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Sample records for aba salicylic acid

  1. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  2. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... stinging in the area where you applied topical salicylic acid Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ... of the eyes, face, lips, or tongue Topical salicylic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  3. Safety assessment of Salicylic Acid, Butyloctyl Salicylate, Calcium Salicylate, C12-15 Alkyl Salicylate, Capryloyl Salicylic Acid, Hexyldodecyl Salicylate, Isocetyl Salicylate, Isodecyl Salicylate, Magnesium Salicylate, MEA-Salicylate, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Potassium Salicylate, Methyl Salicylate, Myristyl Salicylate, Sodium Salicylate, TEA-Salicylate, and Tridecyl Salicylate.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic Acid is an aromatic acid used in cosmetic formulations as a denaturant, hair-conditioning agent, and skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous in a wide range of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from 0.0008% to 3%. The Calcium, Magnesium, and MEA salts are preservatives, and Potassium Salicylate is a cosmetic biocide and preservative, not currently in use. Sodium Salicylate is used as a denaturant and preservative (0.09% to 2%). The TEA salt of Salicylic Acid is used as an ultraviolet (UV) light absorber (0.0001% to 0.75%). Several Salicylic Acid esters are used as skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous (Capryloyl, 0.1% to 1%; C12-15 Alkyl, no current use; Isocetyl, 3% to 5%; Isodecyl, no current use; and Tridecyl, no current use). Butyloctyl Salicylate (0.5% to 5%) and Hexyldodecyl Salicylate (no current use) are hair-conditioning agents and skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous. Ethylhexyl Salicylate (formerly known as Octyl Salicylate) is used as a fragrance ingredient, sunscreen agent, and UV light absorber (0.001% to 8%), and Methyl Salicylate is used as a denaturant and flavoring agent (0.0001% to 0.6%). Myristyl Salicylate has no reported function. Isodecyl Salicylate is used in three formulations, but no concentration of use information was reported. Salicylates are absorbed percutaneously. Around 10% of applied salicylates can remain in the skin. Salicylic Acid is reported to enhance percutaneous penetration of some agents (e.g., vitamin A), but not others (e.g., hydrocortisone). Little acute toxicity (LD(50) in rats; >2 g/kg) via a dermal exposure route is seen for Salicylic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, Tridecyl Salicylate, and Butyloctyl Salicylate. Short-term oral, inhalation, and parenteral exposures to salicylates sufficient to produce high blood concentrations are associated primarily with liver and kidney damage. Subchronic dermal exposures to undiluted Methyl Salicylate were associated with kidney damage. Chronic oral exposure to

  4. Abscisic Acid Determines Basal Susceptibility of Tomato to Botrytis cinerea and Suppresses Salicylic Acid-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms1

    PubMed Central

    Audenaert, Kris; De Meyer, Geert B.; Höfte, Monica M.

    2002-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the plant hormones involved in the interaction between plants and pathogens. In this work, we show that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) mutants with reduced ABA levels (sitiens plants) are much more resistant to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea than wild-type (WT) plants. Exogenous application of ABA restored susceptibility to B. cinerea in sitiens plants and increased susceptibility in WT plants. These results indicate that ABA plays a major role in the susceptibility of tomato to B. cinerea. ABA appeared to interact with a functional plant defense response against B. cinerea. Experiments with transgenic NahG tomato plants and benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid demonstrated the importance of salicylic acid in the tomato-B. cinerea interaction. In addition, upon infection with B. cinerea, sitiens plants showed a clear increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, which was not observed in infected WT plants, indicating that the ABA levels in healthy WT tomato plants partly repress phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity. In addition, sitiens plants became more sensitive to benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid root treatment. The threshold values for PR1a gene expression declined with a factor 10 to 100 in sitiens compared with WT plants. Thus, ABA appears to negatively modulate the salicylic acid-dependent defense pathway in tomato, which may be one of the mechanisms by which ABA levels determine susceptibility to B. cinerea. PMID:11842153

  5. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals. ...

  6. A review of toxicity from topical salicylic acid preparations.

    PubMed

    Madan, Raman K; Levitt, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Topical salicylic acid is often used in dermatologic conditions because of its keratolytic, bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and photoprotective properties. The bioavailability of salicylic acid differs depending on the vehicle used and pH of transcellular fluids. Although rare, salicylic acid toxicity (salicylism) can occur from topical application. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for salicylism or even death from topically applied salicylic acid. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  8. LTP3 contributes to disease susceptibility in Arabidopsis by enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Wenya; Feng, Wen; Liu, Liang; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Jian; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Hongxia; Tang, Saijun; Hu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Several plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) act positively in plant disease resistance. Here, we show that LTP3 (At5g59320), a pathogen and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene, negatively regulates plant immunity in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of LTP3 (LTP3-OX) led to an enhanced susceptibility to virulent bacteria and compromised resistance to avirulent bacteria. On infection of LTP3-OX plants with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, NCED3 and AAO3, were highly induced, whereas salicylic acid (SA)-related genes, ICS1 and PR1, were down-regulated. Accordingly, in LTP3-OX plants, we observed increased ABA levels and decreased SA levels relative to the wild-type. We also showed that the LTP3 overexpression-mediated enhanced susceptibility was partially dependent on AAO3. Interestingly, loss of function of LTP3 (ltp3-1) did not affect ABA pathways, but resulted in PR1 gene induction and elevated SA levels, suggesting that LTP3 can negatively regulate SA in an ABA-independent manner. However, a double mutant consisting of ltp3-1 and silent LTP4 (ltp3/ltp4) showed reduced susceptibility to Pseudomonas and down-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, suggesting that LTP3 acts in a redundant manner with its closest homologue LTP4 by modulating the ABA pathway. Taken together, our data show that LTP3 is a novel negative regulator of plant immunity which acts through the manipulation of the ABA-SA balance. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  10. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Zhi-li; Shi, Bao-lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-xin; Wang, Su-li; Gao, Bao-jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  13. Antagonism between salicylic and abscisic acid reflects early host-pathogen conflict and moulds plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Bennett, Mark H; Truman, William H; Grant, Murray R

    2009-08-01

    The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Recently it has been demonstrated that abscisic acid signalling pathways are utilized by the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae to promote pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the dynamics, inter-relationship and impact of three key acidic phytohormones, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, and the bacterial virulence factor, coronatine, during progression of P. syringae infection of Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that levels of SA and ABA, but not JA, appear to play important early roles in determining the outcome of the infection process. SA is required in order to mount a full innate immune responses, while bacterial effectors act rapidly to activate ABA biosynthesis. ABA suppresses inducible innate immune responses by down-regulating SA biosynthesis and SA-mediated defences. Mutant analyses indicated that endogenous ABA levels represent an important reservoir that is necessary for effector suppression of plant-inducible innate defence responses and SA synthesis prior to subsequent pathogen-induced increases in ABA. Enhanced susceptibility due to loss of SA-mediated basal resistance is epistatically dominant over acquired resistance due to ABA deficiency, although ABA also contributes to symptom development. We conclude that pathogen-modulated ABA signalling rapidly antagonizes SA-mediated defences. We predict that hormonal perturbations, either induced or as a result of environmental stress, have a marked impact on pathological outcomes, and we provide a mechanistic basis for understanding priming events in plant defence.

  14. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    PubMed Central

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  15. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Salicylic acid derivatives: synthesis, features and usage as therapeutic tools.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Deniz; Sentürk, Murat; Küfrevioğlu, Ömer İrfan

    2011-12-01

    In the field of medicinal chemistry, there is a growing interest in the use of small molecules. Although acetyl salicylic acid is well known for medical applications, little is known about other salicylic acid derivatives, and there is serious lack of data and information on the effects and biological evaluation that connect them. This review covers the synthesis and drug potencies of salicylic acid derivatives. After a brief overview of the information on salicylic acid and its features, a detailed review of salicylic acids as drugs and prodrugs, usage as cyclooxygenase inhibitors, properties in plants, synthesis and recent patents, is developed. Salicylic acid research is still an important area and innovations continue to arise, which offer hope for new therapeutics in related fields. It is anticipated that this review will guide the direction of long-term drug/nutraceutical safety trials and stimulate ideas for future research.

  17. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration.

    PubMed

    Hansten, P D; Hayton, W L

    1980-01-01

    To determine the effect of antacid or ascorbic acid administration on plateau serum salicylate concentrations, nine healthy subjects were given each of the following treatments by balanced block design: choline salicylate (equivalent to 3.76 or 5.62 Gm/day of aspirin); choline salicylate plus magnesium-aluminum hydroxide (120 ml/day); or choline salicylate plus ascorbic acid (3 Gm/day). In subjects developing a control serum salicylate level above 10 mg/dl, antacid administration produced a decrease in serum salicylate level (mean 19.8 mg/dl vs. 15.8 mg/dl) (P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid administration was not associated with a significant change in serum salicylate. The reduction in serum salicylate following antacid appears to be due to antacid-induced alkalinization of the urine with resultant increase in renal salicylate clearance. Antacid administration should be considered a potential cause of altered serum salicylate concentration in patients receiving large doses of salicylate.

  18. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  19. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  20. Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Marcińska, Izabela; Czyczyło-Mysza, Ilona; Skrzypek, Edyta; Grzesiak, Maciej T.; Janowiak, Franciszek; Filek, Maria; Dziurka, Michał; Dziurka, Kinga; Waligórski, Piotr; Juzoń, Katarzyna; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1) and drought resistant (CS) wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM) or ABA (0.1 μM) to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (−0.75 MPa). The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA) was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity

  1. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. PMID:26347269

  2. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  3. The effects of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on lipid accumulation in two freshwater Chlorella strains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanxun; Gao, Zhengquan; Du, Huanmin; Lin, Bin; Yan, Yuchen; Li, Guoqiang; Guo, Yanyun; Fu, Shenggui; Wei, Gongxiang; Wang, Miaomiao; Cui, Meng; Meng, Chunxiao

    2018-03-27

    Sustainable renewable energy is being hotly debated globally because the continued use of finite fossil fuels is now widely recognized as being unsustainable. Microalgae potentially offer great opportunities for resolving this challenge. Abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are involved in regulating many physiological properties and have been widely used in higher plants. To test if phytohormones have an impact on accumulating lipid for microalgae, ABA, JA and SA were used to induce two Chlorella strains in the present study. The results showed 1.0 mg/L ABA, 10 mg/L SA, and 0.5 mg/L JA, led strain C. vulgaris ZF strain to produce a 45%, 42% and 49% lipid content that was 1.8-, 1.7- and 2.0-fold that of controls, respectively. For FACHB 31 (number 31 of the Freshwater Algae Culture Collection at the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), the addition of 1.0 mg/L ABA, 10 mg/L SA, and 0.5 mg/L, JA produced 33%, 30% and 38% lipid content, which was 1.8-, 1.6- and 2.1-fold that of controls, respectively. As for lipid productivity, 1.0 mg/L ABA increased the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris ZF strain and FACHB-31 by 123% and 44%; 10 mg/L SA enhanced lipid productivity by 100% and 33%; the best elicitor, 0.5 mg/L JA, augmented lipid productivity by 127% and 75% compared to that of controls, respectively. The results above suggest that the three phytohormones at physiological concentrations play crucial roles in inducing lipid accumulation in Chlorella.

  4. Development of Inhibitors of Salicylic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Kurimoto, Tetsuya; Seo, Eun-kyung; Miyazaki, Sho; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Asami, Tadao

    2015-08-19

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Determining the mechanism of SAR will extend our understanding of plant defenses against pathogens. We recently reported that PAMD is an inhibitor of SA signaling, which suppresses the expression of the pathogenesis-related PR genes and is expected to facilitate the understanding of SA signaling. However, PAMD strongly inhibits plant growth. To minimize the side effects of PAMD, we synthesized a number of PAMD derivatives, and identified compound 4 that strongly suppresses the expression of the PR genes with fewer adverse effects on plant growth than PAMD. We further showed that the adverse effects on plant growth were partially caused the stabilization of DELLA, which is also related to the pathogen responses. These results indicate that compound 4 would facilitate our understanding of SA signaling and its cross talk with other plant hormones.

  5. Lipoxygenase in Caragana jubata responds to low temperature, abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kaur, Jagdeep; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyses oxygenation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids into oxylipins, and is a critical enzyme of the jasmonate signaling pathway. LOX has been shown to be associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in diverse plant species, though limited data is available with respect to low temperature and the associated cues. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a full-length cDNA (CjLOX) encoding lipoxygenase was cloned from apical buds of Caragana jubata, a temperate plant species that grows under extreme cold. The cDNA obtained was 2952bp long consisting of an open reading frame of 2610bp encoding 869 amino acids protein. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other plants demonstrated putative LH2/ PLAT domain, lipoxygenase iron binding catalytic domain and lipoxygenase_2 signature sequences. CjLOX exhibited up- and down-regulation of gene expression pattern in response to low temperature (LT), abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA). Among all the treatments, a strong up-regulation was observed in response to MJ. Data suggests an important role of jasmonate signaling pathway in response to LT in C. jubata. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Arabidopsis plants deficient in plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase show alterations in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction: interaction between ABA and primary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Bermúdez, María Angeles; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) controls plant development and regulates plant responses to environmental stresses. A role for ABA in sugar regulation of plant development has also been well documented although the molecular mechanisms connecting the hormone with sugar signal transduction pathways are not well understood. In this work it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapcp1gapcp2) are ABA insensitive in growth, stomatal closure, and germination assays. The ABA levels of gapcp1gapcp2 were normal, suggesting that the ABA signal transduction pathway is impaired in the mutants. ABA modified gapcp1gapcp2 gene expression, but the mutant response to the hormone differed from that observed in wild-type plants. The gene expression of the transcription factor ABI4, involved in both sugar and ABA signalling, was altered in gapcp1gapcp2, suggesting that their ABA insensitivity is mediated, at least partially, through this transcriptional regulator. Serine supplementation was able partly to restore the ABA sensitivity of gapcp1gapcp2, indicating that amino acid homeostasis and/or serine metabolism may also be important determinants in the connections of ABA with primary metabolism. Overall, these studies provide new insights into the links between plant primary metabolism and ABA signalling, and demonstrate the importance of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in these interactions. PMID:21068209

  7. [Role of NO signal in ABA-induced phenolic acids accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].

    PubMed

    Shen, Lihong; Ren, Jiahui; Jin, Wenfang; Wang, Ruijie; Ni, Chunhong; Tong, Mengjiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Yang, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate roles of nitric oxide (NO) signal in accumulations of phenolic acids in abscisic.acid (ABA)-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots, S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were treated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-an exogenous NO donor, for 6 days, and contents of phenolic acids in the hairy roots are determined. Then with treatment of ABA and NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide, c-PTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME), contents of phenolic acids and expression levels of three key genes involved in phenolic acids biosynthesis were detected. Phenolic acids production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was most significantly improved by 100 µmoL/L SNP. Contents of RA and salvianolic acid B increased by 3 and 4 folds. ABA significantly improved transcript levels of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) and RAS (rosmarinic acid synthase), and increased phenolic acids accumulations. However, with treatments of ABA+c-PTIO or ABA+L-NAME, accumulations of phenolic acids and expression levels of the three key genes were significantly inhibited. Both NO and ABA can increase accumulations of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. NO signal probably mediates the ABA-induced phenolic acids production.

  8. Enhanced determination of abscisic acid (ABA) and abscisic acid glucose ester (ABA-GE) in Cistus albidus plants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem mode.

    PubMed

    López-Carbonell, Marta; Gabasa, Marta; Jáuregui, Olga

    2009-04-01

    An improved, quick and simple method for the extraction and quantification of the phytohormones (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its major glucose conjugate, abscisic acid glucose ester (ABA-GE) in plant samples is described. The method includes the addition of deuterium-labeled internal standards to the leaves at the beginning of the extraction for quantification, a simple extraction/centrifugation process and the injection into the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) system in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Quality parameters of the method (detection limits, repeatability, reproducibility and linearity) have been studied. The objective of this work is to show the applicability of this method for quantifying the endogenous content of both ABA and ABA-GE in Cistus albidus plants that have been grown during an annual cycle under Mediterranean field conditions. Leaf samples from winter plants have low levels of ABA which increase in spring and summer showing two peaks that corresponded to April and August. These increases are coincident with the high temperature and solar radiation and the low RWC and RH registered along the year. On the other hand, the endogenous levels of ABA-GE increase until maximum values in July just before the ABA content reaches its highest concentration, decreasing in August and during autumn and winter. Our results suggest that the method is useful for quantifying both compounds in this plant material and represents the advantage of a short-time sample preparation with a high accuracy and viability.

  9. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0-10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm(3) cm(-3) for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R.; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0–10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm3 cm–3 for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. PMID:25547916

  11. Abscisic acid-activated SNRK2 protein kinases function in the gene-regulation pathway of ABA signal transduction by phosphorylating ABA response element-binding factors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuhko; Murata, Michiharu; Minami, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kagaya, Yasuaki; Hobo, Tokunori; Yamamoto, Akiko; Hattori, Tsukaho

    2005-12-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces gene expression via the ABA-response element (ABRE) present in the promoters of ABA-regulated genes. A group of bZIP proteins have been identified as ABRE-binding factors (ABFs) that activate transcription through this cis element. A rice ABF, TRAB1, has been shown to be activated via ABA-dependent phosphorylation. While a large number of signalling factors have been identified that are involved in stomatal regulation by ABA, relatively less is known about the ABA-signalling pathway that leads to gene expression. We have shown recently that three members of the rice SnRK2 protein kinase family, SAPK8, SAPK9 and SAPK10, are activated by ABA signal as well as by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that transient overexpression in cultured cell protoplasts of these ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases leads to the activation of an ABRE-regulated promoter, suggesting that these kinases are involved in the gene-regulation pathway of ABA signalling. We further show several lines of evidence that these ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases directly phosphorylate TRAB1 in response to ABA. Kinetic analysis of SAPK10 activation and TRAB1 phosphorylation indicated that the latter immediately followed the former. TRAB1 was found to be phosphorylated not only in response to ABA, but also in response to hyperosmotic stress, which was interpreted as the consequence of phosphorylation of TRAB1 by hyperosmotically activated SAPKs. Physical interaction between TRAB1 and SAPK10 in vivo was demonstrated by a co-immunoprecipitation experiment. Finally, TRAB1 was phosphorylated in vitro by the ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases at Ser102, which is phosphorylated in vivo in response to ABA and is critical for the activation function.

  12. Abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity regulates desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Maia, Julio; Dekkers, Bas J W; Dolle, Miranda J; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-07-01

    During germination, orthodox seeds lose their desiccation tolerance (DT) and become sensitive to extreme drying. Yet, DT can be rescued, in a well-defined developmental window, by the application of a mild osmotic stress before dehydration. A role for abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated in this stress response and in DT re-establishment. However, the path from the sensing of an osmotic cue and its signaling to DT re-establishment is still largely unknown. Analyses of DT, ABA sensitivity, ABA content and gene expression were performed in desiccation-sensitive (DS) and desiccation-tolerant Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Furthermore, loss and re-establishment of DT in germinated Arabidopsis seeds was studied in ABA-deficient and ABA-insensitive mutants. We demonstrate that the developmental window in which DT can be re-established correlates strongly with the window in which ABA sensitivity is still present. Using ABA biosynthesis and signaling mutants, we show that this hormone plays a key role in DT re-establishment. Surprisingly, re-establishment of DT depends on the modulation of ABA sensitivity rather than enhanced ABA content. In addition, the evaluation of several ABA-insensitive mutants, which can still produce normal desiccation-tolerant seeds, but are impaired in the re-establishment of DT, shows that the acquisition of DT during seed development is genetically different from its re-establishment during germination. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  16. Dermal morphological changes following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Motaleb, Amira A; Abu-Dief, Eman E; Hussein, Mahmoud Ra

    2017-12-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peeling are popular, inexpensive, and safe methods for treatment of some skin disorders and to rejuvenate skin. To study the alterations of the dermal connective tissue following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion. Twenty patients were participated in our study. All participants underwent facial salicylic acid 30% peel or microdermabrasion (10 cases in each group) weekly for 6 weeks. Punch biopsies were obtained from the clinically normal skin of the right postauricular region 1 week before treatment (control group). Other punch skin biopsies were obtained 1 week after the end of the treatments from the left postauricular area. This region was treated in a similar way to the adjacent lesional skin (treated group). We used routine histological techniques (H&E stain), special stains (Masson trichrome and orcein stains), and image analyzer to study the alterations of the dermal connective tissues. Our study demonstrates variations in the morphological changes between the control and the treated groups, and between chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Both salicylic acid 30% and microdermabrasion were associated with thickened epidermal layer, shallow dermal papillae, dense collagen, and elastic fibers. There was a significant increase among those treated sites vs control regarding epidermal thickness and collagen thickness. Also, there was a highly statistically significant increase among those treated with salicylic acid vs microdermabrasion regarding the epidermal, collagen, and elastin thickness. Both methods stimulate the repair process. The mechanisms underlying these variations are open for further investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Thermodynamics of cosolvent action: phenacetin, salicylic acid and probenecid.

    PubMed

    Peña, M A; Escalera, B; Reíllo, A; Sánchez, A B; Bustamante, P

    2009-03-01

    The solubility of phenacetin, salicylic acid, and probenecid in ethanol-water and ethanol-ethyl acetate mixtures at several temperatures (15-40 degrees C) was measured. The solubility profiles are related to medium polarity changes. The apparent thermodynamic magnitudes and enthalpy-entropy relationships are related to the cosolvent action. Salicylic acid and probenecid show a single peak against the solubility parameter delta(1) of both solvent mixtures, at 40% (delta(1) = 21.70 MPa(1/2)) and 30% (delta(1) = 20.91 MPa(1/2)) ethanol in ethyl acetate, respectively. Phenacetin displays two peaks at 60% ethanol in ethyl acetate (23.30 MPa(1/2)) and 90% ethanol in water (delta(1) = 28.64 MPa(1/2)). The apparent enthalpies of solution display a maximum at 30% (phenacetin and salicylic acid) and 40% (probenecid) ethanol in water, respectively. Two different mechanisms, entropy at low ethanol ratios, and enthalpy at high ethanol ratios control the solubility enhancement in the aqueous mixture. In the nonaqueous mixture (ethanol-ethyl acetate) enthalpy is the driving force throughout the whole solvent composition for salicylic acid and phenacetin. For probenecid, the dominant mechanism shifts from entropy to enthalpy as the ethanol in ethyl acetate concentration increases. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plots corroborate the different mechanisms involved in the solubility enhancement by cosolvents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  18. Whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Il-hwan

    2006-03-01

    Patients with skin of color demand treatment modality suitable for their skin. Salicylic acid peel has effectiveness for both of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that are common in patients with skin of color. To assess the whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients with acne objectively by the colorimetric method. Twenty-four healthy adult patients with acne participated voluntarily in the study. Any other systemic and topical acne treatments were prohibited. They had undergone full-face peels with 30% salicylic acid in absolute ethanol bi-weekly for 3 months. Colorimetric changes of the face were recorded with reflectance spectrophotometer. Paired comparisons with pretreatment CIE L*a*b* showed abrupt descent of L* value after first peel (p=.0286). Then there was continued increase of mean L* value, even though the final L* value did not reach a statistically significant level. The mean a* value decreased continually, and the a* values recorded after the second, third, fourth, fifth, and final peel showed significantly lowered levels (p=.0027, .0005, <.0001, <.0001, <.0001). Salicylic acid peels are beneficial in whitening the face of Asian patients with acne. The whitening effect would be an important factor in choosing the superficial peeling agent for them.

  19. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

  20. The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long

    2011-06-01

    As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

  1. Trichloroacetic Acid Versus Salicylic Acid in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in Dark-Skinned Patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel Meguid, Azza Mahfouz; Elaziz Ahmed Attallah, Dalia Abd; Omar, Howida

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for acne include chemical peeling. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) has been used for treating acne. The ability of TCA to diminish corneocyte cohesion and keratinocyte plugging addresses this mode of treatment. Salicylic acid is an excellent keratolytic agent. It is believed to function through solubilization of intercellular cement, thereby reducing corneocyte adhesion. Comparing the therapeutic efficacy of TCA 25% peels with those of salicylic acid 30% in patients with acne vulgaris. Twenty patients, Fitzpatrick skin Types III to V with facial acne, were enrolled. Twenty-five percent of TCA was applied to the right half of the face and 30% salicylic acid to the left half at 2-week interval for 2 months. Total improvement was more frequent with salicylic acid peeling (95%) versus (85%) with TCA. Total comedones improvement was more frequent with TCA peeling (80%) versus (70%) with salicylic acid. Improvement of inflammatory lesions was more frequent among the side treated with salicylic acid (85%) versus (80%) with TCA peeling. However, the results did not reach the statistical significance level. Trichloroacetic acid is more superior in treating comedonal lesions, whereas salicylic is more superior in treating inflammatory lesions, without significant different between their results.

  2. Spatio-temporal appearance of α-amylase and limit dextrinase in barley aleurone layer in response to gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shahpiri, Azar; Talaei, Nasim; Finnie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Cereal seed germination involves mobilization of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberellin produced by the embryo the aleurone layer synthesizes hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for degradation of storage products. In this study analysis of intracellular protein accumulation and release from barley aleurone layers is presented for the important enzymes in starch degradation: α-amylase and limit dextrinase (LD). Proteins were visualized by immunoblotting in aleurone layers and culture supernatants from dissected aleurone layers incubated up to 72 h with either gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) or salicylic acid (SA). The results show that α-amylase is secreted from aleurone layer treated with GA soon after synthesis but the release of LD to culture supernatants was significantly delayed and coincided with a general loss of proteins from aleurone layers. Release of LD was found to differ from that of amylase and was suggested to depend on programmed cell death (PCD). Despite detection of intracellular amylase in untreated aleurone layers or aleurone layers treated with ABA or SA, α-amylase was not released from these samples. Nevertheless, the release of α-amylase was observed from aleurone layers treated with GA+ABA or GA+SA. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Influencing of resorption and side-effects of salicylic acid by complexing with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Szejtli, J; Gerlóczy, A; Sebestyén, G; Fónagy, A

    1981-04-01

    After oral administration of 14C-labelled salicylic acid and its beta-cyclodextrin complex to rats, the blood radioactivity-level increases in the first 2 h than decreases. The blood level obtained with the inclusion complex is somewhat but not significantly lower than with free acid. Since the resorption of cyclodextrin is a considerably slower process, it is very likely that the resorption of salicylic acid take place in the form of free acid after dissociation of the complex. The urinary excretion cumulative curves show that the free salicylic acid is completely excreted, while about 10% of the salicylic acid administered in the form of complex is lost. The cyclodextrin complex formation increases the pK value of all hydroxy-benzoic acids. Direct observations reveals that complex formation decreases the stomach-irritating effect of salicylic acid. The ratio of radioactivity was nearly the same in the organs of animals treated by both free salicylic and cyclodextrin complex.

  4. Elevated carbon dioxide increases salicylic acid in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Segal, Lauren M; Niziolek, Olivia K; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) are increasing in the atmosphere, affecting soybean (Glycine max L.) phytohormone signaling and herbivore resistance. Whether the impact of elevated CO(2) on phytohormones and induced defenses is a generalized response within this species is an open question. We examined jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) under ambient and elevated CO(2) concentrations with and without Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) damage and artificial damage across six soybean cultivars (HS93-4118, Pana, IA 3010, Loda, LN97-15076, and Dwight). Elevated CO(2) reduced constitutive levels of JA and related transcripts in some but not all soybean cultivars. In contrast to the variation in JA, constitutive levels of salicylic were increased universally among soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO(2). Variation in hormonal signaling may underpin observed variation in the response of insect herbivores and pathogens to plants grown under elevated CO(2).

  5. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    PubMed

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  6. Differences in phosphatidic acid signalling and metabolism between ABA and GA treatments of barley aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Villasuso, Ana Laura; Di Palma, Maria A; Aveldaño, Marta; Pasquaré, Susana J; Racagni, Graciela; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E

    2013-04-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the common lipid product in abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) response. In this work we investigated the lipid metabolism in response to both hormones. We could detect an in vivo phospholipase D activity (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4). This PLD produced [(32)P]PA (phosphatidic acid) rapidly (minutes) in the presence of ABA, confirming PA involvement in signal transduction, and transiently, indicating rapid PA removal after generation. The presence of PA removal by phosphatidate phosphatase 1 and 2 isoforms (E.C. 3.1.3.4) was verified in isolated aleurone membranes in vitro, the former but not the latter being specifically responsive to the presence of GA or ABA. The in vitro DGPP phosphatase activity was not modified by short time incubation with GA or ABA while the in vitro PA kinase - that allows the production of 18:2-DGPP from 18:2-PA - is stimulated by ABA. The long term effects (24 h) of ABA or GA on lipid and fatty acid composition of aleurone layer cells were then investigated. An increase in PC and, to a lesser extent, in PE levels is the consequence of both hormone treatments. ABA, in aleurone layer cells, specifically activates a PLD whose product, PA, could be the substrate of PAP1 and/or PAK activities. Neither PLD nor PAK activation can be monitored by GA treatment. The increase in PAP1 activity monitored after ABA or GA treatment might participate in the increase in PC level observed after 24 h hormone incubation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michelle L.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) and the antimicrobials' melting points (Tm) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease. PMID:19180627

  8. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic Acid in facial dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Bari, Arfan Ul; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2007-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. An interventional, quasi-experimental study. Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and PAF Hospital, Sargodha, from July 2002 to June 2003. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p<0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  9. ERECTA, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and jasmonic acid modulate quantitative disease resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Verticillium longisporum.

    PubMed

    Häffner, Eva; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard; Traczewska, Anna; Diederichsen, Elke

    2014-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen infecting cruciferous hosts such as oilseed rape. Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) is the major control means, but its molecular basis is poorly understood so far. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed using a new (Bur×Ler) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytohormone measurements and analyses in defined mutants and near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used to identify genes and signalling pathways that underlie different resistance QTL. QTL for resistance to V. longisporum-induced stunting, systemic colonization by the fungus and for V. longisporum-induced chlorosis were identified. Stunting resistance QTL were contributed by both parents. The strongest stunting resistance QTL was shown to be identical with Erecta. A functional Erecta pathway, which was present in Bur, conferred partial resistance to V. longisporum-induced stunting. Bur showed severe stunting susceptibility in winter. Three stunting resistance QTL of Ler origin, two co-localising with wall-associated kinase-like (Wakl)-genes, were detected in winter. Furthermore, Bur showed a much stronger induction of salicylic acid (SA) by V. longisporum than Ler. Systemic colonization was controlled independently of stunting. The vec1 QTL on chromosome 2 had the strongest effect on systemic colonization. The same chromosomal region controlled the level of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in response to V. longisporum: The level of ABA was higher in colonization-susceptible Ler than in colonization-resistant Bur after V. longisporum infection. JA was down-regulated in Bur after infection, but not in Ler. These differences were also demonstrated in NILs, varying only in the region containing vec1. All phytohormone responses were shown to be independent of Erecta. Signalling systems with a hitherto unknown role in the QDR of A. thaliana against V. longisporum were identified: Erecta mediated

  10. Radiation chemistry of salicylic and methyl substituted salicylic acids: Models for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceutical compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, Shakiba; Kalnina, Daina; Song, Weihua; Turks, Maris; Cooper, William J.

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivatives are components of many medications and moieties found in numerous pharmaceutical compounds. They have been used as models for various pharmaceutical compounds in pharmacological studies, for the treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and, reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the radiation chemistry of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and four methyl substituted salicylic acids (MSA) is reported. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical reaction with benzoic and salicylic acids as well as 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 5-methyl-, and 6-methyl-salicylic acid were determined (5.86±0.54)×109, (1.07±0.07)×1010, (7.48±0.17)×109, (7.31±0.29)×109, (5.47±0.25)×109, (6.94±0.10)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The hydrated electron reaction rate constants were measured (3.02±0.10)×109, (8.98±0.27)×109, (5.39±0.21)×109, (4.33±0.17)×109, (4.72±0.15)×109, (1.42±0.02)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The transient absorption spectra for the six model compounds were examined and their role as model compounds for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceuticals investigated.

  11. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Deficient Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Perrone, Irene; Chitarra, Walter; Zwieniecka, Anna K.; Lovisolo, Claudio; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants) were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA) or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling. PMID:23263667

  12. The P450 Monooxygenase BcABA1 Is Essential for Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Siewers, Verena; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Tudzynski, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is known to produce abscisic acid (ABA), which is thought to be involved in host-pathogen interaction. Biochemical analyses had previously shown that, in contrast to higher plants, the fungal ABA biosynthesis probably does not proceed via carotenoids but involves direct cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate and subsequent oxidation steps. We present here evidence that this “direct” pathway is indeed the only one used by an ABA-overproducing strain of B. cinerea. Targeted inactivation of the gene bccpr1 encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reduced the ABA production significantly, proving the involvement of P450 monooxygenases in the pathway. Expression analysis of 28 different putative P450 monooxygenase genes revealed two that were induced under ABA biosynthesis conditions. Targeted inactivation showed that one of these, bcaba1, is essential for ABA biosynthesis: ΔBcaba1 mutants contained no residual ABA. Thus, bcaba1 represents the first identified fungal ABA biosynthetic gene. PMID:15240257

  13. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grownmore » under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic

  15. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  16. Effect of foliar-applied salicylic acid on cotton flowering, boll retention, and yield

    Treesearch

    J.J. Heitholt; J.H. Schmidt; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2001-01-01

    Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) may help regulate several plant functions, including systemic acquired resistance to pathogens and the formation of flowers. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of foliar-applied salicylic acid on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) flowering, boll retention, and yield. Field experiments were...

  17. Salicylic acid-mediated establishment of the compatibility between Alternaria brassicicola and Brassica juncea is mitigated by abscisic acid in Sinapis alba.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Das, Srirupa; Saha, Upala; Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Bannerjee, Kaushik; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-09-01

    This work addresses the changes in the phytohormonal signature in the recognition of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by susceptible Brassica juncea and resistant Sinapis alba. Although B. juncea, S. alba and Arabidopsis all belong to the same family, Brassicaceae, the phytohormonal response of susceptible B. juncea towards this pathogen is unique because the latter two species express non-host resistance. The differential expression of the PR1 gene and the increased level of salicylic acid (SA) indicated that an SA-mediated biotrophic mode of defence response was triggered in B. juncea upon challenge with the pathogen. Compared to B. juncea, resistant S. alba initiated enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses following challenge with this pathogen, as revealed by monitoring the expression of ABA-related genes along with the concentration of ABA and JA. Furthermore, these results were verified by the exogenous application of ABA on B. juncea leaves prior to challenge with A. brassicicola, which resulted in a delayed disease progression, followed by the inhibition of the pathogen-mediated increase in SA response and enhanced JA levels. Therefore, it seems that A. brassicicola is steering the defence response towards a biotrophic mode by mounting an SA response in susceptible B. juncea, whereas the enhanced ABA response of S. alba not only counteracts the SA response but also restores the necrotrophic mode of resistance by enhancing JA biosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  19. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  20. Topical zinc oxide vs. salicylic acid-lactic acid combination in the treatment of warts.

    PubMed

    Khattar, Joe A; Musharrafieh, Umayya M; Tamim, Hala; Hamadeh, Ghassan N

    2007-04-01

    Warts are a common dermatologic problem. Treatment is painful, prolonged, and can cause scarring. To evaluate topical zinc oxide for the treatment of warts. This was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of 44 patients. Twenty-two patients were given topical zinc oxide 20% ointment, and the other 22 received salicylic acid 15% + lactic acid 15% ointment twice daily. All patients were followed up for 3 months or until cure, whichever occurred first. All patients were observed for side-effects. Sixteen patients in the zinc group and 19 in the salicylic acid-lactic acid group completed the study. In the zinc oxide-treated group, 50% of the patients showed complete cure and 18.7% failed to respond, compared with 42% and 26%, respectively, in the salicylic acid-lactic acid-treated group. No patients developed serious side-effects. Topical zinc oxide is an efficacious, painless, and safe therapeutic option for wart treatment.

  1. Heterotrimeric G proteins-mediated resistance to necrotrophic pathogens includes mechanisms independent of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid/ethylene- and abscisic acid-mediated defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Trusov, Yuri; Sewelam, Nasser; Rookes, James Edward; Kunkel, Matt; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer Martin; Botella, José Ramón

    2009-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in the defense response against necrotrophic fungi in Arabidopsis. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanisms involving heterotrimeric G proteins, we analyzed the effects of the Gβ (subunit deficiency in the mutant agb1-2 on pathogenesis-related gene expression, as well as the genetic interaction between agb1-2 and a number of mutants of established defense pathways. Gβ-mediated signaling suppresses the induction of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, ethylene (ET)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent genes during the initial phase of the infection with Fusarium oxysporum (up to 48 h after inoculation). However, at a later phase it enhances JA/ET-dependent genes such as PDF1.2 and PR4. Quantification of the Fusarium wilt symptoms revealed that Gβ- and SA-deficient mutants were more susceptible than wild-type plants, whereas JA- and ET-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants demonstrated various levels of resistance. Analysis of the double mutants showed that the Gβ-mediated resistance to F. oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola was mostly independent of all of the previously mentioned pathways. However, the progressive decay of agb1-2 mutants was compensated by coi1-21 and jin1-9 mutations, suggesting that at this stage of F. oxysporum infection Gβ acts upstream of COI1 and ATMYC2 in JA signaling. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-ß-D-...

  3. Analysis of defense signals in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: jasmonates, salicylic acid, abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Nadja; Krischke, Markus; Fekete, Agnes; Mueller, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Defense signaling compounds and phytohormones play an essential role in the regulation of plant responses to various environmental abiotic and biotic stresses. Among the most severe stresses are herbivory, pathogen infection, and drought stress. The major hormones involved in the regulation of these responses are 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), the pro-hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its biologically active isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA). These signaling compounds are present and biologically active at very low concentrations from ng/g to μg/g dry weight. Accurate and sensitive quantification of these signals has made a significant contribution to the understanding of plant stress responses. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS) has become an essential technique for the analysis and quantification of these compounds.

  4. Paracetamol and salicylic acid removal from contaminated water by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Escapa, C; Coimbra, R N; Paniagua, S; García, A I; Otero, M

    2017-12-01

    The biomass growth, pharmaceutical removal and light conversion efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana under the presence of paracetamol (PC) and salicylic acid (SaC) were assessed and compared at two different concentrations of these pharmaceuticals (I: 25 mg l -1 , II: 250 mg l -1 ). Microalgae were resistant to these concentrations and, moreover, their growth was significantly stimulated (p ≤ 0.05) under these drugs (biomass concentration increased above 33% PCI, 35% SaCI, 13% PCII and 45% SaCII, as compared with the respective positive controls). At the steady state of the semicontinuous culture, C. sorokiniana showed removal efficiencies above 41% and 69% for PCI and PCII, respectively; and above 93% and 98% for SaCI and SaCII, respectively. Under an irradiance of 370 μE m -2  s -1 , higher quantum yields were reached by microalgae under the presence of drugs, either at dose I or II, than by the respective positive controls. These results point to C. sorokiniana as a robust strain for the bioremediation of paracetamol and salicylic acid concentrated wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutational Analysis of a Role for Salicylic Acid in Iron Metabolism of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Adilakshmi, Tadepalli; Ayling, Peter D.; Ratledge, Colin

    2000-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in iron metabolism was examined in two wild-type strains (mc2155 and NCIMB 8548) and three mutant strains (mc21292 [lacking exochelin], SM3 [lacking iron-dependent repressor protein IdeR] and S99 [a salicylate-requiring auxotroph derived in this study]) of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Synthesis of salicylate in SM3 was derepressed even in the presence of iron, as was synthesis of the siderophores exochelin, mycobactin, and carboxymycobactin. S99 was dependent on salicylate for growth and failed to grow with the three ferrisiderophores, suggesting that salicylate fulfills an additional function(s) other than being a precursor of mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. Salicylic acid at 100 μg/ml repressed the formation of a 29-kDa cell envelope protein (putative exochelin receptor protein) in S99 grown both iron deficiently and iron sufficiently. In contrast, synthesis of this protein was affected only under iron-limited conditions in the parent strain, mc2155, and remained unaltered in SM3, suggesting an interaction between the IdeR protein and salicylate. Thus, salicylate may also function as a signal molecule for recognition of cellular iron status. Growth of all strains and mutants with p-aminosalicylate (PAS) at 100 μg/ml increased salicylate accumulation between three- and eightfold under both iron-limited and iron-sufficient growth conditions and decreased mycobactin accumulation by 40 to 80% but increased carboxymycobactin accumulation by 50 to 55%. Thus, although PAS inhibited salicylate conversion to mycobactin, presumptively by blocking salicylate AMP kinase, PAS also interferes with the additional functions of salicylate, as its effect was heightened in S99 when the salicylate concentration was minimal. PMID:10629169

  6. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  8. Abscisic acid (ABA) receptors: light at the end of the tunnel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in several aspects of plant growth and development. Understanding how this hormonal stimulus is sensed and transduced turned out to be one of the major tasks in the field of plant signaling. A series of recent papers proposed several different prote...

  9. Determination of salicylic acid by HPLC in plasma and saliva from children with juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Legaz, M E; Acitores, E; Valverde, F

    1992-12-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for measuring salicylic acid in the plasma and saliva of children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Samples were extracted with diethyl ether and, after drying, redissolved in methanol to be chromatographed. Quantitation of salicylic acid was performed by reverse phase HPLC on a spherisorb ODS-2 column, using methanol: water: acetic acid as mobile phase. Phenolic was monitored by absorbance at 237 nm. Linearity between the amount of mass injected and the response in the detector was determined. This method was applied to compare concentrations of salivary and plasma salicylic acid. The method also permitted the quantitation of salivary salicylate as a non-invasive, indirect method for monitoring the concentration of plasma salicylate in patients with JCA.

  10. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  11. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  12. Randomized trial comparing a chemical peel containing a lipophilic hydroxy acid derivative of salicylic acid with a salicylic acid peel in subjects with comedonal acne.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Annie; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Seite, Sophie; Rougier, André; Bissonnette, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Lipohydroxyacid is a lipophilic derivative of salicylic acid with comedolytic properties. To compare lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels in subjects with comedonal acne. In this split face, randomized study, 20 subjects with comedonal acne received lipohydroxyacid peels on one side of the face, while the other side was treated with salicylic acid peels. A total of six peels at 2-week intervals were performed. Efficacy was evaluated by counting noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions and by performing a global change in acne assessment. Safety was assessed by evaluating adverse events, global tolerance, and the presence of erythema, scaling, and dryness. There was a statistically significant decrease of 55.6% and 48.5% from baseline to Day 98 in the mean number of noninflammatory lesions for the sides treated with lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the degree of reduction in noninflammatory lesions between the two peels. There was no significant reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions. Both peels were generally very well tolerated. This study suggests that lipohydroxyacid peels can be beneficial to subjects with comedonal acne. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Preparation and investigation of acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex for rectal administration.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Fars K; Arafah, Maha M; Al-Ashban, Riyadh; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2010-06-01

    An acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex was prepared and evaluated for the potential use in rectal administration. The results revealed the formation of a complex between acetyl salicylic acid and caffeine in a 1:1 molar ratio by a charge transfer mechanism. The effects of acetyl salicylic acid and complex on the rectal tissues showed destruction in the mucosal epithelium in case of acetyl salicylic acid; however, no change in the rectal tissues was noticed upon the administration of the complex. The effect of suppository bases on the release of the complex was studied using Witepsol H15 as fatty base and polyethylene glycols (PEG) 1000 and 4000 as a water soluble suppository base. The release profiles of acetyl salicylic acid and the complex were faster from PEG than from that of Witepsol H15. The percent release for the complex and acetyl salicylic acid from PEG base were 45.8, and 34.9%, respectively. However, it was 8.7 and 7.8%, respectively, from Witepsol H15 fatty base. The release kinetic was found to follow the non-Fickian diffusion model for complex from the suppository bases. It was concluded that acetyl salicylic acid caffeine complex can be used safely for rectal administration.

  14. Preparation and investigation of acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex for rectal administration.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Fars K; Arafah, Maha M; Al-Ashban, Riyadh; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2009-07-30

    An acetyl salicylic acid-caffeine complex was prepared and evaluated for the potential use in rectal administration. The results revealed the formation of a complex between acetyl salicylic acid and caffeine in a 1:1 molar ratio by a charge transfer mechanism. The effects of acetyl salicylic acid and complex on the rectal tissues showed destruction in the mucosal epithelium in case of acetyl salicylic acid; however, no change in the rectal tissues was noticed upon the administration of the complex. The effect of suppository bases on the release of the complex was studied using Witepsol H15 as fatty base and polyethylene glycols (PEG) 1000 and 4000 as a water soluble suppository base. The release profiles of acetyl salicylic acid and the complex were faster from PEG than from that of Witepsol H15. The percent release for the complex and acetyl salicylic acid from PEG base were 45.8, and 34.9%, respectively. However, it was 8.7 and 7.8%, respectively, from Witepsol H15 fatty base. The release kinetic was found to follow the non-Fickian diffusion model for complex from the suppository bases. It was concluded that acetyl salicylic acid caffeine complex can be used safely for rectal administration.

  15. Salicylic acid peels versus Jessner's solution for acne vulgaris: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Byung Gi; Park, Chang Ook; Shin, Hyoseung; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yun Sun; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Kee Yang; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Ju Hee

    2013-02-01

    Salicylic acid was recently formulated in a hydroethanolic vehicle at a concentration of 20% to 30%. Salicylic acid has strong comedolytic effects because of its lipophilic nature. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of salicylic acid peels with those of Jessner's solution peels in patients with acne vulgaris. Thirteen patients (13 men; mean age 22.6, range 20-28) with facial acne were enrolled. Jessner's solution was applied to one side of each patient's face and 30% salicylic acid to the other in three sessions at 2-week intervals. A blinded investigator counted noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions before treatment and 2 weeks after each treatment. Inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts decreased in proportion to the duration of treatment. Inflammatory acne lesion counts did not differ significantly between salicylic acid and Jessner's solution peels, although in terms of noninflammatory acne lesion counts, sites treated with salicylic acid showed significant improvement (p = .04), whereas those treated with Jessner's solution did not. We found that 30% salicylic acid peels were effective for inflammatory acne and more effective than Jessner's solution peels for treating noninflammatory acne. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  17. Ionizing radiation induced degradation of salicylic acid in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarrán, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Edith

    2018-06-01

    The radiation-induced degradation of salicylic acid (SA-) in aqueous solutions (1.0 and 0.1 mmol dm-3) saturated with N2O or air or without oxygen were studied. Irradiation was carried out using a cobalt-60 source. With a 1 mmol dm-3 solution saturated with N2O a seemingly total degradation occurred at about 18 kGy, although small quantities of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechol and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were present at that dose at concentrations of 67, 22 and 6 μmol dm-3 respectively. Under air and when free oxygen, the three radiolytic products were present at 18.54 kGy while SA- was destroyed only to 90% and 62%, respectively. In the case of 0.1 mmol dm-3 SA- solutions, the acid was degraded at 3.5 kGy if the solution contained N2O, at 5.8 kGy in air and at 7 kGy without oxygen. The concentration of the radiolytic products increased with increasing dose and after a maximum they decreased. The oxidation was followed by measuring the chemical oxygen demand; the slopes were 0.48 and 0.11, 0.21 and 0.07, 0.15 and 0.03 mmol dm-3 kGy-1 for 1.0 and 0.10 mmol dm-3 solutions saturated with N2O or air or without oxygen, respectively.

  18. Salicylate enables cochlear arachidonic-acid-sensitive NMDA receptor responses.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Jérôme; Chabbert, Christian; Nouvian, Régis; Bendris, Rim; Eybalin, Michel; Leger, Claude Louis; Bourien, Jérôme; Mersel, Marcel; Puel, Jean-Luc

    2008-07-16

    Currently, many millions of people treated for various ailments receive high doses of salicylate. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms by which salicylate induces tinnitus is an important issue for the research community. Behavioral testing in rats have shown that tinnitus induced by salicylate or mefenamate (both cyclooxygenase blockers) are mediated by cochlear NMDA receptors. Here we report that the synapses between the sensory inner hair cells and the dendrites of the cochlear spiral ganglion neurons express NMDA receptors. Patch-clamp recordings and two-photon calcium imaging demonstrated that salicylate and arachidonate (a substrate of cyclooxygenase) enabled the calcium flux and the neural excitatory effects of NMDA on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. Salicylate also increased the arachidonate content of the whole cochlea in vivo. Single-unit recordings of auditory nerve fibers in adult guinea pig confirmed the neural excitatory effect of salicylate and the blockade of this effect by NMDA antagonist. These results suggest that salicylate inhibits cochlear cyclooxygenase, which increased levels of arachidonate. The increased levels of arachidonate then act on NMDA receptors to enable NMDA responses to glutamate that inner hair cells spontaneously release. This new pharmacological profile of salicylate provides a molecular mechanism for the generation of tinnitus at the periphery of the auditory system.

  19. Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sup; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2003-12-01

    Salicylic acid peels have been introduced as a useful modality in acne treatment. Few studies have examined its efficacy and safety, especially in darker skin. To assess the efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peels as a treatment for acne vulgaris in Asian patients. Thirty-five Korean patients with facial acne were treated with 30% salicylic acid peels biweekly for 12 weeks. Lesion counts and Dr. Cunliffe's score were assessed by a blinded evaluator. Safety assessments and patient's evaluations were also recorded. Both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts were decreased in proportion to the duration of treatment. Dr. Cunliffe's acne grade was statistically significantly decreased after treatment. The side effects were tolerable in most cases, and all patients were pleased with their peel results. Stratum corneum hydration, skin surface lipid, skin pH, and transepidermal water loss were unchanged from baseline levels. Salicylic acid peels are an effective and safe therapy for acne vulgaris in Asian patients.

  20. Comparison between the impacts of two different modes of salicylic acid application on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) responses to salinity.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, E; Lutts, S; Dailly, H; Quinet, M

    2018-06-26

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid may improve tolerance to salinity. To investigate whether exogenous salicylic acid application had similar protective effects when applied as a priming agent or concomitantly with NaCl, tomato seedlings primed or not with 10 µM salicylic acid were further treated with 125 mM NaCl, 10 µM salicylic acid or combined treatments. Both priming and concomitant application of salicylic acid increased plant growth of salt-stressed plants but their positive impact was not additive. The endogenous salicylic acid concentration increased in the leaves after concomitant application but not in response to priming, suggesting that salicylic acid accumulated during priming was metabolized subsequently. Priming increased Na + and K + accumulation in leaves of salt-treated plants while concomitant application had no impact on shoot Na + and K + accumulation. Both priming and concomitant salicylic acid decreased osmotic potential values in salt-treated plants. Carbon isotope discrimination showed that combination of both salicylic acid application methods were required to maintain a good water use efficiency in salt-treated plants. Our work demonstrated that both procedures of salicylic acid application have positive impact on salt resistance but that the underlying properties sustaining these adaptations differ according to application methods.

  1. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Enjun; Brosché, Mikael

    2014-06-04

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling.

  2. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling. PMID:24898702

  3. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid – treated patients (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects. PMID:27904577

  4. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant ( P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules ( P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid - treated patients ( P = 0.015). Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects.

  5. Effects Sprayed Solution of Salicylic Acid to Prevent of Wilt Disease Caused by Fussarium oxysporium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Dina. Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    The current search aimed to detective the effect of sprayed solution of salicylic acid on plant and leaves of sweet green pepper (Capsicum annuum) for control the pathogen Fussarium oxysporium compering with control plant and leaves. Results indicated that, the spray of salicylic acid at concentration 0.5 g/L is effecting the fungal infection through prevent transport fungus F. oxysporum to the neighboring green pepper plant. The number of dead green pepper plant after sprayed with solution of salicylic acid and only water they were (4, 6, and 3) (8, 9, and 10) respectively. While the experimental infection of green pepper leaves after inoculated the fungus as local spot by scorching small spots of these leaves with the aid of hot nail. These spots were then exposed to the 0.5 g/L aqueous solution salicylic acid before and after the inoculation of the fungus. The spray of salicylic acid before 24 and 48 hour prevent the development of disease and make a good protection of the mention leaves from infection with this fungus, the diameter of leaves lesion (1,1.5 cm) respectively. while the ability of fungus to grow after 24 and 48 hour from salicylic acid treatment was markedly reduce as compared with control, such treatment show slow growth of pathogen infect.

  6. A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids in Coffea arabica leaves.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Marta; Ferreira, João P; Queiroz, Vagner T; Vilas-Boas, Luís; Silva, Maria C; Almeida, Maria H; Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Bronze, Maria R

    2014-02-01

    Plants have developed an efficient system of recognition that induces a complex network of signalling molecules such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in case of a pathogenic infection. The use of specific and sensitive methods is mandatory for the analysis of compounds in these complex samples. In this study a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of SA, JA and ABA in Coffea arabica (L.) leaves in order to understand the role of these phytohormones in the signalling network involved in the coffee defence response against Hemileia vastatrix. The results showed that the method was specific, linear (r ≥ 0.99) in the range 0.125-1.00 µg mL⁻¹ for JA and ABA and 0.125-5.00 µg mL⁻¹ for SA, and precise (relative standard deviation ≤11%), and the limit of detection (0.010 µg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was adequate for quantifying these phytohormones in this type of matrix. In comparison with healthy leaves, those infected with H. vastatrix (resistance reaction) displayed an increase in SA level 24 h after inoculation, suggesting the involvement of an SA-dependent pathway in coffee resistance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Salicylic acid interferes with GFP fluorescence in vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Hofius, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fluorescent proteins have become essential tools for cell biologists. They are routinely used by plant biologists for protein and promoter fusions to infer protein localization, tissue‐specific expression and protein abundance. When studying the effects of biotic stress on chromatin, we unexpectedly observed a decrease in GFP signal intensity upon salicylic acid (SA) treatment in Arabidopsis lines expressing histone H1-GFP fusions. This GFP signal decrease was dependent on SA concentration. The effect was not specific to the linker histone H1-GFP fusion but was also observed for the nucleosomal histone H2A-GFP fusion. This result prompted us to investigate a collection of fusion proteins, which included different promoters, subcellular localizations and fluorophores. In all cases, fluorescence signals declined strongly or disappeared after SA application. No changes were detected in GFP‐fusion protein abundance when fluorescence signals were lost indicating that SA does not interfere with protein stability but GFP fluorescence. In vitro experiments showed that SA caused GFP fluorescence reduction only in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting that SA requires cellular components to cause fluorescence reduction. Together, we conclude that SA can interfere with the fluorescence of various GFP‐derived reporter constructs in vivo. Assays that measure relocation or turnover of GFP‐tagged proteins upon SA treatment should therefore be evaluated with caution. PMID:28369601

  8. Salicylic acid interferes with GFP fluorescence in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Hofius, Daniel; Hennig, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins have become essential tools for cell biologists. They are routinely used by plant biologists for protein and promoter fusions to infer protein localization, tissue-specific expression and protein abundance. When studying the effects of biotic stress on chromatin, we unexpectedly observed a decrease in GFP signal intensity upon salicylic acid (SA) treatment in Arabidopsis lines expressing histone H1-GFP fusions. This GFP signal decrease was dependent on SA concentration. The effect was not specific to the linker histone H1-GFP fusion but was also observed for the nucleosomal histone H2A-GFP fusion. This result prompted us to investigate a collection of fusion proteins, which included different promoters, subcellular localizations and fluorophores. In all cases, fluorescence signals declined strongly or disappeared after SA application. No changes were detected in GFP-fusion protein abundance when fluorescence signals were lost indicating that SA does not interfere with protein stability but GFP fluorescence. In vitro experiments showed that SA caused GFP fluorescence reduction only in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting that SA requires cellular components to cause fluorescence reduction. Together, we conclude that SA can interfere with the fluorescence of various GFP-derived reporter constructs in vivo. Assays that measure relocation or turnover of GFP-tagged proteins upon SA treatment should therefore be evaluated with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunping; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance. PMID:24840293

  10. Systemic Acquired Resistance and Salicylic Acid: Past, Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Klessig, Daniel F; Choi, Hyong Woo; Dempsey, D'Maris Amick

    2018-05-21

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that regulates numerous aspects of plant growth and development, as well as the activation of defenses against biotic and abiotic stress. Here we present a historical overview of the progress that has been made to date in elucidating SA's role in signaling plant immune responses. The ability of plants to develop acquired immunity after pathogen infection was first proposed in 1933. However, most of our knowledge about plant immune signaling was generated over the last three decades, following the discovery that SA is an endogenous defense signal. During this time-frame, researchers have identified i) two pathways through which SA can be synthesized, ii) numerous proteins that regulate SA synthesis and metabolism, and iii) some of the signaling components that function downstream of SA, including a large number of SA targets/receptors. In addition, it has become increasingly evident that SA does not signal immune responses by itself, but rather as part of an intricate network that involves many other plant hormones. Future efforts to develop a comprehensive understanding of SA-mediated immune signaling will therefore need to close knowledge gaps that exist within the SA pathway itself, as well as clarify how crosstalk among the different hormone signaling pathways leads to an immune response that is both robust and optimized for maximal efficacy, depending on identity of the attacking pathogen.

  11. Salicylic Acid Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats. PMID:22666115

  12. Paper-based electroanalytical devices for in situ determination of salicylic acid in living tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Jun; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Yan, Yong-Feng; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Song, Feng-Ming; Yang, Haibing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2014-10-15

    Detection of phytohormones in situ has gained significant attention due to their critical roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling for defenses in plants at low concentration. As one type of plant hormones, salicylic acid has recently been found to be one of pivotal signal molecules for physiological behaviors of plants. Here we report the application of paper-based electroanalytical devices for sensitively in situ detection of salicylic acid in tomato leaves with the sample volume of several microliters. Specifically, disposable working electrodes were fabricated by coating carbon tape with the mixture of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nafion. We observed that the treatment of the modified carbon tape electrodes with oxygen plasma could significantly improve electrochemical responses of salicylic acid. The tomato leaves had a punched hole of 1.5mm diameter to release salicylic acid with minor influence on continuous growth of tomatoes. By incorporating the tomato leaf with the paper-based analytical device, we were able to perform in situ determination of salicylic acid based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Our experimental results demonstrated that the amounts of salicylic acid differed statistically in normal, phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene silent and diseased (infected by Botrytis cinerea) tomato leaves. By quantifying salicylic acid at the level of several nanograms in situ, the simple paper-based electroanalytical devices could potentially facilitate the study of defense mechanism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. This study might also provide a sensitive method with spatiotemporal resolution for mapping of chemicals released from living organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Penetration of salicylic acid and salicylate into the multilayer membrane system and into the human horny layer.

    PubMed

    Neubert, R; Partyka, D; Wohlrab, W; Dettlaff, B; Fürst, W; Taube, K M

    1990-01-01

    Using a multilayer membrane system and human horny layer the difference in the penetration of salicylic acid (SA) and its sodium (Na-S) and choline (Ch-S) salts from topical formulations was studied. It was found Na-S and Ch-S were markedly accumulated in the first membrane of the three layer membrane system used. In contrast, a rapid penetration into all three membranes was observed when SA was used. Similar penetration profiles were obtained in human horny layer. Hence, the use of the salts of SA appears to be more suitable for the application as keratolytic.

  14. Aromatic Hydroxylation of Salicylic Acid and Aspirin by Human Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A.; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids—salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid—and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1. PMID:25840124

  15. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Pilati, Stefania; Bagagli, Giorgia; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Brazzale, Daniele; Castorina, Giulia; Simoni, Laura; Tonelli, Chiara; Guella, Graziano; Engelen, Kristof; Galbiati, Massimo; Moser, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes) characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes), underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2), a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2-independent manner. This

  16. Molecular identification of zeaxanthin epoxidase of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and corresponding to the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, E; Nussaume, L; Quesada, A; Gonneau, M; Sotta, B; Hugueney, P; Frey, A; Marion-Poll, A

    1996-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in seed development and dormancy and in plant response to environmental stresses. An ABA-deficient mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, aba2, was isolated by transposon tagging using the maize Activator transposon. The aba2 mutant exhibits precocious seed germination and a severe wilty phenotype. The mutant is impaired in the first step of the ABA biosynthesis pathway, the zeaxanthin epoxidation reaction. ABA2 cDNA is able to complement N.plumbaginifolia aba2 and Arabidopsis thaliana aba mutations indicating that these mutants are homologous. ABA2 cDNA encodes a chloroplast-imported protein of 72.5 kDa, sharing similarities with different mono-oxigenases and oxidases of bacterial origin and having an ADP-binding fold and an FAD-binding domain. ABA2 protein, produced in Escherichia coli, exhibits in vitro zeaxanthin epoxidase activity. This is the first report of the isolation of a gene of the ABA biosynthetic pathway. The molecular identification of ABA2 opens the possibility to study the regulation of ABA biosynthesis and its cellular location. Images PMID:8665840

  17. Molecular identification of zeaxanthin epoxidase of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and corresponding to the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Marin, E; Nussaume, L; Quesada, A; Gonneau, M; Sotta, B; Hugueney, P; Frey, A; Marion-Poll, A

    1996-05-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in seed development and dormancy and in plant response to environmental stresses. An ABA-deficient mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, aba2, was isolated by transposon tagging using the maize Activator transposon. The aba2 mutant exhibits precocious seed germination and a severe wilty phenotype. The mutant is impaired in the first step of the ABA biosynthesis pathway, the zeaxanthin epoxidation reaction. ABA2 cDNA is able to complement N.plumbaginifolia aba2 and Arabidopsis thaliana aba mutations indicating that these mutants are homologous. ABA2 cDNA encodes a chloroplast-imported protein of 72.5 kDa, sharing similarities with different mono-oxigenases and oxidases of bacterial origin and having an ADP-binding fold and an FAD-binding domain. ABA2 protein, produced in Escherichia coli, exhibits in vitro zeaxanthin epoxidase activity. This is the first report of the isolation of a gene of the ABA biosynthetic pathway. The molecular identification of ABA2 opens the possibility to study the regulation of ABA biosynthesis and its cellular location.

  18. Formation of molecular complexes of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in a mixture of supercritical carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, V. E.; Antipova, M. L.; Gurina, D. L.; Odintsova, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    The solvate structures formed by salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent (methanol, 0.03 mole fractions) at a density of 0.7 g/cm3 and a temperature of 318 K were studied by the molecular dynamics method. Salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids were found to form highly stable hydrogen-bonded complexes with methanol via the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group. For methyl salicylate in which the carboxyl hydrogen is substituted by a methyl radical, the formation of stable hydrogen bonds with methanol was not revealed. The contribution of other functional groups of the solute to the interactions with the cosolvent was much smaller. An analysis of correlations between the obtained data and the literature data on the cosolvent effect on the solubility of the compounds in SC CO2 showed that the dissolving ability of SC CO2 with respect to a polar organic substance in the presence of a cosolvent increased only when stable hydrogen-bonded complexes are formed between this substance and the cosolvent.

  19. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mm concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 μm Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification. PMID:12746532

  20. Abscisic Acid (ABA ) Promotes the Induction and Maintenance of Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia White Pear Group) Flower Bud Endodormancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhao; Xu, Ying; Niu, Qingfeng; He, Lufang; Teng, Yuanwen; Bai, Songling

    2018-01-01

    Dormancy is an adaptive mechanism that allows temperate deciduous plants to survive unfavorable winter conditions. In the present work, we investigated the possible function of abscisic acid (ABA) on the endodormancy process in pear. The ABA content increased during pear flower bud endodormancy establishment and decreased towards endodormancy release. In total, 39 putative genes related to ABA metabolism and signal transductions were identified from pear genome. During the para- to endodormancy transition, PpNCED-2 and PpNCED-3 had high expression levels, while PpCYP707As expression levels were low. However, during endodormancy, the expression of PpCYP707A-3 sharply increased with increasing cold accumulation. At the same time, the ABA content of pear buds declined, and the percentage of bud breaks rapidly increased. On the other hand, the expression levels of PpPYLs, PpPP2Cs, PpSnRK2s, and PpABI4/ABI5s were also changed during the pear flower bud dormancy cycle. Furthermore, exogenous ABA application to para-dormant buds significantly reduced the bud breaks and accelerated the transition to endodormancy. During the whole treatment time, the expression level of PpPP2C-12 decreased to a greater extent in ABA-treated buds than in control. However, the expression levels of PpSnRK2-1, PpSnRK2-4, and PpABI5-1 were higher in ABA-treated buds. Our results indicated that PpCYP707A-3 and PpNCEDs play pivotal roles on the regulation of endodormancy release, while ABA signal transduction pathway also appears to be involved in the process. The present work provided the basic information about the function of ABA-related genes during pear flower bud dormancy process. PMID:29361708

  1. [Determination of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Yi-na

    2002-05-01

    The contents of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hypersil BDS C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:3, volume ratio) and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The average recoveries of aspirin and salicylic acid added were 99.27% (RSD = 0.8%) and 99.61%(RSD = 1.3%), respectively. The calibration curves had good linearity in the range of 0.028 g/L -0.141 mg/L and 0.77 mg/L -3.85 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9998 for aspirin and salicylic acid respectively.

  2. S5H/DMR6 Encodes a Salicylic Acid 5-Hydroxylase That Fine-Tunes Salicylic Acid Homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhao, Li; Zhao, Jiangzhe

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays essential roles in biotic and abiotic responses, plant development, and leaf senescence. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA or gentisic acid) is one of the most commonly occurring aromatic acids in green plants and is assumed to be generated from SA, but the enzymes involved in its production remain obscure. DMR6 (Downy Mildew Resistant 6, At5g24530) has been proven essential in plant immunity of Arabidopsis, but its biochemical properties are not well understood. Here in this paper, we report the discovery and functional characterization of DMR6 as a SA 5-hydroxylase (S5H) that catalyzes the formation of 2,5-DHBAmore » by hydroxylating SA at the C5 position of its phenyl ring in Arabidopsis. S5H/DMR6 specifically converts SA to 2,5-DHBA in vitro and displays higher catalytic efficiency (K cat/K m=4.96×10 4 M -1s -1) than the previously reported SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H, K cat/K m=6.09 × 10 3 M -1s -1) for SA. Interestingly, S5H/DMR6 displays a substrate inhibition property that may enable automatic control of its enzyme activities. The s5h mutant and s5hs3h double mutant over accumulate SA and display phenotypes such as a smaller growth size, early senescence and a loss of susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). S5H/DMR6 is sensitively induced by SA/pathogen treatment and is widely expressed from young seedlings to senescing plants, whereas S3H is more specifically expressed at the mature and senescing stages. Collectively, our results disclose the identity of the enzyme required for 2,5-DHBA formation and reveal a mechanism by which plants fine-tune SA homeostasis by mediating SA 5-hydroxylation.« less

  3. S5H/DMR6 Encodes a Salicylic Acid 5-Hydroxylase That Fine-Tunes Salicylic Acid Homeostasis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhao, Li; Zhao, Jiangzhe; ...

    2017-09-12

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays essential roles in biotic and abiotic responses, plant development, and leaf senescence. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA or gentisic acid) is one of the most commonly occurring aromatic acids in green plants and is assumed to be generated from SA, but the enzymes involved in its production remain obscure. DMR6 (Downy Mildew Resistant 6, At5g24530) has been proven essential in plant immunity of Arabidopsis, but its biochemical properties are not well understood. Here in this paper, we report the discovery and functional characterization of DMR6 as a SA 5-hydroxylase (S5H) that catalyzes the formation of 2,5-DHBAmore » by hydroxylating SA at the C5 position of its phenyl ring in Arabidopsis. S5H/DMR6 specifically converts SA to 2,5-DHBA in vitro and displays higher catalytic efficiency (K cat/K m=4.96×10 4 M -1s -1) than the previously reported SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H, K cat/K m=6.09 × 10 3 M -1s -1) for SA. Interestingly, S5H/DMR6 displays a substrate inhibition property that may enable automatic control of its enzyme activities. The s5h mutant and s5hs3h double mutant over accumulate SA and display phenotypes such as a smaller growth size, early senescence and a loss of susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). S5H/DMR6 is sensitively induced by SA/pathogen treatment and is widely expressed from young seedlings to senescing plants, whereas S3H is more specifically expressed at the mature and senescing stages. Collectively, our results disclose the identity of the enzyme required for 2,5-DHBA formation and reveal a mechanism by which plants fine-tune SA homeostasis by mediating SA 5-hydroxylation.« less

  4. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice.

  5. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  6. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2. PMID:26466097

  7. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

  8. Glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2%: a new therapeutic pearl for facial flat warts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sánchez-Blanco, Elena

    2011-09-01

    Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment.

  9. A comparison of salicylic acid levels in normal subjects after rectal versus oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Roger; Mosley, Mark; James Kallail, K; Kramer, Karen M; Kumar, Gaurav

    2009-02-01

    The common practice is to use 162 mg of aspirin orally in the emergency department (ED) for patients presenting with myocardial infarction. If the patient cannot take aspirin orally in the authors' facility, then 600 mg of aspirin is given rectally. However, no strong evidence exists as to whether the oral and rectal doses provide equivalent risk protection. The authors hypothesized that the salicylic acid levels for orally and rectally administered aspirin will not be similar, because of the different dosages used and the different routes of administration. The study sample consisted of healthy, nonpregnant, adult volunteers without active illness, who did not take any medication regularly. Each subject served as his or her own control to account for any confounding factors. The study was conducted on 2 days, separated by a 1-week washout period. On the first day, 162 mg of oral aspirin was chewed and swallowed. Salicylic acid levels were obtained at baseline (i.e., before taking the aspirin) and then 30, 60, and 90 minutes after dosing. The 600-mg aspirin suppository was self-administered 1 week later with a sample for laboratory measures again drawn at baseline and then 30, 60, and 90 minutes after dosing. Twenty-four subjects completed the study. The rectal suppository provided significantly more salicylic acid into the blood than the oral tablets over 90 minutes (p < 0.001). No statistical difference was noted between oral and rectal administration from baseline to 30 minutes (p > 0.05). However, mean salicylic acid levels from the rectal suppository were statistically higher than from the oral tablets from 30 to 60 minutes (p < 0.001) and from 60 to 90 minutes (p = 0.002). More than 60% of the subjects had an increasing salicylic acid level response over time to the rectal suppository. The salicylic acid level response to the oral administration was more evenly divided between those subjects whose salicylic acid levels peaked quickly and then fell or held

  10. Cytotoxic Activity of Salicylic Acid-Containing Drug Models with Ionic and Covalent Binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three different types of drug delivery platforms based on imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized in high preparative yields, namely, the models involving (i) ionic binding of drug and IL; (ii) covalent binding of drug and IL; and (iii) dual binding using both ionic and covalent approaches. Seven ionic liquids containing salicylic acid (SA-ILs) in the cation or/and in the anion were prepared, and their cytotoxicity toward the human cell lines CaCo-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma) and 3215 LS (normal fibroblasts) was evaluated. Cytotoxicity of SA-ILs was significantly higher than that of conventional imidazolium-based ILs and was comparable to the pure salicylic acid. It is important to note that the obtained SA-ILs dissolved in water more readily than salicylic acid, suggesting benefits of possible usage of traditional nonsoluble active pharmaceutical ingredients in an ionic liquid form. PMID:26617961

  11. Salicylic Acid-Based Polymers for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sangeeta; Mitchell, Ashley; Yu, Weiling; Snyder, Sabrina; Uhrich, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is used clinically to promote spinal fusion, treat complex tibia fractures, and to promote bone formation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Excessive bone formation at sites where BMP-2 has been applied is an established complication and one that could be corrected by guided tissue regeneration methods. In this study, anti-inflammatory polymers containing salicylic acid [salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester), SAPAE] were electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create thin flexible matrices for use as guided bone regeneration membranes. SAPAE polymers hydrolyze to release salicylic acid, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PCL was used to enhance the mechanical integrity of the matrices. Two different SAPAE-containing membranes were produced and compared: fast-degrading (FD-SAPAE) and slow-degrading (SD-SAPAE) membranes that release salicylic acid at a faster and slower rate, respectively. Rat femur defects were treated with BMP-2 and wrapped with FD-SAPAE, SD-SAPAE, or PCL membrane or were left unwrapped. The effects of different membranes on bone formation within and outside of the femur defects were measured by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone formation within the defect was not affected by membrane wrapping at BMP-2 doses of 12 μg or more. In contrast, the FD-SAPAE membrane significantly reduced bone formation outside the defect compared with all other treatments. The rapid release of salicylic acid from the FD-SAPAE membrane suggests that localized salicylic acid treatment during the first few days of BMP-2 treatment can limit ectopic bone formation. The data support development of SAPAE polymer membranes for guided bone regeneration applications as well as barriers to excessive bone formation. PMID:25813520

  12. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L -1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Characterization of a Gene Encoding Clathrin Heavy Chain in Maize Up-Regulated by Salicylic Acid, Abscisic Acid and High Boron Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Mu-Heng; Liu, Sheng-Hong; Yang, Miao-Xian; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Liang, Jia-Yong; Wan, Xiao-Rong; Liang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA, suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. The expressions of ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 genes in maize are down-regulated by azide or cold treatment, further revealing the energy requirement of CME and suggesting that CME in plants is sensitive to low temperatures. PMID:23880865

  14. Effects of mixing procedure itself on the structure, viscosity, and spreadability of white petrolatum and salicylic acid ointment and the skin permeation of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Fujiwara, Megumi; Okinaka, Yuta; Yutani, Reiko; Teraoka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    White petrolatum is a mixture of solid and liquid hydrocarbons and its structure can be affected by shear stress. Thus, it might also induce changes in its rheological properties. In this study, we used polarization microscopy to investigate how different mixing methods affect the structure of white petrolatum. We used two different mixing methods, mixing using a rotation/revolution mixer and mixing using an ointment slab and an ointment spatula. The extent of the fragmentation and dispersal of the solid portion of white petrolatum depended on the mixing conditions. Next, we examined the changes in the structure of a salicylic acid ointment, in which white petrolatum was used as a base, induced by mixing and found that the salicylic acid solids within the ointment were also dispersed. In addition to these structural changes, the viscosity and thixotropic behavior of both test substances also decreased in a mixing condition-dependent manner. The reductions in these parameters were most marked after mixing with a rotation/revolution mixer, and similar results were obtained for spreadability. We also investigated the effects of mixing procedure on the skin accumulation and permeation of salicylic acid. They were increased by approximately three-fold after mixing. Little difference in skin accumulation or permeation was detected between the two mixing methods. These findings indicate that mixing procedures themselves affect the utility and physiological effects of white petrolatum-based ointments. Therefore, these effects should be considered when mixing is required for the clinical use of petrolatum-based ointments.

  15. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  16. Plant hormones in defense response of Brassica napus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - reassessing the role of salicylic acid in the interaction with a necrotroph.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Sašek, Vladimír; Dobrev, Petre I; Valentová, Olga; Burketová, Lenka

    2014-07-01

    According to general model, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are induced in Arabidopsis after an attack of necrotroph, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) also seem to play a role. While signaling events in Arabidopsis have been intensively studied recently, information for the natural host Brassica napus is limited. In this study, multiple plant hormone quantification and expression analysis of marker genes of the signaling pathways was used to gain a complete view of the interaction of B. napus with S. sclerotiorum. Strong response of ET biosynthetic gene ACS2 was observed, accompanied by increases of SA and JA levels that correspond to the elevated expression of marker genes PR1 and LOX3. Interestingly, the level of ABA and the expression of its marker gene RD26 were also elevated. Furthermore, induction of the SA-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms. In addition, SA signaling is suggested as a possible target for manipulation by S. sclerotiorum. A gene for putative chorismate mutase SS1G_14320 was identified that is highly expressed during infection but not in vitro. Our results bring the evidence of SA involvement in the interaction of plant with the necrotroph that conflict with the current model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects.

    PubMed

    Swain, Swadhin; Roy, Shweta; Shah, Jyoti; Van Wees, Saskia; Pieterse, Corné M; Nandi, Ashis K

    2011-12-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article, we report a novel recessive mutant of Arabidopsis, cdd1 (constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1), that exhibits enhanced disease resistance associated with constitutive salicylic acid signalling, but without any observable pleiotropic phenotype. Both NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1)-dependent and NPR1-independent salicylic acid-regulated defence pathways are hyperactivated in cdd1 mutant plants, conferring enhanced resistance against bacterial pathogens. However, a functional NPR1 allele is required for the cdd1-conferred heightened resistance against the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Salicylic acid accumulates at elevated levels in cdd1 and cdd1 npr1 mutant plants and is necessary for cdd1-mediated PR1 expression and disease resistance phenotypes. In addition, we provide data which indicate that the cdd1 mutation negatively regulates the npr1 mutation-induced hyperactivation of ethylene/jasmonic acid signalling. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity prevented owing to the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice. The current study investigated the effects of sodium salicylate and/or methamphetamine on oxidative stress, monoamine oxidase, mitochondrial complex I & IV activities using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on movement disorders-induced by methamphetamine. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex-I activity leading to dopamine depletion. Striatal dopamine depletion led to significant behavioral changes associated with movement disorders. Sodium salicylate (50 & 100mg/kg) significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species, blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibited neuroprotection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, sodium salicylate significantly blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes related to movement abnormalities. One of the leading causative theories in nigral degeneration associated with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is exposure to stimulants, drugs of abuse, insecticide and pesticides. These neurotoxic substances can induce dopaminergic neuronal insult by oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Salicylic acid due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could provide neuroprotection against the

  20. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  1. Evaluation of salicylic acid peeling in comparison with topical tretinoin in the treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ali, Basma Morad; Gheida, Shereen Farouk; El Mahdy, Nageh Ahmed; Sadek, Shery Nashaat

    2017-03-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is an acquired hyperpigmentation that involves areas of prior cutaneous inflammation. In addition to prevention, there are a variety of medications and procedures used to treat PIH. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of salicylic acid peeling in comparison with topical tretinoin in the treatment of PIH. This study included forty-five patients with PIH lesions. The patients were divided into three groups, group I was treated with salicylic acid peeling 20-30%, group II was treated with topical tretinoin 0.1%, and group III was treated with combination of salicylic acid peel and topical tretinoin. The patients were assessed clinically to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the treatment. Dermoscopy was carried out to the recurrent or nonimproved cases only. Combination of salicylic acid peel and topical tretinoin treatment showed significant clinical improvement of PIH than each treatment alone with no complications. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate between the three groups. There was nonsignificant difference between the efficacy of the treatment and the PIH type in the studied groups. There was nonsignificant difference between the efficacy of the treatment and the duration of the PIH except for group III. Combination treatment modality is believed to be preferred in the treatment of PIH due to its higher efficacy than single treatment alone, with well tolerability, less side effects, and low recurrence rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Respiration in Tobacco (Effects of Salicylic Acid).

    PubMed

    Rhoads, D. M.; McIntosh, L.

    1993-11-01

    In suspension cultures of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) cells the cytochrome pathway capacity increased between d 3 and d 4 following subculturing and reached the highest level observed on d 7. The capacity decreased significantly by d 10 and was at the same level on d 14. Both alternative pathway capacity and the amount of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein increased significantly between d 5 and d 6, reached the highest point observed on d 7, remained constant until d 10, and decreased by d 14. The highest capacities of the alternative and cytochrome pathways and the highest amount of the 35-kD protein were attained on the day that cell cultures reached a stationary phase of growth. Addition of salicylic acid to cell cultures on d 4 caused a significant increase in alternative pathway capacity and a dramatic accumulation of the 35-kD protein by 12 h. The alternative pathway capacity and the protein level reached the highest level observed by 16 h after salicylic acid addition, and the cytochrome pathway capacity was at about the same level at each time point. The accumulation of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein was significantly decreased by addition of actinomycin D 1 h before salicylic acid and was blocked by addition of cycloheximide. These results indicate that de novo transcription and translation were necessary for salicylic acid to cause the maximum accumulation of the 35-kD protein.

  3. Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Respiration in Tobacco (Effects of Salicylic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, D. M.; McIntosh, L.

    1993-01-01

    In suspension cultures of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) cells the cytochrome pathway capacity increased between d 3 and d 4 following subculturing and reached the highest level observed on d 7. The capacity decreased significantly by d 10 and was at the same level on d 14. Both alternative pathway capacity and the amount of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein increased significantly between d 5 and d 6, reached the highest point observed on d 7, remained constant until d 10, and decreased by d 14. The highest capacities of the alternative and cytochrome pathways and the highest amount of the 35-kD protein were attained on the day that cell cultures reached a stationary phase of growth. Addition of salicylic acid to cell cultures on d 4 caused a significant increase in alternative pathway capacity and a dramatic accumulation of the 35-kD protein by 12 h. The alternative pathway capacity and the protein level reached the highest level observed by 16 h after salicylic acid addition, and the cytochrome pathway capacity was at about the same level at each time point. The accumulation of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein was significantly decreased by addition of actinomycin D 1 h before salicylic acid and was blocked by addition of cycloheximide. These results indicate that de novo transcription and translation were necessary for salicylic acid to cause the maximum accumulation of the 35-kD protein. PMID:12231986

  4. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  5. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on sucrose yield and storage properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to investigate the effects of an e...

  6. ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and SALICYLIC ACID act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance (R) protein–associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non–race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), ...

  7. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

  8. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on sucrose yield and storage properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was initiated in 2014 to investigate the effects of an early seas...

  9. The safety and efficacy of salicylic acid chemical peels in darker racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Grimes, P E

    1999-01-01

    There is a dearth of published data regarding chemical peels in darker racial-ethnic groups. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of a new superficial salicylic acid peel in individuals of skin types V and VI. Twenty-five patients were included in this pilot investigation. Nine had acne vulgaris, 5 had post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, 6 had melasma, and 5 had rough, oily skin with enlarged pores. The patients were pre-treated for 2 weeks with hydroquinone 4% prior to undergoing a series of five salicylic acid chemical peels. The concentrations of salicylic acid were 20% and 30%. The peels were performed at 2 week intervals. RESULTS. Moderate to significant improvement was observed in 88% of the patients. Minimal to mild side effects occurred in 16%. The results of this study suggest that superficial salicylic acid peels are both safe and efficacious for treatment of acne vulgaris, oily skin, textural changes, melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with skin types V and VI.

  10. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characteristics of Coronilla varia under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Le Yuan; Chen, Nian Lai; Han, Guo Jun; Li, Liang

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L -1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C. varia seedlings processed by 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid was significantly higher than that under drought stress. 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid processing significantly increased proline, soluble protein content, the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of C. varia seedlings under drought stress, but cell electrolyte permeability, H2O2 content and O2 - · production rate of seedlings were significantly decreased. 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid produced the best results. When the concentration of salicylic acid was beyond 2.0 mmol·L -1 , no mitigation effect was observed on the seed germination and growth of seedlings under drought stress. It was concluded that salicylic acid at appropriate concentrations could effectively improve osmotic regulation, antioxidation and mitigate the damage of drought stress so as to promote the growth of C. varia seedlings.

  11. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  12. Salicylic Acid Interferes with Tobacco Mosaic Virus Replication via a Novel Salicylhydroxamic Acid-Sensitive Mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Chivasa, S.; Murphy, A. M.; Naylor, M.; Carr, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) induces resistance to all plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, but the mechanism by which SA engenders resistance to viruses is not known. Pretreatment of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-susceptible (nn genotype) tobacco tissue with SA reduced the levels of viral RNAs and viral coat protein accumulating after inoculation with TMV. Viral RNAs were not affected equally, suggesting that SA treatment interferes with TMV replication. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase, antagonized both SA-induced resistance to TMV in nn genotype plants and SA-induced acquired resistance in resistant (NN genotype) tobacco. SHAM did not inhibit induction of the PR-1 pathogenesis-related protein or induction of resistance to Erwinia carotovora or Botrytis cinerea by SA. This indicates that SA induces resistance to TMV via a novel SHAM-sensitive signal transduction pathway (potentially involving alternative oxidase), which is distinct from that leading to resistance to bacteria and fungi. PMID:12237364

  13. Weights in the balance: jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling in root-biotroph interactions.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Paszkowski, Uta

    2009-07-01

    Work on the interaction of aerial plant parts with pathogens has identified the signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) as important players in induced defense of the plant against invading organisms. Much less is known about the role of JA and SA signaling in root infection. Recent progress has been made in research on plant interactions with biotrophic mutualists and parasites that exclusively associate with roots, namely arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses on one hand and nematode and parasitic plant interactions on the other hand. Here, we review these recent advances relating JA and SA signaling to specific stages of root colonization and discuss how both signaling molecules contribute to a balance between compatibility and defense in mutualistic as well as parasitic biotroph-root interactions.

  14. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp = 200…600 μm, porosity ε = 0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol) = 0 after t = 6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  15. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    PubMed

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay; Bansal, Shivani; Sethi, Sumit; Gupta, Chitra

    2016-03-01

    Melasma is acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by light-to-deep brown pigmentation over cheeks, forehead, upper lip, and nose. Treatment of this condition is difficult and associated with high recurrence rates. Chemical peels have become a popular modality in the treatment of melasma. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of glycolic acid (35%) versus salicylic-mandelic (SM) acid (20% salicylic/10% mandelic acid) versus phytic combination peels in Indian patients with melasma. Ninety patients diagnosed with melasma were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 30 patients each. Group A received glycolic acid (GA-35%) peel, Group B received SM acid, and Group C received phytic combination peels. Each group was primed with 4% hydroquinone and 0.05% tretinoin cream for 4 weeks before treatment. Chemical peeling was done after every 14 days in all groups until 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation using melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and photography was recorded at every visit and follow-up was done until 20 weeks. There was a decrease in MASI score in all 3 groups but it was statistically significantly lower in Group A than Group C (p = .00), and it was also statistically significantly lower in Group B than Group C (p = .00) but there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p = .876). Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was 62.36% reduction in GA group, 60.98% reduction in SM group, and 44.71% in phytic acid group. It is concluded that GA (35%) and SM acid peels are both equally efficacious and a safe treatment modality for melasma in Indian skin, and are more effective than phytic acid peels. Salicylic-mandelic peels are better tolerated and more suitable for Indian skin.

  17. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

  18. Effects of salicylic acid on post-ischaemic ventricular function and purine efflux in isolated mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Farthing, Don; Gehr, Lynne; Karnes, H Thomas; Sica, Domenic; Gehr, Todd; Larus, Terri; Farthing, Christine; Xi, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Various plasma concentrations of aspirin and its predominant metabolite, salicylic acid, are required for its antiarthritic (1.5-2.5 mM), anti-inflammatory (0.5-5.0 mM) or antiplatelet (0.18-0.36 mM) actions. A recent study demonstrated the inhibitory effects of both aspirin and salicylic acid on oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis in isolated rat cardiac mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner (0-10 mM concentration range). In this context, the present study was conducted to determine the effects of salicylic acid on inosine efflux (a potential biomarker of acute cardiac ischaemia) as well as cardiac contractile function in the isolated mouse heart following 20 min of zero-flow global ischaemia. Inosine efflux was found at significantly higher concentrations in ischaemic hearts perfused with Krebs buffer fortified with 1.0 mM salicylic acid compared with those without salicylic acid (12575+/-3319 vs. 1437+/-348 ng ml(-1) min(-1), mean+/-SEM, n=6 per group, p<0.01). These results indicate that 1.0 mM salicylic acid potentiates 8.8-fold ATP nucleotide purine catabolism into its metabolites (e.g. inosine, hypoxanthine). Salicylic acid (0.1 or 1.0 mM) did not appreciably inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (the enzyme converts inosine to hypoxanthine) suggesting the augmented inosine efflux was due to the salicylic acid effect on upstream elements of cellular respiration. Whereas post-ischaemic cardiac function was further depressed by 1.0 mM salicylic acid, perfusion with 0.1 mM salicylic acid led to a remarkable functional improvement despite moderately increased inosine efflux (2.7-fold). We conclude that inosine is a sensitive biomarker for detecting cardiac ischaemia and salicylic acid-induced effects on cellular respiration. However, the inosine efflux level appears to be a poor predictor of the individual post-ischaemic cardiac functional recovery in this ex vivo

  19. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  20. Up-regulating the abscisic acid inactivation gene ZmABA8ox1b contributes to seed germination heterosis by promoting cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangyang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xinye; Song, Jian; Li, Hongjian; Sui, Zhipeng; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Xin, Mingming; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2016-04-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the underlying molecular principles are still largely unknown. During seed germination, we observed that maize (Zea mays) hybrid B73/Mo17 was less sensitive than its parental inbred lines to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and endogenous ABA content in hybrid embryos decreased more rapidly than in the parental inbred lines. ZmABA8ox1b, an ABA inactivation gene, was consistently more highly up-regulated in hybrid B73/Mo17 than in its parental inbred lines at early stages of seed germination. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmABA8ox1b obviously promoted seed germination in Arabidopsis Remarkably, microscopic observation revealed that cell expansion played a major role in the ABA-mediated maize seed germination heterosis, which could be attributed to the altered expression of cell wall-related genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  2. Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing γ-ECS exhibits biotic stress tolerance likely through NPR1-dependent salicylic acid-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Srijani; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Sinha, Ragini; Banerjee, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2011-05-01

    The elaborate networks and the crosstalk of established signaling molecules like salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) play key role in plant defense response. To obtain further insight into the mechanism through which GSH is involved in this crosstalk to mitigate biotic stress, transgenic Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing Lycopersicon esculentum gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (LeECS) gene (NtGB lines) were generated with enhanced level of GSH in comparison with wild-type plants exhibiting resistance to pathogenesis as well. The expression levels of non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1)-dependent genes like pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NtPR1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (NtMAPKK), glutamine synthetase (NtGLS) were significantly enhanced along with NtNPR1. However, the expression levels of NPR1-independent genes like NtPR2, NtPR5 and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family protein (NtSDRLP) were either insignificant or were downregulated. Additionally, increase in expression of thioredoxin (NtTRXh), S-nitrosoglutathione reductase 1 (NtGSNOR1) and suppression of isochorismate synthase 1 (NtICS1) was noted. Comprehensive analysis of GSH-fed tobacco BY2 cell line in a time-dependent manner reciprocated the in planta results. Better tolerance of NtGB lines against biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci was noted as compared to necrotrophic Alternaria alternata. Through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analysis, 48 differentially expressed spots were identified and through identification as well as functional categorization, ten proteins were found to be SA-related. Collectively, our results suggest GSH to be a member in cross-communication with other signaling molecules in mitigating biotic stress likely through NPR1-dependent SA-mediated pathway.

  3. Salicylic acid plasma levels following multiple doses of Norgesic Forte and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L I; Kehe, C R; Goldlust, M B; Kvam, D C; Bianchine, J R

    1983-01-01

    Plasma salicyclic acid levels from the recommended multiple dose regimen of Norgesic Forte (orphenadrine citrate, aspirin, and caffeine) were compared to those from an equivalent multiple dose regimen of aspirin alone in 24 volunteers. The drugs were administered double-blind so that side effects could also be compared. No statistically significant differences were found between Norgesic Forte and aspirin in peak or trough levels, time to peak level, area under the curve, or mean steady-state level of salicylic acid. Mean steady-state levels averaged 154 +/- 46 (+/- SD) and 152 +/- 49 micrograms/ml on days 5 and 10 following Norgesic Forte versus 161 +/- 49 and 154 +/- 47 micrograms/ml following aspirin. Thus, the aspirin in Norgesic Forte provides an anti-inflammatory amount of salicylic acid equivalent to that of plain aspirin. There was no evidence that the combination of orphenadrine citrate, caffeine, and aspirin in Norgesic Forte caused increased or unusual side effects compared with aspirin alone.

  4. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Jayakody, Shalmini; Kang’ombe, Arthur Ricky; Stamuli, Eugena; Turner, Gwen; Thomas, Kim; Curran, Mike; Denby, Gary; Hashmi, Farina; McIntosh, Caroline; McLarnon, Nichola; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Interventions Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Main outcome measures Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. Results There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI –8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients’ preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference –3.15% (–16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar

  5. Changes in actin dynamics are involved in salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Jindřiška; Janda, Martin; Fišer, Radovan; Sašek, Vladimír; Kocourková, Daniela; Burketová, Lenka; Dušková, Jiřina; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, Olga

    2014-06-01

    Changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics are one of the crucial players in many physiological as well as non-physiological processes in plant cells. Positioning of actin filament arrays is necessary for successful establishment of primary lines of defense toward pathogen attack, depolymerization leads very often to the enhanced susceptibility to the invading pathogen. On the other hand it was also shown that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of defense response leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS RELATED proteins (PR). In this study we show that pharmacological actin depolymerization leads to the specific induction of genes in salicylic acid pathway but not that involved in jasmonic acid signaling. Life imaging of leafs of Arabidopsis thaliana with GFP-tagged fimbrin (GFP-fABD2) treated with 1 mM salicylic acid revealed rapid disruption of actin filaments resembling the pattern viewed after treatment with 200 nM latrunculin B. The effect of salicylic acid on actin filament fragmentation was prevented by exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid, which binds to the capping protein and thus promotes actin polymerization. The quantitative evaluation of actin filament dynamics is also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes. PMID:27136916

  7. Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in phenolic compounds biosynthesis, mainly anthocyanins, in leaves of Aristotelia chilensis plants (Mol.) subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    González-Villagra, Jorge; Cohen, Jerry D; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie M

    2018-06-20

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the physiological and biochemical mechanisms required to tolerate drought stress, which is considered as an important abiotic stress. It has been postulated that ABA might be involved in regulation of plant phenolic compounds biosynthesis, especially anthocyanins that accumulate in plants subjected to drought stress; however, the evidence for this postulate remains elusive. Therefore, we studied whether ABA is involved in phenolic compounds accumulation, especially anthocyanin biosynthesis, using drought stressed Aristotelia chilensis plants, an endemic berry in Chile. Our approach was to use fluridone, an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, and then subsequent ABA applications to young and fully-expanded leaves of drought stressed A. chilensis plants during 24, 48 and 72 h of the experiment. Plants were harvested and leaves were collected separately to determine the biochemical status. We observed that fluridone treatments significantly decreased ABA concentrations and total anthocyanin (TA) concentrations in stressed plants, including both young and fully-expanded leaves. TA concentrations following fluridone treatment were reduced around 5-fold, reaching control plant levels. ABA application restored ABA levels as well as TA concentrations in stressed plant at the 48 h of the experiment. We also observed that TA concentrations followed the same pattern as ABA concentrations in the ABA treated plants. qRT-PCR revealed that AcUFGT gene expression decreased in fully-expanded leaves of stressed plants treated with fluridone, while a subsequent ABA application increased AcUFGT expression. Taken together, our results suggest that ABA is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis under drought stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. EVALUATION OF PUVASOL AND PUVASOL WITH TOPICAL BETAMETHASONE DIPROPIONATE PLUS SALICYLIC ACID LOTION IN THE TREATMENT OF SCALP PSORIASIS.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Ramasastry, C V; Dhaka, R S

    1999-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of betamethsone dipropionate 0.05% with salicylic acid 2% scalp lotion was evaluated in 60 patients with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. Out of 120 patients with scalp psoriasis 60 patients received PUVASOL alone and 60 patients received PUVASOL alongwith lotion 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate with 2% salicylic acid scalp application for 3 weeks. The erythema, induration, scales and pruritus steadily improved in patients throughout the 3 weeks treatment course with betamethasone dipropionate with salicylic acid scalp application. At the end of therapy 84.3% of those patients receiving PUVASOL and betamethasone dipropionate-salicylic acid combination had 75% improvement of their scalp psoriasis versus 34.9% of those patients using PUVASOL alone. Complete clearing of the scalp was seen in 35% patients receiving therapy with topical betamethasone-salicylic acid and 11.6% with PUVASOL alone. Local side effects were primarily burning and stinging in 5 (83%) cases treated with topical betamethasone salicylic acid scalp application and 1 (1.6%) receiving PUVASOL alone. Combined therapy with PUVASOL and topical betamethasone dispropionate 0.05% with salicyclic acid 2% application appears to be safe and an effective treatment for scalp psoriasis.

  9. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Lst8 and Raptor genes encoding partners of the TOR complex, or inhibition of TOR activity decrease abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alena; Citerne, Sylvie; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Bersimbaev, Rakhmetkazhi I; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian; Leprince, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-27

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates essential processes in plant growth and development by modulation of metabolism and translation in response to environmental signals. In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism is also regulated by the TOR kinase. Indeed ABA hormone level strongly decreases in Lst8-1 and Raptor3g mutant lines as well as in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants treated with AZD-8055, a TOR inhibitor. However the growth and germination of these lines are more sensitive to exogenous ABA. The diminished ABA hormone accumulation is correlated with lower transcript levels of ZEP, NCED3 and AAO3 biosynthetic enzymes, and higher transcript amount of the CYP707A2 gene encoding a key-enzyme in abscisic acid catabolism. These results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of ABA accumulation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  11. Salicylic acid metabolites and derivatives inhibit CDK activity: Novel insights into aspirin's chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Callegari, Eduardo; Kesharwani, Siddharth S.; Sankaranarayanan, Ranjini; Seefeldt, Teresa; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions. Using in vitro kinase assays, for the first time, we demonstrate that salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), as well as derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA), 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA), inhibited CDK1 enzyme activity. 2,3-DHBA and 2,6-DHBA did not inhibit CDK2 and 4; however, both inhibited CDK-6 activity. Interestingly, another derivative, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA) was highly effective in inhibiting CDK1, 2, 4 and 6 activity. Molecular docking studies showed that these compounds potentially interact with CDK1. Immunoblotting experiments showed that aspirin acetylated CDK1, and pre-incubation with salicylic acid and its derivatives prevented aspirin-mediated CDK1 acetylation, which supported the data obtained from molecular docking studies. We suggest that intracellularly generated salicylic acid metabolites through CYP450 enzymes within the colonic epithelial cells, or the salicylic acid metabolites generated by gut microflora may significantly contribute to the preferential chemopreventive effect of aspirin against CRC through inhibition of CDKs. This novel hypothesis and mechanism of action in aspirin's chemopreventive effects opens a new area for future research. In addition, structural modification to salicylic acid derivatives may prove useful in the development of novel CDK inhibitors in cancer prevention and

  12. Release of salicylic acid, diclofenac acid and diclofenac acid salts from isotropic and anisotropic nonionic surfactant systems across rat skin.

    PubMed

    Gabboun, N H; Najib, N M; Ibrahim, H G; Assaf, S

    2001-01-05

    Release of salicylic acid, diclofenac acid, diclofenac diethylamine and diclofenac sodium, from lyotropic structured systems, namely; neat and middle liquid crystalline phases, across mid-dorsal hairless rat skin into aqueous buffer were studied. Release results were compared with those from the isotropic systems. The donor systems composed of the surfactant polyoxyethylene (20) isohexadecyl ether, HCl buffer of pH 1 or distilled water and the specific drug. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to monitor the transfer of the drugs across the skin barrier. Results indicated that the rate-determining step in the transport process was the release of the drug from the specified donor system. Further, apparent zero order release was demonstrated with all systems. Except for diclofenac sodium, drug fluxes decreased as the donor medium changed from isotropic to anisotropic. The decrease in fluxes was probably due to the added constrains on the movement of drug molecules. By changing the anisotropic donor medium from neat to middle phase, drug flux decreased in case of salicylic acid and diclofenac sodium. In the mean time, flux increased in case of the diethylamine salt and appeared nearly similar in case of diclofenac acid. Rates of drug transfer across the skin from the anisotropic donors seemed to be largely controlled by the entropy contribution to the transport process. The type and extent of drug-liquid crystal interactions probably influenced the latter.

  13. PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Halim, Vincentius A; Altmann, Simone; Ellinger, Dorothea; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Miersch, Otto; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.

  14. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  15. Application of salicylic acid dosimetry to evaluate hydrodynamic cavitation as an advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Arrojo, S; Nerín, C; Benito, Y

    2007-03-01

    The generation of OH* radicals inside hydrodynamic cavitation bubbles was monitored using a salicylic acid dosimeter. The reaction of this scavenger with OH* produces 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) and, to a lesser degree, 2,3-DHB. The former, is a specific reaction product that can be determined with a very high sensitivity using HPLC-IF. This method has been applied to study the influence of the flow-rate and the solution pH for a given cavitation chamber geometry. The salicylic dosimetry has proven especially suitable for the characteristic time scales of hydrodynamic cavitation (higher than those of ultrasonic cavitation), which usually gives rise to recombination of radicals before they can reach the liquid-phase. Working at low pH the hydrophobic salicylic acid migrates to the gas-liquid interface and reacts with the OH* radicals, increasing the trapping efficiency of the dosimeter. Hydrodynamic cavitation works as a very low frequency sonochemical reactor, and therefore its potential as an Advanced Oxidation Process might be limited to reactions at the gas-liquid interface and inner bubble (i.e. with volatiles and/or hydrophobic substances).

  16. Identification of New Cocrystal Systems with Stoichiometric Diversity of Salicylic Acid Using Thermal Methods.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Chan, Hok Man; Sung, Herman H-Y; Tong, Henry H Y; Zheng, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop thermal methods to identify cocrystal systems with stoichiometric diversity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscopy (HSM) have been applied to study the stoichiometric diversity phenomenon on cocrystal systems of the model compound salicylic acid (SA) with different coformers (CCFs). The DSC method was particularly useful in the identification of cocrystal re-crystallization, especially to improve the temperature resolution using a slower heating rate. HSM was implemented as a complementary protocol to confirm the DSC results. The crystal structures were elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD). Two new cocrystal systems consisting of salicylic acid-benzamide (SA-BZD, 1:1, 1:2) and salicylic acid-isonicotinamide (SA-ISN, 1:1, 2:1) have been identified in the present work. The chemical structures of the newly discovered cocrystals SA-BZD (1:2) and SA-ISN (2:1) have been elucidated using X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction methods. The developed thermal methods could rapidly identify cocrystal systems with stoichiometric diversity, with the potential to discover new pharmaceutical cocrystals in the future.

  17. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases. PMID:22160701

  18. [Quantitative determination of the main metabolites of acetylsalicylic acid/2nd communication: the concentrations of salicylic acid and its metabolites in patients with renal insufficiency (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Daneels, R; Loew, D; Pütter, J

    1975-07-01

    Quantitative Determination of the Main Metabolites of Acetylsalicylic Acid / 2nd Communication: The concentrations of salicylic acid and its metabolies in patients with renal insufficiency 9 patients suffering from renal insufficiencies of varing degrees and treated regularly by hemodialysis were given 1.5 g Colfarit (microcapsulated acetyl salicylic acid) as a single dose. The concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), salicyluric acid (SU), further salicylic acid conjugates (SAC) and salicyluric acid conjugates (SUC) were determined in the blood plasma. Likewise urea and creatinine were determined. SA concentration decreased continually and, at the end of the trial (72 h after application), had vanished almost completely from the plasma of most patients. SU increased at first and decreased afterwards. With the exception of the dailysis time SAC and SUC increased during the trial. After 3 days the SUC level was more than 50% of total salicylate (SSS) in most patients. SSS (the sum of SA + SU + SAC + SUC) did not change very much before dialysis, but showed a rather high decrease during the first hours of dialysis. tafter dialysis the SSS levels rose again, apparently as a consequence of a redistribution and of the synthesis of conjugates with decreased tissue affinity. It could be shown that SSS in the blood plasma does not parallel SSS in the whole body. The interindividual variation of SA metabolism as well as the variation of the biological blank values was rather high. The results are discussed with regard to salicylate pharmacokinetics in renal insufficiency and to normal salicylate metabolism.

  19. Pharmacokinetic investigations in adult humans after parenteral administration of the lysine salt of acetyl-salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    von Voss, H; Göbel, U; Petrich, C; Pütter, J

    1978-11-15

    The lysine salt of acetylsalicylic acid was administered intravenously to four volunteers and intramuscularly to three of them. The drug was tolerated without any observed side effects. Immediately after intravenous application most of the plasma salicylate was acetylsalicylic acid. The highest concentration of acetylsalicylic acid was found after 2 minutes, highest levels of salicylic acid after 60 minutes. Elimination of acetylsalicylic acid was relatively quick within the first period after intravenous administration according to a half-life of 8 minutes. Half-life of salicylic acid was determined to be 3 hours. Intramuscular application results in a constant blood level for a longer period. Bioavailability of acetylsalicylic acid was slightly lower after intramuscular application than after intravenous administration.

  20. Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion

    PubMed Central

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  1. Adsorption of phthalic acid and salicylic acid and their effect on exchangeable Al capacity of variable-charge soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiuyu; Xu, Renkou

    2007-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids may be adsorbed by soils and the adsorption could affect their biodegradation and efficiency in many soil processes. In the present study, the adsorption of phthalic acid and salicylic acid and their effect on the exchangeable Al capacity of variable-charge soils were investigated. The results indicated that phthalic acid and salicylic acid were adsorbed by four variable-charge soils to some extent, oxisols showed a greater adsorption capacity for organic acids than ultisols, and the ability of the four variable-charge soils to adsorb the organic acids at different pH generally followed the order Kunming oxisol > Xuwen oxisol > Jinxian ultisol > Lechang ultisol, which was closely related to their content of free iron oxides and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides. The adsorption of organic acids induced a decrease in the zeta potentials of soils and oxides. Goethite has greater adsorption capacity for organic acid than Xuwen oxisol and the adsorption of organic acids resulted in a bigger decrease in the zeta potential of goethite suspensions. After free iron oxides were removed, less organic acid was adsorbed by Xuwen oxisol and no change was observed in zeta potential for the soil suspension after organic acid was added. The presence of phthalic acid increased the capacity of exchangeable Al and the increment in the four variable-charge soils also followed the order Kunming oxisol > Xuwen oxisol > Lechang ultisol and Jinxian ultisol. The presence of salicylic acid increased the capacity of exchangeable Al in Kunming oxisol, Xuwen oxisol, and Jinxian ultisol, but decreased it in Lechang ultisol due to less adsorption of the acid and formation of soluble Al-salicylate complexes in solution. After free iron oxides were removed, less effect of organic acid on exchangeable Al was observed for Xuwen oxisol, which further confirmed that the iron oxides played a significant role in organic acid adsorption and had a consequent effect

  2. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  3. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  4. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  5. Feeding by whiteflies suppresses downstream jasmonic acid signaling by eliciting salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Li, Wei-Di; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Xu, Fang-Cheng; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-05-01

    Phloem-feeding whiteflies in the species complex Bemisia tabaci cause extensive crop damage worldwide. One of the reasons for their "success" is their ability to suppress the effectual jasmonic acid (JA) defenses of the host plant. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying whitefly suppression of JA-regulated defenses. Here, we showed that the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes (EDS1 and PR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana was significantly enhanced during feeding by whitefly nymphs. Whereas upstream JA-responsive genes (LOX2 and OPR3) also were induced, the downstream JA-responsive gene (VSP1) was repressed, i.e., whiteflies only suppressed downstream JA signaling. Gene-expression analyses with various Arabidopsis mutants, including NahG, npr-1, ein2-1, and dde2-2, revealed that SA signaling plays a key role in the suppression of downstream JA defenses by whitefly feeding. Assays confirmed that SA activation enhanced whitefly performance by suppressing downstream JA defenses.

  6. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Karen J; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2016-05-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA-SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  8. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  9. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Karen J.; Wiegers, Gerrie L.; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C.; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA–SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. PMID:27107291

  10. Genetic analysis of Physcomitrella patens identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a regulator of ABA responses unique to basal land plants and required for desiccation tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Sean Ross; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H.

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. Themore » crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. Lastly, we propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution.« less

  11. Genetic analysis of Physcomitrella patens identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a regulator of ABA responses unique to basal land plants and required for desiccation tolerance

    DOE PAGES

    Stevenson, Sean Ross; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H.; ...

    2016-05-18

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. Themore » crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. Lastly, we propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution.« less

  12. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  13. Surviving a Dry Future: Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Mediated Plant Mechanisms for Conserving Water under Low Humidity

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. The genes underlying this response offer valuable candidates for targeted selection of crop varieties with improved drought tolerance, a critical goal for current plant breeding programs, to maximize crop production in drier and increasingly marginalized environments, and meet the demands of a growing population in the face of a changing climate. Here, we review current understanding of the genetic mechanisms underpinning ABA-mediated stomatal closure, a key means for conserving water under dry conditions, examine how these mechanisms evolved, and discuss what remains to be investigated. PMID:29113039

  14. Comparative phytotoxicity of usnic acid, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid and benzoic acid on photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yazhi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Lihua; Han, Su; Chen, Shiguo; Strasser, Reto Jörg; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2018-07-01

    The effects of four phytotoxins usnic acid (UA), salicylic acid (SA), cinnamic acid (CA) and benzoic acid (BA) on photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied in vivo to identify and localise their initial action sites on two photosystems. Our experimental evidence shows that the four phytotoxins have multiple targets in chloroplasts, which mainly lie in photosystem II (PSII), not photosystem I (PSI). They share an original action site by blocking electron transport beyond Q A (primary plastoquinone acceptor) at PSII acceptor side since a fast increase of the J-step level is the greatest change in chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics OJIP in C. reinhardtii cells treated with the phytotoxins. UA decreases photosynthetic activity by reducing O 2 evolution rate, interrupting PSII electron transport at both the donor and acceptor sides, inactivating the PSII reaction centers (RCs), reducing the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, destroying the conformation of antenna pigment assemblies, and casuing the degradation of D1/D2 proteins. SA damage to photosynthetic machinery is mainly attributed to inhibition of PSII electron transport beyond Q A at the acceptor side, inactivation of the PSII RCs, reduction of chlorophyll content, digestion of thylakoid ploypeptides and destabilization of thylakoid membranes. Both CA and BA affect the photosynthetic process by decreasing PSII electron transport efficiency at the acceptor side and the amount of active PSII RCs. Besides, the initial cause of BA-inhibiting photosynthesis is also assocaited with the O 2 evolution rate and the disconnection of some antenna molecules from PSII RCs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Untargeted metabolomics analysis reveals dynamic changes in azelaic acid- and salicylic acid derivatives in LPS-treated Nicotiana tabacum cells.

    PubMed

    Mhlongo, M I; Tugizimana, F; Piater, L A; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2017-01-22

    To counteract biotic stress factors, plants employ multilayered defense mechanisms responsive to pathogen-derived elicitor molecules, and regulated by different phytohormones and signaling molecules. Here, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule, was used to induce defense responses in Nicotiana tabacum cell suspensions. Intracellular metabolites were extracted with methanol and analyzed using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS/MS) platform. The generated data were processed and examined with multivariate and univariate statistical tools. The results show time-dependent dynamic changes and accumulation of glycosylated signaling molecules, specifically those of azelaic acid, salicylic acid and methyl-salicylate as contributors to the altered metabolomic state in LPS-treated cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A NAD(P) reductase like protein is the salicylic acid receptor in the appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence

    PubMed Central

    Skubatz, Hanna; Orellana, Mónica V; Howald, William N

    2013-01-01

    The mode of action of the thermogenic inducers (salicylic acid, aspirin, and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in the appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence is poorly understood. Using ESI-MS and light scattering analysis, we have demonstrated that NAD(P) reductase like protein (RL) is the salicylic acid receptor in the Sauromatum appendix. RL was self-assembled in water into a large unit with a hydrodynamic diameter of 800 nm. In the presence of 1 pM salicylic acid, RL exhibited discontinuous and reversible volume phase transitions. The volume phase changed from 800 to 300 nm diameter and vice versa. RL stayed at each volume phase for ~4–5 min with a fast relaxation time between the 2 phases. ESI-MS analysis of RL extracted from appendices treated with salicylic acid, aspirin, and 2,6-DHBA at a micromolar range demonstrated that these compounds are capable of inducing graded conformational changes that are concentration-dependent. A strong correlation between RL conformations and heat-production induced by salicylic acid was also observed. These preliminary findings reveal structural and conformational roles for RL by which plants regulate their temperature and synchronize their time keeping mechanisms. PMID:28516022

  17. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.

    PubMed

    Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-05-15

    Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetics of acetyl salicylic acid and its metabolites in children suffering from autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Flores Pérez, Janett; Lares Asseff, Ismael; Loredo Abdalá, Arturo; Carbajal Rodríguez, Luis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect produced by juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) or rheumatic fever (RF) on the pharmacokinetics of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites in children with autoimmune diseases (AD). A prospective, open labelled study was performed in 17 children with JRA and 17 with RF who received a single dose of 25 mg ASA/kg orally. The pharmacokinetics of ASA and its metabolites were determined. The blood and urine levels of each salicylate collected during 24 h were measured by HPLC. A group of 15 healthy teenage volunteers was included as a control group. The maximum plasma concentration, half-life time, area under the curve and the amount of salicylates excreted were statistically different between the JRA and the RF groups, as well as between the RF group and the controls, however, there were no significant differences between the JRA group and the controls. Dosage schemes must be adjusted for JRA patients, since the half life in these patients is longer than in RF patients. However, due to ample variability of pharmacokinetic parameters it is recommended that dose schemes are individualized on the type of autoimmune disease considered. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  20. Nanocarrier-based hydrogel of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid for treatment of psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Sanjula; Alam, Md Sarfaraz; Sharma, Shrestha; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Kumar, Anil; Ali, Javed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current work was to test the hypothesis that the addition of corticosteroid such as BD and a keratolytic agent such as salicylic acid in nanocarrier based microemulsions formulation would result in enhancement and sustaining of corticosteroid delivery rate leading to better anti-psoriatic activity. Clinical use of BD is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. So to increase its permeation across the skin, microemulsion-based gel formulations were prepared and characterised. Materials and Methods: Microemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using oleic acid:sefsol (1.5:1), Tween 20, isopropyl alcohol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, cosurfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. Surface studies of optimized formulation were done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was done by carageenan-induced raw paw edema method. Results: The droplet size of microemulsions ranged from 60 to 190 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 28.55 ± 2.03 mP, refractive index 1.409, pH 6.4, and conductivity 10-4 scm-1. The optimized microemulsion was converted into hydrogel using carbopol 934, and salicylic acid was incorporated into it. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 29.73 μg/mg. Assessment of skin permeation was done by histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 72.11% and 43.96% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed microemulsion gel and marketed gel, respectively. Conclusions: The developed microemulsion gel containing BD and salicylic acid provided sustained and good anti-inflammatory activity for the

  1. Effects of salicylic acid on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B₁ accumulation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Panahirad, Sima; Zaare-Nahandi, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Nilufar; Alizadeh-Salteh, Saeedeh; Safaie, Naser

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important saprophytic infections in fresh pistachio fruits after harvesting is Aspergillus flavus colonization, which significantly reduces fruit quality. Salicylic acid plays a crucial role in plant tissues and has a suppression effect on some fungi. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the growth of A. flavus was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, seven concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mmol L(-1)) of salicylic acid were used in both experiments. Also, aflatoxin B1 contents of the samples were analysed using immunoaffinity chromatography. The results obtained from in vitro experiments showed that salicylic acid significantly reduced Aspergillus growth at all concentrations, and at 9 mmol L(-1) growth was completely suppressed. In vivo evaluation showed relatively high levels of inhibition, though the intact treated fruits as compared with the injured treated fruits demonstrated higher inhibitory effects. Regarding the inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on the control of A. flavus contamination, its application on pistachio fruits after harvesting could be a promising approach to control the fungus infection and reduce aflatoxin production in treated fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of foliar application of chitosan and salicylic acid on the growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanah, Y.; Sembiring, M.

    2018-02-01

    Elicitors such as chitosan and salicylic acid could be used not only to increase isoflavone concentration of soybean seeds, but also to increase the growth and seed yield. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of foliar application of elicitor compounds (i.e. chitosan, and salicylic acid)on the growth of two soybean varieties under dry land conditions. Experimental design was a randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was soybean varieties (Wilis and Devon). The second factor was foliar application of elicitors consisted of without elicitor; chitosan at V4 (four trifoliate leaves are fully developed); chitosan at R3 (early podding); chitosan at V4 and R3; salicylic acid at V4; salicylic acid at R3 and salicylic acid at V4 and R3. Parameters observed was plant height at 2-7 week after planting (WAP), shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The results suggest that the Wilis variety had higher plant height 7 WAP than Devon. The foliar application of chitosan increased the plant height at 7 WAP, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The foliar application of chitosan at V4 and R3 on Devon variety increased shoot dry weight.

  3. Salicylic acid deficiency in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants increases seed yield in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Maria Elizabeth; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid-deficient NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants were used to evaluate the role of this compound in the development of the short-lived, annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana, with a particular focus on the interplay between salicylic acid and other phytohormones. Low salicylic acid levels led to increased growth, as well as to smaller abscisic acid levels and reduced damage to PSII (as indicated by Fv/Fm ratios) during the reproductive stages in rosette leaves of NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, salicylic acid deficiency highly influenced seed yield and composition. Seed production increased by 4.4-fold and 3.5-fold in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, respectively, compared to the wild type. Salicylic acid deficiency also improved seed composition in terms of antioxidant vitamin concentrations, seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants showing higher levels of α- and γ-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) than seeds of wild-type plants. Seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants also showed higher nitrogen concentrations than seeds of wild-type plants. It is concluded that (i) the sid2 gene, which encodes for isochorismate synthase, plays a central role in salicylic acid biosynthesis during plant development in A. thaliana, (ii) salicylic acid plays a role in the regulation of growth, senescence, and seed production, (iii) there is a cross-talk between salicylic acid and other phytohormones during plant development, and (iv) the concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in seeds may be influenced by the endogenous levels of salicylic acid in plants. PMID:19188277

  4. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ).

  5. Abscisic acid (ABA) and key proteins in its perception and signaling pathways are ancient, but their roles have changed through time.

    PubMed

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Atallah, Nadia M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-09-02

    Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (A CE ). ABA and key proteins, including ABA receptors from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family and negative regulators of ABA-signaling from Group A of the type-2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), in addition to OST1 homologs, can be found in all terrestrial land plant lineages, ranging from liverworts that lack stomata, to angiosperms. As land plants have evolved and diversified over the past 450 million years, so too have the roles of this important plant hormone and the genes involved in its signaling and perception.

  6. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  7. Modulation of mitomycin C-induced genotoxicity by acetyl- and thio- analogues of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Amol Ashok; Vikram, Ajit; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Padmanabhan, Shweta; Ramarao, Poduri; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports regarding acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites suggest suppressive effects against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced genotoxicity in a mice chromosomal aberration assay. Keeping this in mind, the potential anti-genotoxic effect of the thio-analogue of salicylic acid namely thio-salicylic acid (TSA) was speculated upon. The present study investigated and compared the anti-genotoxic potential of ASA and TSA. The study was performed in male swiss mice (20+/-2 g) using single-cell gel electrophoresis and a peripheral blood micronucleus assay. ASA and TSA (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) were administered 15 minutes after MMC (1 mg/kg) once daily for 3 or 7 days. Both ASA and TSA significantly decreased the DNA damage induced by MMC as indicated by a decrease in the comet parameters in bone marrow cells and decreased frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes in peripheral blood. The results clearly demonstrate the anti-genotoxic potential of ASA and TSA.

  8. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jochen; D'Autry, Ward; Van den Bossche, Larissa; Dewever, Cédric; Forier, Michel; Vandenwaeyenberg, Stephanie; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-02-23

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and optimized simultaneously. The non-volatile capsaicinoids, salicylic acid and glycol monosalicylate were analyzed with liquid chromatography following liquid-liquid extraction, whereas the volatile compounds were analyzed with static headspace-gas chromatography. For the latter method, liquid paraffin was selected as compatible dilution solvent. The optimized methods were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in a range of 80% to 120% of the expected concentrations. For both methods, peaks were well separated without interference of other compounds. Linear relationships were demonstrated with R² values higher than 0.996 for all compounds. Accuracy was assessed by performing replicate recovery experiments with spiked blank samples. Mean recovery values were all between 98% and 102%. Precision was checked at three levels: system repeatability, method precision and intermediate precision. Both methods were found to be acceptably precise at all three levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of some real samples (cutaneous sticks). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of surface-applied jasmonic and salicylic acids on caterpillar growth and damage to tomato plants

    Treesearch

    Aaron L. Iverson; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Eshita

    2001-01-01

    We tested the role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in altering the tomato plant's defense against herbivory by tobacco hornworm. Treatments of SA or JA were topically applied to tomato plants, hornworm consumption was allowed to proceed for 12 days, and harvest analyses were performed Measurements taken included a subjective plant rating (1-10 score...

  10. Salicylic acid-dependent and -independent impact of an RNA-binding protein on plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, Christian; Korneli, Christin; Kutyniok, Magdalene; Köster, Tino; Wiedenlübbert, Matthias; Müller, Caroline; Staiger, Dorothee

    2014-03-01

    Plants overexpressing the RNA-binding protein AtGRP7 (AtGRP7-ox plants) constitutively express the PR-1 (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED-1), PR-2 and PR-5 transcripts associated with salicylic acid (SA)-mediated immunity and show enhanced resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000. Here, we investigated whether the function of AtGRP7 in plant immunity depends on SA. Endogenous SA was elevated fivefold in AtGRP7-ox plants. The elevated PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5 levels were eliminated upon expression of the salicylate hydroxylase nahG in AtGRP7-ox plants and elevated PR-1 levels were suppressed by sid (salicylic acid deficient) 2-1 that is impaired in SA biosynthesis. RNA immunoprecipitation showed that AtGRP7 does not bind the PR-1 transcript in vivo, whereas it binds PDF1.2. Constitutive or inducible AtGRP7 overexpression increases PR-1 promoter activity, indicating that AtGRP7 affects PR-1 transcription. In line with this, the effect of AtGRP7 on PR-1 is suppressed by npr (non-expressor of PR genes) 1. Whereas AtGRP7-ox plants restricted growth of Pto DC3000 compared with wild type (wt), sid2-1 AtGRP7-ox plants allowed more growth than AtGRP7-ox plants. Furthermore, we show an enhanced hypersensitive response triggered by avirulent Pto DC3000 (AvrRpt2) in AtGRP7-ox compared with wt. In sid2-1 AtGRP7-ox, an intermediate phenotype was observed. Thus, AtGRP7 has both SA-dependent and SA-independent effects on plant immunity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The catalytic activity for ginkgolic acid biodegradation, homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulation of salicylic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanying; Hua, Qingyuan; Sun, Guojuan; Shi, Kunpeng; Zhang, Huitu; Zhao, Kai; Jia, Shiru; Dai, Yujie; Wu, Qingli

    2018-05-02

    The toxic ginkgolic acids are the main safety concern for the application of Ginkgo biloba. In this study, the degradation ability of salicylic acid decarboxylase (SDC) for ginkgolic acids was examined using ginkgolic acid C15:1 as a substrate. The results indicated that the content of ginkgolic acid C15:1 in Ginkgo biloba seeds was significantly decreased after 5 h treatment with SDC at 40 °Cand pH 5.5. In order to explore the structure of SDC and the interaction between SDC and substrates, homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics were performed. The results showed that SDC might also have a catalytic active center containing a Zn 2+ . Compared with the template structure of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, the residues surrounding the binding pocket, His10, Phe23 and Phe290, were replaced by Ala10, Tyr27 and Tyr301 in the homology constructed structure of SDC, respectively. These differences may significantly affect the substrates adaptability of SDC for salicylic acid derivatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination photodynamic therapy of human breast cancer using salicylic acid and methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Jahanshiri, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with methylene blue (MB) assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) and salicylic acid (SA) as chemo-therapy anticancer agent. The binding of salicylic acid to methylene blue was studied using spectrophotometric method. The results show the 1:2 complex formation between SA and MB. The binding constants and related Gibbs free energies o are obtained (Kb1 = 183.74, Kb2 = 38.13 and ∆ Gb1° = 12.92 kJ·mol- 1, ∆ Gb2° =9.02 kJ·mol- 1). The spectrophotometric results show the improvement in solubilization and reduction prevention for SA and MB in the complex form. These results are in agreements with cellular experiments. The dark toxicity measurements represent the improve efficacy of chemotherapy using combination of SA and MB. The photodynamic therapy results (using red LED as light source (630 nm; power density: 30 mW cm- 2)) show that the cancer cell killing efficiency of MB increases in the combination with SA due to reduction prevention and stabilization of monomeric form of MB.

  13. Effect of ca2+ to salicylic acid release in pectin based controlled drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistriyani, L.; Wirawan, S. K.; Sediawan, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Wastes from orange peel are potentially be utilized to produce pectin, which are currently an import commodity. Pectin can be used in making edible film. Edible films are potentially used as a drug delivery system membrane after a tooth extraction. Drug which is used in the drug delivery system is salicylic acid. It is an antiseptic. In order to control the drug release rate, crosslinking process is added in the manufacturing of membrane with CaCl2.2H2O as crosslinker. Pectin was diluted in water and mixed with a plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution at 66°C to make edible film. Then the mixture was dried in an oven at 50 °C. After edible film was formed, it was coated using plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution with various concentration 0, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.05g/mL. This study showed that the more concentration of crosslinker added, the slower release of salicylic acid would be. This was indicated by the value of diffusivites were getting smaller respectively. The addition of crosslinker also caused smaller gels swelling value,which made the membrane is mechanically stronger

  14. Role of salicylic acid in resistance to cadmium stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Ding, Yanfei; Wang, Feijuan; Ye, Yaoyao; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    We review and introduce the importance of salicylic acid in plants under cadmium stress, and provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms for alleviating cadmium toxicity. Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread and potentially toxic environmental pollutant, originating mainly from rapid industrial processes, the application of fertilizers, manures and sewage sludge, and urban activities. It is easily taken up by plants, resulting in obvious toxicity symptoms, including growth retardation, leaf chlorosis, leaf and root necrosis, altered structures and ultrastructures, inhibition of photosynthesis, and cell death. Therefore, alleviating Cd toxicity in plants is a major aim of plant research. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous plant phenolic compound that has been used in many plant species to alleviate Cd toxicity by regulating plant growth, reducing Cd uptake and distribution in plants, protecting membrane integrity and stability, scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhancing antioxidant defense system, improving photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, SA functions as a signaling molecule involved in the expression of several important genes. Significant amounts of research have focused on understanding SA functions and signaling in plants under Cd stress, but several questions still remain unanswered. In this article, the influence of SA on Cd-induced stress in plants and the potential regulation mechanism for alleviating Cd toxicity are reviewed.

  15. Salicylic acid regulates basal resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi J; Lee, Hyeonju; Trick, Harold N; Dong, Yanhong; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Previously, expression in wheat of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene (AtNPR1), which encodes a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA) signaling, was shown to reduce severity of FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum. It was hypothesized that SA signaling contributes to wheat defense against F. graminearum. Here, we show that increased accumulation of SA in fungus-infected spikes correlated with elevated expression of the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) gene and FHB resistance. In addition, FHB severity and mycotoxin accumulation were curtailed in wheat plants treated with SA and in AtNPR1 wheat, which is hyper-responsive to SA. In support of a critical role for SA in basal resistance to FHB, disease severity was higher in wheat expressing the NahG-encoded salicylate hydroxylase, which metabolizes SA. The FHB-promoting effect of NahG was overcome by application of benzo (1,2,3), thiadiazole-7 carbothioic acid S-methyl ester, a synthetic functional analog of SA, thus confirming an important role for SA signaling in basal resistance to FHB. We further demonstrate that jasmonate signaling has a dichotomous role in wheat interaction with F. graminearum, constraining activation of SA signaling during early stages of infection and promoting resistance during the later stages of infection.

  16. Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Bari, Arfan Ul; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2005-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc.) were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders). Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  17. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Enhanced the Production of Ursolic and Oleanolic Acid in Callus Cultures of Lepechinia Caulescens

    PubMed Central

    Vergara Martínez, Víctor M.; Estrada-Soto, Samuel E.; Arellano-García, José de Jesús; Rivera-Leyva, Julio C.; Castillo-España, Patricia; Flores, Angélica Flores; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre T.; Perea-Arango, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Background: The production of triterpenes from plants for pharmacological purposes varies in concentration, due to genetic and environmental factors. In vitro culture enables the control and increase of these bioactive molecules. Objective: To evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and elicitors in the induction of calli and the production of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in Lepechinia caulescens. Materials and Methods: Leaf explants were exposed for the induction of calli at different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid were used as elicitors. High-performance liquid chromatography method was used to quantify UA and OA content in each treatment. Results: Treatment with 3.0 mg/L of 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L of BAP produced the best results for calli induction and production of UA (1.57 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and OA (1.13 mg/g DW). Both elicitors facilitated the accumulation of triterpenes. Conclusion: The combination of auxins and cytokinins showed favorable results for the induction of calli. Variation concerning the accumulation of UA and OA was observed between treatments. MJ increased the production of triterpenes five times after 8 h of exposure, compared to control treatment. There is a greater accumulation of UA (16.58 mg/g DW) and OA (1.94 mg/g DW) in leaves of wild plants. SUMMARY Callus cultures of Lepechinia caulescens were obtained from leaf explants treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-bencylaminopurineResulting cultures were elicited with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid to increase the production of the triterpenes, ursolic acid (UA), and oleanolic acid (OA)The cultures elicited with MJ increased the production of UA and OA five times, as compared to the control. Abbreviations used: 2,4-D: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine, DW: Dry weight, MJ: Methyl jasmonate, OA: Oleanolic acid, PGRs

  18. Transcriptional profile of sweet orange in response to chitosan and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Coqueiro, Danila Souza Oliveira; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Rodrigues, Carolina Munari; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2015-04-12

    Resistance inducers have been used in annual crops as an alternative for disease control. Wood perennial fruit trees, such as those of the citrus species, are candidates for treatment with resistance inducers, such as salicylic acid (SA) and chitosan (CHI). However, the involved mechanisms in resistance induced by elicitors in citrus are currently few known. In the present manuscript, we report information regarding the transcriptional changes observed in sweet orange in response to exogenous applications of SA and CHI using RNA-seq technology. More genes were induced by SA treatment than by CHI treatment. In total, 1,425 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following treatment with SA, including the important genes WRKY50, PR2, and PR9, which are known to participate in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, and genes involved in ethylene/Jasmonic acid biosynthesis (ACS12, AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, and OPR3). In addition, SA treatment promoted the induction of a subset of genes involved in several metabolic processes, such as redox states and secondary metabolism, which are associated with biotic stress. For CHI treatment, there were 640 DEGs, many of them involved in secondary metabolism. For both SA and CHI treatments, the auxin pathway genes were repressed, but SA treatment promoted induction in the ethylene and jasmonate acid pathway genes, in addition to repressing the abscisic acid pathway genes. Chitosan treatment altered some hormone metabolism pathways. The DEGs were validated by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data, with a high correlation between the two analyses. We expanded the available information regarding induced defense by elicitors in a species of Citrus that is susceptible to various diseases and identified the molecular mechanisms by which this defense might be mediated.

  19. Chitosan oligosaccharide induces resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis via the salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingshan; Zeng, Haihong; Wang, Wenxia; Yin, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is one of the most abundant carbohydrate biopolymers in the world, and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), which is prepared from chitosan, is a plant immunity regulator. The present study aimed to validate the effect of COS on inducing resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Arabidopsis and to investigate the potential defence-related signalling pathways involved. Optimal conditions for the induction of TMV resistance in Arabidopsis were COS pretreatment at 50 mg/L for 1 day prior to inoculation with TMV. Multilevel indices, including phenotype data, and TMV coat protein expression, revealed that COS induced TMV resistance in wild-type and jasmonic acid pathway- deficient (jar1) Arabidopsis plants, but not in salicylic acid pathway deficient (NahG) Arabidopsis plants. Quantitative-PCR and analysis of phytohormone levels confirmed that COS pretreatment enhanced the expression of the defence-related gene PR1, which is a marker of salicylic acid signalling pathway, and increased the amount of salicylic acid in WT and jar1, but not in NahG plants. Taken together, these results confirm that COS induces TMV resistance in Arabidopsis via activation of the salicylic acid signalling pathway. PMID:27189192

  20. Chitosan oligosaccharide induces resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis via the salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingshan; Zeng, Haihong; Wang, Wenxia; Yin, Heng

    2016-05-18

    Chitosan is one of the most abundant carbohydrate biopolymers in the world, and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), which is prepared from chitosan, is a plant immunity regulator. The present study aimed to validate the effect of COS on inducing resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Arabidopsis and to investigate the potential defence-related signalling pathways involved. Optimal conditions for the induction of TMV resistance in Arabidopsis were COS pretreatment at 50 mg/L for 1 day prior to inoculation with TMV. Multilevel indices, including phenotype data, and TMV coat protein expression, revealed that COS induced TMV resistance in wild-type and jasmonic acid pathway- deficient (jar1) Arabidopsis plants, but not in salicylic acid pathway deficient (NahG) Arabidopsis plants. Quantitative-PCR and analysis of phytohormone levels confirmed that COS pretreatment enhanced the expression of the defence-related gene PR1, which is a marker of salicylic acid signalling pathway, and increased the amount of salicylic acid in WT and jar1, but not in NahG plants. Taken together, these results confirm that COS induces TMV resistance in Arabidopsis via activation of the salicylic acid signalling pathway.

  1. Arabidopsis ROP-interactive CRIB motif-containing protein 1 (RIC1) positively regulates auxin signalling and negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during root development.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yunjung; Lee, Yuree; Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Youngsook; Hwang, Jae-Ung

    2013-05-01

    Auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) modulate numerous aspects of plant development together, mostly in opposite directions, suggesting that extensive crosstalk occurs between the signalling pathways of the two hormones. However, little is known about the nature of this crosstalk. We demonstrate that ROP-interactive CRIB motif-containing protein 1 (RIC1) is involved in the interaction between auxin- and ABA-regulated root growth and lateral root formation. RIC1 expression is highly induced by both hormones, and expressed in the roots of young seedlings. Whereas auxin-responsive gene induction and the effect of auxin on root growth and lateral root formation were suppressed in the ric1 knockout, ABA-responsive gene induction and the effect of ABA on seed germination, root growth and lateral root formation were potentiated. Thus, RIC1 positively regulates auxin responses, but negatively regulates ABA responses. Together, our results suggest that RIC1 is a component of the intricate signalling network that underlies auxin and ABA crosstalk. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Salicylic acid peeling combined with vitamin C mesotherapy versus salicylic acid peeling alone in the treatment of mixed type melasma: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Balevi, Ali; Ustuner, Pelin; Özdemir, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Melasma is a distressing condition for both dermatologists and patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA) peel and vitamin C mesotherapy in the treatment of melasma. Fifty female patients were divided into two groups. All patients were treated with 30% SA peel every two weeks for two months. In addition, after SA peeling Group A was intradermally administered 10 vitamin C on the melasma lesion at 1-cm intervals. All patients were followed up for 6 months, during which the recurrence rates were evaluated. Digital photographs of the melasma site were taken and patients' Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores were assessed. After the treatment, the patients were asked to complete the melasma quality of life questionnaire (MelasQoL) to evaluate their satisfaction with the treatment. All the adverse effects were noted. The MelasQoL and MASI scores of patients in both groups significantly decreased after the treatment. Apart from a burning sensation, no adverse event was observed and all patients tolerated the treatment well. SA peel combined with vitamin C mesotherapy is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of melasma with no significant side effects and minimal downtime.

  3. Exogenous salicylic acid enhances the resistance of wheat seedlings to hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation under heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant resistanc...

  4. Salicylic Acid and 4-Nitroaniline Removal from Water Using Magnetic Biochar: An Environmental and Analytical Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Dewage, Narada Bombuwala; Todd, Olivia Adele; Essandoh, Matthew; Anderson, Renel; Mlsna, Todd; Mlsna, Deb

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption studies of salicylic acid (SA) and 4-nitroaniline (4NA) from aqueous solutions were performed with magnetic biochar (MBC) in order to train students in analytical techniques such as standard calibration curves, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and chemical separations within the context of wastewater purification. Analysis of samples purified…

  5. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on root yield, sucrose yield, and storage properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was conducted in 2016 and 2017 to investigate the effects of an e...

  6. Cooperative functioning between phenylalanine ammonia lyase and isochorishmate synthase activities contributes to salicylic acid biosynthesis in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA), an essential regulator of plant defense, is derived from chorismate via either the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), or the isochorishmate synthase (ICS) catalyzed steps. The ICS pathway is thought to be the primary contributor of defense-related SA, at least in Arabidopsis. We...

  7. Characterisation of SalRAB a Salicylic Acid Inducible Positively Regulated Efflux System of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841

    PubMed Central

    Tett, Adrian J.; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

  8. [Experiences in half-side treatment with tar additive to cignolin-salicylic-acid-white-vaseline therapy of psoriasis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Schulze, H J; Steigleder, G K

    1984-05-15

    As shown in bilateral comparison studies addition of crude coal tar (T) to standard antipsoriatic therapy with dithranol and salicylic acid in white petrolatum (CVS) diminished the dithranol-irritation; consequently, accelerated application of increasing dithranol-concentrations shortened the duration of TCSV -therapy.

  9. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J J; de Waal, Margot W M; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W; Eekhof, Just A H

    2010-10-19

    Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%-51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%-35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%-25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%-64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%-30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%-21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629).

  10. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629) PMID:20837684

  11. Studies on the structural, optical and dielectric properties of samarium coordinated with salicylic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Slathia, Goldy; Gupta, Rashmi; Bamzai, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Samarium coordinated with salicylic acid was successfully grown as a single crystal by low temperature solution technique using mixed solvent of methanol and water in equal ratio. Structural characterization was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it crystallizes in centrosymmetric space group P121/c1. FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy confirmed the compound formation and help to determine the mode of binding of the ligand to the rare earth-metal ion. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss have been measured over the frequency range 100 Hz - 30MHz. The decrease in dielectric constant with increases in frequency is due to the transition from interfacial polarization to dipolar polarization. The small value of dielectric constant at higher frequency ensures that the crystal is good candidate for NLO devices. Dielectric loss represents the resistive nature of the material.

  12. Treatment of palmoplantar warts with a diphencyprone and salicylic acid ointment.

    PubMed

    Armour, Katherine; Orchard, David

    2006-08-01

    We report on 50 consecutive suitable patients with one or more palmoplantar warts who were treated with a patient-applied ointment comprising 0.1% diphencyprone and 15% salicylic acid in white soft paraffin. All patients sensitized to diphencyprone were followed up clinically and assessed by patient questionnaire. The intention to treat success rate in this series was 88%. The time to wart clearance ranged from less than 4 weeks to 4 months. In our patient group, 90% rated their treatment as 'excellent' or 'good', whereas 10% stated that the reaction induced by diphencyprone was 'too severe'. Our results are compared with those previously published using diphencyprone in the treatment of palmoplantar warts.

  13. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response. PMID:25763618

  14. Increasing leaf longevity and disease resistance by altering salicylic acid catabolism

    DOEpatents

    Gan, Susheng; Zhang, Kewei

    2018-01-23

    The present invention relates to a transgenic plant having an altered level of salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase ("S3H") protein, compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plant displays an altered leaf senescence phenotype, relative to a non-transgenic plant. The present invention relates to a mutant plant comprising an inactivated gene encoding S3H protein, where the mutant plant displays a premature or precocious leaf senescence phenotype, relative to a non-mutant plant. The present invention also relates to methods for promoting premature or precocious leaf senescence in a plant, delaying leaf senescence in a plant, and making a mutant plant having a decreased level of S3H protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a premature or precocious leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. The present invention also relates to inducing or promoting pathogen resistance in plants.

  15. Salicylic acid biosynthesis is enhanced and contributes to increased biotrophic pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Li, Bosheng; Zheng, Xiao-yu; Li, Jigang; Yang, Mei; Dong, Xinnian; He, Guangming; An, Chengcai; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, the phenotypic superiority of a hybrid over its parents, has been demonstrated for many traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its effect on defence remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that hybrids between some A. thaliana accessions show increased resistance to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Comparisons of transcriptomes between these hybrids and their parents after inoculation reveal that several key salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes are significantly upregulated in hybrids. Moreover, SA levels are higher in hybrids than in either parent. Increased resistance to Pst DC3000 is significantly compromised in hybrids of pad4 mutants in which the SA biosynthesis pathway is blocked. Finally, increased histone H3 acetylation of key SA biosynthesis genes correlates with their upregulation in infected hybrids. Our data demonstrate that enhanced activation of SA biosynthesis in A. thaliana hybrids may contribute to their increased resistance to a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. PMID:26065719

  16. Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called "suloul" in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient's life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 90 were 1.24 ± 2.1, 1.3 ± 2.3, 2.45 ± 3.1 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Relapse was not seen in any groups after three

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8. PMID:28250384

  18. Enhanced degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon in wheat rhizosphere by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Meng Tian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined the microbial population (e.g., biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure, and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase, and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.

  19. Salicylic acid for the treatment of melasma: new acquisitions for monitoring the clinical improvement.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; De Vita, Valerio; Marasca, Claudio; Palmisano, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the Melasma Severity Score (MSS) are calculated on the basis of only a subjective clinical assessment. This raises the need to have an objective score, uniform in the evaluation by different clinicians. The purpose of this study was to establish if the images by Canfield Reveal Imager can be correlated to MASI score to better evaluate the clinical efficacy of salicylic acid 33% peeling in the treatment of melasma respect to the clinical observation. The study was a voluntary observational study. Twenty female patients affected with melasma, aged between 30 and 60 years, were included in the study. Treatment with salicylic acid 33% was performed once a month, for a total of four times. The dermatologist (Doc A) examined each patient's melasma areas using MASI score, at the face-to-face observation and at Reveal images evaluation during the first (T0) and the end point time (T4). Digital photographs were also evaluated by another experienced dermatologist (Doc B), who has never seen clinically the patients before and who evaluated MASI score by Reveal images at time T0 and T4. Student's t-test and linear regression test were performed, showing statistically significant values comparing MASI score obtained by digital photo and MASI score obtained clinically. The monitoring of the improvement by Reveal images can optimize the treatment approach and the efficacy of same dermocosmetics procedures can be revised following standard criteria. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  1. The ABA receptors -- we report you decide.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Peter; Creelman, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated in a variety of physiological responses ranging from seed dormancy to stomatal conductance. Recently, three groups have reported the molecular identification of three disparate ABA receptors. Unlike the identification of other hormone receptors, in these three cases high affinity binding to ABA rather than the isolation of ABA insensitive mutants led to these receptor genes. Interestingly, two of the receptors encode genes involved in floral timing and chlorophyll biosynthesis, which are not considered traditional ABA responses. And the third receptor has been clouded in issues of its molecular identity. To clearly determine the roles of these genes in ABA perception it will require placing of these ABA-binding proteins into the rich ABA physiological context that has built up over the years.

  2. Analysis of salicylic acid-dependent pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana following infection with Plasmodiophora brassicae and the influence of salicylic acid on disease.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, David A; Šola, Ivana; Marschollek, Sabine; Donald, Caroline E; Rusak, Gordana; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Cahill, David M

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, the expression of SA-related genes and the effect of SA on the Arabidopsis-Plasmodiophora brassicae interaction were examined. Biochemical analyses revealed that, in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis, the majority of SA is synthesized from chorismate. Real-time monitored expression of a gene for isochorismate synthase was induced on infection. SA can be modified after accumulation, either by methylation, improving its mobility, or by glycosylation, as one possible reaction for inactivation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed the induction of an SA methyltransferase gene, whereas SA glucosyltransferase expression was not changed after infection. Col-0 wild-type (wt) did not provide a visible phenotypic resistance response, whereas the Arabidopsis mutant dnd1, which constitutively activates the immune system, showed reduced gall scores. As dnd1 showed control of the pathogen, exogenous SA was applied to Arabidopsis in order to test whether it could suppress clubroot. In wt, sid2 (SA biosynthesis), NahG (SA-deficient) and npr1 (SA signalling-impaired) mutants, SA treatment did not alter the gall score, but positively affected the shoot weight. This suggests that SA alone is not sufficient for Arabidopsis resistance against P. brassicae. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that wt, cpr1, dnd1 and sid2 showed elevated PR-1 expression on P. brassicae and SA + P. brassicae inoculation at 2 and 3 weeks post-inoculation (wpi), whereas NahG and npr1 showed no expression. This work contributes to the understanding of SA involvement in the Arabidopsis-P. brassicae interaction. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Salicylic Acid, an Ambimobile Molecule Exhibiting a High Ability to Accumulate in the Phloem1

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Jousse, Cyril; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    The ability of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) to accumulate in castor bean (Ricinus communis) phloem was evaluated by HPLC and liquid scintillation spectrometry analyses of phloem sap collected from the severed apical part of seedlings. Time-course experiments indicated that SA was transported to the root system via the phloem and redistributed upward in small amounts via the xylem. This helps to explain the peculiarities of SA distribution within the plant in response to biotic stress and exogenous SA application. Phloem loading of SA at 1, 10, or 100 μm was dependent on the pH of the cotyledon incubating solution, and accumulation in the phloem sap was the highest (about 10-fold) at the most acidic pH values tested (pH 4.6 and 5.0). As in animal cells, SA uptake still occurred at pH values close to neutrality (i.e. when SA is only in its dissociated form according to the calculations made by ACD LogD suite software). The analog 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid, which is predicted to be nonmobile according to the models of Bromilow and Kleier, also moved in the sieve tubes. These discrepancies and other data may give rise to the hypothesis of a possible involvement of a pH-dependent carrier system translocating aromatic monocarboxylic acids in addition to the ion-trap mechanism. PMID:16778012

  4. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells.

  5. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Synergistic Priming Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid and H2O2 on Chilling Tolerance Enhancement during Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Xu, Jungui; Gao, Yue; Wang, Chun; Guo, Genyuan; Luo, Ying; Huang, Yutao; Hu, Weimin; Sheteiwy, Mohamed S.; Guan, Yajing; Hu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seedling establishment in the field. To examine the role of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in response to chilling stress, we investigated the effects of seed priming with SA, H2O2, and SA+H2O2 combination on maize resistance under chilling stress (13°C). Priming with SA, H2O2, and especially SA+H2O2 shortened seed germination time and enhanced seed vigor and seedling growth as compared with hydropriming and non-priming treatments under low temperature. Meanwhile, SA+H2O2 priming notably increased the endogenous H2O2 and SA content, antioxidant enzymes activities and their corresponding genes ZmPAL, ZmSOD4, ZmAPX2, ZmCAT2, and ZmGR expression levels. The α-amylase activity was enhanced to mobilize starch to supply metabolites such as soluble sugar and energy for seed germination under chilling stress. In addition, the SA+H2O2 combination positively up-regulated expressions of gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis genes ZmGA20ox1 and ZmGA3ox2, and down-regulated GA catabolism gene ZmGA2ox1 expression; while it promoted GA signaling transduction genes expressions of ZmGID1 and ZmGID2 and decreased the level of seed germination inhibitor gene ZmRGL2. The abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism gene ZmCYP707A2 and the expressions of ZmCPK11 and ZmSnRK2.1 encoding response receptors in ABA signaling pathway were all up-regulated. These results strongly suggested that priming with SA and H2O2 synergistically promoted hormones metabolism and signal transduction, and enhanced energy supply and antioxidant enzymes activities under chilling stress, which were closely relevant with chilling injury alleviation and chilling-tolerance improvement in maize seed. Highlights:Seed germination and seedling growth were significantly improved under chilling stress by priming with SA+H2O2 combination, which was closely relevant with the change of reactive oxygen species, metabolites and energy supply, hormones metabolism and

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of jasmonic acid dependent but salicylic acid independent LeWRKY1.

    PubMed

    Lu, M; Wang, L F; Du, X H; Yu, Y K; Pan, J B; Nan, Z J; Han, J; Wang, W X; Zhang, Q Z; Sun, Q P

    2015-11-30

    Various plant genes can be activated or inhibited by phytohormones under conditions of biotic and abiotic stress, especially in response to jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Interactions between JA and SA may be synergistic or antagonistic, depending on the stress condition. In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA (LeWRKY1, GenBank accession No. FJ654265) from Lycopersicon esculentum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis showed that this gene is a group II WRKY transcription factor. Analysis of LeWRKY1 mRNA expression in various tissues by qRT-PCR showed that the highest and lowest expression occurred in the leaves and stems, respectively. In addition, LeWRKY1 expression was induced by JA and Botrytis cinerea Pers., but not by SA.

  8. Interaction of plant cell signaling molecules, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, with the mitochondria of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Akbar, S M D; Sharma, H C; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-02-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is a polyphagous pest in Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Europe. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the cell signaling molecules produced in response to insect attack in plants. The effect of these signaling molecules was investigated on the oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress of H. armigera. SA significantly inhibited the state III and state IV respiration, respiratory control index (RCI), respiratory complexes I and II, induced mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in vitro. Under in vivo conditions, SA induced state IV respiration as well as oxidative stress in time- and dose-dependent manner, and also inhibited the larval growth. In contrast, JA did not affect the mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. SA affected the growth and development of H. armigera, in addition to its function as signaling molecules involved in both local defense reactions at feeding sites and the induction of systemic acquired resistance in plants.

  9. Safety in use of cryotherapy and topical salicylic acid with lactic acid combination in treating verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Alam, M; Khondker, L; Ahamed, R S

    2012-10-01

    An interventional study in the treatment of verruca vulgaris was conducted in sixty patients. This study conducted in the out-patient Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh for duration of eight months (From January 2009 to September 2009). Thirty patients treated with cryotherapy, belonged to Group C and rest thirty patients treated with topical salicylic acid with lactic acid, belonged to Group D. The result showed that the highest side effects immediately after therapy for Group C was burning 30(100%), then irritation 29(96.7%), erythema 28(93.7%), blister formation 28(93.7%) and pain 23(76.7%). On the other hand, highest side effect for Group D is irritation 29(96.7%), then burning 22(73.3%), pain 11(36.7%), pruritus 06(20%), blister formation 04(13%) and erythema 01(3.3%). Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D patients other than irritation. At 2nd visit, erythema 26(86.7%) was evidenced for Group C, whereas in Group D, there was irritation 16(53.3%). After 3rd visit in 4th week for Group C patients, there was burning 13(43.3%) but in Group D patients, hypo-pigmentation 13(43.3%) was evidenced. On 4th visit in 6th week, hypo-pigmentation 09(30%) was seen in Group C, while in Group D, pruritus and irritation were found. Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D respondents. Both treatments were associated with side-effects but these were higher with cryotherapy. The study recommends the combination of topical salicylic acid with lactic acid is safer than cryotherapy.

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl acid amido synthetase mediates metabolic crosstalk in auxin and salicylic acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Corey S.; Sherp, Ashley M.; Zubieta, Chloe; Alvarez, Sophie; Schraft, Evelyn; Marcellin, Romain; Ramirez, Loren; Jez, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl acid amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3.5 (AtGH3.5) conjugates both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) to modulate auxin and pathogen response pathways. To understand the molecular basis for the activity of AtGH3.5, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with IAA and AMP. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that the substrate preference of AtGH3.5 is wider than originally described and includes the natural auxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the potential SA precursor benzoic acid (BA). Residues that determine IAA versus BA substrate preference were identified. The dual functionality of AtGH3.5 is unique to this enzyme although multiple IAA-conjugating GH3 proteins share nearly identical acyl acid binding sites. In planta analysis of IAA, PAA, SA, and BA and their respective aspartyl conjugates were determined in wild-type and overexpressing lines of A. thaliana. This study suggests that AtGH3.5 conjugates auxins (i.e., IAA and PAA) and benzoates (i.e., SA and BA) to mediate crosstalk between different metabolic pathways, broadening the potential roles for GH3 acyl acid amido synthetases in plants. PMID:27849615

  11. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

  12. Preparation of Salicylic Acid Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Using Box-Behnken Design: Optimization, Characterization and Physicochemical Stability.

    PubMed

    Pantub, Ketrawee; Wongtrakul, Paveena; Janwitayanuchit, Wicharn

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded salicylic acid (NLCs-SA) were developed and optimized by using the design of experiment (DOE). Box-Behnken experimental design of 3-factor, 3-level was applied for optimization of nanostructured lipid carriers prepared by emulsification method. The independent variables were total lipid concentration (X 1 ), stearic acid to Lexol ® GT-865 ratio (X 2 ) and Tween ® 80 concentration (X 3 ) while the particle size was a dependent variable (Y). Box-Behnken design could create 15 runs by setting response optimizer as minimum particle size. The optimized formulation consists of 10% of total lipid, a mixture of stearic acid and capric/caprylic triglyceride at a 4:1 ratio, and 25% of Tween ® 80 which the formulation was applied in order to prepare in both loaded and unloaded salicylic acid. After preparation for 24 hours, the particle size of loaded and unloaded salicylic acid was 189.62±1.82 nm and 369.00±3.37 nm, respectively. Response surface analysis revealed that the amount of total lipid is a main factor which could affect the particle size of lipid carriers. In addition, the stability studies showed a significant change in particle size by time. Compared to unloaded nanoparticles, the addition of salicylic acid into the particles resulted in physically stable dispersion. After 30 days, sedimentation of unloaded lipid carriers was clearly observed. Absolute values of zeta potential of both systems were in the range of 3 to 18 mV since non-ionic surfactant, Tween ® 80, providing steric barrier was used. Differential thermograms indicated a shift of endothermic peak from 55°C for α-crystal form in freshly prepared samples to 60°C for β´-crystal form in storage samples. It was found that the presence of capric/caprylic triglyceride oil could enhance encapsulation efficiency up to 80% and facilitate stability of the particles.

  13. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  14. Extending shikimate pathway for the production of muconic acid and its precursor salicylic acid in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuheng; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    cis,cis-Muconic acid (MA) and salicylic acid (SA) are naturally-occurring organic acids having great commercial value. MA is a potential platform chemical for the manufacture of several widely-used consumer plastics; while SA is mainly used for producing pharmaceuticals (for example, aspirin and lamivudine) and skincare and haircare products. At present, MA and SA are commercially produced by organic chemical synthesis using petro-derived aromatic chemicals, such as benzene, as starting materials, which is not environmentally friendly. Here, we report a novel approach for efficient microbial production of MA via extending shikimate pathway by introducing the hybrid of an SA biosynthetic pathway with its partial degradation pathway. First, we engineered a well-developed phenylalanine producing Escherichia coli strain into an SA overproducer by introducing isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. The engineered strain is able to produce 1.2g/L of SA from simple carbon sources, which is the highest titer reported so far. Further, the partial SA degradation pathway involving salicylate 1-monoxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is established to achieve the conversion of SA to MA. Finally, a de novo MA biosynthetic pathway is assembled by integrating the established SA biosynthesis and degradation modules. Modular optimization enables the production of up to 1.5g/L MA within 48h in shake flasks. This study not only establishes an efficient microbial platform for the production of SA and MA, but also demonstrates a generalizable pathway design strategy for the de novo biosynthesis of valuable degradation metabolites. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Combination Superficial Peels With Salicylic Acid and Post-Peel Retinoids.

    PubMed

    Kligman, Douglas E; Draelos, Zoe D

    2016-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and retinoids, tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA]), and retinol (all-trans retinol) are widely used as topical agents for the improvement of photodamage and acne vulgaris. They can be used in daily take-home products or as part of an in-office procedure, combining the benefits of a keratolytic (SA) and a retinoid. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy for ameliorating photodamage of topical tretinoin (0.25%) and retinol (0.25%) to baseline and with each other when applied after a 30% salicylic acid peel on human facial skin. Twenty female subjects received a full face 30% SA peel followed by the overnight application of tretinoin to a 1 randomized half-face and retinol to the opposite side (split-face study). The identical procedure was repeated at week 2. Double-blinded subject and investigator assessments of the results were captured at weeks 2 and 4. By investigator evaluation, both peeling regimens were effective in improving photodamage parameters compared to baseline. (ATRA P-values at week 4 were: P=.00008 texture, P=.00013 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00098 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.00008 overall appearance. Retinol P-values at week 4 were: P=.00019 texture, P=.00053 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00147 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.0043 overall appearance.) By subject self-assessment compared with baseline, both tretinoin and retinol were effective in improving overall appearance (ATRA P=.0229 and retinol P=.0190). By investigator evaluation comparing tretinoin with retinol, tretinoin was slightly better than retinol at week 4 in improving texture P=.00506, roughness P=.01171, and overall appearance P=.00506. By subject self-assessment comparing tretinoin with retinol, there was no difference in overall appearance (ATRA P=.2367 and retinol P=.3613). Either topical tretinoin (0.25%) or retinol (0.25%) can be used safely and effectively when applied in office immediately after SA peeling to

  16. Topical acetylsalicylic, salicylic acid and indomethacin suppress pain from experimental tissue acidosis in human skin.

    PubMed

    Steen, K H; Reeh, P W; Kreysel, H W

    1995-09-01

    Topically applied acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SA) and indomethacin were tested in an experimental pain model that provides direct nociceptor excitation through cutaneous tissue acidosis. In 30 volunteers, sustained burning pain was produced in the palmar forearm through a continuous intradermal pressure infusion of a phosphate-buffered isotonic solution (pH 5.2). In 5 different, double-blind, randomized cross-over studies with 6 volunteers each, the flow rate of the syringe pump was individually adjusted to result in constant pain ratings of around 20% (50% in study 4) on a visual analog scale (VAS). The painful skin area was then covered with either placebo or the drugs which had been dissolved in diethylether. In the first study on 6 volunteers, ASA (60 mg/ml) or lactose (placebo) in diethylether (10 ml) was applied, using both arms at 3-day intervals. Both treatments resulted in sudden and profound pain relief due to the cooling effect of the evaporating ether. With lactose, however, the mean pain rating was restored close to the baseline within 6-8 min while, with ASA, it remained significantly depressed for the rest of the observation period (another 20 min). This deep analgesia was not accompanied by a loss of tactile sensation. The further studies served to show that indomethacin (4.5 mg/ml) and SA (60 mg/ml) were equally effective as ASA (each 92-96% pain reduction) and that the antinociceptive effects were due to local but not systemic actions, since ASA and SA dis not reach measurable plasma levels up to 3 h after topical applications. With a higher flow rate of acid buffer producing more intense pain (VAS 50%). ASA and SA were still able to significantly reduce the ratings by 90% or 84%, respectively. On the other hand, by increasing the flow rate by a factor of 2 on average, during the period of fully developed drug effect it was possible to overcome the pain suppression, which suggests a competitive mechanism of (acetyl-) salicylic

  17. Modulation Role of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Growth, Water Relations and Glycinebetaine Metabolism in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixin; Gao, Mei; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhang, Xifeng; Wang, Kai; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The role of plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in plants under drought stress (DS) is crucial in modulating physiological responses that eventually lead to adaptation to an unfavorable environment; however, the role of this hormone in modulation of glycinebetaine (GB) metabolism in maize particularly at the seedling stage is still poorly understood. Some hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the modulation role of ABA on plant growth, water relations and GB metabolism in the leaves of two maize cultivars, Zhengdan 958 (ZD958; drought tolerant), and Jundan 20 (JD20; drought sensitive), subjected to integrated root-zone drought stress (IR-DS) simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 12% w/v, MW 6000). The IR-DS substantially resulted in increased betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity and choline content which act as the key enzyme and initial substrate, respectively, in GB biosynthesis. Drought stress also induced accumulation of GB, whereas it caused reduction in leaf relative water content (RWC) and dry matter (DM) in both cultivars. The contents of ABA and GB increased in drought-stressed maize seedlings, but ABA accumulated prior to GB accumulation under the drought treatment. These responses were more predominant in ZD958 than those in JD20. Addition of exogenous ABA and fluridone (Flu) (ABA synthesis inhibitor) applied separately increased and decreased BADH activity, respectively. Abscisic acid application enhanced GB accumulation, leaf RWC and shoot DM production in both cultivars. However, of both maize cultivars, the drought sensitive maize cultivar (JD20) performed relatively better than the other maize cultivar ZD958 under both ABA and Flu application in view of all parameters appraised. It is, therefore, concluded that increase in both BADH activity and choline content possibly resulted in enhancement of GB accumulation under DS. The endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of GB metabolism by regulating

  18. Nup82 functions redundantly with Nup136 in a salicylic acid-dependent defense response of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kentaro; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2017-05-04

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) comprises more than 30 nucleoporins (Nups). NPC mediates macromolecular trafficking between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, but specific roles of individual Nups are poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that the novel nucleoporin unique to angiosperm plants (designated as Nup82) functions in a salicylic acid-dependent defense in a redundant manner with Nup136, which is a component of the nuclear basket in the NPC. Arabidopsis thaliana Nup82 had a similar amino acid sequence to the N-terminal half of Nup136 and a Nup82-GFP fusion was localized on the nuclear envelope. Immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses revealed that Nup82 interacts with the NPC components Nup136 and RAE1. The double knockout mutant nup82 nup136 showed severe growth defects, while the single knockout mutant nup82 did not, suggesting that Nup82 functions redundantly with Nup136. nup82 nup136 impaired benzothiadiazole (an analog of salicylic acid)-induced resistance to the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of nup82 nup136 indicates that deficiency of Nup82 and Nup136 causes noticeable downregulation of immune-related genes. These results suggest that Nup82 and Nup136 are redundantly involved in transcriptional regulation of salicylic acid-responsive genes through nuclear transport of signaling molecules.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic rates of acetyl salicylic acid and its metabolites in an Otomi ethnic group of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Juárez-Olguín, Hugo; Flores-Pérez, Janett; Guillé-Pérez, Adrian; Vargas, Arturo

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic differences of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites: gentisic acid (GA), salicylic acid (SA) and salicyluric acid (SUA) between Otomies and Mesticians healthy subjects. Design. Ten Otomies and 10 Mesticians were included. After a single dose of aspirin given orally (15 mg/kg), blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results. Pharmacokinetic parameters of salicylates showed significant differences, except distribution volume of SA, and elimination half-life of SUA. Metabolic rates of ASA showed significant differences for all rates between both groups. On the other hand, percentages of dose excreted were more reduced for SA and SUA for the Otomies than for the Mesticians. Conclusion. Results reflect differences in the hydrolysis way i.e. from ASA to SA and aromatic hydroxylation i.e. from SA to GA, which were slower in Otomies subjects, showing a possible pharmacokinetic differences about the capabilities of ASA biotransformation as a consequence of ethnic differences.

  20. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Lemna minor by exogenous salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qianqian; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Chunlei; Yang, Yaru; Hu, Dan; Xu, Qinsong

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl 2 , 10μM CdCl 2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity. Chlorosis-associated symptoms, the reduction in chlorophyll content, and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species induced by Cd exposure were largely reversed by SA. SA significantly decreased the toxic effects of Cd on the activities of the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the fronds of L. minor. Furthermore, SA reversed the detrimental effects of Cd on total ascorbate, glutathione, the ascorbic acid/oxidized dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide ratios, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde concentration, lipoxygenase activity, and the accumulation of proline. SA induced the up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) and attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on cell viability. These results suggest that SA confers tolerance to Cd stress in L. minor through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Signals Glutathione-Mediated Nickel Tolerance in Thlaspi Nickel Hyperaccumulators1

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Garcia, Daniel; Kim, Donggiun; Hopf, Amber; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation in the six diverse Thlaspi species investigated, including the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi goesingense, Thlaspi rosulare, Thlaspi oxyceras, and Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators Thlaspi arvense and Thlaspi perfoliatum. Furthermore, the SA metabolites phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, salicyloyl-glucose, and catechol are also elevated in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense when compared to the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and T. arvense. Elevation of free SA levels in Arabidopsis, both genetically and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance. Such SA-mediated Ni resistance in Arabidopsis phenocopies the glutathione-based Ni tolerance previously observed in Thlaspi, suggesting a biochemical linkage between SA and Ni tolerance in this genus. Intriguingly, the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense also shows enhanced sensitivity to the pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and fails to induce SA biosynthesis after infection. Nickel hyperaccumulation reverses this pathogen hypersensitivity, suggesting that the interaction between pathogen resistance and Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation may have played a critical role in the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in the Thlaspi genus. PMID:15734913

  3. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decomposition of PPCPs by ultrasound-assisted advanced Fenton reaction: A case study with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Savun-Hekimoğlu, Başak; Ince, Nilsun H

    2017-11-01

    The study is about the degradation of a widely used pharmaceutical and personal care product-salicylic acid by sonocatalysis, and the experimental design of the reaction system. The first part of the study consists of sonication (572kHz) in the presence of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with or without H 2 O 2 to select and optimize the operational parameters as frequency, time, initial solute concentration, dose of reagents and pH. The second part consists of the use of response surface methodology and multiple regression to develop an experimental design modeland to assess the individual and interactive effects of pH, power (P o ), ZVI dose and H 2 O 2 . The results showed that the optimal conditions predicted by the model without defining any restrictions are: pH=2.0, P o =120W, ZVI=24mgL -1 , which provide total salicyclic acid and 48% TOC decay. However, the prediction implies intensive consumption of energy and reagents, and must therefore be modified by restricting the value of TOC decay to a lower value and that of pH to a higher one. Cross-validation tests showed that the prediction accuracy of the model was considerably high with 5.0-9.4% deviation from the experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  7. Induction of salicylic acid-mediated defense response in perennial ryegrass against infection by Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Alamgir; Kuldau, Gretchen A; Uddin, Wakar

    2014-06-01

    Incorporation of plant defense activators is an innovative approach to development of an integrated strategy for the management of turfgrass diseases. The effects of salicylic acid (SA), benzothiadiazole (BTH, chemical analog of SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethephon (ET, an ethylene-releasing compound) on development of gray leaf spot in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were evaluated. Gray leaf spot disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased when plants were treated prior to inoculation with SA, BTH, and partially by ET but not by JA. Accumulation of endogenous SA and elevated expression of pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3.1, and PR-5 genes were associated with inoculation of plants by M. oryzae. Treatment of plants with SA enhanced expression levels of PR-3.1 and PR-5 but did not affect the PR-1 level, whereas BTH treatment enhanced relative expression levels of all three PR genes. Microscopic observations of leaves inoculated with M. oryzae revealed higher frequencies of callose deposition at the penetration sites in SA- and BTH-treated plants compared with the control plants (treated with water). These results suggest that early and higher induction of these genes by systemic resistance inducers may provide perennial ryegrass with a substantial advantage to defend against infection by M. oryzae.

  8. Necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Taha Abd El; Oirdi, Mohamed El; Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. The activation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathway. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. NPR1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of SA signaling. NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors, ultimately leading to the activation of SA-dependent responses. SA has been shown to promote disease development caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea through NPR1, by suppressing the expression of two JA-dependent defense genes, proteinase inhibitors I and II. We show here that the transcription factor TGA1.a contributes to disease development caused by B. cinerea in tomato by suppressing the expression of proteinase inhibitors I and II. Finally, we present evidence that the SA-signaling pathway contributes to disease development caused by another necrotrophic pathogen, Alternaria solani, in tomato. Disease development promoted by SA through NPR1 requires the TGA1.a transcription factor. These data highlight how necrotrophs manipulate the SAsignaling pathway to promote their disease in tomato.

  9. Microfabrication of individual 200 microm diameter transdermal microconduits using high voltage pulsing in salicylic acid and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ilic, L; Gowrishankar, T R; Vaughan, T E; Herndon, T O; Weaver, J C

    2001-01-01

    We describe an extension of semiconductor fabrication methods that creates individual approximately 200 microm diameter aqueous pathways through human stratum corneum at predetermined sites. Our hypothesis is that spatially localized electroporation of the multilamellar lipid bilayer membranes provides rapid delivery of salicylic acid to the keratin within corneocytes, leading to localized keratin disruption and then to a microconduit. A microconduit penetrating the isolated stratum corneum supports a volumetric flow of order 0.01 ml per s with a pressure difference of only 0.01 atm (about 10(2) Pa). This study provides a method for rapidly microengineering a pathway in the skin to interface future devices for transdermal drug delivery and sampling of biologically relevant fluids.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151. PMID:22369511

  11. Diverse Data Sets Can Yield Reliable Information through Mechanistic Modeling: Salicylic Acid Clearance.

    PubMed

    Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    This is a practical example of a powerful research strategy: putting together data from studies covering a diversity of conditions can yield a scientifically sound grasp of the phenomenon when the individual observations failed to provide definitive understanding. The rationale is that defining a realistic, quantitative, explanatory hypothesis for the whole set of studies, brings about a "consilience" of the often competing hypotheses considered for individual data sets. An internally consistent conjecture linking multiple data sets simultaneously provides stronger evidence on the characteristics of a system than does analysis of individual data sets limited to narrow ranges of conditions. Our example examines three very different data sets on the clearance of salicylic acid from humans: a high concentration set from aspirin overdoses; a set with medium concentrations from a research study on the influences of the route of administration and of sex on the clearance kinetics, and a set on low dose aspirin for cardiovascular health. Three models were tested: (1) a first order reaction, (2) a Michaelis-Menten (M-M) approach, and (3) an enzyme kinetic model with forward and backward reactions. The reaction rates found from model 1 were distinctly different for the three data sets, having no commonality. The M-M model 2 fitted each of the three data sets but gave a reliable estimates of the Michaelis constant only for the medium level data (K m = 24±5.4 mg/L); analyzing the three data sets together with model 2 gave K m = 18±2.6 mg/L. (Estimating parameters using larger numbers of data points in an optimization increases the degrees of freedom, constraining the range of the estimates). Using the enzyme kinetic model (3) increased the number of free parameters but nevertheless improved the goodness of fit to the combined data sets, giving tighter constraints, and a lower estimated K m = 14.6±2.9 mg/L, demonstrating that fitting diverse data sets with a single model

  12. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.

  13. Methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analogue, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent on microglia and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of microglia and astrocytes is a characteristic of brain inflammation. Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) delays the onset of AD and suppresses its progression. Methyl salicylate-2-O-β-D-lactoside (DL0309) is a new molecule chemically related to salicylic acid. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of DL0309. Findings Our studies show that DL0309 significantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α; and the expression of the inflammation-related proteins iNOS, COX-1, and COX-2 by microglia and astrocytes. At a concentration of 10 μM, DL0309 prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB in glial cells by blocking phosphorylation of IKK and p65, and by blocking IκB degradation. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells by suppressing different pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS/NO. Furthermore, it also regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway by blocking IKK and p65 activation and IκB degradation. DL0309 also acts as a non-selective COX inhibitor in glial cells. These studies suggest that DL0309 may be effective in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders, including AD. PMID:21831328

  14. Seed dormancy and ABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María; Matilla-Vázquez, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The seed is an important organ in higher plants, it is an important organ for plant survival and species dispersion. The transition between seed dormancy and germination represents a critical stage in the plant life cycle and it is an important ecological and commercial trait. A dynamic balance of synthesis and catabolism of two antagonistic hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and giberellins (GAs), controls the equilibrium between seed dormancy and germination. Embryonic ABA plays a central role in induction and maintenance of seed dormancy and also inhibits the transition from embryonic to germination growth. Therefore, the ABA metabolism must be highly regulated at both temporal and spatial levels during phase of dessication tolerance. On the other hand, the ABA levels do not depend exclusively on the seeds because sometimes it becomes a strong sink and imports it from the roots and rhizosphere through the xylem and/or phloem. These events are discussed in depth here. Likewise, the role of some recently characterized genes belonging to seeds of woody species and related to ABA signaling are also included. Finally, although four possible ABA receptors have been reported, not much is known about how they mediate ABA signaling transduction. However, new publications seem to show that almost all these receptors lack several properties to consider them as such. PMID:19875942

  15. A Novel Nitronyl Nitroxide with Salicylic Acid Framework Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity and Ectopic Neuronal Discharges in Radicular Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Xiang-Zeng; Hu, San-Jue; Sun, Xiao-Li; Luo, Ceng

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that reactive oxygen species and inflammation play crucial roles in the development of chronic pain, including radicular low back pain. Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), for example, salicylic acid, aspirin, provided analgesic effects in various types of pain. However, long-term use of these drugs causes unwanted side effects, which limits their implication. Stable nitronyl (NIT) nitroxide radicals have been extensively studied as a unique and interesting class of new antioxidants for protection against oxidative damage. The present study synthesized a novel NIT nitroxide radical with salicylic acid framework (SANR) to provide synergistic effect of both antioxidation and antiinflammation. We demonstrated for the first time that both acute and repeated SANR treatment exerted dramatic analgesic effect in radicular low back pain mimicked by chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion in rats. This analgesic potency was more potent than that produced by classical NSAIDs aspirin and traditional nitroxide radical Tempol alone. Furthermore, SANR-induced behavioral analgesia is found to be mediated, at least in partial, by a reduction of ectopic spontaneous discharges in injured DRG neurons. Therefore, the synthesized NIT nitroxide radical coupling with salicylic acid framework may represent a novel potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of chronic pain, including radicular low back pain.

  16. Abscisic acid negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang; Cheng, Xi; Yin, Kangquan; Li, Huali; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2017-08-01

    Pytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in defense responses. Nonetheless, how ABA regulates plant resistance to biotrophic fungi remains largely unknown. Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants, aba2-1 and aba3-1, displayed enhanced resistance to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Moreover, exogenously administered ABA increased the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to G. cichoracearum. Arabidopsis ABA perception components mutants, abi1-1 and abi2-1, also displayed similar phenotypes to ABA-deficient mutants in resistance to G. cichoracearum. However, the resistance to G. cichoracearum is not changed in downstream ABA signaling transduction mutants, abi3-1, abi4-1, and abi5-1. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal growth and conidiophore production of G. cichoracearum were compromised in the ABA deficient mutants, even though pre-penetration and penetration growth of the fungus were not affected. In addition, salicylic acid (SA) and MPK3 are found to be involved in ABA-regulated resistance to G. cichoracearum. Our work demonstrates that ABA negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to powdery mildew fungus G. cichoracearum, probably through antagonizing the function of SA.

  17. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  18. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. The effects of topically applied glycolic acid and salicylic acid on ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation in human skin.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z; Miller, Sharon A; Hearing, Vincent J

    2009-07-01

    alpha-Hydroxy acids (alphaHAs) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that alphaHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, beta-hydroxy acids (betaHAs), or combinations of alphaHA and betaHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing beta-HA. To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative alphaHA, or with salicylic acid, a betaHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday-Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all four sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not.

  20. The Effects of Topically Applied Glycolic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Erythema, DNA Damage and Sunburn Cell Formation in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G.; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z.; Miller, Sharon A.; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Background α-Hydroxy acids (αHA) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that αHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, β-hydroxy acids (βHA), or combinations of αHA and βHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing β-HA. Objective To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative αHA, or with salicylic acid, a βHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Methods Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday - Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all 4 sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Results Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Conclusions Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not. PMID:19411163

  1. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Guo-zhang; Wang, Zheng-xun; Xia, Kuai-fei; Sun, Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 °C) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 °C could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 °C chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion: SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling. PMID:17444604

  2. Ectopic Expression of JcWRKY Transcription Factor Confers Salinity Tolerance via Salicylic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Parinita; Dabi, Mitali; Sapara, Komal K; Joshi, Priyanka S; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2016-01-01

    Plants, being sessile, have developed intricate signaling network to specifically respond to the diverse environmental stress. The plant-specific WRKY TFs form one of the largest TF family and are involved in diverse plant processes, involving growth, development and stress signaling through auto and cross regulation with different genes and TFs. Here, we report the functional characterization of a salicylic acid -inducible JcWRKY TF. The JcWRKY overexpression confers salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco, as was evident by increased chlorophyll content and seed germination potential. The transgenic plants showed increased soluble sugar, membrane stability, reduced electrolyte leakage and generation of reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and [Formula: see text]) as compared to the wild type. Furthermore, the low SA treatment along with salinity improved the tolerance potential of the transgenics by maintaining ROS homeostasis and high K + /Na + ratio. The transcript expression of SA biosynthetic gene ICS1 and antioxidative enzymes ( CAT and SOD ) showed upregulation during stress. Thus, the present study reflects that JcWRKY is working in co-ordination with SA signaling to orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to maneuvre salt stress tolerance of the transgenic plants.

  3. Salicylic acid and calcium-induced protection of wheat against salinity.

    PubMed

    Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Basalah, Mohammed O

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the important environmental factors that produce serious agricultural problems. The objective of the present study was to determine the interactive effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca) on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline (Pro) concentration, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes of Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Samma) under salt stress. Application of 90 mM of NaCl reduced plant growth (plant height, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, CA activity) and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) and Pro concentration. However, the application of SA or Ca alone as well as in combination markedly improved plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, Pro concentration, CA activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under salt stress. It was, therefore, concluded that application of SA and Ca alone as well as in combination ameliorated the adverse effect of salinity, while combined application proved more effective to reduce the oxidative stress generated by NaCl through reduced MDA accumulation, Chl a/b ratio and Chls degradation and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Jasmonic and salicylic acid response in the fern Azolla filiculoides and its cyanobiont.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sophie; de Vries, Jan; Teschke, Hendrik; von Dahlen, Janina K; Rose, Laura E; Gould, Sven B

    2018-01-03

    Plants sense and respond to microbes utilizing a multilayered signalling cascade. In seed plants, the phytohormones jasmonic and salicylic acid (JA and SA) are key denominators of how plants respond to certain microbes. Their interplay is especially well-known for tipping the scales in plants' strategies of dealing with phytopathogens. In non-angiosperm lineages, the interplay is less well understood, but current data indicate that it is intertwined to a lesser extent and the canonical JA/SA antagonism appears to be absent. Here, we used the water fern Azolla filiculoides to gain insights into the fern's JA/SA signalling and the molecular communication with its unique nitrogen fixing cyanobiont Nostoc azollae, which the fern inherits both during sexual and vegetative reproduction. By mining large-scale sequencing data, we demonstrate that Azolla has most of the genetic repertoire to produce and sense JA and SA. Using qRT-PCR on the identified biosynthesis and signalling marker genes, we show that Azolla is responsive to exogenously applied SA. Furthermore, exogenous SA application influenced the abundance and gene expression of Azolla's cyanobiont. Our data provide a framework for JA/SA signalling in ferns and suggest that SA might be involved in Azolla's communication with its vertically inherited cyanobiont. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Involvement of specific calmodulin isoforms in salicylic acid-independent activation of plant disease resistance responses.

    PubMed

    Heo, W D; Lee, S H; Kim, M C; Kim, J C; Chung, W S; Chun, H J; Lee, K J; Park, C Y; Park, H C; Choi, J Y; Cho, M J

    1999-01-19

    The Ca2+ signal is essential for the activation of plant defense responses, but downstream components of the signaling pathway are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that specific calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are activated by infection or pathogen-derived elicitors and participate in Ca2+-mediated induction of plant disease resistance responses. Soybean CaM (SCaM)-4 and SCaM-5 genes, which encode for divergent CaM isoforms, were induced within 30 min by a fungal elicitor or pathogen, whereas other SCaM genes encoding highly conserved CaM isoforms did not show such response. This pathogen-triggered induction of these genes specifically depended on the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level. Constitutive expression of SCaM-4 and SCaM-5 in transgenic tobacco plants triggered spontaneous induction of lesions and induces an array of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated genes. Surprisingly, these transgenic plants have normal levels of endogenous salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, coexpression of nahG gene did not block the induction of SAR-associated genes in these transgenic plants, indicating that SA is not involved in the SAR gene induction mediated by SCaM-4 or SCaM-5. The transgenic plants exhibit enhanced resistance to a wide spectrum of virulent and avirulent pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and virus. These results suggest that specific CaM isoforms are components of a SA-independent signal transduction chain leading to disease resistance.

  6. Salicylic acid improves root antioxidant defense system and total antioxidant capacities of flax subjected to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Soengas, Pilar; Obregon, Sara; Cartea, Maria Elena; Djebali, Wahbi; Chaïbi, Wided

    2013-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) disrupts the normal growth and development of plants, depending on their tolerance to this toxic element. The present study was focused on the impacts of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on the response and regulation of the antioxidant defense system and membrane lipids to 16-day-old flax plantlets under Cd stress. Exposure of flax to high Cd concentrations led to strong inhibition of root growth and enhanced lipid peroxides, membrane permeability, protein oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production to varying degrees. Concomitantly, activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), guaïcol peroxydase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxydase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and the total antioxidant capacities (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) were significantly altered by Cd. In contrast, exogenous SA greatly reduced the toxic effects of Cd on the root growth, antioxidant system, and membrane lipid content. The Cd-treated plantlets pre-soaked with SA exhibited less lipid and protein oxidation and membrane alteration, as well as a high level of total antioxidant capacities and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes except of CAT. These results may suggest that SA plays an important role in triggering the root antioxidant system, thereby preventing membrane damage as well as the denaturation of its components.

  7. Salicylic acid beyond defence: its role in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rivas-San Vicente, Mariana; Plasencia, Javier

    2011-06-01

    In recent years salicylic acid (SA) has been the focus of intensive research due to its function as an endogenous signal mediating local and systemic plant defence responses against pathogens. It has also been found that SA plays a role during the plant response to abiotic stresses such as drought, chilling, heavy metal toxicity, heat, and osmotic stress. In this sense, SA appears to be, just like in mammals, an 'effective therapeutic agent' for plants. Besides this function during biotic and abiotic stress, SA plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological and biochemical processes during the entire lifespan of the plant. The discovery of its targets and the understanding of its molecular modes of action in physiological processes could help in the dissection of the complex SA signalling network, confirming its important role in both plant health and disease. Here, the evidence that supports the role of SA during plant growth and development is reviewed by comparing experiments performed by exogenous application of SA with analysis of genotypes affected by SA levels and/or perception.

  8. Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Argueso, Cristiana T.; Ferreira, Fernando J.; Epple, Petra; To, Jennifer P. C.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Schaller, G. Eric; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Kieber, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens. PMID:22291601

  9. Ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of Arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Du, Yujuan; Koornneef, Annemart; Proietti, Silvia; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-02-01

    Cross-talk between jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), and Salicylic acid (SA) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. Here, 43 Arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of JA and ET responses, appeared to be insensitive to SA-mediated suppression of the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Accordingly, strong activation of JA and ET responses by the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola prior to SA treatment counteracted the ability of SA to suppress the JA response. Pharmacological assays, mutant analysis, and studies with the ET-signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that ET signaling renders the JA response insensitive to subsequent suppression by SA. The APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factor ORA59, which regulates JA/ET-responsive genes such as PDF1.2, emerged as a potential mediator in this process. Collectively, our results point to a model in which simultaneous induction of the JA and ET pathway renders the plant insensitive to future SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses, which may prioritize the JA/ET pathway over the SA pathway during multi-attacker interactions.

  10. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Salicylic Acid Regulation of Respiration in Higher Plants: Alternative Oxidase Expression.

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, DM; McIntosh, L

    1992-01-01

    Alternative respiratory pathway capacity increases during the development of the thermogenic appendix of a voodoo lily inflorescence. The levels of the alternative oxidase proteins increased dramatically between D-4 (4 days prior to the day of anthesis) and D-3 and continued to increase until the day of anthesis (D-day). The level of salicylic acid (SA) in the appendix is very low early on D-1, but increases to a high level in the evening of D-1. Thermogenesis occurs after a few hours of light on D-day. Therefore, the initial accumulation of the alternative oxidase proteins precedes the increase in SA by 3 days, indicating that other regulators may be involved. A 1.6-kb transcript encoding the alternative oxidase precursor protein accumulated to a high level in the appendix tissue by D-1. Application of SA to immature appendix tissue caused an increase in alternative pathway capacity and a dramatic accumulation of the alternative oxidase proteins and the 1.6-kb transcript. Time course experiments showed that the increase in capacity, protein levels, and transcript level corresponded precisely. The response to SA was blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, indicating that de novo transcription and translation are required. However, nuclear, in vitro transcription assays indicated that the accumulation of the 1.6-kb transcript did not result from a simple increase in the rate of transcription of aox1. PMID:12297672

  12. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg -1 ) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL -1 of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg -1 ) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL -1 of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Castelló, María José; Canet, Juan Vicente; Lamilla, Julián; Colombo, María Laura

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants. PMID:28753666

  14. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant–pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed. PMID:24478784

  15. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  16. Acceleration of the herbicide isoproturon degradation in wheat by glycosyltransferases and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a herbicide widely used to prevent weeds in cereal production. Due to its extensive use in agriculture, residues of IPU are often detected in soils and crops. Overload of IPU to crops is associated with human health risks. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an approach to mitigate its accumulation in crops. In this study, the IPU residues and its degradation products in wheat were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of fight tandem-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS). Most detected IPU-derivatives were sugar-conjugated. Degradation and glycosylation of IPU-derivatives could be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA). While more sugar-conjugated IPU-derivatives were identified in wheat with SA application, lower levels of IPU were detected, indicating that SA is able to accelerate intracellular IPU catabolism. All structures of IPU-derivatives and sugar-conjugated products were characterized. Comparative data were provided with specific activities and gene expression of certain glucosyltransferases. A pathway with IPU degradation and glucosylation was discussed. Our work indicates that SA-accelerated degradation is practically useful for wheat crops growing in IPU-contaminated soils because such crops with SA application can potentially lower or minimize IPU accumulation in levels below the threshold for adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bio-based topical system for enhanced salicylic acid delivery: preparation and performance of gels.

    PubMed

    Langasco, Rita; Spada, Gianpiera; Tanriverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Özer, Özgen; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    New salicylic acid (SA)-loaded gels were developed using excipients made from renewable materials, and our goal was to improve drug permeation in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. We studied the preparation parameters to obtain suitable gel formulations. Only naturally occurring polymers were used as gelling agents. Two hydrogels and three lipogels were selected and characterized in terms of drug loading, pH, viability cells, rheology, mechanical properties and in vitro permeation; these hydrogels and lipogels were compared with the traditional ointment. We also evaluated skin parameters before and after gel application. The formulations that we studied are non-Newtonian fluids; they have high drug loading and suitable mechanical properties. Lipogels exhibit a slower and more linear in vitro permeation profile compared with hydrogels. The different vehicles that we used affected drug permeation and improve patient compliance. Cytotoxicity studies suggest that all of the formulations are non-toxic. Lipogels demonstrate appropriate technological features and improved performance compared with the traditional ointment with regard to their composition. Lipogels may represent a new bio-based topical system for SA delivery. The use of 'green' excipients leads to 'skin-friendly' formulations that are able to satisfy environmental safety. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Degradable poly(anhydride ester) implants: effects of localized salicylic acid release on bone.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, L; Macedo, B; Uhrich, K E

    2000-12-01

    Degradable poly(anhydride ester) implants in which the polymer backbone breaks down into salicylic acid (SA) were investigated. In this preliminary work, local release of SA from the poly(anhydride esters), thus classified as 'active polymers', on healthy bone and tissue was evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. Degradable polyanhydrides that break down into inactive by-products were used as control membranes because of their chemical similarity to the active polymers. Small polymer squares were inserted over the exposed palatal bone adjacent to the maxillary first molars. Active polymer membranes were placed on one side of the mouth, control polymers placed on the contra lateral side. Intraoral clinical examination showed that active polymer sites were less swollen and inflamed than control polymer sites. Histopathological examination at day 1 showed essentially no difference between control and active polymers. After 4 days, active polymer sites showed epithelial proliferation to a greater extent than the polyanhydride controls. After 20 days, active polymer sites showed greater thickness of new palatal bone and no resorptive areas, while control polymer sites showed less bone thickness as well as resorption including lacunae involving cementum and dentine. From these preliminary studies, we conclude that active polymers, namely poly(anhydride esters), stimulated new bone formation.

  20. The in vitro protective effect of salicylic acid against paclitaxel and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Damla; Hacımuftuoglu, Ahmet; Tatar, Abdulgani; Turkez, Hasan; Togar, Basak

    2016-08-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) and cisplatin (CIS) are two established chemotherapeutic drugs used in combination for the treatment of various solid tumors. However, the usage of PAC and CIS are limited because of the incidence of their moderate or severe neurotoxic side effects. In this study, we aimed to assess the protective role of salicylic acid (SA) against neurotoxicity caused by PAC and CIS. For this purpose, newborn Sprague Dawley rats were decapitated in sterile atmosphere and primary cortex neuron cultures were established. On the 10th day SA was added into culture plates. PAC and CIS were added on the 12th day. The cytotoxicity was determined by using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Oxidative alterations were assessed using total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative stress assays in rat primary neuron cell cultures. It was shown that both concentrations of PAC and CIS treatments caused neurotoxicity. Although SA decreased the neurotoxicity by CIS and PAC, it was more effective against the toxicity caused by CIS rather than the toxicity caused by PAC. In conclusion it was clearly revealed that SA decreased the neurotoxic effect of CIS and PAC in vitro.

  1. [Application of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin, and salicylic acid in recalcitrant plantar warts. A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    López-López, Daniel; Agrasar-Cruz, Carlos; Bautista-Casasnovas, Adolfo; Álvarez-Castro, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Plantar warts often are refractory to any treatment and can last for decades in adults. Recalcitrant warts are defined as those that have persisted for more than two years, or after at least two treatment modalities. A total of 15 consecutive patients with recalcitrant plantar warts were included in this preliminary study. The treatment consisted of applying one to two sessions that comprised compounding 1% cantharidin, 5% of podophyllotoxin, and 30% salicylic acid (CPS), with an interval between applications of four weeks. With treatment and subsequent follow-up for six months, there was complete eradication of lesions in 15 patients, eight (53.3%) required a single application of the solution, and seven (46.7%) two applications, with no side effects. Patient satisfaction related to treatment was measured by a visual analog scale (VAS) of 10 cm in length, with an average score 9.73 ± 0.46, and all said they would proceed with the treatment again if necessary. Topical treatment by compounding is safe, effective, and a promising therapeutic modality when applied in recalcitrant plantar warts.

  2. Safety and effectiveness of cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts.

    PubMed

    López López, Daniel; Vilar Fernández, Juan Manuel; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Álvarez Castro, Carlos; Romero Morales, Carlos; García Sánchez, María Matilde; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid (CPS) treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts (RPW). This study was carried out in a health center in the city of A Coruña (Spain) between January and December 2013. A total of 75 patients completed all the stages of the research process. Information related to treatment with CPS and adverse effects was abstracted from medical records. Of 93 potential patients identified, 75 had at least one follow-up visit or telephone call after treatment and were included in this study. Patients experienced an average of 5.4 visits until complete resolution of their plantar wart occurred, although CPS was not applied at every visit. Fifty-four patients required one application to eliminate the wart and 21 patients required two applications/patient. Seventy-seven percent of patients experienced blistering - an expected therapeutic side effect. All patients experienced some form of an adverse event, the most common being pain (81.3%) and significant blistering (15%). Other side effects were rare (18.7%) and included pruritus, possible mild infection, significant irritation, and bleeding. All patients reported treatment, supporting our results that CPS is a safe and efficacious treatment modality for RPW and should be considered when symptomatic infection necessitates treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  4. Salicylic acid peel incorporating triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate in the treatment of moderate acne: a new therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Raone, Beatrice; Veraldi, Stefano; Raboni, Roberta; Ardigò, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa; Micali, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Acne affects many adolescents. Conventional therapy often results in side effects and poor adherence, and the treatment does not consider the psychological effect of acne on patients, which is comparable with that of disabling diseases. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a peel (30% salicylic acid, triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate) combined with a home therapy with three topical agents (triethyl citrate, ethyl linoleate and salicylic acid 0.5% cream, lotion) in moderate acne of the face. Prospective, observational, multicenter, open-label, postmarketing, phase IV study. Patients were assessed by comparing Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) score and total lesion count from 15 days before the first peel (T-15 ), after four salicylic peels (every 10 ± 2 days (T0 , T10 , T20 , T30 ), and 20 days after of the end of the study (T50 ). This treatment was associated to a home therapy. Fifty-three patients completed the study. The average GAGS score fell 49% between T-15 and T50 (p < .001). No patient withdrew for adverse events. This therapy was effective and well-tolerated in all cases. Chemo-exfoliation sessions ensured the continuous monitoring of clinical results and improved patient quality of life. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bevacizumab-associated Sudden Onset of Multiple Monomorphic Comedones on the Scalp Successfully Treated with 30% Salicylic Acid Peels.

    PubMed

    Platsidaki, Eftychia; Balamoti, Evgenia; Kouris, Anargyros; Katsarou, Alexandra; Mylonakis, Nikolaos; Vavouli, Charitomeni; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-10-01

    Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) that targets tumor cell angiogenesis and proliferation. Although it is usually well tolerated, many side-effects have been reported. These include hypertension, bleeding, and thromboembolic events among others. Drug-associated cutaneous adverse effects are less common and include itching, exfoliative dermatitis, and acneiform eruptions. A man with bevacizumab-associated monomorphic skin eruption successfully was treated with 30% salicylic acid peels. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of open comedones with no further inflammatory acne lesions that developed in a patient treated with bevacizumab. Complete remission of the rash was achieved after performing 30% salicylic peels, and the patient continued the chemotherapy as planned with no need of either dose reduction or discontinuation of bevacizumab.

  6. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-zheng; Hicks, Derrick; de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. PMID:26733689

  7. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean roots through modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-11-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  9. Salicylic acid mediated growth, physiological and proteomic responses in two wheat varieties under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Marisha; Gupta, Sunil K; Majumder, Baisakhi; Maurya, Vivek K; Deeba, Farah; Alam, Afroz; Pandey, Vivek

    2017-06-23

    Salicylic acid (SA) induced drought tolerance can be a key trait for increasing and stabilizing wheat production. These SA induced traits were studied in two Triticum aestivum L. varieties; drought tolerant, Kundan and drought sensitive, Lok1 under two different water deficit regimes: and rehydration at vegetative and flowering stages. SA alleviated the negative effects of water stress on photosynthesis more in Kundan. SA induced defense responses against drought by increasing antioxidative enzymes and osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars). Differential proteomics revealed major role of carbon metabolism and signal transduction in enhancing drought tolerance in Kundan which was shifted towards defense, energy production and protection in Lok1. Thioredoxins played important role between SA and redox signaling in activating defense responses. SA showed substantial impact on physiology and carbon assimilation in tolerant variety for better growth under drought. Lok1 exhibited SA induced drought tolerance through enhanced defense system and energy metabolism. Plants after rehydration showed complete recovery of physiological functions under SA treatment. SA mediated constitutive defense against water stress did not compromise yield. These results suggest that exogenously applied SA under drought stress confer growth promoting and stress priming effects on wheat plants thus alleviating yield limitation. Studies have shown morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects associated with the SA mediated drought tolerance in wheat while understanding of molecular mechanism is limited. Herein, proteomics approach has identified significantly changed proteins and their potential relevance to SA mediated drought stress responses in drought tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. SA regulates wide range of processes such as photosynthesis, carbon assimilation, protein metabolism, amino acid and energy metabolism, redox homeostasis and signal transduction under

  10. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process.

  11. Clinical tolerance and efficacy of capryloyl salicylic acid peel compared to a glycolic acid peel in subjects with fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Hansenne, Isabelle

    2008-12-01

    Several chemical agents are currently used to perform superficial peels of the face to reduce facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles. Some of the most commonly used agents are alpha hydroxyl acids, such as glycolic acid (GA), or beta hydroxy acid, such as salicylic acid. This study aims to compare the efficacy of GA to that of a novel derivative of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid (LHA). In a split-face study, 50 female volunteers between the ages of 35 and 60 years with mild to moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles were randomized and LHA or GA peel was applied to one side of the face. Increasing peel concentrations were applied (5-10% LHA or 20-50% GA) based on the tolerance level of the subjects and clinical observations of an expert dermatologist for 12 weeks at biweekly intervals. Of the 44 volunteers who completed the study, at 12 weeks 41% of LHA-treated and 30% of GA-treated subjects demonstrated significant reduction of fine lines/wrinkles compared to baseline. Forty-six percent of LHA-treated subjects and 34% of GA-treated subjects showed significant reduction of hyperpigmentation compared to baseline. LHA treatment was better than GA peels, although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Five percent to 10% of LHA peel is generally safe and as effective as 20-50% GA peel in reducing facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles.

  12. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L -1 ), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L -1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L -1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  13. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  14. Parthenolide accumulation and expression of genes related to parthenolide biosynthesis affected by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad Reza; Maroufi, Asad

    2015-11-01

    Up-regulation of germacrene A synthase and down-regulation of parthenolide hydroxylase genes play key role in parthenolide accumulation of feverfew plants treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. Parthenolide is an important sesquiterpene lactone due to its anti-migraine and anti-cancer properties. Parthenolide amount was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography after foliar application of methyl jasmonate (100 µM) or salicylic acid (1.0 mM) on feverfew leaves in time course experiment (3-96 h). Results indicate that exogenous application of methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid activated parthenolide biosynthesis. Parthenolide content reached its highest amount at 24 h after methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid treatments, which were 3.1- and 1.96-fold higher than control plants, respectively. Parthenolide transiently increased due to methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid treatments until 24 h, but did not show significant difference compared with control plants at 48 and 96 h time points in both treatments. Also, the transcript levels of early pathway (upstream) genes of terpene biosynthesis including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and the biosynthetic genes of parthenolide including germacrene A synthase, germacrene A oxidase, costunolide synthase and parthenolide synthase were increased by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatments, but with different intensity. The transcriptional levels of these genes were higher in methyl jasmonate-treated plants than salicylic acid-treated plants. Parthenolide content measurements along with expression pattern analysis of the aforementioned genes and parthenolide hydroxylase as side branch gene of parthenolide suggest that the expression patterns of early pathway genes were not directly consistent with parthenolide accumulation pattern; hence, parthenolide accumulation is

  15. In vivo effects of naproxen, salicylic acid, and valproic acid on the pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene and metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Rouhou, Mouna Cheikh; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that some drugs modulate in vitro metabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) in humans and rats. The objective was to assess in vivo interactions between TCE and three drugs: naproxen (NA), valproic acid (VA), and salicylic acid (SA). Animals were exposed to TCE by inhalation (50 ppm for 6 h) and administered a bolus dose of drug by gavage, equivalent to 10-fold greater than the recommended daily dose. Samples of blood, urine, and collected tissues were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture detector for TCE and metabolites (trichloroethanol [TCOH] and trichloroacetate [TCA]) levels. Coexposure to NA and TCE significantly increased (up to 50%) total and free TCOH (TCOHtotal and TCOHfree, respectively) in blood. This modulation may be explained by an inhibition of glucuronidation. VA significantly elevated TCE levels in blood (up to 50%) with a marked effect on TCOHtotal excretion in urine but not in blood. In contrast, SA produced an increase in TCOHtotal levels in blood at 30, 60, and 90 min and urine after coexposure. Data confirm in vitro observations that NA, VA, and SA affect in vivo TCE kinetics. Future efforts need to be directed to evaluate whether populations chronically medicated with the considered drugs display greater health risks related to TCE exposure.

  16. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. PMID:26672068

  17. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-10-11

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens.

  19. Determination of proteins induced in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in resistant and susceptible cultivars of tomato.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Amber; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2010-07-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are signaling molecules that play key roles in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction, and defense against pathogens. The proteomics approach was used to identify proteins that are induced by JA and SA in the tomato cultivars Roma and Pant Bahr, which are susceptible and resistant to bacterial wilt, respectively. Threonine deaminase and leucine amino peptidase were upregulated, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small chain was downregulated by time-course application of JA. Translationally controlled tumor protein was upregulated by time-course application of SA. Protein disulfide isomerase was upregulated by application of either JA or SA. Proteins related to defense, energy, and protein destination/storage are suspected to be responsible for the susceptibility or resistance of the cultivars. Furthermore, in Roma, iron ABC transporter was upregulated by JA and down-regulated by SA. Iron ABC transporter plays a part in the signal transduction of both JA and SA in cultivars of tomato that are resistant to bacterial wilt.

  20. Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in groundnut, Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was studied in groundnut genotypes (ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 and ICG 1697) with different levels of resistance to insects and the susceptible check JL 24 under greenhouse conditions. Activities of oxidative enzymes and the amounts of secondary metabolites and proteins were quantified at 6 days after JA and SA application/insect infestation. Data were also recorded on plant damage and H. armigera larval weights and survival. Higher levels of enzymatic activities and amounts of secondary metabolites were observed in the insect-resistant genotypes pretreated with JA and then infested with H. armigera than in JL 24. The insect-resistant genotypes suffered lower insect damage and resulted in poor survival and lower weights of H. armigera larvae than JL 24. In some cases, JA and SA showed similar effects. JA and SA induced the activity of antioxidative enzymes in groundnut plants against H. armigera, and reduced its growth and development. However, induced response to application of JA was greater than to SA, and resulted in reduced plant damage, and larval weights and survival, suggesting that induced resistance can be used as a component of pest management in groundnut. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Plastic Transcriptomes Stabilize Immunity to Pathogen Diversity: The Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Networks within the Arabidopsis/Botrytis Pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie; Eshbaugh, Robert; Chen, Fang; Atwell, Susana; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    To respond to pathogen attack, selection and associated evolution has led to the creation of plant immune system that are a highly effective and inducible defense system. Central to this system are the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) and crosstalk between the two, which may play an important role in defense responses to specific pathogens or even genotypes. Here, we used the Arabidopsis thaliana - Botrytis cinerea pathosystem to test how the host's defense system functions against genetic variation in a pathogen. We measured defense-related phenotypes and transcriptomic responses in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and JA- and SA-signaling mutants, coi1-1 and npr1-1 , individually challenged with 96 diverse B. cinerea isolates. Those data showed genetic variation in the pathogen influences on all components within the plant defense system at the transcriptional level. We identified four gene coexpression networks and two vectors of defense variation triggered by genetic variation in B. cinerea This showed that the JA and SA signaling pathways functioned to constrain/canalize the range of virulence in the pathogen population, but the underlying transcriptomic response was highly plastic. These data showed that plants utilize major defense hormone pathways to buffer disease resistance, but not the metabolic or transcriptional responses to genetic variation within a pathogen. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defences on root colonization by Trichoderma harzianum T-78.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Appels, Freek V W; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-08-03

    We recently found that the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-78 primes tomato plants for salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. By using SA- and JA-impaired mutant lines and exogenous hormonal application, here we investigated whether the SA- and JA-pathways also have a role in T-78 root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endophytic colonization by T-78 was faster in the SA-impaired mutant sid2 than in the wild type. Moreover, elicitation of SA-dependent defenses by SA application reduced T-78 colonization, indicating that the SA-pathway affects T-78 endophytism. In contrast, elicitation of the JA-pathway, which antagonized SA-dependent defenses, resulted in enhanced endophytic colonization by T-78. These findings are in line with our previous observation that SA-dependent defenses are repressed by T-78, which likely aids colonization by the endophytic fungus.

  3. Alpha-momorcharin enhances Tobacco mosaic virus resistance in tobaccoNN by manipulating jasmonic acid-salicylic acid crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Zhu, Li-Sha; Meng, Yao; Lv, Rui; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Lin; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2018-04-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) with a molecular weight of 29 kDa found in plants. This protein has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses and also has anti-tumor activities. However, the mechanism by which α-MMC induces plant defense responses and regulates the N gene to promote resistance to the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is still not clear. By using pharmacological and infection experiments, we found that α-MMC enhances TMV resistance of tobacco plants containing the N gene (tobacco NN ). Our results showed that plants pretreated with 0.5 mg/ml α-MMC could relieve TMV-induced oxidative damage, had enhanced the expression of the N gene and increased biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, transcription of JA and SA signaling pathway genes were increased, and their expression persisted for a longer period of time in plants pretreated with α-MMC compared with those pretreated with water. Importantly, exogenous application of 1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT, SA inhibitor) and ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) reduced α-MMC induced plant resistance under viral infection. Thus, our results revealed that α-MMC enhances TMV resistance of tobacco NN plants by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic approach to control plant viruses by application of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jing; Xi, De-Hui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Shao-Dong; Cao, Sen; Xu, Mo-Yun; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Jian-Hui; Jia, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Plant viruses cause many diseases that lead to significant economic losses. However, most of the approaches to control plant viruses, including transgenic processes or drugs are plant-species-limited or virus-species-limited, and not very effective. We introduce an application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic method, to improve plant resistance to RNA viruses. Applying 0.06 mM JA and then 0.1 mM SA 24 h later, enhanced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato and hot pepper. The inhibition efficiency to virus replication usually achieved up to 80-90%. The putative molecular mechanism was investigated. Some possible factors affecting the synergism of JA and SA have been defined, including WRKY53, WRKY70, PDF1.2, MPK4, MPK2, MPK3, MPK5, MPK12, MPK14, MKK1, MKK2, and MKK6. All genes involving in the synergism of JA and SA were investigated. This approach is safe to human beings and environmentally friendly and shows potential as a strong tool for crop protection against plant viruses.

  5. Clinical evidence for use of acetyl salicylic acid in control of flushing related to nicotinic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Oberwittler, H; Baccara-Dinet, M

    2006-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) is highly effective and widely used in the management of dyslipidaemia. For many patients, the side effect of flushing of the face and upper body leads to discontinuation. Flushing with NA is mediated by prostaglandins, and as acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, 'aspirin') is a highly effective inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, there is a rationale for its use to prevent or reduce the severity of NA-related flushing. This literature survey identified four studies specifically exploring the utility of ASA in preventing NA-related flushing in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three NA studies, where ASA was mandatory or optional within the protocol, and four studies, where background ASA therapy was reported in most participants, were also identified. Although the incidence of flushing in studies using ASA was often high, discontinuation rates due to flushing were low (mean 7.7%). This figure compares favourably with discontinuation rates with NA commonly reported in the literature (up to approximately 40%). There is good supportive evidence for the use of ASA in reducing the severity of NA-related flushing.

  6. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Valero, Daniel; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Castillo, Salvador; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María

    2011-05-25

    Sweet cherry cultivars ('Cristalina' and 'Prime Giant') harvested at commercial ripening stage were treated with salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or oxalic acid (OA) at 1 mM and then stored for 20 days under cold temperature. Results showed that all treatments delayed the postharvest ripening process, manifested by lower acidity, color changes and firmness losses, and maintained quality attributes for longer periods than controls. In addition, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity increased in untreated fruit during the first 10 days of storage and then decreased, while in fruits of all treatments, these parameters increased continuously during storage without significant differences among treatments. Thus, postharvest treatments with natural compounds, such as SA, ASA or OA, could be innovative tools to extend the storability of sweet cherry with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity as compared with control fruits.

  7. Salicylic acid deposition from wash-off products: comparison of in vivo and porcine deposition models.

    PubMed

    Davies, M A

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a widely used active in anti-acne face wash products. Only about 1-2% of the total dose is actually deposited on skin during washing, and more efficient deposition systems are sought. The objective of this work was to develop an improved method, including data analysis, to measure deposition of SA from wash-off formulae. Full fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) were acquired for non-invasive measurement of deposition of SA from wash-off products. Multivariate data analysis methods - parallel factor analysis and N-way partial least-squares regression - were used to develop and compare deposition models on human volunteers and porcine skin. Although both models are useful, there are differences between them. First, the range of linear response to dosages of SA was 60 μg cm(-2) in vivo compared to 25 μg cm(-2) on porcine skin. Second, the actual shape of the SA band was different between substrates. The methods employed in this work highlight the utility of the use of EEMs, in conjunction with multivariate analysis tools such as parallel factor analysis and multiway partial least-squares calibration, in determining sources of spectral variability in skin and quantification of exogenous species deposited on skin. The human model exhibited the widest range of linearity, but porcine model is still useful up to deposition levels of 25 μg cm(-2) or used with nonlinear calibration models. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Duration of rise in free fatty acids determines salicylate's effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sandra; Yu, Wen Qin; Frigolet, María E; Beaudry, Jacqueline L; Shpilberg, Yaniv; Park, Edward; Dirlea, Cristina; Nyomba, B L Grégoire; Riddell, Michael C; Fantus, I George; Giacca, Adria

    2013-01-01

    We have shown in rats that sodium salicylate (SS), which inhibits IkBa kinase B (IKKB), prevents hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance caused by short-term (7 h) i.v. administration of Intralipid and heparin (IH). We wished to further determine whether this beneficial effect of SS persisted after prolonged (48 h) IH infusion, which better mimics the chronic free fatty acid (FFA) elevation of obesity. Hence, we performed hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps with tritiated glucose methodology to determine hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in rats infused with saline, IH, IH and SS, or SS alone. SS prevented peripheral insulin resistance (P<0.05) caused by prolonged plasma FFA elevation; however, it did not prevent hepatic insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, protein levels of phospho-IkBa were augmented by prolonged IH administration and this was prevented by SS, suggesting that IH activates while SS prevents the activation of IKKB. Markers of IKKB activation, namely protein levels of phospho-IkBa and IkBa, indicated that IKKB is not activated in the liver after prolonged FFA elevation. Phosphorylation of serine 307 at insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, which is a marker of proximal insulin resistance, was not altered by IH administration in the liver, suggesting that this is not a site of hepatic insulin resistance in the prolonged lipid infusion model. Our results suggest that the role of IKKB in fat-induced insulin resistance is time and tissue dependent and that hepatic insulin resistance induced by prolonged lipid elevation is not due to an IRS-1 serine 307 kinase. PMID:23328071

  10. Salicylic Acid Regulates Pollen Tip Growth through an NPR3/NPR4-Independent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Duoyan; Luo, Nan; Mollet, Jean Claude; Liu, Xuanming; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-11-07

    Tip growth is a common strategy for the rapid elongation of cells to forage the environment and/or to target to long-distance destinations. In the model tip growth system of Arabidopsis pollen tubes, several small-molecule hormones regulate their elongation, but how these rapidly diffusing molecules control extremely localized growth remains mysterious. Here we show that the interconvertible salicylic acid (SA) and methylated SA (MeSA), well characterized for their roles in plant defense, oppositely regulate Arabidopsis pollen tip growth with SA being inhibitory and MeSA stimulatory. The effect of SA and MeSA was independent of known NPR3/NPR4 SA receptor-mediated signaling pathways. SA inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis in pollen tubes associated with an increased accumulation of less stretchable demethylated pectin in the apical wall, whereas MeSA did the opposite. Furthermore, SA and MeSA alter the apical activation of ROP1 GTPase, a key regulator of tip growth in pollen tubes, in an opposite manner. Interestingly, both MeSA methylesterase and SA methyltransferase, which catalyze the interconversion between SA and MeSA, are localized at the apical region of pollen tubes, indicating of the tip-localized production of SA and MeSA and consistent with their effects on the apical cellular activities. These findings suggest that local generation of a highly diffusible signal can regulate polarized cell growth, providing a novel mechanism of cell polarity control apart from the one involving protein and mRNA polarization. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin’s Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Harraz, Maged M.; Park, Sang-Wook; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA’s multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs). Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH) also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson’s drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA) and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice), glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death. PMID:26606248

  12. Salicylic Acid-Regulated Antioxidant Mechanisms and Gene Expression Enhance Rosemary Performance under Saline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A.; Elansary, Hosam O.; El-Shanhorey, Nader A.; Abdel-Hamid, Amal M. E.; Ali, Hayssam M.; Elshikh, Mohamed S.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress as a major agricultural limiting factor may influence the chemical composition and bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinallis L. essential oils and leaf extracts. The application of salicylic acid (SA) hormone may alleviate salinity stress by modifying the chemical composition, gene expression and bioactivity of plant secondary metabolites. In this study, SA was applied to enhance salinity tolerance in R. officinallis. R. officinallis plants were subjected to saline water every 2 days (640, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm NaCl) and 4 biweekly sprays of SA at 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm for 8 weeks. Simulated salinity reduced all vegetative growth parameters such as plant height, plant branches and fresh and dry weights. However, SA treatments significantly enhanced these plant growth and morphological traits under salinity stress. Salinity affected specific major essential oils components causing reductions in α-pinene, β-pinene, and cineole along with sharp increases in linalool, camphor, borneol, and verbenone. SA applications at 100–300 ppm largely reversed the effects of salinity. Interestingly, SA treatments mitigated salinity stress effects by increasing the total phenolic, chlorophyll, carbohydrates, and proline contents of leaves along with decline in sodium and chloride. Importantly, this study also proved that SA may stimulate the antioxidant enzymatic mechanism pathway including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as increasing the non-enzymatic antioxidants such as free and total ascorbate in plants subjected to salinity. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that APX and 3 SOD genes showed higher levels in SA-treated rosemary under salinity stress, when compared to non-sprayed plants. Moreover, the expression level of selected genes conferring tolerance to salinity (bZIP62, DREB2, ERF3, and OLPb) were enhanced in SA-treated rosemary under salt stress, indicating that SA treatment resulted in the

  13. Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Fan, Ling; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Liu, Guo-Jie; Cheng, Jian-Shan; Luo, Hai-Bo; Li, Shao-Hua

    2010-02-23

    Although the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on photosynthesis of plants including grapevines has been investigated, very little is yet known about the effects of SA on carbon assimilation and several components of PSII electron transport (donor side, reaction center and acceptor side). In this study, the impact of SA pretreatment on photosynthesis was evaluated in the leaves of young grapevines before heat stress (25 degrees C), during heat stress (43 degrees C for 5 h), and through the following recovery period (25 degrees C). Photosynthetic measures included gas exchange parameters, PSII electron transport, energy dissipation, and Rubisco activation state. The levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the chloroplast were also investigated. SA did not significantly (P < 0.05) influence the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of leaves before heat stress. But, SA did alleviate declines in Pn and Rubisco activation state, and did not alter negative changes in PSII parameters (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center QA) under heat stress. Following heat treatment, the recovery of Pn in SA-treated leaves was accelerated compared with the control (H2O-treated) leaves, and, donor and acceptor parameters of PSII in SA-treated leaves recovered to normal levels more rapidly than in the controls. Rubisco, however, was not significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by SA. Before heat stress, SA did not affect level of HSP 21, but the HSP21 immune signal increased in both SA-treated and control leaves during heat stress. During the recovery period, HSP21 levels remained high through the end of the experiment in the SA-treated leaves, but decreased in controls. SA pretreatment alleviated the heat stress induced decrease in Pn mainly through maintaining higher Rubisco activation state, and it accelerated the recovery of Pn mainly through effects on PSII function. These effects of SA may be related in part to enhanced levels of HSP21.

  14. Efficacy of the addition of salicylic acid to clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide combination for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akarsu, Sevgi; Fetil, Emel; Yücel, Filiz; Gül, Eylem; Güneş, Ali T

    2012-05-01

    Clindamycin phosphate (CDP), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and salicylic acid (SA) are known to be effective acne therapy agents depending on their anti-inflammatory and comedolytic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the addition of SA treatment to CDP and BPO (SA and CDP + BPO) and compare it with CDP + BPO in patients with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Forty-nine patients were enrolled in a 12 week prospective, single-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Efficacy was assessed by lesion counts, global improvement, quality of life index and measurements of skin barrier functions. Local side effects were also evaluated. Both combinations were effective in reducing total lesion (TL), inflammatory lesion (IL) and non-inflammatory lesion (NIL) counts. There were statistically significant differences between treatment groups for reductions in NIL counts beyond 2 weeks, IL counts and TL counts throughout the all study weeks, and global improvement scores evaluated by patients and investigator at the end of the study in favor of SA and CDP + BPO treatment when compared to CDP + BPO treatment. Both combinations significantly decreased stratum corneum hydration, although skin sebum values decreased with SA and CDP + BPO treatment. These combinations were also well tolerated except significantly higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness in patients applied SA and CDP + BPO. The addition of SA to CDP + BPO treatment demonstrated significantly better and faster results in terms of reductions in acne lesion counts and well tolerated except for higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Stress Signaling via Mitochondrial Succinate Dehydrogenase1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are known for their role in ATP production and generation of reactive oxygen species, but little is known about the mechanism of their early involvement in plant stress signaling. The role of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in salicylic acid (SA) signaling was analyzed using two mutants: disrupted in stress response1 (dsr1), which is a point mutation in SDH1 identified in a loss of SA signaling screen, and a knockdown mutant (sdhaf2) for SDH assembly factor 2 that is required for FAD insertion into SDH1. Both mutants showed strongly decreased SA-inducible stress promoter responses and low SDH maximum capacity compared to wild type, while dsr1 also showed low succinate affinity, low catalytic efficiency, and increased resistance to SDH competitive inhibitors. The SA-induced promoter responses could be partially rescued in sdhaf2, but not in dsr1, by supplementing the plant growth media with succinate. Kinetic characterization showed that low concentrations of either SA or ubiquinone binding site inhibitors increased SDH activity and induced mitochondrial H2O2 production. Both dsr1 and sdhaf2 showed lower rates of SA-dependent H2O2 production in vitro in line with their low SA-dependent stress signaling responses in vivo. This provides quantitative and kinetic evidence that SA acts at or near the ubiquinone binding site of SDH to stimulate activity and contributes to plant stress signaling by increased rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production, leading to part of the SA-dependent transcriptional response in plant cells. PMID:28209841

  16. Transport of salicylic acid through monolayers of a kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1).

    PubMed

    Chatton, J Y; Roch-Ramel, F

    1992-05-01

    LLC-PK1 cells were used as a model of renal proximal epithelium to study the nonionic diffusion of salicylic acid (SAL). The apparent [14C]SAL transcellular permeability (PSal) and intracellular content were estimated at 20-21 degrees C from fluxes measured across cell monolayers grown on filters, in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. The medium pH of the cis-side was varied from 6.0 to 7.4, and the medium pH of the trans-side was kept at 7.4. In the apical-to-basolateral direction, PSal increased linearly with the calculated concentration of nonionized SAL, indicating that SAL permeability was essentially the result of nonionic diffusion. In the basolateral-to-apical direction, PSal was about 2.5-fold higher than in the apical-to-basolateral direction and was not linearly related to the concentration of nonionized SAL molecules (0-4.5 nM), suggesting that besides nonionic diffusion, SAL was transported in its ionized form by a facilitated mechanism still active at 21 degrees C. This was confirmed by measuring basolateral-to-apical fluxes at 37 degrees C and observing that probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion secretion, and cold SAL decreased PSal. Interestingly, at 37 degrees C, PSal in the apical-to-basolateral direction was also decreased by probenecid and cold SAL, suggesting the existence of a facilitated transport in this direction. These data demonstrated that the secretory transport of SAL is present in LLC-PK1 cells. The facilitated transport observed in the apical-to-basolateral direction suggests that in proximal tubule, SAL reabsorption might occur by facilitated mechanism and nonionic diffusion.

  17. Abscisic Acid Deficiency Antagonizes High-Temperature Inhibition of Disease Resistance through Enhancing Nuclear Accumulation of Resistance Proteins SNC1 and RPS4 in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Hyung-Gon; Qian, Weiqiang; Zhu, Ying; Qian, Jun; Kang, Hong-Gu; Klessig, Daniel F.; Hua, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Plant defense responses to pathogens are influenced by abiotic factors, including temperature. Elevated temperatures often inhibit the activities of disease resistance proteins and the defense responses they mediate. A mutant screen with an Arabidopsis thaliana temperature-sensitive autoimmune mutant bonzai1 revealed that the abscisic acid (ABA)–deficient mutant aba2 enhances resistance mediated by the resistance (R) gene SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1 CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) at high temperature. ABA deficiency promoted nuclear accumulation of SNC1, which was essential for it to function at low and high temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of ABA deficiency on SNC1 protein accumulation is independent of salicylic acid, whose effects are often antagonized by ABA. ABA deficiency also promotes the activity and nuclear localization of R protein RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE4 at higher temperature, suggesting that the effect of ABA on R protein localization and nuclear activity is rather broad. By contrast, mutations that confer ABA insensitivity did not promote defense responses at high temperature, suggesting either tissue specificity of ABA signaling or a role of ABA in defense regulation independent of the core ABA signaling machinery. Taken together, this study reveals a new intersection between ABA and disease resistance through R protein localization and provides further evidence of antagonism between abiotic and biotic responses. PMID:22454454

  18. Characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation of biocompatible amino acid esters used to convert salicylic acid into ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Moshikur, Rahman Md; Chowdhury, Md Raihan; Wakabayashi, Rie; Tahara, Yoshiro; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Goto, Masahiro

    2018-07-30

    The technological utility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is greatly enhanced when they are transformed into ionic liquids (ILs). API-ILs have better solubility, thermal stability, and the efficacy in topical delivery than solid or crystalline drugs. However, toxicological issue of API-ILs is the main challenge for their application in drug delivery. To address this issue, 11 amino acid esters (AAEs) were synthesized and investigated as biocompatible counter cations for the poorly water-soluble drug salicylic acid (Sal) to form Sal-ILs. The AAEs were characterized using 1 H and 13 C NMR, FTIR, elemental, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cytotoxicities of the AAE cations, Sal-ILs, and free Sal were investigated using mammalian cell lines (L929 and HeLa). The toxicities of the AAE cations greatly increased with inclusion of long alkyl chains, sulfur, and aromatic rings in the side groups of the cations. Ethyl esters of alanine, aspartic acid, and proline were selected as a low cytotoxic AAE. The cytotoxicities of the Sal-ILs drastically increased compared with the AAEs on incorporation of Sal into the cations, and were comparable to that of free Sal. Interestingly, the water miscibilities of the Sal-ILs were higher than that of free Sal, and the Sal-ILs were miscible with water at any ratio. A skin permeation study showed that the Sal-ILs penetrated through skin faster than the Sal sodium salt. These results suggest that AAEs could be used in biomedical applications to eliminate the use of traditional toxic solvents for transdermal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Hicks, Derrick; Souza, Amancio de; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-03-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Characterization of Withania somnifera Leaf Transcriptome and Expression Analysis of Pathogenesis – Related Genes during Salicylic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; George, Blessan Santhosh; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR) families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX) and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX) recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera. PMID:24739900

  1. Effects of jasmonic acid, ethylene, and salicylic acid signaling on the rhizosphere bacterial community of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Rogier F; Geraats, Bart P J; Kuramae, Eiko E; Van Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2011-04-01

    Systemically induced resistance is a promising strategy to control plant diseases, as it affects numerous pathogens. However, since induced resistance reduces one or both growth and activity of plant pathogens, the indigenous microflora may also be affected by an enhanced defensive state of the plant. The aim of this study was to elucidate how much the bacterial rhizosphere microflora of Arabidopsis is affected by induced systemic resistance (ISR) or systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Therefore, the bacterial microflora of wild-type plants and plants affected in their defense signaling was compared. Additionally, ISR was induced by application of methyl jasmonate and SAR by treatment with salicylic acid or benzothiadiazole. As a comparative model, we also used wild type and ethylene-insensitive tobacco. Some of the Arabidopsis genotypes affected in defense signaling showed altered numbers of culturable bacteria in their rhizospheres; however, effects were dependent on soil type. Effects of plant genotype on rhizosphere bacterial community structure could not be related to plant defense because chemical activation of ISR or SAR had no significant effects on density and structure of the rhizosphere bacterial community. These findings support the notion that control of plant diseases by elicitation of systemic resistance will not significantly affect the resident soil bacterial microflora.

  2. Zosteric acid and salicylic acid bound to a low density polyethylene surface successfully control bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Cattò, C; James, G; Villa, F; Villa, S; Cappitelli, F

    2018-05-04

    The active moieties of the anti-biofilm natural compounds zosteric (ZA) and salicylic (SA) acids have been covalently immobilized on a low density polyethylene (LDPE) surface. The grafting procedure provided new non-toxic eco-friendly materials (LDPE-CA and LDPE-SA) with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches and with features suitable for applications in challenging fields where the use of antimicrobial agents is limited. Microbiological investigation proved that LDPE-CA and LDPE-SA: (1) reduced Escherichia coli biofilm biomass by up to 61% with a mechanism that did not affect bacterial viability; (2) significantly affected biofilm morphology, decreasing biofilm thickness, roughness, substratum coverage, cell and matrix polysaccharide bio-volumes by >80% and increasing the surface to bio-volume ratio; (3) made the biofilm more susceptible to ampicillin and ethanol. Since no molecules were leached from the surface, they remained constantly effective and below the lethal level; therefore, the risk of inducing resistance was minimized.

  3. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F

    2017-03-23

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as resistance to (a)biotic stress. Efforts to identify SA effector proteins have revealed that SA binds to and alters the activity of multiple plant proteins-this represents a shift from the paradigm that hormones mediate their functions via one or a few receptors. SA and its derivatives also have multiple targets in animals; some of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with pathological processes. Together, these findings suggest that SA exerts its defense-associated effects in both kingdoms via a large number of targets.

  5. Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with low-dose 5-fluorouracil in combination with salicylic acid--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schlaak, Max; Simon, Jan C

    2010-03-01

    Actinic keratoses (AK) are carcinomas in situ and can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Treatment of actinic keratoses can be achieved by physical ablation, chemotherapeutic agents, immunomodulators or photodynamic therapy. We conducted a proof of concept study with 15 patients. Overall 66 actinic keratoses were treated with 5-FU (0.5%) and salicylic acid (10%) for 4 weeks (3 times per week). After 12 weeks complete response of 47 AK (77%), partial response of 13 AK (21%) and non-response of 1 AK (2%) were achieved. Treatment was well tolerated and efficient.

  6. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  7. Amino group of salicylic acid exhibits enhanced inhibitory potential against insulin amyloid fibrillation with protective aptitude toward amyloid induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Mohsin Vahid; Zakariya, Syed Mohammad; Nusrat, Saima; Meeran, Syed Mustapha; Alam, Parvez; Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Wahiduzzaman, Wahiduzzaman; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2018-05-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation lead to amyloid generation that in turn may induce cell membrane disruption and leads to cell apoptosis. In an effort to prevent or treat amyloidogenesis, large number of studies has been paying attention on breakthrough of amyloid inhibitors. In the present work, we aim to access the effect of two drugs, that is, acetylsalicylic acid and 5-amino salicylic acid on insulin amyloids by using various biophysical, imaging, cell viability assay, and computational approaches. We established that both drugs reduce the turbidity, light scattering and fluorescence intensity of amyloid indicator dye thioflavin T. Premixing of drugs with insulin inhibited the nucleation phase and inhibitory potential was boosted by increasing the concentration of the drug. Moreover, addition of drugs at the studied concentrations attenuated the insulin fibril induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results highlight the amino group of salicylic acid exhibited enhanced inhibitory effects on insulin fibrillation in comparison to acetyl group. It may be due to presence of amino group that helps it to prolong the nucleation phase with strong binding as well as disruption of aromatic and hydrophobic stacking that plays a key role in amyloid progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  9. Involvement of salicylic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid signalling pathways in the susceptibility of tomato to Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Di, Xiaotang; Gomila, Jo; Takken, Frank L W

    2017-09-01

    Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA), play key roles in plant defence following pathogen attack. The involvement of these hormones in susceptibility following Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) infection has mostly been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, Fo causes vascular wilt disease in a broad range of crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Surprisingly little is known about the involvement of these phytohormones in the susceptibility of tomato towards Fo f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). Here, we investigate their involvement by the analysis of the expression of ET, JA and SA marker genes following Fol infection, and by bioassays of tomato mutants affected in either hormone production or perception. Fol inoculation triggered the expression of SA and ET marker genes, showing the activation of these pathways. NahG tomato, in which SA is degraded, became hypersusceptible to Fol infection and showed stronger disease symptoms than wild-type. In contrast, ACD and Never ripe (Nr) mutants, in which ET biosynthesis and perception, respectively, are impaired, showed decreased disease symptoms and reduced fungal colonization on infection. The susceptibility of the def1 tomato mutant, and a prosystemin over-expressing line, in which JA signalling is compromised or constitutively activated, respectively, was unaltered. Our results show that SA is a negative and ET a positive regulator of Fol susceptibility. The SA and ET signalling pathways appear to act synergistically, as an intact ET pathway is required for the induction of an SA marker gene, and vice versa. © 2017 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. PMID:26829979

  11. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Filipe, Osvaldo; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof; Höfte, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. AtMYB44 regulates WRKY70 expression and modulates antagonistic interaction between salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Sung; Jung, Choonkyun; Lee, Sangjoon; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Yin-Won; Choi, Yeonhee; Lee, Jong Seob; Song, Jong Tae; Kim, Ju-Kon; Choi, Yang Do

    2013-02-01

    The role of AtMYB44, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, in signaling mediated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is examined. AtMYB44 is induced by JA through CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1). AtMYB44 over-expression down-regulated defense responses against the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria brassicicola, but up-regulated WRKY70 and PR genes, leading to enhanced resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The knockout mutant atmyb44 shows opposite effects. Induction of WRKY70 by SA is reduced in atmyb44 and npr1-1 mutants, and is totally abolished in atmyb44 npr1-1 double mutants, showing that WRKY70 is regulated independently through both NPR1 and AtMYB44. AtMYB44 over-expression does not change SA content, but AtMYB44 over-expression phenotypes, such as retarded growth, up-regulated PR1 and down-regulated PDF1.2 are reversed by SA depletion. The wrky70 mutation suppressed AtMYB44 over-expression phenotypes, including up-regulation of PR1 expression and down-regulation of PDF1.2 expression. β-estradiol-induced expression of AtMYB44 led to WRKY70 activation and thus PR1 activation. AtMYB44 binds to the WRKY70 promoter region, indicating that AtMYB44 acts as a transcriptional activator of WRKY70 by directly binding to a conserved sequence element in the WRKY70 promoter. These results demonstrate that AtMYB44 modulates antagonistic interaction by activating SA-mediated defenses and repressing JA-mediated defenses through direct control of WRKY70. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Apoplastic peroxidases are required for salicylic acid-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicole D; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated

  15. Toxicology of isoproturon to the food crop wheat as affected by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lu; Lu, Yan Li; Yang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Isoproturon, a herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family, is widely used to kill weeds in soils. Recent study indicated that isoproturon has become a contaminant in ecosystems due to its intensive use, thus bringing environmental risks to crop production safety. Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the components in plant defense signaling pathways and regulates diverse physiological responses to biotic and environmental stresses. The purpose of the study is to help to understand how SA mediates the biological process in wheat under isoproturon stress. Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yangmai 13) were surface-sterilized and placed on moist filter paper for germination. After 24 h, the germinating seeds were placed on a plastic pot (1 L) containing 1,120 g soil mixed with isoproturon at 4 mg kg(-1) soil. After 4 days, wheat leaves were sprayed with 5 mg L(-1) SA. The SA treatment was undertaken once a day and lasted for 6 days, when the third true leaf was well developed. For control seedlings, only water was sprayed. Seedlings were grown under a light intensity of 300 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with a light/dark cycle of 12/12 h at 25°C, and watered to keep 70% relative water content in soils. We investigated the role of SA in alleviating isoproturon-induced toxicity in the food crop wheat (T. aestivum). Plants exposed to 4 mg kg(-1) isoproturon showed growth stunt and oxidative damage, but concomitant treatment with 5 mg L(-1) SA was able to attenuate the toxic effect. Isoproturon in soils was readily accumulated by wheat, but such accumulation can be blocked significantly by SA application. Treatment with SA decreased the abundance of O(2) (.-) and H(2)O(2), as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes, and increased activities of catalase in isoproturon-exposed plants. The enzyme activities were confirmed by the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Further, an RT-PCR-based assay was performed to show that several transcripts coding antioxidant enzymes were

  16. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  18. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid interaction with the human erythrocyte membrane bilayer induce in vitro changes in the morphology of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Belmar, Jessica; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-documented information, there are insufficient reports concerning the effects of salicylate compounds on the structure and functions of cell membranes, particularly those of human erythrocytes. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) with cell membranes, human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models were utilized. These consisted of bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. The capacity of ASA and SA to perturb the multibilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction while DMPC unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, we took advantage of the capability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the changes in the thermotropic phase behavior of lipid bilayers resulting from ASA and SA interaction with PC and PE molecules. In an attempt to further elucidate their effects on cell membranes, the present work also examined their influence on the morphology of intact human erythrocytes by means of defocusing and scanning electron microscopy, while isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Results indicated that both salicylates interact with human erythrocytes and their molecular models in a concentration-dependent manner perturbing their bilayer structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Chemical Inhibitor of ABA Signaling Targets All ABA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yajin; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Xue; Liu, Hao; Li, Deqiang; Cao, Minjie; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhao, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), the most important stress-induced phytohormone, regulates seed dormancy, germination, plant senescence, and the abiotic stress response. ABA signaling is repressed by group A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), and then ABA binds to its receptor of the ACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1), PYR1-LIKE (PYL), and REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR) family, which, in turn, inhibits PP2Cs and activates downstream ABA signaling. The agonist/antagonist of ABA receptors have the potential to reveal the ABA signaling machinery and to become lead compounds for agrochemicals; however, until now, no broad-spectrum antagonists of ABA receptors blocking all PYR/PYL-PP2C interactions have been identified. Here, using chemical genetics screenings, we identified ABA ANTAGONIST1 (AA1), the first broad-spectrum antagonist of ABA receptors in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). Physiological analyses revealed that AA1 is sufficiently active to block ABA signaling. AA1 interfered with all the PYR/PYL-HAB1 interactions, and the diminished PYR/PYL-HAB1 interactions, in turn, restored the activity of HAB1. AA1 binds to all 13 members. Molecular dockings, the non-AA1-bound PYL2 variant, and competitive binding assays demonstrated that AA1 enters into the ligand-binding pocket of PYL2. Using AA1, we tested the genetic relationships of ABA receptors with other core components of ABA signaling, demonstrating that AA1 is a powerful tool with which to sidestep this genetic redundancy of PYR/PYLs. In addition, the application of AA1 delays leaf senescence. Thus, our study developed an efficient broad-spectrum antagonist of ABA receptors and demonstrated that plant senescence can be chemically controlled through AA1, with a simple and easy-to-synthesize structure, allowing its availability and utility as a chemical probe synthesized in large quantities, indicating its potential application in agriculture. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A Novel Chemical Inhibitor of ABA Signaling Targets All ABA Receptors1

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yajin; Liu, Xue; Liu, Hao; Li, Deqiang; Cao, Minjie; Chen, Haifeng; Zhu, Jian-kang

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), the most important stress-induced phytohormone, regulates seed dormancy, germination, plant senescence, and the abiotic stress response. ABA signaling is repressed by group A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), and then ABA binds to its receptor of the ACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1), PYR1-LIKE (PYL), and REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR) family, which, in turn, inhibits PP2Cs and activates downstream ABA signaling. The agonist/antagonist of ABA receptors have the potential to reveal the ABA signaling machinery and to become lead compounds for agrochemicals; however, until now, no broad-spectrum antagonists of ABA receptors blocking all PYR/PYL-PP2C interactions have been identified. Here, using chemical genetics screenings, we identified ABA ANTAGONIST1 (AA1), the first broad-spectrum antagonist of ABA receptors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Physiological analyses revealed that AA1 is sufficiently active to block ABA signaling. AA1 interfered with all the PYR/PYL-HAB1 interactions, and the diminished PYR/PYL-HAB1 interactions, in turn, restored the activity of HAB1. AA1 binds to all 13 members. Molecular dockings, the non-AA1-bound PYL2 variant, and competitive binding assays demonstrated that AA1 enters into the ligand-binding pocket of PYL2. Using AA1, we tested the genetic relationships of ABA receptors with other core components of ABA signaling, demonstrating that AA1 is a powerful tool with which to sidestep this genetic redundancy of PYR/PYLs. In addition, the application of AA1 delays leaf senescence. Thus, our study developed an efficient broad-spectrum antagonist of ABA receptors and demonstrated that plant senescence can be chemically controlled through AA1, with a simple and easy-to-synthesize structure, allowing its availability and utility as a chemical probe synthesized in large quantities, indicating its potential application in agriculture. PMID:28193765

  2. Effect of preparation methods on the activity of titanium dioxide-carbon nitride composites for photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliati, L.; Salleh, A. M.; Hatta, M. H. M.; Lintang, H. O.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide-carbon nitride (TiO2-CN) composites were prepared by three methods, which were one pot oxidation, impregnation, and physical mixing. Each series of the photocatalysts was prepared with different ratios of titanium to carbon (Ti/C), i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 mol%. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible (DR UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The characterization results confirmed the successful preparation of TiO2, CN, and the TiO2-CN composites. Photocatalytic activity tests were carried out for degradation of salicylic acid at room temperature for 6 h under UV and visible light irradiations. It was confirmed that all the prepared TiO2-CN composites showed better photocatalytic activities than the bare TiO2 and the bare CN. Under UV light irradiation, 90.6% of salicylic acid degradation was achieved on the best composite prepared by one pot oxidation with 5 mol% of titanium to carbon (Ti/C) ratio. On the other hand, the highest degradation under visible light irradiation was 94.3%, observed on the composite that was prepared also by one pot oxidation method with the Ti/C ratio of 10 mol%. Therefore, among the investigated methods, the best method to prepare the titanium dioxide-carbon nitride composites with high photocatalytic activity was one pot oxidation method.

  3. Acetyl salicylic acid inhibits Th17 airway inflammation via blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kang, Chil Sung; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong Sic; Choi, Hyun Il; Choi, Yong Wook; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Jang, Myoung Ho; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback. PMID:23306703

  4. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Andrew S.; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  5. Establishment of auditory discrimination and detection of tinnitus induced by salicylic acid and intense tone exposure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sederholm, Fredrik; Swedberg, Michael D B

    2013-05-13

    Rats were trained in a two lever food reinforced operant procedure to discriminate a 8000 Hz pure tone stimulus from its absence. Responding on one lever was reinforced in the presence of the tone and responding on the other lever was reinforced when the tone was absent. Frequency generalization testing yielded an inverted U-shaped function, whereas sound pressure level generalization testing yielded a continuous decrease in responding on the tone associated lever with decreasing sound pressure levels. The administration of sodium salicylic acid (150-450 mg/kg) generated responding on the tone associated lever suggesting that salicylic acid induced an experience that had commonalities with the percept of the training tone stimulus. After exposure to intense sound, responding consistent with the presence of tinnitus was achieved and Lidocaine failed to reduce tinnitus behavior. The use of a two choice design helped avoid confounding factors induced by drug induced side effects. Further, since no auditory cues were employed in the test situation the model achieves resistance to potential bias due to hearing impairment and hyperacusis. We propose that this model may be useful in detecting tinnitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in human plasma by isocratic high-pressure liquid chromatography with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hobl, Eva-Luise; Jilma, Bernd; Ebner, Josef; Schmid, Rainer W

    2013-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite salicylic acid in human plasma. Following the addition of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid as internal standard and simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes were separated on a ProntoSIL 120 C18 ace-EPS column (150 × 2 mm, 3 µm) protected by a C8 guard column (5 µm). The mobile phase, 10 mm formic acid in water (pH 2.9) and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), was used at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. After on-line post-column hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to salicylic acid (SA) by addition of alkaline solution, the analytes were measured at 290 nm (λex ) and 400 nm (λem ). The method was linear in the concentration ranges between 0.05 and 20 ng/μL for both ASA and SA with a lower limit of quantification of 25 pg/μL for SA and 50 pg/μL for ASA. The limit of detection was 15 pg/μL for SA and 32.5 pg/μL for ASA. The analysis of ASA and SA can be carried out within 8 min; therefore this method is suitable for measuring plasma concentrations of salicylates in clinical routine. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Bacteria-triggered systemic immunity in barley is associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs but not with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F X; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-12-01

    Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Plastid Located WHIRLY1 Enhances the Responsiveness of Arabidopsis Seedlings Toward Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Isemer, Rena; Krause, Kirsten; Grabe, Nils; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Asami, Tadao; Krupinska, Karin

    2012-01-01

    WHIRLY1 is a protein that can be translocated from the plastids to the nucleus, making it an ideal candidate for communicating information between these two compartments. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana lacking WHIRLY1 (why1) were shown to have a reduced sensitivity toward salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during germination. Germination assays in the presence of abamine, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, revealed that the effect of SA on germination was in fact caused by a concomitant stimulation of ABA biosynthesis. In order to distinguish whether the plastid or the nuclear isoform of WHIRLY1 is adjusting the responsiveness toward ABA, sequences encoding either the complete WHIRLY1 protein or a truncated form lacking the plastid transit peptide were overexpressed in the why1 mutant background. In plants overexpressing the full-length sequence, WHIRLY1 accumulated in both plastids and the nucleus, whereas in plants overexpressing the truncated sequence, WHIRLY1 accumulated exclusively in the nucleus. Seedlings containing recombinant WHIRLY1 in both compartments were hypersensitive toward ABA. In contrast, seedlings possessing only the nuclear form of WHIRLY1 were as insensitive toward ABA as the why1 mutants. ABA was furthermore shown to lower the rate of germination of wildtype seeds even in the presence of abamine which is known to inhibit the formation of xanthoxin, the plastid located precursor of ABA. From this we conclude that plastid located WHIRLY1 enhances the responsiveness of seeds toward ABA even when ABA is supplied exogenously. PMID:23269926

  9. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll. © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  10. Micellar-mediated binding interaction between proflavine hemisulfate and salicylic acid: spectroscopic insights and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dhanshri T; Mokashi, Vidya V; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2013-01-01

    The molecular interactions between salicylic acid (SA) and proflavin hemisulfate (PF) were investigated using fluorescence and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy in an aqueous micellar environment. Changes in the absorption spectra of SA in the presence of PF indicate a ground state interaction between salicylate and proflavine hemisulfate ions to form a complex. The excitation bands of SA monitored at its emission wavelength reveal a red spectral shift of 8390.54 and 2037.75 cm(-1) when compared with absorption bands. The intensity of both excitation bands decreased in the presence of increasing amounts of PF. The absence of excitation bands of PF rules out the possibility of its direct excitation and suggests energy transfer from excited SA to PF, resulting in quenching of the SA fluorescence. The fluorescence quenching results were found to fit the well-known Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation. S-V plots at different temperatures were used to further evaluate thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G, ∆H and ΔS. The thermodynamic and kinetic data obtained from the quenching results were used to investigate the possible mechanism of binding, the nature of the binding force and the distance between SA and PF molecules. The linear relation between SA fluorescence quenching and PF concentration used to develop an analytical method for the determination of PF from Lorexane (a veterinary cream) using a fluorescence quenching method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on citrus foliage: Effecs on foliar volatiles and aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-known activators of chemical defenses in plants. The SA pathway is involved in citrus response to infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas); less is known about the role of jasmonates in citrus defense response. We examined the eff...

  12. Influence of Salicylic Acid on In Vitro Micropropagation and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species, H. acetosella and H. moscheutos (cv ‘Luna Red’)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. It has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on i...

  13. Effectiveness, safety, and effect on quality of life of topical salicylic acid peels for treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in dark skin.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Smita S; Boone, Susan L; Alam, Murad; Yoo, Simon; White, Lucile; Rademaker, Alfred; Helenowski, Irene; West, Dennis P; Kundu, Roopal V

    2009-04-01

    There are no randomized split-face model studies investigating treatments for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in dark skin. To assess the efficacy, safety, and effect on quality of life of salicylic acid peels for PIH in dark skin. Ten subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI were randomized to receive two 20% salicylic acid peels followed by three 30% salicylic acid peels to half of the face. The contralateral half remained untreated. Response was evaluated by photography reviewed by three blinded dermatologists. The Visual Analog Scale, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and treatment quality questionnaire were administered. Improvement of PIH on the treatment side according to each rater (p=.81, p=.81, p=.42) and according to the raters combined (p=.11) approached but did not reach statistical significance. Subjects' Visual Analog Scale scores indicated significantly greater improvement of PIH on the treatment side than in the control (p=.004). Quality of life measured according to the DLQI improved after treatment but not statistically significantly so (p=.13). Treatment had no significant adverse effects. Salicylic acid peels are safe in this population. Although patients rated them as clinically effective, blinded raters found a brief series of peels to have less efficacy. Measured quality of life improved nominally.

  14. Comparison of salicylic acid 30% peel and pneumatic broadband light in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Thuangtong, Rattapon; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Ditre, Chérie M

    2017-07-01

    Acne patients experience not only a medical disease but also an aesthetic condition, and this latter complication greatly motivates patients to seek out the best treatment regimen to hasten improvement in their appearance. The available clinical procedures for acne treatment include salicylic acid 30% peel and pneumatic broadband light (PBBL). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of salicylic acid 30% peel and PBBL treatments in patients with mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris. Twelve patients were recruited for a 12-week prospective, single-blind, randomized, split-face study. Patients were treated with a salicylic acid 30% peel on one side of the face and PBBL treatment was administered on the opposite side of the face for 6 consecutive weeks without other acne treatments. At every visit, treatment evaluations were performed using a modified Global Acne Grading Score (mGAGS), acne quality of life (QOL) questionnaire, Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (WBPRS) assessments, and clinical photography. Improvement in acne symptoms was observed for both treatment procedures without significant differences and with minimal side effects. Salicylic acid 30% peel and PBBL were well tolerated in our study, and both clinical procedures were efficacious and well-tolerated by the patients.

  15. Development of an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid in rose leaves.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Renato; Daeseleire, Els; Van Pamel, Els; Scariot, Valentina; Leus, Leen

    2014-07-09

    This paper describes a method to detect and quantitate the endogenous plant hormones (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid by means of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in hybrid rose leaf matrices. Deuterium-labeled [(2)H6] (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, [(2)H6] (±)-jasmonic acid, and [(2)H4]-salicylic acid were used as internal standards. Rose samples (10 mg) were extracted with methanol/water/acetic acid (10:89:1) and subsequently purified on an Oasis MCX 1 cm(3) Vac SPE cartridge. Performance characteristics were validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery, repeatability, and within-laboratory reproducibility were acceptable for all phytohormones tested at three different concentrations. The decision limit and detection capability for (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were 0.0075 and 0.015 μg/g, 0.00015 and 0.00030 μg/g, and 0.0089 and 0.018 μg/g, respectively. Matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) appeared to be high for all substances considered, implying the need for quantitation based on matrix-matched calibration curves.

  16. Exogenous Salicylic Acid Enhances the Resistance of Wheat Seedlings to Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Infestation Under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Joshua; Moch, John; Chen, Ming-Shun; Zhu, Lieceng

    2014-10-01

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here, we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on the resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. We found that the wheat cultivar 'Molly', which contains the resistance gene H13, lost resistance to Hessian fly under heat stress (40°C for 3 and 6 h), and that exogenous application of SA on Molly seedlings right before heat stress can partially prevent the loss of resistance of Molly plants under heat conditions. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the dynamics of plant-insect interactions in the context of heat stress. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  17. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Fouling Resistant CA/PVA/TiO2 Imprinted Membranes for Selective Recognition and Separation Salicylic Acid from Waste Water

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaopeng; Mi, Xueyang; He, Zhihui; Meng, Minjia; Li, Hongji; Yan, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Highly selective cellulose acetate (CA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) imprinted membranes were synthesized by phase inversion and dip coating technique. The CA blend imprinted membrane was synthesized by phase inversion technique with CA as membrane matrix, polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the functional polymer, and the salicylic acid (SA) as the template molecule. The CA/PVA/TiO2 imprinted membranes were synthesized by dip coating of CA blend imprinted membrane in PVA and different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 wt %) of TiO2 nanoparticles aqueous solution. The SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of membrane was strongly influenced by the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Compared with CA/PVA-TiO2(0.05, 0.1, 0.2%)-MIM, the CA/PVA-TiO2(0.4%)-MIM possessed higher membrane flux, kinetic equilibrium adsorption amount, binding capacity and better selectivity for SA. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was studied to describe the kinetic of CA/PVA-TiO2(0.2%)-MIM judging by multiple regression analysis. Adsorption isotherm analysis indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity for SA were 24.43 mg g−1. Moreover, the selectivity coefficients of CA/PVA-TiO2 (0.2%)-MIM for SA relative to p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB) and methyl salicylate (MS) were 3.87 and 3.55, respectively. PMID:28184369

  20. Roles of CAMTA transcription factors and salicylic acid in configuring the low-temperature transcriptome and freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongSig; Park, Sunchung; Gilmour, Sarah J; Thomashow, Michael F

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies in Arabidopsis thaliana established roles for CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR 3 (CAMTA3) in the rapid cold induction of CRT/DRE BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes CBF1 and CBF2, and the repression of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis at warm temperature. Here we show that CAMTA1 and CAMTA2 work in concert with CAMTA3 at low temperature (4°C) to induce peak transcript levels of CBF1, CBF2 and CBF3 at 2 h, contribute to up-regulation of approximately 15% of the genes induced at 24 h, most of which fall outside the CBF pathway, and increase plant freezing tolerance. In addition, CAMTA1, CAMTA2 and CAMTA3 function together to inhibit SA biosynthesis at warm temperature (22°C). However, SA levels increase in Arabidopsis plants that are exposed to low temperature for more than 1 week. We show that this chilling-induced SA biosynthesis proceeds through the isochorismate synthase (ICS) pathway, with cold induction of ICS1 (which encodes ICS), and two genes encoding transcription factors that positively regulate ICS1 - CBP60g and SARD1 -, paralleling SA accumulation. The three CAMTA proteins effectively repress the accumulation of ICS1, CBP60g and SARD1 transcripts at warm temperature but not at low temperature. This impairment of CAMTA function may involve post-transcriptional regulation, as CAMTA transcript levels did not decrease at low temperature. Salicylic acid biosynthesis at low temperature did not contribute to freezing tolerance, but had a major role in configuring the transcriptome, including the induction of 'defense response' genes, suggesting the possible existence of a pre-emptive defense strategy programmed by prolonged chilling temperatures. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effectiveness of salicylic acid paste for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows compared with tetracycline spray and hydrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Innerebner, Carmen; Pesenhofer, Robert; Hangl, Andreas; Tichy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of salicylic acid paste (PASTE) was tested for topical treatment of 25 acute and 25 chronic digital dermatitis (DD) lesions. Control groups with the same number of acute and chronic DD lesions were treated with topical oxytetracycline spray (SPRAY) and by washing only with water (HYDRO) respectively. The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a pain score, the healing rate, the lesion size and other parameters. Pre-treatment and control examinations were carried out on day 0, 4, 14 and 21. In the PASTE group, 76.0% of acute DD lesions were pain free and 64.0% of acute DD lesions were healed on day 21 showing a normal skin surface (MO). Only 28.0% of acute DD lesions treated with SPRAY and 16.0% treated with HYDRO had healed on day 21. A significantly higher healing rate was revealed in acute lesions for the PASTE compared to the HYDRO group (p < 0.05) for all three re-checks, and for the PASTE group compared with the SPRAY group (p < 0.05) for day 4 and day 14. Healing rates of chronic DD lesions were higher in the PASTE group with 44.0% on day 14 and 36.0% on day 21, compared with 16.0% in the SPRAY and 32.0% in the HYDRO group on day 14, and 20.0% (SPRAY) and 28.0% (HYDRO) on day 21 respectively. The recurrence rate of lesions after they had healed during the study period was 14.5% in total. Digital dermatitis lesions treated with salicylic acid paste and a wrap showed significantly higher healing rates within the study period, odds ratios for healing of acute lesions with PASTE were 4.5 to 6.7 times higher than with SPRAY, and 9.3 to 36.4 higher compared with HYDRO.

  2. Transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clays for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine from water.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2012-11-15

    Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are considered emerging contaminants, and their efficient removal from water is going to be a challenging endeavor. Microporous adsorbent materials, including pillared clays, could offer a potential solution if tailored properly. Although pillared clays have been employed previously for the removal of organics, the effective removal of PPCPs will only be possible if their surface and textural properties are manipulated from the bottom-up. This work presents the use of modified inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine. The IOCs have been modified with Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Ni(2+) to induce complexation-like adsorbate-adsorbent interactions at ambient conditions, in an attempt to provide an efficient and yet reversible driving force in the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, the IOCs were partially calcined to increase effective surface area by an order of magnitude while preserving some hydrophobicity. In general, the Ni(2+) IOCs exhibited the greatest interaction with salicylic and clofibric acids, respectively, while the Co(2+) adsorbents excelled at adsorbing caffeine at low concentrations. All of the metal-modified IOCs showed comparable adsorption capacities for the case of carbamazepine, probably due to the lack of availability of particular functional groups in this adsorbate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycolic acid peels versus salicylic-mandelic acid peels in active acne vulgaris and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sinha, Surabhi; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Many clinicians have used glycolic acid (GA) peels for facial acne, scarring, and hyperpigmentation, mainly in lighter skin types. Salicylic-mandelic acid combination peels (SMPs) are a newer modality, and there have been no well-controlled studies comparing them with other conventional agents. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of 35% GA peels and 20% salicylic-10% mandelic acid peels in active acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation. Forty-four patients with facial acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation were divided into two groups, with one receiving GA peels and the other SMPs at fortnightly intervals for six sessions. The treating physician performed objective evaluation of treatment outcomes. The patients, the treating physician, and an independent observer made subjective assessments. Side effects of both agents were also noted. Both the agents were effective, but SMPs had a higher efficacy for most active acne lesions (p<.001) and hyperpigmentation (p<.001). Side effects were also lesser with SMPs. Both the agents were effective and safe in Indian patients, with SMPs being better for active acne and post-acne hyperpigmentation.

  4. ImprimatinC1, a novel plant immune-priming compound, functions as a partial agonist of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from pathogens. They confer durable resistance to a broad range of diseases by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants. To obtain leads regarding useful compounds, we have screened a chemical library using an established method that allows selective identification of immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the characterisation of one of the isolated chemicals, imprimatinC1, and its structural derivative imprimatinC2. ImprimatinC1 functions as a weak analogue of salicylic acid (SA) and activates the expression of defence-related genes. However, it lacks antagonistic activity toward jasmonic acid. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that imprimatinC1 and C2 can be metabolised to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 3,4-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively, to function in Arabidopsis. We also found that imprimatinC1 and C2 and their potential functional metabolites acted as partial agonists of SA. Thus, imprimatinC compounds could be useful tools for dissecting SA-dependent signal transduction pathways.

  5. ImprimatinC1, a novel plant immune-priming compound, functions as a partial agonist of salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from pathogens. They confer durable resistance to a broad range of diseases by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants. To obtain leads regarding useful compounds, we have screened a chemical library using an established method that allows selective identification of immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the characterisation of one of the isolated chemicals, imprimatinC1, and its structural derivative imprimatinC2. ImprimatinC1 functions as a weak analogue of salicylic acid (SA) and activates the expression of defence-related genes. However, it lacks antagonistic activity toward jasmonic acid. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that imprimatinC1 and C2 can be metabolised to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 3,4-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively, to function in Arabidopsis. We also found that imprimatinC1 and C2 and their potential functional metabolites acted as partial agonists of SA. Thus, imprimatinC compounds could be useful tools for dissecting SA-dependent signal transduction pathways. PMID:23050089

  6. Chemical Inactivation of the Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase Allows for the Accumulation of Salicylic Acid in Elicited Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Guillaume A.; Nikov, Georgi N.; Alworth, William L.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2002-01-01

    The cinnamate (CA) 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the second step of the main phenylpropanoid pathway, leading to the synthesis of lignin, pigments, and many defense molecules. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential trigger of plant disease resistance. Some plant species can synthesize SA from CA by a mechanism not yet understood. A set of specific inhibitors of the C4H, including competitive, tight-binding, mechanism-based irreversible, and quasi-irreversible inhibitors have been developed with the main objective to redirect cinnamic acid to the synthesis of SA. Competitive inhibitors such as 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid and the heme-coordinating compound 3-(4-pyridyl)-acrylic acid allowed strong inhibition of C4H activity in a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright Yellow [BY]) cell suspension culture. This inhibition was however rapidly relieved either because of substrate accumulation or because of inhibitor metabolism. Substrate analogs bearing a methylenedioxo function such as piperonylic acid (PIP) or a terminal acetylene such as 4-propynyloxybenzoic acid (4PB), 3-propynyloxybenzoic acid, and 4-propynyloxymethylbenzoic acid are potent mechanism-based inactivators of the C4H. PIP and 4PB, the best inactivators in vitro, were also efficient inhibitors of the enzyme in BY cells. Inhibition was not reversed 46 h after cell treatment. Cotreatment of BY cells with the fungal elicitor β-megaspermin and PIP or 4PB led to a dramatic increase in SA accumulation. PIP and 4PB do not trigger SA accumulation in nonelicited cells in which the SA biosynthetic pathway is not activated. Mechanism-based C4H inactivators, thus, are promising tools for the elucidation of the CA-derived SA biosynthetic pathway and for the potentiation of plant defense. PMID:12376665

  7. Disruption of Abscisic Acid Signaling Constitutively Activates Arabidopsis Resistance to the Necrotrophic Fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; López, Gemma; Ramos, Brisa; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Riviere, Marie-Pierre; Llorente, Francisco; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Miedes, Eva; Estevez, José Manuel; Grant, Murray; Molina, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Plant resistance to necrotrophic fungi is regulated by a complex set of signaling pathways that includes those mediated by the hormones salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA). The role of ABA in plant resistance remains controversial, as positive and negative regulatory functions have been described depending on the plant-pathogen interaction analyzed. Here, we show that ABA signaling negatively regulates Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Arabidopsis plants impaired in ABA biosynthesis, such as the aba1-6 mutant, or in ABA signaling, like the quadruple pyr/pyl mutant (pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4), were more resistant to P. cucumerina than wild-type plants. In contrast, the hab1-1abi1-2abi2-2 mutant impaired in three phosphatases that negatively regulate ABA signaling displayed an enhanced susceptibility phenotype to this fungus. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of aba1-6 and wild-type plants revealed that the ABA pathway negatively regulates defense genes, many of which are controlled by the SA, JA, or ET pathway. In line with these data, we found that aba1-6 resistance to P. cucumerina was partially compromised when the SA, JA, or ET pathway was disrupted in this mutant. Additionally, in the aba1-6 plants, some genes encoding cell wall-related proteins were misregulated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and biochemical analyses of cell walls from aba1-6 and wild-type plants revealed significant differences in their Fourier transform infrared spectratypes and uronic acid and cellulose contents. All these data suggest that ABA signaling has a complex function in Arabidopsis basal resistance, negatively regulating SA/JA/ET-mediated resistance to necrotrophic fungi. PMID:23037505

  8. A mutational analysis of the ABA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana highlights the involvement of ABA in vegetative development.

    PubMed

    Barrero, José María; Piqueras, Pedro; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Serrano, Ramón; Rodríguez, Pedro L; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2005-08-01

    Much of the literature on the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) describes it as a mediator in triggering plant responses to environmental stimuli, as well as a growth inhibitor. ABA-deficient mutants, however, display a stunted phenotype even under well-watered conditions and high relative humidity, which suggests that growth promotion may also be one of the roles of endogenous ABA. Zeaxanthin epoxidase, the product of the ABA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, catalyses the epoxidation of zeaxanthin to antheraxanthin and violaxanthin, generating the epoxycarotenoid precursor of the ABA biosynthetic pathway. This paper gives a description of the molecular and phenotypic characterization of a large series of mutant alleles of the ABA1 gene, which cause different degrees of ABA deficiency, four of them previously isolated (aba1-1, aba1-3, aba1-4, and aba1-6) and the remaining five novel (sañ1-1, sañ1-2, sañ1-3, sañ1-4, and sre3). Molecular analysis of these alleles provides insights into the domains in which they compromise zeaxanthin epoxidase function. The size of the leaves, inflorescences, and flowers of these mutants is reduced, and their rosettes have lower fresh and dry weights than their wild types, as a result of a diminished cell size. Low concentrations of exogenous ABA increase the fresh weight of mutant and wild-type plants, as well as the dry weight of the mutants. The leaves of aba1 mutants are abnormally shaped and fail to develop clearly distinct spongy and palisade mesophyll layers. Taken together, these phenotypic traits indicate, as suggested by previous authors, that ABA acts as a growth promoter during vegetative development. The abnormal shape and internal structure of the leaves of aba1 mutants suggests, in addition, a role for ABA in organogenesis.

  9. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug releasing 5-aminosalicylic acid and benzocaine, ameliorates TNBS-induced rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joon; Kim, Wooseong; Lee, Sunyoung; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Yunjin

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics have beneficial effects on colitis. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester (Dex-5-ESA), designed as a polymeric colon-specific prodrug liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the large intestine, was prepared and its therapeutic activity against colitis was evaluated using a TNBS-induced rat colitis model. Dex-5-ESA liberated 5-ASA and benzocaine in the cecal contents while (bio)chemically stable in the small intestinal contents and mucosa. Oral administration of Dex-5-ESA (equivalent to 10 mg 5-ASA/kg, twice a day) alleviated colonic injury and reduced MPO activity in the inflamed colon. In parallel, pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2, iNOS and CINC-3, elevated by TNBS-induced colitis, were substantially diminished in the inflamed colon. Dex-5-ESA was much more effective for the treatment of colitis than 5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ESA) that may not deliver benzocaine to the large intestine. Our data suggest that Dex-5-ESA is a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the target site (large intestine), probably exerting anti-colitic effects by combined action of 5-ASA and benzocaine.

  10. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of calcium and salicylic acid on quality retention in relation to antioxidative enzymes in radish stored under refrigerated conditions.

    PubMed

    Devi, Jomika; Bhatia, Surekha; Alam, M S; Dhillon, Tarsem Singh

    2018-03-01

    Effect of post harvest treatments with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) on physiological and biochemical parameters in relation to activities of antioxidative enzymes were investigated in radish. Radish of variety Punjab Safed Mooli 2 was harvested, washed and treated with CaCl 2 (1, 1.5 and 2%) or SA (1, 1.5 and 2 mM). Treated as well as untreated radish were placed in open trays and stored under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C, 90% RH) conditions for 42 days. Treatment of radish with CaCl 2 and SA slowed down changes in physiological weight, colour, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titrable acidity, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Treated samples exhibited higher enhancement in activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydro-ascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than untreated samples. However SA was found to be more effective in slowing down the metabolic activities of radish as compared to CaCl 2 treatment. Among all the treatments, 1.5 mM SA maintained the quality parameters to greater extent probably by reducing the oxidative stress to larger extent due to highest activities of antioxidative enzymes and can be used to enhance the shelf life of radish during refrigerated storage.

  12. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  13. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  14. Comparative evaluation of topical calcipotriol versus coal tar and salicylic acid ointment in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Gupta, Surabhi; Abidi, Afroz; Krishna, Arvind

    2013-08-01

    Calcipotriol is a newer topical treatment option available for plaque psoriasis and coal tar being one of the oldest treatment and still in use. To evaluate and compare the differences in terms of efficacy, safety and relapse with Calcipotriol 0.005% (50 mcg/gm) and 6% coal tar and 3% salicylic ointment in patients with Plaque psoriasis. SETTING and Study conducted on 60 patients of plaque psoriasis, who attended the skin OPD in our hospital. The patients with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis were selected. 60 patients were enrolled for the study after obtaining informed consent. Subjects were asked to apply Calcipotriol 0.005% (50 mcg/gm) (Heximar Win care) twice a day on the right side plaques and on left side plaques, Petroleum jelly (Vaseline) in the morning and 6% coal tar and 3% salicylic ointment (Protar® Percos) at nighttime. PASI score was used to assess the reponse to therapy at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th week. After treatment subjects were observed for 6 weeks for any relapse. It was done by paired t-test and independent sample t-test. The results showed that statistically significant difference was seen in the mean percentage reduction of PASI score between both the groups, at all the assessment visits, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, the mean percentage reduction at 2 weeks for calcipotriol being 21±12.06 and for coal tar being 13.44±11.19 (P=0.000), at 4 weeks for calcipotriol was 40±16.71 and for coal tar 25±99 (P=0.000), at 6 weeks for calcipotriol was 53.99+-22.43 and for coal tar 41±21.23 (P=0.002), at 8 weeks for calcipotriol was 62.73±24.04 and for coal tar was 51.53±23.27 (P=0.11). Relapse was seen in 5/60 (8.3%) of patients on calcipotriol treated side and 9/60 (15%) of patients with coal tar treated side. Thus it can be concluded that calcipotriol cream is more efficacious when compared with coal tar and does have a quick response. It is well tolerated and acceptable cosmetically.

  15. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ghazijahani, Noushin; Hadavi, Ebrahim; Jeong, Byoung R.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (CA; 0 and 7 mM) and two levels of salicylic acid (SA; 0 and 1 mM) combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength) on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. SA alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, produced more biomass, and showed higher values of Fv/Fm. Some changes in the uptake pattern of some nutrients, especially boron and sulfur, were noticed. Higher boron concentrations in leaves were in plants sprayed with a combination of 7 mM CA and 1 mM of SA. Applying combination of CA and SA was more effective than using them individually that suggests an effective synergism between them. PMID:25400645

  16. Effects of postharvest salicylic acid dipping on Alternaria rot and disease resistance of jujube fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiankang; Yan, Jiaqi; Zhao, Yumei; Jiang, Weibo

    2013-10-01

    Considerable postharvest losses caused by Alternaria alternata often occur in Chinese jujube fruit, and synthetic fungicides have been widely used to protect the fruit from Alternaria rot. However, the potential harmfulness of fungicide residues to human health and the environment cannot be ignored. This study was conducted to develop an alternative approach for controlling postharvest disease by inducing fruit resistance with salicylic acid (SA) dipping. Disease incidence and lesion area in the jujube fruit inoculated with A. alternata were significantly inhibited by 2 and 2.5 mmol L(-1) SA dipping. Naturally infected decay rate and index in jujubes were also significantly reduced by SA dipping during long-term storage at 0°C. SA enhanced activities of the main defense-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase in the fruit during storage. SA strongly decreased catalase activity but increased superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content in jujubes. The beneficial effects of SA on fruit protection may be due to its ability to activate several highly coordinated defence-related systems in jujubes, instead of its fungicidal activity. The findings indicated that application of SA would offer an alternative approach that helps to control postharvest disease and maintain storage quality in fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Reprint of: Decomposition of PPCPs by ultrasound-assisted advanced Fenton reaction: A case study with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Savun-Hekimoğlu, Başak; Ince, Nilsun H

    2018-01-01

    The study is about the degradation of a widely used pharmaceutical and personal care product-salicylic acid by sonocatalysis, and the experimental design of the reaction system. The first part of the study consists of sonication (572kHz) in the presence of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with or without H 2 O 2 to select and optimize the operational parameters as frequency, time, initial solute concentration, dose of reagents and pH. The second part consists of the use of response surface methodology and multiple regression to develop an experimental design modeland to assess the individual and interactive effects of pH, power (P o ), ZVI dose and H 2 O 2 . The results showed that the optimal conditions predicted by the model without defining any restrictions are: pH=2.0, P o =120W, ZVI=24mgL -1 , which provide total salicyclic acid and 48% TOC decay. However, the prediction implies intensive consumption of energy and reagents, and must therefore be modified by restricting the value of TOC decay to a lower value and that of pH to a higher one. Cross-validation tests showed that the prediction accuracy of the model was considerably high with 5.0-9.4% deviation from the experimental data. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Response of tobacco to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 is mainly dependent on salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Li; Cai, Guohua; Jiang, Shanshan; Sun, Liping; Li, Dequan

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) was the first pathogen to be demonstrated to infect Arabidopsis and to cause disease symptoms in the laboratory setting. However, the defense response to Pst DC3000 was unclear in tobacco. In this report, the expression profiles of twelve defense response-related genes were analyzed after treatment with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and pathogen Pst DC3000 by qRT-PCR. According to our results, it could be presented that the genes primarily induced by SA were also induced to higher levels after Pst DC3000 infection. SA accumulation could be induced to a higher level than that of JA after Pst DC3000 infection. In addition, SA could result in hypersensitive response (HR), which did not completely depend on accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These results indicated that tobacco mainly depended on SA signaling pathway rather than on JA signaling pathway in response to Pst DC3000. Further study demonstrated that JA could significantly inhibit the accumulation of SA and the generation of the HR induced by Pst DC3000. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Mediator subunit SFR6/MED16 controls defence gene expression mediated by salicylic acid and jasmonate responsive pathways.

    PubMed

    Wathugala, Deepthi L; Hemsley, Piers A; Moffat, Caroline S; Cremelie, Pieter; Knight, Marc R; Knight, Heather

    2012-07-01

    • Arabidopsis SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 (SFR6) controls cold- and drought-inducible gene expression and freezing- and osmotic-stress tolerance. Its identification as a component of the MEDIATOR transcriptional co-activator complex led us to address its involvement in other transcriptional responses. • Gene expression responses to Pseudomonas syringae, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were investigated in three sfr6 mutant alleles by quantitative real-time PCR and susceptibility to UV-C irradiation and Pseudomonas infection were assessed. • sfr6 mutants were more susceptible to both Pseudomonas syringae infection and UV-C irradiation. They exhibited correspondingly weaker PR (pathogenesis-related) gene expression than wild-type Arabidopsis following these treatments or after direct application of SA, involved in response to both UV-C and Pseudomonas infection. Other genes, however, were induced normally in the mutants by these treatments. sfr6 mutants were severely defective in expression of plant defensin genes in response to JA; ectopic expression of defensin genes was provoked in wild-type but not sfr6 by overexpression of ERF5. • SFR6/MED16 controls both SA- and JA-mediated defence gene expression and is necessary for tolerance of Pseudomonas syringae infection and UV-C irradiation. It is not, however, a universal regulator of stress gene transcription and is likely to mediate transcriptional activation of specific regulons only. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, R; Heise, A-M; Persicke, M; Müller, C

    2014-07-01

    The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant-herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink-source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H. virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. S-Nitrosoglutathione is a component of wound- and salicylic acid-induced systemic responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Espunya, M Carme; De Michele, Roberto; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Martínez, M Carmen

    2012-05-01

    S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a bioactive, stable, and mobile reservoir of nitric oxide (NO), and an important player in defence responses to herbivory and pathogen attack in plants. It has been demonstrated previously that GSNO reductase (GSNOR) is the main enzyme responsible for the in vivo control of intracellular levels of GSNO. In this study, the role of S-nitrosothiols, in particular of GSNO, in systemic defence responses in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated further. It was shown that GSNO levels increased rapidly and uniformly in injured Arabidopsis leaves, whereas in systemic leaves GSNO was first detected in vascular tissues and later spread over the parenchyma, suggesting that GSNO is involved in the transmission of the wound mobile signal through the vascular tissue. Moreover, GSNO accumulation was required to activate the jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent wound responses, whereas the alternative JA-independent wound-signalling pathway did not involve GSNO. Furthermore, extending previous work on the role of GSNOR in pathogenesis, it was shown that GSNO acts synergistically with salicylic acid in systemic acquired resistance activation. In conclusion, GSNOR appears to be a key regulator of systemic defence responses, in both wounding and pathogenesis.

  2. Low concentrations of salicylic acid delay methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence by up-regulating nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbin; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2016-09-01

    In plants, extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in pathogen defenses, but this crosstalk has scarcely been addressed during senescence. In this study, the effect of SA application on methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced leaf senescence was assessed. We found that low concentrations of SA (1-50 μM) played a delayed role against the senescence promoted by MeJA. Furthermore, low concentrations of SA enhanced plant antioxidant defenses and restricted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in MeJA-treated leaves. When applied simultaneously with MeJA, low concentrations of SA triggered a nitric oxide (NO) burst, and the elevated NO levels were linked to the nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1)-dependent pathway via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The ability of SA to up-regulate plant antioxidant defenses, reduce ROS accumulation, and suppress leaf senescence was lost in NO-deficient Atnoa1 plants. In a converse manner, exogenous addition of NO donors increased the plant antioxidant capacity and lowered the ROS levels in MeJA-treated leaves. Taken together, the results indicate that SA at low concentrations counteracts MeJA-induced leaf senescence through NOA1-dependent NO signaling and strengthening of the antioxidant defense. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Enhanced daidzin production from jasmonic and acetyl salicylic acid elicited hairy root cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Mohd; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Giri, Charu Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Daidzin (7-O-glucoside of daidzein) has several pharmacological benefits in herbal remedy, as antioxidant and shown antidipsotropic activity. Hairy root culture of Psoralea corylifolia L. was developed for biomass and enhanced daidzin production using signalling compounds such as jasmonic acid (JA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Best response of 2.8-fold daidzin (5.09% DW) with 1 μM JA treatment after second week and 7.3-fold (3.43% DW) with 10 μM JA elicitation after 10th week was obtained from hairy roots compared to untreated control. ASA at 10 μM promoted 1.7-fold increase in daidzin (1.49% DW) content after seventh week compared to control (0.83% DW). Addition of 25 μM ASA resulted in 1.44% DW daidzin (1.5-fold increase) with 0.91% DW in control after fifth week and 1.44% DW daidzin (2.3-fold increase) after eighth week when compared to untreated control (0.62% DW). Reduced biomass with increased daidzin content was facilitated by elicited hairy root cultures.

  4. Actikerall™ (5-Fluorouracil 0.5% and Salicylic Acid 10%) Topical Solution for Patient-directed Treatment of Actinic Keratoses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H P; Rivers, J K

    2016-05-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK), a common cutaneous lesion with the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinoma, has traditionally been treated with ablative and/or surgical procedures. Recently, a topical formulation combining 0.5% 5-fluorouracil with 10% salicylic acid (5-FU-SA) was introduced in Europe under the trade name Actikerall™ for the treatment of grade I/II AKs. In a single randomized phase III trial, 5-FU-SA was shown to be superior to diclofenac 3% gel in hyaluronic acid, as measured by the histological clearance of one defined lesion (72% vs. 59.1%) and by complete clinical clearance (55.4% vs. 32.0%). 5-FU-SA should be applied once daily to a total area of up to 25 cm(2), which may include the lesion(s) and a small area of surrounding skin (rim of healthy skin should not exceed 0.5 cm), for up to 12 weeks. The most common side effects are local inflammation and pruritus at the application site, and no serious adverse effects have been reported to date. Now commercially available in Canada, 5-FU-SA represents a patientapplied therapeutic option for the treatment of both overt and subclinical AKs.

  5. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Franks, Peter J.; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum. These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P. proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata. In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. PMID:28232585

  6. Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Prithiviraj, B.; Bais, H. P.; Weir, T.; Suresh, B.; Najarro, E. H.; Dayakar, B. V.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 showed reduced attachment and biofilm formation on the roots of the Arabidopsis mutants lox2 and cpr5-2, which produce elevated amounts of SA, as well as on wild-type Arabidopsis plants primed with exogenous SA, a treatment known to enhance endogenous SA concentration. Salicylic acid at a concentration that did not inhibit PA14 growth was sufficient to significantly affect the ability of the bacteria to attach and form biofilm communities on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, SA down regulated three known virulence factors of PA14: pyocyanin, protease, and elastase. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa produced more pyocyanin when infiltrated into leaves of the Arabidopsis transgenic line NahG, which accumulates less SA than wild-type plants. This finding suggests that endogenous SA plays a role in down regulating the synthesis and secretion of pyocyanin in vivo. To further test if SA directly affects the virulence of P. aeruginosa, we used the Caenorhabiditis elegans-P. aeruginosa infection model. The addition of SA to P. aeruginosa lawns significantly diminished the bacterium's ability to kill the worms, without affecting the accumulation of bacteria inside the nematodes' guts, suggesting that SA negatively affects factors that influence the virulence of P. aeruginosa. We employed microarray technology to identify SA target genes. These analyses showed that SA treatment affected expression of 331 genes. It selectively repressed transcription of exoproteins and other virulence factors, while it had no effect on expression of housekeeping

  7. Novel salicylic acid-oriented thiourea-type receptors as colorimetric chemosensor: Synthesis, characterizations and selective naked-eye recognition properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Cao, Xiufang; Chen, Changshui; Ke, Shaoyong

    2012-10-01

    Based on the salicylic acid backbone, three highly sensitive and selective colorimetric chemosensors with an acylthiourea binding unit have been designed, synthesized and characterized. These chemosensors have been utilized for selective recognition of fluoride anions in dry DMSO solution by typical spectroscopic titration techniques. Furthermore, the obtained chemosensors AR1-3 have shown naked-eye sensitivity for detection of biologically important fluoride ion over other anions in solution.

  8. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized emulsions: Effect of polymer type and pH on release and topical delivery of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Combrinck, Johann; Otto, Anja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-06-01

    Emulsions are widely used as topical formulations in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. They are thermodynamically unstable and require emulsifiers for stabilization. Studies have indicated that emulsifiers could affect topical delivery of actives, and this study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of different polymers, applied as emulsifiers, as well as the effects of pH on the release and topical delivery of the active. O/w emulsions were prepared by the layer-by-layer technique, with whey protein forming the first layer around the oil droplets, while either chitosan or carrageenan was subsequently adsorbed to the protein at the interface. Additionally, the emulsions were prepared at three different pH values to introduce different charges to the polymers. The active ingredient, salicylic acid, was incorporated into the oil phase of the emulsions. Physical characterization of the resulting formulations, i.e., droplet size, zeta potential, stability, and turbidity in the water phase, was performed. Release studies were conducted, after which skin absorption studies were performed on the five most stable emulsions, by using Franz type diffusion cells and utilizing human, abdominal skin membranes. It was found that an increase in emulsion droplet charge could negatively affect the release of salicylic acid from these formulations. Contrary, positively charged emulsion droplets were found to enhance dermal and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from emulsions. It was hypothesized that electrostatic complex formation between the emulsifier and salicylic acid could affect its release, whereas electrostatic interaction between the emulsion droplets and skin could influence dermal/transdermal delivery of the active.

  9. Inhibition of soybean and potato lipoxygenases by bhilawanols from bhilawan (Semecarpus anacardium) nut shell liquid and some synthetic salicylic acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Nagabhushana, Kyatanahalli S; Umamaheshwari, S; Tocoli, Felismino E; Prabhu, Sandeep K; Green, Ivan R; Ramadoss, Candadai S

    2002-08-01

    Bhilawanol diene (3) isolated from bhilawan nut shell liquid was found to be a potent inhibitor of both soybean and potato lipoxygenases with IC50 values of 0.85 microM and 1.1 microM, respectively. However, the monoene (2) and saturated (1) bhilawanols exhibited relatively lower inhibitory activity. In addition, inhibition studies with synthetic analogues of salicylic acid (4-8) suggested that the unsaturated lipophilic side chain may be an absolute requirement for inhibitory activity.

  10. QM/MM Free Energy Simulations of Salicylic Acid Methyltransferase: Effects of Stabilization of TS-like Structures on Substrate Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Xu, Qin; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Salicylic acid methyltransferases (SAMTs) synthesize methyl salicylate (MeSA) using salicylate as the substrate. MeSA synthesized in plants may function as an airborne signal to activate the expression of defense-related genes and could also be a critical mobile signaling molecule that travels from the site of plant infection to establish systemic immunity in the induction of disease resistance. Here the results of QM/MM free energy simulations for the methyl transfer process in Clarkia breweri SAMT (CbSAMT) are reported to determine the origin of the substrate specificity of SAMTs. The free energy barrier for the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to 4-hydroxybenzoatemore » in CbSAMT is found to be about 5 kcal/mol higher than that from AdoMet to salicylate, consistent with the experimental observations. It is suggested that the relatively high efficiency for the methylation of salicylate compared to 4-hydroxybenzoate is due, at least in part, to the reason that a part of the stabilization of the transition state (TS) configuration is already reflected in the reactant complex, presumably, through the binding. The results seem to indicate that the creation of the substrate complex (e.g., through mutagenesis and substrate modifications) with its structure closely resembling TS might be fruitful for improving the catalytic efficiency for some enzymes. The results show that the computer simulations may provide important insights into the origin of the substrate specificity for the SABATH family and could be used to help experimental efforts in generating engineered enzymes with altered substrate specificity.« less

  11. Report on cascade energy relaxation from PVP to Tb3+:Bi2SiO5 nanophosphor through salicylic acid in composite polymeric film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Pushpa; Dwivedi, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The present article reports structural and spectroscopic properties of Tb:Bi2SiO5 nanophosphors dispersed in Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer film, in presence of Salicylic acid (SA) molecule, which acts as a sensitizer. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction patterns, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared and Excitation and photoluminescence techniques. The mean crystallite size of Tb3+:Bi2SiO5 nanophosphor and Tb3+:Bi2SiO5 in Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer composite was estimated ∼22 nm and ∼28 nm, respectively. We have report atleast two times enhancement in Tb3+ ions emission intensity due to the efficient energy transfer from salicylic acid molecule to Tb ions. In addition to energy transfer from salicylic acid, the Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymeric host was also reported to serve as a sensitizer for SA molecule and Tb3+ ions through a cascade energy relaxation process while exciting with 248 nm photons. On 248 nm photon excitation, atleast five improvements in Tb3+ ion emission intensity are reported. Presence of SA molecule facilitates precise colour tuning as obvious from the CIE coordinates.

  12. Concomitant treatment of psoriasis of the hands and feet with pulsed dye laser and topical calcipotriol, salicylic acid, or both: a prospective open study in 41 patients.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Jaap; Tank, Bhupendra; Bjerring, Peter J; Koetsveld, Suzanne; Neumann, Martino

    2006-02-01

    Psoriasis of the hands and feet is a chronic disease which is often resistant to the usual topical therapies. It has considerable morbidity and seriously affects the quality of life of patients. We sought to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of psoriasis of the hands and feet. In all, 41 patients with therapy-resistant psoriasis of the hands and feet were treated once every 4 to 6 weeks with PDL at 585-nm wavelength, 450-microsecond pulse duration, 7-mm spot diameter, and 5- to 6.5-J/cm2 fluence. Calcipotriol ointment and salicylic acid 5% to 10% ointment were used as keratolytic agents. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by blinded comparison of photographs of the lesions taken before and after PDL treatment in each patient. A good to very good improvement in the lesions was observed in 76% of the patients after treatment. An average duration of remission was 11 months. Side effects were transient purpura, moderate discomfort during the treatment, transient hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, and incidental transient crustae. This was an open prospective study with a limited number of patients who were concomitantly treated with calcipotriol and salicylic acid ointment. Patients with photointolerance, on medication with phototoxic or photoallergic drugs, and with widespread psoriasis were excluded. Concomitant treatment with PDL and topical calcipotriol, salicylic acid, or both was a satisfactory modality for treating psoriasis of the hands and feet. There was a subjective improvement in the symptoms and quality of life in all patients.

  13. Cellulase applied to the leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum) upregulates the production of salicylic and azelaic acids.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chizuru; Oka, Norikuni; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    Treating the leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum) with an aqueous solution of cellulase resulted in a four-fold increase in the salicylic acid level compared to a control plant. The level of endogenous azelaic acid was also elevated by the cellulase treatment. Azelaic acid has recently been reported to act as a mobile "priming" agent to arm plants against pathogenic attack. Our results are consistent with this and that the cellulase treatment enhanced the ability of sweet pepper to withstand viral attack.

  14. Different mechanisms of Trichoderma virens-mediated resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt involve the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in the regulation of growth and activation of the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by the development of a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or with cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under glasshouse conditions; this resulted in significantly lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in those treated with CF. To dissect the pathways associated with this response, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling in BGS- and CF-induced resistance was evaluated using JA- and SA-impaired tomato lines. We observed that JA-deficient mutant def1 plants were susceptible to Fusarium pathogen when they were treated with BGS. However, wild-type (WT) BGS-treated tomato plants showed a higher JA level and significantly lower disease incidence. SA-deficient mutant NahG plants treated with CF were also found to be susceptible to Fusarium pathogen and displayed low SA levels, whereas WT CF-treated tomato plants exhibited moderately lower disease levels and substantially higher SA levels. Expression of the JA-responsive defensin gene PDF1 was induced in WT tomato plants treated with BGS, whereas the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related protein 1 acidic (PR1a) gene was up-regulated in WT tomato plants treated with CF. These results suggest that TriV_JSB100 BGS and CF differentially induce JA and SA signalling cascades for the elicitation of Fusarium oxysporum resistance in tomato. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation increases phenolic synthesis in clover roots via hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and nitric oxide signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Quan; Yao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can increase the host resistance to pathogens via promoted phenolic synthesis, however, the signaling pathway responsible for it still remains unclear. In this study, in order to reveal the signaling molecules involved in this process, we inoculated Trifolium repense L. with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, and monitored the contents of phenolics and signaling molecules (hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), salicylic acid (SA), and nitric oxide (NO)) in roots, measured the activities of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the expression of pal and chs genes. Results demonstrated that AMF colonization promoted the phenolic synthesis, in parallel with the increase in related enzyme activity and gene expression. Meanwhile, the accumulation of all three signaling molecules was also up-regulated by AMF. This study suggested that AMF increased the phenolic synthesis in roots probably via signaling pathways of H(2)O(2), SA and NO in a signaling cascade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Chitosan-functionalised poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) core-shell microgels as drug delivery carriers: salicylic acid loading and release.

    PubMed

    Mahattanadul, Natshisa; Sunintaboon, Panya; Sirithip, Piyawan; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the evaluation of chitosan-functionalised poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (CS/PHEMA) core-shell microgels as drug delivery carriers. CS/PHEMA microgels were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerisation with N,N '-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The study on drug loading, using salicylic acid (SA) as a model drug, was performed. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency (EE) increased as drug-to-microgel ratio was increased. Higher EE can be achieved with the increase in degree of crosslinking, by increasing the amount of MBA from 0.01 g to 0.03 g. In addition, the highest EE (61.1%) was observed at pH 3. The highest release of SA (60%) was noticed at pH 2.4, while the lowest one (49.4%) was obtained at pH 7.4. Moreover, the highest release of SA was enhanced by the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. The pH- and ionic-sensitivity of CS/PHEMA could be useful as a sustained release delivery device, especially for oral delivery.

  17. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bivi, M Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M S; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-10-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  18. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis in response to salicylic acid- and methyl jasmonate-mediated heat resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongbin; Zou, Tonglei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Culturing the economically important macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) is limited due to the high temperatures in the summertime on the southern Chinese coast. Previous studies have demonstrated that two phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), can alleviate the adverse effects of high-temperature stress on Gp. lemaneiformis. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying SA- and MJ-mediated heat tolerance, we performed comprehensive analyses of transcriptome-wide gene expression profiles using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. A total of 14,644 unigenes were assembled, and 10,501 unigenes (71.71%) were annotated to the reference databases. In the SA, MJ and SA/MJ treatment groups, 519, 830, and 974 differentially expressed unigenes were detected, respectively. Unigenes related to photosynthesis and glycometabolism were enriched by SA, while unigenes associated with glycometabolism, protein synthesis, heat shock and signal transduction were increased by MJ. A crosstalk analysis revealed that 216 genes were synergistically regulated, while 18 genes were antagonistically regulated by SA and MJ. The results indicated that the two phytohormones could mitigate the adverse effects of heat on multiple pathways, and they predominantly acted synergistically to resist heat stress. These results will provide new insights into how SA and MJ modulate the molecular mechanisms that counteract heat stress in algae. PMID:28464018

  19. A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants.

    PubMed

    DebRoy, Sruti; Thilmony, Roger; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Nomura, Kinya; He, Sheng Yang

    2004-06-29

    Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated host immunity plays a central role in combating microbial pathogens in plants. Inactivation of SA-mediated immunity, therefore, would be a critical step in the evolution of a successful plant pathogen. It is known that mutations in conserved effector loci (CEL) in the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae (the Delta CEL mutation), Erwinia amylovora (the dspA/E mutation), and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (the wtsE mutation) exert particularly strong negative effects on bacterial virulence in their host plants by unknown mechanisms. We found that the loss of virulence in Delta CEL and dspA/E mutants was linked to their inability to suppress cell wall-based defenses and to cause normal disease necrosis in Arabidopsis and apple host plants. The Delta CEL mutant activated SA-dependent callose deposition in wild-type Arabidopsis but failed to elicit high levels of callose-associated defense in Arabidopsis plants blocked in SA accumulation or synthesis. This mutant also multiplied more aggressively in SA-deficient plants than in wild-type plants. The hopPtoM and avrE genes in the CEL of P. syringae were found to encode suppressors of this SA-dependent basal defense. The widespread conservation of the HopPtoM and AvrE families of effectors in various bacteria suggests that suppression of SA-dependent basal immunity and promotion of host cell death are important virulence strategies for bacterial infection of plants.

  20. A protective role for nitric oxide and salicylic acid for arsenite phytotoxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Pal; Dixit, Garima; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Kumar, Navin; Dixit, Sameer; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Dhankher, Om Prakash; Norton, Gareth J; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2017-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) are important signaling molecules in plant system. In the present study both NO and SA showed a protective role against arsenite (As III ) stress in rice plants when supplied exogenously. The application of NO and SA alleviated the negative impact of As III on plant growth. Nitric oxide supplementation to As III treated plants greatly decreased arsenic (As) accumulation in the roots as well as shoots/roots translocation factor. Arsenite exposure in plants decreased the endogenous levels of NO and SA. Exogenous supplementation of SA not only enhanced endogenous level of SA but also the level of NO through enhanced nitrate reductase (NR) activity, whether As III was present or not. Exogenously supplied NO decreased the NR activity and level of endogenous NO. Arsenic accumulation was positively correlated with the expression level of OsLsi1, a transporter responsible for As III uptake. The endogenous level of NO and SA were positively correlated to each other either when As III was present or not. This close relationship indicates that NO and SA work in harmony to modulate the signaling response in As III stressed plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Manohar, Murli; Manosalva, Patricia; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3) is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i) MAPK activation, ii) defense-related gene expression, iii) callose deposition, and iv) enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast). Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA), which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor. PMID:27007252

  2. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  3. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  4. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  5. Photoinduced proton transfer coupled with energy transfer: Mechanism of sensitized luminescence of terbium ion by salicylic acid doped in polymer.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vinita; Mishra, Hirdyesh

    2008-06-28

    In the present work, excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in salicylic acid (SA) monoanion and subsequent sensitization of Tb(3+) ion in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been studied. The study has been carried out both by steady state and time domain fluorescence measurement techniques at room temperature. It is found that the SA completely ionizes and exists as monoanion in PVA. It exhibits a large Stokes shifted blue emission (10 000 cm(-1)) due to ESIPT and shows a decay time of 6.85 ns. On the other hand, Tb(3+) ion shows a very weak green emission and a decay time of approximately 641 mus in PVA film. Upon incorporating Tb(3+) ion in SA doped PVA film, both intensity and decay time of SA decrease and sensitized emission from Tb(+3) ion along with 3.8 mus rise time is observed. Energy transfer is found to take place both from excited singlet as well as triplet states. A brief description of the properties of the present system from the viewpoint of luminescent solar collector material is addressed.

  6. Integrating data on the Arabidopsis NPR1/NPR3/NPR4 salicylic acid receptors; a differentiating argument.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Xiahezi; MacLeod, Brandon J; Després, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a mandatory plant metabolite in the deployment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a broad-spectrum systemic immune response induced by local inoculation with avirulent pathogens. The NPR1 transcription co-activator is the central node positively regulating SAR. SA was the last of the major hormones to be without a known receptor. Recently, NPR1 was shown to be the direct link between SA and gene activation. This discovery seems to be controversial. NPR1 being an SA-receptor is reminiscent of the mammalian steroid receptors, which are transcription factors whose binding to DNA is dependent on the interaction with a ligand. Unlike steroid receptors, NPR1 does not bind directly to DNA, but is recruited to promoters by the TGA family of transcription factors to form an enhanceosome. In Arabidopsis, NPR1 is part of a multigene family in which two other members, NPR3 and NPR4, have also been shown to interact with SA. NPR3/NPR4 are negative regulators of immunity and act as substrate adaptors for the recruitment of NPR1 to an E3-ubiquitin ligase, leading to its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In this perspective, we will stress-test in a friendly way the current NPR1/NPR3/NPR4 model.

  7. Oxidative and Molecular Responses in Capsicum annuum L. after Hydrogen Peroxide, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; de Dalia Durán-Flores, Flor; Chapa-Oliver, Angela María; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velázquez, Rosalía V.; Guevara-González, Ramón G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress. PMID:23676352

  8. Evidence for salicylic acid signalling and histological changes in the defence response of Eucalyptus grandis to Chrysoporthe austroafricana

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Lizahn; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level. The anatomy and histochemical changes induced by wounding and inoculation were similar between the clones, suggesting that anatomical differences do not underlie their different levels of resistance. Tyloses and gum-like substances were present after inoculation and wounding, but cell death occurred only after inoculation. Hyphae of C. austroafricana were observed inside dead and living cells, suggesting that the possibility of a hemibiotrophic interaction requires further investigation. Proteomics analysis revealed the possible involvement of proteins associated with cell death, SA signalling and systemic resistance. In combination with previous information, this study forms a basis for future functional characterisation of candidate genes involved in resistance of E. grandis to C. austroafricana. PMID:28349984

  9. Reprint of: Effects of solution degassing on solubility, crystal growth and dissolution-Case study: Salicylic acid in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2017-07-01

    The influence of dissolved gases on the crystallization parameter solubility, MZW, growth and dissolution rates was investigated experimentally using degassed and non-degassed (air-saturated) solutions. The results of this study show that degassing has no effect on the solubility curve of the used model substance salicylic acid (SA) in methanol (MeOH). This reveals in the assumption that a thermodynamic effect of dissolved gases can be excluded. Growth rates were measured by means of a desupersaturation method and the results indicate that the growth rates of SA are not affected by degassing. The results of the dissolution rate measurements reveal a distinct decrease in dissolution rates for non-degassed solutions compared to degassed solutions, especially, at low temperature (10 °C). To explain this phenomenon the gas solubility, represented by oxygen, in MeOH in dependence on the SA concentration was estimated by means of Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) [1]. It was found that the oxygen solubility decreases with increasing SA content which explains the inhibition of crystal dissolution in non-degassed solution compared to degassed solution. Moreover, this kind of 'drowing-out' mechanism would not appear in growth rate measurements, where indeed no effect of degassing could be observed.

  10. Proteomic investigation of the effect of salicylic acid on Arabidopsis seed germination and establishment of early defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Belghazi, Maya; Huguet, Romain; Robin, Caroline; Moreau, Adrien; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on elicitation of defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds and seedlings was assessed by physiological measurements combined with global expression profiling (proteomics). Parallel experiments were carried out using the NahG transgenic plants expressing the bacterial gene encoding SA hydroxylase, which cannot accumulate the active form of this plant defense elicitor. SA markedly improved germination under salt stress. Proteomic analyses disclosed a specific accumulation of protein spots regulated by SA as inferred by silver-nitrate staining of two-dimensional gels, detection of carbonylated (oxidized) proteins, and neosynthesized proteins with [35S]-methionine. The combined results revealed several processes potentially affected by SA. This molecule enhanced the reinduction of the late maturation program during early stages of germination, thereby allowing the germinating seeds to reinforce their capacity to mount adaptive responses in environmental water stress. Other processes affected by SA concerned the quality of protein translation, the priming of seed metabolism, the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, and the mobilization of seed storage proteins. All the observed effects are likely to improve seed vigor. Another aspect revealed by this study concerned the oxidative stress entailed by SA in germinating seeds, as inferred from a characterization of the carbonylated (oxidized) proteome. Finally, the proteomic data revealed a close interplay between abscisic signaling and SA elicitation of seed vigor.

  11. Insights into salicylic acid responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons based on a comparative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, J H; Dong, C J; Zhang, Z G; Wang, X L; Shang, Q M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the response of cucumber seedlings to exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and gain a better understanding of SA action mechanism, we generated a proteomic profile of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons treated with exogenous SA. Analysis of 1500 protein spots from each gel revealed 63 differentially expressed proteins, 59 of which were identified successfully. Of the identified proteins, 97% matched cucumber proteins using a whole cucumber protein database based on the newly completed genome established by our laboratory. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes, including antioxidative reactions, cell defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, respiration and energy homeostasis, protein folding and biosynthesis. The two largest functional categories included proteins involved in antioxidative reactions (23.7%) and photosynthesis (18.6%). Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, suggesting that the expression changes of these proteins could be critical for SA-induced resistance. An analysis of these changes suggested that SA-induced resistance and seedling growth might be regulated in part through pathways involving antioxidative reactions and photosynthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying solubility enhancement due to particle size reduction and crystal habit modification: case study of acetyl salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Robert B; Pencheva, Klimentina; Roberts, Kevin J; Auffret, Tony

    2007-08-01

    The poor solubility of potential drug molecules is a significant problem in the design of pharmaceutical formulations. It is well known, however, that the solubility of crystalline materials is enhanced when the particle size is reduced to submicron levels and this factor can be expected to enhance drug product bioavailability. Direct estimation of solubility enhancement, as calculated via the Gibbs-Thompson relationship, demands reasonably accurate values for the particle/solution interfacial tension and, in particular, its anisotropy with respect to the crystal product's habit and morphology. In this article, an improved, more molecule-centered, approach is presented towards the calculation of solubility enhancement factors in which molecular modeling techniques are applied, and the effects associated with both crystal habit modification and solvent choice are examined. A case study for facetted, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) crystals in equilibrium with saturated aqueous ethanol solution reveals that their solubility will be enhanced in the range (7-58%) for a crystal size of 0.02 microm, with significantly higher enhancement for crystal morphologies in which the hydrophobic crystal faces are more predominant than the hydrophilic faces and for solvents in which the solubility is smaller. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. The plant hormone salicylic acid interacts with the mechanism of anti-herbivory conferred by fungal endophytes in grasses.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Daniel A; Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, M; Newman, Jonathan A; Card, Stuart D; Mace, Wade J; Gundel, Pedro E

    2018-02-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is recognized as an effective defence against biotrophic pathogens, but its role as regulator of beneficial plant symbionts has received little attention. We studied the relationship between the SA hormone and leaf fungal endophytes on herbivore defences in symbiotic grasses. We hypothesize that the SA exposure suppresses the endophyte reducing the fungal-produced alkaloids. Because of the role that alkaloids play in anti-herbivore defences, any reduction in their production should make host plants more susceptible to herbivores. Lolium multiflorum plants symbiotic and nonsymbiotic with the endophyte Epichloë occultans were exposed to SA followed by a challenge with the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. We measured the level of plant resistance to aphids, and the defences conferred by endophytes and host plants. Symbiotic plants had lower concentrations of SA than did the nonsymbiotic counterparts. Consistent with our prediction, the hormonal treatment reduced the concentration of loline alkaloids (i.e., N-formyllolines and N-acetylnorlolines) and consequently decreased the endophyte-conferred resistance against aphids. Our study highlights the importance of the interaction between the plant immune system and endophytes for the stability of the defensive mutualism. Our results indicate that the SA plays a critical role in regulating the endophyte-conferred resistance against herbivores. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A controlled study of comparative efficacy of oral retinoids and topical betamethasone/salicylic acid for chronic hyperkeratotic palmoplantar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Capella, Giovanni Luigi; Fracchiolla, Claudio; Frigerio, Elena; Altomare, Gianfranco

    2004-04-01

    Chronic hyperkeratotic dermatitis of the palms and soles represents a severe multi-etiological problem, too often faced with ineffective or tedious topical remedies. A single-blind, matched-sample design investigation was carried out of 42 patients with chronic hyperkeratotic palmoplantar dermatitis, who were administered acitretin 25-50 mg/day for 1 month, which was controlled versus a conventional topical treatment (betamethasone/salicylic acid ointment). Therapeutic improvement was expressed with the reduction of severity score (expressed on a 0-10 scale). Acitretin was significantly better than the conventional treatment after 30 days (two sided p<0.0001). Moreover, improvement significantly persisted 5 months after suspension of acitretin (p<0.0001), while this was not the case after suspension of the control treatment (p=0.3019). Lesions improved more rapidly with acitretin than with the control treatment (p<0.0002). Some cases of loss of sensitization in patch-test-positive patients were observed. Side effects were minimal or absent, and patients expressed overtly their preference for acitretin treatment. After evaluating the former literature, the risks and the benefits, as well as the overt superiority of retinoid treatment, the authors conclude that acitretin should be considered a first choice treatment for this fastidious condition.

  15. Sodium iodide associated to salicylic acid in the topical management of chronic oral candidiasis: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, M; Grassi, F R; Nardi, G M; Martinelli, D; Serpico, R; Luglie, P F; Baldoni, E

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis is a relevant problem in oral medicine practice. We compared the antimycotic activity of nystatin with a solution of sodium iodide associated to salicylic acid (SISA) in the topical management of chronic candidiasis. Consecutive patients affected by chronic candidiasis were randomly allocated to SISA (group A) or nystatin (group B). VAS and swab scores were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the study while the healing index was evaluated at the end of the study only. Data were analyzed by STATA 10 MP. Forty patients (20 male, 20 female) were randomized. SIAS was as effective as nystatin in affecting VAS (p greater than 0.05) and swab score (p greater than 0.05). A statistically significant reduction (p less than 0.05) of healing index was observed in both groups. No side effects were reported. SISA topical application, shows a comparable efficacy to the nystatin in the management of chronic oral candidiasis. Its use could represent an adequate alternative to the nystatin above all in the cases of drug-resistance. Further large scale randomized trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

  16. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  17. Clinical comparison of salicylic acid peel and LED-Laser phototherapy for the treatment of Acne vulgaris in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Alba, Monique Narciso; Gerenutti, Marli; Yoshida, Valquíria Miwa Hanai; Grotto, Denise

    2017-02-01

    Acne vulgaris treatments usually cause sensitivity, teratogenicity and bacterial resistance. Investigations of other therapeutic techniques, such as phototherapy, are highly relevant. Thus, we compared the effectiveness of two Acne vulgaris treatments in adolescents: peeling with salicylic acid (SA) and phototherapy. Teens were randomly divided into: group I, treatment with SA peels (10%) and group II, treatment with phototherapy (blue LED and red laser lights). Photographs were taken before and after ten sessions of each treatment, carried out weekly, and compared. To compare the differences between the treatments, the Student t-test was used. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Both techniques are effective therapies for the treatment of acne in teenagers since the number of comedones, papules and pustules decreased significantly at the end of the session. However, when the two treatments were compared, phototherapy showed a significant difference in reducing the number of pustules. The combined use of red and blue lights due to their anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties is a more efficient alternative for treating Acne vulgaris in relation to SA and proves more reliable and without side effects, improving the adolescents' skin health.

  18. Effects of solution degassing on solubility, crystal growth and dissolution-Case study: Salicylic acid in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of dissolved gases on the crystallization parameter solubility, MZW, growth and dissolution rates was investigated experimentally using degassed and non-degassed (air-saturated) solutions. The results of this study show that degassing has no effect on the solubility curve of the used model substance salicylic acid (SA) in methanol (MeOH). This reveals in the assumption that a thermodynamic effect of dissolved gases can be excluded. Growth rates were measured by means of a desupersaturation method and the results indicate that the growth rates of SA are not affected by degassing. The results of the dissolution rate measurements reveal a distinct decrease in dissolution rates for non-degassed solutions compared to degassed solutions, especially, at low temperature (10 °C). To explain this phenomenon the gas solubility, represented by oxygen, in MeOH in dependence on the SA concentration was estimated by means of Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) [1]. It was found that the oxygen solubility decreases with increasing SA content which explains the inhibition of crystal dissolution in non-degassed solution compared to degassed solution. Moreover, this kind of 'drowing-out' mechanism would not appear in growth rate measurements, where indeed no effect of degassing could be observed.

  19. Favourably effective formulation of sodium iodide and salicylic acid plus professional hygiene in patients affected by desquamative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Carcieri, P; Broccoletti, R; Giacometti, S; Gambino, A; Conrotto, D; Cabras, M; Arduino, P G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective pilot study was to evaluate the efficiency of an oral hygiene protocol, in combination with a solution of sodium iodide associated to salicylic acid (SISA), in patients affected by desquamative gingivitis (DG). Twenty patients not totally responding to conventional topical therapies, were selected. They received oral hygiene instructions with non-surgical periodontal therapy in a 21-day cohort study (during 3 weekly appointments). The SISA was used at the end of each session, with an impregnated gauze (with 5 ml of the solution) applied for 15 minutes for the upper jaw, and for a further 15 minutes with a new gauze for the lower. Evaluated clinical outcome variables included the full mouth plaque (FMPS) and bleeding (FMBS) scores, probing depth, patient related outcome and clinical gingival signs. Two months after concluding the planned protocol, a statistically significant reduction was observed for FMPS (P=0.032), FMBS (P=0.038), reported pain (P=0.000) and gingival clinical improvement (P=0.005). Topical application of SISA and professional oral hygiene procedures are connected with improvement of gum status, and decrease of related pain in subjects affected by severe DG.

  20. [Anti-platelet actions of salicylates: in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro effects of choline salicylate].

    PubMed

    Irino, O; Saitoh, K; Ohkubo, K

    1985-07-01

    Effects of choline salicylate, sodium salicylate, choline chloride and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet aggregation in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro in mice were studied. These drugs all inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced respiratory depression, which is closely related to platelet aggregation in vivo, with choline salicylate showing the strongest inhibitory effect. Choline salicylate had a tendency to reduce the mortality of animals injected intravenously with endotoxin, but the other drugs had no such effect. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on ADP-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo were in the order of choline salicylate greater than acetylsalicylic acid congruent to sodium salicylate greater than choline chloride congruent to no effect, and plasma concentrations of protein-unbound salicylic acid at 1 hr after oral administration of drugs were in the order of choline salicylate greater than acetylsalicylic acid congruent to sodium salicylate. The in vitro effects of these drugs were in the order of choline salicylate congruent to sodium salicylate greater than choline chloride congruent to acetylsalicylic acid congruent to no effect. Therefore, it was considered that salicylic acid played an important role on the in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro effects of choline salicylate and that choline increased plasma concentrations of salicylic acid and consequently enhanced the in vivo and ex vivo effects of salicylic acid. Furthermore, the ex vivo effects of choline salicylate were found when ADP-induced platelet aggregation was measured with platelet-rich plasma prepared from blood collected with heparin as anti-coagulant, but not when blood was collected with citrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Feng; Yang, Xiaohan; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Although one of an enzyme's hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. It is known that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. Here we report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involving the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.

  2. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta

    Although one of an enzyme’s hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. We know that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. We report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Finally, our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involvingmore » the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.« less

  3. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; ...

    2015-08-05

    Although one of an enzyme’s hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. We know that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. We report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Finally, our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involvingmore » the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.« less

  4. Mesophyll conductance decreases in the wild type but not in an ABA-deficient mutant (aba1) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Yusuke; Noguchi, Ko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Under drought conditions, leaf photosynthesis is limited by the supply of CO2 . Drought induces production of abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA decreases stomatal conductance (gs ). Previous papers reported that the drought stress also causes the decrease in mesophyll conductance (gm ). However, the relationships between ABA content and gm are unclear. We investigated the responses of gm to the leaf ABA content [(ABA)L ] using an ABA-deficient mutant, aba1, and the wild type (WT) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We also measured leaf water potential (ΨL ) because leaf hydraulics may be related to gm . Under drought conditions, gm decreased with the increase in (ABA)L in WT, whereas both (ABA)L and gm were unchanged by the drought treatment in aba1. Exogenously applied ABA decreased gm in both WT and aba1 in a dose-dependent manner. ΨL in WT was decreased by the drought treatment to -0.7 MPa, whereas ΨL in aba1 was around -0.8 MPa even under the well-watered conditions and unchanged by the drought treatment. From these results, we conclude that the increase in (ABA)L is crucial for the decrease in gm under drought conditions. We discuss possible relationships between the decrease in gm and changes in the leaf hydraulics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ORA59 and EIN3 interaction couples jasmonate-ethylene synergistic action to antagonistic salicylic acid regulation of PDF expression.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Jishan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-04-01

    Hormonal crosstalk is central for tailoring plant responses to the nature of challenges encountered. The role of antagonism between the two major defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and modulation of this interplay by ethylene (ET) in favor of JA signaling pathway in plant stress responses is well recognized, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show the opposing function of two transcription factors, ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1), in SA-mediated suppression and JA-mediated activation of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This functional duality is mediated via their effect on protein, not transcript levels of the PDF1.2 transcriptional activator octadecanoid-responsive Arabidopsis59 (ORA59). Specifically, JA induces ORA59 protein levels independently of EIN3/EIL1, whereas SA reduces the protein levels dependently of EIN3/EIL1. Co-infiltration assays revealed nuclear co-localization of ORA59 and EIN3, and split-luciferase together with yeast-two-hybrid assays established their physical interaction. The functional ramification of the physical interaction is EIN3-dependent degradation of ORA59 by the 26S proteasome. These findings allude to SA-responsive reduction of ORA59 levels mediated by EIN3 binding to and targeting of ORA59 for degradation, thus nominating ORA59 pool as a coordination node for the antagonistic function of ET/JA and SA. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. The role of calcium, silicon and salicylic acid treatment in protection of canola plants against boron toxicity stress.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Ashraf M; Radi, Abeer A; El-Shazoly, Rasha M; Hamada, Afaf M

    2018-01-22

    Boron (B) toxicity often limits crop yield and the quality of production in agricultural areas. Here, we investigated the effects of calcium (Ca), silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) on development of B toxicity, B allocation in canola (Brassica napus cultivar Sarw 4) and its role in non-enzymatic antioxidants in relation to yield of this cultivar under B toxicity. Canola seedlings were subjected to four B levels induced by boric acid in the absence or presence of Ca, Si and SA. The results showed that Ca, Si and SA addition ameliorated the inhibition in canola growth, water content (WC), and improved siliqua number, siliqua weight and seed index. The B content in shoots and roots and total B accumulation in the whole plant were increased in control plants under B-toxicity-stress, and these parameters were significantly decreased by addition of Ca, Si and SA. The shoot ascorbate pool (ascorbate, AsA, and dehydroascorbate, DHA), α-tocopherol and phenolics (free and bound) were increased under B toxicity, and were significantly decreased in most cases by addition of Ca, Si and SA, except α-tocopherol, which increased at low B levels (0, 25 and 50 mg kg soil -1 ). The glutathione content did not obviously change by B stress, while added Ca, Si and SA inhibited its accumulation under B stress. In addition, B toxicity reduced the shoot flavonoids content; however, this reduction was not alleviated by the use of Ca, Si and SA treatments. It could be concluded that growth and yield of canola plants grown under high B concentration improved after external application of Ca, Si or SA.

  7. Salicylic acid potentiates an agonist-dependent gain control that amplifies pathogen signals in the activation of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, K; Nakajima, H; Rajasekhar, V K; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C

    1997-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid-derived natural product salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in disease resistance. However, SA administered in the absence of a pathogen is a paradoxically weak inductive signal, often requiring concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM to induce acquired resistance or related defense mechanisms or to precondition signal systems. In contrast, endogenous SA accumulates to concentrations of < 70 microM at the site of attempted infection. Here, we show that although 10 to 100 microM SA had negligible effects when administered to soybean cell suspensions in the absence of a pathogen, physiological concentrations of SA markedly enhanced the induction of defense gene transcripts, H2O2 accumulation, and hypersensitive cell death by an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv glycinea, with optimal effects being at approximately 50 microM. SA also synergistically enhanced H2O2 accumulation in response to the protein phosphatase type 2A inhibitor cantharidin in the absence of a pathogen. The synergistic effect of SA was potent, rapid, and insensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and we conclude that SA stimulates an agonist-dependent gain control operating at an early step in the signal pathway for induction of the hypersensitive response. This fine control mechanism differs from previously described time-dependent, inductive coarse control mechanisms for SA action in the absence of a pathogen. Induction of H2O2 accumulation and hypersensitive cell death by avirulent P. s. glycinea was blocked by the phenylpropanoid synthesis inhibitor alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid, and these responses could be rescued by exogenous SA. Because the agonist-dependent gain control operates at physiological levels of SA, we propose that rapid fine control signal amplification makes an important contribution to SA function in the induction of disease resistance mechanisms.

  8. Aspirin’s Active Metabolite Salicylic Acid Targets High Mobility Group Box 1 to Modulate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Song, Fei; Venereau, Emilie; Preti, Alessandro; Park, Sang-Wook; Hamilton, Keith; Swapna, G V T; Manohar, Murli; Moreau, Magali; Agresti, Alessandra; Gorzanelli, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesco; Wang, Huang; Antonyak, Marc; Micikas, Robert J; Gentile, Daniel R; Cerione, Richard A; Schroeder, Frank C; Montelione, Gaetano T; Bianchi, Marco E; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and its derivatives have been used for millennia to reduce pain, fever and inflammation. In addition, prophylactic use of acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and certain cancers. Because aspirin is rapidly de-acetylated by esterases in human plasma, much of aspirin’s bioactivity can be attributed to its primary metabolite, SA. Here we demonstrate that human high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a novel SA-binding protein. SA-binding sites on HMGB1 were identified in the HMG-box domains by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies and confirmed by mutational analysis. Extracellular HMGB1 is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), with multiple redox states. SA suppresses both the chemoattractant activity of fully reduced HMGB1 and the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) induced by disulfide HMGB1. Natural and synthetic SA derivatives with greater potency for inhibition of HMGB1 were identified, providing proof-of-concept that new molecules with high efficacy against sterile inflammation are attainable. An HMGB1 protein mutated in one of the SA-binding sites identified by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies retained chemoattractant activity, but lost binding of and inhibition by SA and its derivatives, thereby firmly establishing that SA binding to HMGB1 directly suppresses its proinflammatory activities. Identification of HMGB1 as a pharmacological target of SA/aspirin provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of one of the world’s longest and most used natural and synthetic drugs. It may also provide an explanation for the protective effects of low-dose aspirin usage. PMID:26101955

  9. Pb-induced responses in Zygophyllum fabago plants are organ-dependent and modulated by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    López-Orenes, Antonio; Martínez-Pérez, Ascensión; Calderón, Antonio A; Ferrer, María A

    2014-11-01

    Zygophyllum fabago is a promising species for restoring heavy metal (HM) polluted soils, although the mechanisms involved in HM tolerance in this non-model plant remain largely unknown. This paper analyses the extent to which redox-active compounds and enzymatic antioxidants in roots, stems and leaves are responsible for Pb tolerance in a metallicolous ecotype of Z. fabago and the possible influence of salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment (24 h, 0.5 mM SA) in the response to Pb stress. SA pretreatment reduced both the accumulation of Pb in roots and even more so the concentration of Pb in aerial parts of the plants, although a similar drop in the content of chlorophylls and in the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II was observed in both Pb- and SA-Pb-treated plants. Pb increased the endogenous free SA levels in all organs and this response was enhanced in root tissues upon SA pretreatment. Generally, Pb induced a reduction in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase specific activities, whereas dehydroascorbate reductase was increased in all organs of control plants. SA pretreatment enhanced the Pb-induced H2O2 accumulation in roots by up-regulating Fe-superoxide dismutase isoenzymes. Under Pb stress, the GSH redox ratio remained highly reduced in all organs while the ascorbic acid redox ratio dropped in leaf tissues where a rise in lipid peroxidation products and electrolyte leakage was observed. Finally, an organ-dependent accumulation of proline and β-carboline alkaloids was found, suggesting these nitrogen-redox-active compounds could play a role in the adaptation strategies of this species to Pb stress. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. A downy mildew effector attenuates salicylic acid-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis by interacting with the host mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Piquerez, Sophie; Fabro, Georgina; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2013-12-01

    Plants are continually exposed to pathogen attack but usually remain healthy because they can activate defences upon perception of microbes. However, pathogens have evolved to overcome plant immunity by delivering effectors into the plant cell to attenuate defence, resulting in disease. Recent studies suggest that some effectors may manipulate host transcription, but the specific mechanisms by which such effectors promote susceptibility remain unclear. We study the oomycete downy mildew pathogen of Arabidopsis, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), and show here that the nuclear-localized effector HaRxL44 interacts with Mediator subunit 19a (MED19a), resulting in the degradation of MED19a in a proteasome-dependent manner. The Mediator complex of ∼25 proteins is broadly conserved in eukaryotes and mediates the interaction between transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. We found MED19a to be a positive regulator of immunity against Hpa. Expression profiling experiments reveal transcriptional changes resembling jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) signalling in the presence of HaRxL44, and also 3 d after infection with Hpa. Elevated JA/ET signalling is associated with a decrease in salicylic acid (SA)-triggered immunity (SATI) in Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL44 and in med19a loss-of-function mutants, whereas SATI is elevated in plants overexpressing MED19a. Using a PR1::GUS reporter, we discovered that Hpa suppresses PR1 expression specifically in cells containing haustoria, into which RxLR effectors are delivered, but not in nonhaustoriated adjacent cells, which show high PR1::GUS expression levels. Thus, HaRxL44 interferes with Mediator function by degrading MED19, shifting the balance of defence transcription from SA-responsive defence to JA/ET-signalling, and enhancing susceptibility to biotrophs by attenuating SA-dependent gene expression.

  11. Recurrence rates and patient assessed outcomes of 0.5% 5-fluorouracil in combination with salicylic acid treating actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Stockfleth, Eggert; Zwingers, Thomas; Willers, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Actinic keratoses (AK) have been classified as early in situ squamous cell carcinomas and should be treated. To evaluate the clinical benefit of 5-fluorouracil 0.5%/salicylic acid 10.0% (5-FU/SA) versus 3% diclofenac/hyaluronic acid (HA) for the treatment of AK and report patients' assessments of efficacy, tolerability and practicability. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre trial. Patients received topical 0.5% 5-FU/SA once daily, its vehicle or diclofenac/HA twice daily for maximum of 12 weeks. Lesion recurrence rates were evaluated at 6 and 12 months after end of treatment (EOT). Patients' assessments were evaluated at 6 weeks, EOT, post-treatment (PT) visit, 6 and 12 months. At 12 months 85.8% of lesions did not recur in the 5-FU/SA group compared to 79.8% (p=0.04419) in the vehicle and 81.0% (p=0.02476) in the diclofenac/HA groups. At PT visit 93.2% patients (n=163/175) in the 5-FU/SA group rated clinical improvement as "very good" or "good" compared to vehicle (66.7%, n=62/93, p<0.0001) and diclofenac/HA (81.6%, n=142/174, p<0.0001). Local side effects (inflammation and burning) were more common with 0.5% FU/SA but in general did not lead to discontinuation of therapy. Overall, patients were satisfied with the therapy. At 12 months, there were no differences in practicability and handling between treatments. Topical 0.5% 5-FU/SA demonstrated superior sustained clinical efficacy versus diclofenac/HA with acceptable tolerability. Patient satisfaction was high.

  12. The effect of high-dose sodium salicylate on chronically elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changting; Giacca, Adria; Lewis, Gary F

    2009-11-01

    Prolonged elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) induces insulin resistance and impairs pancreatic β-cell adaptation to insulin resistance. Studies in rodents suggest that inflammation may play a role in this "lipotoxicity." We studied the effects of sodium salicylate, an anti-inflammatory agent, on lipid-induced alterations in β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in six overweight and obese nondiabetic men. Each subject underwent four separate studies, 4-6 wk apart, in random order: 1) SAL, 1-wk placebo followed by intravenous (iv) infusion of saline for 48 h; 2) IH, 1-wk placebo followed by iv infusion of intralipid plus heparin for 48 h to raise plasma NEFA approximately twofold; 3) IH + SS, 1-wk sodium salicylate (4.5 g/day) followed by 48-h IH infusion; and 4) SS, 1-wk oral sodium salicylate followed by 48-h saline infusion. After 48-h saline or lipid infusion, insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed by hyperglycemic clamp and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, respectively, in sequential order. Insulin sensitivity was reduced by lipid infusion (IH = 67% of SAL) and was not improved by salicylate (IH + SS = 56% of SAL). Lipid infusion also reduced the disposition index (P < 0.05), which was not prevented by sodium salicylate. Salicylate reduced insulin clearance. These data suggest that oral sodium salicylate at this dose impairs insulin clearance but does not ameliorate lipid-induced insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men.

  13. Dose-dependent competitive block by topical acetylsalicylic and salicylic acid of low pH-induced cutaneous pain.

    PubMed

    Steen, K H; Reeh, P W; Kreysel, H W

    1996-01-01

    In a human acid pain model, which uses continuous intradermal pressure infusion of a phosphate-buffered solution (pH 5.2) to induce localized non-adapting pain, the flow was adjusted to result in constant pain ratings of about 20% or 50% on a visual analog scale (VAS). Six volunteers in each group participated in 4 different placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over studies to measure rapidly evolving cutaneous analgesia from topically applied new ointment formulations of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) as well as of commercial ibuprofen and benzocain creams. Similar, log-linear dose-response curves were found for both ASA and SA, significant in effect at 3 g/kg and higher drug contents and reaching saturation level at 15 or 30 g/kg, respectively, which, 20 min after application, caused a mean pain suppression of 95% using ASA and 80% using SA. Half-maximal effects were achieved using 3 g/kg ASA or 15 g/kg SA. The SA action was also clearly slower to develop. With an increased flow of the acidic buffer, producing lower effective tissue pH and more intense pain, the effect of ASA and SA decreased to 73% pain suppression. A competitive mechanism of both drug effects was suggested by the fact that, with 15 g/kg ASA and SA, pain reduction could be reversed by increasing the buffer flow by a factor of 1.75, on average. Commercial ibuprofen (50 g/kg) and benzocain creams (100 g/kg) were comparably as effective as ASA and SA, but the local anesthetic caused a loss of all cutaneous sensations while the touch threshold (von Frey) under the specific analgesics was the same as under the placebo ointment. Thus, topical applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) dissolved in different ointment formulations have proven dose-dependently effective and specific in suppressing experimental acidotic pain by a local and competitive mechanism.

  14. Expression profiling of marker genes responsive to the defence-associated phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Kouzai, Yusuke; Kimura, Mamiko; Yamanaka, Yurie; Watanabe, Megumi; Matsui, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi; Noutoshi, Yoshiteru

    2016-03-02

    Brachypodium distachyon is a promising model plants for grasses. Infections of Brachypodium by various pathogens that severely impair crop production have been reported, and the species accordingly provides an alternative platform for investigating molecular mechanisms of pathogen virulence and plant disease resistance. To date, we have a broad picture of plant immunity only in Arabidopsis and rice; therefore, Brachypodium may constitute a counterpart that displays the commonality and uniqueness of defence systems among plant species. Phytohormones play key roles in plant biotic stress responses, and hormone-responsive genes are used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate disease resistance responses during pathogen infection. For these purposes, defence-related phytohormone marker genes expressed at time points suitable for defence-response monitoring are needed. Information about their expression profiles over time as well as their response specificity is also helpful. However, useful marker genes are still rare in Brachypodium. We selected 34 candidates for Brachypodium marker genes on the basis of protein-sequence similarity to known marker genes used in Arabidopsis and rice. Brachypodium plants were treated with the defence-related phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, and their transcription levels were measured 24 and 48 h after treatment. Two genes for salicylic acid, 7 for jasmonic acid and 2 for ethylene were significantly induced at either or both time points. We then focused on 11 genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) 1 protein and compared their expression patterns with those of Arabidopsis and rice. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Brachypodium contains several PR1-family genes similar to rice genes. Our expression profiling revealed that regulation patterns of some PR1 genes as well as of markers identified for defence-related phytohormones are closely related to those in rice. We propose that the Brachypodium immune

  15. Hormone crosstalk in plant disease and defense: more than just jasmonate-salicylate antagonism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Grant, Murray; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, most studies on the role of hormones in plant-pathogen interactions focused on salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). It is now clear that pathogen-induced modulation of signaling via other hormones contributes to virulence. A picture is emerging of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance, with outcomes dependent on pathogen lifestyles and the genetic constitution of the host. Recent progress has revealed intriguing similarities between hormone signaling mechanisms, with gene induction responses often achieved by derepression. Here, we report on recent advances, updating current knowledge on classical defense hormones SA, JA, and ET, and the roles of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (CKs), and brassinosteroids in molding plant-pathogen interactions. We highlight an emerging theme that positive and negative regulators of these disparate hormone signaling pathways are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity t...

  17. Effects of salicylic acid on thermotolerance and cardenolide accumulation under high temperature stress in Digitalis trojana Ivanina.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    Long periods of high temperature or transitory increased temperature, a widespread agricultural problem, may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield, affecting plant growth and development in many areas of the world. Heat stress causes many anatomical and physiological changes in plants. Its unfavorable effects can be alleviated by thermotolerance induced by exogenous application of plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants or by gradual application of temperature stress. Digitalis trojana Ivanina is an important medicinal plant species well known mainly for its cardenolides. The production of cardenolides via traditional agriculture is commercially inadequate. In this study, elicitation strategies were employed for improving crop thermotolerance and accumulation of cardenolides. For these purposes, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and/or high temperature treatments in inducing cardenolide accumulation and thermotolerance were tested in callus cultures of D. trojana. Considerable increases in the production of cardenolides (up to 472.28 μg.g(-1) dry weight, dw) and induction of thermotolerance capacity were observed when callus cultures were exposed to high temperature for 2 h after pretreating with SA. High temperature treatments (2 h and 4 h) caused a marked reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activities, while SA pretreatment increased their activities. High temperature and/or SA appeared to increase the levels of proline, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. Elevated phenolic accumulation could be associated with increased stress protection. These results indicated that SA treatments induced synthesis of antioxidants and cardenolides, which may play a significant role in resistance to high temperature stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of salicylic acid pathway with EDS1 and PAD4 proteins by molecular dynamics simulation for grape improvement.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Gitanjali; Jaiswal, Sarika; Iquebal, M A; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Sukhdeep; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Biotic stress is a major cause of heavy loss in grape productivity. In order to develop biotic stress-resistant grape varieties, the key defense genes along with its pathway have to be deciphered. In angiosperm plants, lipase-like protein phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) is well known to be essential for systemic resistance against biotic stress. PAD4 functions together with its interacting partner protein enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) to promote salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defense pathway. Existence and structure of key protein of systemic resistance EDS1 and PAD4 are not known in grapes. Before SA pathway studies are taken in grape, molecular evidence of EDS1: PAD4 complex is to be established. To establish this, EDS1 protein sequence was retrieved from NCBI and homologous PAD4 protein was generated using Arabidopsis thaliana as template and conserved domains were confirmed. In this study, computational methods were used to model EDS1 and PAD4 and simulated the interactions of EDS1 and PAD4. Since no structural details of the proteins were available, homology modeling was employed to construct three-dimensional structures. Further, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the dynamic behavior of the EDS1 and PAD4. The modeled proteins were validated and subjected to molecular docking analysis. Molecular evidence of stable complex of EDS1:PAD4 in grape supporting SA defense pathway in response to biotic stress is reported in this study. If SA defense pathway genes are explored, then markers of genes involved can play pivotal role in grape variety development especially against biotic stress leading to higher productivity.

  19. Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10−4 mM SA, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM NaCl, 150 mM NaCl, SA + 50 mM NaCl, SA + 100 mM NaCl and SA + 150 mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5 weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50 mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50 mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

  20. Expression profiling during arabidopsis/downy mildew interaction reveals a highly-expressed effector that attenuates responses to salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Piquerez, Sophie J M; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2014-10-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome.

  1. Acetyl salicylic acid protected against heat stress damage in chicken myocardial cells and may associate with induced Hsp27 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Xu, Jiao; Song, Erbao; Tang, Shu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, Endong

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) protects chicken myocardial cells from heat stress-mediated damage in vivo and whether the induction of Hsp27 expression is connected with this function. Pathological changes, damage-related enzyme levels, and Hsp27 expression were studied in chickens following heat stress (40 ± 1 °C for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, or 24 h, respectively) with or without ASA administration (1 mg/kg BW, 2 h prior). Appearance of pathological lesions such as degenerations and karyopyknosis as well as the myocardial damage-related enzyme activation indicated that heat stress causes considerable injury to the myocardial cells in vivo. Myocardial cell injury was most serious in chickens exposed to heat stress without prior ASA administration; meanwhile, ASA pretreatment acted protective function against high temperature-induced injury. Hsp27 expression was induced under all experimental conditions but was one-fold higher in the ASA-pretreated animals (0.3138 ± 0.0340 ng/mL) than in untreated animals (0.1437 ± 0.0476 ng/mL) 1 h after heat stress exposure, and such an increase was sustained over the length of the experiment. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with ASA protects chicken myocardial cells from acute heat stress in vivo with almost no obvious side effects, and this protection may involve an enhancement of Hsp27 expression. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this effect require further investigation.

  2. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates occurrence of citrus canker in susceptible navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-08-15

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H₂O₂ level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effect of salicylic acid on photosynthesis, physio-biochemistry and quality of Panax ginseng under full sun shine in spring].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wu-lin; Meng, Xiang-cai; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    In order to search for a new pathway to improve the yield of ginseng through growing at the full sun shine accompanied by salicylic acid (SA), the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase