Ab initio molecular dynamics using hybrid density functionals.
Guidon, Manuel; Schiffmann, Florian; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2008-06-07
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with hybrid density functionals have so far found little application due to their computational cost. In this work, an implementation of the Hartree-Fock exchange is presented that is specifically targeted at ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of medium sized systems. We demonstrate that our implementation, which is available as part of the CP2K/Quickstep program, is robust and efficient. Several prescreening techniques lead to a linear scaling cost for integral evaluation and storage. Integral compression techniques allow for in-core calculations on systems containing several thousand basis functions. The massively parallel implementation respects integral symmetry and scales up to hundreds of CPUs using a dynamic load balancing scheme. A time-reversible multiple time step scheme, exploiting the difference in computational efficiency between hybrid and local functionals, brings further time savings. With extensive simulations of liquid water, we demonstrate the ability to perform, for several tens of picoseconds, ab initio molecular dynamics based on hybrid functionals of systems in the condensed phase containing a few thousand Gaussian basis functions.
Ab initio molecular dynamics using hybrid density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guidon, Manuel; Schiffmann, Florian; Hutter, Jürg; Vandevondele, Joost
2008-06-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with hybrid density functionals have so far found little application due to their computational cost. In this work, an implementation of the Hartree-Fock exchange is presented that is specifically targeted at ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of medium sized systems. We demonstrate that our implementation, which is available as part of the CP2K/Quickstep program, is robust and efficient. Several prescreening techniques lead to a linear scaling cost for integral evaluation and storage. Integral compression techniques allow for in-core calculations on systems containing several thousand basis functions. The massively parallel implementation respects integral symmetry and scales up to hundreds of CPUs using a dynamic load balancing scheme. A time-reversible multiple time step scheme, exploiting the difference in computational efficiency between hybrid and local functionals, brings further time savings. With extensive simulations of liquid water, we demonstrate the ability to perform, for several tens of picoseconds, ab initio molecular dynamics based on hybrid functionals of systems in the condensed phase containing a few thousand Gaussian basis functions.
A density functional and ab initio investigation of the p-aminobenzoic acid molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lago, A. F.; Dávalos, J. Z.; de Brito, A. Naves
2007-08-01
The p-aminobenzoic acid (C 7H 7NO 2) molecule has been investigated at different levels of theory. DFT methods (B3LYP and PBE1PBE), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and composite ab initio methods (G3MP2 and CBS) have been employed, in conjunction with large basis sets. Important informations on the electronic structure and thermochemistry of this molecule have been extracted, and the performance of the density functional and ab initio methods has been evaluated, based on the comparison of the calculated and the available experimental data.
Ab initio and density functional studies of hydrocarbon adsorption in zeolites.
Curtiss, L. A.
1998-08-21
The adsorption energies of methane and ethane in zeolites are investigated with ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. In this work we have used zeolite cluster models containing two, three, and five tetrahedral (Si, Al) atoms and have found equilibrium structures for complexes of methane, ethane, and propane with an acid site. If a large enough cluster is used and correlation effects are included via perturbation theory, the calculated adsorption energy for ethane is about 5 kcal/mol compared with the experimental value of 7.5 kcal/mol. The B3LYP density functional method gives a much smaller binding of {approximately}1 kcal/mol for ethane. The reason for the failure of density fictional theory is unclear.
Ab-initio simulations of materials using VASP: Density-functional theory and beyond.
Hafner, Jürgen
2008-10-01
During the past decade, computer simulations based on a quantum-mechanical description of the interactions between electrons and between electrons and atomic nuclei have developed an increasingly important impact on solid-state physics and chemistry and on materials science-promoting not only a deeper understanding, but also the possibility to contribute significantly to materials design for future technologies. This development is based on two important columns: (i) The improved description of electronic many-body effects within density-functional theory (DFT) and the upcoming post-DFT methods. (ii) The implementation of the new functionals and many-body techniques within highly efficient, stable, and versatile computer codes, which allow to exploit the potential of modern computer architectures. In this review, I discuss the implementation of various DFT functionals [local-density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, hybrid functional mixing DFT, and exact (Hartree-Fock) exchange] and post-DFT approaches [DFT + U for strong electronic correlations in narrow bands, many-body perturbation theory (GW) for quasiparticle spectra, dynamical correlation effects via the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem (AC-FDT)] in the Vienna ab initio simulation package VASP. VASP is a plane-wave all-electron code using the projector-augmented wave method to describe the electron-core interaction. The code uses fast iterative techniques for the diagonalization of the DFT Hamiltonian and allows to perform total-energy calculations and structural optimizations for systems with thousands of atoms and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for ensembles with a few hundred atoms extending over several tens of ps. Applications in many different areas (structure and phase stability, mechanical and dynamical properties, liquids, glasses and quasicrystals, magnetism and magnetic nanostructures, semiconductors and insulators, surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-12-01
We formulate an ab initio downfolding scheme for electron-phonon-coupled systems. In this scheme, we calculate partially renormalized phonon frequencies and electron-phonon coupling, which include the screening effects of high-energy electrons, to construct a realistic Hamiltonian consisting of low-energy electron and phonon degrees of freedom. We show that our scheme can be implemented by slightly modifying the density functional-perturbation theory (DFPT), which is one of the standard methods for calculating phonon properties from first principles. Our scheme, which we call the constrained DFPT, can be applied to various phonon-related problems, such as superconductivity, electron and thermal transport, thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, dielectricity, and multiferroicity. We believe that the constrained DFPT provides a firm basis for the understanding of the role of phonons in strongly correlated materials. Here, we apply the scheme to fullerene superconductors and discuss how the realistic low-energy Hamiltonian is constructed.
Density functional and ab initio investigation of S2N2 and (SN)2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Jiwon; Chae, Myoungju; Kim, Joonghan
2017-03-01
Quantum chemical calculations were performed to calculate the molecular properties of the 1Ag state of disulfur dinitride, S2N2, and the 1A1 state of the SN dimer, (SN)2, using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio methods. The molecular structure of (SN)2 is a trapezoid instead of a rectangle. Because the multireference character of (SN)2 is considerable, most hybrid DFTs poorly describe its molecular properties. In contrast, old generalized gradient approximations give qualitatively correct descriptions of the molecular properties of (SN)2. Multi-state second-order multiconfigurational perturbation theory gives results that are close to those from multireference configuration interaction with the Davidson correction. The multireference character should be considered when calculating the molecular properties of poly sulfur nitride systems.
Karamanis, Panaghiotis; Maroulis, George; Pouchan, Claude
2006-02-21
We have calculated molecular geometries and electric polarizabilities for small cadmium selenide clusters. Our calculations were performed with conventional ab initio and density functional theory methods and Gaussian-type basis sets especially designed for (CdSe)(n). We find that the dipole polarizability per atom converges rapidly to the bulk value.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E.
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafner, Jürgen
2010-09-01
During the last 20 years computer simulations based on a quantum-mechanical description of the interactions between electrons and atomic nuclei have developed an increasingly important impact on materials science, not only in promoting a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena, but also enabling the computer-assisted design of materials for future technologies. The backbone of atomic-scale computational materials science is density-functional theory (DFT) which allows us to cast the intractable complexity of electron-electron interactions into the form of an effective single-particle equation determined by the exchange-correlation functional. Progress in DFT-based calculations of the properties of materials and of simulations of processes in materials depends on: (1) the development of improved exchange-correlation functionals and advanced post-DFT methods and their implementation in highly efficient computer codes, (2) the development of methods allowing us to bridge the gaps in the temperature, pressure, time and length scales between the ab initio calculations and real-world experiments and (3) the extension of the functionality of these codes, permitting us to treat additional properties and new processes. In this paper we discuss the current status of techniques for performing quantum-based simulations on materials and present some illustrative examples of applications to complex quasiperiodic alloys, cluster-support interactions in microporous acid catalysts and magnetic nanostructures.
Borges, P. D. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu; Scolfaro, L. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu
2014-12-14
The thermoelectric properties of indium nitride in the most stable wurtzite phase (w-InN) as a function of electron and hole concentrations and temperature were studied by solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory. Based on maximally localized Wannier function basis set and the ab initio band energies, results for the Seebeck coefficient are presented and compared with available experimental data for n-type as well as p-type systems. Also, theoretical results for electric conductivity and power factor are presented. Most cases showed good agreement between the calculated properties and experimental data for w-InN unintentionally and p-type doped with magnesium. Our predictions for temperature and concentration dependences of electrical conductivity and power factor revealed a promising use of InN for intermediate and high temperature thermoelectric applications. The rigid band approach and constant scattering time approximation were utilized in the calculations.
Ab initio joint density-functional theory of solvated electrodes, with model and explicit solvation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Tomas
2015-03-01
First-principles guided design of improved electrochemical systems has the potential for great societal impact by making non-fossil-fuel systems economically viable. Potential applications include improvements in fuel-cells, solar-fuel systems (``artificial photosynthesis''), supercapacitors and batteries. Economical fuel-cell systems would enable zero-carbon footprint transportation, solar-fuel systems would directly convert sunlight and water into hydrogen fuel for such fuel-cell vehicles, supercapacitors would enable nearly full recovery of energy lost during vehicle braking thus extending electric vehicle range and acceptance, and economical high-capacity batteries would be central to mitigating the indeterminacy of renewable resources such as wind and solar. Central to the operation of all of the above electrochemical systems is the electrode-electrolyte interface, whose underlying physics is quite rich, yet remains remarkably poorly understood. The essential underlying technical challenge to the first principles studies which could explore this physics is the need to properly represent simultaneously both the interaction between electron-transfer events at the electrode, which demand a quantum mechanical description, and multiscale phenomena in the liquid environment such as the electrochemical double layer (ECDL) and its associated shielding, which demand a statistical description. A direct ab initio approach to this challenge would, in principle, require statistical sampling and thousands of repetitions of already computationally demanding quantum mechanical calculations. This talk will begin with a brief review of a recent advance, joint density-functional theory (JDFT), which allows for a fully rigorous and, in principle, exact representation of the thermodynamic equilibrium between a system described at the quantum-mechanical level and a liquid environment, but without the need for costly sampling. We then shall demonstrate how this approach applies in
Alonso, J L; Andrade, X; Echenique, P; Falceto, F; Prada-Gracia, D; Rubio, A
2008-08-29
A new "on the fly" method to perform Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations is presented. Inspired by Ehrenfest dynamics in time-dependent density functional theory, the electronic orbitals are evolved by a Schrödinger-like equation, where the orbital time derivative is multiplied by a parameter. This parameter controls the time scale of the fictitious electronic motion and speeds up the calculations with respect to standard Ehrenfest dynamics. In contrast with other methods, wave function orthogonality needs not be imposed as it is automatically preserved, which is of paramount relevance for large-scale AIMD simulations.
Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.
Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus
2012-06-12
We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].
Rayón, Víctor M; Valdés, Haydee; Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas
2008-02-01
A systematic theoretical study on several models of Zn(II) complexes has been carried out employing both ab initio correlated wave function and density functional methods. The performance of five different functionals namely PW91, PBE, B3LYP, MPWLYP1M, and TPSS in the prediction of metal-ligand bond distances, binding energies, and proton affinities has been assessed comparing the results to those obtained with the MP2 and CCSD(T) wave function methodologies. Several basis sets ranging from double-ζ up to quintuple-ζ quality have been used, including the recently developed all-electron correlation consistent basis sets for zinc. It is shown that all the tested functionals overestimate both the metal-ligand bond distances and the binding energies, being that the B3LYP and TPSS functionals are the ones that perform the best. An analysis of the metal-ligand interaction energy shows that induction and charge-transfer effects play a prominent role in the bonding of these systems, even for those complexes with the less polarizable ligands. This finding highlights the importance of a correct description of the polarization of the monomers' charge densities by any theoretical method which aims to be applied to the study of Zn(II) complexes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polin, Daniel; Ziegler, Joshua; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
We present the findings of ab-initio calculations of electronic, transport, and structural properties of cubic sodium oxide (Na2O). These results were obtained using density functional theory (DFT), specifically a local density approximation (LDA) potential, and the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO). Our implementation of LCGO followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We describe the electronic band structure of Na2O with a direct band gap of 2.22 eV. Our results include predicted values for the electronic band structure and associated energy eigenvalues, the total and partial density of states (DOS and pDOS), the equilibrium lattice constant of Na2O, and the bulk modulus. We have also calculated the electron and holes effective masses in the Γ to L, Γ to X, and Γ to K directions. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
Ribeiro, M.
2015-06-21
Ab initio calculations of hydrogen-passivated Si nanowires were performed using density functional theory within LDA-1/2, to account for the excited states properties. A range of diameters was calculated to draw conclusions about the ability of the method to correctly describe the main trends of bandgap, quantum confinement, and self-energy corrections versus the diameter of the nanowire. Bandgaps are predicted with excellent accuracy if compared with other theoretical results like GW, and with the experiment as well, but with a low computational cost.
Patil, Mahendra P; Sunoj, Raghavan B
2007-10-26
The mechanistic details on enamine formation between dimethylamine and propanal are unraveled using the ab initio and density functional theory methods. The addition of secondary amine to the electrophile and simultaneous proton transfer results in a carbinolamine intermediate, which subsequently undergoes dehydration to form enamine. The direct addition of amine as well as the dehydration of the resulting carbinolamine intermediate is predicted to possess fairly high activation barrier implying that a unimolecular process is unlikely to be responsible for enamine formation. Different models are therefore proposed which could explain the relative ease of enamine formation under neat condition as well as under the influence of methanol as the co-catalyst. The explicit inclusion of either the reagent or the co-catalyst is considered in the transition states as stabilizing agents. The participation of the reagent or the co-catalyst as a monofunctional ancillary species is found to stabilize the transition states relative to the unassisted or the direct addition/dehydration pathways. The reduction in enthalpy of activation is found to be much more dramatic when two co-catalysts participate in an active bifunctional mode in the rate-determining dehydration step. The transition structures exhibited characteristic features of a relay proton transfer mechanism. The free energy of activation associated with the two methanol-assisted pathway is found to be 16.7 kcal/mol lower than that of the unassisted pathway. The results are found to be in concurrence with the available reports on the rate acceleration by co-catalysts in the Michael reaction between enamine and methyl vinyl ketone under neat conditions.
Jursic, B.S.
1996-12-31
Up to four ionization potentials of elements from the second-row of the periodic table were computed using the ab initio (HF, MP2, MP3, MP4, QCISD, GI, G2, and G2MP2) and DFT (B3LY, B3P86, B3PW91, XALPHA, HFS, HFB, BLYP, BP86, BPW91, BVWN, XAPLY, XAP86, XAPW91, XAVWN, SLYR SP86, SPW91 and SVWN) methods. In all of the calculations, the large 6-311++G(3df,3pd) gaussian type of basis set was used. The computed values were compared with the experimental results and suitability of the ab initio and DFF methods were discussed, in regard to reproducing the experimental data. From the computed ionization potentials of the second-row elements, it can be concluded that the HF ab initio computation is not capable of reproducing the experimental results. The computed ionization potentials are too low. However, by using the ab initio methods that include electron correlation, the computed IPs are becoming much closer to the experimental values. In all cases, with the exception of the first ionization potential for oxygen, the G2 computation result produces ionization potentials that are indistinguishable from the experimental results.
Roy, Dipankar; Sunoj, Raghavan B
2007-11-08
The first ab initio and DFT studies on the mechanism of the MBH reaction show that the rate-limiting step involves an intramolecular proton transfer in the zwitterionic intermediate generated by the addition of enolate to electrophile. The activation barrier for the C-C bond-formation is found to be 20.2 kcal/mol lower than the proton-transfer step for the MBH reaction between methyl vinyl ketone and benzaldehyde catalyzed by DABCO.
Kraisler, Eli; Makov, Guy; Kelson, Itzhak
2010-10-15
The total energies and the spin states for atoms and their first ions with Z=1-86 are calculated within the the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) and the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) energy in density-functional theory. Atoms and ions for which the ground-state density is not pure-state v-representable are treated as ensemble v-representable with fractional occupations of the Kohn-Sham system. A recently developed algorithm which searches over ensemble v-representable densities [E. Kraisler et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 032115 (2009)] is employed in calculations. It is found that for many atoms, the ionization energies obtained with the GGA are only modestly improved with respect to experimental data, as compared to the LSDA. However, even in those groups of atoms where the improvement is systematic, there remains a non-negligible difference with respect to the experiment. The ab initio electronic configuration in the Kohn-Sham reference system does not always equal the configuration obtained from the spectroscopic term within the independent-electron approximation. It was shown that use of the latter configuration can prevent the energy-minimization process from converging to the global minimum, e.g., in lanthanides. The spin values calculated ab initio fit the experiment for most atoms and are almost unaffected by the choice of the xc functional. Among the systems with incorrectly obtained spin, there exist some cases (e.g., V, Pt) for which the result is found to be stable with respect to small variations in the xc approximation. These findings suggest a necessity for a significant modification of the exchange-correlation functional, probably of a nonlocal nature, to accurately describe such systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duguet, T.; Bender, M.; Ebran, J.-P.; Lesinski, T.; Somà, V.
2015-12-01
This programmatic paper lays down the possibility to reconcile the necessity to resum many-body correlations into the energy kernel with the fact that safe multi-reference energy density functional (EDF) calculations cannot be achieved whenever the Pauli principle is not enforced, as is for example the case when many-body correlations are parametrized under the form of empirical density dependencies. Our proposal is to exploit a newly developed ab initio many-body formalism to guide the construction of safe, explicitly correlated and systematically improvable parametrizations of the off-diagonal energy and norm kernels that lie at the heart of the nuclear EDF method. The many-body formalism of interest relies on the concepts of symmetry breaking and restoration that have made the fortune of the nuclear EDF method and is, as such, amenable to this guidance. After elaborating on our proposal, we briefly outline the project we plan to execute in the years to come.
Sagdinc, Seda; Kandemirli, Fatma; Bayari, Sevgi Haman
2007-02-01
Sertraline hydrochloride is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin (5HT). It is a basic compound of pharmaceutical application for antidepressant treatment (brand name: Zoloft). Ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational (IR) spectrum, the molecular geometry, the atomic charges and polarizabilities were carried out. The infrared spectrum of sertraline is recorded in the solid state. The observed IR wave numbers were analysed in light of the computed vibrational spectrum. On the basis of the comparison between calculated and experimental results and the comparison with related molecules, assignments of fundamental vibrational modes are examined. The X-ray geometry and experimental frequencies are compared with the results of our theoretical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagdinc, Seda; Kandemirli, Fatma; Bayari, Sevgi Haman
2007-02-01
Sertraline hydrochloride is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin (5HT). It is a basic compound of pharmaceutical application for antidepressant treatment (brand name: Zoloft). Ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational (IR) spectrum, the molecular geometry, the atomic charges and polarizabilities were carried out. The infrared spectrum of sertraline is recorded in the solid state. The observed IR wave numbers were analysed in light of the computed vibrational spectrum. On the basis of the comparison between calculated and experimental results and the comparison with related molecules, assignments of fundamental vibrational modes are examined. The X-ray geometry and experimental frequencies are compared with the results of our theoretical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha
2011-11-01
Yohimbine hydrochloride (YHCl) is an aphrodisiac and promoted for erectile dysfunction, weight loss and depression. The optimized geometry, total energy, potential energy surface and vibrational wavenumbers of yohimbine hydrochloride have been determined using ab initio, Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A complete vibrational assignment is provided for the observed Raman and IR spectra of YHCl. The UV absorption spectrum was examined in ethanol solvent and compared with the calculated one in gas phase as well as in solvent environment (polarizable continuum model, PCM) using TD-DFT/6-31G basis set. These methods are proposed as a tool to be applied in the structural characterization of YHCl. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with frontier orbital gap are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallegos-Cuellar, A. A.; Licona-Ibarra, R.; Rivas-Silva, J. F.; Flores-Riveros, A.; Azorín Nieto, J.; Casco-Vásquez, J. F.
2013-11-01
High frequency absorption spectral lines not matching any of the chemical constituents were observed while analyzing the infrared experimental spectrum of a K2YF5:Tb+3 sample. We ascribe these lines to the presence of impurities that inadvertently contaminated the crystal compound during synthesis, whose mass and electronegativity apparently indicate OH substitutional ions occupying fluorine sites. In this report we have performed ab initio calculations by means of a solid state computational code, applied to a model consisting of a potassium-yttrium-double fluoride structure where OH ion aggregates are introduced on F sites, which indeed confirm such assignment.
Towards SiC Surface Functionalization: An Ab Initio Study
Cicero, G; Catellani, A
2005-01-28
We present a microscopic model of the interaction and adsorption mechanism of simple organic molecules on SiC surfaces as obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results open the way to functionalization of silicon carbide, a leading candidate material for bio-compatible devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Hsin-Yu; Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto
Hybrid functionals are known to alleviate the self-interaction error in density functional theory (DFT) and provide a more accurate description of the electronic structure of molecules and materials. However, hybrid DFT in the condensed-phase has a prohibitively high associated computational cost which limits their applicability to large systems of interest. In this work, we present a general-purpose order(N) implementation of hybrid DFT in the condensed-phase using Maximally localized Wannier function; this implementation is optimized for massively parallel computing architectures. This algorithm is used to perform large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water, ice, and aqueous ionic solutions. We have performed simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble to quantify the effects of exact exchange on the equilibrium density properties of water at different thermodynamic conditions. We find that the anomalous density difference between ice I h and liquid water at ambient conditions as well as the enthalpy differences between ice I h, II, and III phases at the experimental triple point (238 K and 20 Kbar) are significantly improved using hybrid DFT over previous estimates using the lower rungs of DFT This work has been supported by the Department of Energy under Grants No. DE-FG02-05ER46201 and DE-SC0008626.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karamanis, Panaghiotis; Marchal, Remi; Carbonniére, Philippe; Pouchan, Claude
2011-07-01
A global theoretical study of the (hyper)polarizabilities of alkali doped Si10 is presented and discussed. First, a detailed picture about the low lying isomers of Si10Li, Si10Na, Si10K, Si10Li2, Si10Na2, and Si10K2 has been obtained in a global manner. Then, the microscopic first (hyper)polarizabilities of the most stable configurations have been determined by means of ab initio methods of high predictive capability such as those based on the Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled cluster theory, paying extra attention to the (hyper)polarizabilities of the open shell mono-doped systems Si10Li, Si10Na, Si10K, and the influence of spin contamination. These results were used to assess the performance of methods of low computational cost based on density functional theory (DFT) in the reliable computation of these properties in order to proceed with an in-depth study of their evolution as a function of the alkali metal, the cluster composition, and the cluster structure. The most interesting outcomes of the performed (hyper)polarizability study indicate that while alkali doping leaves the per atom polarizability practically unaffected, influences dramatically the hyperpolarizabilities of Si10. The lowest energy structures of the mono-doped clusters are characterized by significantly enhanced hyperpolarizabilities as compared to the analogue neutral or charged bare silicon clusters Si10 and Si11, while, certain patterns governed by the type and the number of the doping agents are followed. The observed hyperpolarizability increase is found to be in close connection with specific cluster to alkali metal charge transfer excited states and to the cluster structures. Moreover, an interesting correlation between the anisotropy of the electron density, and the hyperpolarizabilities of these systems has been observed. Finally, it is important to note that the presented method assessment points out that among the various DFT functionals used in this work, (B3LYP, B3PW91
Karamanis, Panaghiotis; Marchal, Remi; Carbonniére, Philippe; Pouchan, Claude
2011-07-28
A global theoretical study of the (hyper)polarizabilities of alkali doped Si(10) is presented and discussed. First, a detailed picture about the low lying isomers of Si(10)Li, Si(10)Na, Si(10)K, Si(10)Li(2), Si(10)Na(2), and Si(10)K(2) has been obtained in a global manner. Then, the microscopic first (hyper)polarizabilities of the most stable configurations have been determined by means of ab initio methods of high predictive capability such as those based on the Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled cluster theory, paying extra attention to the (hyper)polarizabilities of the open shell mono-doped systems Si(10)Li, Si(10)Na, Si(10)K, and the influence of spin contamination. These results were used to assess the performance of methods of low computational cost based on density functional theory (DFT) in the reliable computation of these properties in order to proceed with an in-depth study of their evolution as a function of the alkali metal, the cluster composition, and the cluster structure. The most interesting outcomes of the performed (hyper)polarizability study indicate that while alkali doping leaves the per atom polarizability practically unaffected, influences dramatically the hyperpolarizabilities of Si(10). The lowest energy structures of the mono-doped clusters are characterized by significantly enhanced hyperpolarizabilities as compared to the analogue neutral or charged bare silicon clusters Si(10) and Si(11), while, certain patterns governed by the type and the number of the doping agents are followed. The observed hyperpolarizability increase is found to be in close connection with specific cluster to alkali metal charge transfer excited states and to the cluster structures. Moreover, an interesting correlation between the anisotropy of the electron density, and the hyperpolarizabilities of these systems has been observed. Finally, it is important to note that the presented method assessment points out that among the various DFT functionals used
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamuk, Betül; Allen, Philip B.; Soler, Jose M.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2014-03-01
The contributions of nuclear zero point vibrations to the structures of liquid water and ice are not negligible. Recently, we have explained the source of an anomalous isotope shift in hexagonal ice, representing itself as an increase in the lattice volume when H is replaced by D, by calculating free energy within the quasiharmonic approximation, with ab initio density functional theory. In this work, we extend our studies to analyze the zero point effect in other ice-like structures under different densities: clathrate hydrates, LDL and HDL-like amorphous ices with different densities, and a highly dense ice phase, ice VIII. We show that there is a transition from anomalous isotope effect to normal isotope effect as the density increases. We also analyze nuclear zero point effects in liquid water using different vdW-DFs and make connections to this anomalous-normal isotope effect transition in ice. This work is supported by DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871.
Wang, B.; Hou, H.; Gu, Y.
1999-10-07
The potential energy surface for the reaction of methoxy radical with carbon monoxide has been studied using the G2(B2LYP/MP2/CC) method. Two reaction mechanisms were revealed. The hydrogen abstraction of CH{sub 3}O by CO produces CH{sub 2}O + HCO via a barrier of 24.19 kcal/mol. The addition of CH{sub 3}O to CO proceeds to an intermediate CH{sub 3}OCO via a barrier of 6.39 kcal/mol. The products, CH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, can be formed in two ways. One is the C-O bond cleavage of the CH{sub 3}OCO radical. The other involves the isomerization of CH{sub 3}OCO to the CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2} radical and the subsequent C-C bond fission. CH{sub 2}O and HCI can be formed via the path CH{sub 3}OCO {r{underscore}arrow} TS6 {r{underscore}arrow} IM4 {r{underscore}arrow} TS7 {r{underscore}arrow} CH{sub 2}O + HCO. A radical product, CH{sub 2}COOH, is formed through the hydrogen rearrangement of the CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2} radical. Multichannel RRKM calculations have been carried out for the total and individual rate constants for various channels over a wide range of temperatures and pressures using the ab initio data. At lower temperatures, the title reaction is dominated by the stabilization of the CH{sub 3}OCO radical. At higher temperatures, the CH{sub 3} + CO product channel and the direct hydrogen abstraction channels become dominant and competitive. The title reaction shows the typical fall-off behavior. The calculations were compared with the available experimental data.
Guédira, F; Castellà-Ventura, M; Zaydoun, S; Elhajji, A; Lautié, A; Saidi Idrissi, M
2009-08-15
The conventional ab initio method at the closed restricted Hartree-Fock level (RHF) and the density functional theory (DFT) approach at the B3-LYP level, using the 6-31+G* basis set, are applied to predict the molecular structure and the energetic and the vibrational properties (harmonic wave numbers, force fields and potential energy distributions) of the 3,4'-bi-1,2,4-triazole and of two deuterated derivatives (ND and ND(CD)(3)). The theoretical results are compared to the Raman and infrared vibrational data. Using both methods, there is a very good agreement between theory and experiment concerning not only the wave numbers but also the isotopic shifts. This accordance allows us to validate the calculated structure of bTA. This molecule is characterized by an aromatic structure in which two triazolic rings are linked by a CN bond, intermediary between a single and double bond, in a planar conformation. From a methodological point of view, the B3-LYP method predicts more accurate structure and harmonic vibrational wave numbers than the RHF method.
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice
Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki
2015-01-21
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.
Ab Initio Study of Covalently Functionalized Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Sanjiv; Hammouri, Mahmoud; Vasiliev, Igor; Magedov, Igor; Frolova, Liliya; Kalugin, Nikolai
2014-03-01
The electronic and structural properties of carbon nanomaterials can be affected by chemical functionalization. We apply ab initio computational methods based on density functional theory to study the properties of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with benzyne. Our calculations are carried out using the SIESTA electronic structure code combined with the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange correlation functional. The calculated binding energies, densities of states, and band structures of functionalized graphene and carbon nanotubes are analyzed in comparison with the available experimental data. The surfaces of carbon nanotubes are found to be significantly more reactive toward benzyne molecules than the surface of graphene. The strength of interaction between benzyne and carbon nanotubes is affected by the curvature of the nanotube sidewall. The binding energies of benzyne molecules attached to both semiconducting zigzag and metallic armchair nanotubes increase with decreasing the nanotube diameter. Supported by NSF CHE-1112388, NMSU GREG Award, NSF ECCS-0925988, NIH-5P20RR016480-12, and NIH- P20 GM103451.
Ab initio liquid water from PBE0 hybrid functional simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhaofeng; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto
2010-03-01
For reasons of computational efficiency, so far most ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water have been based on semi-local density functional approximations, such as PBE and BLYP. These approaches yield a liquid structure that, albeit qualitatively correct, is overstructured compared to experiment, even after nuclear quantum effects have been taken into account.footnotetextJ. A. Morrone and R. Car, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 017801(2008) A major cause of this inaccuracy is the delocalization error associated to semi-local density functional approximations, which, as a consequence, overestimate slightly the hydrogen bond strength in the liquid. In this work we adopt the PBE0 hybrid functional approximation, which, by mixing a fraction of exact (Hartree-Fock) exchange, reduces significantly the delocalization error of semi-local functionals. Our approach is based on a numerically efficient order-N implementation of exact exchange.footnotetextX. Wu, A. Selloni, and R. Car, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085102(2009) We find that PBE0 systematically improves the agreement of the simulated liquid with experiment. Our conclusion is substantiated by the calculated radial distribution functions, H-bond statistics, and molecular dipole distribution.
Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-03-01
Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.
Tayran, Ceren; Zhu, Zhen; Baldoni, Matteo; Selli, Daniele; Seifert, Gotthard; Tománek, David
2013-04-26
We use ab initio density-functional calculations to determine the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the Si(111) surface. We find that graphene forms strong bonds to the bare substrate and accommodates the 12% lattice mismatch by forming a wavy structure consisting of free-standing conductive ridges that are connected by ribbon-shaped regions of graphene, which bond covalently to the substrate. We perform quantum transport calculations for different geometries to study changes in the transport properties of graphene introduced by the wavy structure and bonding to the Si substrate. Our results suggest that wavy graphene combines high mobility along the ridges with efficient carrier injection into Si in the contact regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Tung; Malloy, Thomas B., Jr.
2010-04-01
Hartree-Fock with and without MP2 (frozen core and full) corrections and density functional calculations have been performed on 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine with basis sets 6-31G∗, 6-31+G∗ and 6-311+G∗∗. For all methods which included diffuse functions, the half-chair equatorial N-H conformer was found to be slightly more stable than the half-chair axial conformer, in agreement with experimental results. A detailed comparison for all the methods and basis sets was made with experimental data. These included rotational constants for both the normal and N-D isotopic species, dipole moments and dipole moment components. In addition, several interconversion pathways and barriers between the axial and equatorial conformations were explored by Hartree-Fock and B3LYP with the 6-31+G∗ basis set. The lowest energy pathway between was found to be via the N-H inversion (˜4-5 kcal/mol); via a bent (boat) axial form (˜6-7 kcal/mol) and finally via a bent (boat) equatorial form (˜7-8 kcal/mol). The planar form was found to be ˜10 kcal/mol less stable than the two half-chair forms.
Adsorption of TCDD molecule onto CNTs and BNNTs: Ab initio van der Waals density-functional study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darvish Ganji, M.; Alinezhad, H.; Soleymani, E.; Tajbakhsh, M.
2015-03-01
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD) is one of the most dangerous compounds that infect the environment and hence its removal is crucial for safety in human life. In this work, we have investigated the interaction of TCDD with boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our first-principles results have been validated by experiment and also other theoretical values for the similar system. The adsorption energies for TCDD molecule on the BNNTs and CNT are calculated. It was found that TCDD adsorption ability of BNNT is slightly stronger than that of CNT and TCDD molecule prefers to be adsorbed on BNNTs with molecular axis parallel to the tube axis. The results obtained indicate that TCDD is weakly bound to the outer surface of all the considered nanotubes and the obtained adsorption energy values and binding distance are typical for the physisorption. We also evaluated the influence of curvature and introduced defects on the TCDD adsorption ability of BNNTs. Furthermore, we have analyzed the electronic structure and charge population for the energetically most favorable complexes and the results indicate that no significant hybridization between the respective orbitals of the two entities was accomplished.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) is found to give a better description of the geometries and vibrational frequencies of FeL and FeL(sup +) systems than second order Moller Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). Namely, the DFT correctly predicts the shift in the CO vibrational frequency between free CO and the Sigma(sup -) state of FeCO and yields a good result for the Fe-C distance in the quartet states of FeCH4(+) 4 These are properties where the MP2 results are unsatisfactory. Thus DFT appears to be an excellent approach for optimizing the geometries and computing the zero-point energies of systems containing first transition row atoms. Because the DFT approach is biased in favor of the 3d(exp 7) occupation, whereas the more traditional approaches are biased in favor of the 3d(exp 6) occupation, differences are found in the relative ordering of states. It is shown that if the dissociation is computed to the most appropriate atomic asymptote and corrected to the ground state asymptote using the experimental separations, the DFT results are in good agreement with high levels of theory. The energetics at the DFT level are much superior to the MP2 and in most cases in good agreement with high levels of theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenjian; Franke, Robert; Dolg, Michael
1999-03-01
Structural and energetic properties of the experimentally yet unknown gas-phase molecule mercury(IV) fluoride HgF 4 have been calculated with three independent quantum-chemical approaches accounting for relativistic and electron correlation effects. All-electron 4-component density functional and scalar relativistic direct perturbation theory as well as valence-only quasi-relativistic pseudopotential calculations predict HgF 4 to be thermodynamically stable by at least 19 kJ/mol with respect to HgF 2 and F 2, and by at least 690 kJ/mol with respect to atomization. The Hg-F bond length and the totally symmetric Hg-F stretching mode are predicted to be 1.910±0.015 Å and 565±25 cm -1, respectively. HgCl 4 is predicted to be unstable with respect to HgCl 2 and Cl 2. The ionization potentials and excitation energies of the Hg atom and its cations are presented.
Zein, Samir; Neese, Frank
2008-08-28
The paper presents a method comparison for the prediction of zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters in a series of Mn (II) coordination complexes. The test set consists of Mn (II) complexes that are experimentally well-characterized by X-ray diffraction and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance. Their ZFS parameters have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) as well as complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods. It is shown that the recently introduced coupled-perturbed spin-orbit coupling (CP-SOC) approach [ Neese, F. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 127, 164112 ] together with hybrid-DFT functionals leads to a slope of the correlation line (plot of experimental vs calculated D values) that is essentially unity provided that the direct spin-spin interaction is properly included in the treatment. This is different from our previous DFT study on the same series of complexes where a severe overestimation of the D parameter has been found [ Zein, S. ; Duboc, C. ; Lubitz, W. ; Neese, F. Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 134 ]. CASSCF methods have been used to evaluate the ZFS in an "ab initio ligand-field" type treatment. The study demonstrates that a substantial part of the relevant physics is lost in such a treatment since only excitations within the manganese d-manifold are accounted for. Thus, a severe underestimation of the D parameter has been found. Because the CASSCF calculations in combination with quasidegenerate perturbation theory treats the SOC to all orders, we have nevertheless verified that second-order perturbation theory is an adequate approximation in the case of the high-spin d (5) configuration.
Khanniche, Sarah; Louis, Florent; Cantrel, Laurent; Černušák, Ivan
2016-03-17
To get an insight into the possible reactivity between iodine oxides and CO, a first step was to study the thermochemical properties and kinetic parameters of the reaction between IO and CO using theoretical chemistry tools. All stationary points involved were optimized using the Becke's three-parameter hybrid exchange functional coupled with the Lee-Yang-Parr nonlocal correlation functional (B3LYP) and the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2). Single-point energy calculations were performed using the coupled cluster theory with the iterative inclusion of singles and doubles and the perturbative estimation for triple excitations (CCSD(T)) and the aug-cc-pVnZ (n = T, Q, and 5) basis sets on geometries previously optimized at the aug-cc-pVTZ level. The energetics was then recalculated using the one-component DK-CCSD(T) approach with the relativistic ANO basis sets. The spin-orbit coupling for the iodine containing species was calculated a posteriori using the restricted active space state interaction method in conjunction with the multiconfigurational perturbation theory (CASPT2/RASSI) employing the complete active space (CASSCF) wave function as the reference. The CCSD(T) energies were also corrected for BSSE for molecular complexes and refined with the extrapolation to CBS limit while the DK-CCSD(T) values were refined with the extrapolation to FCI. The exploration of the potential energy surface revealed a two-steps mechanism with a trans and a cis pathway. The rate constants for the direct and complex mechanism were computed as a function of temperature (250-2500 K) using the canonical transition state theory. The three-parameter Arrhenius expressions obtained for the direct and indirect mechanism at the DK-CCSD(T)-cf level of theory is 1.49 × 10(-17) × T(1.77) exp(-47.4 (kJ mol(-1))/RT).
Singh, J S
2015-02-25
FT-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)) and Raman spectra (200-4000 cm(-1)) of uracil and 5-methyluracil (thymine) have been recorded and analyzed. The optimized molecular geometries, atomic polar tensor (APT) charges and vibrational characteristics have been studied theoretically using restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Using the Becke's exchange in conjunction with Lee-Yang-Parr's correlation functional and Becke's three-parameter hybrid method (B3LYP), the ab initio and DFT calculations were carried out to study the optimized molecular fundamental vibrational frequencies for uracil and 5-methyluracil (thymine) by employing Gaussian-03 program. The fundamental vibrational frequencies along with their corresponding intensities in IR and Raman activities and depolarization ratios of the Raman lines have also been calculated using the RHF and DFT methods employing different basis sets. In quantum chemical calculations, most of the B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) vibrational frequencies are in excellent agreement with the available experimental assignments and helped to propose in the reassignments of some missing frequencies in experimental study. Assuming under the Cs point group for both molecules, the distribution of normal mode of vibrations between the two species as planar (a') and non-planar (a″) for all 39 normal vibrational modes of 5-methyluracil are given by 26a'+13a″, of which 30 modes (21a'+9a″) correspond to the uracil moiety and 9 modes (5a'+4a″) to the CH3 group. Consistent assignments have been made for the internal modes of CH3 group, especially for the anti-symmetric CH3 stretching and bending modes. A possible explanation could be the planarity of pyrimidine ring and non-planarity at carbon site of methyl group which might cause the splitting of frequencies including three components due to the substitution of CH3 group at the site of C5 atom on pyrimidine ring of uracil. The three non-equivalent CH bonds of CH3 group are
Zhang, Yi-Quan; Luo, Cheng-Lin; Wu, Xin-Bao; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Song
2014-04-07
Until now, the expressions of the anisotropic energy barriers Δξ and ΔA, using the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy D, the intrachain coupling strength J, and the high-spin ground state S for single-chain magnets (SCMs) in the intermediate region between the Ising and the Heisenberg limits, were unknown. To explore this relationship, we used density functional theory and ab initio methods to obtain expressions of Δξ and ΔA in terms of D, J, and S of six R4Fe(II)-Re(IV)Cl4(CN)2 (R = diethylformamide (1), dibutylformamide (2), dimethylformamide (3), dimethylbutyramide (4), dimethylpropionamide (5), and diethylacetamide (6)) SCMs in the intermediate region. The ΔA value for compounds 1-3 was very similar to the magnetic anisotropic energy of a single Fe(II), while the value of Δξ was predicted using the exchange interaction of Fe(II) with the neighboring Re(IV), which could be expressed as 2JSReSFe. Similar to compounds 1-3, the anisotropy energy barrier ΔA of compounds 4 and 5 was also equal to (Di - Ei)SFe(2), but the correlation energy Δξ was closely equal to 2JSReSFe(cos 98.4 - cos 180) due to the reversal of the spins on the opposite Fe(II). For compound 6, one unit cell of Re(IV)Fe(II) was regarded as a domain wall since it had two different Re(IV)-Fe(II) couplings. Thus, the Δξ of compound 6 was expressed as 4J″SRe1Fe1SRe2Fe2, where J″ was the coupling constant of the neighboring unit cells of Re1Fe1 and Re2Fe2, and ΔA was equal to the anisotropic energy barrier of one domain wall given by DRe1Fe1(S(2)Re1Fe1 - 1/4).
Testing the density matrix expansion against ab initio calculations of trapped neutron drops
Bogner, S. K.; Hergert, H.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Kortelainen, Erno M; Stoitsov, M. V.; Maris, Pieter; Vary, J. P.
2011-01-01
Microscopic input to a universal nuclear energy density functional can be provided through the density matrix expansion (DME), which has recently been revived and improved. Several DME implementation strategies are tested for neutron drop systems in harmonic traps by comparing to Hartree-Fock (HF) and ab initio no-core full configuration (NCFC) calculations with a model interaction (Minnesota potential). The new DME with exact treatment of Hartree contributions is found to best reproduce HF results and supplementing the functional with fit Skyrme-like contact terms shows systematic improvement toward the full NCFC results.
Optimized unrestricted Kohn-Sham potentials from ab initio spin densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boguslawski, Katharina; Jacob, Christoph R.; Reiher, Markus
2013-01-01
The reconstruction of the exchange-correlation potential from accurate ab initio electron densities can provide insights into the limitations of the currently available approximate functionals and provide guidance for devising improved approximations for density-functional theory (DFT). For open-shell systems, the spin density is introduced as an additional fundamental variable in spin-DFT. Here, we consider the reconstruction of the corresponding unrestricted Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials from accurate ab initio spin densities. In particular, we investigate whether it is possible to reconstruct the spin exchange-correlation potential, which determines the spin density in unrestricted KS-DFT, despite the numerical difficulties inherent to the optimization of potentials with finite orbital basis sets. We find that the recently developed scheme for unambiguously singling out an optimal optimized potential [Ch. R. Jacob, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244102 (2011), 10.1063/1.3670414] can provide such spin potentials accurately. This is demonstrated for two test cases, the lithium atom and the dioxygen molecule, and target (spin) densities from full configuration interaction and complete active space self-consistent field calculations, respectively.
Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions.
Changlani, Hitesh J; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K
2015-09-14
We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U(∗)/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.
Lara-Castells, María Pilar de Aguirre, Néstor F.; Stoll, Hermann; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Mateo, David; Pi, Martí
2015-04-07
An ab-initio-based methodological scheme for He-surface interactions and zero-temperature time-dependent density functional theory for superfluid {sup 4}He droplets motion are combined to follow the short-time collision dynamics of the Au@{sup 4}He{sub 300} system with the TiO{sub 2}(110) surface. This composite approach demonstrates the {sup 4}He droplet-assisted sticking of the metal species to the surface at low landing energy (below 0.15 eV/atom), thus providing the first theoretical evidence of the experimentally observed {sup 4}He droplet-mediated soft-landing deposition of metal nanoparticles on solid surfaces [Mozhayskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 094701 (2007) and Loginov et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 7199 (2011)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.
2014-12-01
The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
Tabookht, Zahra; López, Xavier; de Graaf, Coen; Guihéry, Nathalie; Suaud, Nicolas; Benamor, Nadia
2012-08-05
The electrical conductivities and plausible charge-ordering states in the room temperature (r.t.) phase for MMX chains [Ni(2)(dta)(4)I](∞) and [Pt(2)(dta)(4)I](∞) (dta = CH(3)CS(2)(-)) have been analyzed with periodic density functional theory (DFT) and correlated ab initio calculations combined with the effective Hamiltonian theory. Periodic DFT calculations show a more delocalized nature of the ground state in [Pt(2)(dta)(4)I](∞) compared to [Ni(2)(dta)(4)I](∞), which features a rather large energy gap between the occupied and empty bands, and charge polarized dimer units. A larger electrical conductivity for the Pt chain can be expected, especially because the Fermi level lies within a band with contributions from Pt and I orbitals. Electronic structure parameters extracted from ab initio cluster calculations show that the large difference between the observed conductivities at 300 K for Ni and Pt compounds, of 3 orders of magnitude, cannot be explained from the parameters extracted from an embedded M(2)(dta)(4)I(2) dimer fragment alone. When tetramer fragments are considered, we observe that the interdimer transfer integral (t) between neighboring M(2) units connected by an iodine atom at correlated level is comparable in both chains. On the other hand, the energy to transfer an electron from a dimer to the neighboring one (Coulomb repulsion U) is three times larger in the Ni compound with respect to the Pt chain, in line with the poor conductivity of the former. The electronic structure of the M(4)(dta)(8)I(3) fragment points to an alternate charge-polarization state for Ni and an average valence state for Pt when the r.t. X-ray structure is considered.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R
2016-07-07
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.
2016-07-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arslan, Hakan; Algül, Öztekin
2008-06-01
The room temperature attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole has been recorded with diamond/ZnSe prism. The conformational behaviour, structural stability of optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of the title compound were investigated by utilizing ab initio calculations with 6-311G** basis set at HF, B3LYP, BLYP, B3PW91 and mPW1PW91 levels. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values have been compared with experimental IR spectrum. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The theoretical vibrational spectra of the title compound were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. Furthermore, the optimal uniform scaling factors calculated for the title compound are 0.9120, 0.9596, 0.9660, 0.9699, and 0.9993 for HF, mPW1PW91, B3PW91, B3LYP and BLYP methods, respectively.
Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions
Changlani, Hitesh J.; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K.
2015-09-14
We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U{sup ∗}/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.
Ulian, Gianfranco; Valdrè, Giovanni; Tosoni, Sergio
2013-11-28
The quantum chemical characterization of solid state systems is conducted with many different approaches, among which the adoption of periodic boundary conditions to deal with three-dimensional infinite condensed systems. This method, coupled to the Density Functional Theory (DFT), has been proved successful in simulating a huge variety of solids. Only in relatively recent years this ab initio quantum-mechanic approach has been used for the investigation of layer silicate structures and minerals. In the present work, a systematic comparison of different DFT functionals (GGA-PBEsol and hybrid B3LYP) and basis sets (plane waves and all-electron Gaussian-type orbitals) on the geometry, energy, and phonon properties of a model layer silicate, talc [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}], is presented. Long range dispersion is taken into account by DFT+D method. Results are in agreement with experimental data reported in literature, with minimal deviation given by the GTO/B3LYP-D* method regarding both axial lattice parameters and interaction energy and by PW/PBE-D for the unit-cell volume and angular values. All the considered methods adequately describe the experimental talc infrared spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Asthana, B. P.
2011-12-01
(+)-Bicuculline (hereinafter referred to as bicuculline), a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid is of current interest as an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Its inhibitor properties have been studied through molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping of this molecule and GABA receptor. The hot site on the potential surface of bicuculline, which is also isosteric with GABA receptor, has been used to interpret the inhibitor property. A systematic quantum chemical study of the possible conformations, their relative stabilities, FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of bicuculline has been reported. The optimized geometries, wavenumber and intensity of the vibrational bands of all the conformers of bicuculline have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP functional and 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO gap Δ E, ionization potential, dipole moments and total energy have also been obtained for the optimized geometries of both the molecules. TD-DFT method is used to calculate the electronic absorption parameters in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) employing 6-31G basis set and the results thus obtained are compared with the UV absorption spectra. The combination of experimental and calculated results provides an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of bicuculline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, J. Sharmi; Devi, T. S. Renuga; Ramkumaar, G. R.; Bright, A.
2016-01-01
The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid were recorded and the structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method (B3LYP). The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational band assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties, Mulliken and natural atomic charge distribution were calculated using both Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method and compared. UV-Visible and HOMO-LUMO analysis were carried out. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using gauge including atomic orbital method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and molecular electrostatic potential of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemically reactive site in the molecule.
Ab initio research of energy loss for energetic protons in solid-density Be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Bin; Meng, Xu-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jian-Guo
2017-03-01
Ab initio research of energy loss for energetic protons in solid-density Be is made based on the average atom model. Our results are found in good agreement with the recent experiment for both warm and cool matter. Our results are compared with the local density approximation model and the reason for their difference is also explored. The energy loss at smaller projectile energies is predicted by our model and local density approximation, which helps probe the higher reliability of the proving model and judge the existence of the non-Fermi-Dirac velocity distribution for free electrons exists in dense plasmas in future.
Ess, Daniel H; Cook, Thomas C
2012-05-24
Here we present and test several computational prescriptions for calculating singlet-triplet (ST) gap energies and bond dissociation curves for open-shell singlet diradicals using economical unrestricted single reference type calculations. For ST gap energies from Slipchenko and Krylov's atom and molecule test set (C, O, Si, NH, NF, OH(+), O(2), CH(2), and NH(2)(+)) spin unrestricted Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies result in errors greater than 15 kcal/mol. However, spin-projected (SP) Hartree-Fock theory in combination with spin-component-scaled (SCS) or scaled-opposite-spin (SOS) second-order perturbation theory gives ST gap energies with a mean unsigned error (MUE) of less than 2 kcal/mol. Density functionals generally give poor results for unrestricted energies and only the ωB97X-D, the M06, and the M06-2X functionals provide reasonable accuracy after spin-projection with MUE values of 4.7, 4.3, and 3.0 kcal/mol, respectively, with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. We also present a new one parameter hybrid density functional, diradical-1 (DR-1), based on Adamo and Barone's modified PW exchange functional with the PW91 correlation functional. This DR-1 method gives a mean error (ME) of 0.0 kcal/mol and a MUE value of 1.3 kcal/mol for ST gap energies. As another test of unrestricted methods the bond dissociation curves for methane (CH(4)) and hydrofluoric acid (H-F) were calculated with the M06-2X, DR-1, and ωB97X-D density functionals. All three of these functionals give reasonable results for the methane C-H bond but result in errors greater than 50 kcal/mol for the H-F bond dissociation. Spin-projection is found to significantly degrade bond dissociation curves past ~2.2 Å. Although unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory provides a very poor description of H-F bond dissociation, unrestricted SCS-MP2 and SOS-MP2 methods give accurate results.
Arghavani Nia, Borhan; Sedighi, Matin; Shahrokhi, Masoud; Moradian, Rostam
2013-11-15
A density functional theory study of structural, electronical and optical properties of Ca{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} compound in hexagonal and cubic phases is presented. In the exchange–correlation potential, generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) has been used to calculate lattice parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy, dielectric function and energy loss spectra. The electronic band structure of this compound has been calculated using the above two approximations as well as another form of PBE-GGA, proposed by Engle and Vosko (EV-GGA). It is found that the hexagonal phase of Ca{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} has an indirect gap in the Γ→N direction; while in the cubic phase there is a direct-gap at the Γ point in the PBE-GGA and EV-GGA. Effects of applying pressure on the band structure of the system studied and optical properties of these systems were calculated. - Graphical abstract: A density functional theory study of structural, electronic and optical properties of Ca{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} compound in hexagonal and cubic phases is presented. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Physical properties of Ca{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} in hexagonal and cubic phases are investigated. • It is found that the hexagonal phase is an indirect gap semiconductor. • Ca{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} is a direct-gap semiconductor at the Γ point in the cubic phase. • By increasing pressure the semiconducting band gap and anti-symmetry gap are decreased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Xian-Zhou
2011-01-01
The vibrational frequencies of three substituted 4-thioflavones in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G* and 6-31+G** basis sets. The structural analysis shows that there exists H-bonding in the selected compounds and the hydrogen bond lengths increase with the augment of the conjugate parameters of the substituent group on the benzene ring. A complete vibrational assignment aided by the theoretical harmonic wavenumber analysis was proposed. The theoretical spectrograms for FT-IR spectra of the title compounds have been constructed. In addition, it is noted that the selected compounds show significant activity against Shigella flexniri. Several electronic properties and thermodynamic parameters were also calculated.
Yao, Yongxin
2009-01-01
also plays an important role, as it may directly track the movement of every atom. Simulation time is a major limit for molecular dynamics, not only because of “slow” computer speed, but also because of the accumulation error in the numerical treatment of the motion equations. There is also a great concern about the reliability of the emperical potentials if using classical molecular dynamics. Ab initio methods based on density functional theory(DFT) do not have this problem, however, it suffers from small simulation cells and is more demanding computationally. When crystal phase is involved, size effect of the simulation cell is more pronounced since long-range elastic energy would be established. Simulation methods which are more efficient in computation but yet have similar reliability as the ab initio methods, like tight-binding method, are highly desirable. While the complexity of metallic glasses comes from the atomistic level, there is also a large field which deals with the complexity from electronic level. The only “ab initio” method applicable to solid state systems is density functional theory with local density approximation( LDA) or generalized gradient approximation(GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy. It is very successful for simple sp element, where it reaches an high accuracy for determining the surface reconstruction. However, there is a large class of materials with strong electron correlation, where DFT based on LDA or GGA fails in a fundamental way. An “ab initio” method which can generally apply to correlated materials, as LDA for simple sp element, is still to be developed. The thesis is prepared to address some of the above problems.
Javaid, Saqib; Javed Akhtar, M.
2015-07-28
We have employed density functional theory to study the C60/ZnPc interface with face-on orientation, which has recently been tailored experimentally. For this purpose, adsorption of ZnPc on C60 has been studied, while taking into account different orientations of C60. Out of various adsorption sites investigated, 6:6 C-C bridge position in apex configuration of C60 has been found energetically the most favourable one with C60-ZnPc adsorption distance of ∼2.77 Å. The adsorption of ZnPc on C60 ensues both charge re-organization and charge transfer at the interface, resulting in the formation of interface dipole. Moreover, by comparing results with that of C60/CuPc interface, we show that the direction of interface dipole can be tuned by the change of the central atom of the phthalocyanine molecule. These results highlight the complexity of electronic interactions present at the C60/Phthalocyanine interface.
Singh, J S
2014-01-03
Raman (200-4000 cm(-1)) and FT-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)) spectra of uracil and 5-halogenated uracils (5-X-uracils; X=F, Cl, Br, I) have been recorded and analyzed in the range 200-4000 cm(-1). The optimized molecular geometries, atomic polar tensor (APT) charges and vibrational characteristics have been studied theoretically using restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Ab initio and DFT calculations [using Becke's exchange in conjunction with Lee-Yang-Parr's correlation functional and Becke's three-parameter hybrid method (B3LYP)] were carried out to study the optimized molecular fundamental vibrational frequencies for uracil and 5-halogenated uracils by employing Gaussian-03 program. Gauss View software was used to make the vibrational analysis. Raman and IR spectra have been computed theoretically for the uracil and 5-halogenated molecules. The fundamental vibrational frequencies along with their corresponding intensities in IR and Raman activities and depolarization ratios of the Raman lines have also been calculated using the RHF and DFT methods employing different basis sets. Quantum chemical calculations helped in the reassignments of some fundamental vibrational modes. Most of the B3LYP/6-311++G(**) vibrational frequencies are in excellent agreement with available experimental assignments. The ring breathing and kekule stretching modes are found to lower magnitudes compared to those for uracil which could be due to mass effect of halogen atom in place of the hydrogen atom. The C-X (X=F, Cl, Br, I) stretching frequency is distinctly separated from the CH/NH ring stretching frequencies on the pyrimidine ring. All other bands have also been assigned different fundamentals/overtones/combinations.
Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Yoon, Mina; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Mullins, David R; Wu, Zili; Yang, Xiaofan; Veith, Gabriel M; Stocks, George Malcolm
2013-01-01
Although there are only a few known examples of supported single atoms, they are unique because they bridge the gap between homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis. The metal center is single supported atoms can be isoelectronic with their homogenous catalyst counterpart and may allow mechanistic pathways normally seen in homogenous catalysts. Here, we report CO oxidation activity of mono-disperse single Pt atoms supported on an inert substrate, -alumina (Al2O3), in the presence of stoichiometric oxygen. Since CO oxidation on single Pt atoms cannot occur via a conventional Langmuir-Hinshelwood scheme (L-H scheme) which requires at least one Pt-Pt bond, we have carried out a first principles density functional theoretical study of a proposed pathway which is a variation on the conventional L-H scheme and is inspired by organometallic chemistry of platinum. We find that a single supported Pt atom prefers to bond to O2 over CO. The CO then bonds with the oxygenated Pt atom and forms a carbonate which dissociates to liberate CO2, leaving an oxygen atom on Pt. A subsequent reaction with another CO molecule regenerates the single atom catalyst. An in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared study of CO adsorption on the catalyst s supported single atoms has been carried out to infer information on CO absorption modes and compare the observed spectra with calculated ones for intermediates in the proposed CO oxidation pathway. Our results clearly show that supported Pt single atoms are catalytically active and that this catalytic activity can occur without involving the substrate. Characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption studies of the mono-disperse Pt/ -Al2O3, synthesized by solution methods, are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-Solís, A.; Poteau, R.; Daudey, J. P.
2006-01-01
The XΠg2, Σg+2, and Δg2 states of AgCl2 have been studied through benchmark ab initio complete active space self-consistent field plus second-order complete active space multireference Möller-Plesset algorithm (CASSCF +CASPT2) and complete active space self-consistent field plus averaged coupled pair functional (CASSCF +ACPF) and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations using especially developed basis sets to study the transition energies, geometries, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges, and spin densities. The spin-orbit (SO) effects were included through the effective Hamiltonian formalism using the ΛSΣ ACPF energies as diagonal elements. At the ACPF level, the ground state is Πg2 in contradiction with ligand-field theory, SCF, and large CASSCF; the adiabatic excitation energies for the Σg+2 and Δg2 states are 1640 and 18230cm-1, respectively. The inclusion of the SO effects leads to a pure Ω =3/2(Πg2) ground state, a Ω =1/2 (66%Πg2 and 34%Σg+2) A state, a Ω =1/2 (34%Πg2 and 66%Σg+2) B state, a Ω =5/2(Δg2)C state, and a Ω =3/2(99%Δg2)D state. The X-A, X-B, X-C, and X-D transition energies are 485, 3715, 17 246, and 20110cm-1, respectively. The B97-2, B3LYP, and PBE0 functionals overestimate by ≈100% the XΠg2-Σg+2Te but provide a qualitative energetic ordering in good agreement with ACPF results. B3LYP with variable exchange leads to a 42% optimal Hartree-Fock exchange for transition energies but all equilibrium geometries get worsened. Asymptotic corrections to B3LYP do not provide improved values. The nature of the bonding in the XΠg2 state is very different from that of CuCl2 since the Mulliken charge on the metal is 1.1 while the spin density is only 0.35. DFT strongly delocalizes the spin density providing even smaller values of around 0.18 on Ag not only for the ground state, but also for the Σg+2 state.
Harris, Travis V.; Morokuma, Keiji; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi
2014-02-07
The applicability of ab initio multireference wavefunction-based methods to the study of magnetic complexes has been restricted by the quickly rising active-space requirements of oligonuclear systems and dinuclear complexes with S > 1 spin centers. Ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods built upon an efficient parameterization of the correlation network enable the use of much larger active spaces, and therefore may offer a way forward. Here, we apply DMRG-CASSCF to the dinuclear complexes [Fe{sub 2}OCl{sub 6}]{sup 2−} and [Cr{sub 2}O(NH{sub 3}){sub 10}]{sup 4+}. After developing the methodology through systematic basis set and DMRG M testing, we explore the effects of extended active spaces that are beyond the limit of conventional methods. We find that DMRG-CASSCF with active spaces including the metal d orbitals, occupied bridging-ligand orbitals, and their virtual double shells already capture a major portion of the dynamic correlation effects, accurately reproducing the experimental magnetic coupling constant (J) of [Fe{sub 2}OCl{sub 6}]{sup 2−} with (16e,26o), and considerably improving the smaller active space results for [Cr{sub 2}O(NH{sub 3}){sub 10}]{sup 4+} with (12e,32o). For comparison, we perform conventional MRCI+Q calculations and find the J values to be consistent with those from DMRG-CASSCF. In contrast to previous studies, the higher spin states of the two systems show similar deviations from the Heisenberg spectrum, regardless of the computational method.
Benjamin A. Frandsen; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; ...
2016-05-11
Here, we present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominatedmore » by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. Furthermore, the Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Staunton, Julie B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-05-01
We present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ˜1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. The Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nechaev, I. A.; Krasovskii, E. E.
2016-11-01
We present a method to microscopically derive a small-size k .p Hamiltonian in a Hilbert space spanned by physically chosen ab initio spinor wave functions. Without imposing any complementary symmetry constraints, our formalism equally treats three- and two-dimensional systems and simultaneously yields the Hamiltonian parameters and the true Z2 topological invariant. We consider bulk crystals and thin films of Bi2Se3 , Bi2Te3 , and Sb2Te3 . It turns out that the effective continuous k .p models with open boundary conditions often incorrectly predict the topological character of thin films.
Pisani, Cesare; Erba, Alessandro; Ferrabone, Matteo; Dovesi, Roberto
2012-07-28
In the frame of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, nuclear motions in crystals can be simulated rather accurately using a harmonic model. In turn, the electronic first-order density matrix (DM) can be expressed as the statistically weighted average over all its determinations each resulting from an instantaneous nuclear configuration. This model has been implemented in a computational scheme which adopts an ab initio one-electron (Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham) Hamiltonian in the CRYSTAL program. After selecting a supercell of reasonable size and solving the corresponding vibrational problem in the harmonic approximation, a Metropolis algorithm is adopted for generating a sample of nuclear configurations which reflects their probability distribution at a given temperature. For each configuration in the sample the "instantaneous" DM is calculated, and its contribution to the observables of interest is extracted. Translational and point symmetry of the crystal as reflected in its average DM are fully exploited. The influence of zero-point and thermal motion of nuclei on such important first-order observables as x-ray structure factors and Compton profiles can thus be estimated.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Electronic Structures and Biological Functions of Protein Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Haoping
The self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) calculation method reduces the computational effort from M3 to about M1 (M is the number of atoms in the system) with precise calculations. Thus the ab initio, all-electron calculation of the electronic structure and biological function of protein molecule has become a reality, which will promote new proteomics considerably. The calculated results of two real protein molecules, the trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I, 436 atoms) and the ascaris trypsin inhibitor (912 atoms, two three-dimensional structures), will be presented in this paper. The reactive sites of the inhibitors are determined and explained. The accuracy of structure determination of the inhibitors are tested theoretically.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Electronic Structures and Biological Functions of Protein Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Haoping
2003-04-01
The self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) calculation method reduces the computational effort from M3 to about M1 (M is the number of atoms in the system) with unchanged calculation precision. So the ab initio, all-electron calculation of the electronic structure and biological function of protein molecule becomes a reality, which will promote new proteomics considerably. The calculated results of two real protein molecules, the trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I, 436 atoms) and the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor (912 atoms, two three-dimensional structures), are presented. The reactive sites of the inhibitors are determined and explained. The precision of structure determination of inhibitors are tested theoretically.
Chaudret, Robin; Gresh, Nohad; Narth, Christophe; Lagardère, Louis; Darden, Thomas A; Cisneros, G Andrés; Piquemal, Jean-Philip
2014-09-04
We demonstrate as a proof of principle the capabilities of a novel hybrid MM'/MM polarizable force field to integrate short-range quantum effects in molecular mechanics (MM) through the use of Gaussian electrostatics. This lead to a further gain in accuracy in the representation of the first coordination shell of metal ions. It uses advanced electrostatics and couples two point dipole polarizable force fields, namely, the Gaussian electrostatic model (GEM), a model based on density fitting, which uses fitted electronic densities to evaluate nonbonded interactions, and SIBFA (sum of interactions between fragments ab initio computed), which resorts to distributed multipoles. To understand the benefits of the use of Gaussian electrostatics, we evaluate first the accuracy of GEM, which is a pure density-based Gaussian electrostatics model on a test Ca(II)-H2O complex. GEM is shown to further improve the agreement of MM polarization with ab initio reference results. Indeed, GEM introduces nonclassical effects by modeling the short-range quantum behavior of electric fields and therefore enables a straightforward (and selective) inclusion of the sole overlap-dependent exchange-polarization repulsive contribution by means of a Gaussian damping function acting on the GEM fields. The S/G-1 scheme is then introduced. Upon limiting the use of Gaussian electrostatics to metal centers only, it is shown to be able to capture the dominant quantum effects at play on the metal coordination sphere. S/G-1 is able to accurately reproduce ab initio total interaction energies within closed-shell metal complexes regarding each individual contribution including the separate contributions of induction, polarization, and charge-transfer. Applications of the method are provided for various systems including the HIV-1 NCp7-Zn(II) metalloprotein. S/G-1 is then extended to heavy metal complexes. Tested on Hg(II) water complexes, S/G-1 is shown to accurately model polarization up to quadrupolar
An ab initio HCN/HNC rotational-vibrational line list and opacity function for astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Gregory John
HCN/HNC is an important molecule which is found throughout the universe. For example HCN/HNC is known to exist in comets, planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. HCN is also an important opacity source in carbon rich stars (C-stars). HCN masers have been observed in the circumstellar material around these C-stars and also in galaxies. Jorgensen and co-workers investigated model carbon star atmospheres in which they included HCN as an opacity source. They found that including a HCN opacity function had a remarkable effect: the atmosphere expanded by five times and the pressure of the atmosphere in the surface layers dropped by one or two orders of magnitude. This suggests that a full and detailed treatment of the rotational-vibrational spectrum of HCN/HNC could have a profound effect on the models of carbon stars, this provides the main motivation in this work. The temperatures of the stars in which HCN is an important opacity source Teff = 2000 - 3000 K. If HCN and HNC are in thermodynamic equilibrium it would be expected that HNC as well as HCN are found in significant populations. The transition dipoles of the fundamental bands of HNC are more than twice as strong as their HCN counter parts. These factors mean that both HCN and HNC will be considered, which makes a semiglobal treatment of the [H,C,N] system necessary. In this thesis an ab initio HCN/HNC linelist, from which accurate spectra and opacity functions can be calculated, is computed. Within this thesis I present least squares fits for ab initio semiglobal potential energy, dipole moment, relativistic correction and adiabatic correction surfaces. The potential energy surface (PES) is morphed for HNC geometries of the potential to improve the HNC representation of the surface. The PES and dipole moment surface (DMS) are used to perform quantum mechanical nuclear motion (rotational-vibrational) calculations with the DVR3D suite of codes. Preliminary calculations are made to optimise a ro
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neves, Amanda P.; Vargas, Maria D.; Soto, Claudio A. Téllez; Ramos, Joanna M.; Visentin, Lorenzo do C.; Pinheiro, Carlos B.; Mangrich, Antônio S.; de Rezende, Edivaltrys I. P.
Zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes of a tridentate Mannich base L1 derived from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, pyridinecarboxyaldehyde and 2-aminomethylpyridine, [ZnL1Cl2]·H2O 1 and [CuL1Cl2]·2H2O 2, have been synthesized and fully characterized. The structure of complex 1 has been elucidated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study: the zinc atom is pentacoordinate and the coordination geometry is a distorted square base pyramid, with a geometric structural parameter τ equal to 0.149. Vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio DFT calculations of both compounds have confirmed that the two complexes exhibit similar structures. Full assignment of the vibrational spectra was also supported by careful analysis of the distorted geometries generated by the normal modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Autrey, Daniel; Choo, Jaebum; Laane, Jaan
2000-10-01
The ring-twisting vibration of 1,3-cyclohexadiene has been studied using Raman and infrared spectroscopy of the molecule in the vapor phase. The Raman spectrum shows five ring-twisting transitions in the 150 - 200 cm-1 region. The far-infrared spectrum shows only two transitions for this vibration, which is infrared forbidden in the C_2v (planar) approximation. Three ring-twisting combination bands were also observed off a fundamental vibration at 926.1 cm-1. A coordinate dependent kinetic energy expansion for the ring-twisting motion was calculated, and this was used to determine the ring-twisting potential function. Ab initio calculations were performed using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) using different basis sets. The barrier to planarity of 1150 cm-1 was determined from the spectroscopic data. The various ab initio calculations gave barriers to planarity in the 1197 - 1593 cm-1 range.
Senthil kumar, J; Jeyavijayan, S; Arivazhagan, M
2015-02-05
The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,5-dichlorobenzonitrile and m-bromobenzonitrile have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1), respectively. The optimized geometry, wave numbers and intensity of vibrational bonds of title molecules are obtained by ab initio and DFT level of theory with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. A complete vibrational assignments aided by the theoretical harmonic frequency, analysis have been proposed. The harmonic vibrational frequencies calculated have been compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The observed and calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The UV-Vis spectral analysis of the molecules has also been done which confirms the charge transfer of the molecules. Furthermore, the first hyperpolarizability and total dipole moment of the molecules have been calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senthil kumar, J.; Jeyavijayan, S.; Arivazhagan, M.
2015-02-01
The vibrational spectral analysis is carried out using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 3500-50 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively, for 6-nitrochromone (6NC). The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands are interpreted with the aid of structure optimization and normal coordinates force field calculation based on ab initio HF and DFT gradient calculations employing the HF/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Stability of the molecule has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity, zero-point energy and Mulliken's charge analysis have been calculated for the 6NC. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The MEP map shows the negative potential sites are on oxygen atoms as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Yasuhito; Ohta, Koji; Kinugawa, Kenichi
2004-01-01
An ab initio centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) method is developed by combining the CMD method with the ab initio molecular orbital method. The ab initio CMD method is applied to vibrational dynamics of diatomic molecules, H2 and HF. For the H2 molecule, the temperature dependence of the peak frequency of the vibrational spectral density is investigated. The results are compared with those obtained by the ab initio classical molecular dynamics method and exact quantum mechanical treatment. It is shown that the vibrational frequency obtained from the ab initio CMD approaches the exact first excitation frequency as the temperature lowers. For the HF molecule, the position autocorrelation function is also analyzed in detail. The present CMD method is shown to well reproduce the exact quantum result for the information on the vibrational properties of the system.
Singh, R N; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta
2015-01-25
In this work, detailed vibrational spectral analysis of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EHCHEDPC) molecule has been carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy and potential energy distribution (PED). Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method, using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. The other carried outwork cover: structural, thermodynamic properties, electronic transitions, bonding, multiple interaction, chemical reactivity and hyperpolarizability analysis. The results of the calculation were applied to the simulated spectra of (EHCHEDPC), which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The vibrational analysis shows red shift in both group, the proton donor (pyrrole N-H) and proton acceptor (C=O of ester) indicating the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been used to find electronic excitations and their nature. The results of natural bond orbital (NBOs) analysis show the charges transfer and delocalization in various intra- and intermolecular interactions. The binding energy of intermolecular multiple interactions is calculated to be 12.54 kcal mol(-1) using QTAIM calculation. The electronic descriptors analyses reveal the investigated molecule used as precursor for heterocyclic derivatives synthesis. First hyperpolarizability (β0) has been computed to evaluate non-linear optical (NLO) response.
Waldrop, Jonathan M; Song, Bo; Patkowski, Konrad; Wang, Xiaopo
2015-05-28
A new highly accurate potential energy curve for the krypton dimer was constructed using coupled-cluster calculations up to the singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples level, including corrections for core-core and core-valence correlation and for relativistic effects. The ab initio data points were fitted to an analytic potential which was used to compute the most important transport properties of the krypton gas. The viscosity, thermal conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor were calculated by the kinetic theory at low density and temperatures from 116 to 5000 K. The comparisons with literature experimental data as well as with values from other pair potentials indicate that our new potential is superior to all previous ones. The transport property values computed in this work are recommended as standard values over the complete temperature range.
Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; ...
2014-05-05
Here, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH2, COOH, NO2, or H2PO3. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. Furthermore, the largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” by H2PO3 (115more » meV/H2 versus 52 meV/H2 on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. These results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of hydrogen in graphene. They also have relevance for the storage of hydrogen in
Ab initio calculations of the melting temperatures of refractory bcc metals.
Wang, L G; van de Walle, A
2012-01-28
We present ab initio calculations of the melting temperatures for bcc metals Nb, Ta and W. The calculations combine phase coexistence molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using classical embedded-atom method potentials and ab initio density functional theory free energy corrections. The calculated melting temperatures for Nb, Ta and W are, respectively, within 3%, 4%, and 7% of the experimental values. We compare the melting temperatures to those obtained from direct ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and see if they are in excellent agreement with each other. The small remaining discrepancies with experiment are thus likely due to inherent limitations associated with exchange-correlation energy approximations within density-functional theory.
Ab initio Theory of Semiconductor Nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Wang
2007-03-01
With blooming experimental synthesis of various nanostructures out of many semiconductor materials, there is an urgent need to calculate the electronic structures and optical properties of these nanosystems based on reliable ab initio methods. Unfortunately, due to the O(N^3) scaling of the conventional ab initio calculation methods based on the density functional theory (DFT), and the >1000 atom sizes of the most experimental nanosystems, the direct applications of these conventional ab intio methods are often difficult. Here we will present the calculated results using our O(N) scaling charge patching method (CPM) [1,2] to nanosystems up to 10,000 atoms. The CPM yields the charge density of a nanosystem by patching the charge motifs generated from small prototype systems. The CPM electron/hole eigen energies differ from the directly calculated results by only ˜10-20 meV. We will present the optical band gaps of quantum dots and wires, quantum rods, quantum dot/quantum well, and quantum dots doped with impurities. Besides good agreements with experimental measurements, we will demonstrate why it is important to perform ab initio calculations, in contrast with the continuum model k.p calculations. We will show the effects of surface polarization potentials and the internal electric fields. Finally, a linear scaling 3 dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method will be discussed. The LS3DF method can be used to calculate the total energy and atomic forces of a large nanosystem, with the results practically the same as the direct DFT method. Our work demonstrates that, with the help of supercomputers, it is now feasible to calculate the electronic structures and optical properties of >10,000 atom nanocrystals with ab initio accuracy. [1] L.W. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 256402 (2002). [2] J. Li, L.W. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125325 (2005).
Benjamin A. Frandsen; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Staunton, Julie B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-05-11
Here, we present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. Furthermore, the Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.
Koput, Jacek
2015-06-30
The accurate ground-state potential energy function of imidogen, NH, has been determined from ab initio calculations using the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MR-ACPF) method in conjunction with the correlation-consistent core-valence basis sets up to octuple-zeta quality. The importance of several effects, including electron correlation beyond the MR-ACPF level of approximation, the scalar relativistic, adiabatic, and nonadiabatic corrections were discussed. Along with the large one-particle basis set, all of these effects were found to be crucial to attain "spectroscopic" accuracy of the theoretical predictions of vibration-rotation energy levels of NH.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jensen, Per; Li, Yan; Hirsch, Gerhard; Buenker, Robert J.; Lee, Timothy J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
We report an ab initio investigation of the cluster effect (i.e., the formation of nearly degenerate, four member groups of rotation-vibration energy levels at higher J and K(sub a). values) in the H2Te molecule. The potential energy function has been calculated ab initio at a total of 334 molecular geometries by means of the CCSD(T) method where the (1s-4f) core electrons of Te were described by an effective core potential. The values of the potential energy function obtained cover the region up to around 10,000/cm above the equilibrium energy. On the basis of the ab initio potential, the rotation-vibration energy spectra of H2Te-130 and its deuterated isotopomers have been calculated with the MORBID (Morse Oscillator Rigid Bender Internal Dynamics) Hamiltonian and computer program. In particular, we have calculated the rotational energy manifolds for J less than or = 40 in the vibrational ground state, the upsilon(sub 2) state, the "first triad" (the upsilon(sub l)/upsilon(sub 3)/2upsilon(sub 2) interacting vibrational states), and the "second triad" (the upsilon(sub 1) + upsilon(sub 2/upsilon(sub 2) + upsilon(sub 3)/3upsilon(sub 2) states) of H2Te-130. We find that the cluster formation in H2Te is very similar to those of of H2Se and H2S, which we have studied previously. However, contrary to semiclassical predictions, we do not determine any significant displacement of the clusters towards lower J values relative to H2Se. Hence the experimental observation of the cluster states in H2Te will be at least as difficult as in H2Se.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanak, Hasan; Toy, Mehmet
2016-01-01
The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of 1-[N-(2-pyridyl)aminomethylidene}-2(1H)-Naphtalenone in the ground state have been calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction. The computed vibrational frequencies were used to determine the types of molecular motions associated with each of the experimental bands observed. In addition, calculated results are related to the linear correlation plot of computed data versus experimental geometric parameters and IR data. From the results it was concluded that the B3LYP method is superior to the HF method for the vibrational frequencies. Using the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and Hartree-Fock (TD-HF) methods, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with the TD-DFT method and experimental ones is determined.
Tanak, Hasan; Toy, Mehmet
2016-01-05
The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of 1-[N-(2-pyridyl)aminomethylidene}-2(1H)-Naphtalenone in the ground state have been calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction. The computed vibrational frequencies were used to determine the types of molecular motions associated with each of the experimental bands observed. In addition, calculated results are related to the linear correlation plot of computed data versus experimental geometric parameters and IR data. From the results it was concluded that the B3LYP method is superior to the HF method for the vibrational frequencies. Using the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and Hartree-Fock (TD-HF) methods, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with the TD-DFT method and experimental ones is determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arslan, Hakan; Demircan, Aydın; Göktürk, Ersen
2008-01-01
The IR spectra of 5-chloro-10-oxa-3-thia-tricyclo[5.2.1.0 1,5]dec-8-ene-3,3-dioxide (COTDO) has been recorded in the region 4000-525 cm -1. The optimized molecular geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of COTDO in the ground state has been calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional using Becke's three-parameter hybrid method with the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental IR spectra. The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrations are predicted in a very good agreement with the experimental data. The theoretical vibrational spectra of the title compound were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions (PEDs) using VEDA 4 program. With the help of this modern technique we were able to complete the assignment of the vibrational spectra of the title compound.
Emül, Y.; Erbahar, D.; Açıkgöz, M.
2015-08-14
Analyses of the local crystal and electronic structure in the vicinity of Fe{sup 3+} centers in perovskite KMgF{sub 3} crystal have been carried out in a comprehensive manner. A combination of density functional theory (DFT) and a semi-empirical superposition model (SPM) is used for a complete analysis of all Fe{sup 3+} centers in this study for the first time. Some quantitative information has been derived from the DFT calculations on both the electronic structure and the local geometry around Fe{sup 3+} centers. All of the trigonal (K-vacancy case, K-Li substitution case, and normal trigonal Fe{sup 3+} center case), FeF{sub 5}O cluster, and tetragonal (Mg-vacancy and Mg-Li substitution cases) centers have been taken into account based on the previously suggested experimental and theoretical inferences. The collaboration between the experimental data and the results of both DFT and SPM calculations provides us to understand most probable structural model for Fe{sup 3+} centers in KMgF{sub 3}.
Chaitanya, K
2012-02-01
The FT-IR (4000-450 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-100 cm(-1)) of benzophenone 2,4-dicarboxylic acid (2,4-BDA) have been recorded in the condensed state. Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine ground state molecular geometries (bond lengths and bond angles), harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and bonding features of the title compounds. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of 2,4-BDA is calculated using HF/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within these molecules. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. Because of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Finally, the UV-vis spectra and electronic absorption properties were explained and illustrated from the frontier molecular orbitals.
Moses-DeBusk, Melanie; Yoon, Mina; Allard, Lawrence F; Mullins, David R; Wu, Zili; Yang, Xiaofan; Veith, Gabriel; Stocks, G Malcolm; Narula, Chaitanya K
2013-08-28
Although there are only a few known examples of supported single-atom catalysts, they are unique because they bridge the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we report the CO oxidation activity of monodisperse single Pt atoms supported on an inert substrate, θ-alumina (Al2O3), in the presence of stoichiometric oxygen. Since CO oxidation on single Pt atoms cannot occur via a conventional Langmuir-Hinshelwood scheme (L-H scheme) which requires at least one Pt-Pt bond, we carried out a first-principles density functional theoretical study of a proposed pathway which is a variation on the conventional L-H scheme and inspired by the organometallic chemistry of platinum. We find that a single supported Pt atom prefers to bond to O2 over CO. CO then bonds with the oxygenated Pt atom and forms a carbonate which dissociates to liberate CO2, leaving an oxygen atom on Pt. Subsequent reaction with another CO molecule regenerates the single-atom catalyst. The energetics of the proposed mechanism suggests that the single Pt atoms will get covered with CO3 unless the temperature is raised to eliminate CO2. We find evidence for CO3 coverage at room temperature supporting the proposed mechanism in an in situ diffuse reflectance infrared study of CO adsorption on the catalyst's supported single atoms. Thus, our results clearly show that supported Pt single atoms are catalytically active and that this catalytic activity can occur without involving the substrate. Characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption studies of the monodisperse Pt/θ-Al2O3 are also presented.
Morphology and Number Density of Voids in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon: An Ab Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Parthapratim; Paudel, Durga; Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Drabold, David A.; Elliott, Stephen R.
2017-02-01
We present a first-principles study of the formation and structure of microvoids in device-quality models of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a -Si ∶H ). Using a combination of classical metadynamics and first-principles density-functional calculations, which is capable of generating large a -Si ∶H models with a linear size of several nanometers and a realistic hydrogen distribution, we examine the morphology and compute the number density of microvoids at low and high concentrations of hydrogen. The results of our calculations are compared with experimental data from small-angle x-ray scattering and hydrogen and implanted-helium effusion measurements. Our study suggests that the number density of microvoids is of the order of (7 - 8 )×1018 cm-3 for device-quality models with (8-10)-at. % H, and which increases to (1 - 3 )×1019 cm-3 with an increase of hydrogen content to 18 at. %. We find the morphology of the microvoids to be highly complex with a radius of gyration varying from 2.7 to 5.0 Å for very large models. The spatial distributions of microvoids at low and high concentrations are strongly influenced by the presence of isolated and interconnected voids, respectively, which are consistent with the results from hydrogen and implanted-helium effusion measurements. The simulation methodology and results presented here have direct applications in large-scale modeling of a -Si ∶H /c -Si heterojunctions with intrinsic thin-layer technology for the development of next-generation silicon solar cells and resistive switching mechanisms in ultra-low-power nonvolatile memory devices, such as chalcogenide- or oxide-based conductive bridging random-access-memory devices.
Germacrene D Cyclization: An Ab Initio Investigation
Setzer, William N.
2008-01-01
Essential oils that contain large concentrations of germacrene D are typically accompanied by cadinane sesquiterpenoids. The acid-catalyzed cyclization of germacrene D to give cadinane and selinane sesquiterpenes has been computationally investigated using both density functional (B3LYP/6-31G*) and post Hartree-Fock (MP2/6-31G* *) ab initio methods. The calculated energies are in general agreement with experimentally observed product distributions, both from acid-catalyzed cyclizations as well as distribution of the compounds in essential oils. PMID:19325722
Ab initio quantum chemistry: Methodology and applications
Friesner, Richard A.
2005-01-01
This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller–Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over the past decade. Incorporation of a condensed-phase environment by means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics or self-consistent reaction field techniques, is presented. A wide range of illustrative applications, focusing on materials science and biology, are discussed briefly. PMID:15870212
Roemelt, Michael
2015-07-28
Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roemelt, Michael
2015-07-01
Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvi, Pietro; Calarco, Tommaso; Morigi, Giovanna; Montangero, Simone
2014-03-01
Ions of the same charge inside confining potentials can form crystalline structures which can be controlled by means of the ion density and of the external trap parameters. In particular, a linear chain of trapped ions exhibits a transition to a zigzag equilibrium configuration, which is controlled by the strength of the transverse confinement. Studying this phase transition in the quantum regime is a challenging problem, even when employing numerical methods to simulate microscopically quantum many-body systems. Here we present a compact analytical treatment to map the original long-range problem into a short-range quantum field theory on a lattice. We provide a complete numerical architecture, based on the density matrix renormalization group, to address the effective quantum ϕ4 model. This technique is instrumental in giving a complete characterization of the phase diagram, as well as pinpointing the universality class of the criticality.
Belmonte, Donato; Gatti, Carlo; Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino
2016-11-10
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na2SiO3 in the Cmc21 structural state are computed ab initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies, viz., heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation. Acoustic branches are computed by solving the Christoffel determinant and are assumed to follow sine wave dispersion when traveling within the Brillouin zone. The procedure generates several thermo-physical properties of interest in materials science and geophysics (transverse and longitudinal wave velocities, shear modulus, Young modulus, Poisson ratio) all consistent with experimentally determined properties. A representative cluster is then abstracted from the cell and a detailed electron localization/delocalization analysis is performed on it, in the ground state geometry, and on deformed states imposed by two peculiar mixed asymmetric stretching/bending modes affecting the silicate chain that, according to literature data, have anomalous mode Grüneisen parameters. A Bader analysis reveals an intriguing feature associated with these deformations: an increase in the covalence of the Si-O bond that strengthens the linkage opposing the weakening induced by thermal stress. Finally, on the same cluster, the Ramsey contributions to the JNM coupling are evaluated by the gauge-independent atomic orbital method. The calculated isotropic chemical shifts of both (23)Na and (29)Si are again in substantial agreement with observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, Filippo; Sciascia, Luciana; Princivalle, Francesco; Merli, Marcello
2012-02-01
In order to characterize the pressure-induced decomposition of ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4), the topological analysis of the electron density ρ( r), based upon the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) developed by Bader in the framework of the catastrophe theory, has been performed. Calculations have been carried out by means of the ab initio CRYSTAL09 code at the HF/DFT level, using Hamiltonians based on the Becke- LYP scheme containing hybrid Hartree-Fock/density functional exchange-correlation terms. The equation of state at 0 K has been constructed for the three phases involved in the post-spinel phase transition (ringwoodite → Mg-perovskite + periclase) occurring at the transition zone-lower mantel boundary. The topological results show that the decomposition of the ringwoodite at high pressures is caused by a conflict catastrophe. Furthermore, topological evidences of the central role played by the oxygen atoms to facilitate the pressure-induced ringwoodite decomposition and the subsequent phase transition have been noticed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zijlstra, E. S.; Kortus, J.; Krajčí, M.; Stadnik, Z. M.; Bose, S. K.
2004-03-01
We present a detailed analysis of electronic properties of the Cockayne model of icosahedral AlCuFe, both in its original form and after a structural relaxation using the ab initio density functional approach. The electronic density of states (DOS) and electric field gradients (EFG’s) of the Al and Fe atoms in the original and the relaxed Cockayne models were calculated and compared with available photoemission, Mössbauer, and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy data. The relaxed and the original models show significantly different electronic properties. Both models are deficient in describing the available experimental data. The DOS’s show two Fe-d peaks, where there is only one such peak in the photoemission spectroscopy data. These models also cannot account for the shape of the Mössbauer spectra. We show that the interchange between 12 Cu and 12 Fe atoms, each belonging to a single symmetry class, results in a smaller number of Cu-Fe nearest-neighbor pairs and a lowering of the total energy by an amount of ΔE˜50 meV/atom. This “modified” version of the Cockayne model was further relaxed for the final comparison between the calculation and experimental results. The modified model shows a considerable improvement: The DOS has only one Fe-d peak, in agreement with photoemission spectroscopy data, and the calculated EFG’s account very well for the experimental Mössbauer spectra.
Milowska, Karolina Z.; Birowska, Magdalena; Majewski, Jacek A.
2013-12-04
We present exemplary results of extensive studies of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We report new results for metallic (9,0), and semiconducting (10,0) single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) functionalized with -COOH, -OH, and both groups with concentration up to 12.5%. Our studies are performed in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). We discuss here the stability, local and global changes in structure, elastic moduli (Young's, Shear, and Bulk), electronic structure and resulting band gaps, as a function of the density of the adsorbed molecules.
Gerosa, Matteo; Bottani, Carlo Enrico
2015-09-21
We investigate the long-standing problem of hole localization at the Al impurity in quartz SiO{sub 2}, using a relatively recent DFT hybrid-functional method in which the exchange fraction is obtained ab initio, based on an analogy with the static many-body COHSEX approximation to the electron self-energy. As the amount of the admixed exact exchange in hybrid functionals has been shown to be determinant for properly capturing the hole localization, this problem constitutes a prototypical benchmark for the accuracy of the method, allowing one to assess to what extent self-interaction effects are avoided. We obtain good results in terms of description of the charge localization and structural distortion around the Al center, improving with respect to the more popular B3LYP hybrid-functional approach. We also discuss the accuracy of computed hyperfine parameters, by comparison with previous calculations based on other self-interaction-free methods, as well as experimental values. We discuss and rationalize the limitations of our approach in computing defect-related excitation energies in low-dielectric-constant insulators.
Ab initio design of low work function complex oxides for thermionic energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Stephanie; Li, Guo; Neaton, Jeffrey
Understanding and controlling work functions, or band edge energies, is of interest for a variety of applications in optoelectronics and energy conversion. In particular, while recent advances in device design have improved the feasibility of thermionic generators, new low work function materials are needed to enable their widespread use. Perovskite-based oxides (ABO3) are a diverse class of materials that, depending on the transition metal atoms on the A and B sites, can give rise to myriad emergent and collective phenomena. Here, we use density functional theory calculations to examine how the work function of one such oxide, SrRuO3 (SRO), can be tuned by monolayers of SrTiO3 (STO) and other polar or near-polar oxides. We find that SRO work functions can be tuned by over 1 eV with one layer of STO, although the calculated reduction in work function is an order of magnitude less than would be expected from the bulk polarization. We understand the variation in work function via a detailed analysis of Born effective charges at the surface, which are as small as 10% of their bulk values, and charge rearrangement at the STO surface and SRO/STO interface.
Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Shrivastava, Keshav N.
2008-05-20
Polonium is the only element with a simple cubic (sc) crystal structure. Atoms in solid polonium sit at the corners of a simple cubic unit cell and no where else. Polonium has a valence electron configuration 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 4} (Z = 84). The low temperature {alpha}-phase transforms into the rhombohedral (trigonal) {beta} structure at {approx}348 K. The sc {alpha}-Po unit cell constant is a = 3.345 A. The beta form of polonium ({beta}-Po) has the lattice parameters, a{sub R} = 3.359 A and a rhombohedral angle 98 deg. 13'. We have performed an ab initio electronic structure calculation by using the density functional theory. We have performed the calculation with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling by using both the LDA and the GGA for the exchange-correlations. The k-points in a simple cubic BZ are determined by R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), M (0.5, 0.5, 0) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). Other directions of k-points are {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). The SO splittings of p states at the {gamma} point in the GGA+SO scheme for {alpha}-Po are 0.04 eV and 0.02 eV while for the {beta}-Po these are 0.03 eV and 0.97 eV. We have also calculated the vibrational spectra for the unit cells in both the structures. We find that exchanging of a Po atom by Pb atom produces several more bands and destabilizes the {beta} phase.
Herbert, John M; Head-Gordon, Martin
2004-12-15
A dynamical extension of the "curvy-steps" approach to linear-scaling self-consistent field calculations is presented, which yields an extended-Lagrangian formulation of ab initio molecular dynamics. An exponential parametrization of the one-electron density matrix, expressed in terms of atom-centered Gaussian basis functions, facilitates propagation along the manifold of density matrices in a geometrically correct fashion that automatically enforces idempotency constraints. The extended Lagrangian itself is constraint free, thus neither density matrix purification nor expensive, iterative solution for Lagrange multipliers is required. Propagation is highly efficient, and time steps compare favorably to those used in Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. The behavior of the method, especially with regard to the maintenance of adiabatic decoupling of nuclei and electrons, is examined for a sequence of diatomic molecules, and comparison is made to trajectories propagated on the converged Born-Oppenheimer surface. Certain claims to the contrary notwithstanding, our results demonstrate that vibrational frequencies may depend on the value of the fictitious mass parameter, even in an atom-centered basis. Light-atom stretching frequencies can be significantly redshifted, even when the nuclear and electronic energy scales are well separated. With a sufficiently small fictitious mass and a short time step, accurate frequencies can be obtained; we characterize appropriate values of these parameters for a wide range of vibrational frequencies.
Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2014-10-07
The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2014-10-01
The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals.
Optical dispersion functions of Co2-xEuxVSn using ab-initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoud, Nada T.; Mousa, Ahmad A.; Juwhari, Hassan K.; Khalifeh, Jamil M.; Abu-Jafar, Mohammed S.
2015-10-01
The magnetic, electronic and optical properties of Co2-xEuxVSn alloys for selected concentrations (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations utilizing full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. It was found that doping the Co2VSn alloy with rare-earth ions like Eu generates the nonstoichiometric Co2-xEuxVSn and changes its original behavior from half ferromagnetic material to a metallic one. In addition, the total magnetic moment was found to increase with increasing dopant concentration with maximum local magnetic contributions on the Eu-sites. The optical dielectric functions as well as their static value for all the above alloys were also investigated. Moreover, the absorption coefficient, reflectivity and refractive indices were calculated. All the optical calculations were found to agree well with the band structure calculations when determining the alloys’ half-metallic behavior. Finally, the nonstoichiometric metallic compounds found in this series might be useful in the flat panel industry as potential phosphors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartocci, Alessio; Frati, Federica; Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Cappelletti, David; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo; Pirani, Fernando
2015-12-01
The main point of this paper concerns the theoretical characterisation of the effects induced by the intermolecular interaction on the electron density upon the formation of CH4-H2X (X=O,S) and CH4-Ng (Ng=Ar,Xe) complexes. The work has been stimulated by recent molecular scattering beams experiments, which point out differences in both strength and anisotropy of the intermolecular potential between CH4-H2X respect to reference CH4-Ng systems. Herein, attention is focused on the electronic charge polarisation and particularly charge transfer (CT) effects between involved partners, directly related to the topology of the full potential energy surface. The modification of electron density and the occurrence of CT have been evaluated via the charge displacement function worked out by high level ab initio calculations. Moreover, in the case of a specific configuration of CH4-H2O system, we define the leading interaction components, including their relative stabilising role and test our intermolecular potential model with reference to ab initio calculations. The results obtained indicate that CT clearly affects the strength and the anisotropy of CH4-H2O complex, and covers a minor and negligible role for CH4-H2S and the noble gas complexes, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C. C.; Tan, J. Y.; Liu, L. H.
2017-03-01
The temperature and pressure-dependent dielectric functions of liquids are of great importance to the thermal radiation transfer and the diagnosis and control of fuel combustion. In this work, we apply the state-of-the-art ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method to calculate the infrared dielectric functions of liquid methanol at 183-573 K and 0.1-160 MPa in the spectral range 10-4000 cm-1, and study the temperature and pressure effects on the dielectric functions. The AIMD approach is validated by the Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (IR-VASE) experimental measurements at 298 K and 0.1 MPa, and the proposed IR-VASE method is verified by comparison with paper data of distilled water. The results of the AIMD approach agrees well with the experimental values of IR-VASE. The experimental and theoretical analyses indicate that the temperature and pressure exert a noticeable influence on the infrared dielectric functions of liquid methanol. As temperature increases, the average molecular dipole moment decreases. The amplitudes of dominant absorption peaks reduce to almost one half as temperature increases from 183 to 333 K at 0.1 MPa and from 273 to 573 K at 160 MPa. The absorption peaks below 1500 cm-1 show a redshift, while those centered around 3200 cm-1 show a blueshift. Moreover, larger average dipole moments are observed as pressure increases. The amplitudes of dominant absorption peaks increase to almost two times as pressure increases from 1 to 160 MPa at 373 K.
Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
to Baben, M.; Achenbach, J. O.; von Lilienfeld, O. A.
2016-03-01
We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects.
Chandel, Surjeet Kumar; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, Raman; Kumar, Arun
2015-06-24
First principle calculations based on DFT have been performed to study the interaction of monoatomically thin Cu wire with silicon nanotube in armchair configuration having chirality (6, 6) both by placing it inside (encapsulation) and outside (functionalisation) the tube. The lowest energy for positioning monoatomically thin Cu wire inside and outside surfaces of SiNT were found to possess cohesive energies of 4.03 eV and 4.02 eV respectively and hence the stability of both SiNTs is found to be almost same. However, From the electronic band structures study, the conductance in case of SiNT for the encapsulated and functionalized positioning of the Cu wire have been found to be 2G{sub 0} and 4G{sub 0} respectively showing enhanced conductance for the functionalized SiNT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandel, Surjeet Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, Raman
2015-06-01
First principle calculations based on DFT have been performed to study the interaction of monoatomically thin Cu wire with silicon nanotube in armchair configuration having chirality (6, 6) both by placing it inside (encapsulation) and outside (functionalisation) the tube. The lowest energy for positioning monoatomically thin Cu wire inside and outside surfaces of SiNT were found to possess cohesive energies of 4.03 eV and 4.02 eV respectively and hence the stability of both SiNTs is found to be almost same. However, From the electronic band structures study, the conductance in case of SiNT for the encapsulated and functionalized positioning of the Cu wire have been found to be 2G0 and 4G0 respectively showing enhanced conductance for the functionalized SiNT.
Ab initio simulation of diffractometer instrumental function for high-resolution X-ray diffraction.
Mikhalychev, Alexander; Benediktovitch, Andrei; Ulyanenkova, Tatjana; Ulyanenkov, Alex
2015-06-01
Modeling of the X-ray diffractometer instrumental function for a given optics configuration is important both for planning experiments and for the analysis of measured data. A fast and universal method for instrumental function simulation, suitable for fully automated computer realization and describing both coplanar and noncoplanar measurement geometries for any combination of X-ray optical elements, is proposed. The method can be identified as semi-analytical backward ray tracing and is based on the calculation of a detected signal as an integral of X-ray intensities for all the rays reaching the detector. The high speed of calculation is provided by the expressions for analytical integration over the spatial coordinates that describe the detection point. Consideration of the three-dimensional propagation of rays without restriction to the diffraction plane provides the applicability of the method for noncoplanar geometry and the accuracy for characterization of the signal from a two-dimensional detector. The correctness of the simulation algorithm is checked in the following two ways: by verifying the consistency of the calculated data with the patterns expected for certain simple limiting cases and by comparing measured reciprocal-space maps with the corresponding maps simulated by the proposed method for the same diffractometer configurations. Both kinds of tests demonstrate the agreement of the simulated instrumental function shape with the measured data.
Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; Narasimhan, Shobhana
2014-05-07
We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH{sub 2}, COOH, NO{sub 2}, or H{sub 2}PO{sub 3}. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. The largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” by H{sub 2}PO{sub 3} (115 meV/H{sub 2} versus 52 meV/H{sub 2} on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. Our results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of hydrogen in graphene. They also have relevance for the storage
Ab Initio potential grid based docking: From High Performance Computing to In Silico Screening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, Marc R.; Vinkers, H. Maarten; van Lenthe, Joop H.; Daeyaert, Frits; Bush, Ian J.; van Dam, Huub J. J.; Sherwood, Paul; Guest, Martyn F.
2007-09-01
We present a new and completely parallel method for protein ligand docking. The potential of the docking target structure is obtained directly from the electron density derived through an ab initio computation. A large subregion of the crystal structure of Isocitrate Lyase, was selected as docking target. To allow the full ab initio treatment of this region special care was taken to assign optimal basis functions. The electrostatic potential is tested by docking a small charged molecule (succinate) into the binding site. The ab initio grid yields a superior result by producing the best binding orientation and position, and by recognizing it as the best. In contrast the same docking procedure, but using a classical point-charge based potential, produces a number of additional incorrect binding poses, and does not recognize the correct pose as the best solution.
Ab initio evidence for nonthermal characteristics in ultrafast laser melting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Chao; Zhang, S. B.; Meng, Sheng
2016-11-01
Laser melting of semiconductors has been observed for almost 40 years; surprisingly, it is not well understood where most theoretical simulations show a laser-induced thermal process. Ab initio nonadiabatic simulations based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory reveal intrinsic nonthermal melting of silicon, at a temperature far below the thermal melting temperature of 1680 K. Both excitation threshold and time evolution of diffraction intensity agree well with experiment. Nonthermal melting is attributed to excitation-induced drastic changes in bonding electron density, and the subsequent decrease in the melting barrier, rather than lattice heating as previously assumed in the two-temperature models.
Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredkin, Donald R.; Komornicki, Andrew; White, Steven R.; Wilson, Kent R.
1983-06-01
We discuss several ways in which molecular absorption and scattering spectra can be computed ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature. These methods can be divided into two general categories. In the first, or sequential, type of approach, one first solves the electronic part of the Schrödinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, mapping out the potential energy, dipole moment vector (for infrared absorption) and polarizability tensor (for Raman scattering) as functions of nuclear coordinates. Having completed the electronic part of the calculation, one then solves the nuclear part of the problem either classically or quantum mechanically. As an example of the sequential ab initio approach, the infrared and Raman rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed in the simplest rigid rotor, normal mode approximation. Quantum techniques are used to calculate the necessary potential energy, dipole moment, and polarizability information at the equilibrium geometry. A new quick, accurate, and easy to program classical technique involving no reference to Euler angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman band contours for any rigid rotor, including asymmetric tops. A second, or simultaneous, type of ab initio approach is suggested for large systems, particularly those for which normal mode analysis is inappropriate, such as liquids, clusters, or floppy molecules. Then the curse of dimensionality prevents mapping out in advance the complete potential, dipole moment, and polarizability functions over the whole space of nuclear positions of all atoms, and a solution in which the electronic and nuclear parts of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are simultaneously solved is needed. A quantum force classical trajectory (QFCT) molecular dynamic method, based on linear response theory, is described, in which the forces, dipole moment, and polarizability are computed quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G.; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Peterson, Kirk A.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.
2011-03-01
High level ab initio potential energy functions have been constructed for LiH in order to predict vibrational levels up to dissociation. After careful tests of the parameters of the calculation, the final adiabatic potential energy function has been composed from: (a) an ab initio nonrelativistic potential obtained at the multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles level including a size-extensivity correction and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolations of the basis, (b) a mass-velocity-Darwin relativistic correction, and (c) a diagonal Born-Oppenheimer (BO) correction. Finally, nonadiabatic effects have also been considered by including a nonadiabatic correction to the kinetic energy operator of the nuclei. This correction is calculated from nonadiabatic matrix elements between the ground and excited electronic states. The calculated vibrational levels have been compared with those obtained from the experimental data [J. A. Coxon and C. S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 9378 (2004)]. It was found that the calculated BO potential results in vibrational levels which have root mean square (rms) deviations of about 6-7 cm-1 for LiH and ˜3 cm-1 for LiD. With all the above mentioned corrections accounted for, the rms deviation falls down to ˜1 cm-1. These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels for all isotopologues of LiH.
Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Peterson, Kirk A; Tyuterev, Vladimir G
2011-03-07
High level ab initio potential energy functions have been constructed for LiH in order to predict vibrational levels up to dissociation. After careful tests of the parameters of the calculation, the final adiabatic potential energy function has been composed from: (a) an ab initio nonrelativistic potential obtained at the multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles level including a size-extensivity correction and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolations of the basis, (b) a mass-velocity-Darwin relativistic correction, and (c) a diagonal Born-Oppenheimer (BO) correction. Finally, nonadiabatic effects have also been considered by including a nonadiabatic correction to the kinetic energy operator of the nuclei. This correction is calculated from nonadiabatic matrix elements between the ground and excited electronic states. The calculated vibrational levels have been compared with those obtained from the experimental data [J. A. Coxon and C. S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 9378 (2004)]. It was found that the calculated BO potential results in vibrational levels which have root mean square (rms) deviations of about 6-7 cm(-1) for LiH and ∼3 cm(-1) for LiD. With all the above mentioned corrections accounted for, the rms deviation falls down to ∼1 cm(-1). These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels for all isotopologues of LiH.
Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; Narasimhan, Shobhana
2014-05-05
Here, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH_{2}, COOH, NO_{2}, or H_{2}PO_{3}. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. Furthermore, the largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” by H_{2}PO_{3} (115 meV/H_{2} versus 52 meV/H_{2} on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. These results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of
Ab initio Study of He Stability in hcp-Ti
Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.
2010-12-20
The stability of He in hcp-Ti was studied using ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results indicate that a single He atom prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site rather than the octahedral site. The interaction of He defects with Ti atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of He point defects in hcp-Ti. The relative stability of He defects in hcp-Ti is useful for He clustering and bubble nucleation in metal tritides, which provides the basis for development of improved atomistic models.
AB initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredkin, D. R.; Komornicki, A.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.
1982-08-01
We discuss several ways in which molecular absorption and scattering spectra can be computed ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature. These methods can be divided into two general categories. In the first, or sequential, type of approach, one first solves the electronic part of the Schroedinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, mapping out the potential energy, dipole moment vector (for infrared absorption) and polarizability tensor (for Raman scattering) as functions of nuclear coordinates. Having completed the electronic part of the calculation, one then solves the nuclear part of the problem either classically or quantum mechanically. As an example of the sequential ab initio approach, the infrared and Raman rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed in the simplest rigid rotor, normal mode approximation. Quantum techniques, are used to calculate the necessary potential energy, dipole moment, and polarizability information at the equilibrium geometry. A new quick, accurate, and easy to program classical technique involving no reference to Euler angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman angles or special functions is developed to compute the infrared and Raman band contours for any rigid rotor, including asymmetric tops. A second, or simultaneous, type of ab initio approach is suggested for large systems, particularly those for which normal mode analysis is inappropriate, such as liquids, clusters, or floppy molecules.
Ab initio prediction of vacancy properties in concentrated alloys: The case of fcc Cu-Ni
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xi; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.
2015-05-01
Vacancy properties in concentrated alloys continue to be of great interest because nowadays ab initio supercell simulations reach a scale where even defect properties in disordered alloys appear to be within reach. We show that vacancy properties cannot generally be extracted from supercell total energies in a consistent manner without a statistical model. Essential features of such a model are knowledge of the chemical potential and imposition of invariants. In the present work, we derive the simplest model that satisfies these requirements and we compare it with models in the literature. As illustration we compute ab initio vacancy properties of fcc Cu-Ni alloys as a function of composition and temperature. Ab initio density functional calculations were performed for SQS supercells at various compositions with and without vacancies. Various methods of extracting alloy vacancy properties were examined. A ternary cluster expansion yielded effective cluster interactions (ECIs) for the Cu-Ni-Vac system. Composition and temperature dependent alloy vacancy concentrations were obtained using statistical thermodynamic models with the ab initio ECIs. An Arrhenius analysis showed that the heat of vacancy formation was well represented by a linear function of temperature. The positive slope of the temperature dependence implies a negative configurational entropy contribution to the vacancy formation free energy in the alloy. These findings can be understood by considering local coordination effects.
Ab initio molecular simulations with numeric atom-centered orbitals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Volker; Gehrke, Ralf; Hanke, Felix; Havu, Paula; Havu, Ville; Ren, Xinguo; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias
2009-11-01
We describe a complete set of algorithms for ab initio molecular simulations based on numerically tabulated atom-centered orbitals (NAOs) to capture a wide range of molecular and materials properties from quantum-mechanical first principles. The full algorithmic framework described here is embodied in the Fritz Haber Institute "ab initio molecular simulations" (FHI-aims) computer program package. Its comprehensive description should be relevant to any other first-principles implementation based on NAOs. The focus here is on density-functional theory (DFT) in the local and semilocal (generalized gradient) approximations, but an extension to hybrid functionals, Hartree-Fock theory, and MP2/GW electron self-energies for total energies and excited states is possible within the same underlying algorithms. An all-electron/full-potential treatment that is both computationally efficient and accurate is achieved for periodic and cluster geometries on equal footing, including relaxation and ab initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate the construction of transferable, hierarchical basis sets, allowing the calculation to range from qualitative tight-binding like accuracy to meV-level total energy convergence with the basis set. Since all basis functions are strictly localized, the otherwise computationally dominant grid-based operations scale as O(N) with system size N. Together with a scalar-relativistic treatment, the basis sets provide access to all elements from light to heavy. Both low-communication parallelization of all real-space grid based algorithms and a ScaLapack-based, customized handling of the linear algebra for all matrix operations are possible, guaranteeing efficient scaling (CPU time and memory) up to massively parallel computer systems with thousands of CPUs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, M. W.; Refson, K.; Swamy, K. N.; Lie, G. C.; Clementi, E.
1987-10-01
A computer simulation of liquid water using the ab initio Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine-Lie (MCYL) potential has been analyzed in comprehensive detail with use of pertinent auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of the water molecule's vibrational, rotational, and translational dynamics. The autocorrelation functions (ACF's) of dynamical quantities such as atom velocity, center-of-mass velocity, molecular angular momentum, molecular angular velocity, molecular dipole moment, and molecular rotational velocity vectors have been computed with 3400 configurations generated in a simulation with 343 molecules in the laboratory frame and in the frame of the principal molecular moments of inertia. Furthermore, cross-correlation functions (CCF's) of many different kinds have been computed in both frames in order to study in detail the mutual effects of vibration, rotation, and translation at the single-molecule level. In some respects the inclusion of vibrational effects in the MCYL potential does not significantly change the pattern of dynamical information summarized in these time correlation functions. The rotation-translation CCF's which were obtained recently by Evans et al. from a rigid empirical model for the intermolecular pair potential energy in liquid water appear once more from the ab initio MCYL potential with the same symmetry and time dependence. This is a strong corroborative evidence for the correctness of the methods used in both cases. However, the inclusion of vibrational effects by Lie and Clementi in their MCYL potential leads in this work to considerable further insight obtained by a detailed study of cross-correlation functions between vibration and rotation and between vibration and center-of-mass translation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somà, V.; Duguet, T.; Barbieri, C.
2011-12-01
An ab initio calculation scheme for finite nuclei based on self-consistent Green's functions in the Gorkov formalism is developed. It aims at describing properties of doubly magic and semimagic nuclei employing state-of-the-art microscopic nuclear interactions and explicitly treating pairing correlations through the breaking of U(1) symmetry associated with particle number conservation. The present paper introduces the formalism necessary to undertake applications at (self-consistent) second order using two-nucleon interactions in a detailed and self-contained fashion. First applications of such a scheme will be reported soon in a forthcoming publication. Future works will extend the present scheme to include three-nucleon interactions and implement more advanced truncation schemes.
Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong
2015-09-21
We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.
Ab Initio Quantum Simulations of Liquid Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gergely, John; Ceperley, David; Gygi, Francois
2007-03-01
Some recent efforts at simulating liquid water have employed ``ab initio'' molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods with forces from a version of density functional theory (DFT) and, in some cases, imaginary-time path integrals (PI) to study quantum effects of the protons. Although AIMD methods have met with many successes, errors introduced by the approximations and choices of simulation parameters are not fully understood. We report on path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) studies of liquid water using DFT energies that provide quantitative benchmarks for PI-AIMD work. Specifically, we present convergence studies of the path integrals and address whether the Trotter number can be reduced by improving the form of the (approximate) action. Also, we assess 1) whether typical AIMD simulations are sufficiently converged in simulation time, i.e., if there is reason to suspect that nonergodic behavior in PI-AIMD methods leads to poor convergence, and 2) the relative efficiency of the methods. E. Schwegler, J.C. Grossman, F. Gygi, G. Galli, J. Chem. Phys 121, 5400 (2004).
Ab initio calculations of nitramine dimers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh-Fallet, Sharon; Schweigert, Igor
2015-06-01
Elevated temperatures and pressures are typically thought to have opposing effects on the reaction channels of nitramine decomposition. These high temperatures promote reactions with loose transition structures (positive activation entropies and volumes), such as N-N bond homolysis. Elevated pressures promote reactions with tight transition structures (negative activation entropies and volumes), such as intramolecular and intermolecular H transfer. However, no quantitative data exists regarding the range of temperatures and pressures at which these effects become pronounced. We are pursuing ab initio calculations of the corresponding unimolecular and bimolecular transition structures with the objective of estimating the relevant thermochemical parameters and quantifying the effects of elevated temperature and pressures on the corresponding rate constants. Here, we present density functional theory and complete active space calculations of gas-phase molecular dimers of nitramines as an intermediate step toward modeling transition structures directly in the condensed phase. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory via the American Society for Engineering and Education and by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory.
Ab-initio study of hexagonal apatites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderin, Lazaro; Stott, Malcom J.
2001-03-01
A silicon stabilized mixture of calcium phosphate phases has been recognized as playing an important role in actively resorbable coatings and in ceramics as bone materials. The nature of this material is being investigated using a variety of techniques including a combination of crystallographic analysis of measured x-ray diffraction spectra, and ab initio quantum mechanics simulations. We have used all-electron, density functional based calculations to investigate a group of hexagonal apatites. The fully relaxed crystallographic structures of hydroxyapatite, and related apatites have been obtained. We will present the results and discuss the nature of the bonding in these materials. The x-ray diffraction pattern and the infra-red spectra have also been obtained and will be compared with experiment. Acknowledgments:This work is part of a collaboration with the Applied Ceramics group of M.Sayer, and with Millenium Biologix Inc. Support of the NSERC of Canada through the award of a Co-operative R & D grant to the collaboration is acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi
2009-06-01
This article presents an efficient and parallelized implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemistry calculations. The DMRG method as a large-scale multireference electronic structure model is by nature particularly efficient for one-dimensionally correlated systems, while the present development is oriented toward applications for polynuclear transition metal compounds, in which the macroscopic one-dimensional structure of electron correlation is absent. A straightforward extension of the DMRG algorithm is proposed with further improvements and aggressive optimizations to allow its application with large multireference active space, which is often demanded for metal compound calculations. Special efficiency is achieved by making better use of sparsity and symmetry in the operator and wave function representations. By accomplishing computationally intensive DMRG calculations, the authors have found that a large number of renormalized basis states are required to represent high entanglement of the electron correlation for metal compound applications, and it is crucial to adopt auxiliary perturbative correction to the projected density matrix during the DMRG sweep optimization in order to attain proper convergence to the solution. Potential energy curve calculations for the Cr2 molecule near the known equilibrium precisely predicted the full configuration interaction energies with a correlation space of 24 electrons in 30 orbitals [denoted by (24e,30o)]. The energies are demonstrated to be accurate to 0.6mEh (the error from the extrapolated best value) when as many as 10 000 renormalized basis states are employed for the left and right DMRG block representations. The relative energy curves for [Cu2O2]2+ along the isomerization coordinate were obtained from DMRG and other correlated calculations, for which a fairly large orbital space (32e,62o) is modeled as a full correlation space. The DMRG prediction nearly overlaps
Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Stocks, George Malcolm
2012-01-01
The catalytic properties of metal clusters and particles depend on their environment, however, little is known so far about the subnanometer metal particles, smallest being single atoms, supported on metal oxide substrates, especially, the systems that can be experimentally synthesized. Employing first principles density functional theory approach, we have studied single metal atoms, Ni, Pt, Pd, Cu, Au, and Ag, adsorbed on a -Al2O3 (010) surface. We find that metal adsorption on a dry alumina surface follows the binding strength order of Pd>Pt>Ni>Cu>Au>Ag. Interestingly, Ni, Pt, and Pd atoms, supported on alumina, exhibit no magnetization whereas Cu, Ag, and Au exhibit unpaired electrons. The bonding picture that emerges from this study shows that Ni, Pt, and Pd, are d10 species with d-s hybrid character that are able to interact with the 2p orbital of surface oxygen. The interaction of Group 11 (Cu, Ag, Au) atoms with 010 surface of -Al2O3 is superficially similar to that of Group 10 metals. Group 11 metals with filled d orbitals have low tendency for d-s hybridization due to larger energy gaps than Group 10 metals. As a result of the overlap with O 2p, the d orbital shifts to lower energy. The magnetization of Group 11 metals is primarily due to single electrons in s orbitals.
The Crystal Structure of Impurity Centers Tm^{2+} and Eu^{2+} in SrCl2: Ab Initio Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshev, V. A.; Serdcev, A. V.; Petrov, V. P.; Nikiforov, A. E.
2016-12-01
Ab initio calculations of the impurity centers Tm^{2+} thulium and europium Eu^{2+} in SrCl2 and MeF2 (Me = Ca, Sr, Ba) were carried out at low (zero) temperature. The crystal structure of impurity centers was investigated. Charge density maps show that the bonds formed by the rare-earth ions have an ionic character. The crystal structures, lattice dynamics, and band structures of MeF2 and SrCl2 were calculated at low temperature. Ab initio calculations were performed in periodic CRYSTAL code within the framework of the MO LCAO approach by using hybrid DFT functionals.
Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs.
Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G
2015-04-28
Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials.
Ab initio thermodynamic model for magnesium carbonates and hydrates.
Chaka, Anne M; Felmy, Andrew R
2014-09-04
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first-principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogues of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite, which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs
Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.
2015-01-01
Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron–phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron–phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron–phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials. PMID:25870287
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates
Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2014-03-28
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
Hammond, Jeff R.; Mazziotti, David A.
2006-01-15
An alternative approach to open-shell molecular calculations using the variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) theory [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)] is presented. The energy and 2-RDM of the open-shell molecule (or radical) are computed from the limit of dissociating one or more hydrogen atoms from a molecule in a singlet state. Because the ground-state energy of an 'infinitely' separated hydrogen atom in a given finite basis is known, we can determine the energy of the radical by subtracting the energy of one or more hydrogen atoms from the energy of the total dissociated system. The 2-RDM is constrained to have singlet symmetry in all calculations. Two sets of N-representability conditions are employed: (i) two-positivity conditions, and (ii) two-positivity conditions plus the T{sub 2} condition, which is a subset of the three-positivity conditions. Optimization of the energy with respect to the 2-RDM is performed with a first-order algorithm for solving the semidefinite program within the variational 2-RDM method. We present calculations of several radicals near equilibrium as well as the dissociation curves of the diatomic radicals CH and OH.
Ab initio electronic and lattice dynamical properties of cerium dihydride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurel, Tanju; Eryigit, Resul
2007-03-01
The rare-earth metal hydrides are interesting systems because of the dramatic structural and electronic changes due to the hydrogen absorption and desorption. Among them, cerium dihydride (CeH2) is one of the less studied rare-earth metal-hydride. To have a better understanding, we have performed an ab initio study of electronic and lattice dynamical properties of CeH2 by using pseudopotential density functional theory within local density approximation (LDA) and a plane-wave basis. Electronic band structure of CeH2 have been obtained within LDA and as well as GW approximation. Lattice dynamical properties are calculated using density functional perturbation theory. The phonon spectrum is found to contain a set of high-frequency (˜ 850-1000 cm-1) optical bands, mostly hydrogen related, and low frequency cerium related acoustic modes climbing to 160 cm^ -1 at the zone boundary.
Ab initio calculations on twisted graphene/hBN: Electronic structure and STM image simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, J. D.; Cisternas, E.
2016-09-01
By performing ab initio calculations we obtained theoretical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and studied the electronic properties of graphene on a hexagonal boron-nitrite (hBN) layer. Three different stack configurations and four twisted angles were considered. All calculations were performed using density functional theory, including van der Waals interactions as implemented in the SIESTA ab initio package. Our results show that the electronic structure of graphene is preserved, although some small changes are induced by the interaction with the hBN layer, particularly in the total density of states at 1.5 eV under the Fermi level. When layers present a twisted angle, the density of states shows several van Hove singularities under the Fermi level, which are associated to moiré patterns observed in theoretical STM images.
Ab initio electronic stopping power of protons in bulk materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukri, Abdullah Atef; Bruneval, Fabien; Reining, Lucia
2016-01-01
The electronic stopping power is a crucial quantity for ion irradiation: it governs the deposited heat, the damage profile, and the implantation depth. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. Here we develop a fully ab initio computational scheme based on linear response time-dependent density-functional theory to predict the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. We show that the calculated RESP compares well with experimental data, when at full convergence, with the inclusion of the core states and of the exchange correlation. We evaluate the unexpectedly limited magnitude of the nonlinear terms in the RESP by comparing with other approaches based on the time propagation of time-dependent density-functional theory. Finally, we check the validity of a few empirical rules of thumbs that are commonly used to estimate the electronic stopping power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cragnolini, Tristan; Derreumaux, Philippe; Pasquali, Samuela
2015-06-01
RNA molecules are essential cellular machines performing a wide variety of functions for which a specific three-dimensional structure is required. Over the last several years, the experimental determination of RNA structures through x-ray crystallography and NMR seems to have reached a plateau in the number of structures resolved each year, but as more and more RNA sequences are being discovered, the need for structure prediction tools to complement experimental data is strong. Theoretical approaches to RNA folding have been developed since the late nineties, when the first algorithms for secondary structure prediction appeared. Over the last 10 years a number of prediction methods for 3D structures have been developed, first based on bioinformatics and data-mining, and more recently based on a coarse-grained physical representation of the systems. In this review we are going to present the challenges of RNA structure prediction and the main ideas behind bioinformatic approaches and physics-based approaches. We will focus on the description of the more recent physics-based phenomenological models and on how they are built to include the specificity of the interactions of RNA bases, whose role is critical in folding. Through examples from different models, we will point out the strengths of physics-based approaches, which are able not only to predict equilibrium structures, but also to investigate dynamical and thermodynamical behavior, and the open challenges to include more key interactions ruling RNA folding.
Cragnolini, Tristan; Derreumaux, Philippe; Pasquali, Samuela
2015-06-17
RNA molecules are essential cellular machines performing a wide variety of functions for which a specific three-dimensional structure is required. Over the last several years, the experimental determination of RNA structures through x-ray crystallography and NMR seems to have reached a plateau in the number of structures resolved each year, but as more and more RNA sequences are being discovered, the need for structure prediction tools to complement experimental data is strong. Theoretical approaches to RNA folding have been developed since the late nineties, when the first algorithms for secondary structure prediction appeared. Over the last 10 years a number of prediction methods for 3D structures have been developed, first based on bioinformatics and data-mining, and more recently based on a coarse-grained physical representation of the systems. In this review we are going to present the challenges of RNA structure prediction and the main ideas behind bioinformatic approaches and physics-based approaches. We will focus on the description of the more recent physics-based phenomenological models and on how they are built to include the specificity of the interactions of RNA bases, whose role is critical in folding. Through examples from different models, we will point out the strengths of physics-based approaches, which are able not only to predict equilibrium structures, but also to investigate dynamical and thermodynamical behavior, and the open challenges to include more key interactions ruling RNA folding.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point
Yuryev, Anatoly A.; Gelchinski, Boris R.
2015-08-17
Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuryev, Anatoly A.; Gelchinski, Boris R.
2015-08-01
Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.
AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS
Turchi, P A
2004-04-14
Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo
Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye Mazzola, Guglielmo Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo
2015-04-14
Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo.
Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Guidoni, Leonardo; Sorella, Sandro
2015-04-14
Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems.
Hura, Greg; Russo, Daniela; Glaeser, Robert M.; Head-Gordon,Teresa; Krack, Matthias; Parrinello, Michele
2003-03-01
We present high-quality X-ray scattering experiments on pure water taken over a temperature range of 2 to 77 C using a synchrotron beam line at the advanced light source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The ALS X-ray scattering intensities are qualitatively different in trend of maximum intensity over this temperature range compared to older X-ray experiments. While the common procedure is to report both the intensity curve and radial distribution function(s), the proper extraction of the real-space pair correlation functions from the experimental scattering is very difficult due to uncertainty introduced in the experimental corrections, the proper weighting of OO, OH, and HH contributions, and numerical problems of Fourier transforming truncated data in Q-space. Instead, we consider the direct calculation of X-ray scattering spectra using electron densities derived from density functional theory based on real-space configurations generated with classical water models. The simulation of the experimental intensity is therefore definitive for determining radial distribution functions over a smaller Q-range. We find that the TIP4P, TIP5P and polarizable TIP4P-Pol2 water models, with DFT-LDA densities, show very good agreement with the experimental intensities, and TIP4P-Pol2 in particular shows quantitative agreement over the full temperature range. The resulting radial distribution functions from TIP4P-Pol2 provide the current best benchmarks for real-space water structure over the biologically relevant temperature range studied here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karunakaran, V.; Balachandran, V.
2012-12-01
FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (3500-100 cm-1) spectral measurements of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzaldehyde have been done. Ab initio (HF/6-311+G(d,p)) and DFT (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman activities. A detailed interpretation of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzaldehyde are reported on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The HOMO and LUMO energy gap reveals that the energy gap reflects the chemical activity of the molecule. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound have been performed by HF/6-311+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p). The observed and calculated wave numbers are found to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectra. Thermodynamic functions were calculated using vibrational wave numbers for different temperatures.
{sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S factor from ab initio no-core shell model wave functions
Navratil, P.; Bertulani, C.A.; Caurier, E.
2006-06-15
Nuclear structure of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B, and {sup 7,8}Li is studied within the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from high-precision nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, wave functions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 8}B bound states are obtained in basis spaces up to 10({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} and used to calculate channel cluster form factors (overlap integrals) of the {sup 8}B ground state with {sup 7}Be+p. Due to the use of the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, the overlap integrals have incorrect asymptotic properties. We fix this problem in two alternative ways. First, by a Woods-Saxon potential solution fit to the interior of the NCSM overlap integrals. Second, by a direct matching with the Whittaker function. The corrected overlap integrals are then used for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor calculation. We study the convergence of the S factor with respect to the NCSM HO frequency and the model space size. Our S factor results agree with recent direct measurement data. We also test the spectroscopic factors and the corrected overlap integrals from the NCSM in describing the momentum distributions in knockout reactions with {sup 8}B projectiles. A good agreement with the available experimental data is also found, attesting to the overall consistency of the calculations.
Ab-initio theory of spin fluctuations in magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antropov, Vladimir; Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Katsnelson, Mikhael
2011-03-01
We propose a framework for a true ab initio theory of magnetism, based on many-body perturbation theory (MPBT). It fits in naturally with methods based MPBT such as the GW approximation; but the approach can be implemented as an extension to any existing static method for electronic structure such as the local spin density approximation to density functional theory, to include spin fluctuations. Initially we calculated the spin fluctuation contributions using random phase approximation. The self consistency procedure similar to the one used in Moryia-Kawabata theory can be naturally implemented. The fluctuation dissipation theorem is used to calculate the reduction of the mean field magnetic moment in itinerant magnets. The applications of the technique includes traditional 3d ferromagnetic metals, their alloys and compounds and 5f systems.
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon
2013-01-01
The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitfield, T. W.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.
2006-03-01
In order to better understand the physical interactions that stabilize protein secondary structure, the neat liquid state of a peptidic fragment, N-methylacetamide (NMA), was studied using computer simulation. Three different descriptions of the molecular liquid were examined: an empirical force field treatment with classical nuclei, an empirical force field treatment with quantum mechanical nuclei, and an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) treatment. The DFT electronic structure was evaluated using the BLYP approximate functional and a plane wave basis set. The different physical effects probed by the three models, such as quantum dispersion, many-body polarization, and nontrivial charge distributions on the liquid properties, were compared. Much of the structural ordering in the liquid is characterized by hydrogen bonded chains of NMA molecules. Modest structural differences are present among the three models of liquid NMA. The average molecular dipole in the liquid under the ab initio treatment, however, is enhanced by 60% over the gas phase value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klevak, E.; Mattern, B. A.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Seidler, G. T.
2014-03-01
We report new calculations of the electron momentum distribution n(p) for ordered and disordered materials of interest for warm dense matter research. The central role of the electron-ion interaction and the need to orthogonalize the valence-electron and core-electron wave functions has often been ignored in the interpretation of x-ray Thomson scattering studies of WDM.[2] This has led to substantial uncertainty in the inferred temperatures and ionization states in laser-shock generated dense plasmas. Real space Green's function calculations as a function of density and disorder are used to evaluate the possibility of a broadly applicable universal rescaling of the free-electron n(p) by an effective volume and effective temperature to approximate the effects of valence-core orthogonalization. Supported in part by DOE BES Grant DEFG03-97ER45623 (EK, JJR, JJK) and DOE-BES DE-SC0002194(BAM and GTS).
Melting of sodium under high pressure. An ab-initio study
González, D. J.; González, L. E.
2015-08-17
We report ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of dense liquid/solid sodium for a pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa. The simulations have been performed with the orbital free ab-initio molecular dynamics method which, by using the electron density as the basic variable, allows to perform simulations with large samples and for long runs. The calculated melting curve shows a maximum at a pressure ≈ 30 GPa and it is followed by a long, steep decrease. These features are in good agreement with the experimental data. For various pressures along the melting curve, we have calculated several liquid static properties (pair distribution functions, static structure factors and short-range order parameters) in order to analyze the structural effects of pressure.
Properties of metals during the heating by intense laser irradiation using ab initio simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holst, Bastian; Recoules, Vanina; Torrent, Marc; Mazevet, Stephane
2011-10-01
Ultrashort laser pulses irradiating a target heat the electrons to very high temperatures. In contrast, the ionic lattice is unaffected on the time scale of the laser pulse since the heat capacity of electrons is much smaller than that of the lattice. This non-equilibrium system can be described as a composition of two subsystems: one consisting of hot electrons and the other of an ionic lattice at low temperature. We studied the effect of this intense electronic excitations on the optical properties of gold using ab initio simulations. We additionally use ab initio linear response to compute the phonon spectrum and the electron-phonon coupling constant within Density Functional Theory for several electronic temperatures of few eV. LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau, France.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rustad, James R.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2000-05-01
Density functional calculations are performed on M 3(OH) 7(H 2O) 62+ and M 3O(OH) 6(H 2O) 6+ clusters for MAl, Cr(III), and Fe(III), allowing determination of the relative acidities of the μ 3-hydroxo and aquo functional groups. Contrary to previous predictions and rationalizations, Fe 3OH and Al 3OH groups have nearly the same intrinsic acidity, while Cr 3OH groups are significantly more acidic. The gas-phase acidity of the Fe 3OH site is in good agreement with the value predicted by the molecular mechanics model previously used to estimate the relative acidities of surface sites on iron oxides. [ J. R. Rustad et al. (1996)Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1563]. Acidities of aquo functional groups were also computed for Al and Cr. The AlOH 2 site is more acidic than the Al 3OH site, whereas the Cr 3OH site is more acidic than the CrOH 2 site. These findings predict that the surface charging behavior of chromium oxides/oxyhydroxides should be distinguishable from their Fe, Al counterparts. The calculations also provide insight into why the lepidocrocite/boehmite polymorph is not observed for CrOOH.
Brønsted acidity of protic ionic liquids: a modern ab initio valence bond theory perspective.
Patil, Amol Baliram; Mahadeo Bhanage, Bhalchandra
2016-09-21
Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), especially protic ionic liquids (PILs), are used in many areas of the chemical sciences. Ionicity, the extent of proton transfer, is a key parameter which determines many physicochemical properties and in turn the suitability of PILs for various applications. The spectrum of computational chemistry techniques applied to investigate ionic liquids includes classical molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, ab initio molecular dynamics, Density Functional Theory (DFT), CCSD(t) etc. At the other end of the spectrum is another computational approach: modern ab initio Valence Bond Theory (VBT). VBT differs from molecular orbital theory based methods in the expression of the molecular wave function. The molecular wave function in the valence bond ansatz is expressed as a linear combination of valence bond structures. These structures include covalent and ionic structures explicitly. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations of representative primary and tertiary ammonium protic ionic liquids indicate that modern ab initio valence bond theory can be employed to assess the acidity and ionicity of protic ionic liquids a priori.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; O'Leary, Leslie; Lewis, Nathan; Galli, Giulia
2012-02-01
The electrode material choice is limited in solar to fuel formation devices because of the requirement of band-edge matching to the fixed fuel formation potential. This limitation can be relieved via band-edge engineering. The changes of band-edge positions of Si electrodes induced by the adsorption of H-, Cl-, Br- and short-chain alkyl groups were investigated by combining density functional (DFT), many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The band edge shifts are related to the formation of surface dipole moments, and determine the barrier height of electrons and holes in doped silicon surfaces. We find that the trends of the sign and magnitude of the computed surface dipoles as a function of the adsorbate may be explained by simple electronegative rules. We show that quasi-particle energies obtained within MBPT are in good agreement with experiment, while DFT values may exhibit substantial errors. However computed band edge differences are in good agreement with spectroscopic and electrical measurements even at the DFT level of theory. [1] Y. Li and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. B 82, 045321 (2010). [2] Y. Li, L. O'Leary, N. Lewis and G. Galli, to be submitted.
Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2007-10-18
We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.
Quantum plasmonics: from jellium models to ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varas, Alejandro; García-González, Pablo; Feist, Johannes; García-Vidal, F. J.; Rubio, Angel
2016-08-01
Light-matter interaction in plasmonic nanostructures is often treated within the realm of classical optics. However, recent experimental findings show the need to go beyond the classical models to explain and predict the plasmonic response at the nanoscale. A prototypical system is a nanoparticle dimer, extensively studied using both classical and quantum prescriptions. However, only very recently, fully ab initio time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of the optical response of these dimers have been carried out. Here, we review the recent work on the impact of the atomic structure on the optical properties of such systems. We show that TDDFT can be an invaluable tool to simulate the time evolution of plasmonic modes, providing fundamental understanding into the underlying microscopical mechanisms.
Ab initio study of helium behavior in titanium tritides
Liang, J. H.; Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Fan, K. M.; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2013-03-01
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to investigate the relative stability of titanium tritides and the helium behavior in stable titanium tritides. The results show that the β-phase TiT1.5 without two tritium along the [100] direction (TiT1.5[100]) is more stable than other possible structures. The stability of titanium tritides decrease with the increased generation of helium in TiT1.5[100]. In addition, helium generated by tritium decay prefers locating at a tetrahedral site, and favorably migrates between two neighbor vacant tetrahedral sites through an intermediate octahedral site in titanium tritides, with a migration energy of 0.23 eV. Furthermore, helium is easily accumulated on a (100) plane in β-phase TiT1.5[100].
High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane
2016-07-01
We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world.
Mastalerz, R; Zehnder, O; Reiher, M; Merkt, F
2012-10-09
The dependence of the spin-orbit-coupling constant of the six low-lying electronic states of Ar2(+) and Kr2(+) on the internuclear distance R has been calculated ab initio. The spin-orbit-coupling constant varies by about 10% over the range of internuclear distances relevant for the interpretation of the high-resolution photoelectron spectra of Ar2 and Kr2 and can be accurately represented by a Morse-type function for the states of ungerade electronic symmetry and by an exponentially decreasing function for the states of gerade symmetry. The spin-orbit-coupling constant is larger than the asymptotic value (at R → ∞) for the gerade states and smaller for the ungerade states. The calculated R-dependent spin-orbit-coupling constants were used to derive a new set of potential energy functions for the low-lying electronic states of Ar2(+) and Kr2(+) and to quantify the errors resulting from the widely used approach consisting of approximating the spin-orbit-coupling constant by its asymptotic value. The effects of the R dependence on the potential energy functions of the six low-lying electronic states of the homonuclear rare-gas dimer ions are found to be very small for Ar2(+) (and by inference also for Ne2(+)) but significant for Kr2(+). The shifts arising in calculations of the potential energy functions from a neglect of the R dependence of the spin-orbit-coupling constant are the result of the interplay between the differences between the binding energies of the relevant (2)Π and (2)Σ(+) states, the magnitude of the spin-orbit-coupling constant, and the magnitude and sign of the deviations between the R-dependent spin-orbit-coupling constant and its asymptotic value at large internuclear distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somà, V.; Barbieri, C.; Duguet, T.
2014-02-01
Background: The newly developed self-consistent Gorkov-Green's function approach represents a promising path to the ab initio description of mid-mass open-shell nuclei. The formalism based on a two-nucleon interaction and the second-order truncation of Gorkov's self-energy has been described in detail in Ref. [Somà, Duguet, and Barbieri, Phys. Rev. C 84, 064317 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevC.84.064317]. Purpose: The objective is to discuss the methodology used to solve Gorkov's equation numerically and to gauge its performance in view of carrying out systematic calculations of medium-mass nuclei in the future. In doing so, different sources of theoretical error and degrees of self-consistency are investigated. Methods: We employ Krylov projection techniques with a multi-pivot Lanczos algorithm to efficiently handle the growth of poles in the one-body Green's function that arises as a result of solving Gorkov's equation self-consistently. We first characterize the numerical scaling of Gorkov's calculations based on full self-consistency and on a partially self-consistent scheme coined as "sc0". Using small model spaces, the Krylov projection technique is then benchmarked against exact diagonalization of the original Gorkov matrix. Next, the convergence of the results as a function of the number Nℓ of Lanczos iterations per pivot is investigated in large model spaces. Eventually, the convergence of the calculations with the size of the harmonic oscillator model space is examined. Results: Gorkov self-consistent Green's function (SCGF) calculations performed on the basis of Krylov projection techniques display a favorable numerical scaling that authorizes systematic calculations of mid-mass nuclei. The Krylov projection selects efficiently the appropriate degrees of freedom while spanning a very small fraction of the original space. For typical large-scale calculations of mid-mass nuclei, a Krylov projection making use of Nℓ≈50 yields a sufficient degree of accuracy
Ab initio dynamical vertex approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galler, Anna; Thunström, Patrik; Gunacker, Patrik; Tomczak, Jan M.; Held, Karsten
2017-03-01
Diagrammatic extensions of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) such as the dynamical vertex approximation (DΓ A) allow us to include nonlocal correlations beyond DMFT on all length scales and proved their worth for model calculations. Here, we develop and implement an Ab initio DΓ A approach (AbinitioDΓ A ) for electronic structure calculations of materials. The starting point is the two-particle irreducible vertex in the two particle-hole channels which is approximated by the bare nonlocal Coulomb interaction and all local vertex corrections. From this, we calculate the full nonlocal vertex and the nonlocal self-energy through the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The AbinitioDΓ A approach naturally generates all local DMFT correlations and all nonlocal G W contributions, but also further nonlocal correlations beyond: mixed terms of the former two and nonlocal spin fluctuations. We apply this new methodology to the prototypical correlated metal SrVO3.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO
Xiao, Haiyan; Duan, G; Zu, X T; Weber, William J
2011-01-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been used to study high pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO based on the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both methods show that the wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) BeO transforms to the rocksalt (RS) structure smoothly at high pressure. The transition pressures obtained from the LDA method are about 40 GPa larger than the GGA result for both WZ {yields} RS and ZB {yields} RS phase transformations, and the phase transformation mechanisms revealed by the LDA and GGA methods are different. For WZ {yields} RS phase transformations both mechanisms obtained from the LDA and GGA methods are not comparable to the previous ab initio MD simulations of WZ BeO at 700 GPa based on the GGA method. It is suggested that the phase transformation mechanisms of BeO revealed by the ab initio MD simulations are affected remarkably by the exchange-correlation functional employed and the way of applying pressure.
Seminario, J.M.
1994-12-31
Structures and energies have been calculated for HO, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, HO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} molecules using the nonlocal functionals PW 86, PW 91, B-P86, and B-LYP with the goal of obtaining their atomization energies. Results were compared with those form highly correlated methods and experiment. It was found that all nonlocal functionals perform similarly to or better than correlated methods MP4 and QCI (using relatively equivalent basis sets). All nonlocal energies were self-consistently calculated using the optimized geometries for each functional. None of the results contain any empirical correction except those inherent to some of the functionals. Increasing the size of the basis set when using the nonlocal functionals does not lead to any significant improvement of the energies and surprisingly it worsens the results for one of the functionals.
Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul
2015-07-28
Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C-H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.
Kowalewski, Markus Mukamel, Shaul
2015-07-28
Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshi, T.; Tanikawa, M.; Ishii, A.
2010-09-01
The ab initio calculation with the density functional theory and plane-wave bases is carried out for stepped Si(1 1 1)-2×1 surfaces that were predicted in a cleavage simulation by the large-scale (order- N) electronic structure theory (T. Hoshi, Y. Iguchi and T. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 72 (2005) 075323). The present ab initio calculation confirms the predicted stepped structure and its bias-dependent STM image. Moreover, two (meta)stable step-edge structures are found and compared. The investigation is carried out also for Ge(1 1 1)-2×1 surfaces, so as to construct a common understanding among elements. The present study demonstrates the general importance of the hierarchical research between large-scale and ab initio electronic structure theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramachandran, G.; Muthu, S.; Uma Maheswari, J.
2013-02-01
Fourier transform Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra of 1,2-Dihydropyrazolo (4,3-E) Pyrimidin-4-one were recorded in the regions 3500-100 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1 respectively in the solid phase. 1,2-Dihydropyrazolo (4, 3-E) Pyrimidin-4-one is used to treat hyperuricemia and its complication including chronic gout. The equilibrium geometry harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman intensities were calculated by Hartee Fock and density functional B3LYP methods with 6-31G (d, p) basis set, using Gaussian 03W program package on a Pentium IV/1.6 GHz personal computer. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed at the above methods and basis set. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 1,2-Dihydropyrazolo (4,3-E) Pyrimidin-4-one is reported. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis of the compound was recorded. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that chemical activity of the molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) of this novel molecular system and related properties of 1,2-Dihydropyrazolo (4,3-E) Pyrimidin-4-one are calculated using HF/6-31G (d, p) method on the finite field approach. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectra.
Ab initio calculation of the electromagnetic and neutral-weak response functions of 4He and 12C
Lovato, A.; Benhar, O.; Carlson, J.; Gandalfi, S.; Pieper, S.; Rocco, N.; Schiavilla, Rocco
2016-03-01
Precise measurement of neutrino oscillations, and hence the determination of their masses demands a quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions. To this aim, two-body meson-exchange currents have to be accounted for along within realistic models of nuclear dynamics. We summarize our progresses towards the construction of a consistent framework, based on quantum Monte Carlo methods and on the spectral function approach, that can be exploited to accurately describe neutrino interactions with atomic nuclei over the broad kinematical region covered by neutrino experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.
2016-04-01
We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wortmann, Daniel; Blugel, Stefan; Ishida, Hiroshi
2003-03-01
An investigation of the Fe/MgO/Fe junction as a model system for tunnel-magneto-resistance (TMR) devices will be presented. We focus on the role of the electronic and geometric interface structure on the spin-dependent conductance by taking the interlayer relaxation at the Fe/MgO interface and the effect of a formation of interface FeO into account. We apply a recently developed efficient method for calculating the conductance of ballistic electrons through an interface from first-principles using the embedding approach of Inglesfield. In our method the Landauer-Büttiker formula for ballistic transport is expressed in terms of quantities that are available in the embedded Green-function calculations. The embedding approach is implemented within the full-potential linearized augmented plane method as realized in the FLEUR code.
Ab initio phonon limited transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstraete, Matthieu
We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011)
Ab initio calculation of the potential bubble nucleus 34Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duguet, T.; Somà, V.; Lecluse, S.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.
2017-03-01
Background: The possibility that an unconventional depletion (referred to as a "bubble") occurs in the center of the charge density distribution of certain nuclei due to a purely quantum mechanical effect has attracted theoretical and experimental attention in recent years. Based on a mean-field rationale, a correlation between the occurrence of such a semibubble and an anomalously weak splitting between low angular-momentum spin-orbit partners has been further conjectured. Energy density functional and valence-space shell model calculations have been performed to identify and characterize the best candidates, among which 34Si appears as a particularly interesting case. While the experimental determination of the charge density distribution of the unstable 34Si is currently out of reach, (d ,p ) experiments on this nucleus have been performed recently to test the correlation between the presence of a bubble and an anomalously weak 1 /2--3 /2- splitting in the spectrum of 35Si as compared to 37S. Purpose: We study the potential bubble structure of 34Si on the basis of the state-of-the-art ab initio self-consistent Green's function many-body method. Methods: We perform the first ab initio calculations of 34Si and 36S. In addition to binding energies, the first observables of interest are the charge density distribution and the charge root-mean-square radius for which experimental data exist in 36S. The next observable of interest is the low-lying spectroscopy of 35Si and 37S obtained from (d ,p ) experiments along with the spectroscopy of 33Al and 35P obtained from knock-out experiments. The interpretation in terms of the evolution of the underlying shell structure is also provided. The study is repeated using several chiral effective field theory Hamiltonians as a way to test the robustness of the results with respect to input internucleon interactions. The convergence of the results with respect to the truncation of the many-body expansion, i.e., with respect to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, V. P.; Chernyshev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. E.
2016-12-01
The ab initio calculations of the crystal structure and lattice dynamics of ferroborate crystal family RFe3(BO3)4 (R = Ce, Pm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), S.G. R32, has been carried out within the framework of the MO LCAO approach by using density functional theory and effective 4f-in-core pseudopotential for rare earth element. The fully optimized geometry as well as vibrational frequencies has been calculated.
Ismail-Beigi; Arias
2000-02-14
We report the first ab initio density-functional study of <111> screw dislocation cores in the bcc transition metals Mo and Ta. Our results suggest a new picture of bcc plasticity with symmetric and compact dislocation cores, contrary to the presently accepted picture based on continuum and interatomic potentials. Core energy scales in this new picture are in much better agreement with the Peierls energy barriers to dislocation motion suggested by experiments.
Structure and dynamics of the Lu2Si2O7 lattice: Ab initio calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazipov, D. V.; Nikiforov, A. E.
2017-01-01
The ab initio calculations have been carried out for the crystal structure and Raman spectrum of a single crystal of lutetium pyrosilicate Lu2Si2O7. The types of fundamental vibrations and their frequencies and intensities in the Raman spectrum for two polarizations of the crystal have been determined. The calculations have been performed within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) using the hybrid functionals. The ions involved in the vibrations have been identified using the method of isotopic substitution. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experiment.
GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.
1978-01-01
Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.
Flexible Ab initio boundary conditions: simulating isolated dislocations in bcc Mo and Ta.
Woodward, C; Rao, S I
2002-05-27
We report the first ab initio density-functional study of the strain field and Peierls stress of isolated <111> screw dislocations in bcc Mo and Ta. The local dislocation strain field is self-consistently coupled to the long-range elastic field using a flexible boundary condition method. This reduces the mesoscopic atomistic calculation to one involving only degrees of freedom near the dislocation core. The predicted equilibrium core for Mo is significantly different from previous atomistic results and the Peierls stress shows significant non-Schmid behavior as expected for the bcc metals.
Ab Initio Electronic Structure Calculations of Cytochrome P450 -- Ligand Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.
1997-03-01
The Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes are of great interest in pharmacology as they participate in an enormous range of physiological processes including drug deactivation and xenobiotic detoxification. We apply ab initio electronic structure calculations to model the interactions of the haem molecule at the P450 active site with substrate and inhibitor ligands. These calculations, based on density function theory, were performed with the CETEP code which uses a plane wave basis set and pseudopotentials to perform efficient LDA, GGA and spin dependent calculations. A change in the spin state of the haem iron atom is observed on binding of a substrate molecule, consistent with the accepted reaction mechanism.
Synthesis and Ab Initio/DFT Studies on 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzo[d]thiazole
Arslan, Hakan; Algül, Öztekin
2007-01-01
2-aminothiophenol and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde were cyclized under microwave irridation and solvent free conditions to synthesize 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzo[d]thiazole. The molecular structure and vibrational frequencies of the title compound in the ground state have been investigated with ab initio (HF) and density functional theory methods (BLYP, B3LYP, B3PW91 and mPW1PW91) implementing the standard 6–311G(d,p) basis set. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of title compound and calculated results by HF and DFT methods indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF approach for molecular problems.
Diffusion in liquid Germanium using ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, R. V.; Aulbur, W. G.; Stroud, D.
1996-03-01
We describe the results of calculations of the self-diffusion constant of liquid Ge over a range of temperatures. The calculations are carried out using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme which combines an LDA model for the electronic structure with the Bachelet-Hamann-Schlüter norm-conserving pseudopotentials^1. The energies associated with electronic degrees of freedom are minimized using the Williams-Soler algorithm, and ionic moves are carried out using the Verlet algorithm. We use an energy cutoff of 10 Ry, which is sufficient to give results for the lattice constant and bulk modulus of crystalline Ge to within 1% and 12% of experiment. The program output includes not only the self-diffusion constant but also the structure factor, electronic density of states, and low-frequency electrical conductivity. We will compare our results with other ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and discuss extension to impurity diffusion. ^1 We use the ab initio molecular dynamics code fhi94md, developed at 1cm the Fritz-Haber Institute, Berlin. ^2 Work supported by NASA, Grant NAG3-1437.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ji; Ren, Xinguo; Li, Xin-Zheng; Alfè, Dario; Wang, Enge
2014-07-01
The finite-temperature phase diagram of hydrogen in the region of phase IV and its neighborhood was studied using the ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD). The electronic structures were analyzed using the density-functional theory (DFT), the random-phase approximation, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. Taking the state-of-the-art DMC results as benchmark, comparisons of the energy differences between structures generated from the MD and PIMD simulations, with molecular and dissociated hydrogens, respectively, in the weak molecular layers of phase IV, indicate that standard functionals in DFT tend to underestimate the dissociation barrier of the weak molecular layers in this mixed phase. Because of this underestimation, inclusion of the quantum nuclear effects (QNEs) in PIMD using electronic structures generated with these functionals leads to artificially dissociated hydrogen layers in phase IV and an error compensation between the neglect of QNEs and the deficiencies of these functionals in standard ab initio MD simulations exists. This analysis partly rationalizes why earlier ab initio MD simulations complement so well the experimental observations. The temperature and pressure dependencies for the stability of phase IV were also studied in the end and compared with earlier results.
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics.
Makhov, Dmitry V; Glover, William J; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Bisogni, Valentina; Kraus, Roberto; Monney, Claude; Zhou, Kejin; Schmitt, Thorsten; Geck, Jochen; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu
2017-01-01
In existing theoretical approaches to core-level excitations of transition-metal ions in solids relaxation and polarization effects due to the inner core hole are often ignored or described phenomenologically. Here we set up an ab initio computational scheme that explicitly accounts for such physics in the calculation of x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra. Good agreement is found with experimental transition-metal L-edge data for the strongly correlated d 9 cuprate Li2CuO2, for which we determine the absolute scattering intensities. The newly developed methodology opens the way for the investigation of even more complex d n electronic structures of group VI B to VIII B correlated oxide compounds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowman, Joel M.; Gazdy, Bela; Bentley, Joseph A.; Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.
1993-01-01
A potential energy surface for the HCN/HNC system which is a fit to extensive, high-quality ab initio, coupled-cluster calculations is presented. All HCN and HNC states with energies below the energy of the first delocalized state are reported and characterized. Vibrational transition energies are compared with all available experimental data on HCN and HNC, including high CH-overtone states up to 23,063/cm. A simulation of the (A-tilde)-(X-tilde) stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectrum is also reported, and the results are compared to experiment. Franck-Condon factors are reported for odd bending states of HCN, with one quantum of vibrational angular momentum, in order to compare with the recent assignment by Jonas et al. (1992), on the basis of axis-switching arguments of a number of previously unassigned states in the SEP spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jameson, Cynthia J.; de Dios, Angel C.
1992-07-01
The chemical shifts observed in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are the differences in shielding of the nuclear spin in different electronic environments. These are known to depend on intermolecular interactions as evidenced by density-dependent chemical shifts in the gas phase, gas-to-liquid shifts, and adsorption shifts on surfaces. We present the results of the first ab initio intermolecular chemical shielding function calculated for a pair of interacting atoms for a wide range of internuclear separations. We used the localized orbital local origin (LORG) approach of Hansen and Bouman and also investigated the second-order electron correlation contributions using second-order LORG (SOLO). The 39Ar shielding in Ar2 passes through zero at some very short distance, going through a minimum, and asymptotically approaches zero at larger separations. The 21Ne shielding function in Ne2 has a similar shape. The Drude model suggests a method of scaling that portion of the shielding function that is weighted most heavily by exp[-V(R)/kT]. The scaling factors, which have been verified in the comparison of 21Ne in Ne2 against 39Ar in Ar2 ab initio results, allows us to project out from the same 39Ar in Ar2 ab initio values the appropriate 129Xe shielding functions in the Xe-Ar, Xe-Kr, and Xe-Xe interacting pairs. These functions lead to temperature-dependent second virial coefficients of chemical shielding which agree with experiments in the gas phase. Ab initio calculations of 39Ar shielding in clusters of argon are used to model the observed 129Xe chemical shifts of Xe, Xe2,...,Xe8 trapped in the cages of zeolite NaA.
An efficient approach to ab initio Monte Carlo simulation.
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D
2014-01-21
We present a Nested Markov chain Monte Carlo (NMC) scheme for building equilibrium averages based on accurate potentials such as density functional theory. Metropolis sampling of a reference system, defined by an inexpensive but approximate potential, was used to substantially decorrelate configurations at which the potential of interest was evaluated, thereby dramatically reducing the number needed to build ensemble averages at a given level of precision. The efficiency of this procedure was maximized on-the-fly through variation of the reference system thermodynamic state (characterized here by its inverse temperature β(0)), which was otherwise unconstrained. Local density approximation results are presented for shocked states of argon at pressures from 4 to 60 GPa, where-depending on the quality of the reference system potential-acceptance probabilities were enhanced by factors of 1.2-28 relative to unoptimized NMC. The optimization procedure compensated strongly for reference potential shortcomings, as evidenced by significantly higher speedups when using a reference potential of lower quality. The efficiency of optimized NMC is shown to be competitive with that of standard ab initio molecular dynamics in the canonical ensemble.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douma, D. H.; Ciprian, R.; Lamperti, A.; Lupo, P.; Cianci, E.; Sangalli, D.; Casoli, F.; Nasi, L.; Albertini, F.; Torelli, P.; Debernardi, A.
2014-11-01
We present an experimental study of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at L2 ,3,M2 ,3, and K edges of, respectively, Fe, Zr, and O in iron-doped zirconia (ZrO2:Fe ) for different Fe dopant concentrations x (from x ˜6 % to x ˜25 % at.) and make the comparison with ab initio simulations at the O K -edge. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements show no evidence of ferromagnetic (FM) order for all the analyzed samples in agreement with our ab initio simulations, which show an antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. We found that substituting Zr with Fe atoms leads to a radical change in the O K -edge XANES spectrum, especially in the pre-edge region where a pre-edge peak appears. This pre-edge peak is ascribed to dipole transitions from O 1 s to O 2 p states that are hybridized with the unoccupied Fe 3 d states. Both theoretical and experimental results reveal that the intensity of the pre-edge peak increases with Fe concentration, suggesting the increase of unoccupied Fe 3 d states. The increase of Fe concentration increases oxygen vacancies as required for charge neutrality and consequently improves AFM ordering. According to our first-principles calculations, the effect of one Fe atom is mostly localized in the first oxygen shell and vanishes as one moves far from it. Thus the increase of the O K -pre-edge peak with increasing Fe concentration is due to the increase of percentage of oxygen atoms that are near neighbors to Fe atoms.
Ab initio calculations for industrial materials engineering: successes and challenges.
Wimmer, Erich; Najafabadi, Reza; Young, George A; Ballard, Jake D; Angeliu, Thomas M; Vollmer, James; Chambers, James J; Niimi, Hiroaki; Shaw, Judy B; Freeman, Clive; Christensen, Mikael; Wolf, Walter; Saxe, Paul
2010-09-29
Computational materials science based on ab initio calculations has become an important partner to experiment. This is demonstrated here for the effect of impurities and alloying elements on the strength of a Zr twist grain boundary, the dissociative adsorption and diffusion of iodine on a zirconium surface, the diffusion of oxygen atoms in a Ni twist grain boundary and in bulk Ni, and the dependence of the work function of a TiN-HfO(2) junction on the replacement of N by O atoms. In all of these cases, computations provide atomic-scale understanding as well as quantitative materials property data of value to industrial research and development. There are two key challenges in applying ab initio calculations, namely a higher accuracy in the electronic energy and the efficient exploration of large parts of the configurational space. While progress in these areas is fueled by advances in computer hardware, innovative theoretical concepts combined with systematic large-scale computations will be needed to realize the full potential of ab initio calculations for industrial applications.
Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Graphene Sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolev, S.; Balchev, I.; Cvetkov, K.; Tinchev, S.; Milenov, T.
2017-01-01
The study of graphene is important because it is a promising material for a variety of applications in the electronic industry. In the present work, the properties of а 2D periodic graphene sheet are studied with the use of ab initio molecular dynamics. DFT in the generalized gradient approximation is used in order to carry out the dynamical simulations. The PBE functional and DZVP-MOLOPT basis set are implemented in the CP2K/Quickstep package. A periodic box, consisting of 288 carbon atoms is chosen for the simulations. After geometry optimization it has dimensions 2964 x 2964 x 1500 pm and form angles of 90, 90, 60 degrees. The dynamical simulation is run for 1 ps in the NPT ensemble, at temperature T = 298.15 K. The radial distribution function shows a first peak at 142 pm, marking the bond length between carbon atoms. The density of states for the periodic systems is simulated as occupied orbitals represent the valence band and unoccupied ones the conduction band. The calculated bandgap, as expected is close to 0 eV.
Protons in polar media: An ab initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Rosenvinge, Tycho
1998-10-01
The hydrates of hydrogen chloride are ionic crystals that contain hydronium (H3O+). The hydronium in the monohydrate has been reported to be statistically disordered between two possible sites related by inversion symmetry. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are presented for the monohydrate, as well as the di-, and tri-hydrates, of hydrogen chloride using the density functional based Car-Parrinello technique. The simulations were carried out with the goal of investigating proton disorder in these crystals. The possible role of nuclear quantum effects has been explored via path integral molecular dynamic simulations. The present results suggest that the proposed disordered sites in the monohydrate are dynamically unstable and therefore unlikely to be responsible for the reported disorder. No useful information was obtained for the dihydrate because the large unit cell leads to difficulties in carrying out the simulations. Nuclear quantum effects are shown to be important for characterizing the proton distributions in the trihydrate. The structure and dynamical behavior of liquid HF with dissolved KF have been investigated using the Car- Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. Specifically, a system with stoichiometry KFċ2HF was studied at temperatures of 400K and 1000K. This system, which was started from a phase separated mixture, rapidly formed into solvated potassium ions and HnFn+1/sp- polyfluoride anions with n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The resulting polyfluoride anions were classified, and their structures and dynamical behavior were compared with the known structures and spectra of crystalline compounds KF/cdot xHF and with theoretical predictions of isolated gas phase species. The present study reveals dramatic frequency shifts in the H atom vibrational modes with variation in the HF coordination number of the polyfluoride anion. In particular the FH wagging motion red shifts while the FH stretch blue shifts as n increases. The present calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Messina, Luca; Castin, Nicolas; Domain, Christophe; Olsson, Pär
2017-02-01
The quality of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of microstructure evolution in alloys relies on the parametrization of point-defect migration rates, which are complex functions of the local chemical composition and can be calculated accurately with ab initio methods. However, constructing reliable models that ensure the best possible transfer of physical information from ab initio to KMC is a challenging task. This work presents an innovative approach, where the transition rates are predicted by artificial neural networks trained on a database of 2000 migration barriers, obtained with density functional theory (DFT) in place of interatomic potentials. The method is tested on copper precipitation in thermally aged iron alloys, by means of a hybrid atomistic-object KMC model. For the object part of the model, the stability and mobility properties of copper-vacancy clusters are analyzed by means of independent atomistic KMC simulations, driven by the same neural networks. The cluster diffusion coefficients and mean free paths are found to increase with size, confirming the dominant role of coarsening of medium- and large-sized clusters in the precipitation kinetics. The evolution under thermal aging is in better agreement with experiments with respect to a previous interatomic-potential model, especially concerning the experiment time scales. However, the model underestimates the solubility of copper in iron due to the excessively high solution energy predicted by the chosen DFT method. Nevertheless, this work proves the capability of neural networks to transfer complex ab initio physical properties to higher-scale models, and facilitates the extension to systems with increasing chemical complexity, setting the ground for reliable microstructure evolution simulations in a wide range of alloys and applications.
Ab initio study of cyanoguanidine isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbuznikov, A. V.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Burgina, E. B.
1995-06-01
An ab initio quantum chemical study of the geometric structure and stability of cyanoguanidine isomers was carried out at the Hartree-Fock and Møller-Plesset levels of theory. Two stable separable isomers ('cyanioime' and 'cyanoamine') are found. This gives evidence in favour of the vibrational spectroscopy data showing the existence of both isomers.
Ab initio study of cyanoguanidine isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbuznikov, A. V.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Burgina, E. B.
1995-06-01
An ab initio quantum chemical study of the geometric structure and stability of cyanoguanidine isomers was carried out at the Hartree-Fock and Møller-Plesset levels of theory. Two stable separable isomers (‘cyanioime' and ‘cyanoamine') are found. This gives evidence in favour of the vibrational spectroscopy data showing the existence of both isomers.
Skutterudites under pressure: An ab initio study
Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V.; Valsakumar, M. C.
2014-03-07
Ab initio results on the band structure, density of states, and Fermi surface (FS) properties of LaRu{sub 4}X{sub 12} (X = P, As, Sb) are presented at ambient pressure as well as under compression. The analysis of density of states reveals the major contribution at the Fermi level to be mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. We have a complicated Fermi surface with both electron and hole characters for all the three compounds which is derived mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. There is also a simpler FS with hole character derived from the P-p{sub z} orbital for LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} and Ru-d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital in the case of As and Sb containing compounds. More interestingly, Fermi surface nesting feature is observed only in the case of the LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. Under compression, we observe the topology of the complicated FS sheet of LaRu{sub 4}As{sub 12} to change around V/V{sub 0} = 0.85, leading to a behaviour similar to that of a multiband superconductor, and in addition, we have two more hole pockets centered around Γ at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 for the same compound. Apart from this, we find the hole pocket to vanish at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 in the case of LaRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the opening of the complicated FS sheet gets reduced. The de Haas van Alphen calculation shows the number of extremal orbits in the complicated sheet to change in As and Sb containing compounds under compression, where we also observe the FS topology to change.
Ab initio electronic structure and optical conductivity of bismuth tellurohalides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwalbe, Sebastian; Wirnata, René; Starke, Ronald; Schober, Giulio A. H.; Kortus, Jens
2016-11-01
We investigate the electronic structure, dielectric, and optical properties of bismuth tellurohalides BiTe X (X =I , Cl, Br) by means of all-electron density functional theory. In particular, we present the ab initio conductivities and dielectric tensors calculated over a wide frequency range, and compare our results with the recent measurements by Akrap et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 035201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.035201], Makhnev et al. [Opt. Spectrosc. 117, 764 (2014), 10.1134/S0030400X14110125], and Rusinov et al. [JETP Lett. 101, 507 (2015), 10.1134/S0021364015080147]. We show how the low-frequency branch of the optical conductivity can be used to identify characteristic intra- and interband transitions between the Rashba spin-split bands in all three bismuth tellurohalides. We further calculate the refractive indices and dielectric constants, which in turn are systematically compared to previous predictions and measurements. We expect that our quantitative analysis will contribute to the general assessment of bulk Rashba materials for their potential use in spintronics devices.
Ab initio Raman spectroscopy of water under extreme conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozsa, Viktor; Pan, Ding; Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia
Water exhibits one of the most complex phase diagrams of any binary compound. Despite extensive studies, the melting lines of high-pressure ice phases remain very controversial, with reports differing by hundreds of Kelvin. The boundary between ice VII and liquid phase is particularly disputed, with recent work exploring plasticity and amorphization mediating the transition. Raman measurements are often used to fingerprint melting, yet their interpretation is difficult without atomistic modeling. Here, we report a study of high P/T water where we computed Raman spectra using a method combining ab initio molecular dynamics and density functional perturbation theory, as implemented in the Qbox code. Spectra were computed for the liquid at 10 and 20 GPa, both at 1000 K, and for solid ice VII (20 GPa, 500 K). Decomposing the spectra into inter and intra molecular contributions provided insight into the dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded network at extreme conditions. The relevance of our simulation results for models of water in Earth, Uranus, and Neptune will be discussed, and an interpretation of existing experiments at high pressure will be presented.
Ab initio studies of niobium defects in uranium
Xiang, S; Huang, H; Hsiung, L
2007-06-01
Uranium (U), with the addition of small amount of niobium (Nb), is stainless. The Nb is fully miscible with the high temperature phase of U and tends to segregate upon cooling below 647 C. The starting point of segregation is the configuration of Nb substitutional or interstitial defects. Using density-functional-theory based ab initio calculations, the authors find that the formation energy of a single vacancy is 1.08 eV, that of Nb substitution is 0.59 eV, that of Nb interstitial at octahedral site is 1.58 eV, and that of Nb interstitial at tetrahedral site is 2.35 eV; all with reference to a reservoir of {gamma} phase U and pure Nb. The formation energy of Nb defects correlates with the local perturbation of electron distribution; higher formation energy to larger perturbation. Based on this study, Nb atoms thermodynamically prefer to occupy substitutional sites in {gamma} phase U, and they prefer to be in individual substitutional defects than clusters.
Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric
2016-04-01
Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti.
An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry
Matthew Neurock; David A. Walthall
2006-05-07
One of the greatest societal challenges over the next decade is the production of cheap, renewable energy for the 10 billion people that inhabit the earth. This will require the development of various different energy sources potentially including fuels derived from methane, coal, and biomass and alternatives sources such as solar, wind and nuclear energy. One approach will be to synthesize gasoline and other fuels from simpler hydrocarbons such as CO derived from methane or other U.S. based sources such as coal. Syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) can be readily converted into higher molecular weight hydrocarbons through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the initiation or activation of CO and H{sub 2} bonds, the subsequent propagation steps including hydrogenation and carbon-carbon coupling, followed by chain termination reactions. Commercially viable catalysts include supported Co and Co-alloys. Over the first two years of this project we have used ab initio methods to determine the adsorption energies for all reactants, intermediates, and products along with the overall reaction energies and their corresponding activation barriers over the Co(0001) surface. Over the third year of the project we developed and advanced an ab initio-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulation code to simulate Fischer Tropsch synthesis. This report details our work over the last year which has focused on the derivation of kinetic parameters for the elementary steps involved in FT synthesis from ab initio density functional theoretical calculations and the application of the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the initial rates of reaction for FT over the ideal Co(0001) surface. The results from our simulations over Co(0001) indicate the importance of stepped surfaces for the activation of adsorbed CO. In addition, they demonstrate that the dominant CH{sub x}* surface intermediate under steady state conditions is CH*. This strongly suggests that hydrocarbon coupling
Tachikawa, Hiroto
2006-01-12
Ionization processes of chlorobenzene-ammonia 1:1 complex (PhCl-NH3) have been investigated by means of full dimensional direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method, static ab initio calculations, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The static ab initio and DFT calculations of neutral PhCl-NH3 complex showed that one of the hydrogen atoms of NH3 orients toward a carbon atom in the para-position of PhCl. The dynamics calculation for ionization of PhCl-NH3 indicated that two reaction channels are competitive with each other as product channels: one is an intramolecular SN2 reaction expressed by a reaction scheme [PhCl-NH3]+-->SN2 intermediate complex-->PhNH3++Cl, and the other is ortho-NH3 addition complex (ortho complex) in which NH3 attacks the ortho-carbon of PhCl+ and the trajectory leads to a bound complex expressed by (PhCl-NH3)+. The mechanism of the ionization of PhCl-NH3 is discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.
High density H2 associative absorption on Titanium alpha-borozene (Ti2B6H6): An ab-initio case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Tymzcak, C. J.
2011-03-01
Hydrogen is considered as a clean energy carrier that could be a future replacement for our addiction to fossil fuels. However, in order to have hydrogen economy at its highest efficiently we need to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric density. Using the all electron hybrid density functional theory, we have designed a benzene-like-molecule, Ti2B6H6, which has the promise of achieving this goal. Our results show that the molecule can associatively absorb the hydrogen up to ten percent by weight of hydrogen, which exceeds the 2015 US department of energy target. In this presentation we will discuss the mechanisms of H2 absorption and possible applications of this novel molecule. This research is funded by the Welch Foundation under Grant J. 1675 and the Texas Southern University High Performance Computing Center.
Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G
2003-06-06
Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly.
Iyengar, Srinivasan S; Jakowski, Jacek
2005-03-15
A methodology to efficiently conduct simultaneous dynamics of electrons and nuclei is presented. The approach involves quantum wave packet dynamics using an accurate banded, sparse and Toeplitz representation for the discrete free propagator, in conjunction with ab initio molecular dynamics treatment of the electronic and classical nuclear degree of freedom. The latter may be achieved either by using atom-centered density-matrix propagation or by using Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. The two components of the methodology, namely, quantum dynamics and ab initio molecular dynamics, are harnessed together using a time-dependent self-consistent field-like coupling procedure. The quantum wave packet dynamics is made computationally robust by using adaptive grids to achieve optimized sampling. One notable feature of the approach is that important quantum dynamical effects including zero-point effects, tunneling, as well as over-barrier reflections are treated accurately. The electronic degrees of freedom are simultaneously handled at accurate levels of density functional theory, including hybrid or gradient corrected approximations. Benchmark calculations are provided for proton transfer systems and the dynamics results are compared with exact calculations to determine the accuracy of the approach.
Accelerating ab initio molecular dynamics simulations by linear prediction methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herr, Jonathan D.; Steele, Ryan P.
2016-09-01
Acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations can be reliably achieved by extrapolation of electronic data from previous timesteps. Existing techniques utilize polynomial least-squares regression to fit previous steps' Fock or density matrix elements. In this work, the recursive Burg 'linear prediction' technique is shown to be a viable alternative to polynomial regression, and the extrapolation-predicted Fock matrix elements were three orders of magnitude closer to converged elements. Accelerations of 1.8-3.4× were observed in test systems, and in all cases, linear prediction outperformed polynomial extrapolation. Importantly, these accelerations were achieved without reducing the MD integration timestep.
Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides
Sharma, Ramesh; Shukla, Seema Dwivedi, Shalini Sharma, Yamini
2014-04-24
We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.
Electric field response in bilayer graphene: Ab initio investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Yutaro; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi
2016-11-01
Stimulated by quantum capacitance measurements, we have investigated the electric properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) with carrier doping under an external electric field using ab initio calculations. We found that the relative permittivity of BLG depends weakly on the applied electric field, and that the BLG can be regarded as a dielectric material rather than a pair of metallic films. We also found that carrier doping affects the band gap of BLG under electric fields, although carrier doping has a much smaller effect on the band gap and density of states than the application of electric fields.
Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground-state properties of manganese's oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vinit; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kent, P. R. C.; Reboredo, Fernando A.
One of the critical scientific challenges of contemporary research is to obtain an accurate theoretical description of the electronic properties of strongly correlated systems such as transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds, since state-of-art ab-initio methods based on approximate density functionals are not always sufficiently accurate. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods, which use statistical sampling to evaluate many-body wave functions, have the potential to answer this challenge. Owing to the few fundamental approximations made and the direct treatment of electron correlation, QMC methods are among the most accurate electronic structure methods available to date. We assess the accuracy of the diffusion Monte Carlo method in the case of rocksalt manganese oxide (MnO). We study the electronic properties of this strongly-correlated oxide, which has been identified as a suitable candidate for many applications ranging from catalysts to electronic devices. ``This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.'' Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground-state properties of manganese's oxides.
Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fredkin, D. R.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.; Komornicki, A.
1983-01-01
It is pointed out that with increased computer power and improved computational techniques, such as the gradients developed in recent years, it is becoming practical to compute spectra ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature, for systems of increasing complexity. The present investigation has the objective to explore several possible ab initio approaches to spectra, giving particular attention to infrared and nonresonance Raman. Two approaches are discussed. The sequential approach, in which first the electronic part and then later the nuclear part of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is solved, is appropriate for small systems. The simultaneous approach, in which the electronic and nuclear parts are solved at the same time, is more appropriate for many-atom systems. A review of the newer quantum gradient techniques is provided, and the infrared and Raman spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed.
Ab Initio Crystal Field for Lanthanides.
Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F
2017-03-13
An ab initio methodology for the first-principle derivation of crystal-field (CF) parameters for lanthanides is described. The methodology is applied to the analysis of CF parameters in [Tb(Pc)2 ](-) (Pc=phthalocyanine) and Dy4 K2 ([Dy(4) K(2) O(OtBu)(12) ]) complexes, and compared with often used approximate and model descriptions. It is found that the application of geometry symmetrization, and the use of electrostatic point-charge and phenomenological CF models, lead to unacceptably large deviations from predictions based on ab initio calculations for experimental geometry. It is shown how the predictions of standard CASSCF (Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field) calculations (with 4f orbitals in the active space) can be systematically improved by including effects of dynamical electronic correlation (CASPT2 step) and by admixing electronic configurations of the 5d shell. This is exemplified for the well-studied Er-trensal complex (H3 trensal=2,2',2"-tris(salicylideneimido)trimethylamine). The electrostatic contributions to CF parameters in this complex, calculated with true charge distributions in the ligands, yield less than half of the total CF splitting, thus pointing to the dominant role of covalent effects. This analysis allows the conclusion that ab initio crystal field is an essential tool for the decent description of lanthanides.
An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing
2016-09-01
The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.
Time-domain ab initio modeling of photoinduced dynamics at nanoscale interfaces.
Wang, Linjun; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-04-01
Nonequilibrium processes involving electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in nanoscale materials are under active experimental investigation. Corresponding theoretical studies are much scarcer. The review starts with the basics of time-dependent density functional theory, recent developments in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and the fusion of the two techniques. Ab initio simulations of this kind allow us to directly mimic a great variety of time-resolved experiments performed with pump-probe laser spectroscopies. The focus is on the ultrafast photoinduced charge and exciton dynamics at interfaces formed by two complementary materials. We consider purely inorganic materials, inorganic-organic hybrids, and all organic interfaces, involving bulk semiconductors, metallic and semiconducting nanoclusters, graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, polymers, molecular crystals, molecules, and solvent. The detailed atomistic insights available from time-domain ab initio studies provide a unique description and a comprehensive understanding of the competition between electron transfer, thermal relaxation, energy transfer, and charge recombination processes. These advances now make it possible to directly guide the development of organic and hybrid solar cells, as well as photocatalytic, electronic, spintronic, and other devices relying on complex interfacial dynamics.
Ab initio simulation of elastic and mechanical properties of Zn- and Mg-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP).
Aryal, Sitaram; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Ching, Wai-Yim
2015-07-01
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is an important bioceramic which constitutes the mineral components of bones and hard tissues in mammals. It is bioactive and used as bioceramic coatings for metallic implants and bone fillers. HAP readily absorbs a large amount of impurities. Knowledge on the elastic and mechanical properties of impurity-doped HAP is a subject of great importance to its potential for biomedical applications. Zn and Mg are the most common divalent cations HAP absorbs. Using density function theory based ab initio methods, we have carried out a large number of ab initio calculations to obtain the bulk elastic and mechanical properties of HAP with Zn or Mg doped in different concentration at the Ca1 and Ca2 sites using large 352-atom supercells. Detailed information on their dependece on the concetraion of the substitued impurity is obtained. Our results show that Mg enhances overall elastic and bulk mechanical properties whereas Zn tends to degrade except at low concentrations. At a higher concentration, the mechanical properties of Zn and Mg doped HAP also depend significantly on impurity distribution between the Ca1 and Ca2 sites. There is a strong evidence that Zn prefers Ca2 site for substituion whereas Mg has no such preference. These results imply that proper control of dopant concentration and their site preference must carefully considered in using doped HAP for specific biomedical applications.
Time-Domain Ab Initio Modeling of Photoinduced Dynamics at Nanoscale Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Linjun; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2015-04-01
Nonequilibrium processes involving electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in nanoscale materials are under active experimental investigation. Corresponding theoretical studies are much scarcer. The review starts with the basics of time-dependent density functional theory, recent developments in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and the fusion of the two techniques. Ab initio simulations of this kind allow us to directly mimic a great variety of time-resolved experiments performed with pump-probe laser spectroscopies. The focus is on the ultrafast photoinduced charge and exciton dynamics at interfaces formed by two complementary materials. We consider purely inorganic materials, inorganic-organic hybrids, and all organic interfaces, involving bulk semiconductors, metallic and semiconducting nanoclusters, graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, polymers, molecular crystals, molecules, and solvent. The detailed atomistic insights available from time-domain ab initio studies provide a unique description and a comprehensive understanding of the competition between electron transfer, thermal relaxation, energy transfer, and charge recombination processes. These advances now make it possible to directly guide the development of organic and hybrid solar cells, as well as photocatalytic, electronic, spintronic, and other devices relying on complex interfacial dynamics.
Multiple-Time Step Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Based on Two-Electron Integral Screening.
Fatehi, Shervin; Steele, Ryan P
2015-03-10
A multiple-timestep ab initio molecular dynamics scheme based on varying the two-electron integral screening method used in Hartree-Fock or density functional theory calculations is presented. Although screening is motivated by numerical considerations, it is also related to separations in the length- and timescales characterizing forces in a molecular system: Loose thresholds are sufficient to describe fast motions over short distances, while tight thresholds may be employed for larger length scales and longer times, leading to a practical acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Standard screening approaches can lead, however, to significant discontinuities in (and inconsistencies between) the energy and gradient when the screening threshold is loose, making them inappropriate for use in dynamics. To remedy this problem, a consistent window-screening method that smooths these discontinuities is devised. Further algorithmic improvements reuse electronic-structure information within the dynamics step and enhance efficiency relative to a naı̈ve multiple-timestepping protocol. The resulting scheme is shown to realize meaningful reductions in the cost of Hartree-Fock and B3LYP simulations of a moderately large system, the protonated sarcosine/glycine dipeptide embedded in a 19-water cluster.
Accelerating Ab Initio Path Integral Simulations via Imaginary Multiple-Timestepping.
Cheng, Xiaolu; Herr, Jonathan D; Steele, Ryan P
2016-04-12
This work investigates the use of multiple-timestep schemes in imaginary time for computationally efficient ab initio equilibrium path integral simulations of quantum molecular motion. In the simplest formulation, only every n(th) path integral replica is computed at the target level of electronic structure theory, whereas the remaining low-level replicas still account for nuclear motion quantum effects with a more computationally economical theory. Motivated by recent developments for multiple-timestep techniques in real-time classical molecular dynamics, both 1-electron (atomic-orbital basis set) and 2-electron (electron correlation) truncations are shown to be effective. Structural distributions and thermodynamic averages are tested for representative analytic potentials and ab initio molecular examples. Target quantum chemistry methods include density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, although any level of theory is formally amenable to this framework. For a standard two-level splitting, computational speedups of 1.6-4.0x are observed when using a 4-fold reduction in time slices; an 8-fold reduction is feasible in some cases. Multitiered options further reduce computational requirements and suggest that quantum mechanical motion could potentially be obtained at a cost not significantly different from the cost of classical simulations.
Deviational simulation of phonon transport in graphene ribbons with ab initio scattering
Landon, Colin D.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.
2014-10-28
We present a deviational Monte Carlo method for solving the Boltzmann-Peierls equation with ab initio 3-phonon scattering, for temporally and spatially dependent thermal transport problems in arbitrary geometries. Phonon dispersion relations and transition rates for graphene are obtained from density functional theory calculations. The ab initio scattering operator is simulated by an energy-conserving stochastic algorithm embedded within a deviational, low-variance Monte Carlo formulation. The deviational formulation ensures that simulations are computationally feasible for arbitrarily small temperature differences, while the stochastic treatment of the scattering operator is both efficient and exhibits no timestep error. The proposed method, in which geometry and phonon-boundary scattering are explicitly treated, is extensively validated by comparison to analytical results, previous numerical solutions and experiments. It is subsequently used to generate solutions for heat transport in graphene ribbons of various geometries and evaluate the validity of some common approximations found in the literature. Our results show that modeling transport in long ribbons of finite width using the homogeneous Boltzmann equation and approximating phonon-boundary scattering using an additional homogeneous scattering rate introduces an error on the order of 10% at room temperature, with the maximum deviation reaching 30% in the middle of the transition regime.
Ab initio calculations of the optical properties of crystalline and liquid InSb
Sano, Haruyuki; Mizutani, Goro
2015-11-15
Ab initio calculations of the electronic and optical properties of InSb were performed for both the crystalline and liquid states. Two sets of atomic structure models for liquid InSb at 900 K were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. To reduce the effect of structural peculiarities in the liquid models, an averaging of the two sets of the calculated electronic and optical properties corresponding to the two liquid models was performed. The calculated results indicate that, owing to the phase transition from crystal to liquid, the density of states around the Fermi level increases. As a result, the energy band gap opening near the Fermi level disappears. Consequently, the optical properties change from semiconductor to metallic behavior. Namely, owing to the melting of InSb, the interband transition peaks disappear and a Drude-like dispersion is observed in the optical dielectric functions. The optical absorption at a photon energy of 3.06 eV, which is used in Blu-ray Disc systems, increases owing to the melting of InSb. This increase in optical absorption is proposed to result from the increased optical transitions below 2 eV.
Ab initio molecular dynamics of solvation effects on reactivity at electrified interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herron, Jeffrey A.; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Mavrikakis, Manos
2016-08-01
Using ab initio molecular dynamics as implemented in periodic, self-consistent (generalized gradient approximation Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) density functional theory, we investigated the mechanism of methanol electrooxidation on Pt(111). We investigated the role of water solvation and electrode potential on the energetics of the first proton transfer step, methanol electrooxidation to methoxy (CH3O) or hydroxymethyl (CH2OH). The results show that solvation weakens the adsorption of methoxy to uncharged Pt(111), whereas the binding energies of methanol and hydroxymethyl are not significantly affected. The free energies of activation for breaking the C-H and O-H bonds in methanol were calculated through a Blue Moon Ensemble using constrained ab initio molecular dynamics. Calculated barriers for these elementary steps on unsolvated, uncharged Pt(111) are similar to results for climbing-image nudged elastic band calculations from the literature. Water solvation reduces the barriers for both C-H and O-H bond activation steps with respect to their vapor-phase values, although the effect is more pronounced for C-H bond activation, due to less disruption of the hydrogen bond network. The calculated activation energy barriers show that breaking the C-H bond of methanol is more facile than the O-H bond on solvated negatively biased or uncharged Pt(111). However, with positive bias, O-H bond activation is enhanced, becoming slightly more facile than C-H bond activation.
Ab initio molecular dynamics of solvation effects on reactivity at electrified interfaces
Herron, Jeffrey A.; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Mavrikakis, Manos
2016-01-01
Using ab initio molecular dynamics as implemented in periodic, self-consistent (generalized gradient approximation Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) density functional theory, we investigated the mechanism of methanol electrooxidation on Pt(111). We investigated the role of water solvation and electrode potential on the energetics of the first proton transfer step, methanol electrooxidation to methoxy (CH3O) or hydroxymethyl (CH2OH). The results show that solvation weakens the adsorption of methoxy to uncharged Pt(111), whereas the binding energies of methanol and hydroxymethyl are not significantly affected. The free energies of activation for breaking the C−H and O−H bonds in methanol were calculated through a Blue Moon Ensemble using constrained ab initio molecular dynamics. Calculated barriers for these elementary steps on unsolvated, uncharged Pt(111) are similar to results for climbing-image nudged elastic band calculations from the literature. Water solvation reduces the barriers for both C−H and O−H bond activation steps with respect to their vapor-phase values, although the effect is more pronounced for C−H bond activation, due to less disruption of the hydrogen bond network. The calculated activation energy barriers show that breaking the C−H bond of methanol is more facile than the O−H bond on solvated negatively biased or uncharged Pt(111). However, with positive bias, O−H bond activation is enhanced, becoming slightly more facile than C−H bond activation. PMID:27503889
Ab-initio atomic level stresses in Cu-Zr crystal, liquid and glass phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojha, Madhusudan; Nicholson, Don M.; Egami, Takeshi
2013-03-01
The Cu-Zr system provides interesting playground for the study of glass structure, stability, and formability and liquid dynamics. Glasses form over a wide range of concentrations while they compete against various intermetallic compounds. We have calculated from first-principles the atomic level stresses, a new tool to characterize materials, within the local approximation to Density Functional Theory (DFT) for Cu-Zr glasses and compounds from low temperature to 4500K. Comparisons between ordered crystalline compounds and liquids and glasses allow us to relate atomic level stress to relaxation of chemical short-range order and structural relaxation. The results are counter-intuitive at times; a smaller atom is under higher compressive pressure, whereas geometrically they should be under tension. Ab-initio calculations were done using Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) and Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) codes. The work at the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.
Electronic and optical properties of K-doped ZnO: Ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aimouch, D. E.; Meskine, S.; Hayn, R.; Zaoui, A.; Boukortt, A.
2016-08-01
We present the results of ab initio calculations of K-doped ZnO in the wurtzite structure using a supercell of 32 atoms and density functional theory. A complete analysis of its electronic, optical and magnetic properties is provided. The local spin density approximation (LSDA) has been used to analyze the density of states and to understand the K influence at different concentration values. The material is revealed to become a p-type doped semiconductor. The optical constant or refractive index, the dielectric function, and the absorption coefficient were determined and show a good agreement with available experimental data. Potassium doping leads to an absorption peak at about 380 nm. That peak might improve the absorption characteristics of ZnO for solar cell or optical applications.
Ab initio quantum chemical study of electron transfer in carboranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pati, Ranjit; Pineda, Andrew C.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.
2005-05-01
The electron transfer (ET) properties of 10- and 12-vertex carboranes are investigated by the ab initio Hartree-Fock method within the Marcus-Hush (MH) two-state model and the Koopman theorem (KT) approach. The calculated value of the ET coupling matrix element, VAB, is consistently higher in the KT approach than in the MH two-state model. For the carborane molecules functionalized by -CH 2 groups at C-vertices, VAB strongly depends on the relative orientation of the planes containing the terminal -CH 2 groups. The predicted conformation dependence of VAB offers a molecular mechanism to control ET between two active centers in molecular systems.
Ab-Initio Shell Model with a Core
Lisetskiy, A F; Barrett, B R; Kruse, M; Navratil, P; Stetcu, I; Vary, J P
2008-06-04
We construct effective 2- and 3-body Hamiltonians for the p-shell by performing 12{h_bar}{Omega} ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations for A=6 and 7 nuclei and explicitly projecting the many-body Hamiltonians onto the 0{h_bar}{Omega} space. We then separate these effective Hamiltonians into 0-, 1- and 2-body contributions (also 3-body for A=7) and analyze the systematic behavior of these different parts as a function of the mass number A and size of the NCSM basis space. The role of effective 3- and higher-body interactions for A > 6 is investigated and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, John W.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Daw, Murray
2011-01-01
Refractory materials such as metallic borides, often considered as ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC), are characterized by high melting point, high hardness, and good chemical inertness. These materials have many applications which require high temperature materials that can operate with no or limited oxidation. Ab initio, first principles methods are the most accurate modeling approaches available and represent a parameter free description of the material based on the quantum mechanical equations. Using these methods, many of the intrinsic properties of these material can be obtained. We performed ab initio calculations based on density functional theory for the UHTC materials ZrB2 and HfB2. Computational results are presented for structural information (lattice constants, bond lengths, etc), electronic structure (bonding motifs, densities of states, band structure, etc), thermal quantities (phonon spectra, phonon densities of states, specific heat), as well as information about point defects such as vacancy and antisite formation energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Y.; Yan, M. F.
2013-05-01
C and N atoms are the most frequent foreign interstitial atoms (FIAs), and often incorporated into the surface layers of steels to enhance their properties by thermochemical treatments. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb and Mo are the most common alloying elements in steels, also can be called foreign substitutional atoms (FSAs). The FIA and FSA interactions play an important role in the diffusion of C and N atoms, and the microstructures and mechanical properties of surface modified layers. Ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory are carried out to investigate FIA interactions with FSA in ferromagnetic bcc iron. The FIA-FSA interactions are analyzed systematically from five aspects, including interaction energies, density of states (DOS), bond populations, electron density difference maps and local magnetic moments.
Ab-initio calculations of electronic, transport, and structural properties of boron phosphide
Ejembi, J. I.; Nwigboji, I. H.; Franklin, L.; Malozovsky, Y.; Zhao, G. L.; Bagayoko, D.
2014-09-14
We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory calculations of electronic and related properties of zinc blende boron phosphide (zb-BP). We employed a local density approximation potential and implemented the linear combination of atomic orbitals formalism. This technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin. The results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. The calculated band gap of 2.02 eV, for the room temperature lattice constant of a=4.5383 Å, is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 2.02±0.05 eV. Our result for the bulk modulus, 155.7 GPa, agrees with experiment (152–155 GPa). Our predictions for the equilibrium lattice constant and the corresponding band gap, for very low temperatures, are 4.5269 Å and 2.01 eV, respectively.
Vitos, L.; Kollar, J.; Skriver, H.L.
1997-02-01
We have used a full charge-density technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method in first-principles calculations of the atomic volumes of the light actinides including Fr, Ra, and Ac in their low-temperature crystallographic phases. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental values along the series support the picture of itinerant 5f electronic states in Th to Pu. The increased deviation between theory and experiment found in Np and Pu may be an indication of correlation effects not included in the local density approximation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Communication: Improved ab initio molecular dynamics by minimally biasing with experimental data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Andrew D.; Knight, Chris; Hocky, Glen M.; Voth, Gregory A.
2017-01-01
Accounting for electrons and nuclei simultaneously is a powerful capability of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). However, AIMD is often unable to accurately reproduce properties of systems such as water due to inaccuracies in the underlying electronic density functionals. This shortcoming is often addressed by added empirical corrections and/or increasing the simulation temperature. We present here a maximum-entropy approach to directly incorporate limited experimental data via a minimal bias. Biased AIMD simulations of water and an excess proton in water are shown to give significantly improved properties both for observables which were biased to match experimental data and for unbiased observables. This approach also yields new physical insight into inaccuracies in the underlying density functional theory as utilized in the unbiased AIMD.
Aruguete, Deborah A.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Li, Liang-shi; Williamson, Andrew; Fakra, Sirine; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2006-01-27
We report orientation-specific, surface-sensitive structural characterization of colloidal CdSe nanorods with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional theory calculations. Our measurements of crystallographically-aligned CdSe nanorods show that they have reconstructed Cd-rich surfaces. They exhibit orientation-dependent changes in interatomic distances which are qualitatively reproduced by our calculations. These calculations reveal that the measured interatomic distance anisotropy originates from the nanorod surface.
Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung
2014-09-01
A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ{sub 1} and ϕ{sub 2}) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ{sub DS} list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ{sub am} from ϕ{sub 1} or ϕ{sub 2} of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ{sub SAD} has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ{sub DS} in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ{sub DS} is the angle between the initial phase ϕ{sub SAD} and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ{sub DM}{sup NHL}. The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.
Voltage and capacity control of polyaniline based organic cathodes: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yingqian; Manzhos, Sergei
2016-12-01
Polyaniline (PANI) is a promising organic cathode material for electrochemical batteries. Its specific capacity is limited by irreversible formation of pernigraniline base, and its energy density is limited by the voltage which could be improved. We present an ab initio study of PANI and PANI functionalized with functional groups which lead to increased voltage and stabilization of the pernigraniline salt. Specifically, the oxidation potential achieved by functionalization with CN on the nitrogen is computed to be 1.3 V higher than that of pristine PANI oligomer, leading to a higher voltage, and the formation of the pernigraniline base is predicted to be simultaneously suppressed, leading to a higher reversible capacity. Therefore, functionalized PANI could be a promising candidate organic cathode for Li-ion batteries.
Halasyamani, Shiv; Fennie, Craig
2016-11-03
We have focused on the synthesis, characterization, and ab initio theory on multi-functional mixed-metal fluorides. With funding from the DOE, we have successfully synthesized and characterized a variety of mixed metal fluoride materials.
Global exploration of the energy landscape of solids on the ab initio level.
Doll, K; Schön, J C; Jansen, M
2007-12-14
Predicting which crystalline modifications can be present in a chemical system requires the global exploration of its energy landscape. Due to the large computational effort involved, in the past this search for sufficiently stable minima has been performed employing a variety of empirical potentials and cost functions followed by a local optimization on the ab initio level. However, this entails the risk of overlooking important modifications that are not modeled accurately using empirical potentials. In order to overcome this critical limitation, we develop an approach to employ ab initio energy functions during the global optimization phase of the structure prediction. As an example, we perform a global exploration of the landscape of LiF on the ab initio level and show that the relevant crystalline modifications are found during the search.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meisel, David D.; Szasz, Csilla; Kero, Johan
2008-06-01
The Arecibo UHF radar is able to detect the head-echos of micron-sized meteoroids up to velocities of 75 km/s over a height range of 80 140 km. Because of their small size there are many uncertainties involved in calculating their above atmosphere properties as needed for orbit determination. An ab initio model of meteor ablation has been devised that should work over the mass range 10-16 kg to 10-7 kg, but the faint end of this range cannot be observed by any other method and so direct verification is not possible. On the other hand, the EISCAT UHF radar system detects micrometeors in the high mass part of this range and its observations can be fit to a “standard” ablation model and calibrated to optical observations (Szasz et al. 2007). In this paper, we present a preliminary comparison of the two models, one observationally confirmable. Among the features of the ab initio model that are different from the “standard” model are: (1) uses the experimentally based low pressure vaporization theory of O’Hanlon (A users’s guide to vacuum technology, 2003) for ablation, (2) uses velocity dependent functions fit from experimental data on heat transfer, luminosity and ionization efficiencies measured by Friichtenicht and Becker (NASA Special Publication 319: 53, 1973) for micron sized particles, (3) assumes a density and temperature dependence of the micrometeoroids and ablation product specific heats, (4) assumes a density and size dependent value for the thermal emissivity and (5) uses a unified synthesis of experimental data for the most important meteoroid elements and their oxides through least square fits (as functions of temperature, density, and/or melting point) of the tables of thermodynamic parameters given in Weast (CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, 1984), Gray (American Institute of Physics Handbook, 1972), and Cox (Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities 2000). This utilization of mostly experimentally determined data is the main reason for
Molecular associations from ab initio pair potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, E.; Sordo, T. L.; Sordo, J. A.
1991-12-01
A method of building up stable molecular associations by using pair potentials from ab initio calculations is presented. The Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine potential has been chosen to emulate the water-water interactions while 1-6-12 potentials are used to compute both solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. Parameters for neutral-amino-acid-water and neutral- amino-acid-neutral-amino-acid interactions are provided by the program. Supermolecules are constructed by minimization of the interaction energy of the molecules involved. Both steepest-decent and Fletcher-Powell algorithms are available to carry out such a minimization.
Ab-initio phasing in protein crystallography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Plas, J. L.; Millane, Rick P.
2000-11-01
The central problem in the determination of protein structures form x-ray diffraction dada (x-ray crystallography) corresponds to a phase retrieval problem with undersampled amplitude data. Algorithms for this problem that have an increased radius of convergence have the potential for reducing the amount of experimental work, and cost, involved in determining protein structures. We describe such an algorithm. Application of the algorithm to a simulated crystallographic problem shows that it converges to the correct solution, with no initial phase information, where currently used algorithms fail. The results lend support to the possibility of ab initio phasing in protein crystallography.
Ab-initio Studies Of Lithium Oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, M. K.; Goel, Prabhatasree; Mittal, R.; Chaplot, S. L.
2010-12-01
Lithium oxide is an important material because of its high thermal conductivity and superionic behavior at high temperature. It behaves like a superionic conductor above 1200 K. Phonon frequencies have been calculated using ab-initio method. The calculations of phonon dispersion relation near unit cell volume corresponding to the superionic transition indicate softening of zone boundary transverse acoustic phonon mode along (110). The instability of phonon mode could lead to the dynamical disorder of lithium sub lattice. Thermal expansion and equation of states are also computed. The results compare well with our previous semi-empirical potential calculations.
Dynamic decomposition of aliphatic molecules on Al(111) from ab initio molecular dynamics
Zhong Jun; Hector, Louis G. Jr.; Adams, James B.
2009-03-15
Ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation was used to explore decomposition on Al(111) of butanol-alcohol and butanoic-acid, two important boundary additives in Al processing. Each molecule was oriented with its functional group closest to the surface and then given an initial velocity toward the surface. Decomposition occurred upon collision with Al(111) resulting in the formation of adhered fragments that represent the very initial stages in additive film formation during plastic deformation where nascent Al is liberated. Bonding interactions over the simulation time frames were explored with contours of the electron localization function. Results of the simulations were compared with existing experimental studies of chemical decomposition on clean Al surfaces and found to be in qualitative accord. The effects of other initial molecular orientations on decomposition were explored in ancillary calculations where the molecules were rotated through 90 deg. and 180 deg. prior to collision with Al(111)
Magnetic properties of vanadium doped CdTe: Ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goumrhar, F.; Bahmad, L.; Mounkachi, O.; Benyoussef, A.
2017-04-01
In this paper, we are applying the ab initio calculations to study the magnetic properties of vanadium doped CdTe. This study is based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method (KKR) combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), within the local density approximation (LDA). This method is called KKR-CPA-LDA. We have calculated and plotted the density of states (DOS) in the energy diagram for different concentrations of dopants. We have also investigated the magnetic and half-metallic properties of this compound and shown the mechanism of exchange interaction. Moreover, we have estimated the Curie temperature Tc for different concentrations. Finally, we have shown how the crystal field and the exchange splittings vary as a function of the concentrations.
Ab initio study of nitrogen-multisubstituted neutral and positively charged C{sub 20} fullerene
Rani, Anita; Kumar, Ranjan
2014-04-24
Ab initio investigation of structural and electronic properties of Nitrogen doped fullerenes, obtained from C{sub 20} by replacing up to 10 C atoms with N atoms, are studied by means of first principals density functional theory calculations using numerical orbitals as basis sets. We have obtained the ground state structures for C{sub 20−n}N{sub n} for n=1-10. While substituting nitrogen atoms, we cannot substitute more than 9 nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen doping in C20 shows a significant change in density of states. For a better comparison with experimental measurements, we have also considered some positively charged ions and report the differences between properties of these ions and the corresponding neutral molecules.
High-pressure elastic properties of cubic Ir2P from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Fu, Zhi-Jian; Wei, Xiao-Ping; Song, Ting; Li, Zheng-Wei
2016-10-01
A study of the high-pressure elastic properties of new synthetic Ir2P in the anti-fluorite structure is conducted using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The elastic constants C11, C12 and C44 for the cubic Ir2P are obtained by the stress-strain method and the elastic stability calculations under pressure indicate that it is stable at least 100 GPa. Additionally, the electronic density of states, the aggregate elastic moduli, that is bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus along with the Debye temperature, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy factor are all successfully obtained. Moreover, the pressure dependence of the longitudinal and shear wave velocities in three different directions [100], [110], and [111] for Ir2P are also predicted for the first time.
Pressure-induced semimetallic behavior of calcium from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnitskaya, M. V.; Matsko, N. L.; Baturin, V. S.; Uspenskii, Yu A.
2014-05-01
A loss of metallic properties in fcc calcium under high pressure is studied ab initio using the density functional theory (DFT) and GW approximation. It is found that a more correct description of many-electron effects given by GW method does not provide significant changes in the behavior of electronic spectrum in comparison with DFT approach. We note that the obtained width of (pseudo)gap is highly sensitive to the k-point sampling used for density of states calculation. The analysis of fcc calcium's band structure at p ~ 20 GPa shows that the crossing of bands at the Fermi level is removed if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account.
Ab initio study of pressure induced structural and electronic properties in TmPo
Makode, Chandrabhan Pataiya, Jagdish; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Panwar, Y. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra
2015-06-24
We report an ab initio calculation of pressure induced structural phase transition and electronic properties of Thulium Polonide (TmPo).The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that TmPo is stable in NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-phase) structure of this compound in the pressure range of 7.0 GPa. We also calculate the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure and density of states. From energy diagram it is observed that TmPo exhibit metallic behavior. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus are in general good agreement.
Huang, Ying; Chen, Shi-Yi; Deng, Feilong
2016-01-01
In silico analysis of DNA sequences is an important area of computational biology in the post-genomic era. Over the past two decades, computational approaches for ab initio prediction of gene structure from genome sequence alone have largely facilitated our understanding on a variety of biological questions. Although the computational prediction of protein-coding genes has already been well-established, we are also facing challenges to robustly find the non-coding RNA genes, such as miRNA and lncRNA. Two main aspects of ab initio gene prediction include the computed values for describing sequence features and used algorithm for training the discriminant function, and by which different combinations are employed into various bioinformatic tools. Herein, we briefly review these well-characterized sequence features in eukaryote genomes and applications to ab initio gene prediction. The main purpose of this article is to provide an overview to beginners who aim to develop the related bioinformatic tools.
Classical and ab-initio molecular dynamic simulation of an amorphous silica surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mischler, C.; Kob, W.; Binder, K.
2002-08-01
We present the results of a classical molecular dynamic simulation as well as of an ab-initio molecular dynamic simulation of an amorphous silica surface. In the case of the classical simulation we use the potential proposed by van Beest et al. (BKS) whereas the ab-initio simulation is done with a Car-Parrinello method (CPMD). We find that the surfaces generated by BKS have a higher concentration of defects (e.g., concentration of two-membered rings) than those generated with CPMD. In addition also the distribution functions of the angles and of the distances are different for the short rings. Hence we conclude that whereas the BKS potential is able to correctly reproduce the surface on the length scale beyond ≈5 Å, it is necessary to use an ab-initio method to reliably predict the structure at small scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Niravkumar D.; Nocera, Alberto; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Arita, Ryotaro; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio
2016-08-01
The recent discovery of superconductivity under high pressure in the two-leg ladder compound BaFe2S3 [H. Takahashi et al., Nat. Mater. 14, 1008 (2015), 10.1038/nmat4351] opens a broad avenue of research, because it represents the first report of pairing tendencies in a quasi-one-dimensional iron-based high-critical-temperature superconductor. Similarly, as in the case of the cuprates, ladders and chains can be far more accurately studied using many-body techniques and model Hamiltonians than their layered counterparts, particularly if several orbitals are active. In this publication, we derive a two-orbital Hubbard model from first principles that describes individual ladders of BaFe2S3 . The model is studied with the density matrix renormalization group. These first reported results are exciting for two reasons: (i) at half-filling, ferromagnetic order emerges as the dominant magnetic pattern along the rungs of the ladder, and antiferromagnetic order along the legs, in excellent agreement with neutron experiments; and (ii) with hole doping, pairs form in the strong coupling regime, as found by studying the binding energy of two holes doped on the half-filled system. In addition, orbital selective Mott phase characteristics develop with doping, with only one Wannier orbital receiving the hole carriers while the other remains half-filled. These results suggest that the analysis of models for iron-based two-leg ladders could clarify the origin of pairing tendencies and other exotic properties of iron-based high-critical-temperature superconductors in general.
Patel, Niravkumar D.; Nocera, Alberto; Alvarez, Gonzalo; ...
2016-08-10
The recent discovery of superconductivity under high pressure in the two-leg ladder compound BaFe2S3 [H. Takahashi et al., Nat. Mater. 14, 1008 (2015)] opens a broad avenue of research, because it represents the first report of pairing tendencies in a quasi-one-dimensional iron-based high-critical-temperature superconductor. Similarly, as in the case of the cuprates, ladders and chains can be far more accurately studied using many-body techniques and model Hamiltonians than their layered counterparts, particularly if several orbitals are active. In this publication, we derive a two-orbital Hubbard model from first principles that describes individual ladders of BaFe2S3. The model is studied withmore » the density matrix renormalization group. These first reported results are exciting for two reasons: (i) at half-filling, ferromagnetic order emerges as the dominant magnetic pattern along the rungs of the ladder, and antiferromagnetic order along the legs, in excellent agreement with neutron experiments; and (ii) with hole doping, pairs form in the strong coupling regime, as found by studying the binding energy of two holes doped on the half-filled system. In addition, orbital selective Mott phase characteristics develop with doping, with only oneWannier orbital receiving the hole carriers while the other remains half-filled. Lastly, these results suggest that the analysis of models for iron-based two-leg ladders could clarify the origin of pairing tendencies and other exotic properties of iron-based high-critical-temperature superconductors in general.« less
Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework
Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr
2013-09-26
In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to amore » 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core (4He) polarization effects.« less
Implementation of renormalized excitonic method at ab initio level.
Zhang, Hongjiang; Malrieu, Jean-Paul; Ma, Haibo; Ma, Jing
2012-01-05
The renormalized excitonic method [Hajj et al., Phys Rev B 2005, 72, 224412], in which the excited state of the whole system may be described as a linear combination of local excitations, has been implemented at ab initio level. Its performance is tested on the ionization potential and the energy gap between singlet ground state and lowest triplet for linear molecular hydrogen chains and more realistic systems, such as polyenes and polysilenes, using full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions with a minimal basis set. The influence of different block sizes and the extent of interblock interactions are investigated. It has been demonstrated that satisfactory results can be obtained if the near degeneracies between the model space and the outer space are avoided and if interactions between the next-nearest neighbor blocks are considered. The method can be used with larger basis sets and other accurate enough ab initio evaluations (instead of FCI) of local excited states, from blocks, or from dimers or trimers of blocks. It provides a new possibility to accurately and economically describe the low-lying delocalized excited states of large systems, even inhomogeneous ones.
Fellinger, Michael R; Hector, Louis G; Trinkle, Dallas R
2017-02-01
We present computed datasets on changes in the lattice parameter and elastic stiffness coefficients of bcc Fe due to substitutional Al, B, Cu, Mn, and Si solutes, and octahedral interstitial C and N solutes. The data is calculated using the methodology based on density functional theory (DFT) presented in Ref. (M.R. Fellinger, L.G. Hector Jr., D.R. Trinkle, 2017) [1]. All the DFT calculations were performed using the Vienna Ab initio Simulations Package (VASP) (G. Kresse, J. Furthmüller, 1996) [2]. The data is stored in the NIST dSpace repository (http://hdl.handle.net/11256/671).
Ab initio based polarizable force field parametrization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masia, Marco
2008-05-01
Experimental and simulation studies of anion-water systems have pointed out the importance of molecular polarization for many phenomena ranging from hydrogen-bond dynamics to water interfaces structure. The study of such systems at molecular level is usually made with classical molecular dynamics simulations. Structural and dynamical features are deeply influenced by molecular and ionic polarizability, which parametrization in classical force field has been an object of long-standing efforts. Although when classical models are compared to ab initio calculations at condensed phase, it is found that the water dipole moments are underestimated by ˜30%, while the anion shows an overpolarization at short distances. A model for chloride-water polarizable interaction is parametrized here, making use of Car-Parrinello simulations at condensed phase. The results hint to an innovative approach in polarizable force fields development, based on ab initio simulations, which do not suffer for the mentioned drawbacks. The method is general and can be applied to the modeling of different systems ranging from biomolecular to solid state simulations.
Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.
2014-12-07
Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.
Bâldea, Ioan
2017-03-23
Recent advances in nano/molecular electronics and electrochemistry made it possible to continuously tune the fractional charge q of single molecules and to use vibrational spectroscopic methods to monitor such changes. Approaches to compute vibrational frequencies ω(q) of fractionally charged species based on the density functional theory (DFT) are faced with an important issue: the basic quantity used in these calculations, the total energy, should exhibit piecewise linearity with respect to the fractional charge, but approximate, commonly utilized exchange correlation functionals do not obey this condition. In this paper, with the aid of a simple and representative example, we benchmark results for ω(q) obtained within the DFT against ab initio methods, namely, coupled cluster singles and doubles and also second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation) expansions. These results indicate that, in spite of missing the aforementioned piecewise linearity, DFT-based values ω(q) can reasonably be trusted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro
2017-01-01
We propose an ab initio molecular dynamics method, capable of dramatically reducing the autocorrelation time required for the simulation of classical and quantum particles at finite temperatures. The method is based on an efficient implementation of a first order Langevin dynamics modified by means of a suitable, position dependent acceleration matrix S . Here, we apply this technique to both Lennard-Jones models, to demonstrate the accuracy and speeding-up of the sampling, and within a quantum Monte Carlo based wave function approach, for determining the phase diagram of high-pressure hydrogen with simulations much longer than the autocorrelation time. With the proposed method, we are able to equilibrate in a few hundred steps even close to the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLT). Within our approach, we find that the LLT transition is consistent with recent density functionals predicting a much larger transition pressure when the long range dispersive forces are taken into account.
Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.
Ab initio study of the phononic origin of negative thermal expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argaman, Uri; Eidelstein, Eitan; Levy, Ohad; Makov, Guy
2016-11-01
Negative thermal expansion is an uncommon phenomenon of theoretical interest. Multiple hypotheses regarding its microscopic origins have been suggested. In this paper, the thermal expansion of a representative semiconductor, Si, and a representative metal, Ti, are calculated ab initio using density-functional perturbation theory. The phonon modes' contributions to the thermal expansion are analyzed and the negative thermal expansion is shown to be dominated by negative mode Grüneisen parameters at specific points on the Brillouin zone boundaries. Thus, the elastic (Debye) theory for negative thermal expansion is shown to be irrelevant for these phenomena. The anomalous behavior of these modes in Ti is shown to be unaffected by an electronic topological transition as previously suggested, instead it arises from complex interplay of atomic displacements of the anomalous mode.
Ab initio study of intrinsic, H and He point defects in hcp-Er
Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Zu, Xiaotao T.
2010-03-01
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to determine the properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), vacancies, and single H and He atoms in hcp-Er. The results show that the most stable configuration for an SIA is a basal octahedral (BO) configuration, while the octahedral (O), basal split (BS) and crowdion (C) interstitial configurations are less stable, followed by the split <0001> dumbbell and tetrahedral configurations. For both H and He defects, the formation energy of an interstitial atom is less than that of a substitutional atom in hcp-Er. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more stable than an octahedral position for both He and H interstitials. The hybridization of the He and H defects with Er atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of these defects in hcp-Er.
Ab initio determination of effective electron-phonon coupling factor in copper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-04-01
The electron temperature Te dependent electron density of states g (ε), Fermi-Dirac distribution f (ε), and electron-phonon spectral function α2 F (Ω) are computed as prerequisites before achieving effective electron-phonon coupling factor Ge-ph. The obtained Ge-ph is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature model (TTM) coupled simulation of femtosecond laser heating. By monitoring temperature evolutions of electron and lattice subsystems, the result utilizing Ge-ph from ab initio calculation shows a faster decrease of Te and increase of Tl than those using Ge-ph from phenomenological treatment. The approach of calculating Ge-ph and its implementation into MD-TTM simulation is applicable to other metals.
Ab Initio Atomic Simulations of Antisite Pair Recovery in Cubic Silicon Carbide
Gao, Fei; Du, Jincheng; Bylaska, Eric J.; Posselt, Matthias; Weber, William J.
2007-05-28
The thermal stability of an antisite pair in 3C-SiC is studied using ab initio molecular dynamics within the framework of density functional theory. The lifetime of the antisite pair configuration is calculated for temperatures between 1800 and 2250 K, and the effective activation energy for antisite pair recombination is determined to be 2.52 eV. The recombination energy path and static energy barrier are also calculated using the nudged elastic band method, along with the dimer method to accurately locate the transition states. The consistency of the results suggests that the antisite pair cannot be correlated with the DI photoluminescence center, as proposed by previously theoretical interpretations. An extended exchange mechanism is found for the antisite pair recombination, and this may be a dominant mechanism for antisite pair recombination and diffusion of impurities in compound semiconductors.
Ab initio investigation of the sum-frequency hyperpolarizability of small chiral molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champagne, Benoı̂t; Fischer, Peer; Buckingham, A. David
2000-11-01
Using a sum-over-states procedure based on configuration interaction singles /6-311++G **, we have computed the sum-frequency hyperpolarizability βijk(-3 ω;2 ω, ω) of two small chiral molecules, R-monofluoro-oxirane and R-(+)-propylene oxide. Excitation energies were scaled to fit experimental UV-absorption data and checked with ab initio values from time-dependent density functional theory. The isotropic part of the computed hyperpolarizabilities, β¯(-3ω;2ω,ω) , is much smaller than that reported previously from sum-frequency generation experiments on aqueous solutions of arabinose. Comparison is made with a single-centre chiral model.
Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study
Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2014-05-15
A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study on the excitation dynamics of psoralen compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakai, H.; Yamauchi, Y.; Nakata, A.; Baba, T.; Takahashi, H.
2003-08-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations are performed for studying the S0→T1 excitation dynamics of psoralen compounds; namely, nonsubstituted psoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/D95V level are used for evaluating the atomic forces in every AIMD step. The specific behavior of 8-MOP in the T1 state, which has been reported by the experimental study, is found to be due to a unique open-ring structure, which leads to a different spin distribution in comparison with the cases of psoralen and 5-MOP and further to a crossing between the S0 and T1 states.
An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics
Nakamura, Makoto Obata, Masao; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki
2014-05-14
We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.
An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Makoto; Obata, Masao; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki
2014-05-01
We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.
Ab-initio Study of the Diffusion Mechanisms of Gallium in a Silicon Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levasseur-Smith, Kevin; Mousseau, Normand
2007-03-01
We present the results of a study into the diffusion mechanisms of Ga defects in crystalline Si. The dominant neutral configurations for single and multi-atom defects are established by ab-initio calculations using the density functional theory in the LDA approximation, with a LCAO basis as implemented in the SIESTA package. We find formation energies of 0.7 eV and 2.9 eV, respectively, for the substitutional and tetrahedral interstitial defects, while the diatomic substitutional-tetrahedral complex has a formation energy of 2.2 eV. Subsequent calculations using this same DFT package in conjunction with the activation relaxation technique (ART nouveau) allow us to determine possible diffusion pathways as well as their corresponding saddle points and energy barriers.
The ideal strength of gold under uniaxial stress: an ab initio study.
Wang, Hao; Li, Mo
2010-07-28
We employ an ab initio calculation based on density functional theory to investigate the ideal strength of face-centered cubic crystal Au under uniaxial stress along the [100] direction. We show that the stability of the perfect Au crystal under tensile stress is determined by the tetragonal shear stiffness modulus, with an ideal tensile strength of 4.2 GPa and the corresponding Lagrangian tensile strain of ∼ 0.07. The potential bifurcation from the primary uniaxial loading path is along the tetragonal shear. Under compressive stress, there is a stress-free body-centered cubic phase, which is unstable and ready to transform to a stress-free body-centered tetragonal phase with lower internal energy. The stable region is from - 1.6 to 4.2 GPa in the ideal strength, or from - 0.07 to 0.07 in the Lagrangian strain.
Ab initio study of structural and mechanical property of solid molecular hydrogens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Yingting; Yang, Li; Yang, Tianle; Nie, Jinlan; Peng, Shuming; Long, Xinggui; Zu, Xiaotao; Du, Jincheng
2015-06-01
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to investigate the structural and the elastic properties of solid molecular hydrogens (H2). The influence of molecular axes of H2 on structural relative stabilities of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and face-centered cubic (fcc) structured hydrogen molecular crystals were systematically investigated. Our results indicate that for hcp structures, disordered hydrogen molecule structure is more stable, while for fcc structures, Pa3 hydrogen molecular crystal is most stable. The cohesive energy of fcc H2 crystal was found to be lower than hcp. The mechanical properties of fcc and hcp hydrogen molecular crystals were obtained, with results consistent with previous theoretical calculations. In addition, the effects of zero point energy (ZPE) and van der Waals (vdW) correction on the cohesive energy and the stability of hydrogen molecular crystals were systematically studied and discussed.
Ab initio molecular dynamics and quasichemical study of H+(aq)
Asthagiri, D.; Pratt, L. R.; Kress, J. D.
2005-01-01
The excess proton in water, H+(aq), plays a fundamental role in aqueous solution chemistry. Its solution thermodynamic properties are essential to molecular descriptions of that chemistry and for validation of dynamical calculations. Within the quasichemical theory of solutions those thermodynamic properties are conditional on recognizing underlying solution structures. The quasichemical treatment identifies H3O+ and H2O5+ as natural inner-shell complexes, corresponding to the cases of n = 1, 2 water molecule ligands, respectively, of a distinguished H+ ion. A quantum-mechanical treatment of the inner-shell complex with both a dielectric continuum and a classical molecular dynamics treatment of the outer-shell contribution identifies the latter case (the Zundel complex) as the more numerous species. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, with two different electron density functionals, suggest a preponderance of Zundel-like structures, but a symmetrical ideal Zundel cation is not observed. PMID:15831590
Possible efficient p-type doping of AlN using Be: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, R. Q.; Shen, L.; Yang, M.; Sha, Z. D.; Cai, Y. Q.; Feng, Y. P.; Huang, Z. G.; Wu, Q. Y.
2007-10-01
Spin density functional theory based ab initio study is carried out to investigate the feasibility of fabricating p-type AlN using Be as an efficient dopant. It is found that substitutional BeAl is an acceptor with an activation energy of 0.34eV. To overcome the low solubility of direct incorporation of Be into AlN and self-compensation from Be interstitials, we propose a hydrogen-assisted growth scheme which improves the solubility and suppresses interstitials. Oxygen is also found to be an effective codopant to activate Be in AlN. Our results suggest the possibility of improving p-type conductivity of AlN by Be doping.
An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics.
Nakamura, Makoto; Obata, Masao; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki
2014-05-14
We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Sato, Shunsuke A.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro
2014-08-01
We theoretically investigate the generation of ultrafast currents in insulators induced by strong few-cycle laser pulses. Ab initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory give insight into the atomic-scale properties of the induced current signifying a femtosecond-scale insulator-metal transition. We observe the transition from nonlinear polarization currents during the laser pulse at low intensities to tunnelinglike excitation into the conduction band at higher laser intensities. At high intensities, the current persists after the conclusion of the laser pulse considered to be the precursor of the dielectric breakdown on the femtosecond scale. We show that the transferred charge sensitively depends on the orientation of the polarization axis relative to the crystal axis, suggesting that the induced charge separation reflects the anisotropic electronic structure. We find good agreement with very recent experimental data on the intensity and carrier-envelope phase dependence [A. Schiffrin et al., Nature (London) 493, 70 (2013)].
Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A
2014-03-28
The density functional theory (DFT)+U method is an efficient and effective way to calculate the ground-state properties of strongly correlated transition metal compounds, with the effective U parameters typically determined empirically. Two ab initio methods have been developed to compute the U parameter based on either constrained DFT (CDFT) or unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) theory. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of both methods in typical open-shell materials such as FeO and NiO. In this Communication we report numerical instability issues that arise for the CDFT method when applied to closed-shell transition metals, by using ZnO and Cu2O as examples. By contrast, the UHF method behaves much more robustly for both closed- and open-shell materials, making it more suitable for treating closed-shell transition metals, as well as main group elements.
Trendafilova, N; Bauer, G; Georgieva, I; Tosheva, T; Varbanov, S
2003-01-01
Vibrational study of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes of functionalized nitrogen-containing tertiary phosphine oxides, namely ortho-, meta- and para-dimethylphosphinylmethyleneoxyaniline (o-, m- and p-dpmoa), (CH3)2P(O)CH2OC6H4NH2, have been presented. Geometry optimization of the ligands was performed at HF/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* levels of the theory. Harmonic frequencies were calculated at HF/6-31G* optimized geometries. Relative gas-phase and solution-phase (H2O and CH3CN) basicities of o-, m- and p-dpmoa ligands have been determined by ab initio calculations at STO-3G level with the Onsager reaction field model. On the basis of the vibrational study, physical and analytical data it was suggested that the ligands in the complexes studied coordinate through the amino group and form square-planar platinum and palladium complexes of the general formula ML2Cl2 (M = Pt, Pd, L = o-, m- and p-dpmoa).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trendafilova, N.; Bauer, G.; Georgieva, I.; Tosheva, T.; Varbanov, S.
2003-01-01
Vibrational study of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes of functionalized nitrogen-containing tertiary phosphine oxides, namely ortho-, meta- and para-dimethylphosphinylmethyleneoxyaniline ( o-, m- and p-dpmoa), (CH 3) 2P(O)CH 2OC 6H 4NH 2, have been presented. Geometry optimization of the ligands was performed at HF/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* levels of the theory. Harmonic frequencies were calculated at HF/6-31G* optimized geometries. Relative gas-phase and solution-phase (H 2O and CH 3CN) basicities of o-, m- and p-dpmoa ligands have been determined by ab initio calculations at STO-3G level with the Onsager reaction field model. On the basis of the vibrational study, physical and analytical data it was suggested that the ligands in the complexes studied coordinate through the amino group and form square-planar platinum and palladium complexes of the general formula ML 2Cl 2 (M=Pt, Pd, L= o-, m- and p-dpmoa).
Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M; Chow, Wan-Ki; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel K W
2007-07-15
Reaction enthalpies and barrier heights of the reactions CF3Br+H-->CF3+HBr {reaction (1)} and CF3CHFCF3+H-->CF3CFCF3+H2 {reaction (2)} have been calculated at the near state-of-the-art ab initio level, and also by employing the B3LYP, BH&HLYP, BB1K, MPW1K, MPWB1K and TPSS1KCIS functionals. In addition, the integrated molecular orbital+molecular orbital (IMOMO) method has been used to study reaction (2). The ab initio benchmark values of the reaction enthalpy (298 K) and barrier height (0 K) of reaction (2) are reported for the first time {-(0.7+/-0.7) and 13.3+/-0.5 kcal/mole respectively}. When density functional theory (DFT) results are compared with ab initio benchmarks for both reactions (1) and (2), the MPWB1K functional is found to have the best performance of the six functionals used. The IMOMO method with the RCCSD/aug-cc-pVTZ and/or RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels, as the high levels of calculation on the model system, gives reaction enthalpies and barrier heights of reaction (2), which agree with ab initio benchmark values to within 1 kcal/mole. Computed key geometrical parameters and imaginary vibrational frequencies of the transition state structures of reactions (1) and (2) obtained at different levels of calculation are compared. The magnitudes of the computed imaginary vibrational frequencies of the transition states of both reactions considered are found to be very sensitive to the levels of calculation used to obtain them. The heat of formation (298 K) of CF3CFCF3 calculated at the near state-of-the-art level has a value of -(318+/-3) kcal/mole.
Ludwig, Jeffery; Vlachos, Dionisios G
2007-10-21
We outline a hybrid multiscale approach for the construction of ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) useful for performing six-dimensional (6D) classical or quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of diatomic molecules reacting at single crystal surfaces. The algorithm implements concepts from the corrugation reduction procedure, which reduces energetic variation in the PES, and uses neural networks for interpolation of smoothed ab initio data. A novelty sampling scheme is implemented and used to identify configurations that are most likely to be predicted inaccurately by the neural network. This hybrid multiscale approach, which couples PES construction at the electronic structure level to MD simulations at the atomistic scale, reduces the number of density functional theory (DFT) calculations needed to specify an accurate PES. Due to the iterative nature of the novelty sampling algorithm, it is possible to obtain a quantitative measure of the convergence of the PES with respect to the number of ab initio calculations used to train the neural network. We demonstrate the algorithm by first applying it to two analytic potentials, which model the H2/Pt(111) and H2/Cu(111) systems. These potentials are of the corrugated London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato form, which are based on DFT calculations, but are not globally accurate. After demonstrating the convergence of the PES using these simple potentials, we use DFT calculations directly and obtain converged semiclassical trajectories for the H2/Pt(111) system at the PW91/generalized gradient approximation level. We obtain a converged PES for a 6D hydrogen-surface dissociation reaction using novelty sampling coupled directly to DFT. These results, in excellent agreement with experiments and previous theoretical work, are compared to previous simulations in order to explore the sensitivity of the PES (and therefore MD) to the choice of exchange and correlation functional. Despite having a lower energetic
An efficient and accurate molecular alignment and docking technique using ab initio quality scoring
Füsti-Molnár, László; Merz, Kenneth M.
2008-01-01
An accurate and efficient molecular alignment technique is presented based on first principle electronic structure calculations. This new scheme maximizes quantum similarity matrices in the relative orientation of the molecules and uses Fourier transform techniques for two purposes. First, building up the numerical representation of true ab initio electronic densities and their Coulomb potentials is accelerated by the previously described Fourier transform Coulomb method. Second, the Fourier convolution technique is applied for accelerating optimizations in the translational coordinates. In order to avoid any interpolation error, the necessary analytical formulas are derived for the transformation of the ab initio wavefunctions in rotational coordinates. The results of our first implementation for a small test set are analyzed in detail and compared with published results of the literature. A new way of refinement of existing shape based alignments is also proposed by using Fourier convolutions of ab initio or other approximate electron densities. This new alignment technique is generally applicable for overlap, Coulomb, kinetic energy, etc., quantum similarity measures and can be extended to a genuine docking solution with ab initio scoring. PMID:18624561
Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David
2014-01-01
Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Todd
Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.
Ab Initio Calculation of the Hoyle State
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2011-05-13
The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars heavier than our Sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-12 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than a half century ago nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this Letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low-lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2 state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of the properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy.
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-01-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...
2014-11-02
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less
Approximate ab initio calculations of electronic structure of amorphous silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durandurdu, M.; Drabold, D. A.; Mousseau, N.
2000-12-01
We report on ab initio calculations of electronic states of two large and realistic models of amorphous silicon generated using a modified version of the Wooten-Winer-Weaire algorithm and relaxed, in both cases, with a Keating and a modified Stillinger-Weber potentials. The models have no coordination defects and a very narrow bond-angle distribution. We compute the electronic density-of-states and pay particular attention to the nature of the band-tail states around the electronic gap. All models show a large and perfectly clean optical gap and realistic Urbach tails. Based on these results and the extended quasi-one-dimensional stringlike structures observed for certain eigenvalues in the band tails, we postulate that the generation of model a-Si without localized states might be achievable under certain circumstances.
Ab initio electron propagator theory of molecular wires. I. Formalism.
Dahnovsky, Yu; Zakrzewski, V G; Kletsov, A; Ortiz, J V
2005-11-08
Ab initio electron propagator methodology may be applied to the calculation of electrical current through a molecular wire. A new theoretical approach is developed for the calculation of the retarded and advanced Green functions in terms of the electron propagator matrix for the bridge molecule. The calculation of the current requires integration in a complex half plane for a trace that involves terminal and Green's-function matrices. Because the Green's-function matrices have complex poles represented by matrices, a special scheme is developed to express these "matrix poles" in terms of ordinary poles. An expression for the current is derived for a terminal matrix of arbitrary rank. For a single terminal orbital, the analytical expression for the current is given in terms of pole strengths, poles, and terminal matrix elements of the electron propagator. It is shown that Dyson orbitals with high pole strengths and overlaps with terminal orbitals are most responsible for the conduction of electrical current.
Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yueh-Lin
2011-12-01
Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-12-03
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
French, Martin
2010-11-01
Since the interior structure of giant planets inside or outside our solar system cannot be probed directly by experiments, planetary models have been developed to gain further insight. Such models require accurate equations of state (EOS) for the major components (H, He, and heavier compounds like water) up to extreme thermodynamic conditions (pressures of several ten megabars and temperatures of more than ten thousand degrees Kelvin) [1]. Ab initio methods that combine finite temperature density functional theory (FT-DFT) for the electrons with classical molecular dynamics (MD) for the ions have proven to be a powerful tool to calculate such accurate EOS data. In addition, the FT-DFT-MD also generates structural information, transport and optical properties and, most important, information on phase diagrams and demixing regions. Based on our recently calculated ab initio data for H, He, and water, we derive interior models of Saturn and Jupiter and discuss the role of H-He demixing [2] and of the plasma phase transition in hydrogen on the planetary interiors. We also present new models for Uranus and Neptune which offer conditions to allow the formation of the exotic superionic phase of water [3]. The ab initio data can also be applied in planetary evolution scenarios and dynamo simulations of solar and extrasolar planets.[4pt] [1] J. J. Fortney, N. Nettelmann, Space Sci. Rev. 152, 423 (2010)[0pt] [2] W. Lorenzen, B. Holst, R. Redmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 115701 (2009)[0pt] [3] M. French, T. R. Mattsson, N. Nettelmann, R. Redmer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 054107 (2009)
Computer simulation of acetonitrile and methanol with ab initio-based pair potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hloucha, M.; Sum, A. K.; Sandler, S. I.
2000-10-01
This study address the adequacy of ab initio pair interaction energy potentials for the prediction of macroscopic properties. Recently, Bukowski et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 7322 (1999)] performed a comprehensive study of the potential energy surfaces for several pairs of molecules using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. These ab initio energies were then fit to an appropriate site-site potential form. In an attempt to bridge the gap between ab initio interaction energy information and macroscopic properties prediction, we performed Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations using their developed pair potentials for acetonitrile and methanol. The simulations results show that the phase behavior of acetonitrile is well described by just the pair interaction potential. For methanol, on the other hand, pair interactions are insufficient to properly predict its vapor-liquid phase behavior, and its saturated liquid density. We also explored simplified forms for representing the ab initio interaction energies by refitting a selected range of the data to a site-site Lennard-Jones and to a modified Buckingham (exponential-6) potentials plus Coulombic interactions. These were also used in GEMC simulations in order to evaluate the quality and computational efficiency of these different potential forms. It was found that the phase behavior prediction for acetonitrile and methanol are highly dependent on the details of the interaction potentials developed.
Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.
2015-08-14
Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.
Hoy, Erik P; Mazziotti, David A
2015-08-14
Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.
Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations
Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas
2015-12-14
We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.
Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, P.; Vidal, J.; Lincot, D.
2011-10-01
The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)2 dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe2 pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications.
Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean
2015-03-01
We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003), 10.1063/1.1624057] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.062145]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.
The keto-enol equilibrium in substituted acetaldehydes: focal-point analysis and ab initio limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balabin, Roman M.
2011-10-01
High-level ab initio electronic structure calculations up to the CCSD(T) theory level, including extrapolations to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, resulted in high precision energetics of the tautomeric equilibrium in 2-substituted acetaldehydes (XH2C-CHO). The CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies of the tautomers were estimated using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, MP3/aug-cc-pVQZ, and MP2/aug-cc-pV5Z calculations with MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ geometries. The relative enol (XHC = CHOH) stabilities (ΔE e,CCSD(T)/CBS) were found to be 5.98 ± 0.17, -1.67 ± 0.82, 7.64 ± 0.21, 8.39 ± 0.31, 2.82 ± 0.52, 10.27 ± 0.39, 9.12 ± 0.18, 5.47 ± 0.53, 7.50 ± 0.43, 10.12 ± 0.51, 8.49 ± 0.33, and 6.19 ± 0.18 kcal mol-1 for X = BeH, BH2, CH3, Cl, CN, F, H, NC, NH2, OCH3, OH, and SH, respectively. Inconsistencies between the results of complex/composite energy computations methods Gn/CBS (G2, G3, CBS-4M, and CBS-QB3) and high-level ab initio methods (CCSD(T)/CBS and MP2/CBS) were found. DFT/aug-cc-pVTZ results with B3LYP, PBE0 (PBE1PBE), TPSS, and BMK density functionals were close to the CCSD(T)/CBS levels (MAD = 1.04 kcal mol-1).
Lee, Yung Ting; Lin, Jyh Shing
2013-12-05
The reaction dynamics of ethylene adsorption onto the Si(001) surface have been studied by combining density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations with molecular adsorption sampling scheme for investigating all kinds of reaction pathways and corresponding populations. Based on the calculated results, three possible reaction pathways--the indirect adsorption, the direct adsorption, and the repelling reaction--have been found. First, the indirect adsorption, in which the ethylene (C2H(4(ads))) forms the π-bonded C2H(4(ads)) with the buckled-down Si atom to adsorb on the Si(001) surface and then turns into the di-σ-bonded C2H(4(ads)), is the major reaction pathway. The short-time Fourier transform analysis of structural coordinate autocorrelation function is performed to further investigate the evolution of different vibrational modes along this indirect reaction pathway. This analysis illustrates that the Infrared (IR) inactive peak of the C=C stretching mode of the π-bonded C2 H4(ads) shifts to the IR inactive peak of the C-C stretching mode of di-σ-bonded C2H(4(ads)), which is in a good agreement with the IR inactive peak of the C=C stretching mode vanished in the vibrational spectrum at 150 K (Nagao et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 9922). Second, the direct adsorption, in which the di-σ-bonded C2H(4(ads)) is formed directly with the Si intradimer or the Si interdimer on the Si(001) surface, is the less significant reaction pathway. This reaction pathway leads to the C-C stretching mode and the C-H stretching mode of the di-σ-bonded C2H(4(ads)) appeared in the vibrational spectra at 48 and 150 K, respectively (Nagao et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 9922). Finally, the repelling reaction, in which the C2H(4(g)) first interacts with the Si dimer and then is repelled by Si atoms, is the least important reaction pathway. Consequently, neither the π-bonded C2H(4(ads)) nor the di-σ-bonded C2H(4(ads)) is formed on the Si(001) surface.
ab initio MD simulations of geomaterials with ~1000 atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, G. B.; Kirtman, B.; Spera, F. J.
2009-12-01
In the last two decades, ab initio studies of materials using Density Functional Theory (DFT) have increased exponentially in popularity. DFT codes are now used routinely to simulate properties of geomaterials--mainly silicates and geochemically important metals such as Fe. These materials are ubiquitous in the Earth’s mantle and core and in terrestrial exoplanets. Because of computational limitations, most First Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) calculations are done on systems of only ~100 atoms for a few picoseconds. While this approach can be useful for calculating physical quantities related to crystal structure, vibrational frequency, and other lattice-scale properties (especially in crystals), it is statistically marginal for duplicating physical properties of the liquid state like transport and structure. In MD simulations in the NEV ensemble, temperature (T), and pressure (P) fluctuations scale as N-1/2; small particle number (N) systems are therefore characterized by greater statistical state point location uncertainty than large N systems. Previous studies have used codes such as VASP where CPU time increases with N2, making calculations with N much greater than 100 impractical. SIESTA (Soler, et al. 2002) is a DFT code that enables electronic structure and MD computations on larger systems (N~103) by making some approximations, such as localized numerical orbitals, that would be useful in modeling some properties of geomaterials. Here we test the applicability of SIESTA to simulate geosilicates, both hydrous and anhydrous, in the solid and liquid state. We have used SIESTA for lattice calculations of brucite, Mg(OH)2, that compare very well to experiment and calculations using CRYSTAL, another DFT code. Good agreement between more classical DFT calculations and SIESTA is needed to justify study of geosilicates using SIESTA across a range of pressures and temperatures relevant to the Earth’s interior. Thus, it is useful to adjust parameters in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muniz-Miranda, Francesco; Pagliai, Marco; Cardini, Gianni; Righini, Roberto
2012-12-01
Hydrogen bond interactions strongly affect vibrational properties and frequencies, the most common consequence being a redshift of the stretching vibration involved; there are, however, few exceptions to this general trend. In previous works, we have proved the effectiveness of ab initio simulations combined with wavelet analysis to investigate these effects and put them into relation to structural environment. In this work, we investigate the hydrogen bond effects on the structural and vibrational properties of 1,3-propanediol in acetonitrile by a combined experimental and computational approach. We explain the appearance of two spectral components in the O-H stretching band on the basis of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions. We also elucidate the blueshift of the C≡N stretching band as due to a hydrogen bond interaction between the glycol and acetonitrile that modify the electron density distribution inside the CN group. This effect is well reproduced by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations reported in this work.
Trevisanutto, Paolo E; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-05-28
Ab initio electronic structure calculations of two-dimensional layered structures are typically performed using codes that were developed for three-dimensional structures, which are periodic in all three directions. The introduction of a periodicity in the third direction (perpendicular to the layer) is completely artificial and may lead in some cases to spurious results and to difficulties in treating the action of external fields. In this paper we develop a new approach, which is "native" to quasi-2D materials, making use of basis function that are periodic in the plane, but atomic-like in the perpendicular direction. We show how some of the basic tools of ab initio electronic structure theory - density functional theory, GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation - are implemented in the new basis. We argue that the new approach will be preferable to the conventional one in treating the peculiarities of layered materials, including the long range of the unscreened Coulomb interaction in insulators, and the effects of strain, corrugations, and external fields.
Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gesell, Laurence E.
1995-01-01
Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)
Ab initio phase diagram of iridium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.
2016-09-01
The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldfield, Evelyn M.; Kirby, Kate P.
1987-01-01
Configuration interaction wave functions, potential energy curves, and dipole moment functions have been calculated for the four lowest 3Sigma(-) and the three lowest 3Pi states and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. The electronic wave functions were constructed to give a balanced description of valence-Rydberg interactions. Two repulsive states have been identified as important photodissociation pathways. Spectroscopic constants are presented for the bound states, and results are compared to other theoretical and experimental work. The possible predissociation of the A 3Pi state by the 1 5Sigma(-) state is discussed.
Izquierdo, J.; Vega, A.; Balbas, L. C.; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Junquera, Javier; Artacho, Emilio; Soler, Jose M.; Ordejon, Pablo
2000-05-15
We present a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of iron systems in different environments: pure iron systems [dimer, bcc bulk, (100) surface, and free-standing iron monolayer], and low-dimensional iron systems deposited on Ag (100) surface (monoatomic linear wires, iron monolayer, planar, and three-dimensional clusters). Electronic and magnetic properties have been calculated using a recently developed total-energy first-principles method based on density-functional theory with numerical atomic orbitals as a basis set for the description of valence electrons and nonlocal pseudopotentials for the atomic core. The Kohn-Sham equations are solved self-consistently within the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Tests on the pseudopotential, the basis set, grid spacing, and k sampling are carefully performed. This technique, which has been proved to be very efficient for large nonmagnetic systems, is applied in this paper to calculate electronic and magnetic properties of different iron nanostructures. The results compare well with previous ab initio all-electron calculations and with experimental data. The method predicts the correct trends in the magnetic moments of Fe systems for a great variety of environments and requires a smaller computational effort than other ab initio methods. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darkhalil, Ikhlas D.; Nagels, Nick; Herrebout, Wouter A.; van der Veken, Benjamin J.; Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael J.; Durig, James R.
2014-06-01
FT-microwave spectroscopy was carried out where the trans conformer was identified to be the most stable conformer. Variable temperature (-60 to -100 °C) studies of the Raman spectra (4000-50 cm-1) of ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2 dissolved in liquefied xenon have been carried out. From these data both conformers have been identified and their relative stabilities obtained. The enthalpy difference has been determined to be 62 ± 6 cm-1 (0.746 ± 0.072 kJ mol-1) with the trans conformer the more stable form. The percentage of the gauche conformer is estimated to be 60% at ambient temperature. The conformational stabilities have been predicted from ab initio calculations with the Møller-Plesset perturbation method to the second order (MP2(full)) and the fourth order (MP4(SDTQ)) as well as with density functional theory by the B3LYP method by utilizing a variety of basis sets. Vibrational assignments have been made for the observed bands which have been predicted by MP2(full)/6-31G(d) ab initio calculations which includes harmonic force fields, frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and depolarization ratios for both conformers. The results are discussed and compared to the corresponding properties of some similar molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Hlil, E. K.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Hourmatallah, A.; Rezzouk, A.; Bouslykhane, K.; Benzakour, N.
2017-04-01
Self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach and using Full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FLAPW) method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the Mn2NiAl. Magnetic moment considered to lie along (001) axes are computed. Obtained data from ab initio calculations are used as input for Monte Carlo simulations to compute other magnetic parameters. Also, the magnetic properties of Mn2NiAl are studied using the Monte Carlo simulations. The variation of magnetization and magnetic susceptibility with the reduced temperature of Mn2NiAl are investigated. The transition temperature of this system is deduced for different values exchange interaction and crystal field. The thermal total magnetization has been obtained, and the magnetic hysteresis cycle is established. The total magnetic moment is superior to those obtained by the other method and is mainly determined by the antiparallel aligned MnI, MnII and Ni spin moments. The superparamagnetic phase is found at the neighborhood of transition temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perlov, A.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.
2003-12-01
An approach for the calculation of the optical and magneto-optical properties of solids based on the one-particle Green function is introduced in the framework of the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The approach keeps all advantages of the more accurate Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme as the possibility to account for many-body effects in terms of the nonlocal energy dependent self-energy but is numerically much more efficient. Application of various proposed model self-energies for the calculation of the optical properties of bulk Ni and Fe demonstrates the great potential of the new scheme.
Coccia, Emanuele; Varsano, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo
2016-01-01
In this letter, we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) Å, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree–Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO–LUMO major contribution of the Bu+-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green’s Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu+-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide an excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed. PMID:26580027
Nguyen Lan, Tran; Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika
2016-10-11
We present a detailed discussion of the self-energy embedding theory (SEET), which is a quantum embedding scheme allowing us to describe a chosen subsystem very accurately while keeping the description of the environment at a lower level. We apply SEET to molecular examples where our chosen subsystem is made out of a set of strongly correlated orbitals while the weakly correlated orbitals constitute an environment. Consequently, a highly accurate method is used to calculate the self-energy for the system, while a lower-level method is employed to find the self-energy for the environment. Such a self-energy separation is very general, and to make the SEET procedure applicable to multiple systems, a detailed and practical procedure for the evaluation of the system and environment self-energy is necessary. We list all of the intricacies for one of the possible procedures while focusing our discussion on many practical implementation aspects such as the choice of best orbital basis, impurity solver, and many steps necessary to reach chemical accuracy. Finally, on a set of carefully chosen molecular examples, we demonstrate that SEET, which is a controlled, systematically improvable Green's function method, can be as accurate as established wave function quantum chemistry methods.
Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2016-05-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg10In90, Hg30In70,. Hg50In50, Hg70In30, and Hg90Pb10) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.
Ab initio structural and electronic analysis of CH3SH self-assembled on a Cu(110) substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agostino, S.; Chiodo, L.; Della Sala, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.
2007-05-01
Ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations are here reported to characterize the adsorption of methanethiol at the Cu(110) surface. Theoretical results suggest that the binding of the adsorbate to the substrate is rather weak and the molecular geometry is correspondingly almost unaffected by the adsorption. Otherwise, when CH3SH deprotonates producing methanethiolate, a stronger chemical bond is realized between the sulfur atom of CH3S radical and Cu surface atoms. A detailed study of structural and electronic properties of methanethiolate on Cu(110) for a p(2×2) and a c(2×2) overlayer structure has been carried out. We find that, in the most stable configuration, the molecule adsorbs in the shortbridge site. The chemical bond arises due to a strong hybridization among p orbitals of sulfur and d states from the substrate, as it is deduced by an analysis of partial densities of states and charge densities.
Ab initio equation of state of hydrogen for inertial fusion applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedict, Lorin X.; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric; Tamblyn, Isaac; Bonev, Stanimir A.; Correa, Alfredo A.; Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; LLNL Collaboration
2011-06-01
We describe ab initio electronic structure calculations (DFT molecular dynamics and quantum Monte Carlo) of the equation of state of hydrogen in a regime relevant for ICF applications. We find the computed EOS to be quite close to that of the most recent SESAME table (constructed by G. Kerley, 2004). A simple density-dependent correction brings the recent SESAME EOS into nearly perfect agreement with ours in the chosen region. Simulations of ICF applications with this corrected SESAME table are discussed.
Optical and other material properties of SiO2 from ab initio studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warmbier, Robert; Mohammed, Faris; Quandt, Alexander
2014-07-01
The optical properties of photonic devices largely depend on the dielectric properties of the underlying materials. We apply modern ab initio methods to study crystalline SiO2 phases, which serve as toy models for amorphous glass. We discuss the dielectric response from the infrared to the VIS/UV, which is crucial for glass based photonic applications. Low density silica, like cristobalite, may provide a good basis for high transmission optical devices.
Melting curves of metals by ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minakov, Dmitry; Levashov, Pavel
2015-06-01
In this work we used several ab initio approaches to reproduce melting curves and discussed their abilities, advantages and drawbacks. We used quasiharmonic appoximation and Lindemann criterion to build melting curves in wide region of pressures. This approach allows to calculate the total free energy of electrons and phonons, so it is possible to obtain all thermodynamic properties in the crystalline state. We also used quantum molecular dynamics simulations to investigate melting at various pressures. We explored the size-effect of the heat until it melts (HUM) method in detail. Special attention was paid to resolve the boundaries of the melting region on density. All calculations were performed for aluminum, copper and gold. Results were in good agreement with available experimental data. Also we studied the influence of electronic temperature on melting curves. It turned out that the melting temperature increased with the rise of electron temperature at normal density and had non-monotonic behavior at higher densities. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project No. 3.522.2014/K).
Optimization of a van der Waals Density Functional for water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritz, Michelle; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi; Soler, Jose M.
2015-03-01
In particularly delicate systems, like liquid water, ab initio exchange and correlation functionals are simply not accurate enough for many practical applications. In these cases, fitting the functional to reference data is a sensible alternative to empirical interatomic potentials. However, a global optimization requires functional forms that depend on many parameters and the usual trial and error strategy becomes cumbersome and suboptimal. We present a general and powerful optimization scheme called data projection onto parameter space (DPPS). In an arbitrarily large parameter space, DPPS expands the vector of unknown parameters in vectors of known data. Poorly sampled subspaces are determined by the physically-motivated functional shape of ab initio functionals, using Bayes' theory to combine this prior information with reference energies and electron densities of monomers, clusters, and condensed phases of water. We aknowledge support from FIS2012-37549 (MF and JMS) and DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871 (M.-V.F.-S.)
Xiong, L H; Yoo, H; Lou, H B; Wang, X D; Cao, Q P; Zhang, D X; Jiang, J Z; Xie, H L; Xiao, T Q; Jeon, S; Lee, G W
2015-01-28
X-ray diffraction and electrostatic levitation measurements, together with the ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid Al(75)Cu(25) alloy have been performed from 800 to 1600 K. Experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation results match well with each other. No abnormal changes were experimentally detected in the specific heat capacity over total hemispheric emissivity and density curves in the studied temperature range for a bulk liquid Al(75)Cu(25) alloy measured by the electrostatic levitation technique. The structure factors gained by the ab initio molecular dynamics simulation precisely coincide with the experimental data. The atomic structure analyzed by the Honeycutt-Andersen index and Voronoi tessellation methods shows that icosahedral-like atomic clusters prevail in the liquid Al(75)Cu(25) alloy and the atomic clusters evolve continuously. All results obtained here suggest that no liquid-liquid transition appears in the bulk liquid Al(75)Cu(25) alloy in the studied temperature range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, B. Danette; Alexandrov, Natalia
2016-01-01
Incremental approaches to air transportation system development inherit current architectural constraints, which, in turn, place hard bounds on system capacity, efficiency of performance, and complexity. To enable airspace operations of the future, a clean-slate (ab initio) airspace design(s) must be considered. This ab initio National Airspace System (NAS) must be capable of accommodating increased traffic density, a broader diversity of aircraft, and on-demand mobility. System and subsystem designs should scale to accommodate the inevitable demand for airspace services that include large numbers of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and a paradigm shift in general aviation (e.g., personal air vehicles) in addition to more traditional aerial vehicles such as commercial jetliners and weather balloons. The complex and adaptive nature of ab initio designs for the future NAS requires new approaches to validation, adding a significant physical experimentation component to analytical and simulation tools. In addition to software modeling and simulation, the ability to exercise system solutions in a flight environment will be an essential aspect of validation. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Autonomy Incubator seeks to develop a flight simulation infrastructure for ab initio modeling and simulation that assumes no specific NAS architecture and models vehicle-to-vehicle behavior to examine interactions and emergent behaviors among hundreds of intelligent aerial agents exhibiting collaborative, cooperative, coordinative, selfish, and malicious behaviors. The air transportation system of the future will be a complex adaptive system (CAS) characterized by complex and sometimes unpredictable (or unpredicted) behaviors that result from temporal and spatial interactions among large numbers of participants. A CAS not only evolves with a changing environment and adapts to it, it is closely coupled to all systems that constitute the environment. Thus, the ecosystem that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latha, B.; Gunasekaran, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.
2014-11-01
The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of Losartan have been recorded in the region 400-4000 cm-1. The spectra were interpreted in terms of fundamental modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by Quantum chemical methods. The vibrational frequencies yield good agreement between observed and calculated values. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-600 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies calculated by TD-HF approach. NBO atomic charges of the molecules and second order perturbation theory analysis of Fock matrix also calculated and interpreted. The geometrical parameters, energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, Raman intensities, and absorption wavelengths were compared with experimental and theoretical data of the molecule.
Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Simonucci, Stefano; Beccara, Silvio a; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco; Verucchi, Roberto; Iannotta, Salvatore; Dapor, Maurizio; and others
2013-01-28
In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.
Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Simonucci, Stefano; a Beccara, Silvio; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco; Verucchi, Roberto; Iannotta, Salvatore; Dapor, Maurizio; Alfè, Dario
2013-01-28
In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C(60) collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C(60) impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.
Liquid Be, Ca and Ba. An orbital-free ab-initio molecular dynamics study
Rio, B. G. del; González, L. E.
2015-08-17
Several static and dynamic properties of liquid beryllium (l-Be), liquid calcium (l-Ca) and liquid barium (l-Ba) near their triple point have been evaluated by the orbital-free ab initio molecular dynamics method (OF-AIMD), where the interaction between valence electrons and ions is described by means of local pseudopotentials. These local pseudopotentials used were constructed through a force-matching process with those obtained from a Kohn-Sham ab initio molecular dynamics study (KS-AIMD) of a reduced system with non-local pseudopotentials. The calculated static structures show good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the structure factor which has been linked to the existence of a marked icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. As for the dynamic properties, we obtain collective density excitations whose associated dispersion relations exhibit a positive dispersion.
Rana, Malay Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu
2013-05-28
The behavior of water near a graphene sheet is investigated by means of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The wetting of the graphene sheet by ab initio water and the relation of such behavior to the strength of classical dispersion interaction between surface atoms and water are explored. The first principles simulations reveal a layered solvation structure around the graphene sheet with a significant water density in the interfacial region implying no drying or cavitation effect. It is found that the ab initio results of water density at interfaces can be reproduced reasonably well by classical simulations with a tuned dispersion potential between the surface and water molecules. Calculations of vibrational power spectrum from ab initio simulations reveal a shift of the intramolecular stretch modes to higher frequencies for interfacial water molecules when compared with those of the second solvation later or bulk-like water due to the presence of free OH modes near the graphene sheet. Also, a weakening of the water-water hydrogen bonds in the vicinity of the graphene surface is found in our ab initio simulations as reflected in the shift of intermolecular vibrational modes to lower frequencies for interfacial water molecules. The first principles calculations also reveal that the residence and orientational dynamics of interfacial water are somewhat slower than those of the second layer or bulk-like molecules. However, the lateral diffusion and hydrogen bond relaxation of interfacial water molecules are found to occur at a somewhat faster rate than that of the bulk-like water molecules. The classical molecular dynamics simulations with tuned Lennard-Jones surface-water interaction are found to produce dynamical results that are qualitatively similar to those of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.
Volumic omit maps in ab initio dual-space phasing.
Oszlányi, Gábor; Sütő, András
2016-07-01
Alternating-projection-type dual-space algorithms have a clear construction, but are susceptible to stagnation and, thus, inefficient for solving the phase problem ab initio. To improve this behaviour new omit maps are introduced, which are real-space perturbations applied periodically during the iteration process. The omit maps are called volumic, because they delete some predetermined subvolume of the unit cell without searching for atomic regions or analysing the electron density in any other way. The basic algorithms of positivity, histogram matching and low-density elimination are tested by their solution statistics. It is concluded that, while all these algorithms based on weak constraints are practically useless in their pure forms, appropriate volumic omit maps can transform them to practically useful methods. In addition, the efficiency of the already useful reflector-type charge-flipping algorithm can be further improved. It is important that these results are obtained by using non-sharpened structure factors and without any weighting scheme or reciprocal-space perturbation. The mathematical background of volumic omit maps and their expected applications are also discussed.
Ab initio prediction of electronic, transport and bulk properties of Li2S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malozovsky, Yuriy; Franklin, Lashounda; Ekuma, Chinedu; Bagayoko, Diola
2015-08-01
In this paper, we present results from ab initio, self-consistent, local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of cubic antifluorite (anti-CaF2) lithium sulfide (Li2S). Our nonrelativistic computations implemented the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism following the Bagayoko, Zhao and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). Consequently, using several self-consistent calculations with increasing basis sets, we searched for the smallest basis set that yields the absolute minima of the occupied energies. The outcomes of the calculation with this basis set, called the optimal basis set, have the full physical content of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculated indirect band gap, from Γ to X, is 3.723 eV, for the low temperature experimental lattice constant of 5.689 Å. The predicted indirect band gap of 3.702 eV is obtained for the computationally determined equilibrium lattice constant of 5.651 Å. We have also calculated the total density of states (DOS) and partial densities of states (pDOS), electron and hole effective masses and the bulk modulus of Li2S. Due to a lack of experimental results, most of the calculated ones reported here are predictions for this material suspected of exhibiting a high temperature superconductivity similar to that of MgB2.
Barrett, Bruce R.; Navrátil, Petr; Vary, James P.
2012-11-17
A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN
High-level ab initio computations of the absorption spectra of organic iridium complexes.
Plasser, Felix; Dreuw, Andreas
2015-02-12
The excited states of fac-tris(phenylpyridinato)iridium [Ir(ppy)3] and the smaller model complex Ir(C3H4N)3 are computed using a number of high-level ab initio methods, including the recently implemented algebraic diagrammatic construction method to third-order ADC(3). A detailed description of the states is provided through advanced analysis methods, which allow a quantification of different charge transfer and orbital relaxation effects and give extended insight into the many-body wave functions. Compared to the ADC(3) benchmark an unexpected striking difference of ADC(2) is found for Ir(C3H4N)3, which derives from an overstabilization of charge transfer effects. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using the B3LYP functional shows an analogous but less severe error for charge transfer states, whereas the ωB97 results are in good agreement with ADC(3). Multireference configuration interaction computations, which are in reasonable agreement with ADC(3), reveal that static correlation does not play a significant role. In the case of the larger Ir(ppy)3 complex, results at the TDDFT/B3LYP and TDDFT/ωB97 levels of theory are presented. Strong discrepancies between the two functionals, which are found with respect to the energies, characters, as well as the density of the low lying states, are discussed in detail and compared to experiment.
Ab initio studies of equations of state and chemical reactions of reactive structural materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaharieva, Roussislava
subject of studies of the shock or thermally induced chemical reactions of the two solids comprising these reactive materials, from first principles, is a relatively new field of study. The published literature on ab initio techniques or quantum mechanics based approaches consists of the ab initio or ab initio-molecular dynamics studies in related fields that contain a solid and a gas. One such study in the literature involves a gas and a solid. This is an investigation of the adsorption of gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO) on Tungsten. The motivation for these studies is to synthesize alternate or synthetic fuel technology by Fischer-Tropsch process. In this thesis these studies are first to establish the procedure for solid-solid reaction and then to extend that to consider the effects of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energy and chemisorptions of CO on tungsten. Then in this thesis, similar studies are also conducted on the effect of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energies of Titanium and hydrogen. The motivations are again to understand the method and extend the method to such solid-solid reactions. A second motivation is to seek strained conditions that favor hydrogen storage and strain conditions that release hydrogen easily when needed. Following the establishment of ab initio and ab initio studies of chemical reactions between a solid and a gas, the next step of research is to study thermally induced chemical reaction between two solids (Ni+Al). Thus, specific new studies of the thesis are as follows: (1) Ab initio Studies of Binding energies associated with chemisorption of (a) CO on W surfaces (111, and 100) at elevated temperatures and strains and (b) adsorption of hydrogen in titanium base. (2) Equations of state of mixtures of reactive material structures from ab initio methods. (3) Ab initio studies of the reaction initiation, transition states and reaction products of intermetallic mixtures of (Ni+Al) at elevated
Ab initio study of structural, electronic, and thermal properties of Pt1-xPdx alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Shabbir; Zafar, Muhammad; Shakil, M.; Choudhary, M. A.; Hashmi, Muhammad Raza-Ur-Rehman
2017-01-01
We report a systematic theoretical study of Pt1-xPdx alloys using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) by pseudo potential method. We have used super cell approach to investigate structural, electronic and thermal properties of Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and their alloys Pt1-xPdx(x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The calculated lattice constants and bulk moduli are in good agreement with available literature data. The results of electronic properties revealed that the alloys are metallic in nature. The thermal properties were investigated through density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and quasi-harmonic approximation. The contribution to the free energy from the lattice vibration was calculated using the phonon densities of states (DOS) derived by means of the linear-response theory. The DFPT with quasi-harmonic approximation methods was applied to determine the phonon DOS and thermal quantities i.e., the Debye temperatures, vibration energy, entropy and constant-volume specific heat.
Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.
THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY
Turchi, P A
2004-09-24
Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.
Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics
Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil
2015-05-15
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid Hg-Pb alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2014-04-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-Pb alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-Pb mixtures (Hg30Pb70, Hg50Pb50 and Hg90Pb10) at 600K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-Pb). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered three alloys. Among the all considered alloys, Hg50Pb50 alloy shows presence of more chemical ordering and presence of hetero-coordination.
Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2015-05-01
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg10In90, Hg30In70, Hg50In50, Hg70In30 and Hg90In10) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.
Guo, Xun; Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Huang, Qing; Xue, Jianming
2016-01-07
Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is employed to study the adsorption properties of Pb and Cu on recently synthesized two-dimensional materials MXenes, including Ti3C2, V2C1 and Ti2C1. The influence of surface decoration with functional groups such as H, OH and F have also been investigated. Most of these studied MXenes exhibit excellent capability to adsorb Pb and Cu, especially the adsorption capacity of Pb on Ti2C1 is as high as 2560 mg g(-1). Both the binding energies and the adsorption capacities are sensitive to the functional groups attached to the MXenes' surface. Ab initio molecular dynamics (ab-init MD) simulation confirms that Ti2C1 remains stable at room temperature after adsorbing Pb atoms. Our calculations imply that these newly emerging two-dimensional MXenes are promising candidates for wastewater treatment and ion separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Miguel A.; Benedict, Lorin X.; Clark, Daniel S.; Schwegler, Eric; Tamblyn, Isaac; Bonev, Stanimir A.; Correa, Alfredo A.; Haan, Steven W.
2012-03-01
We describe ab initio electronic structure calculations (density functional theory molecular dynamics and coupled electron-ion quantum Monte Carlo) of the equation of state (EOS) of hydrogen in a pressure-temperature regime relevant for simulating the initial phase of an inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion. We find the computed EOS to be quite close to that of the most recent SESAME table (constructed by G. Kerley, 2003). A simple density-dependent but temperature-independent correction brings the 2003-Kerley EOS into excellent agreement with ours in the chosen region of the hydrogen phase diagram. Simulations of fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with this modified 2003-Kerley table are shown to produce results nearly indistinguishable from those of the 2003-Kerley EOS, which was used to design the capsule. In this sense, we do not expect that further improvements to the hydrogen EOS in this particular regime will impact the capsule design.
Ab-Initio Study of Incongruent Melting in Silicates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinilla, C.; Stixrude, L. P.
2014-12-01
Knowledge of the multi-component thermodynamics and phase equilibria of silicate melts at Earth's interior conditions are key to understand the chemical and thermal evolution of the planet. Yet they remain poorly constrained with a wide uncertainty on the eutectic composition and temperature. In this work we present results from ab-initio molecular dynamics in combination with the two-phase coexistance method to study properties of a system of MgSiO3 liquid coexisting with crystalline MgO at conditions of the deep lower mantle. During incongruent melting the crystal may either grow via partial freezing of the liquid or shrink via partial melting at a given temperature and pressure. The melting process can be studied using the two-phases method where liquid and solid are in contact at a given temperature and pressure and so under thermodynamic equilibrium. We characterise the composition and densities of the resultant solid and liquid phases, provide chemical potentials of the liquid phase and study the structural and dynamical properties of the melt. In addition, we discuss the performance of alternative computational methods applied to the study of incongruent melting in silicate systems where long simulation times and a large number of atoms are usually needed. Finally, we discuss the implication of our findings for the evolution of the Earth's interior.
Ab initio predictions of the symmetry energy and recent constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sammarruca, Francesca
2017-01-01
The symmetry energy plays a crucial role in the structure and the dynamics of neutron-rich systems, including the formation of neutron skins, the location of neutron drip lines, as well as intriguing correlations with the structure of compact stars. With experimental efforts in progress or being planned to shed light on the less known aspects of the nuclear chart, microscopic predictions based on ab initio approaches are very important. In recent years, chiral effective field theory has become popular because of its firm connection with quantum chromodynamics and its systematic approach to the development of nuclear forces. Predictions of the symmetry energy obtained from modern chiral interactions will be discussed in the light of recent empirical constraints extracted from heavy ion collisions at 400 MeV per nucleon at GSI. Applications of our equations of state to neutron-rich systems will also be discussed, with particular emphasis on neutron skins, which are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy.
Perovskite transparent conducting oxides: an ab initio study.
Dabaghmanesh, S; Saniz, R; Amini, M N; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B
2013-10-16
We present an ab initio study of the electronic structure and of the formation energies of various point defects in BaSnO3 and SrGeO3. We show that La and Y impurities substituting Ba or Sr are shallow donors with a preferred 1 + charge state. These defects have a low formation energy within all the suitable equilibrium growth conditions considered. Oxygen vacancies behave as shallow donors as well, preferring the 2 + charge state. Their formation energies, however, are higher in most growth conditions, indicating a limited contribution to conductivity. The calculated electron effective mass in BaSnO3, with a value of 0.21 m(e), and the very high mobility reported recently in La-doped BaSnO3 single-crystals, suggest that remarkably low scattering rates can be achieved in the latter. In the case of SrGeO3, our results point to carrier density and mobility values in the low range for typical polycrystalline TCOs, in line with experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruzzone, Samantha; Fiori, Gianluca
2011-11-01
We present an ab-initio study of electron mobility and electron-phonon coupling in chemically modified graphene, considering fluorinated and hydrogenated graphene at different percentage coverage. Hexagonal boron carbon nitrogen is also investigated due the increased interest shown by the research community towards this material. In particular, the deformation potentials are computed by means of density functional theory, while the carrier mobility is obtained according to the Takagi model (S. Takagi, A. Toriumi, and H. Tango, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 2363 (1994)). We will show that graphene with a reduced degree of hydrogenation can compete, in terms of mobility, with silicon technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Erik G.; Agosta, Lorenzo; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.
2016-07-01
Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity.Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation data on equilibration of energies and structures (root-mean-square-deviations and
Simulating ionic thermal trasport by equilibrium ab-initio molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcolongo, Aris; Umari, Paolo; Baroni, Stefano
2014-03-01
The Green-Kubo approach to thermal transport is often considered to be incompatible with ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) because a suitable quantum-mechanical definition of the heat current is not readily available, due to the ill-definedness of the microscopic energy density to which it is related by the continuity equation. We argue that a similar difficulty actually exists in classical mechanics as well, and we address the conditions that have to be fulfilled in order for the physically well defined transport coefficients to be independent of the ill defined microscopic energy density from which they derive. We then provide two alternative approaches to calculating thermal conductivites from equilibrium AIMD. The first is based on the Green-Kubo formula, supplemented with an expression for the energy current, which is a generalization of Thouless' expression for the adiabatic charge current. The second approach, which avoids the recourse to an energy current altogether, rests on an efficient and accurate extrapolation to infinite wavelengths of the energy-density time correlation functions. The two methods are compared on a simple classical test bed, and their implementation in AIMD is demonstrated with the calculation of the thermal conductivity of simple fluids.
Ab-initio Electronic, Transport and Related Properties of Zinc Blende Boron Arsenide (zb-BAs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nwigboji, Ifeanyi H.; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of zinc blende boron arsenide (zb-BAs). We utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism. Our computational technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin. Our results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. We explain the agreement between these findings, including the indirect band gap, and available, corresponding, experimental ones. This work confirms the capability of DFT to describe accurately properties of materials, provided the computations adhere to the conditions of validity of DFT [AIP Advances, 4, 127104 (2014)]. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
Ab-initio Calculation of Optoelectronic and Structural Properties of Cubic Lithium Oxide (Li2O)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziegler, Joshua; Polin, Daniel; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
Using the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF), we performed ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations of optoelectronic, transport, and bulk properties of Li2S. In so doing, we avoid ``band gap'' and problems plaguing many DET calculations [AIP Advances 4, 127104 (2014)]. We employed a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). With the BZW-EF method, our results possess the full, physical content of DFT and agree with available, corresponding experimental ones. In particular, we found a room temperature indirect band gap of 6.659 eV that compares favorably with experimental values ranging from 5 to 7.99 eV. We also calculated total and partial density of states (DOS and PDOS), effective masses of charge carriers, the equilibrium lattice constant, and the bulk modulus. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award Nos. DE-NA0001861 and DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Carvajal, Miguel; Thiel, Walter; Jensen, Per
2006-09-01
We report a six-dimensional CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ dipole moment surface for the electronic ground state of PH 3 computed ab initio on a large grid of 10 080 molecular geometries. Parameterized, analytical functions are fitted through the ab initio data, and the resulting dipole moment functions are used, together with a potential energy function determined by refining an existing ab initio surface in fittings to experimental wavenumber data, for simulating absorption spectra of the first three polyads of PH 3, i.e., ( ν2, ν4), ( ν1, ν3, 2 ν2, 2 ν4, ν2 + ν4), and ( ν1 + ν2, ν3 + ν2, ν1 + ν4, ν3 + ν4, 2 ν2 + ν4, ν2 + 2 ν4, 3 ν2, 3 ν4). The resulting theoretical transition moments show excellent agreement with experiment. A line-by-line comparison of the simulated intensities of the ν2/ ν4 band system with 955 experimental intensity values reported by Brown et al. [L.R. Brown, R.L. Sams, I. Kleiner, C. Cottaz, L. Sagui, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 215 (2002) 178-203] gives an average absolute percentage deviation of 8.7% (and a root-mean-square deviation of 0.94 cm -1 for the transition wavenumbers). This is very remarkable since the calculations rely entirely on ab initio dipole moment surfaces and do not involve any adjustment of these surfaces to reproduce the experimental intensities. Finally, we predict the line strengths for transitions between so-called cluster levels (near-degenerate levels formed at high rotational excitation) for J up to 60.
Monteiro, Norberto K V; Firme, Caio L
2014-03-06
The hydrogen-hydrogen (H-H) bond or hydrogen-hydrogen bonding is formed by the interaction between a pair of identical or similar hydrogen atoms that are close to electrical neutrality and it yields a stabilizing contribution to the overall molecular energy. This work provides new, important information regarding hydrogen-hydrogen bonds. We report that stability of alkane complexes and boiling point of alkanes are directly related to H-H bond, which means that intermolecular interactions between alkane chains are directional H-H bond, not nondirectional induced dipole-induced dipole. Moreover, we show the existence of intramolecular H-H bonds in highly branched alkanes playing a secondary role in their increased stabilities in comparison with linear or less branched isomers. These results were accomplished by different approaches: density functional theory (DFT), ab initio, quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), and electron localization function (ELF).
Ab initio study of neutral and charged SinNap(+) (n
Sporea, C; Rabilloud, F; Allouche, A R; Frécon, M
2006-01-26
Ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory, with B3LYP functional, are performed to study the lowest-energy isomers of silicon sodium clusters Si(n)Na(p)(+) (n
Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Zdetsis, Aristides D; Sigalas, Michael M
2012-09-26
On the basis of the attractive possibility of efficient hydrogen storage in light metal hydrides, we have examined a large variety of Mg(n)H(m) nanoclusters and (MgH(2))(n) nanocrystals (n = 2-216, m = 2-436) using high level coupled cluster, CCSD(T), ab initio methods, and judicially chosen density functional calculations of comparable quality and (near chemical) accuracy. Our calculated desorption energies as a function of size and percentage of hydrogen have pinpointed optimal regions of sizes and concentrations of hydrogen which are in full agreement with recent experimental findings. Furthermore, our results reproduce the experimental desorption energy of 75.5 kJ/mol for the infinite system with remarkable accuracy (76.5 ± 1.5 kJ/mol).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klöckner, J. C.; Bürkle, M.; Cuevas, J. C.; Pauly, F.
2016-11-01
Motivated by recent experiments, we present here a systematic ab initio study of the length dependence of the thermal conductance of single-molecule junctions. We make use of a combination of density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green's function techniques to investigate the length dependence of the phonon transport in single-alkane chains, contacted with gold electrodes via both thiol and amine anchoring groups. Additionally, we study the effect of the substitution of the hydrogen atoms in the alkane chains by heavier fluorine atoms to form polytetrafluoroethylenes. Our results demonstrate that (i) the room-temperature thermal conductance is fairly length independent for chains with more than 5 methylene units and (ii) the efficiency of the thermal transport is strongly influenced by the strength of the phononic metal-molecule coupling. Our study sheds light on the phonon transport in molecular junctions, and it provides clear guidelines for the design of molecular junctions for thermal management.
Geng, Hua Y.
2015-02-15
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model—the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of r{sub s}=0.912.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Hua Y.
2015-02-01
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model-the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of rs = 0.912.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salem, Mostafa E.; Ahmed, Ashour A.; Shaaban, Mohamed R.; Shibl, Mohamed F.; Farag, Ahmad M.
2015-09-01
Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole, pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole ring systems incorporating phenylsulfonyl moiety were synthesized via the reaction of 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-(phenylsulfonyl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives with the appropriate aminoazoles as 1,3-binucleophiles and 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylacetonitrile using conventional methods as well as microwave irradiation. The regioselectivity of the cyclocondensation reactions was confirmed both experimentally by alternative synthesis of reaction products and theoretically using ab initio quantum chemical calculations namely the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical work was carried out using the Becke, three parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr hybrid functional (B3LYP) combined with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. It was found that the final cyclocondensation reaction product depends mainly on the initial addition to the activated double bond by the nitrogen atom of the 1,3-binucleophiles that has the higher electron density.
Ab initio study of the thermodynamic properties and the phonon calculations of Zircon and Reidite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhari, Mrunalkumar; Du, Jincheng
2011-03-01
Zircon and Reidite are the polymorphs of Zirconium Silicate which find its importance geologically, because of its natural hosting to various radioactive elements in the crust of the earth. High permittivity also makes it a promising material for the gate dielectric material in metal-oxide semiconductors. Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and the phonon based calculations is very critical to understand the high temperature and high pressure properties in order to consider its application as an effective natural storage for the radioactive wastes. These properties are thoroughly studied both computationally and experimentally for zircon, while significantly less attention was paid to reidite in the literature. The thermodynamic properties and phonon calculations of Zircon and Reidite were studied using ab initio based periodic density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Various properties such as free energy, internal energy, entropy, heat capacity and thermal displacement as a function of temperature is calculated using the PHONON software. Various phonon based density of states and dispersion curves are calculated and compared with the experimental data. No first principles based computational results were reported up to now. Calculated bulk properties agree very well with the experimental data in the literature.
Ab-initio crystal structure prediction. A case study: NaBH{sub 4}
Caputo, Riccarda; Tekin, Adem
2011-07-15
Crystal structure prediction from first principles is still one of the most challenging and interesting issue in condensed matter science. we explored the potential energy surface of NaBH{sub 4} by a combined ab-initio approach, based on global structure optimizations and quantum chemistry. In particular, we used simulated annealing (SA) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The methodology enabled the identification of several local minima, of which the global minimum corresponded to the tetragonal ground-state structure (P4{sub 2}/nmc), and the prediction of higher energy stable structures, among them a monoclinic (Pm) one was identified to be 22.75 kJ/mol above the ground-state at T=298 K. In between, orthorhombic and cubic structures were recovered, in particular those with Pnma and F4-bar 3m symmetries. - Graphical abstract: The total electron energy difference of the calculated stable structures. Here, the tetragonal (IT 137) and the monoclinic (IT 6) symmetry groups corresponded to the lowest and the highest energy structures, respectively. Highlights: > Potential energy surface of NaBH{sub 4} is investigated. > This is done a combination of global structure optimizations based on simulated annealing and density functional calculations. > We successfully reproduced experimentally found tetragonal and orthorhombic structures of NaBH{sub 4}. > Furthermore, we found a new stable high energy structure.
Ab initio computations of photodissociation products of CFC alternatives
Tai, S.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E.
1995-12-31
Ab initio computations, have already been used to examine the energetics of the photodissociation of stratospheric chlorofluorocarbons. Our awn research has investigated the ab initio computation of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}H, and CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}; continuing research will attempt to expand these computations to the energetics of the photodissociation of these molecules, since sane of the most common types of chlorofluorocarbon substitutes are hydrofluoroethanes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svoboda, Ondřej; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr
2011-10-01
We have applied ab initio based reflection principle to simulate photoelectron spectra of small water clusters, ranging from monomer to octamer. The role of quantum and thermal effects on the structure of the water photoelectron spectra is discussed within the ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) framework. We have used the PIMD method with up to 40 beads to sample the ground state quantum distribution at temperature T = 180 K. We have thoroughly tested the performance of various density functionals (B3LYP, BHandHLYP, M06HF, BNL, LC-ωPBE, and CAM-B3LYP) for the ionization process description. The benchmarking based on a comparison of simulated photoelectron spectra to experimental data and high level equation-of-motion ionization potential coupled clusters with singles and doubles calculations has singled out the BHandHLYP and LC-ωPBE functionals as the most reliable ones for simulations of light induced processes in water. The good performance of the density functional theory functionals to model the water photoelectron spectra also reflects their ability to reliably describe open shell excited states. The width of the photoelectron spectrum converges quickly with the cluster size as it is controlled by specific interactions of local character. The peak position is, on the other hand, defined by long-range non-specific solvent effects; it therefore only slowly converges to the corresponding bulk value. We are able to reproduce the experimental valence photoelectron spectrum of liquid water within the combined model of the water octamer embedded in a polarizable dielectric continuum. We demonstrate that including the long-range polarization and the state-specific treatment of the solvent response are needed for a reliable liquid water ionization description.
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-06-28
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup HL}, and CBS-37{sup HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup HL} and CBS-37{sup HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.
An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.
Ab initio calculations of correlated electron dynamics in ultrashort pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feist, Johannes
2010-03-01
The availability of ultrashort and intense light pulses on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale promises to allow to directly probe and control electron dynamics on their natural timescale. A crucial ingredient to understanding the dynamics in many-electron systems is the influence of electron correlation, induced by the interelectronic repulsion. In order to study electron correlation in ultrafast processes, we have implemented an ab initio simulation of the two-electron dynamics in helium atoms. We solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in its full dimensionality, with one temporal and five spatial degrees of freedom in linearly polarized laser fields. In our computational approach, the wave function is represented through a combination of time-dependent close coupling with the finite element discrete variable representation, while time propagation is performed using an Arnoldi-Lanczos approximation with adaptive step size. This approach is optimized to allow for efficient parallelization of the program and has been shown to scale linearly using up to 1800 processor cores for typical problem sizes. This has allowed us to perform highly accurate and well- converged computations for the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with He. I will present some recent results on using attosecond and femtosecond pulses to probe and control the temporal structure of the ionization process. This work was performed in collaboration with Stefan Nagele, Renate Pazourek, Andreas Kaltenb"ack, Emil Persson, Barry I. Schneider, Lee A. Collins, and Joachim Burgd"orfer.
Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of ion hydration free energies.
Leung, Kevin; Rempe, Susan B; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole
2009-05-28
We apply ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods in conjunction with the thermodynamic integration or "lambda-path" technique to compute the intrinsic hydration free energies of Li(+), Cl(-), and Ag(+) ions. Using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional, adapting methods developed for classical force field applications, and with consistent assumptions about surface potential (phi) contributions, we obtain absolute AIMD hydration free energies (DeltaG(hyd)) within a few kcal/mol, or better than 4%, of Tissandier et al.'s [J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7787 (1998)] experimental values augmented with the SPC/E water model phi predictions. The sums of Li(+)/Cl(-) and Ag(+)/Cl(-) AIMD DeltaG(hyd), which are not affected by surface potentials, are within 2.6% and 1.2 % of experimental values, respectively. We also report the free energy changes associated with the transition metal ion redox reaction Ag(+)+Ni(+)-->Ag+Ni(2+) in water. The predictions for this reaction suggest that existing estimates of DeltaG(hyd) for unstable radiolysis intermediates such as Ni(+) may need to be extensively revised.
First fully ab initio potential energy surface of methane with a spectroscopic accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.
2016-09-01
Full 9-dimensional ab initio potential energy surfaces for the methane molecule are constructed using extended electronic structure coupled-cluster calculations with various series of basis sets following increasing X cardinal numbers: cc-pVXZ (X = 3, 4, 5, 6), aug-cc-ACVXZ (X = 3, 4, 5), and cc-pCVXZ-F12 (X = 3, 4). High-order dynamic electron correlations including triple and quadrupole excitations as well as relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer breakdown corrections were accounted for. Analytical potential functions are parametrized as non-polynomial expansions in internal coordinates in irreducible tensor representation. Vibrational energy levels are reported using global variational nuclear motion calculations with exact kinetic energy operator and a full account of the tetrahedral symmetry of CH4. Our best ab initio surface including above-mentioned contributions provides the rms (obs.-calc.) errors of less than 0.11 cm-1 for vibrational band centers below 4700 cm-1, and ˜0.3 cm-1 for all 229 assigned experimentally determined vibrational levels up to the Icosad range <7900 cm-1 without empirically adjusted parameters. These results improve the accuracy of ab initio methane vibrational predictions by more than an order of magnitude with respect to previous works. This is an unprecedented accuracy of first-principles calculations of a five-atomic molecule for such a large data set. New ab initio potential results in significantly better band center predictions even in comparison with best available empirically corrected potential energy surfaces. The issues related to the basis set extrapolation and an additivity of various corrections at this level of accuracy are discussed.
Jacob, Rebecca; Tate, Margaret; Banti, Yididya; Rix, Colin; Mainwaring, David E
2008-01-17
Despite the complex phenomena involved in encoding template molecule information within stable synthetic polymers to yield selective and efficient molecular recognition processes, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are increasingly finding broad areas of application. Molecular interactions, both during the polymerization of the functional monomers in the presence of the template and during the processes of specific recognition after template removal, are key determinants of an effective MIP. Covalent and noncovalent template imprinting have been employed to achieve specific recognition sites. In the present study, a molecularly imprinted biocompatible polymer, having a high capacity and affinity for the dye template, nickel(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid, has been prepared. UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and ICP analysis were used to investigate the aspects of the synthesis, binding capacity, and adsorption kinetics of the system. Poly(allylamine) cross-linked with epichlorohydrin has been used to represent an amino-functional receptor. Binding isotherms and capacities were correlated with the degree of template removal. Kinetic studies of binding allowed diffusion mechanisms to be evaluated for the fine particulate MIP. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed using Hartree-Fock, MP2, and density functional theory methods to determine the most likely mechanisms of molecular imprinting. Suitable theoretical models have been constructed to mimic the interactions between the template molecule and the polymer. Simulation of the vibrational spectra was also undertaken to make meaningful assignments to experimentally determined spectral bands resulting from these template MIP receptor interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Ram Sevak; Solanki, Ankit
2016-03-01
Silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) have received a great deal of scientific and commercial interest due to their intriguing properties that include high temperature stability and electronic properties. For their efficient and widespread applications, tuning of electronic properties of SiCNTs is an attractive study. In this article, electronic properties of sulphur doped (S-doped) zigzag (9 , 0) SiCNT is investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Energy band structures and density of states of fully optimized undoped and doped structures with varying dopant concentration are calculated. S-doped on C-site of the nanotube exhibits a monotonic reduction of energy gap with increase in dopant concentration, and the nanotube transforms from semiconductor to metal at high dopant concentration. In case of S-doped on Si-site doping has less influence on modulating electronic structures, which results in reduction of energy gap up to a moderate doping concentration. Importantly, S preferential substitutes of Si-sites and the nanotube with S-doped on Si-site are energetically more stable as compared to the nanotube with S-doped on C-site. The study of tunable electronic properties in S-doped SiCNT may have potential in fabricating nanoelectronic devices, hydrogen storage and gas sensing applications.
Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.
2015-12-28
The structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminum garnet Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} are studied under high pressure by ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependences of bond length and bulk moduli of the constituent polyhedra are reported. The evolution of the elastic constants and the major elastic properties, Young and shear modulus, Poisson's ratios, and Zener anisotropy ratio, are described. The mechanical stability is analyzed, on the light of “Born generalized stability criteria,” showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 116 GPa. Symmetries, frequencies, and pressure coefficients of the Raman-active modes are discussed on the basis of the calculated total and partial phonon density of states, which reflect the dynamical contribution of each atom. The relations between the phonon modes of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and the internal and external molecular modes of the different polyhedra are discussed. Infrared-active modes, as well as the silent modes, and their pressure dependence are also investigated. No dynamical instabilities were found below 116 GPa.
Ab initio study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of ultrathin lead nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, B. K.; Singh, V.; Srivastava, R.; Agrawal, S.
2006-12-01
An ab initio study of the energetic, structural, electronic, and optical absorption properties of the 26 lead nanowires, Pbn (n=1,18) having different m -gonal (m=1-8) cross sections has been made in the density functional theory in local density approximation considering also the spin-orbit coupling (SOI). There are four groups of the stable structures: planar, caged, pyramidal, and helical. The binding energy of a nanowire, in general, increases with the coordination number except in those systems where the nearest neighbors are comparatively far away. A 14-Pb hexagonal helical configuration has maximum stability followed by the heptagonal, other hexagonal, and pentagonal wires. All the nanowires are metallic. The exceptions are the 2-Pb and 3-Pb semiconducting nanowires. A large number of the conduction channels leading to high quantum ballistic conduction are seen for a number of the m -gonal (m=4-8) configuration wires. The calculated optical absorption without and with the SOI are quite different in terms of the number of the absorption peaks which are enhanced approximately by a multiplying factor of 2 by the SOI. The m -gonal (m=4-8) nanowires reveal multipeaked, strong, and extended optical absorption over the whole visible region. Our analysis of the experimental data for the Pb samples that have been fabricated by Romanov points towards the occurrence of the 2-Pb ladder chains.
Ab Initio study of the diffusion mechanisms of gallium in a silicon matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levasseur-Smith, K.; Mousseau, N.
2008-07-01
We present the results of a study into the diffusion mechanisms of Ga defects in crystalline Si using ab initio techniques. Five stable neutral configurations for single and multi-atom defects are identified by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations within the local density approximation and using a localized basis set as implemented in the SIESTA package. Formation energy (E_F) calculations on these stable structures show the most likely neutral single-atom defect to be the Ga substitutional, with an EF of 0.7 eV in good agreement with previous work. Charge state studies show the Ga tetrahedral interstitial defect to be in a +1 state for most doping conditions. They also indicate the possibility for a gallium substitutional-tetrahedral interstitial complex to act as a deactivating center for the Ga dopants except in n-doped regime, where the complex adopts a -1 charge state. Migration pathway calculations using SIESTA coupled with the activation relaxation technique (ART nouveau) allow us to determine possible migration paths from the stable configurations found, under various charge states. In general, diffusion barriers decrease as the charge state becomes more negative, suggesting that the presence of Si self-interstitials can enhance diffusion through the kicking out of substitutional Si and by adding negative charge carriers to the system. An overall picture of a possible Ga diffusion and complex formation mechanism is presented based on these results.
Ab initio calculation of bowl, cage, and ring isomers of C20 and C20-.
An, Wei; Gao, Yi; Bulusu, Satya; Zeng, X C
2005-05-22
High-level ab initio calculations have been carried out to reexamine relative stability of bowl, cage, and ring isomers of C(20) and C(20)(-). The total electronic energies of the three isomers show different energy orderings, strongly depending on the hybrid functionals selected. It is found that among three popular hybrid density-functional (DF) methods B3LYP, B3PW91, PBE1PBE, and a new hybrid-meta-DF method TPSSKCIS, only the PBE1PBE method (with cc-pVTZ basis set) gives qualitatively correct energy ordering as that predicted from ab initio CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ [CCSD(T)-coupled-cluster method including singles, doubles, and noniterative perturbative triples; cc-pVDZ-correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta] as well as from MP4(SDQ)/cc-pVTZ [MP4-fourth-order Moller-Plesset; cc-pVTZ-correlation consistent polarized valence triple zeta] calculations. Both CCSD(T) and MP4 calculations indicate that the bowl is most likely the global minimum of neutral C(20) isomers, followed by the fullerene cage and ring. For the anionic counterparts, the PBE1PBE calculation also agrees with MP4/cc-pVTZ calculation, both predicting that the bowl is still the lowest-energy structure of C(20)(-) at T=0 K, followed by the ring and the cage. In contrast, both B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and B3PW91/cc-pVTZ calculations predict that the ring is the lowest-energy structure of C(20)(-). Apparently, this good reliability in predicting the energy ordering renders the hybrid PBE method a leading choice for predicting relative stability among large-sized carbon clusters and other carbon nanostructures (e.g., finite-size carbon nanotubes, nano-onions, or nanohorns). The relative stabilities derived from total energy with Gibbs free-energy corrections demonstrate a changing ordering in which ring becomes more favorable for both C(20) and C(20)(-) at high temperatures. Finally, photoelectron spectra (PES) for the anionic C(20)(-) isomers have been computed. With binding energies up to 7 eV, the
Resolution of ab initio shapes determined from small-angle scattering.
Tuukkanen, Anne T; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Svergun, Dmitri I
2016-11-01
Spatial resolution is an important characteristic of structural models, and the authors of structures determined by X-ray crystallography or electron cryo-microscopy always provide the resolution upon publication and deposition. Small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons (SAS) has recently become a mainstream structural method providing the overall three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and complexes in solution. However, no quantitative resolution measure is available for SAS-derived models, which significantly hampers their validation and further use. Here, a method is derived for resolution assessment for ab initio shape reconstruction from scattering data. The inherent variability of the ab initio shapes is utilized and it is demonstrated how their average Fourier shell correlation function is related to the model resolution. The method is validated against simulated data for proteins with known high-resolution structures and its efficiency is demonstrated in applications to experimental data. It is proposed that henceforth the resolution be reported in publications and depositions of ab initio SAS models.
Ab Initio Prediction of Adsorption Isotherms for Small Molecules in Metal-Organic Frameworks.
Kundu, Arpan; Piccini, GiovanniMaria; Sillar, Kaido; Sauer, Joachim
2016-10-17
For CO and N2 on Mg(2+) sites of the metal-organic framework CPO-27-Mg (Mg-MOF-74), ab initio calculations of Gibbs free energies of adsorption have been performed. Combined with the Bragg-Williams/Langmuir model and taking into account the experimental site availability (76.5%), we obtained adsorption isotherms in close agreement with those in experiment. The remaining deviations in the Gibbs free energy (about 1 kJ/mol) are significantly smaller than the "chemical accuracy" limit of about 4 kJ/mol. The presented approach uses (i) a DFT dispersion method (PBE+D2) to optimize the structure and to calculate anharmonic frequencies for vibrational partition functions and (ii) a "hybrid MP2:(PBE+D2)+ΔCCSD(T)" method to determine electronic energies. With the achieved accuracy (estimated uncertainty ±1.4 kJ/mol), the ab initio energies become useful benchmarks for assessing different DFT + dispersion methods (PBE+D2, B3LYP+D*, and vdW-D2), whereas the ab initio heats, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of adsorption are used to assess the reliability of experimental values derived from fitting isotherms or from variable-temperature IR studies.
An ab initio calculation of the fundamental and overtone HCl stretching vibrations for the HCl dimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Per; Bunker, P. R.; Epa, V. C.; Karpfen, A.
1992-02-01
We have previously determined an analytical ab initio six-dimensional potential energy surface for the HCl dimer, and have used it to determine the minimum energy path for the trans-tunneling motion. In the present paper we refine this path by fitting to data. We calculate a further 178 ab initio points in order to determine the HCl stretching energies, and HCl stretching dipole moment functions, at eight positions along the minimum energy path. We use these ab initio results to compute the stretching wavenumbers and transition moments from the v1 = v2 = 0 state to all states of (HCl) 2 that have v1 + v2 ≤ 3, where v1 and v2 are the local mode quantum numbers for the HCl stretching vibrations. In doing this calculation we have assumed an adiabatic separation of the HCl stretching motion from the other vibrational motions in the dimer, and have used the semirigid bender Hamiltonian to average over the trans-tunneling motion. We obtain the fundamental "free-H" stretch v1 at 2877 cm -1 and the fundamental "bound-H" stretch v2 at 2861 cm -1; the experimental values are 2880 and 2854 cm -1, respectively.
Resolution of ab initio shapes determined from small-angle scattering
Tuukkanen, Anne T.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Svergun, Dmitri I.
2016-01-01
Spatial resolution is an important characteristic of structural models, and the authors of structures determined by X-ray crystallography or electron cryo-microscopy always provide the resolution upon publication and deposition. Small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons (SAS) has recently become a mainstream structural method providing the overall three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and complexes in solution. However, no quantitative resolution measure is available for SAS-derived models, which significantly hampers their validation and further use. Here, a method is derived for resolution assessment for ab initio shape reconstruction from scattering data. The inherent variability of the ab initio shapes is utilized and it is demonstrated how their average Fourier shell correlation function is related to the model resolution. The method is validated against simulated data for proteins with known high-resolution structures and its efficiency is demonstrated in applications to experimental data. It is proposed that henceforth the resolution be reported in publications and depositions of ab initio SAS models. PMID:27840683
González-Cataldo, F.; Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, B.
2014-05-20
By combining density functional molecular dynamics simulations with a thermodynamic integration technique, we determine the free energy of metallic hydrogen and silica, SiO{sub 2}, at megabar pressures and thousands of degrees Kelvin. Our ab initio solubility calculations show that silica dissolves into fluid hydrogen above 5000 K for pressures from 10 and 40 Mbars, which has implications for the evolution of rocky cores in giant gas planets like Jupiter, Saturn, and a substantial fraction of known extrasolar planets. Our findings underline the necessity of considering the erosion and redistribution of core materials in giant planet evolution models, but they also demonstrate that hot metallic hydrogen is a good solvent at megabar pressures, which has implications for high-pressure experiments.
Ab initio GW quasiparticle energies of small sodium clusters by an all-electron mixed-basis approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Soh; Ohno, Kaoru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Louie, Steven G.
2001-04-01
A state-of-the-art GW calculation is carried out for small sodium clusters, Na2, Na4, Na6, and Na8. The quasiparticle energies are evaluated by employing an ab initio GW code based on an all-electron mixed-basis approach, which uses both plane waves and atomic orbitals as basis functions. The calculated ionization potential and the electron affinity are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The exchange and correlation parts to the electron self-energy within the GW approximation are presented from the viewpoint of their size dependence. In addition, the effect of the off-diagonal elements of the self-energy corrections to the local-density-approximation exchange-correlation potential is discussed. Na2 and Na8 have a larger energy gap than Na4 and Na6, consistent with the fact that they are magic number clusters.
Sun, Y. Y.; Lee, K.; Kim, Y. H.; Zhang, S. B.
2009-01-01
Ab initio calculations show that Ca can decorate organic linkers of metal-organic framework, MOF-5, with a binding energy of 1.25 eV. The Ca-decorated MOF-5 can store molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in both high gravimetric (4.6 wt %) and high volumetric (36 g/l) capacities. Even higher capacities (5.7 wt % and 45 g/l) can be obtained in a rationally designed covalent organic framework system, COF-{alpha}, with decorated Ca. Both density functional theory and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation calculations show that the H{sub 2} binding in these systems is significantly stronger than the van der Waals interactions, which is required for H{sub 2} storage at near ambient conditions.
Grotemeyer, Michael; Pehlke, Eckhard
2014-01-31
In this Letter, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory for the electrons and Ehrenfest dynamics for the nuclei are reported that detail the interaction of a vibrating HCl molecule with an Al(111) substrate. The mechanism responsible for the strong electron-hole-pair (EHP)-vibrational coupling in case of highly vibrationally excited molecules is traced back to a large eigenenergy shift of the spz*-like antibonding HCl lowest unoccupied molecular orbital with the bond length. As a consequence of this mechanism, the electronic excitation spectra turn out to be highly asymmetric. The simulations suggest an explanation of how to reconcile a strong EHP-vibrational coupling in case of highly vibrationally excited molecules with the small, but clearly evident, electronic contribution to the v=0 → v=1 vibrational excitation observed experimentally during the scattering of HCl molecules at a hot Au surface by Ran et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 237601 (2007)].
Ab initio investigations of A-site doping on the structure and electric polarization of HoMnO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
S, Sathya Sheela; C, Kanagaraj; Natesan, Baskaran
2015-06-01
We have investigated the effect of A-site doping on the structure and electric polarization of orthorhombic HoMnO3 using ab initio density functional theory calculations. We find that the substitution of rare earth ions, such as Lu, Y and La in place of Ho in orthorhombic HoMnO3 modifies the local structure around Mn ions drastically, and leads to the formation of two distinct Mn sites Mn(0) and Mn(1). As a result, large variance between Mn(0)O6 and Mn(1)O6 octahedral distortions arises. This variance in the octahedral distortions drives the disparate hopping of electrons between the eg orbitals enhancing the electronic polarization with increasing rare earth ion radius. The largest polarization of 7 µC/cm2 is obtained for La doped HoMnO3. This increase in polarization has been explained on the basis of radius mismatch induced local structural effects.
Efficient conformational space exploration in ab initio protein folding simulation
Ullah, Ahammed; Ahmed, Nasif; Pappu, Subrata Dey; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Ullah, A. Z. M. Dayem; Rahman, M. Sohel
2015-01-01
Ab initio protein folding simulation largely depends on knowledge-based energy functions that are derived from known protein structures using statistical methods. These knowledge-based energy functions provide us with a good approximation of real protein energetics. However, these energy functions are not very informative for search algorithms and fail to distinguish the types of amino acid interactions that contribute largely to the energy function from those that do not. As a result, search algorithms frequently get trapped into the local minima. On the other hand, the hydrophobic–polar (HP) model considers hydrophobic interactions only. The simplified nature of HP energy function makes it limited only to a low-resolution model. In this paper, we present a strategy to derive a non-uniform scaled version of the real 20×20 pairwise energy function. The non-uniform scaling helps tackle the difficulty faced by a real energy function, whereas the integration of 20×20 pairwise information overcomes the limitations faced by the HP energy function. Here, we have applied a derived energy function with a genetic algorithm on discrete lattices. On a standard set of benchmark protein sequences, our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for similar models. Our approach has been able to explore regions of the conformational space which all the previous methods have failed to explore. Effectiveness of the derived energy function is presented by showing qualitative differences and similarities of the sampled structures to the native structures. Number of objective function evaluation in a single run of the algorithm is used as a comparison metric to demonstrate efficiency. PMID:26361554
Efficient conformational space exploration in ab initio protein folding simulation.
Ullah, Ahammed; Ahmed, Nasif; Pappu, Subrata Dey; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Ullah, A Z M Dayem; Rahman, M Sohel
2015-08-01
Ab initio protein folding simulation largely depends on knowledge-based energy functions that are derived from known protein structures using statistical methods. These knowledge-based energy functions provide us with a good approximation of real protein energetics. However, these energy functions are not very informative for search algorithms and fail to distinguish the types of amino acid interactions that contribute largely to the energy function from those that do not. As a result, search algorithms frequently get trapped into the local minima. On the other hand, the hydrophobic-polar (HP) model considers hydrophobic interactions only. The simplified nature of HP energy function makes it limited only to a low-resolution model. In this paper, we present a strategy to derive a non-uniform scaled version of the real 20×20 pairwise energy function. The non-uniform scaling helps tackle the difficulty faced by a real energy function, whereas the integration of 20×20 pairwise information overcomes the limitations faced by the HP energy function. Here, we have applied a derived energy function with a genetic algorithm on discrete lattices. On a standard set of benchmark protein sequences, our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for similar models. Our approach has been able to explore regions of the conformational space which all the previous methods have failed to explore. Effectiveness of the derived energy function is presented by showing qualitative differences and similarities of the sampled structures to the native structures. Number of objective function evaluation in a single run of the algorithm is used as a comparison metric to demonstrate efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard
2016-03-01
A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower.
Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard
2016-03-21
A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Campos, Tiago; Bastos, Carlos M. O.; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav; Sipahi, Guilherme M.
2016-06-01
Semiconductor nanowires based on non-nitride III-V compounds can be synthesized under certain growth conditions to favor the appearance of the wurtzite crystal phase. Despite reports in the literature of ab initio band structures for these wurtzite compounds, we still lack effective multiband models and parameter sets that can be simply used to investigate physical properties of such systems, for instance, under quantum confinement effects. In order to address this deficiency, in this study we calculate the ab initio band structure of bulk InAs and InP in the wurtzite phase and develop an 8 ×8 k .p Hamiltonian to describe the energy bands around the Γ point. We show that our k .p model is robust and can be fitted to describe the important features of the ab initio band structure. The correct description of the spin-splitting effects that arise due to the lack of inversion symmetry in wurtzite crystals is obtained with the k -dependent spin-orbit term in the Hamiltonian, often neglected in the literature. All the energy bands display a Rashba-like spin texture for the in-plane spin expectation value. We also provide the density of states and the carrier density as functions of the Fermi energy. Alternatively, we show an analytical description of the conduction band, valid close to the Γ point. The same fitting procedure is applied to the 6 ×6 valence band Hamiltonian. However, we find that the most reliable approach is the 8 ×8 k .p Hamiltonian for both compounds. The k .p Hamiltonians and parameter sets that we develop in this paper provide a reliable theoretical framework that can be easily applied to investigate electronic, transport, optical, and spin properties of InAs- and InP-based nanostructures.
Molecular tailoring approach: a route for ab initio treatment of large clusters.
Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R
2014-09-16
Conspectus Chemistry on the scale of molecular clusters may be dramatically different from that in the macroscopic bulk. Greater understanding of chemistry in this size regime could greatly influence fields such as materials science and atmospheric and environmental chemistry. Recent advances in experimental techniques and computational resources have led to accurate investigations of the energies and spectral properties of weakly bonded molecular clusters. These have enabled researchers to learn how the physicochemical properties evolve from individual molecules to bulk materials and to understand the growth patterns of clusters. Experimental techniques such as infrared, microwave, and photoelectron spectroscopy are the most popular and powerful tools for probing molecular clusters. In general, these experimental techniques do not directly reveal the atomistic details of the clusters but provide data from which the structural details need to be unearthed. Furthermore, the resolution of the spectral properties of energetically close cluster conformers can be prohibitively difficult. Thus, these investigations of molecular aggregates require a combination of experiments and theory. On the theoretical front, researchers have been actively engaged in quantum chemical ab initio calculations as well as simulation-based studies for the last few decades. To obtain reliable results, there is a need to use correlated methods such as Møller-Plesset second order method, coupled cluster theory, or dispersion corrected density functional theory. However, due to nonlinear scaling of these methods, optimizing the geometry of large clusters still remains a formidable quantum chemistry challenge. Fragment-based methods, such as divide-and-conquer, molecular tailoring approach (MTA), fragment molecular orbitals, and generalized energy-based fragmentation approach, provide alternatives for overcoming the scaling problem for spatially extended molecular systems. Within MTA, a large
Infrared signature of micro-hydration in the organophosphate sarin: An ab initio study
Alam, Todd M.; Pearce, Charles Joseph
2015-06-28
The infrared (IR) spectra of micro-hydrated Sarin•(H2O)n clusters containing between one and four explicit waters have been studied using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. The phosphate group P=O bond vibration region (~1270 to 1290 cm–1) revealed the largest frequency variation with hydration, with a frequency red shift reflecting the direct hydrogen bond formation between the P=O of Sarin and water. Small variations to the P-F stretch (~810 to 815 cm–1) and the C-O-P vibrational modes (~995 to 1004 cm–1) showed that the water interactions with these functional groups were minor, and that the structures of Sarin were notmore » extensively perturbed in the hydrated complexes. Increasing the number of explicit hydration waters produced only small vibrational changes in the lowest free energy complexes. These minor changes were consistent with a single water-phosphate hydrogen bond being the dominant structure, though a second water-phosphate hydrogen bond was observed in some complexes and was identified by an additional red shift of the P=O bond vibration. As a result, the H2O•H2O vibrational modes (~3450 to 3660 cm–1) increased in complexity with higher hydration levels and reflect the extended hydrogen bonding networks formed between the explicit waters in the hydrated Sarin clusters.« less
Ottonello, G; Zuccolini, M Vetuschi; Belmonte, D
2010-09-14
We present the results of a computational investigation with ab initio procedures of the structure-energy and vibrational properties of silica clusters in a dielectric continuum with dielectric constant ε=3.8, through density functional theory/B3LYP gas phase calculations coupled with a polarized continuum model approach [integral equation formalism applied to a polarized continuum (IEFPCM)] and those of the periodical structure D(6h) which leads to the α-cristobalite polymorph of silica when subjected to symmetry operations with the same functional within the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approximation and in the framework of Bloch's theorem. Based on the computed energies and vibrational features, an aggregate of the D(6h) network and the monomer locally ordered in the short-medium range and both present in the glass in a mutual arrangement lacking of spatial continuity reproduces satisfactorily the experimentally observed low T heat capacity and the deviation from the Debye T(3) law. Above T(g), the experimental heat capacity of the liquid is perfectly reproduced summing to the internal modes the translational and rotational contributions to the bulk heat capacity and subtracting the (acoustic) terms arising from coherent motion (no longer existent).
Ab initio studies on the structure of and atomic interactions in cellulose III(I) crystals.
Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Daichi; Miyamoto, Hitomi; Ozawa, Motoyasu; Ozawa, Tomonaga; Ueda, Kazuyoshi
2015-11-19
The crystal structure of cellulose III(I)was analyzed using first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The geometry was optimized using variable-cell relaxation, as implemented in Quantum ESPRESSO. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional with a correction term for long-range van der Waals interactions (PBE-D) reproduced the experimental structure well. By using the optimized crystal structure, the interactions existed among the cellulose chains in the crystal were precisely investigated using the NBO analysis. The results showed that the weak bonding nature of CH/O and the hydrogen bonding occur among glucose molecules in the optimized crystal structure. To investigate the strength of interaction, dimeric and trimeric glucose units were extracted from the crystal, and analyzed using MP2 ab initio counterpoise methods with BSSE correction. The results estimated the strength of the interactions. That is, the packed chains along with a-axis interacts with weak bonding nature of CH/O and dispersion interactions by -7.50 kcal/mol, and two hydrogen bonds of O2HO2…O6 and O6HO6…O2 connect the neighboring packed chains with -11.9 kcal/mol. Moreover, FMO4 calculation was also applied to the optimized crystal structure to estimate the strength of the interactions. These methods can well estimate the interactions existed in the crystal structure of cellulose III(I).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dézerald, Lucile; Ventelon, Lisa; Willaime, François; Clouet, Emmanuel; Rodney, David
2014-06-01
Ab initio methods, based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT), have been extensively used to study point defects and defect clusters in materials. Present HPC resources and DFT codes now allow similar investigations to be performed on dislocations. The study of these extended defects requires not only larger simulation cells but also a higher accuracy because the energy differences, which are involved, are rather small, typically 50-to-100 meV for supercells containing 50-to-500 atoms. The topology of the Peierls potential of screw dislocations with 1/2 <111>Burgers vector, i.e. the 2D energy landscape seen by these dislocations, is being completely revisited by DFT calculations. From results obtained in all body-centered cubic (bcc) transition metals, except Cr (V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W and Fe), using the PWSCF code, which is part of the Quantum-Espresso package, we concluded that the 2D Peierls potentials have two common features: the single-hump shape of the barrier between two minima of the potential, and the presence of a maximum - and not a minimum as predicted by most empirical potentials - around the split core. In iron, the topology of the Peierls potential is reversed compared to the classical sinusoidal picture: the location of the saddle point and the maximum are indeed inverted with unexpected flat regions. The first results obtained within the framework of the PRACE project, DIMAIM (DIslocations in Metals using Ab Initio Methods), started at the beginning of 2013, will also be presented. In particular, in order to address the twinning-antitwinning asymmetry often observed in bcc metals and regarded as the major contribution to the breakdown of Schmid's law, we have determined the crystal orientation dependence of the Peierls stress, i.e. the critical stress required for dislocation motion. These computationally most expensive simulations were performed on the PRACE Tier-0 system at Barcelona Supercomputing Center (Marenostrum III). The scalability results
Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics
Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.
2014-02-28
Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.
Motif based Hessian matrixfor ab initio geometry optimization ofnanostructures
Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan
2006-04-05
A simple method to estimate the atomic degree Hessian matrixof a nanosystem is presented. The estimated Hessian matrix, based on themotif decomposition of the nanosystem, can be used to accelerate abinitio atomic relaxations with speedups of 2 to 4 depending on the sizeof the system. In addition, the programing implementation for using thismethod in a standard ab initio package is trivial.
The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent developments such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is shown that new developments in methodology combined with improvements in computer hardware are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.
The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed with an emphasis on recent developments, such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is found that new developments in methodology, combined with improvements in computer hardware, are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.
Moura, Gustavo L C; Simas, Alfredo M
2012-04-05
In this article, we advance the foundations of a strategy to develop a molecular mechanics method based not on classical mechanics and force fields but entirely on quantum mechanics and localized electron-pair orbitals, which we call quantum molecular mechanics (QMM). Accordingly, we introduce a new manner of calculating Hartree-Fock ab initio wavefunctions of closed shell systems based on variationally preoptimized nonorthogonal electron pair orbitals constructed by linear combinations of basis functions centered on the atoms. QMM is noniterative and requires only one extremely fast inversion of a single sparse matrix to arrive to the one-particle density matrix, to the electron density, and consequently, to the ab initio electrostatic potential around the molecular system, or cluster of molecules. Although QMM neglects the smaller polarization effects due to intermolecular interactions, it fully takes into consideration polarization effects due to the much stronger intramolecular geometry distortions. For the case of methane, we show that QMM was able to reproduce satisfactorily the energetics and polarization effects of all distortions of the molecule along the nine normal modes of vibration, well beyond the harmonic region. We present the first practical applications of the QMM method by examining, in detail, the cases of clusters of helium atoms, hydrogen molecules, methane molecules, as well as one molecule of HeH(+) surrounded by several methane molecules. We finally advance and discuss the potentialities of an exact formula to compute the QMM total energy, in which only two center integrals are involved, provided that the fully optimized electron-pair orbitals are known.
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-28
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green’s function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces.
Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2016-07-01
Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism.
Ab initio study of stability and migration of H and He in hcp-Sc.
Yang, L; Peng, S M; Long, X G; Gao, F; Heinisch, H L; Kurtz, R J; Zu, X T
2011-01-26
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to determine the relative stabilities and migration of H and He atoms in hcp-Sc. The results show that the formation energy of an interstitial H or He atom is smaller than that of a corresponding substitutional atom. The tetrahedral (T) interstitial position is more stable than an octahedral (O) position for both He and H interstitials. The nudged elastic band method has been used to study the migration of interstitial H and He atoms in hcp-Sc. It is found that the migration energy barriers for H interstitials in hcp-Sc are significantly different from those for He interstitials, but their migration mechanisms are similar. In addition, the formation energies of five different configurations of a H-H pair were determined, revealing that the most stable configuration consists of two H atoms located at the second-neighbor tetrahedral interstitial sites along the hexagonal direction. The formation and relative stabilities of some small He clusters have also been investigated.
Ab initio study of stability and migration of H and He in hcp-Sc
Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Zu, Xiaotao T.
2011-01-05
Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to determine the relative stabilities and migration of H and He atoms in hcp-Sc. The results show that the formation energy of an interstitial H or He atom is smaller than that of a corresponding substitutional atom. The tetrahedral (T) interstitial position is more stable than an octahedral (O) position for both He and H interstitials. The nudged elastic band method has been used to study the migration of interstitial H and He atomss in hcp-Sc. It is found that the migration energy barriers for H interstitials in hcp-Sc are significantly different from those for He interstitials, but that their migration mechanisms are similar. In addition, the formation energies of five different configurations of a He-He pair were determined, revealing that the most stable configuration consists of two He atoms located at the second-neighbor tetrahedral interstitial sites along the c axis. The formation and relative stabilities of some small He clusters have also been investigated.
An ab initio study of the polytypism in InP
Dacal, Luis C. O.; Cantarero, A.
2016-01-01
The existence of polytypism in semiconductor nanostructures gives rise to the appearance of stacking faults which many times can be treated as quantum wells. In some cases, despite of a careful growth, the polytypism can be hardly avoided. In this work, we perform an ab initio study of zincblende stacking faults in a wurtzite InP system, using the supercell approach and taking the limit of low density of narrow stacking faults regions. Our results confirm the type II band alignment between the phases, producing a reliable qualitative description of the band gap evolution along the growth axis. These results show an spacial asymmetry in the zincblende quantum wells, that is expected due to the fact that the wurtzite stacking sequence (ABAB) is part of the zincblende one (ABCABC), but with an unexpected asymmetry between the valence and the conduction bands. We also present results for the complex dielectric function, clearly showing the influence of the stacking on the homostructure values and surprisingly proving that the correspondent bulk results can be used to reproduce the polytypism even in the limit we considered. PMID:27666092
Ab-initio study of free standing TiO2 clusters: Stability and magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rana, T. H.; Kumar, Pankaj; Solanki, A. K.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.
2013-05-01
We report the structural behavior of nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) clusters as well as their magnetic properties by varying the cluster size with the help of ground state geometries. The clusters of atomic scale rutile (TiO2)n, where n = 1-11, have been considered and geometrically stabilized through the Density Functional Theory as implemented in Vienna ab-initio Simulation Package. It is being observed that as the size of cluster increases from n = 2 to 11, the total energy decreases. The results of formation energy reveal the fact that as the cluster grows, it moves towards the stability and it is observed that n = 11 is the most stable structure. The stabilized clusters are different in geometries and co-ordination numbers. Finally, all the clusters have been investigated with self consistent treatment of spin orbit coupling for magnetism studies. The magnetic properties of free clusters depict oscillatory behavior for magnetic moment with respect to the cluster size.
Progress in low-resolution ab initio phasing with CrowdPhase
Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.
2016-01-01
Ab initio phasing by direct computational methods in low-resolution X-ray crystallography is a long-standing challenge. A common approach is to consider it as two subproblems: sampling of phase space and identification of the correct solution. While the former is amenable to a myriad of search algorithms, devising a reliable target function for the latter problem remains an open question. Here, recent developments in CrowdPhase, a collaborative online game powered by a genetic algorithm that evolves an initial population of individuals with random genetic make-up (i.e. random phases) each expressing a phenotype in the form of an electron-density map, are presented. Success relies on the ability of human players to visually evaluate the quality of these maps and, following a Darwinian survival-of-the-fittest concept, direct the search towards optimal solutions. While an initial study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, some important crystallographic issues were overlooked for the sake of simplicity. To address these, the new CrowdPhase includes consideration of space-group symmetry, a method for handling missing amplitudes, the use of a map correlation coefficient as a quality metric and a solvent-flattening step. Performances of this installment are discussed for two low-resolution test cases based on bona fide diffraction data. PMID:26960132
Rafiee, Marjan; Javaheri, Masoumeh
2015-01-01
Tyrosinase is a multifunctional copper-containing enzyme. It can catalyze two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis and benzaldehyde derivatives, which are potential tyrosinase inhibitors. To find the relationships between charge distributions of benzaldehyde and their pharmaceutical behavior, the present study aimed at investigating nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of quadrupolare nuclei in the functional benzaldehyde group and calculating some its derivatives. In addition, the differences between the electronic structures of various derivatives of this depigmenting drug were examined. All ab initio calculations were carried out using Gaussian 03. The results predicted benzaldehyde derivatives to be bicentral inhibitors; nevertheless, the oxygen or hydrogen contents of the aldehyde group were not found to be the only active sites. Furthermore with the presence of the aldehyde group, the terminal methoxy group in C4 was found to contribute to tyrosinase inhibitory activities. In addition, an oxygen atom with high charge density in the side chain was found to play an important role in its inhibitory effect. PMID:27844007
Mali, Gregor
2017-03-01
Ab initio prediction of sensible crystal structures can be regarded as a crucial task in the quickly-developing methodology of NMR crystallography. In this contribution, an evolutionary algorithm was used for the prediction of magnesium (poly)sulfide crystal structures with various compositions. The employed approach successfully identified all three experimentally detected forms of MgS, i.e. the stable rocksalt form and the metastable wurtzite and zincblende forms. Among magnesium polysulfides with a higher content of sulfur, the most probable structure with the lowest formation energy was found to be MgS2, exhibiting a modified rocksalt structure, in which S(2-) anions were replaced by S2(2-) dianions. Magnesium polysulfides with even larger fractions of sulfur were not predicted to be stable. For the lowest-energy structures, (25)Mg quadrupolar coupling constants and chemical shift parameters were calculated using the density functional theory approach. The calculated NMR parameters could be well rationalized by the symmetries of the local magnesium environments, by the coordination of magnesium cations and by the nature of the surrounding anions. In the future, these parameters could serve as a reference for the experimentally determined (25)Mg NMR parameters of magnesium sulfide species.
Progress in low-resolution ab initio phasing with CrowdPhase.
Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O
2016-03-01
Ab initio phasing by direct computational methods in low-resolution X-ray crystallography is a long-standing challenge. A common approach is to consider it as two subproblems: sampling of phase space and identification of the correct solution. While the former is amenable to a myriad of search algorithms, devising a reliable target function for the latter problem remains an open question. Here, recent developments in CrowdPhase, a collaborative online game powered by a genetic algorithm that evolves an initial population of individuals with random genetic make-up (i.e. random phases) each expressing a phenotype in the form of an electron-density map, are presented. Success relies on the ability of human players to visually evaluate the quality of these maps and, following a Darwinian survival-of-the-fittest concept, direct the search towards optimal solutions. While an initial study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, some important crystallographic issues were overlooked for the sake of simplicity. To address these, the new CrowdPhase includes consideration of space-group symmetry, a method for handling missing amplitudes, the use of a map correlation coefficient as a quality metric and a solvent-flattening step. Performances of this installment are discussed for two low-resolution test cases based on bona fide diffraction data.
Schütt, Ole; Sebastiani, Daniel
2013-04-05
We investigate the quantum-mechanical delocalization of hydrogen in rotational symmetric molecular systems. To this purpose, we perform ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations of a methanol molecule to characterize the quantum properties of hydrogen atoms in a representative system by means of their real-space and momentum-space densities. In particular, we compute the spherically averaged momentum distribution n(k) and the pseudoangular momentum distribution n(kθ). We interpret our results by comparing them to path integral samplings of a bare proton in an ideal torus potential. We find that the hydroxyl hydrogen exhibits a toroidal delocalization, which leads to characteristic fingerprints in the line shapes of the momentum distributions. We can describe these specific spectroscopic patterns quantitatively and compute their onset as a function of temperature and potential energy landscape. The delocalization patterns in the projected momentum distribution provide a promising computational tool to address the intriguing phenomenon of quantum delocalization in condensed matter and its spectroscopic characterization. As the momentum distribution n(k) is also accessible through Nuclear Compton Scattering experiments, our results will help to interpret and understand future measurements more thoroughly.
Ab-initio calculation of electron-phonon coupling for spin relaxation in metals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruneda, Miguel; Souza, Ivo
2007-03-01
Spin-electronic devices have motivated an important effort in understanding the mechanisms for spin-relaxation, because the operation of such devices requires long spin-diffusion lenghts. Two main factors contribute to spin relaxation: (i) spin-orbit interaction, which mixes the spin-up and spin-down components of the electronic wavefunction, and (ii) electron scattering from defects or phonons. In metals, the phonon-mediated Elliot-Yafet mechanism is believed to be dominant. Realistic calculations are computationally demanding, requiring an accurate description of the electronic states near the Fermi surface and their coupling to the lattice (phonons). Here we use a Density Functional Perturbation Theory implementation to calculate from first-principles the electron-phonon interaction in systems with spin-orbit coupling. Combined with recently-developed Wannier-interpolation methods for sampling efficiently the Brillouin zone, this will allow for a fully ab-initio calculation of the spin relaxation in metals. J. Fabian and S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1211 (1999).
Ab initio study of several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ni near melting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Rio, B. G.; González, L. E.; González, D. J.
2017-01-01
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ni at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been evaluated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows very good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the static structure factor, which underlines a marked local icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. The dynamical structure reveals propagating density fluctuations, and the calculated dynamic structure factors, S (q ,ω ) , show a good agreement with the inelastic x-ray scattering measurements. The obtained dispersion relation closely follows that obtained from the inelastic x-ray scattering measurements; moreover we analyze the possible reasons behind its discrepancy with respect to the dispersion relation derived from the inelastic neutron scattering data. The dynamical processes behind the S (q ,ω ) have been analyzed by using a model with two decay channels (a fast and a slow) associated with the relaxations of the collective excitations. We have found that the transverse current spectral functions exhibit some features which, so far, had previously been shown by high pressure liquid metals only. Furthermore, the calculated S (q ,ω ) show, within some q-range, the appearance of transverse-like excitation modes, similar to those recently found in other liquid metals. Finally, results are also reported for several transport coefficients.
Jiang, Lei; Lan, Ru; Xu, Yi-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Yang, Wen
2013-01-01
The mechanism of the chemical reaction of H2O with three stabilized Criegee intermediates (stabCI-OO, stabCI-CH3-OO and stabCIx-OO) produced via the limonene ozonolysis reaction has been investigated using ab initio and DFT (Density Functional Theory) methods. It has been shown that the formation of the hydrogen-bonded complexes is followed by two different reaction pathways, leading to the formation of either OH radicals via water-catalyzed H migration or of α-hydroxy hydroperoxide. Both pathways were found to be essential sources of atmospheric OH radical and H2O2 making a significant contribution to the formation of secondary aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere. The activation energies at the CCSD(T)/6-31G(d) + CF level of theory were found to be in the range of 14.70–21.98 kcal mol−1. The formation of α-hydroxy hydroperoxide for the reaction of stabCIx-OO and H2O with the activation energy of 14.70 kcal mol−1 is identified as the most favorable pathway. PMID:23481640
Progress in low-resolution ab initio phasing with CrowdPhase
Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.
2016-03-01
Ab initio phasing by direct computational methods in low-resolution X-ray crystallography is a long-standing challenge. A common approach is to consider it as two subproblems: sampling of phase space and identification of the correct solution. While the former is amenable to a myriad of search algorithms, devising a reliable target function for the latter problem remains an open question. Here, recent developments in CrowdPhase, a collaborative online game powered by a genetic algorithm that evolves an initial population of individuals with random genetic make-up (i.e. random phases) each expressing a phenotype in the form of an electron-density map, are presented.more » Success relies on the ability of human players to visually evaluate the quality of these maps and, following a Darwinian survival-of-the-fittest concept, direct the search towards optimal solutions. While an initial study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, some important crystallographic issues were overlooked for the sake of simplicity. To address these, the new CrowdPhase includes consideration of space-group symmetry, a method for handling missing amplitudes, the use of a map correlation coefficient as a quality metric and a solvent-flattening step. Lastly, performances of this installment are discussed for two low-resolution test cases based on bona fide diffraction data.« less
Ab initio Study of Transition metal binding to the Prion Protein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pan, Jianping
2004-03-01
Fundamental understanding of the prion protein (PrP) is of critical public health importance in view of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. In recent years, it has been shown that the normal form (PrP^c) binds copper^1), and the structure of the copper binding domain has been elaborated. Hypotheses about toxicity associated with binding of other metals (notably manganese) have been put forward, Accordingly, using the ab initio SIESTA density functional theory code^2), we calculated the binding energy E_B(M) of M-(PrP) complexes relative to initially uncomplexed M ions, with M=Cu,Ni,Zn,Mn and (PrP)^* the minimal binding domain. The binding energy trend is E_B(Ni)>E_B(Cu)>E_B(Zn)>E_B(Mn), consistent with recent experiments apart from the surprising stability of Ni. We will also present preliminary results for binding of initially complexed M ions. *-Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Research 1) G.S. Jackson et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 98, 8531 (2001). 2) P. Ordejón, et al., Phys. Rev. B53, R10441 (1996); J.M. Soler et al., J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 2745 (2002).
Ab initio study of intrinsic defects and diffusion behaviors in solid molecular hydrogens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qingqiang; Ye, Yingting; Yang, Tianle; Yang, Li; Peng, Shuming; Long, Xinggui; Zhou, Xiaosong; Zu, Xiaotao; Du, Jincheng
2015-12-01
The behaviors of intrinsic defects in solid molecular hydrogens (H2) were investigated using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The results show that the formation energy of a vacancy is dependent on molecule orientation in disordered hexagonal close-packed (hcp) H2 crystals, but independent of molecular orientation in face-centered cubic-Pa3 H2. Furthermore, H2 molecules generally prefer to occupy the basal octahedral sites in hcp and octahedral sites in Pa3 structures. The formation energies of an interstitial H2 depend sensitively on the volume of interstitial sites, and also on near spatial distributions of molecular axes of a H2 in hcp H2 crystals. The strong force field introduced by an interstitial H2 might induce the rotation of molecular axes and reduce the formation energy of the interstitial H2. The migration barrier energy of a vacancy in Pa3 is larger than the average in hcp structures. However, the H2 molecules prefer to jump though vacancies in the two structures of solid H2 than the interstitial migrations.
Ab initio study for the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin.
Beste, Ariana; Harrison, Robert J; Britt, Phillip F; Buchanan III, A C
2006-01-01
Hydrogen abstraction reactions play a key role in many thermal and catalytic processes involved in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this paper, the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin by the benzyl radical are investigated by ab initio methods. These reactions are representatives of similar reactions occurring in the thermolysis of lignin model compounds containing the phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) structural moiety. The title reactions serve to calibrate the theoretical methods to be used in the study of PPE pyrolysis through comparison of the reaction barriers with reliable experimental values. We used two different hybrid density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP) and second-order perturbation theory to obtain equilibrium and transition state geometries. We recomputed selected energy barriers at the B3LYP geometries with the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method. Multiple transition states were found for both reactions. BHandHLYP underestimates and second-order perturbation theory overestimates the reaction barriers; B3LYP energy barriers agree well with experiment and the corresponding CCSD energy barriers. The flat potential energy surface around the saddle points causes numerical inaccuracies. We observe the break down of the harmonic approximation in the calculation of low frequencies.
360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium
Cheng, Hai-Ping
2016-09-02
The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.
Multiple-Timestep ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Using an Atomic Basis Set Partitioning.
Steele, Ryan P
2015-12-17
This work describes an approach to accelerate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (MD) simulations by exploiting the inherent timescale separation between contributions from different atom-centered Gaussian basis sets. Several MD steps are propagated with a cost-efficient, low-level basis set, after which a dynamical correction accounts for large basis set relaxation effects in a time-reversible fashion. This multiple-timestep scheme is shown to generate valid MD trajectories, on the basis of rigorous testing for water clusters, the methanol dimer, an alanine polypeptide, protonated hydrazine, and the oxidized water dimer. This new approach generates observables that are consistent with those of target basis set trajectories, including MD-based vibrational spectra. This protocol is shown to be valid for Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory approaches. Recommended pairings include 6-31G as a low-level basis set for 6-31G** or 6-311G**, as well as cc-pVDZ as the subset for accurate dynamics with aug-cc-pVTZ. Demonstrated cost savings include factors of 2.6-7.3 on the systems tested and are expected to remain valid across system sizes.
Ab initio quasiparticle bandstructure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, Marcos; Capaz, Rodrigo; Louie, Steven
2013-03-01
We obtain the quasiparticle band structure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers through ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and many-body quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. To interpret our results, we fit the DFT and GW π bands to a low energy tight-binding model, which is found to reproduce very well the observed features near the K point. The values of the extracted hopping parameters are reported and compared with available theoretical and experimental data. For both stackings, the quasiparticle corrections lead to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity, an effect also observed in previous calculations on monolayer graphene. They also increase the separation between the higher energy bands, which is proportional to the nearest neighbor interlayer hopping parameter γ1. Both features are brought to closer agreement with experiment through the quasiparticle corrections. Finally, other effects, such as trigonal warping, electron-hole assymetry and energy gaps are discussed in terms of the associated parameters. This work was supported by the Brazilian funding agencies: CAPES, CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono. It was also supported by NSF grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Optimized energy landscape exploration using the ab initio based activation-relaxation technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Béland, Laurent Karim; Caliste, Damien; Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal
2011-07-01
Unbiased open-ended methods for finding transition states are powerful tools to understand diffusion and relaxation mechanisms associated with defect diffusion, growth processes, and catalysis. They have been little used, however, in conjunction with ab initio packages as these algorithms demanded large computational effort to generate even a single event. Here, we revisit the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and introduce a two-step convergence to the saddle point, combining the previously used Lanczós algorithm with the direct inversion in interactive subspace scheme. This combination makes it possible to generate events (from an initial minimum through a saddle point up to a final minimum) in a systematic fashion with a net 300-700 force evaluations per successful event. ART nouveau is coupled with BigDFT, a Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure code using a wavelet basis set with excellent efficiency on parallel computation, and applied to study the potential energy surface of C20 clusters, vacancy diffusion in bulk silicon, and reconstruction of the 4H-SiC surface.
Ab initio investigations on the stability of seven-fold approximants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orsini-Rosenberg, Heinrich; Steurer, Walter
2011-07-01
The stability of theoretical heptagonal approximants was investigated. No approximant phase has yet been confirmed consisting of all three heptagonal rhomb prototiles. To solve this problem, two new approximant structures were constructed from supertiles taken from the ThB4 and YCrB4 structure types. In order to compare structural stability, the total energy convex hulls were calculated for the ternary systems B-Cr-RE (RE = Dy, Er, Ho, Y), as well as B-Mn-Dy and B-Mn-Y, by means of ab initio calculations, using density functional theory. This included all known stable monary, binary and ternary phases. Additionally, several layered boride structure types, which are not stable in the respective ternary systems but show four-, five-, six- or seven-fold local environments, were included by chemical substitution. In all ternary systems, the theoretical approximants were found to be mechanically stable, but chemically unstable by an amount of energy larger than the margin of error. A tendency towards the stabilization of structures showing five- or 10-fold local environments was observed. This is consistent with the findings of decagonal approximants in the systems B-Ti-Ru and B-Mg-Ru.
Ab initio study of point defects near stacking faults in 3C-SiC
Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; ...
2016-07-02
Interactions between point defects and stacking faults in 3C-SiC are studied using an ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results show that the discontinuity of the stacking sequence considerably affects the configurations and behavior of intrinsic defects, especially in the case of silicon interstitials. The existence of an intrinsic stacking fault (missing a C-Si bilayer) shortens the distance between the tetrahedral-center site and its second-nearest-neighboring silicon layer, making the tetrahedral silicon interstitial unstable. Instead of a tetrahedral configuration with four C neighbors, a pyramid-like interstitial structure with a defect state within the band gap becomes a stablemore » configuration. In addition, orientation rotation occurs in the split interstitials that has diverse effects on the energy landscape of silicon and carbon split interstitials in the stacking fault region. Moreover, our analyses of ionic relaxation and electronic structure of vacancies show that the built-in strain field, owing to the existence of the stacking fault, makes the local environment around vacancies more complex than that in the bulk.« less
Ab initio molecular dynamics of the reaction of quercetin with superoxide radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lespade, Laure
2016-08-01
Superoxide plays an important role in biology but in unregulated concentrations it is implicated in a lot of diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Antioxidants like flavonoids are abundant in plant and are good scavengers of superoxide radical. The modeling of superoxide scavenging by flavonoids from the diet still remains a challenge. In this study, ab initio molecular dynamics of the reaction of the flavonoid quercetin toward superoxide radical has been carried out using Car-Parrinello density functional theory. The study has proven different reactant solvation by modifying the number of water molecules surrounding superoxide. The reaction consists in the gift of a hydrogen atom of one of the hydroxyl groups of quercetin to the radical. When it occurs, it is relatively fast, lower than 100 fs. Calculations show that it depends largely on the environment of the hydroxyl group giving its hydrogen atom, the geometry of the first water layer and the presence of a certain number of water molecules in the second layer, indicating a great influence of the solvent on the reactivity.
Ab initio calculations of the vibrational and dielectric properties of PbSnTe alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scolfaro, Luisa; Rezende Neto, A. R.; Leite Alves, H. W.; Petersen, J. E.; Myers, T. H.; Borges, P. D.
Thermoelectric devices have promise in dealing with the challenges of the growing demand for alternative clean energy and Te-based materials well-known candidates for them. Recently, we have shown that the high values for the dielectric constant, together with anharmonic LA-TO coupling, reduces the lattice thermal conductivity and enhances the electronic conductivity in PbTe. Also, it was shown that by alloying this material with Se, the electronic conductivity of the alloys is also enhanced. But, it is not clear if the same occurs when alloying with Sn. We show, in this work, our ab initio results for the vibrational and dielectric properties of Pb1-xSnxTe alloys. The calculations were carried out by using the Density Functional Theory, and the alloys were described by both the Virtual Crystal Approximation and Cluster Expansion Method. Our results show that the anharmonic LA-TO coupling enhances and reach its maximum for Sn concentration values of 0.75, corresponding to the maximum value for the dielectric constant, which is higher than that obtained for PbTe
An ab initio study of muons in ethanal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Probert, M. I. J.; Fisher, A. J.
1997-04-01
Ab initio density functional theory calculations for ethanal and muonium, using the projector augmented-wave technique, are described. The potential binding sites for the muonium are evaluated from total-energy-minimization calculations. At these preferred sites the associated (bond-stretching) vibrational frequencies, Einstein coefficients and isotropic hyperfine coupling constants are then calculated. It is found that the hyperfine parameter at each site depends on the vibrational state, and so muon vibrational spectroscopy of ethanal is predicted to be possible. The effect of a rigid-muonium-bond rotation is also considered. It is found that this can change the sign of the predicted hyperfine coupling constant at certain sites, which is necessary to get reasonable agreement with experimental values. The temperature dependence of the hyperfine coupling constant was calculated from a Boltzmann population of rotational states. This was found to be insufficient to explain the experimentally observed temperature dependence. This is probably due to the neglect of coupling between vibrational and rotational modes. Therefore this common interpretation of the experimental temperature dependence of the hyperfine coupling constant must be reconsidered.
Ab initio random structure search for 13-atom clusters of fcc elements.
Chou, J P; Hsing, C R; Wei, C M; Cheng, C; Chang, C M
2013-03-27
The 13-atom metal clusters of fcc elements (Al, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) were studied by density functional theory calculations. The global minima were searched for by the ab initio random structure searching method. In addition to some new lowest-energy structures for Pd13 and Au13, we found that the effective coordination numbers of the lowest-energy clusters would increase with the ratio of the dimer-to-bulk bond length. This correlation, together with the electronic structures of the lowest-energy clusters, divides the 13-atom clusters of these fcc elements into two groups (except for Au13, which prefers a two-dimensional structure due to the relativistic effect). Compact-like clusters that are composed exclusively of triangular motifs are preferred for elements without d-electrons (Al) or with (nearly) filled d-band electrons (Ni, Pd, Cu, Ag). Non-compact clusters composed mainly of square motifs connected by some triangular motifs (Rh, Ir, Pt) are favored for elements with unfilled d-band electrons.
Liu, Shi-Yu; Liu, Shiyang; Li, De-Jun; Wang, Sanwu; Guo, Jing; Shen, Yaogen
2015-02-14
Utilizing a combination of ab initio density-functional theory and thermodynamics formalism, we have established the microscopic mechanisms for oxidation of the binary and ternary alloy surfaces and provided a clear explanation for the experimental results of the oxidation. We construct three-dimensional surface phase diagrams (SPDs) for oxygen adsorption on three different Nb-X(110) (X = Ti, Al or Si) binary alloy surfaces. On the basis of the obtained SPDs, we conclude a general microscopic mechanism for the thermodynamic oxidation, that is, under O-rich conditions, a uniform single-phase SPD (type I) and a nonuniform double-phase SPD (type II) correspond to the sustained complete selective oxidation and the non-sustained partial selective oxidation by adding the X element, respectively. Furthermore, by revealing the framework of thermodynamics for the oxidation mechanism of ternary alloys through the comparison of the surface energies of two separated binary alloys, we provide an understanding for the selective oxidation behavior of the Nb ternary alloy surfaces. Using these general microscopic mechanisms, one could predict the oxidation behavior of any binary and multi-component alloy surfaces based on thermodynamics considerations.
Ab initio transition state searching in complex systems: fatty acid decarboxylation in minerals.
Geatches, Dawn L; Greenwell, H Christopher; Clark, Stewart J
2011-03-31
Because of the importance of mineral catalyzed decarboxylation reactions in both crude oil formation and, increasingly, biofuel production, we present a model study into the decarboxylation of the shortest fatty acid, propionic acid C(2)H(5)COOH, into an alkane and CO(2) catalyzed by a pyrophillite-like, phyllosilicate clay. To identify the decarboxylation pathway, we searched for a transition state between the reactant, comprised of the clay plus interlayer fatty acid, and the product, comprised of the clay plus interlayer alkane and carbon dioxide. Using linear and quadratic synchronous transit mechanisms we searched for a transition state followed by vibrational analysis to verify the intermediate found as a transition state. We employed a periodic cell, planewave, ab initio density functional theory computation to examine total energy differences, Mulliken charges, vibrational frequencies, and the frontier orbitals of the reactants, intermediates, and products. The results show that interpretation of vibrational data, Mulliken charges and Fermi-level orbital occupancies is necessary for the classification of a transition state in this type of mixed bulk surface plus interlayer species, clay-organic system.
Optimized energy landscape exploration using the ab initio based activation-relaxation technique.
Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Béland, Laurent Karim; Caliste, Damien; Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal
2011-07-21
Unbiased open-ended methods for finding transition states are powerful tools to understand diffusion and relaxation mechanisms associated with defect diffusion, growth processes, and catalysis. They have been little used, however, in conjunction with ab initio packages as these algorithms demanded large computational effort to generate even a single event. Here, we revisit the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and introduce a two-step convergence to the saddle point, combining the previously used Lanczós algorithm with the direct inversion in interactive subspace scheme. This combination makes it possible to generate events (from an initial minimum through a saddle point up to a final minimum) in a systematic fashion with a net 300-700 force evaluations per successful event. ART nouveau is coupled with BigDFT, a Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure code using a wavelet basis set with excellent efficiency on parallel computation, and applied to study the potential energy surface of C(20) clusters, vacancy diffusion in bulk silicon, and reconstruction of the 4H-SiC surface.
Ab initio guided design of bcc Mg-Li alloys for ultra light-weight applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friák, Martin; Counts, William Art; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jörg
2009-03-01
Ab initio calculations are becoming increasingly useful to engineers interested in designing new alloys because these calculations are able to accurately predict basic material properties only knowing the atomic composition of the material. In this paper, fundamental physical properties (like formation energies and elastic constants) of 11 bcc Mg-Li compounds are calculated using density-functional theory (DFT) and compared with available experimental data. These DFT-determined properties are in turn used to calculate engineering parameters like (i) specific Young's modulus (Y/ρ) or (ii) bulk over shear modulus ratio (B/G) differentiating between brittle and ductile behavior. The engineering parameters are then used to identify alloys that have optimal mechanical properties needed for a light weight structural material. It was found that the stiffest bcc magnesium-lithium alloys contain about 70 at.% Mg while the most ductile alloys have 0-20 at.% Mg. The specific modulus for alloys with 70 at.% Mg is equal to that of Al-Mg alloys. An Ashby map containing Y/ρ vs. B/G shows that it is not possible to increase both Y/ρ and B/G by changing only the composition or local order of a binary alloy (W. A. Counts, M. Fri'ak, D. Raabe and J. Neugebauer, Acta Mater 57 (2009) 69-76).
Ab initio calculation of the crystalline structure and IR spectrum of polymers: nylon 6 polymorphs.
Quarti, Claudio; Milani, Alberto; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Orlando, Roberto; Castiglioni, Chiara
2012-07-19
State-of-the-art computational methods in solid-state chemistry were applied to predict the structural and spectroscopic properties of the α and γ crystalline polymorphs of nylon 6. Density functional theory calculations augmented with an empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D) were used for the optimization of the two different crystal structures and of the isolated chains, characterized by a different regular conformation and described as one-dimensional infinite chains. The structural parameters of both crystalline polymorphs were correctly predicted, and new insight into the interplay of conformational effects, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions in affecting the properties of the crystal structures of polyamides was obtained. The calculated infrared spectra were compared to experimental data; based on computed vibrational eigenvectors, assignment of the infrared absorptions of the two nylon 6 polymorphs was carried out and critically analyzed in light of previous investigations. On the basis of a comparison of the computed and experimental IR spectra, a set of marker bands was identified and proposed as a tool for detecting and quantifying the presence of a given polymorph in a real sample: several marker bands employed in the past were confirmed, whereas some of the previous assignments are criticized. In addition, some new marker bands are proposed. The results obtained demonstrate that accurate computational techniques are now affordable for polymers characterization, opening the way to several applications of ab initio modeling to the study of many families of polymeric materials.
Ab initio molecular dynamics of liquid hydrogen chloride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, Vincent; Pasquarello, Alfredo
2005-03-01
We carried out an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid hydrogen chloride (ℓ-HCl) at a temperature of 313 K. Comparison with inelastic neutron scattering data shows that the simulation achieves an overall good description of the structural correlations, improving significantly upon a description based on classical interaction potentials. Despite some minor differences between theory and experiment in the H-H partial structure factor, the simulation gives a description of the hydrogen bonding in impressive agreement with experiment, for both the amount and the bond-length distribution of the bonds. In the simulation, 40% of the molecules are nonbonded, while the hydrogen-bonded chains are short, principally consisting of dimers (25%) and trimers (15%). Neighboring molecules in the simulation are found to form L-shaped arrangements, like in the isolated (HCl)2 dimer and in crystalline phases of HCl. The time correlation of the molecular-axis orientation is found to be characterized by a very short decay time (0.13 ps), consistent with the short length of the hydrogen-bonded chains. Other dynamical properties investigated in this work include the diffusion coefficient and the vibrational density of states. We evaluated the molecular dipole of the HCl molecule in the liquid using a definition based on the coupling of rotational modes to an external electric field. The average dipole moment (1.53 D) derived in this way is found to be considerably larger than for the isolated molecule (1.11 D). Our results show that the dipole moment in ℓ-HCl undergoes large fluctuations, both in orientation and in modulus. Upon the onset of an external field, such dipole fluctuations concur to reduce the fluctuations of the dielectric response.
Militzer, B.; Hubbard, W. B.
2013-09-10
Using density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the equation of state (EOS) for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions typical of giant-planet interiors, {approx}0.2-9 g cm{sup -3} and 1000-80,000 K for a typical helium mass fraction of 0.245. In addition to computing internal energy and pressure, we determine the entropy using an ab initio thermodynamic integration technique. A comprehensive EOS table with 391 density-temperature points is constructed and the results are presented in the form of a two-dimensional free energy fit for interpolation. Deviations between our ab initio EOS and the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier are analyzed in detail, and we use the results for initial revision of the inferred thermal state of giant planets with known values for mass and radius. Changes are most pronounced for planets in the Jupiter mass range and below. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship that makes the hottest exoplanets increase in radius by {approx}0.2 Jupiter radii at fixed entropy and for masses greater than {approx}0.5 Jupiter mass. This change is large enough to have possible implications for some discrepant ''inflated giant exoplanets''.
Ab Initio Calculations of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Chlorine Nitrate and Nitric Acid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grana, Ana M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low-lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the ClO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied.
Resonance and aromaticity: an ab initio valence bond approach.
Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H; Havenith, Remco W A
2012-05-17
Resonance energy is one of the criteria to measure aromaticity. The effect of the use of different orbital models is investigated in the calculated resonance energies of cyclic conjugated hydrocarbons within the framework of the ab initio Valence Bond Self-Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. The VB wave function for each system was constructed using a linear combination of the VB structures (spin functions), which closely resemble the Kekulé valence structures, and two types of orbitals, that is, strictly atomic (local) and delocalized atomic (delocal) p-orbitals, were used to describe the π-system. It is found that the Pauling-Wheland's resonance energy with nonorthogonal structures decreases, while the same with orthogonalized structures and the total mean resonance energy (the sum of the weighted off-diagonal contributions in the Hamiltonian matrix of orthogonalized structures) increase when delocal orbitals are used as compared to local p-orbitals. Analysis of the interactions between the different structures of a system shows that the resonance in the 6π electrons conjugated circuits have the largest contributions to the resonance energy. The VBSCF calculations also show that the extra stability of phenanthrene, a kinked benzenoid, as compared to its linear counterpart, anthracene, is a consequence of the resonance in the π-system rather than the H-H interaction in the bay region as suggested previously. Finally, the empirical parameters for the resonance interactions between different 4n+2 or 4n π electrons conjugated circuits, used in Randić's conjugated circuits theory or Herdon's semi-emprical VB approach, are quantified. These parameters have to be scaled by the structure coefficients (weights) of the contributing structures.
Ab initio approach for gap plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenester, Ulrich; Draxl, Claudia
2016-10-01
Gap plasmonics deals with the properties of surface plasmons in the narrow region between two metallic nanoparticles forming the gap. For subnanometer gap distances, electrons can tunnel between the nanoparticles, leading to the emergence of novel charge-transfer plasmons. These are conveniently described within the quantum corrected model by introducing an artificial material with a tunnel conductivity inside the gap region. Here we develop a methodology for computing such tunnel conductivities within the first-principles framework of density functional theory and apply our approach to a jellium model representative for sodium. We show that the frequency dependence of the tunnel conductivity at infrared and optical frequencies can be significantly more complicated than previously thought.
Putungan, Darwin Barayang; Lin, Shi-Hsin; Kuo, Jer-Lai
2016-07-27
We systematically investigated the potential of single-layer VS2 polytypes as Na-battery anode materials via density functional theory calculations. We found that sodiation tends to inhibit the 1H-to-1T structural phase transition, in contrast to lithiation-induced transition on monolayer MoS2. Thus, VS2 can have better structural stability in the cycles of charging and discharging. Diffussion of Na atom was found to be very fast on both polytypes, with very small diffusion barriers of 0.085 eV (1H) and 0.088 eV (1T). Ab initio random structure searching was performed in order to explore stable configurations of Na on VS2. Our search found that both the V top and the hexagonal center sites are preferred adsorption sites for Na, with the 1H phase showing a relatively stronger binding. Notably, our random structures search revealed that Na clusters can form as a stacked second layer at full Na concentration, which is not reported in earlier works wherein uniform, single-layer Na adsorption phases were assumed. With reasonably high specific energy capacity (232.91 and 116.45 mAh/g for 1H and 1T phases, respectively) and open-circuit voltage (1.30 and 1.42 V for 1H and 1T phases, respectively), VS2 is a promising alternative material for Na-ion battery anodes with great structural sturdiness. Finally, we have shown the capability of the ab initio random structure searching in the assessment of potential materials for energy storage applications.
Energetics of neutral Si dopants in InGaAs: An ab initio and semiempirical Tersoff model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Cheng-Wei; Lukose, Binit; Thompson, Michael O.; Clancy, Paulette
2015-03-01
A roadblock in utilizing III-V semiconductors for scaled-down electronic devices is their poor dopant activation. As a first step to unravel the dopant behavior in InGaAs, we studied the tendency for dopant formation computationally using two approaches: ab initio and semiempirical methods. We studied a number of structural possibilities, such as the impact of local sites and local and global environments. We will show that the dopant we considered here, Si, has discrete preferences for certain sites and the nature of its surroundings. Substitutional defects are clearly preferred over interstitial locations. We shall show that cation ordering has an impact on dopant energetics. Critically, for large-scale simulations of dopant diffusion in InGaAs alloys, we also present a parameterization of the Abell-Tersoff semiempirical potential for pairwise interactions between silicon atoms and each of the elements constituting InGaAs. In the absence of experimental data, reference parameters for estimating the Tersoff values were obtained using ab initio pseudopotential calculations (density functional theory and generalized gradient approximations). These sets of Tersoff parameters were optimized to describe the bulk structural properties of the mostly theoretical alloys Si-As, Si-Ga, and Si-In. We demonstrate the transferability of these parameters by predicting formation energies of extrinsic point "defects" of Si on a variety of sites in ternary InGaAs alloys with different local compositional configurations, both random and ordered. Tersoff model predictions of the extrinsic "substitution energy" of a Si dopant on a cationic lattice site were found to be independent of the composition of the dopant's second nearest neighbors, but were affected by the strain induced by a local arrangement of In and Ga cationic atoms. This finding is important since common deposition processes used to create InGaAs may lead to specifically ordered patterns within the cation sublattice.
Rowley, Christopher N; Roux, Benoıt
2012-10-09
Knowledge of the hydration structure of Na(+) and K(+) in the liquid phase has wide ranging implications in the field of biological chemistry. Despite numerous experimental and computational studies, even basic features such as the coordination number of these alkali ions in liquid water, thought to play a critical role in selectivity, continue to be the subject of intensive debates. Simulations based on accurate potential energy surfaces offer one approach to resolve these issues by providing reliable results on ion hydration. In this article, we report the results from molecular dynamics simulations of Na(+) and K(+) hydration based on a novel and rigorous strategy designed to overcome the challenges of QM/MM simulations of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. In this method, which we call Flexible Inner Region Ensemble Separator (FIRES), the ion and a fixed number of nearest water molecules form a dynamical and flexible inner region that is represented with high level ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) methods, while the water molecules from the surrounding bulk form an outer region that is represented by a polarizable molecular mechanical (MM) force field. Simulations yield rigorously correct thermodynamic averages as long as the solvent molecules in the flexible inner and outer regions are not allowed to exchange. Extensive FIRES simulations were carried out based on a QM/MM model in which the Na(+) or K(+) ion and the 12 nearest water molecules were represented by high level ab initio methods (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP and density functional theory with PBE/def2-TZVP), while the surrounding MM water molecules were represented by the polarizable SWM4-NDP potential. On the basis of these results, the ion coordination numbers are estimated to be within the range of 5.7-5.8 for Na(+) and 6.9-7.0 for K(+).
Castellano, O; Bermúdez, Y; Giffard, M; Mabon, G; Cubillan, N; Sylla, M; Nguyen-Phu, X; Hinchliffe, A; Soscún, H
2005-11-17
The geometries and the static dipole (hyper)polarizabilities (alpha, beta, gamma) of a series of aromatic anions were investigated at the ab initio (HF, MP2, and MP4) and density functional theory DFT (B3LYP) levels of theory. The anions chosen for the present study are the benzenethiolate (Ph-S-), benzenecarboxylate (Ph-CO2-), benzenesulfinate (Ph-SO2-), benzenesulfonate (Ph-SO3-), and 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate (1,3-Ph-(CO2)2(2-)). For benzenethiolate anion, additional alpha, beta, and gamma calculations were performed at the coupled cluster CCSD level with MP2 optimized geometries. The standard diffuse and polarized 6-31+G(d,p) basis set was employed in conjunction to the ab initio and DFT methods. Additional HF calculations were performed with the 6-311++G(3d,3p) basis set for all the anions. The correlated electric properties were evaluated numerically within the formalism of finite field. The optimized geometries were analyzed in terms of the few reports about the phenolate and sulfonate ions. The results show that electron correlation effects on the polarizabilities are very important in all the anion series. Was found that Ph-SO2- is highly polarizable in terms of alpha and beta, and the Ph-S- is the highest second hyperpolarizable in the series. The results of alpha were rationalized in terms of the analysis of the polarization of charge based in Mulliken atomic population and the structural features of the optimized geometries of anions, whereas the large differences in the beta and gamma values in the series were respectively interpreted in terms of the bond length alternation BLA and the separation of charge in the aromatic ring by effects of the substitution. These results allowed us to suggest the benzenesulfinate and benzenethiolate anions as promising candidates that should be incorporated in ionic materials for second and third-order nonlinear optical devices.
The ab initio calculation of molecular electric, magnetic and geometric properties.
Bast, Radovan; Ekström, Ulf; Gao, Bin; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J
2011-02-21
We give an account of some recent advances in the development of ab initio methods for the calculation of molecular response properties, involving electric, magnetic, and geometric perturbations. Particular attention is given to properties in which the basis functions depend explicitly both on time and on the applied perturbations such as perturbations involving nuclear displacements or external magnetic fields when London atomic orbitals are used. We summarize a general framework based on the quasienergy for the calculation of arbitrary-order molecular properties using the elements of the density matrix in the atomic-orbital basis as the basic variables. We demonstrate that the necessary perturbed density matrices of arbitrary order can be determined from a set of linear equations that have the same formal structure as the set of linear equations encountered when determining the linear response equations (or time-dependent self-consistent-field equations). Additional components needed to calculate properties involving perturbation-dependent basis sets are flexible one- and two-electron integral techniques for geometric or magnetic-field differentiated integrals; in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT), we also need to calculate derivatives of the exchange-correlation functional. We describe a recent proposal for evaluating these contributions based on automatic differentiation. Within this framework, it is now possible to calculate any molecular property for an arbitrary self-consistent-field reference state, including two- and four-component relativistic self-consistent-field wave functions. Examples of calculations that can be performed with this formulation are presented.
Ab Initio Studies of Surfaces and Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrity, Kevin F.
2011-12-01
Over the past 50 years, our ability to design and fabricate materials and devices with ever-smaller components has improved to the point that many technologies are crucially dependent on surfaces and interfaces. As this process continues, the atomic details of these surfaces and interfaces will take on increasing importance, both in understanding the behavior of existing structures as well as proposing and testing new materials and devices. First principles techniques are especially well-suited for exploring these systems, as they have the predictive capability required to understand the new phenomena which emerge at atomic length scales. In this work, we use first principles density functional theory to explore the properties of a variety of interesting surfaces and interfaces. First, we consider the thermodynamics and kinetics of Sr and La deposition on semiconductor surfaces, which is the first step in epitaxial oxide growth on semiconductors. Using this knowledge, we propose a method for growing LaAlO3 on epitaxially on Si. In addition, we explore the surface chemistry of a ferroelectric (PbTiO3) as a function a polarization in order to understand its applications to advanced catalysis. Finally, we investigate the coupling of phonons through an epitaxial interface between SrTiO3 and La 1-xSrxMnO 3, where an interfacial coupling of atomic motion is used to dynamically modulate the conductivity of a La1-xSr xMnO3 thin film.
Ab initio insight into graphene nanofibers to destabilize hydrazine borane for hydrogen release
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Zhao; Raghubanshi, Himanshu; Sterlin Leo Hudson, M.; Srivastava, O. N.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ahuja, Rajeev
2017-02-01
We report the potential destabilizing effects of graphene nanofibers on the hydrogen release property of hydrazine borane via state-of-the-art ab initio calculations for the first time. Interactions of a hydrazine borane cluster with two types of graphene patch edges which exist abundantly in our synthesized graphene nanofibers have been investigated. It is found that both zigzag and armchair edges can greatly weaken the H-host bonds (especially the middle Nsbnd H bond) of hydrazine borane. The dramatic decrease in hydrogen removal energy is caused by the strong interaction between hydrazine borane and the graphene patch edges concerning the electronic charge density redistribution.
Ab initio calculations of elastic properties of Ru1-xNixAl superalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleskov, I. D.; Smirnova, E. A.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Korzhavyi, P. A.; Johansson, B.; Katsnelson, M.; Vitos, L.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Isaev, E. I.
2009-04-01
Ab initio total energy calculations based on the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, combined with the coherent potential approximation, have been used to study the thermodynamical and elastic properties of substitutional refractory Ru1-xNixAl alloys. We have found that the elastic constants C' and C11 exhibit pronounced peculiarities near the concentration of about 40 at. % Ni, which we ascribe to electronic topological transitions. Our suggestion is supported by the Fermi surface calculations in the whole concentration range. Results of our calculations show that one can design Ru-Ni-Al alloys substituting Ru by Ni (up to 40 at. %) with almost invariable elastic constants and reduced density.
Separable metamaterials: analytical ab-initio homogenization and chirality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rago, Domenico; Rizza, Carlo
2016-11-01
We investigate the ab-initio homogenization of separable metamaterials with factorized dielectric permittivity profiles, which can be achieved through suitable grey-scale permittivity design techniques. Separability allows such metamaterials to be physically regarded as the superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, separable metamaterials admit a simple and analytical description of their electromagnetic bi-anisotropic response, which can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media. Our approach provides a strategy that allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex bianisotropic response by using the simple and well-known properties of 1D metamaterials.
High Level Ab Initio Kinetics as a Tool for Astrochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klippenstein, Stephen
2015-05-01
We will survey the application of ab initio theoretical kinetics to reactions of importance to astrochemistry. Illustrative examples will be taken from our calculations for (i) interstellar chemistry, (ii) Titan's atmospheric chemistry, and (iii) the chemistry of extrasolar giant planets. The accuracy of various aspects of the calculations will be summarized including (i) the underlying ab initio electronic structure calculations, (ii) the treatment of the high pressure recombination process, and (iii) the treatment of the pressure dependence of the kinetics. The applications will consider the chemistry of phosphorous on giant planets, the kinetics of water dimerization, the chemistry of nitrogen on Titan's atmosphere, as well as various reactions of interstellar chemistry interest such as the recombination of OH with H, and O(3P) reacting with C2H5, CH2, and CCS. Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division.
Ab Initio Calculations Of Light-Ion Reactions
Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Roth, R; Horiuchi, W
2012-03-12
The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of nuclear forces, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. By combining the resonating-group method (RGM) with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM), we complement a microscopic cluster approach with the use of realistic interactions and a microscopic and consistent description of the clusters. We discuss applications to light nuclei scattering, radiative capture and fusion reactions.
Ab initio theories for light nuclei and neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gezerlis, Alexandros
2016-09-01
In this talk I will touch upon several features of modern ab initio low-energy nuclear theory. I will start by discussing what ``ab initio'' means in this context. Specifically, I will spend some time going over nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions and their connections with the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. I will then show how these interactions are used to describe light nuclei using essentially exact few-body methods. I will then discuss heavier systems, especially those of astrophysical relevance, as well as the methods used to tackle them. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI).
Ab Initio Atomistic Thermodynamics for Surfaces: A Primer
2006-02-01
Ab Initio Atomistic Thermodynamics for Surfaces: A Primer Jutta Rogal and Karsten Reuter Fritz - Haber -Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft... Fritz - Haber -Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Faradayweg 4-6 D-14195 Berlin Germany 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...of the Fritz - Haber -Institut, in particular Wei-Xue Li, Cathy Stampfl and Mira Todorova. Particular thanks go to Matthias Scheffler for his continued
Thermochemical data for CVD modeling from ab initio calculations
Ho, P.; Melius, C.F.
1993-12-31
Ab initio electronic-structure calculations are combined with empirical bond-additivity corrections to yield thermochemical properties of gas-phase molecules. A self-consistent set of heats of formation for molecules in the Si-H, Si-H-Cl, Si-H-F, Si-N-H and Si-N-H-F systems is presented, along with preliminary values for some Si-O-C-H species.
The study of molecular spectroscopy by ab initio methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1991-01-01
This review illustrates the potential of theory for solving spectroscopic problems. The accuracy of approximate techniques for including electron correlation have been calibrated by comparison with full configuration-interaction calculations. Examples of the application of ab initio calculations to vibrational, rotational, and electronic spectroscopy are given. It is shown that the state-averaged, complete active space self-consistent field, multireference configuration-interaction procedure provides a good approach for treating several electronic states accurately in a common molecular orbital basis.
Debela, T. T.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Zhang, D. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Jiang, J. Z.
2013-12-12
Atomic structure transitions of liquid niobium during solidification, at different temperatures from 3200 to 1500 K, were studied by using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The local atomic structure variations with temperature are investigated by using the pair-correlation function, the structure factor, the bond-angle distribution function, the Honeycutt–Anderson index, Voronoi tessellation and the cluster alignment methods. Our results clearly show that, upon quenching, the icosahedral short-range order dominates in the stable liquid and supercooled liquid states before the system transforms to crystalline body-center cubic phase at a temperature of about 1830 K.
Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes
Draayer, Jerry P.
2014-09-28
We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-09-01
A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of 12CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm-1. The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.
Ab initio rotation-vibration spectra of HCN and HNC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Gregory J.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Tennyson, Jonathan
2002-03-01
We have calculated an ab initio HCN/HNC linelist for all transitions up to J=25 and 18 000 cm -1 above the zero point energy. This linelist contains more than 200 million lines each with frequencies and transition dipoles. The linelist has been calculated using our semi-global HCN/HNC VQZANO+PES and dipole moment surface, which were reported in van Mourik et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 115 (2001) 3706). With this linelist we synthesise absorption spectra of HCN and HNC at 298 K and we present the band centre and band transition dipoles for the bands which are major features in these spectra. Several of the HCN bands and many of the HNC bands have not been previously studied. Our line intensities reproduce via fully ab initio methods the unusual intensity structure of the HCN CN stretch fundamental (00 01) for the first time and also the forbidden (02 20) HCN bending overtone. We also compare the J=1→0 pure rotational transition dipole in the HCN/HNC ground and vibrationally excited states with experimental and existing ab initio results.
Diffusion within α-CuI studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohn, Chris E.; Stølen, Svein; Hull, Stephen
2009-08-01
The structure and dynamics of superionic α-CuI are studied in detail by means of ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The extreme cation disorder and a soft immobile face centred cubic sublattice are evident from the highly diffuse atomic density profiles. The Cu-Cu pair distribution function and distribution of Cu-I-Cu bond angles possess distinct peaks at 2.6 Å and 60° respectively, which are markedly lower than the values expected from the average cationic density, pointing to the presence of pronounced short-range copper-copper correlations. Comparison with lattice static calculations shows that these correlations and the marked shift in the cationic density profile in the lang111rang directions are associated with a locally distorted cation sublattice, and that the movements within the tetrahedral cavities involve rapid jumps into and out of shallow basins on the system potential energy surface. On average, the iodines are surrounded by three coppers within their first coordination shell, with the fourth copper being located in a transition zone between two neighbouring iodine cavities. However, time-resolved analysis reveals that the local structure actually involves a mixture of threefold-, fourfold- and fivefold-coordinated iodines. Examination of the ionic trajectories shows that the copper ions jump rapidly to nearest neighbouring tetrahedral cavities (aligned in the lang100rang directions) following a markedly curved trajectory and often involving short-lived (~1 ps) interstitial positions. The nature of the correlated diffusion underlying the unusually high fraction of coppers with short residence time can be attributed to the presence of a large number of 'unsuccessful' jumps and the likelihood of cooperative motion of pairs of coppers. The calculated diffusion coefficient at 750 K, DCu = 2.8 × 10-5 cm2 s-1, is in excellent agreement with that found experimentally.
Ab initio calculation of thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of CH{sub 2} plastics
Knyazev, D. V.; Levashov, P. R.
2015-05-15
This work covers an ab initio calculation of thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of plastics of the effective composition CH{sub 2} at density 0.954 g/cm{sup 3} in the temperature range from 5 kK up to 100 kK. The calculation is based on the quantum molecular dynamics, density functional theory, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The temperature dependence of the static electrical conductivity σ{sub 1{sub D{sub C}}}(T) has a step-like shape: σ{sub 1{sub D{sub C}}}(T) grows rapidly for 5 kK ≤ T ≤ 10 kK and is almost constant for 20 kK ≤ T ≤ 60 kK. The additional analysis based on the investigation of the electron density of states (DOS) is performed. The rapid growth of σ{sub 1{sub D{sub C}}}(T) at 5 kK ≤ T ≤ 10 kK is connected with the increase of DOS at the electron energy equal to the chemical potential ϵ = μ. The frequency dependence of the dynamic electrical conductivity σ{sub 1}(ω) at 5 kK has the distinct non-Drude shape with the peak at ω ≈ 10 eV. This behavior of σ{sub 1}(ω) was explained by the dip at the electron DOS.
Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the uniform electron gas without fixed nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groth, S.; Schoof, T.; Dornheim, T.; Bonitz, M.
2016-02-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in the warm dense matter regime, e.g., dense plasmas and laser excited solids. Also, the quality of density functional theory calculations crucially relies on the availability of accurate data for the exchange-correlation energy. Recently, results for N =33 spin-polarized electrons at high density, rs=r ¯/aB≲4 , and low temperature have been obtained with the configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) method [T. Schoof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 130402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.130402]. To achieve these results, the original CPIMC algorithm [T. Schoof et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 687 (2011), 10.1002/ctpp.201100012] had to be further optimized to cope with the fermion sign problem (FSP). It is the purpose of this paper to give detailed information on the manifestation of the FSP in CPIMC simulations of the UEG and to demonstrate how it can be turned into a controllable convergence problem. In addition, we present new thermodynamic results for higher temperatures. Finally, to overcome the limitations of CPIMC towards strong coupling, we invoke an independent method—the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo approach [T. Dornheim et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 204101 (2015), 10.1063/1.4936145]. The combination of both approaches is able to yield ab initio data for the UEG over the entire density range, above a temperature of about one half of the Fermi temperature. Comparison with restricted path integral Monte Carlo data [E. W. Brown et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.146405] allows us to quantify the systematic error arising from the free particle nodes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedjaoui, A.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin-Omran, S.
2016-04-01
The structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the α (tetragonal) and β (orthorhombic) polymorphs of the Sr2GeN2 compound have been examined in detail using ab initio density functional theory pseudopotential plane-wave calculations. Apart the structural properties at the ambient conditions, all present reported results are predicted for the first time. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and inter-atomic bond-lengths of the considered polymorphs are in good agreement with the available experimental data. It is found that α-Sr2GeN2 is energetically more stable than β-Sr2GeN2. The two examined polymorphs are very similar in their crystal structures and have almost identical local environments. The single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic parameters and related properties - including elastic constants, bulk, shear and Young's moduli, Poisson's ratio, anisotropy indexes, Pugh's criterion, elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature - have been predicted. Temperature and pressure dependence of some macroscopic properties - including the unit-cell volume, bulk modulus, volume thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity and Debye temperature - have been evaluated using ab initio calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
Ab initio phonon properties of half-Heusler NiTiSn, NiZrSn and NiHfSn.
Andrea, Luc; Hug, Gilles; Chaput, Laurent
2015-10-28
A theoretical investigation of phonon properties from first-principles calculations is carried out for the half-Heusler compounds NiXSn, [Formula: see text], Zr and Hf. The crystal structures are optimised via ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory. The phonon properties are retrieved from harmonic and anharmonic interatomic force constants calculations using the finite size displacements method and many-body perturbation theory. A solution to the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation is then used to compute the ab initio thermal conductivities. For X = Ti, Zr and Hf, we found 15.4, 13.3 and 15.8 W m(-1) K(-1) at 300 K, respectively. Thanks to a spectral analysis of the velocities and lifetimes we were able appreciate the differences in the thermal conductivities between the three compounds under study. Our results provide insights to understand the behaviour of the thermal conductivity and therefore to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit for such materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruud, Kenneth; Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał
2014-05-01
We present an analysis of the spin-rotation and absolute shielding constants of XF6 molecules (X = S, Se, Te, Mo, W) based on ab initio coupled cluster and four-component relativistic density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the relativistic contributions to the spin-rotation and shielding constants are large both for the heavy elements as well as for the fluorine nuclei. In most cases, incorporating the computed relativistic corrections significantly improves the agreement between our results and the well-established experimental values for the isotropic spin-rotation constants and their anisotropic components. This suggests that also for the other molecules, for which accurate and reliable experimental data are not available, reliable values of spin-rotation and absolute shielding constants were determined combining ab initio and relativistic DFT calculations. For the heavy nuclei, the breakdown of the relationship between the spin-rotation constant and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constant, due to relativistic effects, causes a significant error in the total absolute shielding constants.
Agrawal, Paras M; Raff, Lionel M; Hagan, Martin T; Komanduri, Ranga
2006-04-07
The neural network (NN) procedure to interpolate ab initio data for the purpose of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been tested on the SiO(2) system. Unlike other similar NN studies, here, we studied the dissociation of SiO(2) without the initial use of any empirical potential. During the dissociation of SiO(2) into Si+O or Si+O(2), the spin multiplicity of the system changes from singlet to triplet in the first reaction and from singlet to pentet in the second. This paper employs four potential surfaces. The first is a NN fit [NN(STP)] to a database comprising the lowest of the singlet, triplet, and pentet energies obtained from density functional calculations in 6673 nuclear configurations. The other three potential surfaces are obtained from NN fits to the singlet, triplet, and pentet-state energies. The dissociation dynamics on the singlet-state and NN(STP) surfaces are reported. The results obtained using the singlet surface correspond to those expected if the reaction were to occur adiabatically. The dynamics on the NN(STP) surface represent those expected if the reaction follows a minimum-energy pathway. This study on a small system demonstrates the application of NNs for MD studies using ab initio data when the spin multiplicity of the system changes during the dissociation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Paras M.; Raff, Lionel M.; Hagan, Martin T.; Komanduri, Ranga
2006-04-01
The neural network (NN) procedure to interpolate ab initio data for the purpose of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been tested on the SiO2 system. Unlike other similar NN studies, here, we studied the dissociation of SiO2 without the initial use of any empirical potential. During the dissociation of SiO2 into Si +O or Si +O2, the spin multiplicity of the system changes from singlet to triplet in the first reaction and from singlet to pentet in the second. This paper employs four potential surfaces. The first is a NN fit [NN(STP)] to a database comprising the lowest of the singlet, triplet, and pentet energies obtained from density functional calculations in 6673 nuclear configurations. The other three potential surfaces are obtained from NN fits to the singlet, triplet, and pentet-state energies. The dissociation dynamics on the singlet-state and NN(STP) surfaces are reported. The results obtained using the singlet surface correspond to those expected if the reaction were to occur adiabatically. The dynamics on the NN(STP) surface represent those expected if the reaction follows a minimum-energy pathway. This study on a small system demonstrates the application of NNs for MD studies using ab initio data when the spin multiplicity of the system changes during the dissociation process.
Velaga, Srinath C; Anderson, Brian J
2014-01-16
Gas hydrate deposits are receiving increased attention as potential locations for CO2 sequestration, with CO2 replacing the methane that is recovered as an energy source. In this scenario, it is very important to correctly characterize the cage occupancies of CO2 to correctly assess the sequestration potential as well as the methane recoverability. In order to predict accurate cage occupancies, the guest–host interaction potential must be represented properly. Earlier, these potential parameters were obtained by fitting to experimental equilibrium data and these fitted parameters do not match with those obtained by second virial coefficient or gas viscosity data. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations provide an independent means to directly obtain accurate intermolecular potentials. A potential energy surface (PES) between H2O and CO2 was computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), an error caused due to the lower basis set, by using the half counterpoise method. Intermolecular potentials were obtained by fitting Exponential-6 and Lennard-Jones 6-12 models to the ab initio PES, correcting for many-body interactions. We denoted this model as the “VAS” model. Reference parameters for structure I carbon dioxide hydrate were calculated using the VAS model (site–site ab initio intermolecular potentials) as Δμ(w)(0) = 1206 ± 2 J/mol and ΔH(w)(0) = 1260 ± 12 J/mol. With these reference parameters and the VAS model, pure CO2 hydrate equilibrium pressure was predicted with an average absolute deviation of less than 3.2% from the experimental data. Predictions of the small cage occupancy ranged from 32 to 51%, and the large cage is more than 98% occupied. The intermolecular potentials were also tested by calculating the pure CO2 density and diffusion of CO2 in water using molecular dynamics simulations.
Mahalakshmi, G; Balachandran, V
2015-01-25
Experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis of 1-Amino-4-methylpiperazine (1A4MP) have been performed. A detailed quantum chemical calculations have been carried out using ab initio HF and density functional theory calculations (B3LYP) with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The atomic charges, electronic exchange interaction and charge delocalization of the molecule have been performed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Electron density distribution and frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) have been constructed at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level to understand the electronic properties. The charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule have been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential surfaces (ESP). The electronic properties, HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), anisotropy polarizability (Δα) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule have been reported.
Ab Initio Calculations of the Interaction between CO _{2} and the Acetate Ion
Steckel, Janice A.
2012-11-29
A series of ab initio calculations designed to investigate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with acetate are presented. The lowest energy structure, AC–CO{sub 2}-η{sup 2}, is predicted by CCSD(T)/aVTZ to be bound by -10.6 kcal/mol. Six of the bound complexes have binding energies on the order of -8 kcal/mol, but analysis shows that the η{sup 1}-CT complex is fundamentally different from the others. The η{sup 1}-CT complex is characterized by geometric distortion, large polarization and induction effects and charge transfer whereas the other five complexes have little geometric distortion and negligible charge transfer. The amount of charge that is transferred from the anion to the CO{sub 2} in the η{sup 1}-CT complex is estimated to be about half an electron by NPA, DMA, CHELPG, and Mulliken analyses, whereas the EDA-ALMO-CTA (B3LYP) approach predicts a charge transfer of 75 me{sup –}. However, the transfer of this small amount of charge leads to an energy lowering of -56 kcal/mol, without which the complex would not be bound. The RI-MP2 geometries closely approximate those resulting from the CCSD optimizations, and the optimized second-order opposite spin (O2) method performs well for all the complexes except for the η{sup 1}-CT complex. DFT methods do not reproduce all the ab initio geometries, binding energies and/or energy ordering of these complexes although the range-separated hybrid meta-GGA (M11) and nonlocal (VV10 and vdwDF10) functionals are shown to yield results significantly better than other functionals considered for this system. The fact that there is such variation among DFT methods has implications for DFT-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and for the parametrization of classical force fields based on DFT calculations.
A high-precision ab initio determination of the equilibrium geometry and force field of HOC(+)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defrees, D. J.; Bunker, P. R.; Binkley, J. S.; Mclean, A. D.
1987-01-01
The results of an ab initio molecular orbital investigation of the isoformyl cation, HOC(+), shape are reported. The effects of expanding the basis set to near the Hartree-Fock limit and of electron correlation were examined, and the results indicate that near the Hartree-Fock limit the HOC(+) is linear. An analytic potential function is presented, from which the calculated rotational energies are only 0.03 percent different from the experimental values. This represents a nearly two orders of magnitude reduction in error from earlier work.
An analytical ab initio potential surface and the calculated tunneling energies for the HCl dimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunker, P. R.; Epa, V. C.; Jensen, Per; Karpfen, Alfred
1991-03-01
The six-dimensional potential energy surface of the HCl dimer has been calculated ab initio at 1654 nuclear geometries [A. Karpfen, P. R. Bunker and P. Jensen, Chem. Phys., in press]. In the present paper we have fitted an analytical function to these points; the analytical function is similar to that used previously by us for the potential surface of the HF dimer. The fitted function has 38 adjustable parameters and the standard deviation of the weighted fit is 19.0 cm -1. We have determined the minimum energy path for the trans-bending tunneling motion on this surface, and have calculated the tunneling and K-rotation energies and wavefunctions. Around equilibrium the path is qualitatively similar to that for the HF dimer in that there are two equivalent hydrogen-bonded structures of Cs symmetry (which are approximately L-shaped with a "bound" and a "free" H-atom) that can tunnel through a C2 h saddle point (the "closed" C2 h saddle point). However, away from equilibrium the path is qualitatively different from that found for the HF dimer since the HCl dimer never becomes linear along the path; in fact it passes through a second C2 h saddle point (the "open" C2 h saddle point). As a result the A-rotational constant only varies slightly along the path, and this explains the experimental observation that the tunneling splitting varies little with K-type rotation for the HCl dimer, in contrast to the situation for the HF dimer. Quantitatively it is clear that errors in the ab initio calculation, errors in the fitting of an analytic function to the points, the correction to the path that is caused by the zero point motion in the other vibrations, and the coupling between the four low-frequency modes, will all be relatively more significant than they were for the HF dimer because the full six-dimensional potential is much flatter; the ab initio dissociation energy is only ˜600 cm -1, and the ab initio tunneling barrier is only ˜70 cm -1. Therefore, we modify the
An accurate potential energy curve for helium based on ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janzen, A. R.; Aziz, R. A.
1997-07-01
Korona, Williams, Bukowski, Jeziorski, and Szalewicz [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1 (1997)] constructed a completely ab initio potential for He2 by fitting their calculations using infinite order symmetry adapted perturbation theory at intermediate range, existing Green's function Monte Carlo calculations at short range and accurate dispersion coefficients at long range to a modified Tang-Toennies potential form. The potential with retardation added to the dipole-dipole dispersion is found to predict accurately a large set of microscopic and macroscopic experimental data. The potential with a significantly larger well depth than other recent potentials is judged to be the most accurate characterization of the helium interaction yet proposed.
Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming.
Pal, Sourav; Hazra, Lakshminarayan
2011-04-01
An approach for ab initio synthesis of the thin lens structure of linearly compensated zoom lenses is reported. This method uses evolutionary programming that explores the available configuration space formed by powers of the individual components, the intercomponent separations, and the relative movement parameters of the moving components. Useful thin lens structures of optically and linearly compensated zoom lens systems are obtained by suitable formulation of the merit function of optimization. This paper reports our investigations on three-component zoom lens structures. Illustrative numerical results are presented.
Malbon, Christopher L; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Hua; Yarkony, David R
2016-12-21
For two electronic states coupled by conical intersections, the line integral of the derivative coupling can be used to construct a complex-valued multiplicative phase factor that makes the real-valued adiabatic electronic wave function single-valued, provided that the curl of the derivative coupling is zero. Unfortunately for ab initio determined wave functions, the curl is never rigorously zero. However, when the wave functions are determined from a coupled two diabatic state Hamiltonian H(d) (fit to ab initio data), the resulting derivative couplings are by construction curl free, except at points of conical intersection. In this work we focus on a recently introduced diabatization scheme that produces the H(d) by fitting ab initio determined energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings to the corresponding H(d) determined quantities in a least squares sense, producing a removable approximation to the ab initio determined derivative coupling. This approach and related numerical issues associated with the nonremovable ab initio derivative couplings are illustrated using a full 33-dimensional representation of phenol photodissociation. The use of this approach to provide a general framework for treating the molecular Aharonov Bohm effect is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malbon, Christopher L.; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Hua; Yarkony, David R.
2016-12-01
For two electronic states coupled by conical intersections, the line integral of the derivative coupling can be used to construct a complex-valued multiplicative phase factor that makes the real-valued adiabatic electronic wave function single-valued, provided that the curl of the derivative coupling is zero. Unfortunately for ab initio determined wave functions, the curl is never rigorously zero. However, when the wave functions are determined from a coupled two diabatic state Hamiltonian Hd (fit to ab initio data), the resulting derivative couplings are by construction curl free, except at points of conical intersection. In this work we focus on a recently introduced diabatization scheme that produces the Hd by fitting ab initio determined energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings to the corresponding Hd determined quantities in a least squares sense, producing a removable approximation to the ab initio determined derivative coupling. This approach and related numerical issues associated with the nonremovable ab initio derivative couplings are illustrated using a full 33-dimensional representation of phenol photodissociation. The use of this approach to provide a general framework for treating the molecular Aharonov Bohm effect is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Jacqueline M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.
2013-11-01
Structure-property relationships are established in the nonlinear optical (NLO) material, zinc tris(thiourea)sulfate (ZTS), via an experimental charge-density study, x-ray constrained wave-function refinement, and quantum-mechanical calculations. The molecular charge-transfer characteristics of ZTS, that are important for NLO activity, are topologically analyzed via a multipolar refinement of high-resolution x-ray diffraction data, which is supported by neutron diffraction measurements. The extent to which each chemical bond is ionic or covalent in nature is categorized by Laplacian-based bonding classifiers of the electron density; these include bond ellipticities, energy densities, and the local source function. Correspondingly, the NLO origins of ZTS are judged to best resemble those of organic NLO materials. The molecular dipole moment, μi, and (hyper)polarizability coefficients, αij and βijk, are calculated from the experimental diffraction data using the x-ray constrained wave-function method. Complementary gas-phase ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations of μi, αij, and βijk offer a supporting comparison. When taken alone, the experimental charge-density analysis does not fare well in deriving μi, αij, or βijk, which is not entirely surprising given that the associated calculations are only generally valid for organic molecules. However, by refining the x-ray data within the constrained wave-function method, the evaluations of μi, αij, and βijk are shown to agree very well with those from ab initio calculations and show remarkable normalization to experimental refractive index measurements. The small differences observed between ab initio and x-ray constrained wave-function refinement results can be related directly to gas- versus solid-state phase differences. μi is found to be 28.3 Debye (gas phase) and 29.7 Debye (solid state) while βijk coefficients are not only significant but are also markedly three dimensional in form. Accordingly
Ab initio study of the kinetics of hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin
Beste, Ariana; Britt, Phillip F; Buchanan III, A C; Harrison, Robert J; Hathorn, Bryan C
2008-01-01
Hydrogen abstraction reactions play a key role in many thermal and catalytic processes involved in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this paper, the reaction barriers and rate constants for the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin by the benzyl radical are calculated by ab initio methods. These reactions are representatives of similar reactions occurring in the thermolysis of lignin model compounds containing the phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) structural moiety. Thermolysis of PPE occurs by a free radical chain mechanism in which the product selectivity arises from competitive hydrogen abstraction at the benzylic and nonbenzylic methylen sites by chain carrying benzyl and phenoxyl radicals. The title reactions serve to calibrate the theoretical methods to be used in the study of PPE through comparison of the rate constants and the reaction enthalpies with reliable experimental values. In this study, we used two different hybrid density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP) and second-order perturbation theory to obtain equilibrium and transition state geometries. Multiple transition states were found for both reactions. BHandHLYP underestimates and second-order perturbation theory overestimates the reaction barriers; B3LYP energy barriers agree well with experiment. Absolute and relative rate constants were calculated using transition state theory. We found that the relative rate constant using the B3LYP functional agrees within a factor of 2.0 with experiment at the experimental temperature of 333 K, indicating that the B3LYP functional will be successful in predicting relative rate constants for hydrogen abstraction reactions participating in the pyrolysis of PPE.
Ab initio study of carbon-chlorine bond cleavage in carbon tetrachloride.
Zhang, Nianliu; Blowers, Paul; Farrell, James
2005-01-15
Chlorinated solvents in groundwater are known to undergo reductive dechlorination reactions with Fe(ll)-containing minerals and with corroding metals in permeable-barrier treatment systems. This research investigated the effect of the reaction energy on the reaction pathway for C-Cl bond cleavage in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and modified complete basis set ab initio methods were used to study adiabatic electron transfer to aqueous-phase CCl4. The potential energies associated with fragmentation of the carbon tetrachloride anion radical (CCl4-) into a trichloromethyl radical (CCl3) and a chloride ion (Cl-) were explored as a function of the carbon-chlorine bond distance during cleavage. The effect of aqueous solvation was investigated using a continuum conductor-like screening model. Solvation significantly lowered the energies of the reaction products, suggesting that dissociative electron transfer was enhanced by solvation. The potential energy curves in an aqueous medium indicate that reductive cleavage undergoes a change from an inner-sphere to an outer-sphere mechanism as the overall energy change for the reaction is increased. The activation energy for the reaction was found to be a linear function of the overall energy change, and the Marcus-Hush model was used to relate experimentally measured activation energies for CCl4 reduction to overall reaction energies. Experimentally measured activation energies for CCl4 reduction by corroding iron correspond to reaction energies that are insufficiently exergonic for promoting the outer-sphere mechanism. This suggests that the different reaction pathways that have been observed for CCl4 reduction by corroding iron arise from different catalytic interactions with the surface, and not from differences in energy of the transferred electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, Moumita; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Manzhos, Sergei
2014-06-01
New potential energy surfaces for methane were constructed, represented as analytic fits to about 100,000 individual high-level ab initio data. Explicitly-correlated multireference data (MRCI-F12(AE)/CVQZ-F12) were computed using Molpro [1] and fit using multiple strategies. Fits with small to negligible errors were obtained using adaptations of the permutation-invariant-polynomials (PIP) approach [2,3] based on neural-networks (PIP-NN) [4,5] and the interpolative moving least squares (IMLS) fitting method [6] (PIP-IMLS). The PESs were used in full-dimensional vibrational calculations with an exact kinetic energy operator by representing the Hamiltonian in a basis of products of contracted bend and stretch functions and using a symmetry adapted Lanczos method to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Very close agreement with experiment was produced from the purely ab initio PESs. References 1- H.-J. Werner, P. J. Knowles, G. Knizia, 2012.1 ed. 2012, MOLPRO, a package of ab initio programs. see http://www.molpro.net. 2- Z. Xie and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Theory Comput 6, 26, 2010. 3- B. J. Braams and J. M. Bowman, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 577, 2009. 4- J. Li, B. Jiang and Hua Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 204103 (2013). 5- S Manzhos, X Wang, R Dawes and T Carrington, JPC A 110, 5295 (2006). 6- R. Dawes, X-G Wang, A.W. Jasper and T. Carrington Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 134304 (2010).
Ab initio spectroscopy and photoinduced cooling of the trans-stilbene molecule.
Tatchen, Jörg; Pollak, Eli
2008-04-28
We present a theoretical study of the S(0)-->S(1) and S(0)<--S(1) vibronic spectra for trans-stilbene. Franck-Condon spectra in the harmonic approximation are generated for the complete system with 72 degrees of freedom by means of an analytic time-dependent approach accounting for Dushinsky rotations and thermal effects. The force fields are computed by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, on the one hand, and ab initio complete active space self-consistent field theory, on the other hand. The B3LYP functional shows that almost planar potential energy surface minima are found for the S(0) and S(1) state. Imposing C(2h) symmetry constraints, we obtain low-temperature high-resolution Franck-Condon spectra for both absorption and emission which are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra measured by Syage et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 4685 (1984)] in supersonic jets. Due to thermal population of low-energy modes, the room temperature absorption spectrum is very broad. An almost structureless band which extends over several thousand cm(-1) is obtained from the present theory and agrees with the experimental absorption band shape. Finally, within the harmonic model, we study the effect of photoexcitation on the energy distribution in the excited S(1) state. We find noticeable cooling of approximately 20 K within a frequency interval spanning from -400 to 200 cm(-1) around the 0-0 transition. This indicates that photoinduced cooling must be taken into account when considering the dynamics of the photoinduced isomerization of trans-stilbene. Moreover, this is not the final word, as anharmonicity of the low frequency modes must be taken into account to obtain a full picture which would explain both the energy dependence of the isomerization rates as well as the dependence on the pressure of an external buffer gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baima, Jacopo; Ferrabone, Matteo; Orlando, Roberto; Erba, Alessandro; Dovesi, Roberto
2016-02-01
The phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of pyrope ({Mg}_3{Al}_2{Si}_3{O}_{12}) and grossular ({Ca}_3{Al}_2{Si}_3{O}_{12} ) have been computed by using an ab initio quantum mechanical approach, an all-electron variational Gaussian-type basis set and the B3LYP hybrid functional, as implemented in the Crystal program. Dispersion effects in the phonon bands have been simulated by using supercells of increasing size, containing 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280 and 2160 atoms, corresponding to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 27 {k} points in the first Brillouin zone. Phonon band structures, density of states and corresponding inelastic neutron scattering spectra are reported. Full convergence of the various thermodynamic properties, in particular entropy ( S) and specific heat at constant volume (CV), with the number of {k} points is achieved with 27 {k} points. The very regular behavior of the S( T) and CV(T) curves as a function of the number of {k} points, determined by high numerical stability of the code, permits extrapolation to an infinite number of {k} points. The limiting value differs from the 27-{k} case by only 0.40 % at 100 K for S (the difference decreasing to 0.11 % at 1000 K) and by 0.29 % (0.05 % at 1000 K) for CV. The agreement with the experimental data is rather satisfactory. We also address the problem of the relative entropy of pyrope and grossular, a still debated question. Our lattice dynamical calculations correctly describe the larger entropy of pyrope than grossular by taking into account merely vibrational contributions and without invoking "static disorder" of the Mg ions in dodecahedral sites. However, as the computed entropy difference is found to be larger than the experimental one by a factor of 2-3, present calculations cannot exclude possible thermally induced structural changes, which could lead to further conformational contributions to the entropy.
Infrared signature of micro-hydration in the organophosphate sarin: An ab initio study
Alam, Todd M.; Pearce, Charles Joseph
2015-06-28
The infrared (IR) spectra of micro-hydrated Sarin•(H_{2}O)_{n} clusters containing between one and four explicit waters have been studied using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. The phosphate group P=O bond vibration region (~1270 to 1290 cm^{–1}) revealed the largest frequency variation with hydration, with a frequency red shift reflecting the direct hydrogen bond formation between the P=O of Sarin and water. Small variations to the P-F stretch (~810 to 815 cm^{–1}) and the C-O-P vibrational modes (~995 to 1004 cm^{–1}) showed that the water interactions with these functional groups were minor, and that the structures of Sarin were not extensively perturbed in the hydrated complexes. Increasing the number of explicit hydration waters produced only small vibrational changes in the lowest free energy complexes. These minor changes were consistent with a single water-phosphate hydrogen bond being the dominant structure, though a second water-phosphate hydrogen bond was observed in some complexes and was identified by an additional red shift of the P=O bond vibration. As a result, the H_{2}O•H_{2}O vibrational modes (~3450 to 3660 cm^{–1}) increased in complexity with higher hydration levels and reflect the extended hydrogen bonding networks formed between the explicit waters in the hydrated Sarin clusters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van, Tat Pham; Deiters, Ulrich K.
2017-03-01
The ab initio intermolecular pair potentials of dimers F2-F2 and H2-F2 were calculated from all constructed orientations, using the level of theory CCSD(T) and basis sets aug-cc-pVmZ (m = 2, 3, 23). The complete basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z was extrapolated by ab initio interaction energies at the level of theory CCSD(T) with two basis sets aug-cc-pVmZ (m = 2, 3). Then the quantum mechanical results were used for constructing two new 5-site potential functions by fitting ab initio energies of dimers F2-F2 and H2-F2. The correlation between ab initio and the fitted ab initio energies of 5-site pair potentials for dimers F2-F2 and H2-F2 is appeared by fitness values R2 in range 0.99749-0.99997. The fitted potentials were used in standard thermodynamic relations to obtain the second virial coefficients and the results were compared to experimental data.
Ab initio computational applications to complex biomolecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Lei
A series of biomaterial related systems---including water and DNA molecules---have been studied using ab initio (first-principles) methods. By investigating the properties of water as the preliminary step, the hydrogen bond (HB) interactions, which play important roles in biomolecules, were better understood from the quantum mechanical viewpoint. The calculated K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of all 340 oxygen atoms in the model have been accumulated to reproduce the experimental one. The spectra were shown to be very sensitive to the HB configurations of O atoms, which could be used to elucidate the subtle structural variations in complex biomolecules. The simulation of single-molecule DNA overstretching experiments under torsionally constrained condition has been carried out afterwards. The initial DNA models were stretched stepwisely and eventually gained an extension of 1.5-fold (150% x the original length). The variation of total energy, atomic configuration, and the electronic structure during this process were analyzed in details. At the extension of ˜1.3-fold, the ring opening reactions occurred in the backbones. The backbone nicks appeared at elongations of ˜1.40-fold. The whole process was accompanied by HB breaking and charge transfers. We have proposed an overstretched structure named O-DNA (Opened-DNA) to clarify the confusion in understanding the behavior of DNA under high force load. With more experiences gained, a comprehensive methodology revealing the underlying principles of bioprocesses from the quantum mechanical viewpoint eventually come up. For the purpose of better computational accuracy, the scheme of implementing the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functionals into the Orthogonalized Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (OLCAO) program suite has been discussed, and the computational efficiency has been analyzed correspondingly. Moreover, the parallel strategy for performing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil
2017-02-01
Density functional approximations (DFAs) often suffer from self-repulsion and delocalization errors which are reduced by exact (Hartree-Fock-like) exchange admixture. Oyeyemi and co-workers recently showed that several DFAs with little exact exchange incorrectly predict bent alkynyl radical geometries, giving errors in ab initio composite methods using density functional theory geometries [V. B. Oyeyemi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 289 (2012)]. We show that the simple Hartree-Fock-Slater and Xα DFAs, which have substantial delocalization error, predict linear alkynyl radical geometries without incorporating exact exchange. Our Rung 3.5 DFAs, and rescaled generalized gradient approximations, can give either linear σ, bent σ -π , or nearly linear π radicals, all without incorporating exact exchange. This highlights the complexity of delocalization error, the utility of accurate empirical DFA geometries for ab initio composite methods, and the insights to be gained from Rung 3.5 DFAs.
E2 and SN2 Reactions of X(-) + CH3CH2X (X = F, Cl); an ab Initio and DFT Benchmark Study.
Bento, A Patrícia; Solà, Miquel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias
2008-06-01
We have computed consistent benchmark potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the anti-E2, syn-E2, and SN2 pathways of X(-) + CH3CH2X with X = F and Cl. This benchmark has been used to evaluate the performance of 31 popular density functionals, covering local-density approximation, generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, and hybrid density-functional theory (DFT). The ab initio benchmark has been obtained by exploring the PESs using a hierarchical series of ab initio methods [up to CCSD(T)] in combination with a hierarchical series of Gaussian-type basis sets (up to aug-cc-pVQZ). Our best CCSD(T) estimates show that the overall barriers for the various pathways increase in the order anti-E2 (X = F) < SN2 (X = F) < SN2 (X = Cl) ∼ syn-E2 (X = F) < anti-E2 (X = Cl) < syn-E2 (X = Cl). Thus, anti-E2 dominates for F(-) + CH3CH2F, and SN2 dominates for Cl(-) + CH3CH2Cl, while syn-E2 is in all cases the least favorable pathway. Best overall agreement with our ab initio benchmark is obtained by representatives from each of the three categories of functionals, GGA, meta-GGA, and hybrid DFT, with mean absolute errors in, for example, central barriers of 4.3 (OPBE), 2.2 (M06-L), and 2.0 kcal/mol (M06), respectively. Importantly, the hybrid functional BHandH and the meta-GGA M06-L yield incorrect trends and qualitative features of the PESs (in particular, an erroneous preference for SN2 over the anti-E2 in the case of F(-) + CH3CH2F) even though they are among the best functionals as measured by their small mean absolute errors of 3.3 and 2.2 kcal/mol in reaction barriers. OLYP and B3LYP have somewhat higher mean absolute errors in central barriers (5.6 and 4.8 kcal/mol, respectively), but the error distribution is somewhat more uniform, and as a consequence, the correct trends are reproduced.
Developmental AB Initio Molecular Orbital Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blurock, Edward (Ned) Samuel
The frozen core approximation (FCA) was applied to the main group elements of the first four rows of the periodic table (i.e., through Iodine). For hydride bond lengths, the results of the FCA calculation were consistently closer to experiment. The FCA calculation assumes that the core space is complete and restricts its further optimization. The standard calculation does not have this restriction and further completion of the core space (during the optimization procedure) by valence orbitals on neighboring atoms produced shorter (compared to FCA and experiment) hydride bond lengths. A new set of two-electron integrals was developed combining the use of Rys quadrature and the axis-switch algorithm. The combined algorithm was found to be advantageous only under higher contraction. Also, it was determined that extension of the algorithm to higher angular momentum functions would yield improvement in only selected cases. The SYMGEN program, a symbolic algebra program written by the author, was used to generate and globally optimize the newly developed code. The SYMGEN program is a general program with potential uses in a variety of other coding and global optimization problems.
Progress at the interface of wave-function and density-functional theories
Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.
2011-04-15
The Kohn-Sham (KS) potential of density-functional theory (DFT) emerges as the minimizing effective potential in a variational scheme that does not involve fixing the unknown single-electron density. Using Rayleigh Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory (PT), we construct ab initio approximations for the energy difference, the minimization of which determines the KS potential directly - thereby bypassing DFT's traditional algorithm to search for the density that minimizes the total energy. From second-order RS PT, we obtain variationally stable energy differences to be minimized, solving the severe problem of variational collapse of orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals based on second-order RS PT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Bo; Liu, Haifeng; Song, Haifeng
2015-06-01
Based on the non-local van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF)+ U scheme, we carry out the ab initio molecular dynamics study of the interaction dynamics for H2 molecules impingement against Pu-oxides and mononitride surfaces. We show that except for the weak physisorption, both PuO2 and PuN surfaces are so difficult of access that almost all of H2 molecules will bounce back to the vacuum when their initial kinetic energies are not sufficient. Although the dissociative adsorption of H2 on PuO2 surfaces is found to be exothermic, the collision-induced dissociation barriers of H2 are very high (up to 2.2 eV). However, PuO2 overlayer on Pu-metal can be reduced to α-Pu2O3 drived by oxygen-lean conditions, and H2 can penetrate and diffuse in α-Pu2O3 easily. As a result, α-Pu2O3 can promote the hydriding process of Pu. Unlike PuO2, PuN is found to be one kind of stable and uniform passivation layer against Pu-hydriding. Specifically, the incorporation of PuN and H-atom is proven to be thermodynamically unstable. Overall, our current study reveals the mechanical and chemical resistances of Pu-oxide and Pu-nitride to hydrogen corrosion, which have strong implications to the understanding of the surface corrosion and passivation of Pu metal. This work was supported by the FDST of CAEP under Grant No. 9090707.
Matrix-isolation study and ab initio calculations of the structure and spectra of hydroxyacetone.
Sharma, Archna; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui
2008-07-03
The structure of hydroxyacetone (HA) isolated in an argon matrix (at 12 K) and in a neat solid phase (at 12-175 K) was characterized by using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The interpretation of the experimental results was supported by high-level quantum chemical calculations, undertaken by using both ab initio (MP2) and density functional theory methods. A potential-energy surface scan, carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, predicted four nonequivalent minima, Cc, Tt, Tg, and Ct, all of them doubly degenerate by symmetry. The energy barriers for conversion between most of the symmetrically related structures and also between some of the nonequivalent minima (e.g., Tg --> Tt and Ct --> Tt) are very small and stay below the zero-point vibrational level associated with the isomerization coordinate in the higher-energy form in each pair. Therefore, only Cc and Tt conformers have physical significance, with populations of 99 and 1%, respectively, in gas phase at room temperature. For the matrix-isolated compound, only the most stable Cc conformer was observed. On the other hand, the polarizable continuum model calculations indicated that in water solution, the population of Tt and Ct conformers might be high enough (ca. 6 and 11%, respectively) to enable their experimental detection, thus supporting the conclusions of a previous IR spectroscopy study [ Spectrochim. Acta A 2005, 61, 477] in which the presence of more than one HA conformer in aqueous solution was postulated. The signatures of these minor conformers, however, do not appear in the spectra of the neat HA crystal, and the crystal structure was rationalized in terms of centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimers consisting of two Cc-like units. Finally, we calculated (1)H, (13)C, and (17)O NMR chemical shifts at different levels of theory and found them to agree with available experimental data.
Absolute acidity of clay edge sites from ab-initio simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tazi, Sami; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore
2012-10-01
We provide a microscopic understanding of the solvation structure and reactivity of the edges of neutral clays. In particular we address the tendency to deprotonation of the different reactive groups on the (0 1 0) face of pyrophyllite. Such information cannot be inferred directly from titration experiments, which do not discriminate between different sites and whose interpretation resorts to macroscopic models. The determination of the corresponding pKa then usually relies on bond valence models, sometimes improved by incorporating some structural information from ab-initio simulations. Here we use density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations, combined with thermodynamic integration, to compute the free energy of the reactions of water with the different surface groups, leading to a deprotonated site and an aqueous hydronium ion. Our approach consistently describes the clay and water sides of the interface and includes naturally electronic polarization effects. It also allows to investigate the structure and solvation of all sites separately. We find that the most acidic group is SiOH, due to its ability to establish strong hydrogen bonds with adsorbed water, as it also happens on the quartz and amorphous silica surfaces. The acidity constant of AlOH2 is only 1 pKa unit larger. Finally, the pKa of AlOH is outside the possible range in water and this site should not deprotonate in aqueous solution. We show that the solvation of surface sites and hence their acidity is strongly affected by the proximity of other sites, in particular for AlOH and AlOH2 which share the same Al. We discuss the implications of our findings on the applicability of bond valence models to predict the acidity of edge sites of clays.
EL2-like defects in InP nanowires: An ab initio total energy investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miwa, R. H.; Schmidt, T. M.; Fazzio, A.
2007-04-01
We have performed an ab initio total energy investigation, within the density-functional theory, of antisite defects in InP nanowires (InP NWs) grown along the [111] direction. Our total energy results indicate that (i) P antisites (PIn) are the most likely antisite defect compared with In antisites (InP) and (ii) the formation energies of P and In antisites do not depend on the NW diameter. In particular, in thin InP NWs, with diameters of ˜13Å , the PIn antisite exhibits a trigonal symmetry, lying at 0.15Å from the Td site, followed by a metastable configuration with PIn in an interstitial position ( 1.15Å from the Td site). We find a PIn-P dissociation energy of 0.33eV , and there is no EL2-like center for such a thin InP NW. However, EL2-like defects occur by increasing the NW diameter. For diameters of ˜18Å , the PIn-P dissociation energy increases to 0.53eV , which is 0.34eV lower compared with the PIn-P dissociation energy for the InP bulk phase, 0.87eV . We mapped the atomic displacements and calculated the relaxation energy, Franck-Condon shift, upon single excitation of PIn induced states in InP NW. The formation (or not) of EL2-like defects, PIn dissociation energy barrier, and the Franck-Condon energy shift can be tuned by the NW diameter.
Thermodynamic properties of magnesium oxide: a comparison of ab initio and empirical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ting; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Kong, Bo; Quan, Wei-Long; Fu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian-Feng; Tian, Jun-Hong
2012-04-01
The pressure-volume equation of state (P-V EOS) and isothermal bulk modulus, the volume-temperature (V-T) EOS and thermal expansivity are investigated for magnesium oxide (MgO) by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye (QHD) model in which the phononic effects are considered and isothermal-isobaric ensemble molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with different effective pair-wise potentials that consist of the Coulomb, dispersion and repulsion interactions. Polarization and compression effects are considered in MD simulations through the shell model (SM) and breathing shell model (BSM), respectively. The P-V relationship and isothermal bulk modulus K of the MgO dependence of pressures up to 200 GPa at 300 K and the V-T relationship and volume thermal expansion coefficient α of the MgO dependence of temperatures up to 3000 K at 0.1 MPa have been obtained from MD and DFT calculations and compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. Particular attention is paid to the prediction of the first and second pressure derivatives K' and K'' of the isothermal bulk modulus of MgO at a given temperature and pressure for the first time. Compared with the SM potential, MD simulations with the BSM and QHD models are highly successful in accurately reproducing the measured volumes of MgO. At extended pressure and temperature ranges, K, K', K'', α and P-V-T EOS have also been predicted. Detailed knowledge of the thermodynamic behavior in extreme conditions is of fundamental importance for understanding the physical properties of MgO.
Ab initio study of the structure and dynamics of bulk liquid Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marqués, M.; González, L. E.; González, D. J.
2015-10-01
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Fe at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been evaluated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows very good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the structure factor which underlines a substantial local icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. The dynamical structure reveals propagating density fluctuations, with an associated dispersion relation which closely follows the experimental data. The dynamic structure factors S (q ,ω ) show a good agreement with their experimental counterparts which have been recently measured by an inelastic x-ray scattering experiment. The dynamical processes behind the S (q ,ω ) have been analyzed by using a model with two decay channels (a fast and a slow) associated with the relaxations of the collective excitations. The recent finding of transverselike excitation modes in the IXS data is analyzed by using the present ab initio simulation results. Several transport coefficients have been evaluated and the results are compared with the available experimental data.
Thürmer, Stephan; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr
2011-06-16
The effect of hydration on the electronic struc