appointment compared to 36 percent in equivalent US practices. Practical implications - There are opportunities for improvement based on significant differences in effective practices between the countries, which demonstrates to primary care leaders that their peers elsewhere potentially provide better care for people with chronic illnesses. Some improvements are under primary care center control and can be made quickly. There is evidence that people with chronic illnesses in these two countries are suffering unnecessarily owing to primary care staff failing to provide proven EBP, which would better meet patient needs. Public finance has been invested in DHT, which are not being used to their full potential. Originality/value - The study shows the gaps between current and potential proven effective EBPs for services to patients with chronic conditions. Findings suggest possible

  7. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  8. Characterization of epidemic and nonepidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strains from Sudan and Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Salih, M A; Danielsson, D; Bäckman, A; Caugant, D A; Achtman, M; Olcén, P

    1990-01-01

    A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985). Images PMID:1975593

  9. Driving forces for import of waste for energy recovery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Mattias; Sahlin, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Sundberg, Johan

    2005-02-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, the Swedish import of so-called yellow waste for energy recovery increased. The import mainly consisted of separated wood waste and mixes of used wood and paper and/or plastics that was combusted in district heat production plants (DHPPs). Some mixed waste was imported to waste incineration plants for energy recovery (10% of the import of yellow waste for energy recovery in 2002). The import came primarily from Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and Finland. We identified six underlying driving forces for this recent increase of imported waste which are outlined and their interactive issues discussed. --The energy system infrastructure, which enables high energy recovery in Sweden. --The energy taxation, where high Swedish taxes on fossil fuels make relatively expensive solid biofuels the main alternative for base load production of district heat. --The quality of the waste-derived fuels, which has been higher in the exporting countries than in Sweden. --The bans on landfilling within Europe and the shortage of waste treatment capacity. --Taxes on waste management in Europe. --Gate fee differences between exporting countries and Sweden. In the future, the overall strength of these driving forces will probably be weakened. A Swedish tax on waste incineration is being investigated. In other European countries, the ambition to reach the Kyoto targets and increase the renewable electricity production could improve the competitiveness of waste-derived fuels in comparison with fossil fuels. Swedish DHPPs using waste-derived fuels will experience higher costs after the Waste Incineration Directive is fully implemented. The uncertainty about European waste generation and treatment capacity, however, might have a large influence on the future gate fees and thus also on the yellow waste import into Sweden. PMID:15751390

  10. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  11. Is a White Christmas becoming rarer in southern parts of Sweden?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydén, Jesper

    2015-07-01

    The notion of White Christmas, for instance snow conditions at Christmas Day, is occasionally discussed among people in certain countries in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, the state of snow occurrence at Christmas Day at locations in Sweden are primarily considered binary events and methodology for statistical analysis of time series with binary responses is employed to investigate trend over time. None of the six locations studied showed a significant change over time.

  12. Creating and maintaining dialogue on climate information - Reflections on the adaptation process in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, C.

    2010-09-01

    Climate information can be communicated in many ways to various actors within society. Dialogue as a means to communicate is often emphasised as an important tool to deliver and receive information. However, a dialogue can be initiated and maintained in many different ways. In Sweden the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, can be seen as one of the actors in between the climate science experts and the society, and together with the Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SGI, they had recognised that the County Administrative Boards required climate information and knowledge in how to use and how not to use climate scenarios in order to start coordinating regional adaptation activities. At the same time the National Authorities called for a more detailed compilation on the needs in the counties, regarding climate information for decision making. Together the SMHI and SGI visited the 21 counties in Sweden with a start in the autumn of 2008, initiating a dialogue with the County Administrative Boards. The process continued with a first seminar in springtime 2009, on adaptation. In spring 2009 the County Administrative Boards were appointed as the formal foci of adaptation coordination in Sweden, and a new phase in the dialogue started, when the counties had specific goals with the interaction. Personal visits and seminars have continued to be the arena for the dialogue, and new climate information products have been initiated as a response to the interaction. Here, reflections are presented on the role of the dialogue in Sweden as a tool towards a sustainable way to communicate climate information.

  13. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  14. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  15. Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009

    PubMed Central

    Åström, Daniel Oudin; Tornevi, Andreas; Ebi, Kristie L.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality impacts of hot and cold temperatures have been thoroughly documented, with most locations reporting a U-shaped relationship with a minimum mortality temperature (MMT) at which mortality is lowest. How MMT may have evolved over previous decades as the global mean surface temperature has increased has not been thoroughly explored. Objective: We used observations of daily mean temperatures to investigate whether MMT changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until 2009. Methods: Daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901–2009 in Stockholm, Sweden, were used to model the temperature–mortality relationship. We estimated MMT using distributed lag nonlinear Poisson regression models considering lags up to 21 days of daily mean temperature as the exposure variable. To avoid large influences on the MMT from intra- and interannual climatic variability, we estimated MMT based on 30-year periods. Furthermore, we investigated whether there were trends in the absolute value of the MMT and in the relative value of the MMT (the corresponding percentile of the same-day temperature distribution) over the study period. Results: Our findings suggest that both the absolute MMT and the relative MMT increased in Stockholm, Sweden, over the course of the 20th century. Conclusions: The increase in the MMT over the course of the 20th century suggests autonomous adaptation within the context of the large epidemiological, demographical, and societal changes that occurred. Whether the rate of increase will be sustained with climate change is an open question. Citation: Oudin Åström D, Tornevi A, Ebi KL, Rocklöv J, Forsberg B. 2016. Evolution of minimum mortality temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009. Environ Health Perspect 124:740–744; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509692 PMID:26566270

  16. Burnout, working conditions and gender - results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sick-leave because of mental and behavioural disorders has increased considerably in Sweden since the late nineties, and especially in women. The aim of this study was to assess the level of burnout in the general working population in northern Sweden and analyse it's relation to working conditions and gender. Methods In this cross-sectional study the survey from the MONICA-study (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) in northern Sweden 2004 was used. A burnout instrument, the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), was incorporated in the original survey which was sent to a random sample of 2500 individuals with a response rate of 76%. After including only actively working people, aged 25-64 years, our study population consisted of 1000 participants (497 women and 503 men). ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used. Results The prevalence of a high level of burnout (SMBQ >4.0) was 13%. Women had a higher level of burnout than men with the most pronounced difference in the age group 35-44 years. In both sexes the level of burnout decreased with age. Demand and control at work, and job insecurity were related to burnout. In women the level of education, socioeconomic position, work object, and working varying hours were of importance. Interaction effects were found between sex and work object, and sex and working hours. In a multiple regression analysis almost half of the gender difference could be explained by work related and life situational factors. Conclusions Working life conditions contributed to the level of burnout in this actively working sample from the general population in northern Sweden. Especially in women, socioeconomic position was associated with burnout. The high level of burnout in women compared to men was partly explained by more unfavourable working conditions and life situational factors. Efforts to level out gender differences in burnout should probably focus on improving both working

  17. Hydraulic fracturing and overcoring stress measurements in a deep borehole at the Stripa Test Mine, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, T.; Ingevald, K.; Strindell, L.; Haimson, B.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-03-01

    Recently, a workable method was developed for performing overcoring measurements in holes hundreds of meters in length. With the need to obtain in situ stress values for nuclear waste disposal simulation experiments at the Stripa Mine in central Sweden, the task of running both the Power Board's Leeman triaxial cell and hydraulic fracturing in the same hole was undertaken. This paper is a report of the results of the comparative measurements. 9 figures, 1 table.

  18. Epidemiological features of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden, 1978-93.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, G X; Cheng, Q; Link, H; de Pedro-Cuesta, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden during the period 1978-93 and its temporal and geographical variations. METHODS: Stratified and Poisson regression analyses and tests for detection of small epidemics were applied to population based hospital discharge data from 2257 incident cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden during the study period. RESULTS: The incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome was (1) 1.77 per 100000 person-years when age adjusted to the European population; (2) higher in males; and (3) stable across time, although occasional increases of annual incidence rates were found-namely, in 1978 (relative risk (RR) 1.30 (95% CI 1.10-1.54)), and in 1983 (RR 1.24 (95% CI 1.06-1.40)). The incidence increased with age and was bimodal, with peaks at 20-24 and 70-74 years. There was a moderate but significant seasonality with a peak in August, particularly among the young age groups. The age adjusted incidence by county varied from 1.11 to 2.57 per 100000 person-years. Neither temporal nor spatial clustering was significant, except during the period July-September in 1983 at ages below 40 years. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden during the period 1978-93 had a magnitude similar to those described in other surveys, a bimodal distribution by age, and modest geographical and temporal variations with significantly high rates in 1978 and 1983 and in autumn. Minor outbreaks might have passed unnoticed up to the present. Whereas reported drug induced cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome may in part explain the high incidence in 1983, the cause of the aberrant incidence in 1978 remains unknown. Epidemiological surveillance of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden might have been useful. Images PMID:9153599

  19. Driving forces for import of waste for energy recovery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Mattias; Sahlin, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Sundberg, Johan

    2005-02-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, the Swedish import of so-called yellow waste for energy recovery increased. The import mainly consisted of separated wood waste and mixes of used wood and paper and/or plastics that was combusted in district heat production plants (DHPPs). Some mixed waste was imported to waste incineration plants for energy recovery (10% of the import of yellow waste for energy recovery in 2002). The import came primarily from Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and Finland. We identified six underlying driving forces for this recent increase of imported waste which are outlined and their interactive issues discussed. --The energy system infrastructure, which enables high energy recovery in Sweden. --The energy taxation, where high Swedish taxes on fossil fuels make relatively expensive solid biofuels the main alternative for base load production of district heat. --The quality of the waste-derived fuels, which has been higher in the exporting countries than in Sweden. --The bans on landfilling within Europe and the shortage of waste treatment capacity. --Taxes on waste management in Europe. --Gate fee differences between exporting countries and Sweden. In the future, the overall strength of these driving forces will probably be weakened. A Swedish tax on waste incineration is being investigated. In other European countries, the ambition to reach the Kyoto targets and increase the renewable electricity production could improve the competitiveness of waste-derived fuels in comparison with fossil fuels. Swedish DHPPs using waste-derived fuels will experience higher costs after the Waste Incineration Directive is fully implemented. The uncertainty about European waste generation and treatment capacity, however, might have a large influence on the future gate fees and thus also on the yellow waste import into Sweden.

  20. Comparing and improving chronic illness primary care in Sweden and the USA.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, John; Ramsay, Patricia; Shortell, Stephen M; Brommels, Mats

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify opportunities for improving primary care services for people with chronic illnesses by comparing how Sweden and US services use evidence-based practices (EBPs), including digital health technologies (DHTs). Design/methodology/approach - A national primary healthcare center (PHCC) heads surveys in 2012-2013 carried out in both countries in 2006. Findings - There are large variations between the two countries. The largest, regarding effective DHT use in primary care centers, were that few Swedish primary healthcare compared to US heads reported having reminders or prompts at the point of care (38 percent Sweden vs 84 percent USA), despite Sweden's established electronic medical records (EMR). Swedish heads also reported 30 percent fewer centers receiving laboratory results (67 percent Sweden vs 97 percent USA). Regarding following other EBPs, 70 percent of Swedish center heads reported their physicians had easy access to diabetic patient lists compared to 14 percent in the USA. Most Swedish PHCC heads (96 percent) said they offered same day appointment compared to 36 percent in equivalent US practices. Practical implications - There are opportunities for improvement based on significant differences in effective practices between the countries, which demonstrates to primary care leaders that their peers elsewhere potentially provide better care for people with chronic illnesses. Some improvements are under primary care center control and can be made quickly. There is evidence that people with chronic illnesses in these two countries are suffering unnecessarily owing to primary care staff failing to provide proven EBP, which would better meet patient needs. Public finance has been invested in DHT, which are not being used to their full potential. Originality/value - The study shows the gaps between current and potential proven effective EBPs for services to patients with chronic conditions. Findings suggest possible

  1. Alcohol Consumption in Southern Sweden after Major Decreases in Danish Spirits Taxes and Increases in Swedish Travellers’ Quotas

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2003, Denmark lowered its tax on spirits, and in 2004, Sweden increased its traveller import quotas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether these two changes increased self-reported alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, which is located near Denmark. Method Data were collected through telephone interviews with the general population between 2003 and 2006. Individuals aged 16–80 years were interviewed. Some lived in southern Sweden, others in the northern region, which was assumed to be unaffected by the policy changes and was thus used as a control site. Analyses were performed for the total population as well as by sex, age, socio-economic group and consumption pattern. Results The expected results were not found: alcohol consumption in southern Sweden had not changed. The few statistically significant changes found in southern Sweden indicated decreases. In the north, however, consumption seemed to have increased. Conclusion In addition to the two policy changes mentioned above, other changes seem to have affected alcohol consumption in Sweden. It is possible, however, that the policy changes have affected population groups not reached by the survey, and thus other types of data need to be analysed before drawing any far-reaching conclusions. PMID:20453510

  2. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, J; Ramstrom, L; Burke, M; Fagerstrom, K

    2003-01-01

    Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden. Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner that causes it to deliver lower concentrations of some harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, although it can deliver high doses of nicotine. It is dependence forming, but does not appear to cause cancer or respiratory diseases. It may cause a slight increase in cardiovascular risks and is likely to be harmful to the unborn fetus, although these risks are lower than those caused by smoking. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking. Over the same time period, rates of lung cancer and myocardial infarction have dropped significantly faster among Swedish men than women and remain at low levels as compared with other developed countries with a long history of tobacco use. Conclusions: Snus availability in Sweden appears to have contributed to the unusually low rates of smoking among Swedish men by helping them transfer to a notably less harmful form of nicotine dependence. PMID:14660766

  3. Temporal Variation in Sindbis Virus Antibody Prevalence in Bird Hosts in an Endemic Area in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Jan O.; Tok, Atalay; Östman, Örjan; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in Fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. Reliable data on human infections in Sweden is however lacking. Here we investigated the SINV antibody prevalence among birds in a Swedish area endemic to SINV to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of SINV. Serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002–2004 and 2009 in the floodplains of the River Dalälven in central Sweden, with 2002 and 2009 representing hypothesized years of SINV outbreaks. A total of 963 birds from 52 species (mainly passerines) were tested for the presence of SINV antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralization test. The highest SINV antibody prevalence was found in Turdidae species, specifically Fieldfare, Redwing and Song thrush in which more than 70% of sampled individuals had antibodies to SINV in 2009. The SINV antibody prevalence significantly varied between years with 2% in 2002, 8% in 2003, 14% in 2004 and 37% in 2009. Antibodies were found equally often in hatchlings and in adults and increased from early to late in the season. Clearly, the SINV antibody prevalence was not elevated in the bird hosts in the predicted outbreak year 2002, thus solid evidence of a cyclic occurrence of SINV in Sweden is still lacking. PMID:27579607

  4. Population dynamics of Bordetella pertussis in Finland and Sweden, neighbouring countries with different vaccination histories.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, Annika; Advani, Abdolreza; Donnelly, Declan; Antila, Mia; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui; Hallander, Hans

    2007-01-15

    Pertussis is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract in humans caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite extensive vaccinations, pertussis has remained endemic and re-emerged. In Finland, a whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used since 1952 with high coverage. In Sweden, whole-cell vaccinations were introduced in 1953 but ceased in 1979, and pertussis vaccinations with acellular vaccines were introduced in 1996. Two epidemic peaks occurred in Sweden in 1999 and 2002 and in Finland in 1999 and 2003. We compared Finnish (N=193) and Swedish (N=455) B. pertussis isolates circulating in 1998-2003 together with vaccine strains used in these neighbouring countries with different vaccination histories. The isolates were analysed by serotyping, genotyping of pertussis toxin S1 subunit and pertactin, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that the sequential epidemics were caused by clonal expansion of a certain B. pertussis strain possibly transmitted from Sweden to Finland. The roles of antigenic variation in immunity-driven evolution of B. pertussis in both countries are discussed.

  5. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  6. Decreasing prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 antibodies in selected groups of women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra; Ellström, Agneta; Krantz, Ingela; Löwhagen, Gun-Britt

    2009-11-01

    High estimates of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence have been reported for women who were pregnant in Sweden in the 1980s, probably reflecting sexual risk-taking during the 1960s and 1970s. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HSV-2 seroprevalence in pregnant women and in the female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Sweden at the beginning of the 21st century and to compare the results with those of earlier Swedish studies. Sera were collected during the period 2000 to 2002 from 299 pregnant women at an antenatal clinic and from 290 female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Gothenburg. To enable comparison with earlier seroprevalence data the same test method was used; Helix pomatia antigen in an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The overall HSV-2 prevalence was 10.4% for the pregnant women and 25.2% for the female attendees at the clinic for sexually transmitted infections. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 in pregnant women appears to have decreased in Sweden during the past decade, which may reflect changes in sexual behaviour.

  7. Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valladares, G; Tham, W; Parihar, V Singh; Helmersson, S; Andersson, B; Ivarsson, S; Johansson, C; Ringberg, H; Tjernberg, I; Henriques-Normark, B; Danielsson-Tham, M-L

    2014-11-01

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958-2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested. PMID:24480252

  8. Energy use in cultural context: an ethnographic comparison of households in Minnesota and Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sweden's reputation for energy efficiency caught the attention of the US as it sought to cope with the oil crisis of 1973 and subsequent energy problems. How did the Swedes enjoy an affluent way of life while using only 60% as much energy as the Americans. Was lesser residential energy consumption in Sweden due primarily to superior technology or to a more-conserving way of life there. In the absence of detailed household data, such questions were treated summarily, with references to the vague notion of lifestyle and with stereotypes about temperate Swedes and gluttonous Americans. This study addresses the questions of the relative roles of technology and behavior and of the veracity of such popular stereotypes. An ethnographic and holistic approach is taken to the comparison of household energy use lifestyle, and cultural context in the towns of Foley, Minnesota and Munka Ljungby, Skane, Sweden. The unit of research is the single family dwelling. The economic, energetic, and political contexts of the households are compared, and the relationships of residents to their larger societies are contrasted, especially with regard to information and support for energy conservation.

  9. Calculation of geomagnetically induced currents in the 400 kV power grid in southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, M.; Viljanen, A.; Pirjola, R.; Pulkkinen, A.; Wintoft, P.; Lundstedt, H.

    2008-07-01

    Sweden has experienced many geomagnetically induced current (GIC) events in the past, which is obviously due to the high-latitude location of the country. The largest GIC, almost 300 A, was measured in southern Sweden in the earthing lead of a 400 kV transformer neutral during the magnetic storm on 6 April 2000. On 30 October 2003, the city of Malmö at the southern coast suffered from a power blackout caused by GIC, leaving 50,000 customers without electricity for about 20-50 min. We have developed a model that enables calculation of GIC in the southern Swedish 400 kV power grid. This work constitutes the first modeling effort of GIC in Sweden. The model is divided into two parts. The electric field is first derived using a ground conductivity model and geomagnetic recordings from nearby stations. The conductivity model is determined from a least squares fit between measured and calculated GIC. GIC are calculated using a power grid model consisting of the topology of the system and of the transformer, transmission line, and station earthing resistances as well as of the coordinates of the stations. To validate the model, we have compared measured and calculated GIC from one site. In total, 24 events in 1998 to 2000 were used. In general the agreement is satisfactory as the correct GIC order of magnitude is obtained by the model, which is usually enough for engineering applications.

  10. Population structure in contemporary Sweden--a Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, T; Hannelius, U; Salmela, E; von Döbeln, U; Lindgren, C M; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Kere, J; Lahermo, P

    2009-01-01

    A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analysed for maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing genetic variation and population structure. The sample set of 820 females and 883 males were extracted and amplified from Guthrie cards of all the children born in Sweden during one week in 2003. 14 Y-chromosomal and 34 mitochondrial DNA SNPs were genotyped. The haplogroup frequencies of the counties closest to Finland, Norway, Denmark and the Saami region in the north exhibited similarities to the neighbouring populations, resulting from the formation of the Swedish nation during the past millennium. Moreover, the recent immigration waves of the 20th century are visible in haplogroup frequencies, and have led to increased diversity and divergence of the major cities. Signs of genetic drift can be detected in several counties in northern as well as in southern Sweden. With the exception of the most drifted subpopulations, the population structure in Sweden appears mostly clinal. In conclusion, our study yielded valuable information of the structure of the Swedish population, and demonstrated the usefulness of biobanks as a source of population genetic research. Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, is informative for capturing the contemporary variation in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world.

  11. Temporal Variation in Sindbis Virus Antibody Prevalence in Bird Hosts in an Endemic Area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hesson, Jenny Christina; Lundström, Jan O; Tok, Atalay; Östman, Örjan; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in Fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. Reliable data on human infections in Sweden is however lacking. Here we investigated the SINV antibody prevalence among birds in a Swedish area endemic to SINV to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of SINV. Serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002-2004 and 2009 in the floodplains of the River Dalälven in central Sweden, with 2002 and 2009 representing hypothesized years of SINV outbreaks. A total of 963 birds from 52 species (mainly passerines) were tested for the presence of SINV antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralization test. The highest SINV antibody prevalence was found in Turdidae species, specifically Fieldfare, Redwing and Song thrush in which more than 70% of sampled individuals had antibodies to SINV in 2009. The SINV antibody prevalence significantly varied between years with 2% in 2002, 8% in 2003, 14% in 2004 and 37% in 2009. Antibodies were found equally often in hatchlings and in adults and increased from early to late in the season. Clearly, the SINV antibody prevalence was not elevated in the bird hosts in the predicted outbreak year 2002, thus solid evidence of a cyclic occurrence of SINV in Sweden is still lacking. PMID:27579607

  12. Factors associated with birth weight in Sweden: the study of men born in 1913.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, M; Cnattingius, S; Svärdsudd, K; Tibblin, G

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse factors associated with birth weight and to evaluate the validity of obstetrical data. DESIGN: Obstetrical data were retrieved for singleton men born in 1913 and living in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1963. Information on birth weight, maternal age, marital status, parity, social class, proteinuria, gestational age, and place of birth (home or hospital) was obtained from these birth records. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty year old men living in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1963. MAIN RESULTS: Obstetrical records were obtained for 524 men (65%). Place of birth, gestational age, maternal age, parity, proteinuria, and marital status were all significantly correlated to birth weight. In multivariate analyses, place of birth, gestational age, parity, and proteinuria influenced birth weight. There was a substantial difference in mean birth weight between hospital deliveries (3352 g) and home deliveries (3817 g), which could be explained only partly by sociodemographic variables. Birth weight increased with parity and gestational age in home delivered babies as well as those delivered in a hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of obstetrical records from 1913 was good. The place of birth (home or hospital) is strongly associated with birth weight and may be a confounding factor in studies of the implications of birth weight for future risk of disease or death. Images PMID:9135783

  13. Genome characterisation of two Ljungan virus isolates from wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pounder, Kieran C; Watts, Phillip C; Niklasson, Bo; Kallio, Eva R K; Marston, Denise A; Fooks, Anthony R; Begon, Michael; McElhinney, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    Ljungan virus (LV) (family Picornaviridae, genus Parechovirus) is a suspected zoonotic pathogen with associations to human disease in Sweden. LV is a single-stranded RNA virus with a positive sense genome. There are five published Ljungan virus strains, three isolated from Sweden and two from America, and are classified into four genotypes. A further two strains described here were isolated from wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in Västmanlands county, Sweden in 1994. These strains were sequenced using next generation pyrosequencing technology on the GS454flx platform. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the obtained genomes confirms isolates LV340 and LV342 as two new putative members of genotype 2 along with LV145SL, with 92% and 99% nucleotide identities respectively. Only two codon sites throughout the entire genome were identified as undergoing positive selection, both situated within the VP3 structural region, in or near to major antigenic sites. Whilst these two strains do not constitute new genotypes they provide evidence, though weakly supported, which suggests the evolution of Ljungan viruses to be relatively slow, a characteristic unlike other picornaviruses. Additional genomic sequences are urgently required for Ljungan virus strains, particularly from different locations or hosts, to fully understand the evolutionary and epidemiological properties of this potentially zoonotic virus. PMID:26375731

  14. The phylogeographic pattern of Francisella tularensis in Sweden indicates a Scandinavian origin of Eurosiberian tularaemia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Edvin; Svensson, Kerstin; Lindgren, Petter; Byström, Mona; Sjödin, Andreas; Forsman, Mats; Johansson, Anders

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of the causative agent of tularaemia, Francisella tularensis have identified phylogeographic patterns suggestive of environmental maintenance reservoirs. To investigate the phylogeography of tularaemia in Sweden, we selected 163 clinical isolates obtained during 1995-2009 in 10 counties and sequenced one isolate's genome to identify new genetic markers. An improved typing scheme based on two indels and nine SNPs was developed using hydrolysis or TaqMan MGB probe assays. The results showed that much of the known global genetic diversity of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica is present in Sweden. Thirteen of the 163 isolates belonged to a new genetic group that is basal to all other known members of the major genetic clade B.I, which is spread across the Eurosiberian region. One hundred and twenty-five of the 163 Swedish isolates belonged to B.I, but individual clades' frequencies differed from county to county (P < 0.001). Subsequent analyses revealed a correlation between genotype variation over time and recurrent outbreaks at specific places, supporting the 'maintenance reservoir' environmental maintenance hypothesis. Most importantly, the findings reveal the presence of diverse source populations of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in Sweden and suggest a historical spread of the disease from Scandinavia to other parts of Eurosiberia.

  15. Simulated water balance of Scots pine stands in Sweden for different climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärdenäs, Annemieke I.; Jansson, Per-Erik

    1995-03-01

    The effects of climate change on the water balance of Scots pine were studied with a coupled water and heat flow model called 'SOIL'. Two forest soil types (a silty-sand and a sand) at five locations in Sweden were chosen to represent sites with different air temperature, growing season length and precipitation excess. The simulated water balance for the period 1961-1987 was compared with those simulated with two climate change scenario schemes: one is based on increased temperature and the other on both increased temperature and increased precipitation. Different assumptions regarding the effects of changes in leaf area index and minimum canopy resistance on transpiration were studied. Water stress increased substantially in the scenarios based on increased temperature only, which prevented transpiration from increasing. But with scenarios based on simultaneous changes in temperature and precipitation, water stress increased mainly during spring and transpiration increased by 50 mm and 100 mm in northern and southern Sweden, respectively, i.e. by 30-50%. When simultaneous changes in climate and stand characteristics were assumed, transpiration increased by 30-70% with the relative change being greatest for northern Sweden. Differences in water balance between the locations and soil types were less pronounced in the climate change scenarios than in the present climate scenario.

  16. HIV testing for HIV prevention: a comparative analysis of policies in Britain, Hungary and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R

    1998-10-01

    This paper compares policies on named HIV testing in the context of HIV prevention in Britain, Hungary and Sweden, and considers the extent to which these policies are based on evidence of effectiveness or on other, more contextual, factors. In Britain, testing has not featured significantly as a prevention strategy, and named testing has generally been carried out only with the voluntary, informed consent of individuals. In Hungary, testing is central to HIV prevention, and is required by law of certain groups. HIV testing is carried out mainly on a voluntary basis in Sweden, but, unlike in Britain, it has been actively promoted by public health authorities. The paper contrasts the 'right not to know' one's HIV status which is widely respected in Britain, with the 'responsibility to find out' which is more pervasive in Hungary and Sweden. Although policy makers in all three countries appear convinced that their's is the right approach, there appears to be as yet a dearth of convincing evidence to support their arguments. PMID:9828953

  17. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  18. Pentylindole/Pentylindazole Synthetic Cannabinoids and Their 5-Fluoro Analogs Produce Different Primary Metabolites: Metabolite Profiling for AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Castaneto, Marisol S; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Kronstrand, Robert; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Whereas non-fluoropentylindole/indazole synthetic cannabinoids appear to be metabolized preferably at the pentyl chain though without clear preference for one specific position, their 5-fluoro analogs' major metabolites usually are 5-hydroxypentyl and pentanoic acid metabolites. We determined metabolic stability and metabolites of N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA) and 5-fluoro-AB-PINACA (5F-AB-PINACA), two new synthetic cannabinoids, and investigated if results were similar. In silico prediction was performed with MetaSite (Molecular Discovery). For metabolic stability, 1 μmol/L of each compound was incubated with human liver microsomes for up to 1 h, and for metabolite profiling, 10 μmol/L was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 3 h. Also, authentic urine specimens from AB-PINACA cases were hydrolyzed and extracted. All samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry on a TripleTOF 5600+ (AB SCIEX) with gradient elution (0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile). High-resolution full-scan mass spectrometry (MS) and information-dependent acquisition MS/MS data were analyzed with MetabolitePilot (AB SCIEX) using different data processing algorithms. Both drugs had intermediate clearance. We identified 23 AB-PINACA metabolites, generated by carboxamide hydrolysis, hydroxylation, ketone formation, carboxylation, epoxide formation with subsequent hydrolysis, or reaction combinations. We identified 18 5F-AB-PINACA metabolites, generated by the same biotransformations and oxidative defluorination producing 5-hydroxypentyl and pentanoic acid metabolites shared with AB-PINACA. Authentic urine specimens documented presence of these metabolites. AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA produced suggested metabolite patterns. AB-PINACA was predominantly hydrolyzed to AB-PINACA carboxylic acid, carbonyl-AB-PINACA, and hydroxypentyl AB-PINACA, likely in 4-position. The most intense 5F-AB

  19. Heart Failure Telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Peter; Okada, Ikuko; de Vries, Arjen E; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Strömberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Background Telemonitoring of heart failure (HF) patients is increasingly discussed at conferences and addressed in research. However, little is known about actual use in specific countries. Objective We aimed to (1) describe the use of non-invasive HF telemonitoring, (2) clarify expectations of telemonitoring among cardiologists and nurses, and (3) describe barriers to the implementation of telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey of non-invasive HF telemonitoring. A total of 378 Japanese (120 cardiologists, 258 nurses) and 120 Swedish (39 cardiologists, 81 nurses) health care professionals from 165 Japanese and 61 Swedish hospitals/clinics nationwide participated in the study (210 in Japan and 98 in Sweden were approached). Data were collected between November 2013 and May 2014 with a questionnaire that was adapted from a previous Dutch study on telemonitoring. Results The mean age of the cardiologists and nurses was 47 years and 41 years, respectively. Experience at the current position caring for HF patients was 19 years among the physicians and 15 years among the nurses. In total, 7 Japanese (4.2%) and none of the Swedish health care institutions used telemonitoring. One fourth (24.0%, 118/498) of the health care professionals were familiar with the technology (in Japan: 21.6%, 82/378; in Sweden: 30.0%, 36/120). The highest expectations of telemonitoring (rated on a scale from 0-10) were reduced hospitalizations (8.3 in Japan and 7.5 in Sweden), increased patient self-care (7.8 and 7.4), and offering high-quality care (7.8 and 7.0). The major goal for introducing telemonitoring was to monitor physical condition and recognize signs of worsening HF in Japan (94.1%, 352/374) and Sweden (88.7%, 102/115). The following reasons were also high in Sweden: to monitor effects of treatment and adjust it remotely (86.9%, 100/115) and to do remote drug titration (79.1%, 91/115). Just under a quarter of Japanese (22.4%, 85/378) and

  20. A Multidimensional Interpretation and Comparison of Three A-B Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Edward; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Despite a rapidly expanding literature on the A-B therapist-type variable, an adequate conceptual and empirical understanding has not been forthcoming. The present study endeavors to increase understanding of the A-B dimension as well as to compare three different versions of the A-B scale. (Author)