Science.gov

Sample records for aba triblock copolymers

  1. Imidazolium-Containing ABA Triblock Copolymers as Electroactive Devices.

    PubMed

    Margaretta, Evan; Fahs, Gregory B; Inglefield, David L; Jangu, Chainika; Wang, Dong; Heflin, James R; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2016-01-20

    Two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and two subsequent postpolymerization modification steps afforded well-defined ABA triblock copolymers featuring mechanically reinforcing polystyrene outer blocks and 1-methylimidazole-neutralized poly(acrylic acid)-based central blocks. Size exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy confirmed predictable molecular weights and narrow distributions. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIm][OTf]) was incorporated at 30 wt % into polymeric films. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis determined the thermomechanical properties of the polymers and polymer-IL composites. Atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) determined surface and bulk morphologies, and poly(Sty-b-AA(MeIm)-b-Sty) exhibited a change from packed cylindrical to lamellar morphology in SAXS upon IL incorporation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy determined the in-plane ionic conductivities of the polymer-IL membranes (σ ∼ 10(-4) S/cm). A device fabricated from poly(Sty-b-AA(MeIm)-b-Sty) with 30 wt % incorporated IL demonstrated mechanical actuation under a low applied voltage of 4 V.

  2. Computer simulation of structure and microphase separation in model A-B-A triblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaszak, M.; Wołoszczuk, S.; Pakula, T.; Jurga, S.

    2002-09-01

    A set of computer simulations for three symmetric A-B-A triblock copolymer microarchitectures at varying temperatures is reported. By using the cooperative motion algorithm we obtain energy, specific heat, end-to-end distance, and bridging fraction as a function of the reduced temperature. The order-disorder transition temperatures are determined, an outline of a symmetric A-B-A triblock copolymer phase diagram is presented, and the visualization of different microstructures is given. A bicontinuous microstructure is reported at 67% fraction of A component.

  3. RAFT synthesis of ABA triblock copolymers as ionic liquid-containing electroactive membranes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Mingqiang; Heflin, James R; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2012-12-01

    2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate (DMAEA) imparts versatile functionality to poly[Sty-b-(nBA-co-DMAEA)-b-Sty] ABA triblock copolymers. A controlled synthetic strategy minimized chain transfer reactions and enabled the preparation of high-molecular-weight ABA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow PDIs between 1.39 and 1.44 using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The presence of tertiary amine functionality and their zwitterionic derivatives in the central blocks of the triblock copolymers afforded tunable polarity toward ionic liquids. Gravimetric measurements determined the swelling capacity of the triblock copolymers for ionic liquids (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMIm TfO) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate (EMIm ES). A correlation of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results revealed the impact of ionic liquid incorporation on the thermal transitions, thermomechanical properties, and morphologies of the triblock copolymers. IL-containing membranes of DMAEA-derived triblock copolymers and EMIm TfO exhibited desirable rubbery plateau moduli of ~100 MPa and electromechanical actuation to a 4 V electrical stimulus. Maintaining the mechanical ductility of polymer matrices while increasing their ion-conductivity is paramount for future electroactive devices.

  4. Self-assembled morphologies of ABA triblock copolymer brushes in selective solvents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jihua; Yin, Yuhua; Wang, Zheng; Jiang, Run; Li, Baohui; Shi, An-Chang

    2013-03-21

    A simulated annealing method is used to investigate the self-assembled morphologies of symmetric ABA triblock copolymer brushes, formed by one end of the A-blocks tethered onto a planar surface, immersed in a solvent selective for the middle B-blocks. The morphological dependences of the brushes on polymer grafting density and block lengths are investigated systematically. Phase diagrams for systems with different grafting densities are constructed. The simulation results show that the grafted amphiphilic triblock copolymers can self-assemble to form a variety of complicated morphologies which can be classified in terms of the number of A-rich layers in the morphology. In particular, the formation of the structures with one A-rich layer or called "folded" brush structures is consistent with the speculation from the experimental studies of ABA triblock copolymer brushes. More detailed structures depend on the grafting density and the lengths of the blocks. Furthermore, at a high grafting density, the effects of the lengths of blocks and the interaction energies between different species in the system on the conformation of chains are investigated to illustrate the formation mechanisms of self-assembled morphologies of the amphiphilic triblock copolymer brushes.

  5. Photoresponsive Polymeric Reversible Nanoparticles via Self-Assembly of Reactive ABA Triblock Copolymers and Their Transformation to Permanent Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang; Li, Juan; Jiang, Ruiyu; Song, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Azobenzene-functionalized ABA triblock copolymers with controlled molecular weights are prepared first via a sequential ring-opening metathesis polymerization and acyclic diene metathesis polymerization in one-pot, which are readily converted, by a facile esterification, to the modified ABA triblock copolymers. Then, these reactive triblock copolymers can spontaneously self-assemble in a selective solvent to form reproducible and reversible polymeric core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, the stable and permanent shell-crosslinked nanoparticles are obtained by an intramolecular crosslinking reaction in dilute solution under UV light irradiation. These as-prepared polymeric nanoparticles and their precursor incorporating azobenzene chromophores exhibit distinct photoresponsive performance and morphological variation. PMID:28774100

  6. Unexpected Consequences of Block Polydispersity on the Self-Assembly of ABA Triblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Widin, Joan M.; Schmitt, Adam K.; Schmitt, Andrew L.; Im, Kyuhyun; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    2012-05-09

    Controlled/'living' polymerizations and tandem polymerization methodologies offer enticing opportunities to enchain a wide variety of monomers into new, functional block copolymer materials with unusual physical properties. However, the use of these synthetic methods often introduces nontrivial molecular weight polydispersities, a type of chain length heterogeneity, into one or more of the copolymer blocks. While the self-assembly behavior of monodisperse AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers is both experimentally and theoretically well understood, the effects of broadening the copolymer molecular weight distribution on block copolymer phase behavior are less well-explored. We report the melt-phase self-assembly behavior of SBS triblock copolymers (S = poly(styrene) and B = poly(1,4-butadiene)) comprised of a broad polydispersity B block (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.73-2.00) flanked by relatively narrow dispersity S blocks (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.09-1.36), in order to identify the effects of chain length heterogeneity on block copolymer self-assembly. Based on synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses of seventeen SBS triblock copolymers with poly(1,4-butadiene) volume fractions 0.27 {le} f{sub B} {le} 0.82, we demonstrate that polydisperse SBS triblock copolymers self-assemble into periodic structures with unexpectedly enhanced stabilities that greatly exceed those of equivalent monodisperse copolymers. The unprecedented stabilities of these polydisperse microphase separated melts are discussed in the context of a complete morphology diagram for this system, which demonstrates that narrow dispersity copolymers are not required for periodic nanoscale assembly.

  7. Magnetic hydrogels from alkyne/cobalt carbonyl-functionalized ABA triblock copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Bingyin; Hom, Wendy L.; Chen, Xianyin; Yu, Pengqing; Pavelka, Laura C.; Kisslinger, Kim; Parise, John B.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Grubbs, Robert B.

    2016-03-09

    A series of alkyne-functionalized poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene) (PPES-b-PEO-b-PPES) ABA triblock copolymers was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. PESn[Co2(CO)6]x-EO800-PESn[Co2(CO)6]x ABA triblock copolymer/cobalt adducts (10–67 wt % PEO) were subsequently prepared by reaction of the alkyne-functionalized PPES block with Co2(CO)8 and their phase behavior was studied by TEM. Heating triblock copolymer/cobalt carbonyl adducts at 120 °C led to cross-linking of the PPES/Co domains and the formation of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles within the PPES/Co domains. Magnetic hydrogels could be prepared by swelling the PEO domains of the cross-linked materials with water. Furthermore, swelling tests, rheological studies and actuation tests demonstrated that the water capacity and modulus of the hydrogels were dependent upon the composition of the block copolymer precursors.

  8. Magnetic hydrogels from alkyne/cobalt carbonyl-functionalized ABA triblock copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Bingyin; Hom, Wendy L.; Chen, Xianyin; ...

    2016-03-09

    A series of alkyne-functionalized poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene) (PPES-b-PEO-b-PPES) ABA triblock copolymers was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. PESn[Co2(CO)6]x-EO800-PESn[Co2(CO)6]x ABA triblock copolymer/cobalt adducts (10–67 wt % PEO) were subsequently prepared by reaction of the alkyne-functionalized PPES block with Co2(CO)8 and their phase behavior was studied by TEM. Heating triblock copolymer/cobalt carbonyl adducts at 120 °C led to cross-linking of the PPES/Co domains and the formation of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles within the PPES/Co domains. Magnetic hydrogels could be prepared by swelling the PEO domains of the cross-linked materials with water. Furthermore, swelling tests, rheological studies and actuation tests demonstrated thatmore » the water capacity and modulus of the hydrogels were dependent upon the composition of the block copolymer precursors.« less

  9. Self-assembly behavior of ABA coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers: A Brownian dynamics simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongliang; Lin, Shaoliang; He, Xiaohua; Lin, Jiaping; Jiang, Tao

    2011-07-01

    The self-assembly behavior of ABA coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers in a selective solvent was studied by a Brownian molecular dynamics simulation method. It was found that the rod midblock plays an important role in the self-assembly of the copolymers. With a decrease in the segregation strength, ɛRR, of rod pairs, the aggregate structure first varies from a smecticlike disk shape to a long twisted string micelle and then to small aggregates. The influence of the block length and the asymmetry of the triblock copolymer on the phase behavior were studied and the corresponding phase diagrams were mapped. It was revealed that the variation of these parameters has a profound effect on microstructure. The simulation results are consistent with experimental results. Compared to rod-coil diblock copolymers, the coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers has a larger entropy penalty associated with the interfacial grafting density of the aggregate, leading to a higher ɛRR value for structural transitions.

  10. Self-assembly behavior of ABA coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers: a Brownian dynamics simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongliang; Lin, Shaoliang; He, Xiaohua; Lin, Jiaping; Jiang, Tao

    2011-07-07

    The self-assembly behavior of ABA coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers in a selective solvent was studied by a Brownian molecular dynamics simulation method. It was found that the rod midblock plays an important role in the self-assembly of the copolymers. With a decrease in the segregation strength, ɛ(RR), of rod pairs, the aggregate structure first varies from a smecticlike disk shape to a long twisted string micelle and then to small aggregates. The influence of the block length and the asymmetry of the triblock copolymer on the phase behavior were studied and the corresponding phase diagrams were mapped. It was revealed that the variation of these parameters has a profound effect on microstructure. The simulation results are consistent with experimental results. Compared to rod-coil diblock copolymers, the coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers has a larger entropy penalty associated with the interfacial grafting density of the aggregate, leading to a higher ɛ(RR) value for structural transitions.

  11. Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A L Black; Schmitt, A K; Mahanthappa, M K; Craig, S L

    2014-01-01

    The mechanochemical activation of covalent bonds in bulk polymers is often characterized by low conversions. Here we report that the activation of gem-dibromocyclopropane (gDBC) mechanophores embedded in a poly(1,4-butadiene) (PB) is enhanced when a central gDBC-PB block is flanked by two polystyrene (PS) end blocks in an ABA-type triblock architecture. Electrospinning the PS-(gDBC)PB-PS leads to even greater activation in aligned fiber mats under tension.

  12. Novel ABA type gold copolymer nanoparticles: PNIPAAm-b-PU-b-PNIPAAm tri-block nanopolymer as reducing and stabilizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Verma, Hemant; Kumar, Chaitnaya; Kumari, Kamlesh; Mehrotra, Gopal K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Tharanikkarrasu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Block copolymers have been used extensively in the synthesis of different types of nanoparticles. A novel ABA type tri-block nanopolymer PNIPAAm-b-PU-b-PNIPAAm has been synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique, using a tertiary bromo-terminated as a macroinitiator. Herein, the triblock copolymer acts as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Gold-copolymer nanoparticles were synthesized in a green solvent using the tri-block copolymer and were well characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Quassi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) and UV-Vis. spectroscopy techniques. The shape and size of the obtained nanoparticles are dependent on the concentration ratio of copolymer/gold salt used in the synthesis. This study clearly indicates the average particles size of nanoparticles is ˜70 nm. The resultant gold-tri-block nanopolymer can be used in the fields of controlled release and delivery of drugs, nano-materials, medical devices etc.

  13. Sequentially Different AB Diblock and ABA Triblock Copolymers as P3HT:PCBM Interfacial Compatibilizers for Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi; Fukuta, Seijiro; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Higashihara, Tomoya

    2016-03-02

    The P3HT:PCBM (P3HT = poly(3-hexylthiophene, PCBM = phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using the AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers (A = polystyrene derivative with donor-acceptor units (PTCNE) and B = P3HT) as compatibilizers were fabricated. Under the optimized blend ratio of the block copolymer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was enhanced. This PCE enhancement was clearly related to the increased short-circuit current (J(sc)) and fill factor (FF). The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) measurement suggested that the P3HT crystallinity was improved upon addition of the block copolymers. The increased P3HT crystallinity was consistent with the increased photovoltaic parameters, such as J(sc), FF, and consequently the PCE. The surface energies of these block copolymers suggested their thermodynamically stable location at the interface of P3HT:PCBM, showing the efficient compatibilizing performance, resulting in enlarging and fixing the interfacial area and suppressing the recombination of the generated carriers. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) results confirmed the superior compatibilizing performance of the ABA triblock copolymer when compared to the AB diblock copolymer by the fact that, after blending the ABA triblock copolymer in the P3HT:PCBM system, the enhanced crystallinity of matrix P3HT was observed in the excluded areas of the less-aggregated PCBM domains, changing the P3HT crystalline domain orientation from "edge-on" to "isotropic". This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first sequential effect (AB vs ABA) of the block copolymers on the compatibilizing performances based on BHJ OPV device systems.

  14. Combining Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization and Cyclic Ester Ring-Opening Polymerization To Form ABA Triblock Copolymers from 1,5-Cyclooctadiene and D,L-Lactide

    SciTech Connect

    Pitet, Louis M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2009-07-31

    ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized by combining ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) with ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide. Hydroxyl-functionalized telechelic polyCOD was prepared by taking advantage of chain transfer during ROMP of COD using the acyclic chain transfer agent cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene. These hydroxy-terminated macroinitiators were used as initiators for the polymerization of lactide to form a series of triblock copolymers with compositions in the range 0.24 {le} f{sub PLA} {le} 0.89 and molecular weights ranging from 22 to 196 kg mol{sup -1}. The ordered-state morphologies of the triblocks were determined using small-angle X-ray scattering; well-ordered microstructures were observed for several samples, in accordance with the predicted dependence of morphology on composition. The mechanical properties of these materials were also investigated by performing tensile measurements; the triblocks were considerably tougher than poly(D,L-lactide), most markedly in samples with low polyCOD midblock content.

  15. Stimuli-responsive peptide-based ABA-triblock copolymers: unique morphology transitions with pH.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jacob G; Naik, Sandeep S; Hoff, Emily A; Johnson, Ashley J; Ly, Jack T; Easterling, Charles P; Patton, Derek L; Savin, Daniel A

    2012-05-14

    We report the synthesis and solution characterization of poly(L-lysine)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(L-lysine) (KPK) triblock copolymers with high lysine weight fractions (>75 wt%). In contrast to PK diblock copolymers in this composition range, KPK triblock copolymers exhibit morphology transitions as a function of pH. Using a combination of light-scattering and microscopy techniques, we demonstrate spherical micelle-vesicle and spherical micelle-disk micelle transitions for different K fractions. We interpret these morphology changes in terms of the energy penalty associated with folding the core P block to form a spherical micelle in relation to the interfacial curvature associated with different charged states of the K block.

  16. Self-Assembly and Critical Aggregation Concentration Measurements of ABA Triblock Copolymers with Varying B Block Types: Model Development, Prediction, and Validation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Fikret; Chu, Xiaolei; Uppaladadium, Geetartha; Devore, David; Goyal, Ritu; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Zhang, Zheng; Kohn, Joachim; Dutt, Meenakshi

    2016-04-21

    The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation technique is a coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics-based approach that can effectively capture the hydrodynamics of complex systems while retaining essential information about the structural properties of the molecular species. An advantageous feature of DPD is that it utilizes soft repulsive interactions between the beads, which are CG representation of groups of atoms or molecules. In this study, we used the DPD simulation technique to study the aggregation characteristics of ABA triblock copolymers in aqueous medium. Pluronic polymers (PEG-PPO-PEG) were modeled as two segments of hydrophilic beads and one segment of hydrophobic beads. Tyrosine-derived PEG5K-b-oligo(desaminotyrosyl tyrosine octyl ester-suberate)-b-PEG5K (PEG5K-oligo(DTO-SA)-PEG5K) block copolymers possess alternate rigid and flexible components along the hydrophobic oligo(DTO-SA) chain, and were modeled as two segments of hydrophilic beads and one segment of hydrophobic, alternate soft and hard beads. The formation, structure, and morphology of the initial aggregation of the polymer molecules in aqueous medium were investigated by following the aggregation dynamics. The dimensions of the aggregates predicted by the computational approach were in good agreement with corresponding results from experiments, for the Pluronic and PEG5K-oligo(DTO-SA)-PEG5K block copolymers. In addition, DPD simulations were utilized to determine the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), which was compared with corresponding results from an experimental approach. For Pluronic polymers F68, F88, F108, and F127, the computational results agreed well with experimental measurements of the CAC measurements. For PEG5K-b-oligo(DTO-SA)-b-PEG5K block polymers, the complexity in polymer structure made it difficult to directly determine their CAC values via the CG scheme. Therefore, we determined CAC values of a series of triblock copolymers with 3-8 DTO-SA units using DPD

  17. Thermosensitive aqueous gels with tunable sol-gel transition temperatures from thermo- and pH-responsive hydrophilic ABA triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    O'Lenick, Thomas G; Jiang, Xueguang; Zhao, Bin

    2010-06-01

    This article reports on the synthesis of a well-defined hydrophilic ABA triblock copolymer composed of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) middle block and thermo- and pH-sensitive outer blocks and the study of sol-gel transitions of its aqueous solutions at various pH values. The doubly responsive linear triblock copolymer, poly(methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid)-b-PEO-b-poly(methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(DEGMMA-co-MAA)-b-PEO-b-P(DEGMMA-co-MAA)), was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization of a mixture of DEGMMA and tert-butyl methacrylate with a molar ratio of 100: 5 from a difunctional PEO macroinitiator and subsequent removal of tert-butyl groups using trifluoroacetic acid. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that the critical micellization temperature (CMT) of this ABA triblock copolymer in a 0.2 wt % aqueous solution was dependent on the solution pH and can be varied in a large temperature range (>20 degrees C). To study the sol-gel transitions, a 12.0 wt % aqueous solution of the triblock copolymer with a pH of 4.89 was made; its pH value can be readily changed and well controlled by the injection of either a 1.0 M HCl or a 1.0 M KOH solution. From rheological measurements, the sol-gel transition temperature (T(sol-gel)) versus pH curve was found to closely trace the CMT versus pH curve, though there was a shift. By cycling the solution pH between 3.2 and 5.4, we showed that the T(sol-gel) at a specific pH was reproducible. Moreover, multiple sol-gel-sol transitions were realized by judiciously controlling the temperature and pH simultaneously, demonstrating the possibility of achieving on-demand sol-gel transitions by using two external stimuli. In addition, the effect of polymer concentration on T(sol-gel) at pH = 4.0 was investigated. The sol-gel transition temperature increased with the decrease of polymer concentration and the critical gelation concentration was found to be between 4 and

  18. Tertiary-amine-containing thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrophilic ABA triblock copolymers: effect of different tertiary amines on thermally induced sol-gel transitions.

    PubMed

    Henn, Daniel M; Wright, Roger A E; Woodcock, Jeremiah W; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-03-11

    This Article reports on the synthesis of a series of well-defined, tertiary-amine-containing ABA triblock copolymers, composed of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) central block and thermo- and pH-sensitive outer blocks, and the study of the effect of different tertiary amines on thermally induced sol-gel transition temperatures (T(sol-gel)) of their 10 wt % aqueous solutions. The doubly responsive ABA triblock copolymers were prepared from a difunctional PEO macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization of methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate at a feed molar ratio of 30:70 with ∼5 mol % of either N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA), N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate, or N,N-di(n-butyl)aminoethyl methacrylate. The chain lengths of thermosensitive outer blocks and the molar contents of tertiary amines were very similar for all copolymers. Using rheological measurements, we determined the pH dependences of T(sol-gel) of 10 wt % aqueous solutions of these copolymers in a phosphate buffer. The T(sol-gel) versus pH curves of all polymers exhibited a sigmoidal shape. The T(sol-gel) increased with decreasing pH; the changes were small on both high and low pH sides. At a specific pH, the T(sol-gel) decreased with increasing the hydrophobicity of the tertiary amine, and upon decreasing pH the onset pH value for the T(sol-gel) to begin to increase noticeably was lower for the more hydrophobic tertiary amine-containing copolymer. In addition, we studied the effect of different tertiary amines on the release behavior of FITC-dextran from 10 wt % micellar gels in an acidic medium at 37 and 27 °C. The release profiles for three studied hydrogels at 37 °C were essentially the same, suggesting that the release was dominated by the diffusion of FITC-dextran. At 27 °C, the release was significantly faster for the DEAEMA-containing copolymer, indicating that both diffusion and gel dissolution contributed to the

  19. An asymmetric A-B-A' metallo-supramolecular triblock copolymer linked by Ni(2+)-bis-terpyridine complexes at one junction.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Wei, Wei; Xiong, Huiming

    2016-02-07

    A metallo-supramolecular triblock copolymer polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-[Ni(2+)]-polystyrene (SI-[Ni(2+)]-S') has been efficiently prepared using a one-pot, two-step procedure, where the blocks are held by bis-terpyridine complexes at the junction of SI-S'. This specific metallo-supramolecular chemistry is demonstrated to be a robust approach to potentially broaden the diversity of block copolymers. The location of the metal-ligand complexes has a profound influence on the phase separation of the triblock copolymer in the bulk, which results in a distinctive phase segregation between the end blocks and leads to an unexpected asymmetry of the triblock copolymer. The metal-ligand complexes are found to be preferentially located on the adjacent spherical domain and form a core-shell structure. The resulting multiphase material exhibits distinct elastomeric properties with significant toughness and creep recovery behavior. This type of triblock copolymer is anticipated to be a novel class of hybrid thermo-plastic elastomeric material with wide tunability and functionality.

  20. Phase Behavior and Dynamics of the ABA Triblock Copolymer Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Distearate Doped with Lithium Perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giotto, Marcus V.; Sangiorge, Clausymara L.; Harris, Douglas J.; de Oliveira, Armando L.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2002-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) distearate (PEGD) complexed with lithium perchlorate has been studied by NMR, SAXS, DSC, and Polarized-Light Optical Microscopy (PLOM). Unlike other polymer electrolytes, highly Lithium-doped PEGD samples exhibit sharp Li-7 NMR quadrupolar powder patterns even at temperatures well above the melting point, indicating that this copolymer is microphase separated and the dynamics in the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) phase are anisotropic. Measurements of the Li-7 central transition linewidth in highly doped samples show three distinct line narrowings, due to the PEG glass transition ( 20°C), the stearate melting point of the polymer ( 35°C), and an order-disorder transition ( 72°C). SAXS, DSC, and PLOM confirm the presence of a microphase-separated state up to 72 °C. C-13 and H-1 NMR show that the segmental mobility in the ordered state is reduced compared to the isotropic melt. The results confirm the previously proposed order-disorder model to explain the dependence of the ionic conductivity on the lithium concentration for Lithium-doped PEGD samples.

  1. Clickable Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Isaacman, Michael J; Barron, Kathryn A; Theogarajan, Luke S

    2012-06-15

    Amphiphilic polymers have recently garnered much attention due to their potential use in drug-delivery and other biomedical applications. A modular synthesis of these polymers is extremely desirable since it offers precise individual block characterization and increased yields. We present here for the first time a modular synthesis of poly(oxazoline)-poly(siloxane)-poly(oxazoline) block copolymers that have been clicked together using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Various click methodologies for the synthesis of these polymers have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The approach using copper nanoparticles was found to be the most optimal among the methods evaluated. Furthermore, these results were extended to allow for a reactive Si-H group-based siloxane middle block to be successfully clicked. This enables the design of more complex amphiphilic block copolymers that have additional functionality, such as stimuli responsiveness, to be synthesized via a simple hydrosilylation reaction.

  2. Rheology and Relaxation Timescales of ABA Triblock Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andrew; Lodge, Timothy

    When dissolved in a midblock selective solvent, ABA polymers form gels composed of aggregated end block micelles bridged by the midblocks. While much effort has been devoted to the study of the structure of these systems, the dynamics of these systems has received less attention. We examine the underlying mechanism of shear relaxation of ABA triblock polymer gels, especially as a function of chain length, composition, and concentration. Recent work using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of polystyrene (PS)-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) in squalane has elucidated many aspects of the dynamics of diblock chain exchange. By using rheology to study bulk relaxation phenomena of the triblock equivalent, PS-PEP-PS, we apply the knowledge gained from the chain exchange studies to bridge the gap between the molecular and macroscopic relaxation phenomena in PS-PEP-PS triblock gels.

  3. Acrylic Triblock Copolymers Incorporating Isosorbide for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, James J.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Reineke, Theresa M.

    2016-05-10

    A new monomer acetylated acrylic isosorbide (AAI) was prepared in two steps using common reagents without the need for column chromatography. Free radical polymerization of AAI afforded poly(acetylated acrylic isosorbide) (PAAI), which exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) = 95 °C and good thermal stability (Td, 5% weight loss; N2 = 331 °C, air = 291 °C). A series of ABA triblock copolymers with either poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) or poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) as the low Tg midblocks and PAAI as the high Tg end blocks were prepared using Reversible Addition–Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The triblock copolymers ranging from 8–24 wt % PAAI were evaluated as pressure sensitive adhesives by 180° peel, loop tack, and static shear testing. While the PAAI-PEHA-PAAI series exhibited poor adhesive qualities, the PAAI-PnBA-PAAI series of triblock copolymers demonstrated peel forces up to 2.9 N cm–1, tack forces up to 3.2 N cm–1, and no shear failure up to 10000 min. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that PAAI-PEHA-PAAI lacked the dissipative qualities needed to form an adhesive bond with the substrate, while the PAAI-PnBA-PAAI series exhibited a dynamic mechanical response consistent with related high performing PSAs.

  4. Controlling Domain Orientations in Thin Films of AB and ABA Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Thai; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Perera, Ginusha M.; Stein, Gila E.

    2012-03-15

    Domain orientations in thin films of lamellar copolymers are evaluated as a function of copolymer architecture, film thickness, and processing conditions. Two copolymer architectures are considered: An AB diblock of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) and an ABA triblock of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate). All films are cast on substrates that are energetically neutral with respect to the copolymer constituents. Film structures are evaluated with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. For AB diblock copolymers, the domain orientations are very sensitive to film thickness, annealing temperature, and imperfections in the 'neutral' substrate coating: Diblock domains are oriented perpendicular to the substrate when annealing temperature is elevated ({>=} 220 C) and defects in the substrate coating are minimized; otherwise, parallel or mixed parallel/perpendicular domain orientations are detected for most film thicknesses. For ABA triblock copolymers, the perpendicular domain orientation is stable for all the film thicknesses and processing conditions that were studied. The orientations of diblock and triblock copolymers are consistent with recent works that consider architectural effects when calculating the copolymer surface tension (Macromolecules 2006, 39, 9346 and Macromolecules 2010, 43, 1671). Significantly, the data demonstrate that triblocks are easier to process for applications in nanopatterning - in particular, when high-aspect-ratio nanostructures are required. However, both diblock and triblock films contain a high density of 'tilted' or bent domains, and these kinetically trapped defects should be minimized for most patterning applications.

  5. Double-bond-containing polyallene-based triblock copolymers via phenoxyallene and (meth)acrylate

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Aishun; Lu, Guolin; Guo, Hao; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances. PMID:28252049

  6. Double-bond-containing polyallene-based triblock copolymers via phenoxyallene and (meth)acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aishun; Lu, Guolin; Guo, Hao; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-01

    A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances.

  7. Double-bond-containing polyallene-based triblock copolymers via phenoxyallene and (meth)acrylate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Aishun; Lu, Guolin; Guo, Hao; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-02

    A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances.

  8. Triblock Copolymer Theory: Ordered ABC Lamellar Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, G.; Wei, J. A.

    2003-04-01

    The ABC lamellar phase of a triblock copolymer in the strong segregation region is studied on periodic and bounded intervals. In the periodic case we find a family of local minimizers of the free energy functional all with a fine lamellar structure. Among these local minimizers we identify the one most favored by the free energy, and hence determine the thickness of lamellar microdomains. In the bounded interval case we show that perfect lamellar structure does not exist due to the boundary effect. We view the strong segregation limit as a Γ -limit of the free energy by a proper choice of the material sample size. The key step is the spectral analysis of a large matrix resulting from the second derivative of the Γ -limit.

  9. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations on self-assembly of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Fan, Zhong-Xiang; Ma, Ze-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Self-assembly of rod-coil-rod ABA triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent is investigated by using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The morphologies of the self-assembled aggregates are dependent on the number of copolymers in the aggregate and the rod length of the copolymer. We observe vesicles at short rod block and bowl-like aggregates at slightly longer rod block. In the vesicle region near the phase boundary, metastable bowl-like aggregates can be observed and be transformed into vesicles by annealing process. A transition from the bowl-like structure to the vesicle is observed by increasing the solvophobicity of the mid-coil block. In this study, the difference between the self-assembly of fully flexible ABA triblock copolymer and that of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer is also discussed.

  10. Alignment of Fatty Acid-Derived Triblock Copolymers under Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenyue; Wang, Shu; Kesava, Sameer; Gomez, Enrique; Robertson, Megan

    Linear ABA triblock copolymers find widespread utilization as thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs): materials which exhibit elastomeric behavior at room temperature and can be readily processed at elevated temperatures. Traditional TPEs are derived from fossil fuels; however, the finite availability of petroleum and the environmental impact of petroleum processing has led to an increased interest in developing alternative sources for polymers. Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising replacements for petroleum sources due to their abundance, low cost, lack of toxicity, biodegradability and ease of functionalization that provides convenient routes to polymerization. In this study, triblock copolymer TPEs were synthesized containing lauryl and stearyl acrylate, derived from fatty acids found in vegetable oils. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments revealed highly aligned triblock copolymer morphologies after the application of large amplitude oscillatory shear. The temperature and frequency dependence of the degree of alignment was investigated. In contrast to prior studies on shear-aligned morphologies in bulk and thin film block copolymers, hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic spherical structures were observed.

  11. Thermogelling of double hydrophilic multiblock and triblock copolymers of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide: chain architectural and Hofmeister effects.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhishen; Zhou, Yueming; Tong, Zhen; Liu, Shiyong

    2011-02-01

    A series of thermoresponsive double hydrophilic (AB)(n) multiblock and ABA triblock copolymers of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with varying sequence lengths were synthesized via successive reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations by employing polytrithiocarbonate as the chain transfer agent. Previously, we reported that multiblock copolymers in dilute aqueous solutions can form either unimolecular or multimolecular micelles at elevated temperatures depending on the relative chain lengths of PDMA and PNIPAM sequences (Zhou et al. Langmuir 2007, 23, 13076-13084). In this follow-up work, we further explored and compared the chain architectural (multiblock vs triblock) and Hofmeister effects (addition of various sodium salts) on the gelation behavior of multiblock and ABA triblock copolymers at high concentrations and attempted to establish a correlation between the aggregation behavior and gelation properties of multiblock copolymers at low and high polymer concentrations, respectively. It was found that only m-PDMA(p)-PNIPAM(q) multiblock copolymers with PDMA and PNIPAM sequence lengths located within a specific range can form physical gels at elevated temperatures. Rheology measurements revealed that multiblock copolymers possess considerably lower critical gelation temperatures (CGT) and higher gel storage modulus, G'(gel), as compared to those of PNIPAM-b-PDMA-b-PNIPAM triblock copolymers possessing comparable sequence lengths. The addition of inorganic sodium salts can effectively facilitate thermogelling for multiblock and triblock copolymers, resulting in decreasing CGTs and critical gelation concentrations (CGCs) in the order of Hofmeister series with increasing hydration capabilities. The unique thermogelling behavior of aqueous multiblock copolymer solutions in the absence and presence of inorganic salts, as compared to that of ABA triblock copolymers, augurs well for their potential

  12. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents. PMID:28000757

  13. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents.

  14. Acrylic AB and ABA block copolymers based on poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Haloi, Dhruba J; Ata, Souvik; Singha, Nikhil K; Jehnichen, Dieter; Voit, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Acrylic block copolymers have several advantages over conventional styrenic block copolymers, because of the presence of a saturated backbone and polar pendant groups. This investigation reports the preparation and characterization of di- and triblock copolymers (AB and ABA types) of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A series of block copolymers, PEHA-block-PMMA(AB diblock) and PMMA-block-PEHA-block-PMMA(ABA triblock) were prepared via ATRP at 90 °C using CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyl diethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and acetone as additive. The chemical structure of the macroinitiators and molar composition of block copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR analysis, and molecular weights of the polymers were analyzed by GPC analysis. DSC analysis showed two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), indicating formation of two domains, which was corroborated by AFM analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of AB and ABA block copolymers showed scattering behavior inside the measuring limits indicating nanophase separation. However, SAXS pattern of AB diblock copolymers indicated general phase separation only, whereas for ABA triblock copolymer an ordered or mixed morphology could be deduced, which is assumed to be the reason for the better mechanical properties achieved with ABA block copolymers than with the AB analogues.

  15. Self-assembled architectures from biohybrid triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Reynhout, Irene C; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2007-02-28

    The synthesis and self-assembly behavior of biohybrid ABC triblock copolymers consisting of a synthetic diblock, polystyrene-b-polyethylene glycol (PSm-b-PEG113), where m is varied, and a hemeprotein, myoglobin (Mb) or horse radish peroxidase (HRP), is described. The synthetic diblock copolymer is first functionalized with the heme cofactor and subsequently reconstituted with the apoprotein or the apoenzyme to yield the protein-containing ABC triblock copolymer. The obtained amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble in aqueous solution into a large variety of aggregate structures. Depending on the protein and the polystyrene block length, micellar rods, vesicles, toroids, figure eight structures, octopus structures, and spheres with a lamellar surface are formed.

  16. Research Update: Triblock copolymers as templates to synthesize inorganic nanoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the application of triblock copolymers as designed templates to synthesize nanoporous materials with various compositions. Asymmetric triblock copolymers have several advantages compared with symmetric triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers, because the presence of three distinct domains can provide more functional features to direct the resultant nanoporous materials. Here we clearly describe significant contributions of asymmetric triblock copolymers, especially polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (abbreviated as PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO).

  17. Nanostructure of PEO-polyurethane-PEO triblock copolymer micelles in water.

    PubMed

    Caba, Beth L; Zhang, Qian; Carroll, Matthew R J; Woodward, Robert C; St Pierre, Timothy G; Gilbert, Elliot P; Riffle, Judy S; Davis, Richey M

    2010-04-01

    Novel hydrophilic triblock copolymers which form micelles in aqueous solution were studied by static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and densitometry. The polymers were symmetric A-B-A block copolymers having two poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) tail blocks and a polyurethane (PU) center segment that contained pendant carboxylic acids. The aggregation number of the micelles decreased with increasing PEO mass content. When attempting to fit the SANS data it was found that no single model was suitable over the entire range of block lengths and PEO mass concentrations investigated here. For the polymer with the highest aggregation number, the data were fitted with a triblock model consisting of a homogeneous core with a corona of non-interacting Gaussian chains for which only two free parameters were required: the radius of the core and the radius of gyration of the corona. In this case, the core was found to be effectively dry. At lower aggregation numbers, a star polymer model generated significantly better fits, suggesting the absence of any identifiable central core structure. Good agreement was found between the sizes measured by DLS, SANS and theoretical predictions of micelle size from a density distribution theory. These results show that when significant changes in aggregation number occur, the nanostructure of the micelle can change substantially even for polymers that are remarkably similar.

  18. Self-assembled, thermoresponsive micelles based on triblock PMMA-b-PNIPAAm-b-PMMA copolymer for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhu, J. L.; Cheng, H.; Cheng, S. X.; Zhuo, R. X.

    2007-05-01

    A novel thermosensitive amphiphilic ABA triblock poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PMMA-b-PNIPAAm-b-PMMA) comprised of two hydrophobic PMMA segments and one hydrophilic PNIPAAm segment was designed and synthesized. The structure of the copolymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, and GPC analysis. The cytotoxicity study showed that the PMMA-b-PNIPAAm-b-PMMA copolymer exhibited low cytotoxicity. The copolymer was capable of self-assembling into micelles in water and demonstrated temperature sensitivity at around 34.5 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the micelles exhibit nanosized spherical morphology within a size range of 60 nm with a critical micellar concentration (CMC) at 10 mg l-1. The drug-loading PMMA-b-PNIPAAm-b-PMMA micelles showed thermosensitive-controlled release which indicates the potential of PMMA-b-PNIPAAm-b-PMMA micelles as drug carriers.

  19. Ion gels by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    He, Yiyong; Boswell, Paul G; Bühlmann, Philippe; Lodge, Timothy P

    2007-05-10

    We report a new way of developing ion gels through the self-assembly of a triblock copolymer in a room-temperature ionic liquid. Transparent ion gels were achieved by gelation of a poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide-block-styrene) (SOS) triblock copolymer in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) with as low as 5 wt % SOS triblock copolymer. The gelation behavior, ionic conductivity, rheological properties, and microstructure of the ion gels were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels is only modestly affected by the triblock copolymer network. Its temperature dependence nearly tracks that of the bulk ionic liquid viscosity. The ion gels are thermally stable up to at least 100 degrees C and possess significant mechanical strength. The results presented here suggest that triblock copolymer gelation is a promising way to develop highly conductive ion gels and provides many advantages in terms of variety and processing.

  20. Multifunctional triblock copolymers for intracellular messenger RNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Connie; Convertine, Anthony J; Stayton, Patrick S; Bryers, James D

    2012-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a promising alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) for gene vaccination applications, but safe and effective delivery systems are rare. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was employed to synthesize a series of triblock copolymers designed to enhance the intracellular delivery of mRNA. These materials are composed of a cationic dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) segment to mediate mRNA condensation, a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) segment to enhance stability and biocompatibility, and a pH-responsive endosomolytic copolymer of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) designed to facilitate cytosolic entry. The blocking order and PEGMA segment length were systematically varied to investigate the effect of different polymer architectures on mRNA delivery efficacy. These polymers were monodisperse, exhibited pH-dependent hemolytic activity, and condensed mRNA into 86-216 nm particles. mRNA polyplexes formed from polymers with the PEGMA segment in the center of the polymer chain displayed the greatest stability to heparin displacement and were associated with the highest transfection efficiencies in two immune cell lines, RAW 264.7 macrophages (77%) and DC2.4 dendritic cells (50%). Transfected DC2.4 cells were shown to be capable of subsequently activating antigen-specific T cells, demonstrating the potential of these multifunctional triblock copolymers for mRNA-based vaccination strategies.

  1. One-Pot Automated Synthesis of Quasi Triblock Copolymers for Self-Healing Physically Crosslinked Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Voorhaar, Lenny; De Meyer, Bernhard; Du Prez, Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The preparation of physically crosslinked hydrogels from quasi ABA-triblock copolymers with a water-soluble middle block and hydrophobic end groups is reported. The hydrophilic monomer N-acryloylmorpholine is copolymerized with hydrophobic isobornyl acrylate via a one-pot sequential monomer addition through reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization in an automated parallel synthesizer, allowing systematic variation of polymer chain length and hydrophobic-hydrophilic ratio. Hydrophobic interactions between the outer blocks cause them to phase-separate into larger hydrophobic domains in water, forming physical crosslinks between the polymers. The resulting hydrogels are studied using rheology and their self-healing ability after large strain damage is shown. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stereocomplexes of enantiomeric lactic acid and sebacic acid ester-anhydride triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Slivniak, Raia; Domb, Abraham J

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study on the synthesis, characterization, degradation, and drug release of d-, l-, and dl-poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-terminated poly(sebacic acid) (PSA) and their stereocomplexes is reported. PLA-terminated sebacic acid polymers were synthesized by melt condensation of the acetate anhydride derivatives of PLA oligomers and sebacic anhydride oligomers to yield ABA triblock copolymers of molecular weights between 3000 and 9000 that melt at temperatures between 35 and 80 degrees C. Pairs of the corresponding enantiomeric ABA copolymers composed of l-PLA-PSA-l-PLA and d-PLA-PSA-d-PLA were solvent mixed to form stereocomplexes. The formed stereocomplexes exhibited higher crystalline melting temperature than the enantiomeric polymers, which indicate stereocomplex formulation. The PLA terminals had a significant effect on the polymer degradation and drug release rate. PSA with up to 20% w/w of PLA terminals degraded and released the incorporated drug for more than 3 weeks as compared with 10 days for PSA homopolymer.

  3. Supramolecular association of a triblock copolymer in water.

    PubMed

    Gente, Giacomo; Iovino, Alessandro; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-06-15

    Solutions of a poly(oxyethylene)-poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) triblock copolymer, Pluronic F(68), were investigated in isothermal and isopleth mode. Surface tension, sigma, dynamic shear viscosity, n(omega), QELS experiments, and volumetric, colligative, and refractive index measurements characterize the system behavior in a wide range of compositions and temperatures. The thermodynamic properties associated with micelle formation, above the critical micellar temperature, were determined by different experimental methods. The large entropic contributions to the system stability are ascribed to significant dehydration of the oxypropylene portion in the copolymer, consequent to micelle formation. Temperature has a pronounced effect on the association features of F(68). It gives rise to abrupt changes in QELS and rheological properties when the critical micellar temperature is approached. Such effects are explained in terms of thermally driven micellization processes and interconnection between micelles.

  4. Effects of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Chin, Jaemin; Marks, Jeremy D; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2010-08-03

    The effects of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers, mainly Poloxamer 188, on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic gradients were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Fluorescence leakage assays showed two opposing effects of P188 on the structural integrity of GUVs depending on the duration of their incubation time. A two-state transition mechanism of interaction between the triblock copolymers and the phospholipid membrane is proposed: an adsorption (I) and an insertion (II) state. While the triblock copolymer in state I acts to moderately retard the leakage, their insertion in state II perturbs the lipid packing, thus increasing the membrane permeability. Our results suggest that the biomedical application of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers, either as cell membrane resealing agents or as accelerators for drug delivery, is directed by the delicate balance between these two states.

  5. Rheological studies of PLLA-PEO-PLLA triblock copolymer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Aamer, Khaled A; Sardinha, Heidi; Bhatia, Surita R; Tew, Gregory N

    2004-03-01

    We report detailed rheological data on aqueous gels formed from triblock copolymers of L-lactide and ethylene oxide including the dependence of the viscoelastic moduli on frequency and applied stress of these systems for the first time. We are able to create strong gels with elastic moduli greater than 10,000 Pa, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously achieved with related biocompatible physically associated gels of similar chemistry. Moreover, the value of the elastic modulus strongly depends on PLLA block length, offering a mechanism to control the mechanical properties as desired for particular applications. At the gel point, we observe scaling that is characteristic of a percolated network, G' approximately G" approximately omega(Delta), but with an exponent that is lower than predicted by percolation, Delta=0.36. Our results have implications for the design of new materials for soft tissue engineering, where native tissues have moduli in the kPa range.

  6. Thermoplastic Dielectric Elastomer of Triblock Copolymer with High Electromechanical Performance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zipeng; Xie, Yuhan; Mao, Jie; Yang, Xuxu; Li, Tiefeng; Luo, Yingwu

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators have been shown to have promising applications as soft electromechanical transducers in many emerging technologies. The DE actuators, which are capable of large actuation strain over a wide range of excitation frequencies, are highly desirable. Here, the first single-component DE of a triblock copolymer with attractive electromechanical performance is reported. Symmetric poly(styrene-b-butyl acrylate-b-styrene) (SBAS) is designed and synthesized. The SBAS actuator exhibits about 100% static actuation area strain and excellent dynamic performance, as evidenced by a wide half bandwidth of 300 Hz and a very high specific power of 1.2 W g(-1) within the excitation frequency range of 300-800 Hz. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Morphology and phase diagram of complex block copolymers: ABC linear triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ping; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2004-03-01

    Using a real space implementation of the self-consistent field theory for the polymeric system, we explore microphases of ABC linear triblock copolymers. For the sake of numerical tractability, the calculation is carried out in a two-dimensional (2D) space. Seven microphases are found to be stable for the ABC triblock copolymer in 2D, which include lamellae, hexagonal lattice, core-shell hexagonal lattice, tetragonal lattice, lamellae with beads inside, lamellae with beads at the interface, and hexagonal phase with beads at the interface. By systematically varying the composition, triangle phase diagrams are constructed for four classes of typical triblock polymers in terms of the relative strengths of the interaction energies between different species. In general, when both volume fractions and interaction energies of the three species are comparable, lamellar phases are found to be the most stable. While one of the volume fractions is large, core-shell hexagonal or tetragonal phases can be formed, depending on which of the blocks dominates. Furthermore, more complex morphologies, such as lamellae with beads inside, lamellae with beads at the interface, and hexagonal phases with beads at the interface compete for stability with lamellae structures, as the interaction energies between distinct blocks become asymmetric. Our study provides guidance for the design of microstructures in complex block copolymers.

  8. Phase Behavior of Neat Triblock Copolymers and Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends Near Network Phase Windows

    SciTech Connect

    M Tureau; L Rong; B Hsiao; T Epps

    2011-12-31

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (ISM) copolymers near the styrene-rich network phase window was examined through the use of neat triblock copolymers and copolymer/homopolymer blends. Both end-block and middle-block blending protocols were employed using poly(isoprene) (PI), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(styrene) (PS) homopolymers. Blended specimens exhibited phase transformations to well-ordered nanostructures (at homopolymer loadings up to 26 vol % of the total blend volume). Morphological consistency between neat and blended specimens was established at various locations in the ISM phase space. Copolymer/homopolymer blending permitted the refinement of lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinder, and disordered melt phase boundaries as well as the identification of double gyroid (Q{sup 230}), alternating gyroid (Q{sup 214}), and orthorhombic (O{sup 70}) network regimes. Additionally, the experimental phase diagram exhibited similar trends to those found in a theoretical ABC triblock copolymer phase diagram with symmetric interactions and statistical segments lengths generated by Tyler et al.

  9. Flexible Epoxy Resin Formed Upon Blending with a Triblock Copolymer through Reaction-Induced Microphase Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a matrix, the ABA block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide–b–propylene oxide–b–ethylene oxide) (Pluronic F127) as an additive, and diphenyl diaminosulfone (DDS) as a curing agent to prepare flexible epoxy resins through reaction-induced microphase separation (RIMPS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the existence of hydrogen bonding between the poly(ethylene oxide) segment of F127 and the OH groups of the DGEBA resin. Small-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy all revealed evidence for the microphase separation of F127 within the epoxy resin. Glass transition temperature (Tg) phenomena and mechanical properties (modulus) were determined through differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively, of samples at various blend compositions. The modulus data provided evidence for the formation of wormlike micelle structures, through a RIMPS mechanism, in the flexible epoxy resin upon blending with the F127 triblock copolymer. PMID:28773571

  10. Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(lactide)-based Triblock and Multiblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthani, Tessie Rose

    Replacing petroleum-based plastics with alternatives that are degradable and synthesized from annually renewable feedstocks is a critical goal for the polymer industry. Achieving this goal requires the development of sustainable analogs to commodity plastics which have equivalent or superior properties (e.g. mechanical, thermal, optical etc.) compared to their petroleum-based counterparts. This work focuses on improving and modulating the properties of a specific sustainable polymer, poly(lactide) (PLA), by incorporating it into triblock and multiblock copolymer architectures. The multiblock copolymers in this work are synthesized directly from dihydroxy-terminated triblock copolymers by a simple step-growth approach: the triblock copolymer serves as a macromonomer and addition of stoichiometric quantities of either an acid chloride or diisocyanate results in a multiblock copolymer. This work shows that over wide range of compositions, PLA-based multiblock copolymers have superior mechanical properties compared to triblock copolymers with equivalent chemical compositions and morphologies. The connectivity of the blocks within the multiblock copolymers has other interesting consequences on properties. For example, when crystallizable poly(L-lactide)-based triblock and multiblock copolymers are investigated, it is found that the multiblock copolymers have much slower crystallization kinetics. Additionally, the total number of blocks connected together is found to effect the linear viscoelastic properties as well as the alignment of lamellar domains under uniaxial extension. Finally, the synthesis and characterization of pressure-sensitive adhesives based upon renewable PLA-containing triblock copolymers and a renewable tackifier is detailed. Together, the results give insight into the effect of chain architecture, composition, and morphology on the mechanical behavior, thermal properties, and rheological properties of PLA-based materials.

  11. Role of Solvent Water in the Temperature-Induced Self-Assembly of a Triblock Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Achintya; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-07-06

    Water-soluble triblock copolymers have received much attention in industrial applications and scientific fields. We here show that femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy is useful to study the role of water in the temperature-induced self-assembly of triblock copolymers. Our experimental results suggest two distinct subpopulations of water molecules: those that interact with other water molecules and those involved in the hydration of a triblock copolymer surface. We find that the vibrational dynamics of bulk-like water is not affected by either micellation or gelation of triblock copolymers. The increased population of water interacting with ether oxygen atoms of the copolymer during the unimer to micelle phase transition is important evidence for the entropic role of water in temperature-induced micelle formation at a low copolymer concentration. In contrast, at the critical gelation temperature and beyond, the population of surface-associated water molecules interacting with ether oxygen atoms decreases, which indicates important enthalpic control by water. The present study on the roles of water in the two different phase transitions of triblock copolymers sheds new light on the underlying mechanisms of temperature-induced self-aggregation behaviors of amphiphiles that are ubiquitous in nature.

  12. Self-Assembled Morphologies of Linear and Miktoarm Star Triblock Copolymer Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hanlin; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

    2017-04-12

    Monolayers of linear and miktoarm star ABC triblock copolymers with equal A and C blocks are investigated using the self-consistent field theory. The monolayers of ABC triblock copolymers are formed between two parallel surfaces that are attractive to the A and C blocks. The repulsive interaction parameter $\\chi_{AC}N$ between the A and C blocks is chosen to be weaker than the A/B and B/C interactions, quantified by $\\chi_{AB}N$ and $\\chi_{BC}N$, such that the B blocks are confined at the A/C interface, resulting in various B-domains with different geometries and arrangements. It is observed that two variables, the strength of the surface fields and the film thickness, are dominant factors controlling the self-assembly of the B blocks into various morphologies. For the linear triblock copolymers, the morphologies of B domains include disks, stripes (parallel cylinders), and hexagonal network (inverse disks). For the miktoarm star triblock copolymers, the competition between the tendency to align the junction points along a straight line and the constraint on their arrangement from the surface interactions leads to richer ordered morphologies. As a result of packing the junction points of the ABC miktoarm star copolymers, a counterintuitive phase sequence from low curvature phases to high curvature phases with increasing the length of B block is predicted. The study indicates that the self-assembly of monolayers of ABC triblock copolymers provides an interesting platform to engineer novel morphologies.

  13. Low molecular weight linear polyethylenimine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyethylenimine triblock copolymers: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro gene transfer properties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Lok, Martin C; Hennink, Wim E; Christensen, Lane V; Yockman, James W; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Sung Wan

    2005-01-01

    Novel ABA triblock copolymers consisting of low molecular weight linear polyethylenimine (PEI) as the A block and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the B block were prepared and evaluated as polymeric transfectant. The cationic polymerization of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MeOZO) using PEG-bis(tosylate) as a macroinitiator followed by acid hydrolysis afforded linear PEI-PEG-PEI triblock copolymers with controlled compositions. Two copolymers, PEI-PEG-PEI 2100-3400-2100 and 4000-3400-4000, were synthesized. Both copolymers were shown to interact with and condense plasmid DNA effectively to give polymer/DNA complexes (polyplexes) of small sizes (<100 nm) and moderate zeta-potentials (approximately +10 mV) at polymer/plasmid weight ratios > or =1.5/1. These polyplexes were able to efficiently transfect COS-7 cells and primary bovine endothelial cells (BAECs) in vitro. For example, PEI-PEG-PEI 4000-3400-4000 based polyplexes showed a transfection efficiency comparable to polyplexes of branched PEI 25000. The transfection activity of polyplexes of PEI-PEG-PEI 4000-3400-4000 in BAECs using luciferase as a reporter gene was 3-fold higher than that for linear PEI 25000/DNA formulations. Importantly, the presence of serum in the transfection medium had no inhibitive effect on the transfection activity of the PEI-PEG-PEI polyplexes. These PEI-PEG-PEI triblock copolymers displayed also an improved safety profile in comparison with high molecular weight PEIs, since the cytotoxicity of the polyplex formulations was very low under conditions where high transgene expression was found. Therefore, linear PEI-PEG-PEI triblock copolymers are an attractive novel class of nonviral gene delivery systems.

  14. Effects of PEO Content on the Morphological Behavior of PS-PI-PEO Triblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Travis S.; Bates, Frank S.

    2000-03-01

    Many studies involving ABC triblock copolymers have focused on the unique morphologies that particular molecules or blends express. However, investigations of thermally induced morphological changes in these molecules have been limited. A series of poly(styrene-isoprene-ethyleneoxide) ABC-triblock copolymers were sythesized with increasing PEO content. Consistency among all triblocks was achieved through ethylene oxide addition to the same hydroxy-functionalized poly(styrene-isoprene) diblock (MW = 18000g/mol, vol. frac. PS =0.5). Final triblock PEO volume fractions ranged from 0.029 to 0.207. All triblocks in the series showed order-to-disorder transitions (ODTs), ranging from 84C to 215C. Interestingly, initial addition of PEO resulted in a marked depression of the ODT relative to the parent diblock (116C). Characterization of these triblocks, using a combination of techniques including reology, SAXS, and TEM, shows multiple changes in morphology over the range of compositions studied, as well as possible order-to-order transitions (OOTs) associated with triblocks of specific compositions. Progression of these morphological changes with increasing PEO content will be discussed.

  15. Use of amphiphilic triblock copolymers for enhancing removal efficiency of organic pollutant from contaminated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hyup; Lee, Byungsun; Son, Intae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Chunho; Yoo, Ji Yong; Wu, Jong-Pyo; Kim, Younguk

    2015-11-01

    We have studied amphiphilic triblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG) and poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol) (PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG) as possible substitutes for sodium dodecyl sulfate as anionic surfactants for the removal of hydrophobic contaminants. The triblock copolymers were compared with sodium dodecyl sulfate in terms of their abilities to remove toluene as hydrophobic contaminant in fuel, and the effects of polymer structure, PEG content, and concentration were studied. The PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG copolymer containing two hydrophilic PEG blocks was more effective for the removal of hydrophobic contaminant at extremely high concentration. We also measured the removal capabilities of the triblock copolymers having various PEG contents and confirmed that removal capability was greatest at 10% PEG content regardless of polymer structure. As with sodium dodecyl sulfate, the removal efficiency of a copolymer has a positive correlation with its concentration. Finally, we proposed the amphiphilic triblock copolymer of PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG bearing 10% PEG content that proved to be the most effective substitute for sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  16. Kinetics of hexagonal cylinders to face-centered cubic spheres transition of triblock copolymer in selective solvent: Brownian dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Liu, Yongsheng; Bansil, Rama

    2010-08-28

    The kinetics of the transformation from the hexagonal packed cylinder (hex) phase to the face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase was simulated using Brownian dynamics for an ABA triblock copolymer in a selective solvent for the A block. The kinetics was obtained by instantaneously changing either the temperature of the system or the well-depth of the Lennard-Jones potential. Detailed analysis showed that the transformation occurred via a rippling mechanism. The simulation results indicated that the order-order transformation was a nucleation and growth process when the temperature of the system instantly jumped from 0.8 to 0.5. The time evolution of the structure factor obtained by Fourier transformation showed that the peak intensities of the hex and fcc phases could be fit well by an Avrami equation.

  17. Temperature-dependent self-assembly and rheological behavior of a thermoreversible pmma-P n BA-PMMA triblock copolymer gel

    DOE PAGES

    Zabet, Mahla; Mishra, Satish; Boy, Ramiz; ...

    2017-03-25

    We present that self-assembly and mechanical properties of triblock copolymers in a mid-block selective solvent are of interest in many applications. Herein, we report physical assembly of an ABA triblock copolymer, [PMMA–PnBA–PMMA] in two different mid-block selective solvents, n-butanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Gel formation resulting from end-block associations and the corresponding changes in mechanical properties have been investigated over a temperature range of -80 °C to 60 °C, from near the solvent melting points to above the gelation temperature. Shear-rheometry, thermal analysis, and small-angle neutron scattering data reveal formation and transition of structure in these systems from a liquid state tomore » a gel state to a percolated cluster network with decrease in temperature. The aggregated PMMA end-blocks display a glass transition temperature. Finally, our results provide new understanding into the structural changes of a self-assembled triblock copolymer gel over a large length scale and wide temperature range.« less

  18. Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H.

    2015-10-15

    Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

  19. Nanostructures and phase diagrams of ABC star triblock copolymers in pore geometries.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiben; Qiu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Linxi; Liang, Haojun

    2012-03-28

    The nanostructures and phase diagrams of ABC star triblock copolymers in pore geometries are investigated using the real-space self-consistent field theory in two-dimensional space. Two types of pores with neutral surfaces, namely, pores with small and large diameters, are considered. A rich variety of nanostructures are exhibited by the ABC star triblock copolymers in these two types of pores, which differ from those observed in bulk and in other confinements. These structures include perpendicular undulating lamellae, concentric core-shell cylinders, polygonal tiling with cylindrical arrangements, and other complex structures. Triangular phase diagrams for the ABC star triblock copolymers are constructed. The small pores clearly affect the corner and central space of the phase diagrams by distorting the bulk structures into concentric arrangements. Meanwhile, the large pores induce the transformation of bulk structures into concentric structures in most of the phase space, but slightly affect the structures at the center of the phase diagrams. Furthermore, the order-order and order-disorder phase transitions, as well as the stable and metastable phases, in the triangular phase diagrams are examined by analyzing their free energies. These observations on the ABC star triblock copolymers in the pore geometries provide a deeper insight into the behavior of macromolecules in a confined system.

  20. Triblock copolymer assisted synthesis of periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with large pores.

    PubMed

    Muth, O; Schellbach, C; Fröba, M

    2001-10-07

    Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with unusually large pores and high BET surface areas have been synthesized using triblock PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer P123 as the structure-directing agent and 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane (BTME) as the organically bridged silica source.

  1. A numerical study of the phase behaviors of drug particle/star triblock copolymer mixtures in dilute solutions for drug carrier application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shanhui; Tong, Chaohui; Zhu, Yuejin

    2014-04-14

    The complex microstructures of drug particle/ABA star triblock copolymer in dilute solutions have been investigated by a theoretical approach which combines the self-consistent field theory and the hybrid particle-field theory. Simulation results reveal that, when the volume fraction of drug particles is smaller than the saturation concentration, the drug particle encapsulation efficiency is 100%, and micelle loading capacity increases with increasing particle volume fraction. When the volume fraction of drug particles is equal to the saturation concentration, the micelles attain the biggest size, and micelle loading capacity reaches a maximum value which is independent of the copolymer volume fraction. When the volume fraction of drug particles is more than the saturation concentration, drug particle encapsulation efficiency decreases with increasing volume fraction of drug particles. Furthermore, it is found that the saturation concentration scales linearly with the copolymer volume fraction. The above simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Effect of ionic surfactant on the self-assembly of triblock copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Aswal, V. K.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the self-assembly of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer in aqueous solution has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactant, and at varying temperatures between 20 to 80°C. Micelles of pure ionic surfactants show little change in their sizes with increasing temperature, whereas structures of the non-ionic micelles increase significantly (sphere-to-rod transition for some block copolymers). Contrast variation SANS measurement suggests addition of SDS to aqueous copolymer solutions leads to the formation of mixed micelles. Interestingly, the self-assembly of block copolymer is found to get completely arrested by the ionic surfactant in the mixed micelles which gives a control over the block copolymer phase behavior.

  3. Synthesis and Melt Self-Assembly of PS-PMMA-PLA Triblock Bottlebrush Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, Justin; Rzayev, Javid

    2014-07-03

    Polystyrene–poly(methyl methacrylate)–polylactide (PS–PMMA–PLA) triblock bottlebrush copolymer with nearly symmetric volume fractions was synthesized by grafting from a symmetrical triblock backbone and the resulting melt was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The copolymer backbone was prepared by sequential reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of solketal methacrylate (SM), 2-(bromoisobutyryl)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM), and 5-(trimethylsilyl)-4-pentyn-1-ol methacrylate (TPYM). PMMA branches were grafted by atom transfer radical polymerization from the poly(BIEM) segment, PS branches were grafted by RAFT polymerization from the poly(TPYM) block after installment of the RAFT agents, while PLA side chains were grafted from the deprotected poly(SM) block. The resulting copolymer was found to exhibit a lamellae morphology with a domain spacing of 79 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that PMMA was preferentially mixing with PS while phase separating from PLA domains.

  4. Study of Low Molecular Weight Impurities in Pluronic Triblock Copolymers using MALDI, Interaction Chromatography, and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helming, Z.; Zagorevski, D.; Ryu, C. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers are a group of commercial macromolecular amphiphilic surfactants that have been widely studied for their applications in polymer-based nanotechnology and drug-delivery. It has been well-established that the synthesis of commercial Pluronic triblocks results in low molecular weight ``impurities,'' which are generally disregarded in the applications and study of these polymers. These species have been shown to have significant effects on the rheological properties of the material, as well as altering the supramolecular ``micellar'' structures for which the polymers are most often used. We have isolated the impurities from the bulk Pluronic triblock using Interaction Chromatography (IC) techniques, and subjected them to analysis by H1 NMR and MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) Mass Spectrometry to identify relative block composition and molecular weight information. We report significant evidence of at least two polymeric components: a low-molecular-weight homopolymer of poly(ethylene oxide) and a ``blocky'' copolymer of both poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide). This has significant implications, not only for the applied usage of Pluronic triblock copolymers, but for the general scientific acceptance of the impurities and their effects on Pluronic micelle and hydrogel formation.

  5. Fabrication of triblock ABA type peptide dendrimer based on glutamic acid dimethyl ester and PEG as a potential nano drug delivery agent

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hassan; Toomari, Yousef; Abbaspour, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Peptide dendrimers build up from amino acids and they simulate to artificial proteins with globular architecture. These characteristics furnish peptide dendrimers with best biodegradability and biocompatibility in drug delivery systems. Methods: A barbell-like dendrimer from glutamic acid dimethyl ester-poly (ethylene glycol)-glutamic acid dimethyl ester as ABA-type triblock copolymer (PG-PEG-PG) was prepared with liquid-phase peptide synthesis via a divergent approach. PEG 600 diacid (PEG-A) and glutamic acid dimethyl ester were used as the core and the monomeric building blocks, respectively. Linear-dendritic copolymer was prepared in the presence of DCC in pyridine. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for measuring the size of first generation (G1-COOH) and second generation (G2-COOH) of dendrimer compounds. Thermal behavior of the synthesized dendrimers was investigated using DSC. Results: The desired generations G1-COOH, G2-COOH and G3-COOH were prepared by divergent method using PEG diacid 600 as a core compound. The size range of the resulted particles was found to be 20-100 nm for various generations. The isolated dendrimer was examined as the drug-delivery agent and the controlled release was carried out for drug molecule in pH 7.4. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, the synthesized biocompatible dendrimers could potentially be utilized as a drug carrier agent. PMID:25671173

  6. Amphiphilic surface active triblock copolymers with mixed hydrophobic and hydrophilic side chains for tuned marine fouling-release properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Daewon; Weinman, Craig J; Finlay, John A; Fletcher, Benjamin R; Paik, Marvin Y; Sundaram, Harihara S; Dimitriou, Michael D; Sohn, Karen E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Handlin, Dale L; Willis, Carl L; Fischer, Daniel A; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2010-06-15

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M(n) approximately 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF(3)(CF(2))(9)(CH(2))(10)OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  7. Amphiphilic Surface Active Triblock Copolymers with Mixed Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Side Chains for Tuned Marine Fouling-Release Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Park, D.; Weinman, C; Finlay, J; Fletcher, B; Paik, M; Sundaram, H; Dimitriou, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M{sub n} {approx} 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 9}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  8. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  9. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  10. Self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers under 3D soft confinement: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Nan; Zhu, Yutian; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-21

    Under three-dimensional (3D) soft confinement, block copolymers can self-assemble into unique nanostructures that cannot be fabricated in an un-confined space. Linear ABC triblock copolymers containing three chemically distinct polymer blocks possess relatively complex chain architecture, which can be a promising candidate for the 3D confined self-assembly. In the current study, the Monte Carlo technique was applied in a lattice model to study the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers under 3D soft confinement, which corresponds to the self-assembly of block copolymers confined in emulsion droplets. We demonstrated how to create various nanostructures by tuning the symmetry of ABC triblock copolymers, the incompatibilities between different block types, and solvent properties. Besides common pupa-like and bud-like nanostructures, our simulations predicted various unique self-assembled nanostructures, including a striped-pattern nanoparticle with intertwined A-cages and C-cages, a pyramid-like nanoparticle with four Janus B-C lamellae adhered onto its four surfaces, an ellipsoidal nanoparticle with a dumbbell-like A-core and two Janus B-C lamellae and a Janus B-C ring surrounding the A-core, a spherical nanoparticle with a A-core and a helical Janus B-C stripe around the A-core, a cubic nanoparticle with a cube-shape A-core and six Janus B-C lamellae adhered onto the surfaces of the A-cube, and a spherical nanoparticle with helical A, B and C structures, from the 3D confined self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Moreover, the formation mechanisms of some typical nanostructures were also examined by the variations of the contact numbers with time and a series of snapshots at different Monte Carlo times. It is found that ABC triblock copolymers usually aggregate into a loose aggregate at first, and then the microphase separation between A, B and C blocks occurs, resulting in the formation of various nanostructures.

  11. Antimicrobial Behavior of Semifluorinated-Quaternized Triblock Copolymers against Airborne and Marine Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Park, D.; Finlay, J; Ward, R; Weinman, C; Krishnan, S; Park, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; Callow, J; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity.

  12. Interaction between amphipathic triblock copolymers and L-α-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Palominos, M A; Vilches, D; Bossel, E; Soto-Arriaza, M A

    2016-12-01

    This study contributes to an understanding of how different polymeric structures, in special triblock copolymers can interact with the lipid bilayer. To study the phospholipid-copolymer vesicles system, we report the effect of two amphipathic triblock copolymers of the type BAB, i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophilic-hydrophobic triblock copolymers arranged as poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCLn-PEOm-PCLn), where n=12 and m=45 for COP1 and n=16 and m=104 for COP2, on the dynamic and structural properties of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). The interaction between the copolymers and DPPC LUVs was evaluated by means of several techniques: (a) Photographs of the dispersion for evaluation of colloidal stability; (b) Thermotropic behavior from generalized polarization of Laurdan and fluorescence anisotropy of DPH (c) Main phase transition temperature determination; (d) Order parameters and limiting anisotropy by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements; (e) Water outflow through the lipid bilayer and (f) Calcein release from DPPC LUVs. Steady-state fluorescence measurements as a function of temperature show a typical behavior. Laurdan and DPH are fluorescent probes that sense the interface and the inner part of the bilayer, respectively. Both copolymers increase the Tm value of DPPC LUVs sensed by DPH, i.e., in the inner part of the bilayer. On the contrary, only COP2 had an effect on increasing the Tm value at the interface of the bilayer. At low temperature, in the gel phase, the presence of the copolymers produced a slight decrease in generalized polarization of Laurdan sensed in the interface of the lipid bilayer, but in the liquid-crystalline phase it produced an increase. In contrast, the order parameters obtained from time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of DPH show an increase in the presence of the copolymers in the gel phase, but a decrease in the liquid-crystalline phase. COP2

  13. Positively charged micelles based on a triblock copolymer demonstrate enhanced corneal penetration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguo; Li, Zhanrong; Zhou, Tianyang; Zhang, Junjie; Xia, Huiyun; Li, Heng; He, Jijun; He, Siyu; Wang, Liya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cornea is a main barrier to drug penetration after topical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abilities of micelles generated from a positively charged triblock copolymer to penetrate the cornea after topical application. Methods The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-g-polyethyleneimine was synthesized, and the physicochemical properties of the self-assembled polymeric micelles were investigated, including hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, morphology, drug-loading content, drug-loading efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Using fluorescein diacetate as a model drug, the penetration capabilities of the polymeric micelles were monitored in vivo using a two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy on murine corneas after topical application. Results The polymer was successfully synthesized and confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared. The polymeric micelles had an average particle size of 28 nm, a zeta potential of approximately +12 mV, and a spherical morphology. The drug-loading efficiency and drug-loading content were 75.37% and 3.47%, respectively, which indicates that the polymeric micelles possess a high drug-loading capacity. The polymeric micelles also exhibited controlled-release behavior in vitro. Compared to the control, the positively charged polymeric micelles significantly penetrated through the cornea. Conclusion Positively charged micelles generated from a triblock copolymer are a promising vehicle for the topical delivery of hydrophobic agents in ocular applications. PMID:26451109

  14. Effects of Solvent Composition on the Assembly and Relaxation of Triblock Copolymer-Based Polyelectrolyte Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Kevin J.; Shull, Kenneth R.

    2012-03-26

    The role of solvent selectivity has been explored extensively with regard to its role in the phase behavior of block copolymer assemblies. Traditionally, thermally induced phase separation is employed for generating micelles upon cooling a block copolymer dissolved in a selective solvent. However few amphiphilic, polyelectrolyte-containing block copolymers demonstrate a thermally accessible route of micellization, and solvent exchange routes are frequently employed instead. Here, we describe the use of mixed solvents for obtaining thermoreversible gelation behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-PMAA-PMMA) triblock copolymers. One solvent component (dimethyl sulfoxide) is a good solvent for both blocks, and the second solvent component (water) is a selective solvent for the polymer midblock. Rheological frequency sweeps at variable solvent compositions and temperatures demonstrate an adherence to time-temperature-composition superposition, so that changes in the solvent composition are analogous to changes in the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between end block and solvent. Shift factors used for this superposition are related to the effective activation energy describing the viscosity and stress relaxation response of the triblock copolymer gels. The effectiveness of solvent exchange processes for producing hydrogels with this system is shown to originate from the ability of a small amount of added water to greatly increase the relaxation times of the self-assembled polymer gels that are formed by this process.

  15. Molecular and morphological characterization of midblock-sulfonated styrenic triblock copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Ryan, Justin J.; Lee, Byeongdu; ...

    2017-01-11

    Midblock-sulfonated triblock copolymers afford a desirable opportunity to generate network-forming amphiphilic materials that are suitable for use in a wide range of emerging technologies as fuel-cell, water-desalination, ion-exchange, photovoltaic, or electroactive membranes. Employing a previously reported synthetic strategy wherein poly(p-tert-butylstyrene) remains unreactive, we have selectively sulfonated the styrenic midblock of a poly(p-tert-butylstyrene-b-styrene-b-p-tert- butylstyrene) (TST) triblock copolymer to different extents. Comparison of the resulting sulfonated copolymers with results from our prior study provides favorable quantitative agreement and suggests that a shortened reaction time is advantageous. An ongoing challenge regarding the morphological development of charged block copolymers is the competition between microphasemore » separation of the incompatible blocks and physical cross-linking of ionic clusters, with the latter often hindering the former. Here, we expose the sulfonated TST copolymers to solvent-vapor annealing to promote nanostructural refinement. Furthermore, the effect of such annealing on morphological characteristics, as well as on molecular free volume, is explored.« less

  16. Adsorption and functionality of fibrinogen on triblock copolymer-coated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Stephen Moss

    To assess the influence of the surface microenvironment on the adsorption and biologic activity of fibrinogen, a series of poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) triblock copolymers were adsorbed to solid, hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads. The copolymers, which were of the form PEOsb{b}PPOsb{a}PEOsb{b}, varied in their hydrophile/lipophile balances (HLB) due only to differences in their PEO chain length (5 to 129 EO units) as the hydrophobic PPO core segment was of fixed length (56 or 69 PO units). The surface coverage of copolymers was determined first and after exposing the beads to fibrinogen or to human plasma, the total amount of protein adsorbed to their surface was measured. The functionality of fibrinogen bound to copolymer-modified beads was assessed in terms of fibrin clot formation and by the adherence of macrophages (THP-1 tumor cells). Enzymatic processing was used to probe the surface orientation of fibrinogen. The copolymers appear to adsorb in an expanded fashion, a conclusion supported by surface pressure-area isotherms of the copolymers spread at the air-water interface. As compared to copolymer-free surfaces, protein adsorption decreases by up to 90% as the PEO chain length of the copolymers increases. The copolymer coatings appear to lower fibrinogen adsorption by limiting the available surface area. On surfaces coated with the hydrophobic versions of the copolymers, the biologic assays demonstrate that fibrinogen is as reactive/coagulable as for surfaces with saturated coverages of fibrin despite that these copolymer-coated surfaces have 60% less fibrinogen adsorbed to them. When adsorbed at the same low surface concentration in the absence of copolymer, fibrinogen is not active. Enzymatic processing of bound fibrinogen suggests that the presence of the copolymers promote the adsorption of the protein in end-on fashion. It is proposed here, that when adsorbed end-on, fibrinogen is functional because its reactive sites are

  17. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing L-glutamic acid units.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huili; Xie, Zhigang; Zhang, Peibiao; Deng, Chao; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2005-01-01

    A novel biodegradable amphiphilic triblock copolymer bearing pendant carboxyl groups PLGG-PEG-PLGG was successfully prepared by ring-opening copolymerization of l-lactide (LA) with (3s)-benzoxylcarbonylethyl-morpholine-2, 5-dione (BEMD) in the presence of dihydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a macroinitiator in bulk at 130 degrees C using SnOct(2) as catalyst and by subsequent catalytic hydrogenation. The copolymer could form micelles in aqueous solution with the cmc dependent on the composition of the copolymer. The micelles exhibited a homogeneous spherical morphology and a unimodal size distribution. Their degradation rate in the presence of proteinase K was faster than that of PLA, and they showed a low degree of cytotoxicity to the articular cartilage cells. This biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymer with pendant carboxyl groups is capable of further modification and is expected to facilitate a variety of potential biomedical applications, such as drug carriers, tissue engineering, etc.

  18. Imidazolium-containing, hydrophobic-ionic-hydrophilic ABC triblock copolymers: synthesis, ordered phase-separation, and supported membrane fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenauer, EF; Nguyen, PT; Newell, BS; Bailey, TS; Nobleb, RD; Gin, DL

    2013-01-01

    Novel ABC triblock copolymers containing hydrophobic, imidazolium ionic liquid (IL)-based ionic, and non-charged hydrophilic blocks were synthesized by direct sequential, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of three chemically immiscible norborene monomers. The resulting ABC triblock copolymers were found by small-angle X-ray scattering to phase-separate into different nanostructures in their pure melt states, depending on their block sequence and compositions. Supported composite membranes of these triblock copolymers were successfully fabricated with defect-free, <= 20 microns thick top coatings. Preliminary CO2/light gas transport studies demonstrated the potential of this new type of IL-based block copolymer material for gas separation applications.

  19. Modeling Viscoelastic Properties of Triblock Copolymers: A DPD Simulation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    about 0.66 as the copolymer concentration, c , increases from 0.2 to 0.5; however, this increase is less significant at higher concentrations. The...0.40 to about 0.66 as the copolymer concentration, c , increases from 0.2 to 0.5; however, this increase is less significant at higher concentrations. The...is subjected to oscillatory strains, c , of frequency, x, the stress response, r, is necessarily cyclic and can be written Correspondence to: Y. R

  20. Triblock copolymer matrix-based capillary electrophoretic microdevice for high-resolution multiplex pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Jin; Shin, Gi Won; Choi, Seok Jin; Hwang, Hee Sung; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Seo, Tae Seok

    2010-03-01

    Rapid and simple analysis for the multiple target pathogens is critical for patient management. CE-SSCP analysis on a microchip provides high speed, high sensitivity, and a portable genetic analysis platform in molecular diagnostic fields. The capability of separating ssDNA molecules in a capillary electrophoretic microchannel with high resolution is a critical issue to perform the precise interpretation in the electropherogram. In this study, we explored the potential of poly(ethyleneoxide)-poly(propyleneoxide)-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer as a sieving matrix for CE-SSCP analysis on a microdevice. To demonstrate the superior resolving power of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers, 255-bp PCR amplicons obtained from 16S ribosomal RNA genes of four bacterial species, namely Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Neisseria meningitidis, were analyzed in the PEO-PPO-PEO matrix in comparison with 5% linear polyacrylamide and commercial GeneScan gel. Due to enhanced dynamic coating and sieving ability, PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer displayed fourfold enhancement of resolving power in the CE-SSCP to separate same-sized DNA molecules. Fivefold input of genomic DNA of P. aeruginosa and/or N. meningitidis produced proportionally increased corresponding amplicon peaks, enabling correct quantitative analysis in the pathogen detection. Besides the high-resolution sieving capability, a facile loading and replenishment of gel in the microchannel due to thermally reversible gelation property makes PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer an excellent matrix in the CE-SSCP analysis on the microdevice.

  1. Effect of polydispersity on the phase diagrams of linear ABC triblock copolymers in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiaoyan; Liang, Haojun; Shi, An-Chang

    2005-11-10

    By using a two-dimensional (2D) real-space self-consistent field theory, we present the phase diagrams of monodisperse ABC triblock copolymers in a three-component triangle style with the interaction energies given between the distinct blocks; this system displays richer phase behavior when compared with the corresponding diblock copolymers. Polydispersity of the end or middle blocks in the ABC linear block copolymer chains results in a completely different phase diagram. The presence of a polydisperse end block may cause strong segregation to occur among the three distinct components and larger domain sizes of the dispersed phases; a polydisperse middle block may allow a connection to form between the two phases of the two end blocks.

  2. Effects of a PPO-PEO-PPO triblock copolymer on micellization and gelation of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiqiang; Li, Lin; Jiang, Sanping

    2005-09-27

    The effects of a PPO-PEO-PPO triblock copolymer (25R4, PO(19)-EO(33)-PO(19)) on thermoreversible micellization and gelation properties of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (F108, EO(133)-PO(50)-EO(133)) in water were studied by means of micro-DSC and rheology. A complete, mirror-image like thermoreversible behavior has been observed for all of the samples with various molar ratios of 25R4 to F108. At a given concentration of F108, the addition of 25R4 results in the salt-out like effect on the primary micellization of F108; that is, the critical micellization temperature (CMT) of F108 shifts to lower temperatures with increasing the content of 25R4. The enthalpy changes for micellization are a linear function of the 25R4/F108 molar ratio at a fixed F108 concentration. Beyond the primary peak for the micellization of F108, a secondary peak or shoulder is observed in the DSC curves for the samples with the higher 25R4/F108 molar ratios, due to the formation of the hydrophobic aggregates from both the PPO blocks of F108 and those (i.e., PPO blocks) of 25R4. Furthermore, as an example, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of 18 wt % F108 solutions with various contents of 25R4 have been examined. It is found that, when the 25R4/F108 molar ratio < or =1, 25R4 does not affect the gelation of F108 notably. When the ratio is greater than 1, however, the formation of the 25R4-bridged micellar aggregates delays the gelation of F108 significantly. A schematic model has been proposed to explain the mechanism for the 25R4-influenced micellization and gelation of F108.

  3. Continuous poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymer synthesis in a microfluidic reactor cascade.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Evelien; Verbraeken, Bart; Hoogenboom, Richard; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-07-25

    Cationic ring-opening polymerizations of 2-oxazolines were investigated in continuous microflow reactors. Fast homopolymerizations of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) and 2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline (nPropOx) were carried out up to 180 °C, yielding well-controlled polymers. Also well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers were produced in a microfluidic reactor cascade, demonstrating the high value of microflow synthesis for the built-up of advanced poly(2-oxazoline)-based polymers.

  4. Synthesis of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-polyisobutylene ABA block copolymers by the combination of quasiliving carbocationic and atom transfer radical polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ákos; Szarka, Györgyi; Iván, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Systematic investigations are carried out on the synthesis of a series of new, unique ABA-type triblock copolymers consisting of the hydrophobic and chemically inert polyisobutylene (PIB) inner and the hydrophilic comb-shaped poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (PPEGMA) polymacromonomer as an outer block. Telechelic PIB macroinitiators with narrow molecular weight distributions (MWD) are synthesized by quasiliving carbocationic polymerization of isobutylene with a bifunctional initiator followed by quantitative chain end derivatizations. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of PEGMAs with various molecular weights is investigated by using these macroinitiators. It is found that CuBr is an inefficient ATRP catalyst, while CuCl leads to high, nearly complete conversions of the PEGMA macromonomers. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses reveal slow initiation of PEGMA at relatively high PIB/PEGMA ratios or with PEGMAs of higher molecular weights due to steric hindrance between the macroinitiator and macromonomer. The occurrence of slow initiation, and not permanent termination, is proven by highly efficient ATRP of a low-molecular-weight monomer, methyl methacrylate, with the block copolymers as macroinitiators. Successful synthesis of PPEGMA-PIB-PPEGMA ABA block copolymers is obtained by using either low-molecular-weight PEGMA or relatively low macroinitiator/macromonomer ratios. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicates phase separation and significant suppression of the crystallinity of the pendant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains in these new block copolymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nanostructured DPA-MPC-DPA triblock copolymer gel for controlled drug release of ketoprofen and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Azmy, Bahaa; Standen, Guy; Kristova, Petra; Flint, Andrew; Lewis, Andrew L; Salvage, Jonathan P

    2017-08-01

    Uncontrolled rapid release of drugs can reduce their therapeutic efficacy and cause undesirable toxicity; however, controlled release from reservoir materials helps overcome this issue. The aims of this study were to determine the release profiles of ketoprofen and spironolactone from a pH-responsive self-assembling DPA-MPC-DPA triblock copolymer gel and elucidate underlying physiochemical properties. Drug release profiles from DPA50 -MPC250 -DPA50 gel (pH 7.5), over 32 h (37 °C), were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Nanoparticle size was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) by pyrene fluorescence. Polymer gel viscosity was examined via rheology, nanoparticle morphology investigated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the gel matrix observed using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). DPA50 -MPC250 -DPA50 copolymer (15% w/v) formed a free-standing gel (pH 7.5) that controlled drug release relative to free drugs. The copolymer possessed a low CMC, nanoparticle size increased with copolymer concentration, and DLS data were consistent with STEM. The gel displayed thermostable viscosity at physiological temperatures, and the gel matrix was a nanostructured aggregation of smaller nanoparticles. The DPA50 -MPC250 -DPA50 copolymer gel could be used as a drug delivery system to provide the controlled drug release of ketoprofen and spironolactone. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Multicompartmental hollow micelles formed by linear ABC triblock copolymers in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaoliang; Zhu, Wenjie; He, Xiaohua; Xing, Yaohui; Liang, Liyuan; Chen, Tao; Lin, Jiaping

    2013-02-28

    Self-assembly behavior of an ABC triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polystyrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PS-b-PCL), in aqueous media is presented. The formed micelle structures were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and laser light scattering. Various fascinating multicompartmental aggregates, including multilamellar vesicles, cylinder-containing vesicles, entrapped vesicles, and porous large compound micelles, were prepared from four copolymers with various block lengths of PEG and PS. The phase separation of hydrophobic PS and PCL blocks, as well as the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, plays a crucial role on the self-assembly behaviors. The mechanism regarding the formation of these fascinating aggregates is also suggested.

  7. Selective deposition and self-assembly of triblock copolymers into matrix arrays for membrane protein production.

    PubMed

    Andreasson-Ochsner, Mirjam; Fu, Zhikang; May, Sylvia; Xiu, Low Ying; Nallani, Madhavan; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin

    2012-01-31

    To improve the stability of cell membrane mimics, there has been growing interest in the use of block copolymers. Here, we present an easy approach to create an array of planar polymeric matrices capable of hosting membrane proteins. The array of polymeric matrices was formed by the selective deposition of triblock copolymers onto an array of hydrophilic islands situated within a hydrophobic background. The thickness of these matrices corresponds to the length of a single polymer chain. These polymeric matrices were used to host cell-free expressed membrane proteins, and offers a prototype from which a membrane protein array can be created for diagnostics or drug discovery purposes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Mimicking conjugated polymer thin-film photophysics with a well-defined triblock copolymer in solution.

    PubMed

    Brazard, Johanna; Ono, Robert J; Bielawski, Christopher W; Barbara, Paul F; Vanden Bout, David A

    2013-04-25

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are promising materials for use in electronic applications, such as low-cost, easily processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Improving OPV efficiencies is hindered by a lack of a fundamental understanding of the photophysics in CP-based thin films that is complicated by their heterogeneous nanoscale morphologies. Here, we report on a poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophene) rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer. In good solvents, this polymer resembles solutions of P3HT; however, upon the addition of a poor solvent, the two P3HT chains within the triblock copolymer collapse, affording a material with electronic spectra identical to those of a thin film of P3HT. Using this new system as a model for thin films of P3HT, we can attribute the low fluorescence quantum yield of films to the presence of a charge-transfer state, providing fundamental insights into the condensed phase photophysics that will help to guide the development of the next generation of materials for OPVs.

  9. Mimicking Conjugated Polymer Thin Film Photophysics with a Well-Defined Triblock Copolymer in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Brazard, Johanna; Ono, Robert J.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Barbara, Paul F.; Vanden Bout, David A.

    2013-04-25

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are promising materials for use in electronic applications, such as low-cost, easily processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Improving OPV efficiencies is hindered by a lack of a fundamental understanding of the photophysics in CP-based thin films that is complicated by their heterogeneous nanoscale morphologies. Here, we report on a poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophene) rod–coil–rod triblock copolymer. In good solvents, this polymer resembles solutions of P3HT; however, upon the addition of a poor solvent, the two P3HT chains within the triblock copolymer collapse, affording a material with electronic spectra identical to those of a thin film of P3HT. Using this new system as a model for thin films of P3HT, we can attribute the low fluorescence quantum yield of films to the presence of a charge-transfer state, providing fundamental insights into the condensed phase photophysics that will help to guide the development of the next generation of materials for OPVs.

  10. Basic physical properties/structure of polystyrene-polyisobutylene-polystyrene triblock copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszas, G.

    1993-12-31

    Polystyrene-b-polyisobutylene-b-polystyrene (PSt-PIB-PSt) triblock copolymers, with various molecular architectures, have been synthesized to establish basic physical properties/structure correlations for this novel thermoplastics elastomer (TPE). The test results have confirmed that these triblock copolymers have a unique combination of physical properties which is currently unavailable on the TPE market. The fully saturated character of the PIB backbone provides excellent ozone resistance. Barrier, electrical, and low-temperature properties, were measured, and found to be equivalent to those of conventional butyl vulcanizates. The low initial modules of PIB, and the fact that the PSt content can be kept low without significant loss in tensile properties, renders the material soft. The high incompatibility of PIB and PSt allows the overall chain length and, therefore, the melt viscosity, to be kept low. This could bring an important advantage, in processing, over other TPE`s. The combination of the above properties, and the inherent properties of PIB, makes this material in excellent candidate for wire and cable coating, seal and gasket, adhesive and vibration damping applications.

  11. Self-assembly of well-defined ferrocene triblock copolymers and their template synthesis of ordered iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Christopher G; Ren, Lixia; Ma, Shuguo; Tang, Chuanbing

    2013-05-14

    Well-defined ferrocene-containing triblock copolymers were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization and self-assembled into highly ordered hexagonal arrays of cylinders via solvent annealing. The thin films were further used as a template and converted into highly ordered iron oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3) by UV/ozonolysis and thermal pyrolysis.

  12. Weak segregation theory and non-conventional morphologies in the ternary ABC triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Erukhimovich, I Y

    2005-12-01

    The statistical theory of microphase separation in the ternary ABC triblock copolymers is presented and the corresponding phase diagrams are built both for the linear and miktoarm copolymers. For this purpose the Leibler weak segregation theory in molten diblock copolymers is generalized to multi-component monodisperse block copolymers with due regard for the 2nd shell harmonics contributions defined in the paper. The Hildebrand approximation for the chi-parameters is used. The physical meaning of this and alternative choices for the chi-parameters is discussed. The symmetric A(f)B(1-2f)C(f) copolymers with the middle block non-selective with respect to the side ones are shown to undergo the continuous ODT not only into the lamellar phase but also, instead, into various non-conventional cubic phases (depending on the middle block composition it could be the simple cubic, face-centered cubic or non-centrosymmetric phase, which reveals the symmetry of I4(1) 32 space group No. 214 first predicted to appear in molten block copolymers). For asymmetric linear ABC copolymers a region of compositions is found where the weakly segregated gyroid (double gyroid) phase exists between the planar hexagonal and lamellar or one of the non-conventional cubic phases up to the very critical point. In contrast, the miktoarm (star) ABC block copolymers with one of its arm non-selective with respect to the two others are shown to reveal a pronounced tendency towards strong segregation, which is preceded by increase of stability of the conventional BCC phase and a peculiar weakly segregated BCC phase (BCC(3)), where the dominant harmonics belong to the 3rd coordination sphere of the reciprocal lattice. The validity region of the developed theory is discussed and outlined in the composition triangles both for linear and miktoarm copolymers. We present also the list of the 2nd shell harmonics (SAXS reflections) allowed and prohibited in some of the non-conventional morphologies due to the

  13. Probing the phase behavior of ABC triblock copolymers near network phase windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureau, Maeva S.

    Block copolymers are one class of soft materials that consist of two or more covalently-bonded chains of chemically distinct monomers. Their ability to self-assemble into a variety of nanostructured materials with tailored chemical and physical properties has motivated extensive investigations for use in many emerging nanotechnologies such as nanotemplates, analytical separation membranes, and electrical and ionic conductors. Relative to cylindrical nanostructures that often require external alignment techniques to minimize structural defects, network structures possess co-continuous percolating domains in three-dimension and exhibit superior mechanical stability, short diffusion path lengths, and high internal interfacial areas, which can facilitate transport in applications such as water filtration and ion-conducting membranes. In this thesis project, the poly(ethylene-alt-propylene- b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (EPSM) triblock copolymer system was produced from the selective poly(isoprene) hydrogenation of poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (ISM) precursors. The EPSM system was selected due to the toughness given by the combined interactions of the glassy poly(styrene) (PS) and rubbery poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) blocks, the mechanical strength provided by the PS block, and the ease of removal of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block. This dissertation first presents the phase behavioral exploration of anionically-synthesized ISM triblock copolymer precursors and associated ISM copolymer/homopolymer blends, which permitted the identification and refinement of network phase regions. The copolymer/homopolymer blending technique allowed for homopolymer-induced phase transformations to and from network structures where alternating gyroid (Q214), core-shell gyroid (Q230), and orthorhombic (O70) network phases were identified. The ISM phase behavior was found to qualitatively match the predicted self-consistent mean field theory (SCFT

  14. Modeling and self-assembly behavior of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohan; Li, Suming; Coumes, Fanny; Darcos, Vincent; Lai Kee Him, Joséphine; Bron, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PLA-PEG) triblock copolymers with symmetric or asymmetric chain structures were synthesized by combination of ring-opening polymerization and copper-catalyzed click chemistry. The resulting copolymers were used to prepare self-assembled aggregates by dialysis. Various architectures such as nanotubes, polymersomes and spherical micelles were observed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryo-TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The formation of diverse aggregates is explained by modeling from the angle of both geometry and thermodynamics. From the angle of geometry, a ``blob'' model based on the Daoud-Cotton model for star polymers is proposed to describe the aggregate structures and structural changes with copolymer composition and molar mass. In fact, the copolymer chains extend in aqueous medium to form single layer polymersomes to minimize the system's free energy if one of the two PEG blocks is short enough. The curvature of polymersomes is dependent on the chain structure of copolymers, especially on the length of PLA blocks. A constant branch number of aggregates (f) is thus required to preserve the morphology of polymersomes. Meanwhile, the aggregation number (Nagg) determined from the thermodynamics of self-assembly is roughly proportional to the total length of polymer chains. Comparing f to Nagg, the aggregates take the form of polymersomes if Nagg ~ f, and change to nanotubes if Nagg > f to conform to the limits from both curvature and aggregation number. The length of nanotubes is mainly determined by the difference between Nagg and f. However, the hollow structure becomes unstable when both PEG segments are too long, and the aggregates eventually collapse to yield spherical micelles. Therefore, this work gives new insights into the self-assembly behavior of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers in aqueous solution which present great interest for biomedical and

  15. Complex microstructures of ABC triblock copolymer thin films directed by polymer brushes based on self-consistent field theory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibin; Xu, Chang; Qiu, Yu Dong; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and the phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film directed by polymer brushes are investigated by the self-consistent field theory in three dimensions. The polymer brushes coated on the substrate can be used as a good soft template to tailor the morphology of the block copolymer thin films compared with those on the hard substrates. The polymer brush is identical with the middle block B. By continuously changing the composition of the block copolymer, the phase diagrams are constructed for three cases with the fixed film thickness and the brush density: identical interaction parameters, frustrated and non-frustrated cases. Some ordered complex morphologies are observed: parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 (ll) -HFs), perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM(⊥)-CI), and perpendicular hexagonally packed cylinders phase with rings at the interface (C2 (⊥)-RI). A desired direction (perpendicular or parallel to the coated surfaces) of lamellar phases or cylindrical phases can be obtained by varying the composition and the interactions between different blocks. The phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film wetted between the polymer brush-coated surfaces is very useful in designing the directed pattern of ABC triblock copolymer thin film.

  16. Complex microstructures of ABC triblock copolymer thin films directed by polymer brushes based on self-consistent field theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and the phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film directed by polymer brushes are investigated by the self-consistent field theory in three dimensions. The polymer brushes coated on the substrate can be used as a good soft template to tailor the morphology of the block copolymer thin films compared with those on the hard substrates. The polymer brush is identical with the middle block B. By continuously changing the composition of the block copolymer, the phase diagrams are constructed for three cases with the fixed film thickness and the brush density: identical interaction parameters, frustrated and non-frustrated cases. Some ordered complex morphologies are observed: parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 ll -HFs), perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM⊥-CI), and perpendicular hexagonally packed cylinders phase with rings at the interface (C2⊥-RI). A desired direction (perpendicular or parallel to the coated surfaces) of lamellar phases or cylindrical phases can be obtained by varying the composition and the interactions between different blocks. The phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film wetted between the polymer brush-coated surfaces is very useful in designing the directed pattern of ABC triblock copolymer thin film. PMID:25114650

  17. Multicomponent Solvated Triblock Copolymer Network Systems: Fundamental Insights and Emerging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Arjun Sitaraman

    Block copolymers have received significant research attention in recent times due to their ability to spontaneously self-assemble into a variety of nanostructures. Thermoplastic elastomers composed of styrenic triblock copolymers are of great importance in applications such as adhesives and vibration dampening due to their shape memory, resilience and facile processing. The swelling of these polymers by adding midblock selective solvents or oligomers provides an easy route by which to modify the morphology and mechanical behavior of these systems. We first consider a ternary blend of a poly[styrene- b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] triblock copolymer (SEBS) and mixtures of two midblock selective co-solvents, with significantly different physical states. We use dynamic rheology to study the viscoelastic response of a wide variety of systems under oscillatory shear. Frequency spectra acquired at ambient temperature display viscoelastic behavior that shifts in the frequency domain depending on the co-solvent composition. For each copolymer concentration, all the frequency data can be shifted by time-composition superpositioning (tCS) to yield a single master-curve. tCS fails at low frequencies due to presence of endblock pullout, which is a fundamentally different relaxation process from segmental relaxation of the midblock. As an emerging technology, we examine SEBS-oil gels as dielectric elastomers. Dielectric elastomers constitute one class of electroactive polymers (EAPs), polymeric materials that respond to an electric stimulus by changing their macroscopic dimensions, thereby converting electrical energy into mechanical work. We use standard configuration of EAP devices involving stretching, or "prestraining," the elastomer film biaxially. The effect of experimental parameters such as film thickness and amount of prestrain on the (electro)mechanical properties of the material become apparent by recasting as-obtained electroactuation data into compressive

  18. End Group Effects on the Hydrogel Formation of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Aaron; Ryu, Chang Y.; Jung, Gyoo Y.; Hwang, Hee Sung

    2012-02-01

    Pluronic F108, a triblock copolymer consisting of outer polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains and an inner polypropylene oxide (PPO) chains, has been shown to be an effective hydrogel matrix for DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis using single-stranded conformation polymorphism. This presentation will discuss a new pathway to potentially enhance the separation abilities of F108 by altering the chain end groups of the block copolymers. F108 is believed to form a micelle in aqueous solutions with the hydrophobic group in the interior, thus we expect considerable interaction between the DNA sample and the end groups found at the hydrophilic brush layers of the micelle. The rheological properties of end group derivatives of F108, in combination of small angle x-ray scattering, can reveal structural differences in the micelles. In particular, gelation temperature of the end group derivatives can be linked to differences in the micelle structure. Dynamic light scattering can also be used to determine the effects of chain end groups on the hydrodynamic size of the block copolymer micelles in dilute solution.

  19. Protective effects of nonionic tri-block copolymers on bile acid-mediated epithelial barrier disruption.

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, A.; Fink, D.; Musch, M.; Valuckaite, V.; Zabornia, O.; Grubjesic, S.; Firestone, M. A.; Matthews, J. B.; Alverdy, J. C.

    2011-11-01

    Translocation of bacteria and other luminal factors from the intestine following surgical injury can be a major driver of critical illness. Bile acids have been shown to play a key role in the loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function during states of host stress. Experiments to study the ability of nonionic block copolymers to abrogate barrier failure in response to bile acid exposure are described. In vitro experiments were performed with the bile salt sodium deoxycholate on Caco-2 enterocyte monolayers using transepithelial electrical resistance to assay barrier function. A bisphenol A coupled triblock polyethylene glycol (PEG), PEG 15-20, was shown to prevent sodium deoxycholate-induced barrier failure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lactate dehydrogenase, and caspase 3-based cell death detection assays demonstrated that bile acid-induced apoptosis and necrosis were prevented with PEG 15-20. Immunofluorescence microscopic visualization of the tight junctional protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented significant changes in tight junction organization induced by bile acid exposure. Preliminary transepithelial electrical resistance-based studies examining structure-function correlates of polymer protection against bile acid damage were performed with a small library of PEG-based copolymers. Polymer properties associated with optimal protection against bile acid-induced barrier disruption were PEG-based compounds with a molecular weight greater than 10 kd and amphiphilicity. The data demonstrate that PEG-based copolymer architecture is an important determinant that confers protection against bile acid injury of intestinal epithelia.

  20. Triblock siloxane copolymer surfactant: template for spherical mesoporous silica with a hexagonal pore ordering.

    PubMed

    Stébé, M J; Emo, M; Forny-Le Follotec, A; Metlas-Komunjer, L; Pezron, I; Blin, J L

    2013-02-05

    Ordered mesoporous silica materials with a spherical morphology have been prepared for the first time through the cooperative templating mechanism (CTM) by using a silicone triblock copolymer as template. The behavior of the pure siloxane copolymer amphiphile in water was first investigated. A direct micellar phase (L(1)) and a hexagonal (H(1)) liquid crystal were found. The determination of the structural parameters by SAXS measurements leads us to conclude that in the hexagonal liquid crystal phase a part of the ethylene oxide group is not hydrated as observed for the micelles. Mesoporous materials were then synthesized from the cooperative templating mechanism. The recovered materials were characterized by SAXS measurements, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results clearly evidence that one can control the morphology and the nanostructuring of the resulting material by modifying the synthesis parameters. Actually, highly ordered mesoporous materials with a spherical morphology have been obtained with a siloxane copolymer/tetramethoxysilane molar ratio of 0.10 after hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C. Our study also supports the fact that the interactions between micelles and the hydrolyzed precursor are one of the key parameters governing the formation of ordered mesostructures through the cooperative templating mechanism. Indeed, we have demonstrated that when the interactions between micelles are important, only wormhole-like structures are recovered.

  1. Patchy nanoparticles self-assembled from linear triblock copolymers under spherical confinement: a simulated annealing study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Deng, Jianhua; Li, Baohui; Shi, An-Chang

    2014-09-21

    The self-assembly of linear ABC triblock copolymers confined in spherical nanopores is studied using a simulated annealing technique. Morphological phase diagrams as a function of the pore diameter, the selectivity of the pore-wall to the terminal blocks, and the copolymer composition are constructed. A variety of patchy nanoparticles and multiple morphological transitions are identified. Janus nanoparticles, which can be regarded as particles with one patch, are observed inside small nanopores. With increasing the pore diameter, the number of patches on a nanoparticle surface increases from one to two, four, five, six, and seven. The size of each patch increases periodically. The number of patches also increases with increasing the wall selectivity. The distribution of the patches on the surface of a given particle is highly symmetric. The interior structures of the patchy nanoparticles and the morphological transition are investigated by calculating the bridging fraction, the mean square end-to-end distance and the average contact number between different components. A series of entropy-driven morphological transitions is predicted. Furthermore, it is found that the overall patchy morphology is largely controlled by the volume fraction of the middle B-block, while the internal structure is largely controlled by the volume fraction ratio of the two terminal blocks. Our study demonstrates that the size of nanopores, the pore-wall selectivity, and the copolymer composition could be utilized as effective means to tune the structure and properties of the anisotropic nanoparticles.

  2. Triblock copolymers based on ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate for the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Güney, Aysun; Malda, Jos; Dhert, Wouter J A; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2017-05-09

    Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were prepared. These block copolymers combine the low glass transition temperature of amorphous PTMC (approximately -20°C) and the semi-crystallinity of PCL (glass transition approximately -60°C and melting temperature approximately 60°C). PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring opening polymerization (ROP) of TMC and ε-CL. From these materials, films were prepared by solvent casting and porous structures were prepared by extrusion-based 3D printing. Films prepared from a polymer with a relatively high molecular weight of 62 kg/mol had a melting temperature of 58°C and showed tough and resilient behavior, with values of the elastic modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break of approximately 120 MPa, 16 MPa and 620%, respectively. Porous structures were prepared by 3D printing. Ethylene carbonate was used as a crystalizable and water-extractable solvent to prepare structures with microporous strands. Solutions, containing 25 wt% of the triblock copolymer, were extruded at 50°C then cooled at different temperatures. Slow cooling at room temperature resulted in pores with widths of 18 ± 6 μm and lengths of 221 ± 77 μm, rapid cooling with dry ice resulted in pores with widths of 13 ± 3 μm and lengths of 58 ± 12 μm. These PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers processed into porous structures at relatively low temperatures may find wide application as designed degradable tissue engineering scaffolds. In this preliminary study we prepared biodegradable triblock copolymers based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate and ε-caprolactone and assessed their physical characteristics. Furthermore, we evaluated their potential as melt-processable thermoplastic

  3. Fabrication of Ordered Nanopattern by using ABC Triblock Copolymer with Salt in Toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hailiang; Zhong, Benbin; Zu, Xihong; Luo, Hongsheng; Lin, Wenjing; Zhang, Minghai; Zhong, Yazhou; Yi, Guobin

    2017-08-01

    Ordered nanopatterns of triblock copolymer polystyrene- block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)- block- poly (ethylene oxide)(PS- b-P2VP- b-PEO) have been achieved by the addition of lithium chloride (LiCl). The morphological and structural evolution of PS- b-P2VP- b-PEO/LiCl thin films were systematically investigated by varying different experimental parameters, including the treatment for polymer solution after the addition of LiCl, the time scale of ultrasonic treatment and the molar ratio of Li+ ions to the total number of oxygen atoms (O) in PEO block and the nitrogen atoms (N) in P2VP block. When toluene was used as the solvent for LiCl, ordered nanopattern with cylinders or nanostripes could be obtained after spin-coating. The mechanism of nanopattern transformation was related to the loading of LiCl in different microdomains.

  4. Modified release from lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Masoud; Yu, Erick; Forman, Evan; Roberson-Mailloux, Cameron; Tung, Jonathan; Tringe, Joseph; Stroeve, Pieter

    2014-10-01

    Triblock copolymers comprised of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, or trade name Pluronic) interact with lipid bilayers to increase their permeability. Here we demonstrate a novel application of Pluronic L61 and L64 as modification agents in tailoring the release rate of a molecular indicator species from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer-coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4/mesoporous silica core-shell nanoparticles. We show there is a direct relationship between the Pluronics' concentration and the indicator molecule release, suggesting Pluronics may be useful for the controlled release of drugs from lipid bilayer-coated carriers.

  5. Triblock copolymer P104 detailed behavior through a density, sound velocity and DLS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Anaya, L. M.; Fierro-Castro, C.; Rharbi, Y.; Martínez, J. F. A. Soltero

    2014-05-01

    Pluronic triblock copolymers usually present complex phase behavior depending on the number of PEO and PPO blocks contained in the polymer. They have a great dependence to temperature and concentration, both considered as key factors in the pluronic phase behavior. The evaluation of physicochemical properties such as densimetry and sound velocity, as well as the determination of the size distribution profile of particles of P-104/water in solution allow obtaining a detailed temperature-concentration behavior of the system. In this work we present a study of P104/water behavior through density, ultrasound velocity and dynamic slight scattering (DLS) measurements in a wide range of temperatures. The critical micellar temperature (CMT) and the sphere-to-rod micelle transition temperature (GMT) were determinate as a function of concentration.

  6. Responsive Hydrogels and Ion Gels by Self-Assembly of ABA and ABC Triblock Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Gels - polymeric networks swollen with a substantial amount of solvent - represent a fascinating class of soft materials, with wide-ranging applications in fields as diverse as biomedicine, pharmaceutics, personal care products, foods, sensors, actuators, flexible electronics, oil recovery, and adhesives. Physical gels are held together by non-covalent interactions, which may be as specific as hydrogen bonds, or as general as solvophobic association of insoluble blocks. Among the attractive features of physical gels are reversibility, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunability of macroscopic properties. In this talk two classes of physical gels will be highlighted. In one, the ability of ABC block terpolymers to form novel structures will be demonstrated, where blocks A and C are mutually immiscible and solvophobic, while B is solvophilic. In particular, the formation of gels by sequential association (first A, then C) leads to a remarkably sharp gelation transition, at a relatively low polymer concentration, compared to analogous gels formed from ABA systems. In the second class, gels formed by self-assembly of a variety of ABA systems in ionic liquids will be described, and in particular how gelation can be controlled through factors such as block chemistry, temperature, choice of ionic liquid, and application of light.

  7. Triblock copolymer gels - structure, fracture behavior and application in ceramic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Michelle E.

    Acrylic triblock copolymer gels transition rapidly from free-flowing liquids to elastic solids and their nanoscale self-assembly leads to reproducible structure and properties. They are an ideal model system for understanding the link between gel structure and the deformation and fracture behavior of soft, self-assembled materials. While a basic understanding of gel structure and linear viscoelastic response exists, this research aims to extend this understanding to include the nonlinear mechanical response and fracture behavior as well as the effect of gel concentration, block length, endblock fraction, and homopolymer solubilization. This expanded understanding will be applied to optimize triblock design for the thermoreversible gelcasting of ceramics. Gel structure was characterized using small angle scattering and self-consistent field theory simulations while mechanical properties were studied using a combination of rheology, swelling, indentation, uniaxial compression, and fracture experiments. Birefringence and shear alignment were used to differentiate between spherical and cylindrical micelle morphologies. An effective energy barrier of 550 kJ/mol describes gels relaxation behavior over a 40°C temperature range where the relaxation times vary by a factor of 1010. At high endblock contents, gels exhibit greater permanent deformation and moduli over an order of magnitude larger than would be expected from rubber elasticity alone due to a transition from spherical to cylindrical micelles. The rate dependence of a gels energy release rate, G , is independent of the gel concentration when G is normalized by the small strain Young's modulus, E. The gels exhibit a transition from rough, slow crack propagation to smooth, fast crack propagation for a well-defined value of the characteristic length, G /E. Crack tip stresses become highly anisotropic at stress values below the failure strength of the gels and are poorly described using linear elastic fracture

  8. Heat capacity anomaly in a self-aggregating system: Triblock copolymer 17R4 in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumancas, Lorenzo V.; Simpson, David E.; Jacobs, D. T.

    2015-05-01

    The reverse Pluronic, triblock copolymer 17R4 is formed from poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO): PPO14 - PEO24 - PPO14, where the number of monomers in each block is denoted by the subscripts. In water, 17R4 has a micellization line marking the transition from a unimer network to self-aggregated spherical micelles which is quite near a cloud point curve above which the system separates into copolymer-rich and copolymer-poor liquid phases. The phase separation has an Ising-like, lower consolute critical point with a well-determined critical temperature and composition. We have measured the heat capacity as a function of temperature using an adiabatic calorimeter for three compositions: (1) the critical composition where the anomaly at the critical point is analyzed, (2) a composition much less than the critical composition with a much smaller spike when the cloud point curve is crossed, and (3) a composition near where the micellization line intersects the cloud point curve that only shows micellization. For the critical composition, the heat capacity anomaly very near the critical point is observed for the first time in a Pluronic/water system and is described well as a second-order phase transition resulting from the copolymer-water interaction. For all compositions, the onset of micellization is clear, but the formation of micelles occurs over a broad range of temperatures and never becomes complete because micelles form differently in each phase above the cloud point curve. The integrated heat capacity gives an enthalpy that is smaller than the standard state enthalpy of micellization given by a van't Hoff plot, a typical result for Pluronic systems.

  9. Multiblock copolymers exhibiting spatio-temporal structure with autonomous viscosity oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Michika; Ueki, Takeshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Ryo

    2015-10-01

    Here we report an ABA triblock copolymer that can express microscopic autonomous formation and break-up of aggregates under constant condition to generate macroscopic viscoelastic self-oscillation of the solution. The ABA triblock copolymer is designed to have hydrophilic B segment and self-oscillating A segment at the both sides by RAFT copolymerization. In the A segment, a metal catalyst of chemical oscillatory reaction, i.e., the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, is introduced as a chemomechanical transducer to change the aggregation state of the polymer depending on the redox states. Time-resolved DLS measurements of the ABA triblock copolymer confirm the presence of a transitional network structure of micelle aggregations in the reduced state and a unimer structure in the oxidized state. This autonomous oscillation of a well-designed triblock copolymer enables dynamic biomimetic softmaterials with spatio-temporal structure.

  10. Multiblock copolymers exhibiting spatio-temporal structure with autonomous viscosity oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Michika; Ueki, Takeshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Here we report an ABA triblock copolymer that can express microscopic autonomous formation and break-up of aggregates under constant condition to generate macroscopic viscoelastic self-oscillation of the solution. The ABA triblock copolymer is designed to have hydrophilic B segment and self-oscillating A segment at the both sides by RAFT copolymerization. In the A segment, a metal catalyst of chemical oscillatory reaction, i.e., the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, is introduced as a chemomechanical transducer to change the aggregation state of the polymer depending on the redox states. Time-resolved DLS measurements of the ABA triblock copolymer confirm the presence of a transitional network structure of micelle aggregations in the reduced state and a unimer structure in the oxidized state. This autonomous oscillation of a well-designed triblock copolymer enables dynamic biomimetic softmaterials with spatio-temporal structure. PMID:26511660

  11. Interaction, solubilization and location of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its sodium salt in micelles of moderately hydrophilic PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Khimani, Mehul; Parekh, Paresh; Aswal, Vinod K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2014-05-01

    Micelles of ABA type triblock copolymers (where A is polyethylene oxide PEO and B is polypropylene oxide PPO) viz. Pluronic® P103, P104 and P105 (each containing almost the same PPO mol wt. ~ 3250 g/mol and 30, 40 and 50 wt.% of PEO, respectively) in the presence of p -hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and its sodium salt (Na-PHBA) were examined by viscosity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and NMR. Spherical polymeric micelles (apparent hydrodynamic diameter ~ 20 nm) in water at 30 °C grow in the presence of PHBA and transform into prolate-ellipsoidal shape with an increased aggregation number. The micellar transition was favored at higher PHBA concentration, temperature and for copolymers with more hydrophobicity. The PHBA salt, however, increased cloud point and showed only a marginal decrease in aggregation number even at much higher concentrations. The location of PHBA in micelle was elucidated by nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY).

  12. Expanding mesoporosity of triblock-copolymer-templated silica under weak synthesis acidity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjun; Hu, Qin; Tian, Hua; Ma, Chunyan; Li, Landong; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zhengping; Qiao, Shizhang

    2009-11-01

    With initial aging at low temperature for enough time, silicas with large mesoporosity were synthesized using triblock copolymer as template agent under weak acidities. SBA-15 with periodic mesostructure and short mesochannels could be synthesized at pH 2.5-3.0 within weak acidity range, and the surface areas, pore diameters and pore volumes reached up to ca. 1000m(2)/g, 8.8nm and 2.0cm(3)/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the conventional SBA-15 synthesized under strong acidities. Mesoporous silica with wormhole structure and abundant textural porosity was formed at pH approximately 3.5. The increased hydrophobic volume of the copolymer micelles at elevated pH values was responsible for the enlargement of mesoporosity in the products. The materials synthesized under weak acidities showed lower hexagonal ordering in comparison to the general SBA-15 synthesized under strong acidities because the decreased hydronium ion concentration induced relatively weaker assembly forces during the synthesis. Nonetheless, the short mesochannels and large pore diameter in the products might be beneficial to some applications in which fast diffusion of molecules is required.

  13. Dependence of aggregation behavior on concentration in triblock copolymer solutions: The effect of chain architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xiang-Gang Zhang, Xue-Feng

    2015-12-07

    Using the self-consistent field lattice technique, the effects of concentration and hydrophobic middle block length (where the chain length remains constant) on aggregation behavior are studied in amphiphilic symmetric triblock copolymer solutions. The heat capacity peak for the unimer-micelle transition and the distribution peaks for the different degrees of aggregation for micelles and small aggregates (submicelles) are calculated. Analysis of the conducted computer simulations shows that the transition broadness dependence on concentration is determined by the hydrophobic middle block length, and this dependence is distinctly different when the length of the hydrophobic middle block changes. Different size for small aggregates simultaneously appear in the transition region. As temperature decreases, the number of different size small aggregates for the large hydrophobic middle block length first ascends and then descends in aggregation degree order. These results indicate that any transition broadness change with concentration is related to the mechanism of fragmentation and fusion. These results are helpful for interpreting the aggregation process of amphiphilic copolymers at equilibrium.

  14. Translating Thermal Response of Triblock Copolymer Assemblies in Dilute Solution to Macroscopic Gelation and Phase Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhe; Tian, Ye; Hom, Wendy L.; Gang, Oleg; Bhatia, Surita R.; Grubbs, Robert B.

    2016-12-28

    The thermal response of semi-dilute solutions (5 w/w%) of two amphiphilic thermoresponsive poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N,N-dibutylacrylamide) (PEO45-PDEAmx-PDBAm12) triblock copolymers, which differ only in the size of the central responsive block, in water was examined in this paper. Aqueous PEO45-PDEAm41-PDBAm12 solutions, which undergo a thermally induced sphere-to-worm transition in dilute solution, were found to reversibly form soft (G'≈10 Pa) free-standing physical gels after 10 min at 55 °C. PEO45-PDEAm89-PDBAm12 copolymer solutions, which undergo a thermally induced transition from spheres to large compound micelles (LCM) in dilute solution, underwent phase separation after heating at 55 °C for 10 min owing to sedimentation of LCMs. The reversibility of LCM formation was investigated as a non-specific method for removal of a water-soluble dye from aqueous solution. Finally, the composition and size of the central responsive block in these polymers dictate the microscopic and macroscopic response of the polymer solutions as well as the rates of transition between assemblies.

  15. Translating Thermal Response of Triblock Copolymer Assemblies in Dilute Solution to Macroscopic Gelation and Phase Separation

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhe; Tian, Ye; Hom, Wendy L.; ...

    2016-12-28

    The thermal response of semi-dilute solutions (5 w/w%) of two amphiphilic thermoresponsive poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N,N-dibutylacrylamide) (PEO45-PDEAmx-PDBAm12) triblock copolymers, which differ only in the size of the central responsive block, in water was examined in this paper. Aqueous PEO45-PDEAm41-PDBAm12 solutions, which undergo a thermally induced sphere-to-worm transition in dilute solution, were found to reversibly form soft (G'≈10 Pa) free-standing physical gels after 10 min at 55 °C. PEO45-PDEAm89-PDBAm12 copolymer solutions, which undergo a thermally induced transition from spheres to large compound micelles (LCM) in dilute solution, underwent phase separation after heating at 55 °C for 10 min owing to sedimentation of LCMs.more » The reversibility of LCM formation was investigated as a non-specific method for removal of a water-soluble dye from aqueous solution. Finally, the composition and size of the central responsive block in these polymers dictate the microscopic and macroscopic response of the polymer solutions as well as the rates of transition between assemblies.« less

  16. Equilibrium structure of a triblock copolymer system revealed by mesoscale simulation and neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Changwoo; Chen, Wei-Ren; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Gregory S.

    2013-12-01

    We have performed both mesoscale simulations and neutron scattering experiments on Pluronic L62, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer system in aqueous solution. The influence of simulation variables such PEO/PPO block ratio, interaction parameters, and coarse-graining methods is extensively investigated by covering all permutations of parameters found in the literatures. Upon increasing the polymer weight fraction from 50 wt% to 90 wt%, the equilibrium structure of the isotropic, reverse micellar, bicontinuous, worm-like micelle network, and lamellar phases are respectively predicted from the simulation depending on the choices of simulation parameters. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the same polymer systems exhibit the spherical micellar, lamellar, and reverse micellar phases with the increase of the copolymer concentration at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis and comparison with simulations suggest that one of the simulation parameter sets can provide reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed structures.

  17. Equilibrium Structure of a Triblock Copolymer System Revealed by Mesoscale Simulation and Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Changwoo; Chen, Wei-Ren; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Gregory Scott

    2013-01-01

    We have performed both mesoscale simulations and neutron scattering experiments on Pluronic L62, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer system in aqueous solution. The influence of simulation variables such PEO/PPO block ratio, interaction parameters, and coarse-graining methods is extensively investigated by covering all permutations of parameters found in the literatures. Upon increasing the polymer weight fraction from 50 wt% to 90 wt%, the equilibrium structure of the isotropic, reverse micellar, bicontinuous, worm-like micelle network, and lamellar phases are respectively predicted from the simulation depending on the choices of simulation parameters. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the same polymer systems exhibit the spherical micellar, lamellar, and reverse micellar phases with the increase of the copolymer concentration at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis and comparison with simulations suggest that one of the simulation parameter sets can provide reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed structures.

  18. Triblock copolymers of ε-caprolactone, trimethylene carbonate, and L-lactide: effects of using random copolymer as hard-block.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Leonardus Kresna; Kong, Jen Fong; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Lipik, Vitali T; Liow, Sing Shy; Abadie, Marc J M; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2012-02-01

    A series of triblock copolymers comprising end block of PLLA modified with PCL, and random copolymer of PCL and PTMC as soft segment were synthesized. DSC data show that PCL disrupted the crystallinity of PLLA, making the hard block to be completely amorphous when the PCL content is 50%. Correspondingly, the addition of PCL into PLLA block enhances the elongation of the triblock considerably. With regards to the elasticity, however, creep test results show that adding PCL to PLLA block seems to reduce the "equilibrium" recovery, while cyclic test results shows that the instantaneous recovery increased significantly with more PCL inside PLLA block. It was also observed that the degradation rate of triblock with added PCL inside the PLLA was slower compared to triblock with pure PLLA hard block. Compared to biodegradable polyurethane, these polymers are expected to yield less harmful degradation products, and offer more variables for the manipulation of properties. These polymers are also processable from the melt at temperatures exceeding about 130 °C. We expect to use these polymers in a variety of applications, including stent coatings, fully-degradable stents and atrial septal defect occluders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative kinetics study of thermal degradation of some novel ABA block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Ignazio; Cicala, Gianluca; Mamo, Antonino; Latteri, Alberta; Recca, Antonino

    2012-07-01

    Some novel ABA block copolymers, synthesized with three different molecular weights, where the block A is a PPO while the block B is a random copoly(aryl ether sulfone), were studied by TGA and DTA techniques, in both flowing nitrogen and static air atmosphere, in order to draw useful information about their resistance to thermal degradation. The results obtained for the various compounds investigated were discussed and compared with each other and a thermal stability classifications in the studied environments were made.

  20. Formation of ordered microphase-separated pattern during spin coating of ABC triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Luo, Chunxia; Zhang, Jilin; Han, Yanchun

    2007-03-14

    In this paper, the authors have systematically studied the microphase separation and crystallization during spin coating of an ABC triblock copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO). The microphase separation of PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO and the crystallization of PEO blocks can be modulated by the types of the solvent and the substrate, the spinning speed, and the copolymer concentration. Ordered microphase-separated pattern, where PEO and P2VP blocks adsorbed to the substrate and PS blocks protrusions formed hexagonal dots above the P2VP domains, can only be obtained when PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO is dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide and the films are spin coated onto the polar substrate, silicon wafers or mica. The mechanism of the formation of regular pattern by microphase separation is found to be mainly related to the inducement of the substrate (middle block P2VP wetting the polar substrate), the quick vanishment of the solvent during the early stage of the spin coating, and the slow evaporation of the remaining solvent during the subsequent stage. On the other hand, the probability of the crystallization of PEO blocks during spin coating decreases with the reduced film thickness. When the film thickness reaches a certain value (3.0 nm), the extensive crystallization of PEO is effectively prohibited and ordered microphase-separated pattern over large areas can be routinely prepared. When the film thickness exceeds another definite value (12.0 nm), the crystallization of PEO dominates the surface morphology. For films with thickness between these two values, microphase separation and crystallization can simultaneously occur.

  1. ABC Triblock Copolymer Worms: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Pickering Emulsifiers for Millimeter-Sized Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA] triblock copolymer nano-objects in the form of a concentrated aqueous dispersion via a three-step synthesis based on reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, GMA is polymerized via RAFT solution polymerization in ethanol, then HPMA is polymerized via RAFT aqueous solution polymerization, and finally BzMA is polymerized via “seeded” RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization. For certain block compositions, highly anisotropic worm-like particles are obtained, which are characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The design rules for accessing higher order morphologies (i.e., worms or vesicles) are briefly explored. Surprisingly, vesicular morphologies cannot be accessed by targeting longer PBzMA blocks—instead, only spherical nanoparticles are formed. SAXS is used to rationalize these counterintuitive observations, which are best explained by considering subtle changes in the relative enthalpic incompatibilities between the three blocks during the growth of the PBzMA block. Finally, the PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA worms are evaluated as Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions. Millimeter-sized oil droplets can be obtained using low-shear homogenization (hand-shaking) in the presence of 20 vol % n-dodecane. In contrast, control experiments performed using PGMA–PHPMA diblock copolymer worms indicate that these more delicate nanostructures do not survive even these mild conditions. PMID:27795581

  2. Structure of PS/PMMA Blends with Interfacially Active Janus Particles Derived from ABC Triblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Kyle; Löbling, Tina; Müller, Axel; Hayward, Ryan; Russell, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Kinetic trapping of bicontinuous polymer morphologies on submicron length scales through the interfacial adsorption of nanoparticles is of interest due to the unique combination of the properties of each component provided by such structures, and their potential for use as membranes and composite materials. However, this strategy is challenging to realize in polymeric systems, due to the difficulties in preparing particles that are neutrally wetted by the two polymer phases. Janus particles afford a route to circumvent the necessity of neutral wettability. Both theory and experiment have shown enhanced interfacial adsorption energies for Janus particles, as well as greater flexibility in controlling particle orientation at the interface, in comparison to homogeneous particles. Janus particles with polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) hemispheres and a crosslinked polybutadiene core were prepared from triblock copolymers. Using blends of PS and PMMA homopolymers and the Janus particles, we examined structures produced by phase separation during solvent casting and thermodynamic demixing transitions via TEM and small-angle light scattering. The results elucidate the role of particle wettability on interfacial behavior and the structure of stabilized emulsions.

  3. A simple and inexpensive thermal optic nanosensor formed by triblock copolymer and polydiacetylene mixture.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel Max Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme Max Dias; Hespanhol, Maria do Carmo; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; Ortega, Paulo Fernando Ribeiro; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2018-02-15

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles have been applied as optical sensors in different areas, although there are difficulties in controlling their responses. In this study, we prepared nanoblends of PDA with triblock copolymers (TC) as a better sensor system for detecting temperature change. The influences of diacetylene (DA) monomer, and the TC chemical structure and concentration on the colorimetric response (CR) were examined. The TC/PDA nanoblend was remarkably more sensitive to temperature change, than classical vesicles. A higher L64 concentration of 12.0% (w/w) reduced the chromatic transition temperature (Ttr) to as low as 24°C. When using different TCs, the Ttr values can be ordered as L35

  4. Triblock copolymers of ε-caprolactone, L-lactide, and trimethylene carbonate: biodegradability and elastomeric behavior.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Leonardus Kresna; Kong, Jen Fong; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Lipik, Vitali T; Liow, Sing Shy; Abadie, Marc J M; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2011-10-01

    For the triblock copolymer of ε-caprolactone, trimethylene carbonate, and L-lactide, where L-lactide blocks form the two ends, there is a range of compositions over which elastomeric behavior is obtained. Within this composition range, these polymers show good creep and recovery at ambient temperature, and exhibit high elongations to break. Additionally, we demonstrate that the recovery is independent of stress and strain for the elastomer compositions. The range of compositions that yield elastomeric character is rationalized based on the structure; specifically, there must be a minimum crystallinity of the end blocks and no crystallinity in the midblock, in addition to molar mass requirements. These polymers degrade by simple hydrolysis, and the rate of degradation is potentially programmable by manipulation of the molar ratio of hard segment to soft segment. Compared to biodegradable polyurethane, these polymers are expected to yield less harmful degradation products, and offer more variables for manipulation of properties. These polymers are also processable from the melt at temperatures exceeding about 130 °C. We expect to use these polymers in a variety of applications, including stent coatings, fully-degradable stents, and atrial septal defect occluders.

  5. Styrene-Isoprene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer (SIS)/Polydiphenylamine Blends for Actuator Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongsak, Kraipop; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-03-01

    Styrene-Isoprene-Styrene triblock copolymer (SIS) is a dielectric material exhibiting many properties similar to polyisoprene elastomer, which has been widely studied for eletroactive applications. In our work, SIS films were prepared via film casting at various polystyrene (PS) contents (19 wt %, 29 wt %, and 44 wt %), yielding three different morphology films as characterized by an optical microscope, SEM, and TEM. Polydiphenylamine (PDPA), a conductive polymer, was synthesized by the oxidative polymerization and doped with HCl. For electroactive applications, electrorheological properties of pure SIS films and SIS/PDPA blends under stretching at a fixed temperature of 25^oC were measured to determine the effects of morphology (spherical, cylindrical, and lamella morphology), particle concentration, and doping level on the electrorheological properties measured: the storage and the loss modulii (G' and G''), the storage modulus responses (δG'2kV/mm), and the storage modulus sensitivities (δG'2kV/mm/G'0), under applied electric field strength varying from 0 to 2 kV/mm.

  6. Self-Assembly of Asymmetrically Interacting ABC Star Triblock Copolymer Melts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Juan; Liang, Qin

    2015-11-12

    The phase behavior of asymmetrically interacting ABC star triblock copolymer melts is investigated by the self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Motivated by the experimental systems, in this study, we focus on the systems in which the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters satisfy χAC > χ BC ≈ χAB. Using various initialization strategies, a large number of periodic structures have been obtained in our calculations. A fourth-order pseudospectral algorithm combined with Anderson mixing method is used to compute the free energy of candidate structures carefully. The stability has been analyzed in detail by splitting the free energy into internal and entropic parts. A complete and complex triangular phase diagram is presented for a model with χAC > χBC = χAB in which 15 ordered phases, including two- and three-dimensional structures, have been predicted to be stable from the SCFT calculations. Generally speaking, with the asymmetrical interactions, the hierarchical structures tend to be formed near the B-rich corner of the triangular phase diagram. This work broadens the previous theoretical results from equal interaction systems to unequal interaction systems. The predicted phase behavior is in good agreement with experimental observations and previous theoretical results.

  7. DNA electrophoresis in tri-block copolymer gels--experiments and Brownian dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ling; van Winkle, David H.

    2015-03-01

    The mobility of double-stranded DNA ladders in Pluronics®P105, P123 and F127, was measured by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Pluronics®are triblock copolymers which form gel-like phases of micelles arranged with cubic order at room temperature. A 10 base pair and a 25 base pair DNA ladder were used as samples in gel electrophoresis. The monotonically decreasing mobility with increasing length observed in the agarose separations is not observed in separations in Pluronics®. Rather, a complicated dependence of mobility on DNA length is observed, where mobility vs. length increases for short DNA molecules then decreases for longer molecules. There is also a variation of mobility with length correlated to the micelle diameter. Brownian dynamics simulations of a discrete wormlike chain model were performed to simulate short DNA molecules migrating in free solution and in a face-centered cubic matrix. By incorporating hydrodynamic interactions, the trend of simulated length-dependent mobility qualitatively agrees with experimental measurements.

  8. Self-Assembly and Relaxation Behavior of Graphene Containing Acrylic Triblock Copolymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabet, Mahla; Hashemnejad, Seyedmeysam; Kundu, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Investigation of gel mechanical properties as a function of their structure is a significant research interest. This study presents the effect of graphene (or few-layer graphene) on the self-assembly and the relaxation behavior of a thermoreversible gel consists of a physically cross-linked poly (methyl methacrylate)-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA-PnBA-PMMA] triblock copolymer in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a midblock selective solvent. Graphene was obtained by sonicating exfoliated graphite in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol at various concentrations. Filtration technique and spectrophotometry were utilized to measure the graphene concentration in the dispersions. The dispersed graphene was then incorporated in a series of gels and the effect of graphene on mechanical properties, including the relaxation behavior were studied. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to investigate the microstructure of these gels at room temperature. SAXS data were analyzed to estimate the number of end blocks per junction zone, the average spacing between the junctions, and the change of these properties as a function of graphene concentration. The results indicate that the presence of graphene affects the self-assembly process.

  9. Bioadhesion of various proteins on random, diblock and triblock copolymer surfaces and the effect of pH conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Manuel L. B.; Schricker, Scott R.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The adhesive interactions of block copolymers composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) with the proteins fibronectin, bovine serum albumin and collagen were studied by atomic force microscopy. Adhesion experiments were performed both at physiological pH and at a slightly more acidic condition (pH 6.2) to model polymer–protein interactions under inflammatory or infectious conditions. The PMMA/PAA block copolymers were found to be more sensitive to the buffer environment than PMMA/PHEMA owing to electrostatic interactions between the ionized acrylate groups and the proteins. It was found that random, diblock and triblock copolymers exhibit distinct adhesion profiles although their chemical compositions are identical. This implies that biomaterial nanomorphology can be used to control protein–polymer interactions and potentially cell adhesion. PMID:21147831

  10. Synthesis and characterization of triblock copolymers of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene fumarate).

    PubMed

    Behravesh, Esfandiar; Shung, Albert K; Jo, Seongbong; Mikos, Antonios G

    2002-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized by transesterification of hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and hydrophobic poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and characterized. Four block copolymers were synthesized with a 2:1 mPEG:PPF molar ratio and mPEGs of molecular weights 570, 800, 1960, and 5190 and PPF of molecular weight 1570 as determined by NMR. The copolymers synthesized with mPEG of molecular weights 570 and 800 had 1.9 and 1.8 mPEG blocks per copolymer, respectively, as measured by NMR, representing an ABA-type block copolymer. The number of mPEG blocks of the copolymer decreased with increasing mPEG block length to as low as 1.5 mPEG blocks for copolymer synthesized with mPEG of molecular weight 5190. At a concentration range of 5-25 wt % in phosphate-buffered saline, copolymers synthesized with mPEG molecular weights of 570 and 800 possessed lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) between 40 and 45 degrees C and between 55 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Aqueous solutions of copolymer synthesized with mPEG 570 and 800 also experienced thermoreversible gelation. The sol-gel transition temperature was dependent on the sodium chloride concentration as well as the mPEG block length. The copolymer synthesized from mPEG 570 had a transition temperature between 40 and 20 degrees C with salt concentrations between 1 and 10 wt %, while the sol-gel transition temperatures of the copolymer synthesized from mPEG molecular weight 800 were higher in the range 75-30 degrees C with salt concentrations between 1 and 15 wt %. These novel thermoreversible copolymers are the first biodegradable copolymers with unsaturated double bonds along their macromolecular chain that can undergo both physical and chemical gelation and hold great promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  11. Synthesis of zwitterionic polymer-based amphiphilic triblock copolymers by atom transfer radical polymerization for production of extremely stable nanoemlusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Jin Woong

    2015-03-01

    In fields of soft matter, there have been growing interests in utilizing amphiphilic block copolymers due to their intriguing properties, such as surface activity as well as self-assembly. In this work, we synthesize a series of poly (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphorylcholine)- b-poly (ɛ-caprolactone)- b-poly (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC- b-PCL- b-PMPC) triblock copolymers by using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). We have a particular interest in using poly (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) as a hydrophilic block, since it can have both electrostatic repulsion and steric repulsion in complex fluid systems. Assembling them at the oil-water interface by using the phase inversion method enables production of highly stable nanoemulsions. From the analyses of the crystallography and self-assembly behavior, we have found that the triblock copolymers assemble to form a flexible but tough molecular thin film at the interface, which is essential for the remarkable improvement in the emulsion stability.

  12. Adsorption and association of a symmetric PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer on polypropylene, polyethylene, and cellulose surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hongyi; Song, Junlong; Rojas, Orlando J; Hinestroza, Juan P

    2011-07-01

    The association of a symmetric polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO(19)-PPO(29)-PEO(19)) triblock copolymer adsorbed from aqueous solutions onto polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), and cellulose surfaces was probed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Significant morphological differences between the polyolefin substrates (PP and PE) and the cellulose surfaces were observed after immersion of the films in the PEO(19)-PPO(29)-PEO(19) solutions. When the samples were scanned, while immersed in solutions of the triblock copolymer, it was revealed that the structures adsorbed on the polyolefin surfaces were smoothed by the adsorbed PEO(19)-PPO(29)-PEO(19). In contrast, those structures on the hydrophilic cellulose surfaces were sharpened. These observations were related to the roughness of the substrate and the energy of interaction between the surfaces and the PEO and PPO polymer segments. The interaction energy between each of the blocks and the surface was calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. It is speculated that the associative structures amply reported in aqueous solution at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration, CMC, are not necessarily preserved upon adsorption; instead, it appears that molecular arrangements of the anchor-buoy type and hemimicelles prevail. The reported data suggests that the roughness of the surface, as well as its degree of hydrophobicity, have a large influence on the nature of the resulting adsorbed layer. The reported observations are valuable in explaining the behavior of finishing additives and lubricants commonly used in textile and fiber processing, as well as the effect of the morphology of the boundary layers on friction and wear, especially in the case of symmetric triblock copolymers, which are commonly used as antifriction, antiwear additives.

  13. Evolution of entanglements during the response to a uniaxial deformation of lamellar triblock copolymers and polymer glasses.

    PubMed

    Léonforte, F

    2010-10-01

    Using coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations, a generic styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer under lamellar conformation is used in order to investigate the mutual entanglement evolution when a structure of alternating glassy (S)/rubbery (B) layers is submitted to an imposed deformation. By varying the amount of loop chains between each phase, i.e., noncrossing chains, it is possible to generate different types of S/B interface definitions. A specific boundary driven tensile strain protocol has been developed in order to mimic "real" experiments and measure the stress-strain curve. The same protocol is also applied to a reference state consisting in a directed glassy homopolymers, as well as to an isotropic glassy polymer. The evolution of initial mutual entanglements from the undeformed samples during the whole deformation process is monitored. It is shown for all considered systems that initial entanglements mostly participate to the preyield regime of the stress-strain curve and that this network is debonded during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks with a non-null amount of crossing chains, the lower the amount is, the longer the memory effect of the initial entanglement network in the postyield regime is. On the fly distributions of entanglements, which depart from the postyield regime, depict memory effects and long-time correlations during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks, loop chains reinforce these effects.

  14. Evolution of entanglements during the response to a uniaxial deformation of lamellar triblock copolymers and polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonforte, F.

    2010-10-01

    Using coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations, a generic styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer under lamellar conformation is used in order to investigate the mutual entanglement evolution when a structure of alternating glassy (S)/rubbery (B) layers is submitted to an imposed deformation. By varying the amount of loop chains between each phase, i.e., noncrossing chains, it is possible to generate different types of S/B interface definitions. A specific boundary driven tensile strain protocol has been developed in order to mimic “real” experiments and measure the stress-strain curve. The same protocol is also applied to a reference state consisting in a directed glassy homopolymers, as well as to an isotropic glassy polymer. The evolution of initial mutual entanglements from the undeformed samples during the whole deformation process is monitored. It is shown for all considered systems that initial entanglements mostly participate to the preyield regime of the stress-strain curve and that this network is debonded during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks with a non-null amount of crossing chains, the lower the amount is, the longer the memory effect of the initial entanglement network in the postyield regime is. On the fly distributions of entanglements, which depart from the postyield regime, depict memory effects and long-time correlations during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks, loop chains reinforce these effects.

  15. Complex liquid-crystal nanostructures in semiflexible ABC linear triblock copolymers: A self-consistent field theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiben; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Jeff Z Y

    2016-11-14

    We show that two series of ABC linear triblock copolymers possess sequences of order-to-order phase transitions between microphase-separated states, as the degree of flexibility of the semiflexible middle B-blocks varies. The spatial and orientational symmetries of these phases, some of them containing liquid-crystal ordering, are analysed in comparison with related structures previously determined experimentally and theoretically. A theoretical framework based on the self-consistent field treatment of the wormlike-chain model, which incorporates the Flory-Huggins and Maier-Saupe interactions in the free energy, is used here as a basic foundation for numerical calculations. We suggest that tuning the flexibility parameter, which reduces to the concept of degree of polymerization in the coil-like limit and characterizes the chain-persistency in the rod-like limit, provides a promising approach that can be used to design the resulting microphase-separated structures in semiflexible copolymer melts.

  16. Complex liquid-crystal nanostructures in semiflexible ABC linear triblock copolymers: A self-consistent field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiben; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2016-11-01

    We show that two series of ABC linear triblock copolymers possess sequences of order-to-order phase transitions between microphase-separated states, as the degree of flexibility of the semiflexible middle B-blocks varies. The spatial and orientational symmetries of these phases, some of them containing liquid-crystal ordering, are analysed in comparison with related structures previously determined experimentally and theoretically. A theoretical framework based on the self-consistent field treatment of the wormlike-chain model, which incorporates the Flory-Huggins and Maier-Saupe interactions in the free energy, is used here as a basic foundation for numerical calculations. We suggest that tuning the flexibility parameter, which reduces to the concept of degree of polymerization in the coil-like limit and characterizes the chain-persistency in the rod-like limit, provides a promising approach that can be used to design the resulting microphase-separated structures in semiflexible copolymer melts.

  17. Preparation of sequence-controlled triblock copolymer-grafted silica microparticles by sequential-ATRP for highly efficient glycopeptides enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yiting; Ma, Cheng; Tong, Wei; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Wanjun; Tian, Fang; Peng, Bo; Qin, Weijie; Qian, Xiaohong

    2015-01-06

    As one of the most important subproteomes in eukaryote cells, N-glycoproteins play crucial roles in various of biological processes and have long been considered closely correlated with the occurrence, progression, and metastasis of cancer. Comprehensive characterization of protein N-glycosylation and association of their aberrant patterns to the corresponding cancer stage may provide a unique way to discover new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic drug targets. However, the extremely complex nature of biological samples and relatively low abundance of N-glycosylated proteins makes the enrichment of glycoprotein/glycopeptide a prerequisite for large scale N-glycosylation identification. In this work, we prepared sequence controlled triblock copolymer grafted silica-microparticles (TCP-SMs) by sequential atom transfer radical polymerization (sequential-ATRP) of monosaccharides and zwitterionic-ion monomers for highly efficient and selective glycopeptides enrichment. The triblock copolymer is composed of sequence defined poly zwitterionic-ion, poly-N-acetylglucosamine and poly mannose blocks. The glycopolymer blocks carrying densely packed pendent sugars are excellent mimics of the natural carbohydrate clusters and may induce multivalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI) with the target glycopeptides. Therefore, increased retention of glycopeptides can be expected by the combination of CCI and zwitterionic-HILIC interaction. As a result, 1244 glycopeptides were identified after TCP-SMs enrichment from mouse liver, which are 65-120% higher than that obtained by homoglycopolymer or random-copolymer grafted silica microparticles prepared using the conventional free radical polymerization. These results demonstrate the critical role of sequence-defined block copolymer of TCP-SMs for obtaining enhanced affinity toward glycopeptides and the potential of this sequential-ATRP strategy to integrate different affinity moieties into one enrichment material to

  18. Triblock copolymer anion exchange membranes bearing alkyl-tethered cycloaliphatic quaternary ammonium-head-groups for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen Xiao; Wang, Xiu Qin; Li, Ling; Liu, Fang Hua; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2017-10-01

    To explore highly conductive and alkaline stable anion exchange membrane (AEM) materials, triblock copolymers bearing alkyl-tethered cycloaliphatic quaternary ammonium-head-groups are prepared via nucleophilic substitution, Friedel-Crafts acylation, ketone reduction and Menshutkin reaction. The designed triblock copolymers composed of quaternized poly(phenylene oxide) segments and poly(ether sulfone) segments are responsible for the microphase separated morphology and well-connected ion domains, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The highest conductivity, up to 105.1 mS cm-1 at 80 °C is achieved for the AEM with ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 1.81 meq g-1. Furthermore, the AEMs show robust alkaline stability due to the alkyl-tethered cation-head-groups structure. High retention of hydroxide conductivity (88.9%) and IEC (91.2%) is observed for the AEMs via degradation test in a 1 M aqueous KOH solution at 80 °C for 480 h. Based on the AEM with high conductivity, a H2/O2 fuel cell achieves a peak power density of 176.5 mW cm-2 (80 °C) at a current density of 500 mA cm-2.

  19. ABC triblock surface active block copolymer with grafted ethoxylated fluoroalkyl amphiphilic side chains for marine antifouling/fouling-release applications.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Craig J; Finlay, John A; Park, Daewon; Paik, Marvin Y; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Sundaram, Harihara S; Dimitriou, Michael; Sohn, Karen E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Handlin, Dale L; Willis, Carl L; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2009-10-20

    An amphiphilic triblock surface-active block copolymer (SABC) possessing ethoxylated fluoroalkyl side chains was synthesized through the chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene polymer precursor. Bilayer coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC spray coated on a thick layer of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS) thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with the green alga Ulva and the diatom Navicula. Dynamic water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surfaces. Additionally, the effect of the Young's modulus of the coating on the release properties of sporelings (young plants) of the green alga Ulva was examined through the use of two different SEBS thermoplastic elastomers possessing modulus values of an order of magnitude in difference. The amphiphilic SABC was found to reduce the settlement density of zoospores of Ulva as well as the strength of attachment of sporelings. The attachment strength of the sporelings was further reduced for the amphiphilic SABC on the "low"-modulus SEBS base layer. The weaker adhesion of diatoms, relative to a PDMS standard, further highlights the antifouling potential of this amphiphilic triblock hybrid copolymer.

  20. Effect of nanoscale morphology on selective ethanol transport through block copolymer membranes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the effect of block copolymer domain size on transport of liquid mixtures through the membranes by presenting pervaporation data of an 8 wt% ethanol/water mixture through A-B-A and B-A-B triblock copolymer membranes. The A-block was chosen to facilitate ethanol transport while the B-blo...

  1. Supramolecular Organometallic Polymer Chemistry: Self-Assembly of a Novel Poly(ferrocene)-b-polysiloxane-b-poly(ferrocene) Triblock Copolymer in Solution.

    PubMed

    Resendes; Massey; Dorn; Power; Winnik; Manners

    1999-09-01

    Micelles with unprecedented flowerlike arrangements of the poly(ferrocene) cores (shown in the TEM image) are among the supramolecular architectures generated in the self-assembly of a novel organometallic triblock copolymer from silicon-bridged [1]ferrocenophane monomers and [Me(2)SiO](3) in hexane, a solvent selective for the central polysiloxane block.

  2. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different size and surface characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymer nanoparticles (PNP) are becoming increasingly important in nanomedicine and food-based applications. Size and surface characteristics are often considered to be important factors in the cellular interactions of these PNP, although systematic investigations on the role of surface properties on cellular interactions and toxicity of PNP are scarce. Results Fluorescent, monodisperse tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different sizes (45 and 90 nm) and surface charges (positive and negative) were synthesized, characterized and studied for uptake and cytotoxicity in NR8383 and Caco-2 cells. All types of PNP were taken up by the cells. The positive smaller PNP45 (45 nm) showed a higher cytotoxicity compared to the positive bigger PNP90 (90 nm) particles including reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ATP depletion and TNF-α release. The negative PNP did not show any cytotoxic effect. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), uncoupling of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and the resulting ATP depletion, induction of ROS and oxidative stress may all play a role in the possible mode of action for the cytotoxicity of these PNP. The role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the intracellular uptake of different PNP was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Involvement of size and charge in the cellular uptake of PNP by clathrin (for positive PNP), caveolin (for negative PNP) and mannose receptors (for hydroxylated PNP) were found with smaller PNP45 showing stronger interactions with the receptors than bigger PNP90. Conclusions The size and surface characteristics of polymer nanoparticles (PNP; 45 and 90 nm with different surface charges) play a crucial role in cellular uptake. Specific interactions with cell membrane-bound receptors (clathrin, caveolin and mannose) leading to cellular internalization were observed to depend on size and surface

  3. Adsorption of non-ionic ABC triblock copolymers: Surface modification of TiO2 suspensions in aqueous and non-aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Jean-Philippe; Atanase, Leonard Ionut; Riess, Gérard

    2017-10-01

    A series of non-ionic ABC triblock copolymers, such as poly(butadiene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyrridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-P2VP-PEO) were synthesized by sequential anionic polymerizations. For these copolymers comprising an organo-soluble PB and a water-soluble PEO block, their P2VP middle block has been selected for its anchoring capacity on solid surfaces. The adsorption isotherms on TiO2 were obtained in heptane and in aqueous medium, as selective solvents. In both of these cases, the P2VP middle block provides the surface anchoring, whereas PB and PEO sequences are acting as stabilizing moieties in heptane and water respectively. By extension to ABC triblock copolymers of the scaling theory developed for diblock copolymers, the density of adsorbed chains could be correlated with the molecular characteristics of the PB-P2VP-PEO triblock copolymers. From a practical point a view, it could be demonstrated that these copolymers are efficient dispersing agents for the TiO2 pigments in both aqueous and non-aqueous medium.

  4. Secondary Structure-Induced Micro- and Macro-Phase Separation in Polypeptide Diblock, Triblock and Star-Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    Self-organized polypeptide block copolymers are of great interest due to their potential uses as materials for nano-devices and bio-engineering. In order to explore the effect of block copolymer topologies on their structures, a series of di-, tri- and tetra-block copolymers has been synthesized. A coil-like soft block based on poly(propylene oxide) chemistry was chosen due to its low glass transition temperature, amorphous nature and immiscibility with biological systems. On the other hand, rod-like block polypeptide based on poly(L-glutamic acid γ-benzyl ester) was selected and grown from the coil soft macroinitiator by ring opening polymerization. Because of the mono-, bi-, or tri-functionality of the coiled blocks, linear di-block, tri-block and star-like tetra-block copolymers could be successfully synthesized. The resulting materials show micro-phase separated liquid-crystalline morphologies, in which the architecture or connectivity of the blocks, the molecular weight of the coil segment, the volume fraction and the secondary structure of the polypeptide blocks all contribute to their micro-phase separated features. These materials can be seen as model reference systems towards the design of biocompatible scaffolds and artificial muscles.

  5. Injectable supramolecular hydrogel from insulin-loaded triblock PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin with sustained-release property.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Heidari, Zinat; Tabassi, Sayyed A Sajadi; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khameneh, Bahman; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2015-02-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels formed by cyclodextrins and polymers have been widely investigated as a biocompatible, biodegradable and controllable drug delivery system. In this study, a supramolecular hydrogel based on biodegradable poly(caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymers and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was prepared through inclusion complexation as an injectable, sustained-release vehicle for insulin. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL was synthesised by the ring-opening polymerisation method, using microwave irradiation. The polymerisation reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The supramolecular hydrogel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with an aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. In vitro insulin release through the hydrogel system was studied. The relative surface hydrophobicity of standard and released insulin from the SMGel was estimated using 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS). Results of (1)HNMR and gel permeation chromatography revealed that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. Gelation occurred within a minute. The supramolecular hydrogel obtained by mixing 10.54% (w/v) γ-CD and 2.5% (w/v) copolymer had an excellent syringeability. Insulin was released up to 80% over a period of 20 days. Insulin kept its initial folding after formulating and releasing from SMGel. A supramolecular hydrogel based on complexation of triblock PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer with γ-cyclodextrin is a suitable system for providing sustained release of therapeutic proteins, with desirable flow behaviour.

  6. Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogel based on PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for sustained delivery of dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Gharechahi, Marzieh; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khashyarmanesh, Bibi Zahra; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, thermosensitive, water-soluble, and biodegradable triblock copolymer PCL600-PEG6000-PCL600 was used to form supramolecular hydrogel (SMGel) by inclusion complexation with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). The prepared SMGel was investigated as a carrier for sustained release of dexamethasone. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL [where PCL = polycaprolactone, PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)] was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization method using microwave irradiation. The polymerization reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). SMGel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. The sol-to-gel transition time was measured at various concentrations of copolymer and γ-CD. As-prepared SMGel was used to prepare a sustained, controllable drug delivery system of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The SMGel was also characterized in terms of rheological, morphological, and structural properties. Results obtained from proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H-NMR) and GPC demonstrated that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PEG-PCL copolymer. The SMGel with excellent syringability was prepared by mixing of 20% wt γ-CD and 10% wt of copolymer within 4 s. The SMGel containing 10% wt copolymer, 20% wt γ-CD, and 0.5% or 0.1% wt dexamethasone released approximately 100% and 45% of drug over up to 23 days, respectively. It could be concluded that SMGel based on self-assembly of inclusion complexes between PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-CD could be used as a basis for injectable drug delivery systems that provide sustained and controlled release of macromolecular drugs such as dexamethasone. PMID:27051627

  7. Modified release from lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles using PEO–PPO–PEO triblock copolymers [Modified release from lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles using PEO PPO PEO triblock copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Rahman, Masoud; Yu, Erick; Forman, Evan; ...

    2014-08-20

    Triblock copolymers comprised of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, or trade name Pluronic) interact with lipid bilayers to increase their permeability. Here we demonstrate a novel application of Pluronic L61 and L64 as modification agents in tailoring the release rate of a molecular indicator species from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer-coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4/mesoporous silica coreshell nanoparticles. Lastly, we show there is a direct relationship between Pluronic concentration and the indicator molecule release, suggesting Pluronic may be useful for the controlled release of drugs from lipid bilayer-coated carriers.

  8. Modified release from lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles using PEO–PPO–PEO triblock copolymers [Modified release from lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles using PEO PPO PEO triblock copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Masoud; Yu, Erick; Forman, Evan; Roberson-Mailloux, Cameron; Tung, Jonathan; Tringe, Joseph; Stroeve, Pieter

    2014-08-20

    Triblock copolymers comprised of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, or trade name Pluronic) interact with lipid bilayers to increase their permeability. Here we demonstrate a novel application of Pluronic L61 and L64 as modification agents in tailoring the release rate of a molecular indicator species from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer-coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4/mesoporous silica coreshell nanoparticles. Lastly, we show there is a direct relationship between Pluronic concentration and the indicator molecule release, suggesting Pluronic may be useful for the controlled release of drugs from lipid bilayer-coated carriers.

  9. Behaviors of keratinocytes and fibroblasts on films of PLA50-PEO-PLA50 triblock copolymers with various PLA segment lengths.

    PubMed

    Garric, Xavier; Garreau, Henri; Vert, Michel; Molès, Jean-Pierre

    2008-04-01

    The growth of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts on PLA-PEO-PLA copolymer films was investigated as an intermediate stage of a strategy aimed at making implantable dermo-epidermal substitutes. Four PLA-PEO-PLA triblock copolymers with the same PEO block and different DL-lactic acid/ethylene oxide molar ratios (LA/EO) (0.8, 1.4, 1.8 and 2), were synthesized and characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The films made of these copolymers were more hydrophilic than PLA50 and than tissue culture polystyrene controls according to contact angles with water. Proliferation and adhesion of human skin cells were evaluated by MTT assay and by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of PEO in the triblock copolymers influenced cell adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts, whereas keratinocyte adhesion and proliferation were not affected. These features emphasize the interest of PLA-PEO-PLA triblock copolymers to serve as better compounds than the racemic PLA previously investigated to make supports for human skin primary cells and scaffolds for skin engineering.

  10. Low dielectric, nanoporous fluorinated polyimide films prepared from PCL-PI-PCL triblock copolymer using retro-Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Chao

    2013-08-15

    The triblock copolymers with the majority phase comprising fluorinated polyimide and the minor phase consisting of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were synthesized through Diels-Alder reaction between PI-Maleimide and PCL-Furfuryl Amine. The chemical composition and structure of the copolymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Films of the copolymers were spined and microphase-separation of the thin film was achieved by solvent annealing in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) vapor. The microphase-separation morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on the microphase-separation structures, nanoporous fluorinated polyimide films were obtained after removal of the PCL block can removed via a retro-DA (Diels-Alder) reaction using a simple heating and immersing procedure. The nanoporous thin film was characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dielectric property of the nanoporous fluorinated polyimide films was investigated. It was found that the nanopores introduction could effectively reduce the dielectric constant from 2.82 of PI dense films to 2.10 of nanoporous PI films. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth of ordered silver nanoparticles in silica film mesostructured with a triblock copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, L.; Chassagneux, F.; Parola, S.; Bessueille, F.; Battie, Y.; Destouches, N.; Boukenter, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.

    2009-07-01

    Elaboration of mesostructured silica films with a triblock copolymer polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide, (PEO-PPO-PEO) and controlled growth of silver nanoparticles in the mesostructure are described. The films are characterized using UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Organized arrays of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter between 5 and 8 nm have been obtained by NaBH 4 reduction. The size and the repartition of silver nanoparticles are controlled by the film mesostructure. The localization of silver nanoparticles exclusively in the upper-side part of the silica-block copolymer film is evidenced by RBS experiment. On the other hand, by using a thermal method, 40 nm long silver sticks can be obtained, by diffusion and coalescence of spherical particles in the silica-block copolymer layer. In this case, migration of silver particles toward the glass substrate-film interface is shown by the RBS experiment.

  12. Thermogelling properties of triblock copolymers in the presence of hydrophilic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nambam, J S; Philip, John

    2012-08-21

    We investigate the supramolecular structure formed by thermogelation of a triblock polymer in the presence of nanoparticles and surfactant using rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The triblock copolymer, nanoparticle, and surfactant used in this study are poly(oxyethylene-oxypropylene-oxyethylene), Pluronic F108, Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles, and sodium dodecyl surfactant, respectively. Addition of 1-5 wt % of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle, of average particle size ~10 nm, in a weak template of F108 (15 wt %) shows a decrease in the onset of gelation temperature and dramatic alteration in the viscoelastic moduli. The nanocomposite samples show a linear viscoelastic regime up to 5% strain. The SAXS measurement shows that the intermicellar spacing of the supramolecular structure of pure F108 is ~16.5 nm, and the supramolecular structure is destroyed when nanoparticles and surfactants are incorporated in it. Further, the addition of anionic surfactant to nanocomposites leads to a dramatic reduction in the viscoelastic properties due to strong electrostatic barrier imparted by the surfactant headgroup that prevents the formation of hexagonally ordered micelles. Our results show that the thermogelation is due to the clustering of nanoparticles into a fractal network rather than a close-packed F108 micelles, in agreement with the recent findings in Pluronic F127-laponite systems.

  13. Model photo-responsive elastomers based on the self-assembly of side group liquid crystal triblock copolymers (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurji, Zuleikha; Kornfield, Julia A.; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of azobenzene-containing coil-liquid crystal-coil triblock copolymers that form uniform and highly reproducible elastomers by self-assembly. To serve as actuators to (non-invasively) steer a fiber optic, for example in deep brain stimulation, the polymers are designed to become monodomain "single liquid crystal" elastomers during the fiber-draw process and to have a large stress/strain response to stimulation with either light or heat. A fundamental scientific question that we seek to answer is how the interplay between the concentration of photoresponsive mesogens and the proximity to the nematic-isotropic transition governs the sensitivity of the material to stimuli. Specifically, a matched pair of polymers, one with ~5% azobenzene-containing side groups (~95% cyanobiphenyl side groups) and the other with 100% cyanobiphenyl side groups were synthesized from identical triblock pre-polymers (with polystyerene end blocks and 1,2-polybutadiene midblocks). These can be blended in various ratios to prepare a series of elastomers that are precisely matched in terms of the backbone length between physical crosslinks (because each polymer is derived from the same pre-polymer), while differing in % azobenzene side groups, allowing the effect of concentration of photoresponsive groups to be unambiguously determined.

  14. Mesoscopic Simulations of Adsorption and Association of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers on a Hydrophobic Surface: From Mushroom Hemisphere to Rectangle Brush.

    PubMed

    Song, Xianyu; Zhao, Shuangliang; Fang, Shenwen; Ma, Yongzhang; Duan, Ming

    2016-11-08

    The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to investigate the adsorption behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers at the liquid/solid interface. The effect of molecular architecture on the self-assembled monolayer adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces is elucidated by the adsorption process, film properties, and adsorption morphologies. The adsorption thicknesses on hydrophobic surfaces and the diffusion coefficient as well as the aggregation number of Pluronic copolymers in aqueous solution observed in our simulations agree well with previous experimental and numerical observations. The radial distribution function revealed that the ability of self-assembly on hydrophobic surfaces is P123 > P84 > L64 > P105 > F127, which increased with the EO ratio of the Pluronic copolymers. Moreover, the shape parameter and the degree of anisotropy increase with increasing molecular weight and mole ratio of PO of the Pluronic copolymers. Depending on the conformation of different Pluronic copolymers, the morphology transition of three regimes on hydrophobic surfaces is present: mushroom or hemisphere, progressively semiellipsoid, and rectangle brush regimes induced by decreasing molecular weight and mole ratio of EO of Pluronic copolymers.

  15. Growth of ordered silver nanoparticles in silica film mesostructured with a triblock copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO

    SciTech Connect

    Bois, L.; Chassagneux, F.; Parola, S.; Bessueille, F.; Battie, Y.; Destouches, N.; Boukenter, A.; Moncoffre, N.

    2009-07-15

    Elaboration of mesostructured silica films with a triblock copolymer polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide, (PEO-PPO-PEO) and controlled growth of silver nanoparticles in the mesostructure are described. The films are characterized using UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Organized arrays of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter between 5 and 8 nm have been obtained by NaBH{sub 4} reduction. The size and the repartition of silver nanoparticles are controlled by the film mesostructure. The localization of silver nanoparticles exclusively in the upper-side part of the silica-block copolymer film is evidenced by RBS experiment. On the other hand, by using a thermal method, 40 nm long silver sticks can be obtained, by diffusion and coalescence of spherical particles in the silica-block copolymer layer. In this case, migration of silver particles toward the glass substrate-film interface is shown by the RBS experiment. - Graphical abstract: Growth of silver nanoparticles in a mesostructured block copolymer F127-silica film is performed either by a chemical route involving NaBH{sub 4} reduction or by a thermal method. An array of spherical silver nanoparticles with 10 nm diameter on the upper-side of the mesostructured film or silver sticks long of 40 nm with a preferential orientation are obtained according to the method used. a: TEM image of the Fag5SiNB sample illustrating the silver nanoparticles array obtained by the chemical process; b: HR-TEM image of the Fag20Sid2 sample illustrating the silver nanosticks obtained by the thermal process.

  16. Styrene-butadiene-styrene Tri-block Copolymers Modified wit Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    morphology.1-6 Polymer nano -composites are a new and active research area in the field of block copolymers. Block copolymers reinforced by various nano -sized...fillers have been prepared and studied; layered silicates-based nano -composites have drawn the most attention thus far. 7- 9 Although domain...morphology is not strongly influenced by the blending of layered- silicates, these nano -reinforced block copolymers have shown promising property enhancements

  17. Multiple phase transition and scaling law for poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sijun; Li, Lin

    2015-02-04

    The multiple phase transition and the scaling behavior of a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (Pluronic F127, PEO100-PPO65-PEO100) have been studied by micro-differential scanning calorimetry and rheology. The scaling behavior of the triblock copolymer was examined using the Winter-Chambon criterion to obtain the critical gel temperature Tgel and the scaling exponent n. n was found to decrease linearly with increasing copolymer concentration. A stable hard gel was formed, but the hard gel was transformed into a soft gel upon further heating. Increasing copolymer concentration led to the increase in the temperature of hard-soft gel transition, while the sol-gel transition temperature decreased with increasing copolymer concentration. A phase diagram has been determined, which is able to classify unimers, micelles, hard gel, and soft gel regions upon heating. In addition, the scaling relation of the plateau modulus Ge with copolymer concentration was also obtained as Ge ≈ c(3.0) for both soft gel and hard gel.

  18. Photo-responsive and thermoreversible networks from the self-assembly of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal triblock copolymers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurji, Zuleikha; Kornfield, Julia A.; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    We report the synthesis of azobenzene-containing coil-liquid crystal-coil triblock copolymers that can serve as mechano-optic actuators for applications that include non-invasively steering fiber optics. The coil (polystyrene) end-blocks phase segregate from the liquid crystal midblock forming of uniform and uniformly-spaced physical crosslinks, resulting in highly reproducible and thermoreversible networks by self-assembly. These polymers are elastic in the melt (at room temperature) and can be easily spun, coated or molded. Mechanical stretching results in a temporary monodomain alignment. Starting from identical triblock prepolymers (with polystyerene end blocks and 1,2-polybutadiene midblocks), a matched pair (azobenzene-containing, and non-azobenzene-containing) of liquid crystal triblock copolymers was synthesized. These triblocks were then be blended to prepare a series of elastomers with 0 to 5% azobenzene groups, while matching in nearly all other physical properties (cross-link density, modulus, birefringence, etc.), allowing the effect of concentration of photo-responsive groups to be unambiguously determined. Results will be presented that demonstrate this approach to independent control of optical density and photo-mechanical sensitivity.

  19. Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Fluorine-Free Amphiphilic Non-Ionic Side Chains for Antifouling and Fouling-Release Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cho; H Sundaram; C Weinman; M Paik; M Dimitriou; J Finlay; M Callow; J Callow; E Kramer; C Ober

    2011-12-31

    Fluorine-free, amphiphilic, nonionic surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were synthesized through chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene triblock copolymer precursor with selected amphiphilic nonionic Brij and other surfactants. Amphiphilicity was imparted by a hydrophobic aliphatic group combined with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group-containing moiety. The surfaces were characterized by dynamic water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. In biofouling assays, settlement (attachment) of both spores of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula on SABCs modified with Brij nonionic side chains was significantly reduced relative to a PDMS standard, with a nonionic surfactant combining a PEG group and an aliphatic moiety demonstrating the best performance. Additionally, a fouling-release assay using sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula suggested that the SABC derived from nonionic Brij side chains also out-performed PDMS as a fouling-release material. Good antifouling and fouling-release properties were not demonstrated for the other two amphiphilic surfaces derived from silicone and aromatic group containing nonionic surfactants included in this study. The results suggest that small differences in chemical surface functionality impart more significant changes with respect to the antifouling settlement and fouling-release performance of materials than overall wettability behavior.

  20. Thermally switchable thin films of an ABC triblock copolymer of poly( n -butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy W.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-09-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly( n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  1. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Allen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  2. Synthesis and gelation properties of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers obtained by coupling monohydroxylated PEG-PLA with adipoyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Suming; Ghzaoui, Abdelsalm El; Nouailhas, Helene; Zhuo, Renxi

    2007-02-27

    Ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide was carried out in the presence of monohydroxylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with Mn of 2000 and 5000, using zinc powder as catalyst. The resulting PEG-b-polylactide (PEG-PLA) diblocks with various ethylene oxide/lactyl (EO/LA) ratios were coupled with adipoyl chloride to yield PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers. N-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) was used as catalyst. The obtained PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers were characterized by various analytical techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, size exclusion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Data showed that all the copolymers were semicrystalline with the PEG-type crystalline structure, the crystallinity decreasing with increasing PLA block length. Bioresorbable hydrogels were prepared from the water-soluble triblock copolymers. Rheological measurements showed a gel-sol transition with increasing temperature and gelation was found to be thermoreversible. The copolymer solution behaves like a viscoelastic liquid above the gel point and like a viscoelastic solid below the gel point. The critical gelation concentration, the gel-sol transition temperature at a given concentration, and corresponding moduli depend on both the EO/LA ratio and the molecular weight of the copolymers. It is assumed that gelation results from interactions between PEG blocks at low temperatures and that these interactions are disrupted as the temperature is elevated. The shrinking of PEG blocks with increasing temperature seems to be in agreement with the variation of the gel-sol transition temperatures.

  3. Structural and Rheological Properties of Temperature-Responsive Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Josefine Eilsø; Zhu, Kaizheng; Sande, Sverre Arne; Kováčik, Lubomír; Cmarko, Dušan; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Nyström, Bo

    2017-05-11

    Thermoresponsive amphiphilic biodegradable block copolymers of the type poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEGm-PCLA) have great potential for various biomedical applications. In the present study, we have surveyed the effects of PEG spacer length (m = 1000 and 1500), temperature, and polymer concentration on the self-assembling process to form supramolecular structures in aqueous solutions of the PCLA-PEGm-PCLA copolymer. This copolymer has a lower critical solution temperature, and the cloud point depends on both concentration and PEG length. Thermoreversible hydrogels are formed in the semidilute regime; the gel windows in the phase diagrams can be tuned by the concentration and length of the PEG spacer. The rheological properties of both dilute and semidilute samples were characterized; especially the sol-to-gel transition was examined. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments reveal fundamental structural differences between the two copolymers for both dilute and semidilute samples. The intensity profiles for the copolymer with the long PEG spacer could be described by a spherical core-shell model over a broad temperature domain, whereas the copolymer with the short hydrophilic spacer forms rod-like species over an extended temperature range. This finding is supported by cryo-TEM images. At temperatures approaching macroscopic phase separation, both copolymers seem to assume extended rod-like structures.

  4. Effects of interaction of ionic and nonionic surfactants on self-assembly of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Nambam, J S; Philip, John

    2012-02-09

    We study the effects of interaction of surfactants on the self-assembly of a triblock copolymer in aqueous solution by measuring percolation transition temperature (T(p)), micellar size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. We use PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (Pluronics-F108) with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic nonylphenolethoxylate (NP9) for our investigations. The addition of SDS in pluronics solution leads to a dramatic reduction in the viscoelastic properties, while it remains almost unaffected with CTAB and NP9. The 2 orders of magnitude decrease in the elastic modulus in the presence of SDS indicates a soft solid-like microstructure formed by aggregating self-assembled triblock polymers. Our results indicate a strong electrostatic barrier imparted by the headgroup of SDS at the core-corona interface that inhibits the formation of hexagonally packed layers of micelles and the packing order. The analysis of autocorrelation function at high concentrations of ionic surfactant indicates that pure surfactant micelles coexist with large intermicellar structures. With increasing surfactant concentration, the zeta potential of the pluronic micelle is found to decrease. These results suggest that the microstructure and elastic properties of block copolymer micelles can be tuned by varying the concentrations of ionic surfactant that enhances their potential in applications as nanocarriers for drug delivery systems.

  5. Separation of parent homopolymers from polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene triblock copolymers by means of liquid chromatography: 1. comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Rollet, Marion; Pelletier, Bérengère; Altounian, Anaïs; Berek, Dusan; Maria, Sébastien; Beaudoin, Emmanuel; Gigmes, Didier

    2014-03-04

    Separation of parent homopolymers, polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide), from the triblock copolymer polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene was investigated by means of liquid chromatography techniques. Overall suitability was evaluated and compared for size exclusion chromatography, (SEC), liquid chromatography under critical conditions of enthalpic interactions (LC CC), and liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption (LC LCD). Among these techniques, LC LCD was the only one able to fully separate block copolymers from both their parent homopolymers in one single run. The efficiency of the separation was proven by (1)H NMR analysis of previously collected fractions.

  6. Nature of Interactions between PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers and Lipid Membranes: (I) The Effect of Polymer Hydrophobicity on Its Ability to Protect Liposomes from Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2013-01-01

    PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers have opposing effects on lipid membrane integrity- they can behave either as membrane sealants or as membrane permeabilizers. To gain insights into their biomembrane activities, the fundamental interactions between a series of PEO-based polymers and phospholipid vesicles were investigated. Specifically, the effect of copolymer hydrophobicity on its ability to prevent liposomes from peroxidation was evaluated, and partitioning free energy and coefficient involved in the interactions were derived. Our results show that the high degree of hydrophilicity is a key feature of the copolymers that can effectively protect liposomes from peroxidation and the protective effect of the copolymers stems from their adsorption at the membrane surface without penetrating into the bilayer core. The origin of this protective effect induced by polymer absorption is attributed to the retardation of membrane hydration dynamics, which is further illustrated in the accompany study on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-derived hydration dynamics1. PMID:22808900

  7. Directed Self-Assembly of Triblock Copolymer on Chemical Patterns for Sub-10-nm Nanofabrication via Solvent Annealing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shisheng; Wan, Lei; Ishida, Yoshihito; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Craig, Gordon S W; Ruiz, Ricardo; Nealey, Paul F

    2016-08-23

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is a leading strategy to pattern at sublithographic resolution in the technology roadmap for semiconductors and is the only known solution to fabricate nanoimprint templates for the production of bit pattern media. While great progress has been made to implement block copolymer lithography with features in the range of 10-20 nm, patterning solutions below 10 nm are still not mature. Many BCP systems self-assemble at this length scale, but challenges remain in simultaneously tuning the interfacial energy atop the film to control the orientation of BCP domains, designing materials, templates, and processes for ultra-high-density DSA, and establishing a robust pattern transfer strategy. Among the various solutions to achieve domains that are perpendicular to the substrate, solvent annealing is advantageous because it is a versatile method that can be applied to a diversity of materials. Here we report a DSA process based on chemical contrast templates and solvent annealing to fabricate 8 nm features on a 16 nm pitch. To make this possible, a number of innovations were brought in concert with a common platform: (1) assembling the BCP in the phase-separated, solvated state, (2) identifying a larger process window for solvated triblock vs diblock BCPs as a function of solvent volume fraction, (3) employing templates for sub-10-nm BCP systems accessible by lithography, and (4) integrating a robust pattern transfer strategy by vapor infiltration of organometallic precursors for selective metal oxide synthesis to prepare an inorganic hard mask.

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies on inhibition of mild steel corrosion by some synthesized polyurethane tri-block co-polymers

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudershan; Vashisht, Hemlata; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Bahadur, Indra; Verma, Hemant; Singh, Gurmeet; Obot, Ime B.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2016-01-01

    Polyurethane based tri-block copolymers namely poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-polyurethane-b-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP-PU) and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-polyurethane-b-poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA-PU) were synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanism. The synthesized polymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) methods. The corrosion inhibition performances of the compounds were investigated on mild steel (MS) in 0.5 M H2SO4 medium using electrochemical measurements, surface analysis, quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements revealed that the polymers are mixed-type corrosion inhibitors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the polymers inhibit MS corrosion by adsorbing on MS surface to form pseudo-capacitive interface. The inhibitive effects of the polymers increase with increasing concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The adsorption of both the polymers on MS surface obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves both physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses showed that the polymers formed protective film on MS surface and shield it from direct acid attack. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic simulations studies corroborate experimental results. PMID:27515383

  9. Triblock copolymers encapsulated poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer zinc(II) phthalocyanine nanoparticles for enhancement in vitro photodynamic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yide; Yu, Huizhen; Lv, Huafei; Zhang, Hong; Ma, Dongdong; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Peng, Yiru

    2016-12-01

    A novel series of nanoparticles formed via an electrostatic interaction between the periphery of negatively charged 1-2 generation aryl benzyl ether dendrimer zinc (II) phthalocyanines and positively charged poly(L-lysin) segment of triblock copolymer, poly(L-lysin)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysin), was developed for the use as an effective photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. The dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy showed that two nanoparticles has a relevant size of 80-150nm. The photophysical properties and singlet oxygen quantum yields of free dendrimer phthalocyanines and nanoparticles exhibited generation dependence. The intracellular uptake of dendrimer phthalocyanines in Hela cells was significantly elevated as they were incorporated into the micelles, but was inversely correlated with the generation of dendrimer phthalocyanines. The photocytotoxicity of dendrimer phthalocyanines incorporated into polymeric micelles was also increased. The presence of nanoparticles induced efficient cell death. Using a mitochondrial-sepcific dye rhodamine 123 (Rh123), our fluorescence microscopic result indicated that nanoparticles localized to the mitochondria.

  10. Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in the micelle and the gel phase of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Subhadip; Dey, Shantanu; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2008-04-28

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) to coumarin dyes is studied in the micelle and the gel phase of a triblock copolymer, (PEO){sub 20}-(PPO){sub 70}-(PEO){sub 20} (Pluronic P123) by picosecond and femtosecond emission spectroscopies. The rate of PET in a P123 micelle and gel is found to be nonexponential and faster than the slow components of solvation dynamics. In a P123 micelle and gel, PET occurs on multiple time scales ranging from a subpicosecond time scale to a few nanoseconds. In the gel phase, the highest rate constant (9.3x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) of ET for C152 is about two times higher than that (3.8x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) observed in micelle phase. The ultrafast components of electron transfer (ET) exhibits a bell shaped dependence with the free energy change which is similar to the Marcus inversion. Possible reasons for slower PET in P123 micelle compared to other micelles and relative to P123 gel are discussed.

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies on inhibition of mild steel corrosion by some synthesized polyurethane tri-block co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudershan; Vashisht, Hemlata; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Bahadur, Indra; Verma, Hemant; Singh, Gurmeet; Obot, Ime B.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2016-08-01

    Polyurethane based tri-block copolymers namely poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-polyurethane-b-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP-PU) and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-polyurethane-b-poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA-PU) were synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanism. The synthesized polymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) methods. The corrosion inhibition performances of the compounds were investigated on mild steel (MS) in 0.5 M H2SO4 medium using electrochemical measurements, surface analysis, quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements revealed that the polymers are mixed-type corrosion inhibitors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the polymers inhibit MS corrosion by adsorbing on MS surface to form pseudo-capacitive interface. The inhibitive effects of the polymers increase with increasing concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The adsorption of both the polymers on MS surface obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves both physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses showed that the polymers formed protective film on MS surface and shield it from direct acid attack. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic simulations studies corroborate experimental results.

  12. Dual roles of amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123 in synthesis of α-Fe nanoparticle/ordered mesoporous silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiansheng; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Ye; Hao, Yanxia; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun

    2011-11-01

    A simple and effective method for in situ synthesis of α-Fe nanoparticle/ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) composites is reported. Evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) and carbothermal reduction (CR) are strategically combined by using amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123 as not only a template and but also a precursor of carbon material. P123 plays dual roles in assembly of mesostructure and reduction of ferric species. Thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometer was used to investigate the pyrolysis process of the wet gels. The synthesized composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and N2 adsorption. The results showed that the composites possess ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure and the α-Fe nanoparticles with about 16 nm were well dispersed in mesoporous matrix. The carbon material resulting from P123 can reduce ferric species to α-Fe nanoparticles at 800 °C. Moreover, the formation mechanism for Fe nanoparticles in OMS matrix is proposed.

  13. Zonisamide-loaded triblock copolymer nanomicelles as a novel drug delivery system for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, JingLun; Deng, JiaoJiao; Yuan, JinXian; Fu, Jie; Li, XiaoLing; Tong, AiPing; Wang, YueLong; Chen, YangMei; Guo, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly leads to lifelong disability due to the limited regenerative capacity of the adult central nervous system. Nanomicelles can be used as therapeutic systems to provide effective treatments for SCI. In this study, a novel triblock monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactide)-poly(trimethylene carbonate) copolymer was successfully synthesized. Next, polymeric nanomicelles loaded with zonisamide (ZNS), a Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drug, were prepared and characterized. The ZNS-loaded micelles (ZNS-M) were further utilized for the treatment of SCI in vitro and in vivo. The obtained ZNS-M were ~50 nm in diameter with good solubility and dispersibility. Additionally, these controlled-release micelles showed significant antioxidative and neuron-protective effects in vitro. Finally, our results indicated that ZNS-M treatment could promote motor function recovery and could increase neuron and axon density in a hemisection SCI model. In summary, these results may provide an experimental basis for the use of ZNS-M as a clinically applicable therapeutic drug for the treatment of SCI in the future. PMID:28408816

  14. Amphiphilic triblock copolymer-assisted synthesis of hierarchical NiCo nanoflowers by homogeneous nucleation in liquid polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arief, Injamamul; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Rose-like NiCo nanoflowers were synthesized by homogeneous, one-pot polyol reduction of Ni and Co-acetates in presence of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer and KOH. 1,2-propanediol was used as solvent-cum-reducing agent as no external reducing agent was found to be necessary in this process. Detailed x-ray diffraction and morphological characterizations confirmed formation of fcc hierarchical NiCo nanoflowers containing 2D nanosheet-like subunits (thickness of about 30 nm) with an average diameter of ~700 nm. Amphiphilic polymer played a pivotal role in the growth of nanorose as it favored a preferential growth of nanocrystals along a particular crystal plane as was observed in transmission electron microscopy. Effects of other parameters like use of hydrophilic polymer, surfactants, ratio of initial metal concentrations, choice of polyol media and concentration of KOH on the morphology of nanoflowers were also investigated. Room temperature magnetic studies revealed higher saturation magnetization and low coercivity (108.6 emu/g and 78.4 Oe) of nanorose. Based on LaMer model, a kinetically-controlled growth mechanism for the formation of NiCo nanorose is also proposed.

  15. Interaction of triblock co-polymer micelles with phospholipid-bilayer: a spectroscopic investigation using a potential chloride channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Soumen; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2015-03-07

    Interaction of a potential chloride channel blocker, 9-methyl anthroate (9-MA), has been studied with zwitterionic l-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg-PC) lipid vesicles, which ascertains the utility of the drug as an efficient molecular reporter for probing the microheterogeneous environment of lipid-bilayers. The effect of a non-ionic triblock co-polymer P123 on the stability of these drug-bound lipid-bilayers has also been investigated by means of steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques exploiting the fluorescence properties of the drug. Experimental results reveal that the addition of P123 to the drug-bound lipid results in a preferential complexation of the drug with the Pluronic leaving the lipid vesicles aside, which has been attributed to a substantially stronger binding interaction of the drug with P123 than that with egg-PC. The result is of potential interest from a medical perspective owing to the context of excess drug desorption from bio-membranes.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies on inhibition of mild steel corrosion by some synthesized polyurethane tri-block co-polymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudershan; Vashisht, Hemlata; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Verma, Hemant; Singh, Gurmeet; Obot, Ime B; Ebenso, Eno E

    2016-08-12

    Polyurethane based tri-block copolymers namely poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-polyurethane-b-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP-PU) and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-polyurethane-b-poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA-PU) were synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanism. The synthesized polymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) methods. The corrosion inhibition performances of the compounds were investigated on mild steel (MS) in 0.5 M H2SO4 medium using electrochemical measurements, surface analysis, quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements revealed that the polymers are mixed-type corrosion inhibitors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the polymers inhibit MS corrosion by adsorbing on MS surface to form pseudo-capacitive interface. The inhibitive effects of the polymers increase with increasing concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The adsorption of both the polymers on MS surface obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves both physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses showed that the polymers formed protective film on MS surface and shield it from direct acid attack. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic simulations studies corroborate experimental results.

  17. Mechanical behaviour׳s evolution of a PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA triblock copolymer during hydrolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Breche, Q; Chagnon, G; Machado, G; Girard, E; Nottelet, B; Garric, X; Favier, D

    2016-07-01

    PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA is a biodegradable triblock copolymer that presents both the mechanical properties of PLA and the hydrophilicity of PEG. In this paper, physical and mechanical properties of PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA are studied during in vitro degradation. The degradation process leads to a mass loss, a decrease of number average molecular weight and an increase of dispersity index. Mechanical experiments are made in a specific experimental set-up designed to create an environment close to in vivo conditions. The viscoelastic behaviour of the material is studied during the degradation. Finally, the mechanical behaviour is modelled with a linear viscoelastic model. A degradation variable is defined and included in the model to describe the hydrolytic degradation. This variable is linked to physical parameters of the macromolecular polymer network. The model allows us to describe weak deformations but become less accurate for larger deformations. The abilities and limits of the model are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of solvent quality on the density profiles of looped triblock copolymer brushes by neutron reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Alonzo, Jose; Liu, Ming; Ji, Haining; Yin, Fang; Smith, Grant; Mays, Jimmy; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Dadmun, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-deuterated polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-dPS-PVP) triblock copolymers from toluene onto silicon leads to the formation of dPS loops tethered by the PVP end blocks. Using neutron reflectometry, we have determined the segment density profiles of these looped polymer brushes in toluene, a good solvent for the dPS block, and in cyclohexane at 20 C (poor solvent), 32 C, (near- solvent), and 50 C (marginal solvent). While the swelling behavior qualitatively agrees with that observed for singly grafted brushes, there are interesting differences in the local structural details: In a good solvent, the segment density profiles are composed of an inner parabolic region and a long, extended tail. In cyclohexane, the profiles are described by exponential decays. We ascribe these features to a novel polydispersity effect that arises due to tethering the PS loops by both ends. The results also show that the less dense layers undergo more significant changes in swollen height as solvent quality is changed and that the looped brushes of different molecular weight, asymmetry, and tethering density adhere to scaling relationships derived for lightly cross-linked polymer gels.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel polydepsipeptide contained tri-block copolymer (mPEG-PLLA-PMMD) as self-assembly micelle delivery system for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanlei; Li, Juan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guangji; Liu, Wen

    2012-07-01

    A series of biodegradable polydepsipeptides based new triblock copolymers, poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide)-poly(3(S)-methyl-morpholine-2,5-dione) (mPEG-PLLA-PMMD) have been synthesized and characterized as self-assembly micelle delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX). Compared to the mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000) diblock copolymers, the triblock copolymers present more benefits such as lower CMC value, positive-shifted zeta potential, better drug loading efficiency and stability. Among the triblock polymers, mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000)-PMMD(1400) micelles present low cytotoxicity and promote the anti-cancer activity of PTX on A-549 and HCT-116cells. In addition, mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000)-PMMD(1400) micelles prolongs the circulation time of PTX in rat after i.v. injection (5 mg/kg) than that of mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000) micelles and Taxol. The half life (t(1/2β)), mean residence time (MRT), AUC(0-∞) and clearance (CL) for PTX-loaded mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000)-PMMD(1400) micelles are determined to be 1.941 h, 2.683 h, 5.220 μg/m Lh (1.8-fold to mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000) group), 0.967 L/h kg(-1), respectively. In conclusion, mPEG(2000)-PLLA(2000)-PMMD(1400) copolymer could be developed as one of the promising vectors to anti-cancer agents for chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite scaffolds based on triblock copolymer of L-lactide, ε-caprolactone and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Torabinejad, Bahman; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, Jamshid; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali

    2014-09-01

    The employment of biodegradable polymer scaffolds is one of the main approaches for achieving a tissue engineered construct to reproduce bone tissues, which provide a three dimensional template to regenerate desirable tissues for different applications. The main goal of this study is to design a novel triblock scaffold reinforced with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) for hard tissue engineering using gas foaming/salt leaching method with minimum solvent usage. With this end in view, the biodegradable triblock copolymers of l-lactide and ε-caprolactone with different mol% were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization method in the presence of Sn(Oct)2 catalyst as initiator and ethylene glycol as co-initiator. The chemical compositions of biodegradable copolymers were characterized by means of FTIR and NMR. The thermal and crystallization behaviors of copolymers were characterized using TGA and DSC thermograms. Moreover, nano-hydroxyapatite was synthesized by the chemical precipitation process and was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, XRD and TEM. Additionally, the nanocomposites with different contents of nHA were prepared by mixing triblock copolymer with nHA. Mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated by stress-strain measurements. It was found that the nanocomposite with 30% of nHA showed the optimum result. Therefore, nanocomposite scaffolds with 30% nHA were fabricated by gas foaming/salt leaching method and SEM images were used to observe the microstructure and morphology of nanocomposites and nanocomposite scaffolds before and after cell culture. The in-vitro and cell culture tests were also carried out to further evaluate the biological properties. The results revealed that the porous scaffolds were biocompatible to the osteoblast cells because the cells spread and grew well. The resultant nanocomposites could be considered as good candidates for use in bone tissue engineering.

  1. Coating of poly(p-xylylene) by PLA-PEO-PLA triblock copolymers with excellent polymer-polymer adhesion for stent applications.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Phillip; Westedt, Ullrich; Wombacher, Ralf; Kissel, Thomas; Schaper, Andreas; Wendorff, Joachim H; Greiner, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) was deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on stainless steel substrates. These PPX films were coated by solution casting of poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(lactide) triblock copolymers (PLA-PEO-PLA) loaded with 14C-labeled paclitaxel. Adhesion of PLA-PEO-PLA on PPX substrate coatings was measured using the blister test method. Excellent adhesion of the block copolymers on PPX substrates was found. Stress behavior and film integrity of PLA-PEO-PLA was compared to pure PLA on unexpanded and expanded stent bodies and was found to be superior for the block copolymers. The release of paclitaxel from the biodegradable coatings was studied under physiological conditions using the scintillation counter method. Burst release of paclitaxel was observed from PLA-PEO-PLA layers regardless of composition, but an increase in paclitaxel loading was observed with increasing content of PEO.

  2. Synthesis and SAXS Characterization of Sulfonated Styrene-Ethylene/Propylene-Styrene Triblock Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-05

    greater than 99%. The catalyst was removed by washing with citric acid solution (10 wt%). Sulfonation of Styrene-Ethylene/Propylene-Styrene (SEPS...DMA of the sulfonated block copolymers revealed the glass transition of the ethylene/propylene (E/ P ) rubber phase at approximately -45 oC (Fig. 3...A rubbery plateau exists for the sulfonic acid containing polymers that ranged up to 60 oC, while the rubbery plateau for sodium sulfonate salt

  3. Poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(tetrahydrofuran)-b-poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) amphiphilic triblock copolymers: synthesis, physicochemical characterizations, and hydrosolubilizing properties.

    PubMed

    Rasolonjatovo, Bazoly; Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Même, William; Gonçalves, Cristine; Huin, Cécile; Bennevault-Celton, Véronique; Le Gall, Tony; Montier, Tristan; Lehn, Pierre; Cheradame, Hervé; Midoux, Patrick; Guégan, Philippe

    2015-03-09

    Block copolymers assembled into micelles have gained a lot of attention to improve drug delivery. The recent drawbacks of the poly(ethylene oxide) blocks (PEO) contained in amphiphilic pluronics derivatives made of a central poly(propylene oxide) block surrounded by two PEO blocks were recently revealed, opening the way to the design of new amphiphilic block copolymers able to self-assemble in water and to entrap molecules of interest. Here, a family of p(methyloxazoline)-b-p(tetrahydrofuran)-b-p(methyloxazoline) triblock copolymers (called TBCP) is synthesized using cationic ring opening polymerization. Studies of micelle formation using dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), NMR diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), and fluorescence experiments lead us to draw a relationship between copolymer structure and the physicochemical properties of the block copolymers (critical micellar concentration (CMC), Nagg, core diameter, shell thickness, etc.). The packing parameter of the block copolymers indicates the formation of a core-corona structure. Hydrosolubilizing properties of TBCPs were exemplified with curcumin selected as a highly insoluble drug model. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has shown a large spectrum of biological and pharmacological activity, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. An optimized formulation process reveals that the aggregation number is the parameter affecting drug encapsulation. Patch clamp experiments carried out to study the interaction of TBCP with the cell membrane demonstrate their permeation property suitable to promote the cellular internalization of curcumin.

  4. ROP and ATRP Fabricated Dual Targeted Redox Sensitive Polymersomes Based on pPEGMA-PCL-ss-PCL-pPEGMA Triblock Copolymers for Breast Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Lale, Shantanu V; Mahajan, Shveta; Choudhary, Veena; Koul, Veena

    2015-05-06

    To minimize cardiotoxicity and to increase the bioavailability of doxorubicin, polymersomes based on redox sensitive amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate)-poly(caprolactone)-s-s-poly(caprolactone)-poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate) (pPEGMA-PCL-ss-PCL-pPEGMA) with disulfide linkage were designed and developed. The polymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone followed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of PEGMA. The triblock copolymers demonstrated various types of nanoparticle morphologies by varying hydrophobic/hydrophilic content of polymer blocks, with PEGMA content of ∼18% in the triblock copolymer leading to the formation of polymersomes in the size range ∼150 nm. High doxorubicin loading content of ∼21% was achieved in the polymersomes. Disulfide linkages were incorporated in the polymeric backbone to facilitate degradation of the nanoparticles by the intracellular tripeptide glutathione (GSH), leading to intracellular drug release. Release studies showed ∼59% drug release in pH 5.5 in the presence of 10 mM GSH, whereas only ∼19% was released in pH 7.4. In cellular uptake studies, dual targeted polymersomes showed ∼22-fold increase in cellular uptake efficiency in breast cancer cell lines (BT474 and MCF-7) as compared to nontargeted polymersomes with higher apoptosis rates. In vivo studies on Ehrlich's ascites tumor (EAT) bearing Swiss albino mouse model showed ∼85% tumor regression as compared to free doxorubicin (∼42%) without any significant cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin. The results indicate enhanced antitumor efficacy of the redox sensitive biocompatible nanosystem and shows promise as a potential drug nanocarrier in cancer therapeutics.

  5. Amphiphilic triblock copolymers with PEGylated hydrocarbon structures as environmentally friendly marine antifouling and fouling-release coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhaoli; Calabrese, David R; Taylor, Warren; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Fischer, Daniel; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2014-01-01

    The ideal marine antifouling (AF)/fouling-release (FR) coating should be non-toxic, while effectively either resisting the attachment of marine organisms (AF) or significantly reducing their strength of attachment (FR). Many recent studies have shown that amphiphilic polymeric materials provide a promising solution to producing such coatings due to their surface dual functionality. In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different molecular weights (Mw = 350, 550) was coupled to a saturated difunctional alkyl alcohol to generate amphiphilic surfactants (PEG-hydrocarbon-OH). The resulting macromolecules were then used as side chains to covalently modify a pre-synthesized PS8 K-b-P(E/B)25 K-b-PI10 K (SEBI or K3) triblock copolymer, and the final polymers were applied to glass substrata through an established multilayer surface coating technique to prepare fouling resistant coatings. The coated surfaces were characterized with AFM, XPS and NEXAFS, and evaluated in laboratory assays with two important fouling algae, Ulva linza (a green macroalga) and Navicula incerta, a biofilm-forming diatom. The results suggest that these polymer-coated surfaces undergo surface reconstruction upon changing the contact medium (polymer/air vs polymer/water), due to the preferential interfacial aggregation of the PEG segment on the surface in water. The amphiphilic polymer-coated surfaces showed promising results as both AF and FR coatings. The sample with longer PEG chain lengths (Mw = 550 g mol(-1)) exhibited excellent properties against both algae, highlighting the importance of the chemical structures on ultimate biological performance. Besides reporting synthesis and characterization of this new type of amphiphilic surface material, this work also provides insight into the nature of PEG/hydrocarbon amphiphilic coatings, and this understanding may help in the design of future generations of fluorine-free, environmentally friendly AF/FR polymeric coatings.

  6. Efficient repairing effect of PEG based tri-block copolymer on mechanically damaged PC12 cells and isolated spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rad, Iman; Mobasheri, Hamid; Najafi, Farhood; Rezaei, Maryam

    2014-06-01

    Membrane sealing effects of polymersomes made of tri-block copolymer, PEG-co-FA/SC-co-PEG, (PFSP) were studied on isolated spinal cord strips, PC12 cell lines and artificial bilayer following mechanical impact implemented by aneurism clip, sonication and electric shock, respectively. The homogeneity and size of PFSP, membrane permeability and cell viability were assessed by dynamic light scattering, LDH release and MTT assays. According to the results, the biocompatible, physico-chemical, size, surface charge and amphipathic nature of PFSP polymersome makes it an ideal macromolecule to rapidly reseal damaged membranes of cells in injured spinal cord as well as in culture medium. Compound action potentials recorded from intentionally damaged spinal cord strips incubated with PFSP showed restoration of neural excitability by 82.24 % and conduction velocity by 96.72 % after 5 min that monitored in real time. Thus, they triggered efficient instant and sustained sealing of membrane and reactivation of temporarily inactivated axons. Treatment of ultrasonically damaged PC12 cells by PFSP caused efficient cell membrane repair and led to their increased viability. The optimum effects of PFSP on stabilization and impermeabilizing of the lipid bilayer occurred at the same concentrations applied to the damaged cells and spinal cord fibers and was approved by restoration of membrane conductance and calcein release manifested by NanoDrop technique. The unique physico-chemical characteristics of novel polymersomes introduced here, make them capable to reorganize membrane lipid molecules, reseal the breaches and restore the hydrophobic insulation in spinal cord damaged cells. Thus, they might be considered in the clinical treatment of SCI at early stages.

  7. Cooperative preassociation stages of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers: NMR and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Kríz, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jirí

    2010-03-11

    Using (1)H and (13)C 1D and 2D NMR spectra, pulsed field-gradient (PFG) diffusion measurements, and (13)C relaxations supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the temperature-dependent behavior of (EO)(m)(PO)(n)(EO)(m) block copolymers (m/n = 31/14, 31/72, and 17/1) in D(2)O below and at the critical micellar temperature (CMT) was investigated in order to understand the nature of primary self-association acts and their true driving force. It was shown that a conformation change of the PO block followed by mild and reversible association with other PO blocks and eventually with the inner parts of EO blocks starts at temperatures 10-12 K below the CMT. The primary process is the entropy-driven disintegration of the PPO hydration envelope based on cooperation of hydrophobic hydration and hydrogen bonding. The partial dehydration of PPO is followed by its conformation change. Both processes are cooperative and reversible with a correlation time of the order 0.01 s and an activation energy of 51.3 kJ/mol. The PPO chain in a staggered conformation is prone to self-association starting at temperatures 5-6 K below CMT. In (EO)(m)(PO)(n)(EO)(m) block copolymers, this process is complicated by the stripping of PEO chains of a part of hydrogen-bound water and entwining them with PPO. It is shown that only inner (PPO-near) parts of PEO take part in the process, the end-groups remaining free.

  8. Solvent-induced transition of hollow sphere to giant-tube from amphiphilic rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers of 2-vinylpyridine and n-hexyl isocyanate.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Shahinur; Changez, M; Samal, Shashadhar; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2007-11-01

    The effect of solvent compositions on the micellization behaviors of amphiphilic poly(n-hexyl isocyanate)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(n-hexyl isocyanate) (PHIC-b-P2VP-b-PHIC) rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer was studied. In absolute methanol the block copolymer formed hollow spherical micelles. These micelles transformed into giant-tubes by simply changing the solvent composition. With 20% THF in CH3OH hollow spheres got interconnected and formed species that are precursors of the giant tubes. When the composition of THF reached 50-70%, long giant tubes are formed. Further increasing THF content in the mixed solvent, fragmentation of the wall of the tubes was observed. In absolute THF, which is the common solvent for both the blocks, the usual phase separation occurred. TEM image of the giant tubes stained with iodine showed that the core of the tubes is made from PHIC rod block.

  9. Biomimetic Nanocomposites of Calcium Phosphate and Self-Assembling Triblock and Pentablock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Enlow, Drew Lenzen

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to mimic the growth of natural bone, self-assembling, micelle and gel-forming copolymers were used as a template for calcium phosphate precipitation. Because of the cationic characteristics imparted by PDEAEM end group additions to commercially available Pluronic{reg_sign} Fl27, a direct ionic attraction mechanism was utilized and a polymer-brushite nanocomposite spheres were produced. Brushite coated spherical micelles with diameters of ~40 nm, and agglomerates of these particles (on the order of 0.5 μm) were obtained. Thickness and durability of the calcium phosphate coating, and the extent of agglomeration were studied. The coating has been shown to be robust enough to retain its integrity even below polymer critical micelle concentration and/or temperature. Calcium phosphate-polymer gel nanocomposites were also prepared. Gel samples appeared as a single phase network of agglomerated spherical micelles, and had a final calcium phosphate concentration of up to 15 wt%. Analysis with x-ray diffraction and NMR indicated a disordered brushite phase with the phosphate groups linking inorganic phase to the polymer.

  10. Mechanical and thermal behaviour of an acrylic bone cement modified with a triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Paz, E; Abenojar, J; Ballesteros, Y; Forriol, F; Dunne, N; Del Real, J C

    2016-04-01

    The basic formulation of an acrylic bone cement has been modified by the addition of a block copolymer, Nanostrength(®) (NS), in order to augment the mechanical properties and particularly the fracture toughness of the bone cement. Two grades of NS at different levels of loading, between 1 and 10 wt.%, have been used. Mechanical tests were conducted to study the behaviour of the modified cements; specific tests measured the bend, compression and fracture toughness properties. The failure mode of the fracture test specimens was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of NS addition on the thermal properties was also determined, and the polymerisation reaction using differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that the addition of NS produced an improvement in the fracture toughness and ductility of the cement, which could have a positive contribution by reducing the premature fracture of the cement mantle. The residual monomer content was reduced when the NS was added. However this also produced an increase in the maximum temperature and the heat delivered during the polymerisation of the cement.

  11. Single-ion BAB triblock copolymers as highly efficient electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Renaud; Maria, Sébastien; Meziane, Rachid; Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Lienafa, Livie; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Trang N T; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Devaux, Didier; Denoyel, Renaud; Armand, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges of this century. The performances of classical lithium-ion technology based on liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues. Solid polymer electrolytes would be a perfect solution to those safety issues, miniaturization and enhancement of energy density. However, as in liquids, the fraction of charge carried by lithium ions is small (<20%), limiting the power performances. Solid polymer electrolytes operate at 80 °C, resulting in poor mechanical properties and a limited electrochemical stability window. Here we describe a multifunctional single-ion polymer electrolyte based on polyanionic block copolymers comprising polystyrene segments. It overcomes most of the above limitations, with a lithium-ion transport number close to unity, excellent mechanical properties and an electrochemical stability window spanning 5 V versus Li(+)/Li. A prototype battery using this polyelectrolyte outperforms a conventional battery based on a polymer electrolyte.

  12. Biodegradable nanoparticles of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiu-Sheng; Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Wang, Chun-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang; Duan, You-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of mRNA by RNA interference is one of the most powerful and specific mechanisms for gene silencing. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its usefulness. Here, we report efficient delivery of siRNA via the use of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) made from monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly-l-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) triblock copolymers. Various physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs, including morphology, size, surface charge, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profile of siRNA from NPs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and high performance liquid chromatography. The levels of siRNA uptake and targeted gene inhibition were detected in human lung cancer SPC-A1-GFP cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein. Examination of the cultured SPC-A1-GFP cells with fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry showed NPs loading Cy3-labeled siRNA had much higher intracellular siRNA delivery efficiencies than siRNA alone and Lipofectamine-siRNA complexes. The gene silencing efficiency of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs was higher than that of commercially available transfecting agent Lipofectamine while showing no cytotoxicity. Thus, the current study demonstrates that biodegradable NPs of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers can be potentially applied as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

  13. Biodegradable Nanoparticles of mPEG-PLGA-PLL Triblock Copolymers as Novel Non-Viral Vectors for Improving siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiu-Sheng; Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Wang, Chun-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang; Duan, You-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of mRNA by RNA interference is one of the most powerful and specific mechanisms for gene silencing. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its usefulness. Here, we report efficient delivery of siRNA via the use of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) made from monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly-l-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) triblock copolymers. Various physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs, including morphology, size, surface charge, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profile of siRNA from NPs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and high performance liquid chromatography. The levels of siRNA uptake and targeted gene inhibition were detected in human lung cancer SPC-A1-GFP cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein. Examination of the cultured SPC-A1-GFP cells with fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry showed NPs loading Cy3-labeled siRNA had much higher intracellular siRNA delivery efficiencies than siRNA alone and Lipofectamine-siRNA complexes. The gene silencing efficiency of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs was higher than that of commercially available transfecting agent Lipofectamine while showing no cytotoxicity. Thus, the current study demonstrates that biodegradable NPs of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers can be potentially applied as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing. PMID:22312268

  14. Experimental and computational study of the effect of alcohols on the solution and adsorption properties of a nonionic symmetric triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomeng; He, Feng; Salas, Carlos; Pasquinelli, Melissa A; Genzer, Jan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-02-02

    This study investigates the effect of alcohols on the solution and adsorption properties of symmetric triblock nonionic copolymers comprising blocks of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) (EO(37)PO(56)EO(37)). The cloud point, surface tension, critical micelle concentration (CMC), and maximum packing at the air-water interface are determined, and the latter is compared to the amount of polymer that adsorbs from solution onto polypropylene (PP) and cellulose surfaces. The interaction energy and radius of micelles are calculated by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Equivalent MD bead parameters were used in dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) simulations to study the influence of alcohols on the phase behavior of EO(37)PO(56)EO(37) and its adsorption on PP from aqueous solutions. The simulation results agree qualitatively with the experimental observations. Ethanol acts as a good cosolvent for EO(37)PO(56)EO(37) and reduces the amount of EO(37)PO(56)EO(37) that adsorbs on PP surfaces; however, little or no influence is observed on the adsorption on cellulose. Interestingly, longer chain alcohols, such as 1-pentanol, produce the opposite effect. Overall, the solution and adsorption properties of nonionic symmetric triblock copolymers in the presence of alcohols are rationalized by changes in solvency and the hydrophobic effect.

  15. "Near perfect" amphiphilic conetwork based on end-group cross-linking of polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Qiu, Ming; Ma, Bomou; He, Chunju

    2014-09-10

    Novel amphiphilic conetworks (APCNs) with uniform channel size were synthesized through end-cross-linking of well-defined amphiphilic triblock copolymers via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new ditelechelic polydimethylsiloxane macroinitiator was synthesized to initiate the polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide. The resulting triblock copolymers show well-defined molecular weight with narrow polydisperisty, which are telechelic modified by allylamine and fully cross-linked with polyhydrosiloxanes through hydrosilylation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the APCN has the behavior of microphase separation with small channel size and uniform phase domain. The resulting APCNs with idealized microstructure exhibit a combination of excellent properties, i.e., superhigh mechanical strength (4 ± 1 MPa) and elongation ratio (175 ± 25%), outstanding oxygen permeability (350 ± 150 barrers), a high water uptake property, and excellent biocompatibility, indicating that in this way, "near perfect" networks are obtained. These results are better than those reported in the literature, suggesting a promising semipermeable barrier for islet encapsulation in relative biomaterial fields.

  16. Computer simulations on the pH-sensitive tri-block copolymer containing zwitterionic sulfobetaine as a novel anti-cancer drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Min, Wenfeng; Zhao, Daohui; Quan, Xuebo; Sun, Delin; Li, Libo; Zhou, Jian

    2017-04-01

    In this work, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the self-assembled microstructures and doxorubicin (DOX) loading/release properties of pH-sensitive amphiphilic triblock copolymer: poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) or poly (ethylene glycol methacrylate) (PCL-PDEA-PSBMA/PEGMA). Our results show that both copolymers can self-assemble into core-shell-corona micelles in aqueous environment. However, the corona structures are quite different for the two copolymer micelles. The shell layers formed by PEGMA have heterogeneous sizes while the shell layers in PCL-PDEA-PSBMA micelles are homogenous. This is mainly attributed to the stronger hydrophilicity of PSBMA than PEGMA. As the mole concentration of copolymer is increased from 10% to 50%, the microstructures formed by PCL-PDEA-PSBMA and DOX remains spherical micelles whereas PCL-PDEA-PEGMA undergoes structural transition from spherical to cylindrical and finally to lamellar micelles. Interestingly, the studied micelles have a pH-responsive drug release property, owing to the protonation of the PDEA block. The drug release process follows a "swelling-demicellization-release" mode. The multi-scale simulations demonstrate an avenue to the optimal design of nanomaterials for drug delivery with desired properties.

  17. Nature of interactions between PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers and lipid membranes: (I) effect of polymer hydrophobicity on its ability to protect liposomes from peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2012-09-10

    PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers have opposing effects on lipid membrane integrity: they can behave either as membrane sealants or as membrane permeabilizers. To gain insights into their biomembrane activities, the fundamental interactions between a series of PEO-based polymers and phospholipid vesicles were investigated. Specifically, the effect of copolymer hydrophobicity on its ability to prevent liposomes from peroxidation was evaluated, and partitioning free energy and coefficient involved in the interactions were derived. Our results show that the high degree of hydrophilicity is a key feature of the copolymers that can effectively protect liposomes from peroxidation and the protective effect of the copolymers stems from their adsorption at the membrane surface without penetrating into the bilayer core. The origin of this protective effect induced by polymer absorption is attributed to the retardation of membrane hydration dynamics, which is further illustrated in the accompanying study on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-derived hydration dynamics (Cheng, C.-Y.; Wang, J.-Y.; Kausik, R.; Lee, K. Y. C.; Han S. Biomacromolecules, 2012, DOI: 10.1021/bm300848c).

  18. In situ formation and gelation mechanism of thermoresponsive stereocomplexed hydrogels upon mixing diblock and triblock poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hailiang; Pan, Pengju; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong

    2015-05-28

    A novel in situ formed gel system with potential biodegradability and biocompatibility is developed by mixing the diblock and triblock poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA/PEG) copolymers with opposite configurations of PLA blocks. In situ gelation of such system is extremely fast, which happens within 10 s after mixing. In situ gelation, gel-to-sol transition, crystalline structure, microstructures, and mechanical properties of PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomerically mixed gels are significantly influenced by the mixing ratio, degree of polymerization for PEG block in triblock (DPPEG,tri) and diblock copolymers (DPPEG,di). It is found that in situ gelation of PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomeric mixture just happen at relatively smaller PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA mass ratio and larger DPPEG,tri. Hydrodynamic diameters of PLA-PEG and PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers in dilute solution increase remarkably upon mixing, indicating the formation of bridging networks. Stereocomplexed crystallites are formed for the PLA hydrophobic domains in PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomeric mixtures. As indicated by synchrotron-radiation SAXS analysis, the enantiomeric mixture changes from a compactly to loosely aggregated structure and the intermicellar distance enhances with increasing DPPEG,tri, DPPEG,di, or PLA-PEG-PLA fraction. Gelation mechanism of PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomeric mixture is proposed, in which part of PLA-PEG-PLA chains act as the connecting bridges between star and flower-like micelles and the stereocomplexed crystallites in micelle cores act as physically cross-linked points.

  19. Aggregation of a versatile triblock copolymer into pH-responsive cross-linkable nanostructures in both organic and aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Borsali, Redouane; Giacomelli, Cristiano

    2009-12-01

    The self-assembly of linear poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-b-poly[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PEO-b-PG2MA-b-PDPA) triblock copolymer into pH-responsive cross-linkable nanostructures in both organic and aqueous media is reported. Light scattering (LS), electron transmission microscopy (TEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques revealed that spherical particles with a core-shell architecture originated upon direct copolymer dissolution in THF, with PG2MA middle blocks occupying the nucleus, and PEO + PDPA segments forming the external layer. The hydroxylated core could be conveniently reticulated to form core cross-linked (CCL) micelles, which swelled without dissociating in presence of water at pH < pK(a) of amino groups. In the absence of stabilizing mechanisms (cross-links), the aggregates first disassembled in response to changes in the solvent selectivity due to water addition and eventually self-assembled again into spherical particles with a three-layered core-shell-corona structure. While pH-responsive PDPA segments were located at the core, PG2MA and PEO blocks composed the inner shell and corona, respectively. The interactions that facilitate micelle existence were reinforced by covalent cross-links in the PG2MA inner shell. Thus, depending on both the solution pH and the presence of cross-links, micelles exhibiting either pH-triggered or diffusion-controlled release mechanisms could be prepared. The encapsulation of enough amounts of guest molecules that interact strongly with the core-forming block led to the formation of cylindrical micelles. These results demonstrate that at least five different types of aggregates can be prepared from this versatile triblock copolymer, thus emphasizing the great potential of combining macromolecular design and sample manipulation strategies to devise functional nanostructures.

  20. Stick-slip phenomenon in measurements of dynamic contact angles and surface viscoelasticity of poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Biao; Zheng, Fan Fan; Zhao, Yu Rong; Chen, TianYu; Yan, Zhuo Hua; Ni, Huagang; Wang, Xinping

    2012-03-06

    In this paper, a series of poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) triblock copolymers (SIS), with different chemical components, was synthesized by anionic polymerization. The relationships between surface structures of these block copolymers and their stick-slip phenomena were investigated. There is a transition from stick-slip to a closely smooth motion for the SIS films with increasing PS content; the patterns almost vanish and the three-phase line appears to move overall smoothly on the film surface. The results show that the observed stick-slip pattern is strongly dependent on surface viscoelasticity. The jumping angle Δθ, which is defined as θ(1) - θ(2) (when a higher limit to θ(1) is obtained, the triple line "jumps" from θ(1) to θ(2) with increases in drop volume), was employed to scale the stick-slip behavior on various SIS film surfaces. Scanning force microscopy/atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sum frequency generation methods were used to investigate the surface structures of the films and the contributions of various possible factors to the observed stick-slip behavior. It was found that there is a linear relationship between jumping angle Δθ and the slope of the approach curve obtained from AFM force measurement. This means that the stick-slip behavior may be attributed mainly to surface viscoelasticity for SIS block copolymers. The measurement of jumping angle Δθ may be a valuable method for studying surface structure relaxation of polymer films.

  1. Stereocomplex Film Using Triblock Copolymers of Polylactide and Poly(ethylene glycol) Retain Paxlitaxel on Substrates by an Aqueous Inkjet System.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Hiroharu; Kuroda, Ayaka; Kan, Kai; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-09-29

    The stereocomplex formation of poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,D-lactide) (PDLA) using an inkjet system was expanded to the amphiphilic copolymers, using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic polymer. The diblock copolymers, which are composed of PEG and PLLA (MPEG-co-PLLA) and PEG and PDLA (MPEG-co-PDLA), were employed for thin-film preparation using an aqueous inkjet system. The solvent and temperature conditions were optimized for the stereocomplex formation between MPEG-co-PLLA and MPEG-co- PDLA. As a result, the stereocomplex was adequately formed in acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) at 40 °C. The aqueous conditions improved the stereocomplex film preparation, which have suffered from clogging when using the organic solvents in previous work. The triblock copolymers, PLLA-co-PEG-co-PLLA and PDLA-co-PEG-co-PDLA, were employed for square patterning with the inkjet system, which produced thin films. The amphiphilic polymer film was able to retain hydrophobic compounds inside. The present result contributed to the rapid film preparation by inkjet, retaining drugs with difficult solubility in water, such as paclitaxel within the films.

  2. Thermal Annealing to Modulate the Shape Memory Behavior of a Biobased and Biocompatible Triblock Copolymer Scaffold in the Human Body Temperature Range.

    PubMed

    Merlettini, Andrea; Gigli, Matteo; Ramella, Martina; Gualandi, Chiara; Soccio, Michelina; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Munari, Andrea; Lotti, Nadia; Focarete, Maria Letizia

    2017-08-14

    A biodegradable and biocompatible electrospun scaffold with shape memory behavior in the physiological temperature range is here presented. It was obtained starting from a specifically designed, biobased PLLA-based triblock copolymer, where the central block is poly(propylene azelate-co-propylene sebacate) (P(PAz60PSeb40)) random copolymer. Shape memory properties are determined by the contemporary presence of the low melting crystals of the P(PAz60PSeb40) block, acting as switching segment, and of the high melting crystal phase of PLLA blocks, acting as physical network. It is demonstrated that a straightforward annealing process applied to the crystal phase of the switching element gives the possibility to tune the shape recovery temperature from about 25 to 50 °C, without the need of varying the copolymer's chemical structure. The thermal annealing approach here presented can be thus considered a powerful strategy for "ad hoc" programming the same material for applications requiring different recovery temperatures. Fibroblast culture experiments demonstrated scaffold biocompatibility.

  3. The clouding behaviour of PEO-PPO based triblock copolymers in aqueous ionic surfactant solutions: a new approach for cloud point measurements.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tejas; Bahadur, Pratap; Mata, Jitendra

    2010-05-15

    The cloud points (CP) of 1 g/dl solutions of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide (PEO-PPO) based triblock copolymers (Pluronics® P84, L64, L44 and Reverse Pluronics® 10R5, 25R4, 17R4) were measured as a function of their molecular weight and added ionic surfactant. For identical PEO/PPO ratios, copolymers with lower molecular weight show a larger increase in the cloud point in the presence of surfactants than polymers with higher molecular weight. The opposite trend has been observed for reverse Pluronics. The cloud points of polymers with different PEO/PPO ratios have also been reported. An increase in the size of the middle PEO block in reverse Pluronics has a more significant effect on cloud points than molecular weight increment. Ionic surfactants produced marked increases in the cloud points of copolymer solutions. The effect was much larger for surfactants with higher hydrophobicity. Cationic surfactants with different chain lengths were used to examine the surfactant-polymer interaction. A novel approach for normalising the cloud points to their relative values has been carried out to see the clear effect of ionic surfactants. Tri component systems, comprising polymers, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C(16)TABr) surfactant and salt (NaBr), have also been studied to see the effect of salt on the phase separation behaviour of solutions within the framework of our new cloud point approach.

  4. Synthesis of single-crystal PbS nanorods via a simple hydrothermal process using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer as a structure-directing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Junfu; Nie, Chageng; Liang, Jinxia; Sun, Lan; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wu, Qi; Lin, Changjian

    2011-03-01

    Single-crystal PbS nanorods were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal route using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (P123) as a structure-directing agent. The XRD pattern indicates that the crystal structure of the nanorods is face-centre-cubic rocksalt. A SEM image shows that the nanorods have a diameter of 40-70 nm and a length of 200-600 nm, and both tips exhibit taper-like structures. HRTEM and SAED images reveal the single-crystalline nature of the nanorods with the growth along the lang111rang direction. The experimental results indicated that the P123 concentration and reaction temperature played important roles in controlling the morphology of the PbS nanostructures. The optical property of PbS nanorods was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and the band structure was calculated by the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory.

  5. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of degradable PTMC-b-PECA-b-PTMC triblock copolymers and their micelle formation for pH-dependent controlled release.

    PubMed

    Kaihara, Sachiko; Fisher, John P; Matsumura, Shuichi

    2009-06-11

    A series of degradable triblock copolymers, poly(trimethylene carbonate)-block-poly[poly(ethylene glycol)-co-cyclic acetal]-block-poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC-b-PECA-b-PTMC), were chemo-enzymatically synthesized. Cyclic acetal was introduced into a poly(ethylene glycol) segment as a degradable segment to impart a pH-dependent degradation nature and to prevent the production of acidic degradation products. Amphiphilic polymeric micelles were successfully prepared, and the properties of the micelles were significantly affected by their chemical compositions and the molecular weights. A drug release study showed that the release rate increased as the pH of the buffer decreased due to the degradation of the cyclic acetal segments, indicating its high utility for pH-sensitive controlled release.

  6. Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-templated synthesis of mesoporous alumina: effect of triblock copolymer and acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Materna, Kelly L; Grant, Stacy M; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2012-07-25

    Mesoporous alumina was synthesized via a one-pot self-assembly of aluminum isopropoxide and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer in an acidic ethanol solution. The effects of the polymer concentration and nitric acid concentration, independently, on the adsorption properties (such as surface area, pore volume, microporosity, mesoporosity, and pore width) were studied. An increase in the specific surface area and the pore volume was seen for the samples containing a polymer/aluminum isopropoxide wt. ratio up to 0.71 and a polymer/acid wt ratio of 0.88. Titania isopropoxide was also added to the synthesis to illustrate the extension of this approach to alumina-based mixed metal oxides.

  7. PNIPAm(x)-PPO(36)-PNIPAm(x) thermo-sensitive triblock copolymers: chain conformation and adsorption behavior on a hydrophobic gold surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyuan; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhou, Xianjing; Chen, Tongquan; Nie, Jingjing; Du, Binyang

    2016-01-07

    The chain conformations and adsorption behaviors of four thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)x-poly(propylene oxide)36-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)x (PNIPAmx-PPO36-PNIPAmx) triblock copolymers with x values of 15, 33, 75, and 117 in dilute aqueous solutions were investigated by combined techniques of micro-differential scanning calorimetry (micro-DSC), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS & DLS), and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). PNIPAm15-PPO36-PNIPAm15 only exhibited the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PPO block, i.e. 25 °C, because the PNIPAm block with x = 15 was too short to maintain its own LCST. With middle lengths x of 33 and 75, the LCSTs of PPO and PNIPAm blocks were observed, respectively. For the longest PNIPAm block with x = 117, only LCST of PNIPAm block dominated, i.e. 32.3 °C. DLS results revealed that the four PNIPAmx-PPO36-PNIPAmx triblock copolymers formed "associate" structures in their dilute aqueous solutions at 20 °C, which was well below the LCSTs of the PPO and PNIPAm blocks. QCM results indicated that the adsorption time constant decreased with increasing adsorption temperature but tended to increase with increasing length x of the PNIPAm block. A complex adsorption behavior with large adsorption amounts was only observed at the corresponding LCST of the PNIPAm block for PNIPAmx-PPO36-PNIPAmx with longer PNIPAm blocks with x = 33, 75, and 117. Furthermore, the adsorbed PNIPAmx-PPO36-PNIPAmx layers obtained at 20 °C were rigid with less energy dissipation.

  8. Modulating rheological and degradation properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems composed of blends of PCLA-PEG-PCLA triblock copolymers and their fully hexanoyl-capped derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petit, Audrey; Müller, Benno; Bruin, Peter; Meyboom, Ronald; Piest, Martin; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; de Leede, Leo G J; Hennink, Wim E; Vermonden, Tina

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ability to modulate rheological and degradation properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems composed of aqueous blends of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) triblock copolymers (i.e. uncapped) and their fully capped derivatives was investigated. Uncapped and capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA triblock copolymers, abbreviated as degree of modification 0 and 2 (DM0 and DM2, respectively), were composed of identical PCLA and PEG blocks but different end groups: namely hydroxyl and hexanoyl end groups. DM0 was synthesized by ring opening polymerization of l-lactide and ε-caprolactone in toluene using PEG as initiator and tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as the catalyst. A portion of DM0 was subsequently reacted with an excess of hexanoyl chloride in solution to yield DM2. The cloud point and phase behaviour of DM0 and DM2 in buffer as well as that of their blends were determined by light scattering in a diluted state and by vial tilting and rheological measurements in a concentrated state. Degradation/dissolution properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems were studied in vitro at pH 7.4 and 37°C. The cloud points of DM0/DM2 blends were ratio-dependent and could be tailored from 15 to 40°C for blends containing 15 to 100wt.% DM0. Vial tilting and rheological experiments showed that, with solid contents between 20 and 30wt.%, DM0/DM2 blends (15/85 to 25/75w/w) had a sol-to-gel transition temperature at 10-20°C, whereas blends with less than 15wt.% DM0 formed gels below 4°C and the ones with more than 25wt.% DM0 did not show a sol-to-gel transition up to 50°C. Complete degradation of temperature-responsive gelling systems took ∼100days, independent of the DM0 fraction and the initial solid content. Analysis of residual gels in time by GPC and (1)H-NMR showed no chemical polymer degradation, but indicated gel degradation by dissolution. Preferential dissolution of lactoyl

  9. Adsorption of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer on metal oxide surfaces with a view to reducing protein adsorption and further biofouling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Poleunis, C; Románszki, L; Telegdi, J; Dupont-Gillain, C C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomolecule adsorption is the first stage of biofouling. The aim of this work was to reduce the adsorption of proteins on stainless steel (SS) and titanium surfaces by modifying them with a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO)-PEO triblock copolymer. Anchoring of the central PPO block of the copolymer is known to be favoured by hydrophobic interaction with the substratum. Therefore, the surfaces of metal oxides were first modified by self-assembly of octadecylphosphonic acid. PEO-PPO-PEO preadsorbed on the hydrophobized surfaces of titanium or SS was shown to prevent the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibrinogen and cytochrome C, as monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surfaces of the SS and titanium after competitive adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO and BSA. The results show that the adsorption of BSA is well prevented on hydrophobized surfaces, in contrast to the surfaces of native metal oxides.

  10. Disk morphology and disk-to-cylinder tunability of poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(methyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene triblock copolymer solution-state assemblies.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibin; Chen, Zhiyun; Cui, Honggang; Hales, Kelly; Qi, Kai; Wooley, Karen L; Pochan, Darrin J

    2005-08-02

    Disk and cylindrical micellar assemblies were formed through self-organization of poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(methyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PAA-b-PMA-b-PS) amphiphilic triblock copolymers with organic diamines as counterions in water/ tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent mixtures. The system was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the assembled-state morphologies could be modified by alteration of the type and concentration of cationic diamine counterion undergoing interaction with the negatively charged, polyelectrolyte PAA corona block, the relative amount of water in the water/THF mixture, and the hydrophobic block chain length. Multivalency of the organic amine counterion was critical for disk formation. It was further demonstrated that a single block copolymer underwent disc-to-cylindrical micellar transitions reversibly with variation in the relative water/THF ratio. The ability to form disks beginning from either THF-rich or water-rich solutions indicated that the disk morphology was thermodynamically stable and that THF was important in keeping the micellar structure from becoming kinetically frozen. The nanoassemblies were produced having low size dispersities and were stable for at least one month. Intermediate structures between disks and cylinders were also observed, indicating two distinct kinetic pathways between the two micelle structures.

  11. RGD Peptides-Conjugated Pluronic Triblock Copolymers Encapsulated with AP-2α Expression Plasmid for Targeting Gastric Cancer Therapy in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Fang, Cheng; Fang, Hongwei; Wang, Yueming; Ji, Jiajia; Chen, Jun

    2015-07-17

    Gastric cancer, a high-risk malignancy, is a genetic disease developing from a cooperation of multiple gene mutations and a multistep process. Gene therapy is a novel treatment method for treating gastric cancer. Here, we developed a novel Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides conjugated copolymers nanoparticles-based gene delivery system in order to actively targeting inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells. These transcription factor (AP-2α) expression plasmids were also encapsulated into pluronic triblock copolymers nanoparticles which was constituted of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO, P123). The size, morphology and composition of prepared nanocomposites were further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) analysis, these nanocomposites have minor effects on the proliferation of GES-1 cells but significantly decreased the viability of MGC-803, suggesting they own low cytotoxicity but good antitumor activity. The following in vivo evaluation experiments confirmed that these nanocomposites could prevent the growth of gastric cancer cells in the tumor xenograft mice model. In conclusion, these unique RGD peptides conjugated P123 encapsulated AP-2α nanocomposites could selectively and continually kill gastric cancer cells by over-expression of AP-2α in vitro and in vivo; this exhibits huge promising applications in clinical gastric cancer therapy.

  12. Small angle x-ray scattering study of the interaction of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers with lipid bilayers.

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, M. A.; Wolf, A. C.; Seifert, S.; Univ. Chicago

    2003-11-01

    The relationship between molecular architecture and the nature of interactions with lipid bilayers has been studied for a series of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC). The number of molecular repeat units in the hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide), PPO, block has been found to be a critical determinant of the nature of triblock copolymer-lipid bilayer association. For dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)-based biomembrane structures, polymers possessing a PPO chain length commensurate with the acyl chain dimensions of the lipid bilayer yield highly ordered, swollen lamellar structures consistent with well-integrated (into the lipid bilayer) PPO blocks. Triblock copolymers of lesser PPO chain length yield materials with structural characteristics similar to a simple dispersion of DMPC in water. Increasing the concentration (from 4 to 12 mol %) of well-integrated triblock copolymers enhances the structural ordering of the lamellar phase, while concentrations exceeding 16 mol % result in the formation of a hexagonal phase. Examination of temperature-induced changes in the structure of these mesophases (complex fluids) reveals that if the temperature is reduced sufficiently, all compositions exclude polymer and thus exhibit the characteristic SAXS pattern for hydrated DMPC bilayers. Increasing the temperature promotes better insertion of the polymers possessing PPO chain lengths sufficient for membrane insertion. No temperature-induced structural changes are observed in compositions prepared with PEO-PPO-PEO polymers that feature PPO length insufficient to permit full incorporation into the lipid bilayer.

  13. Self-assembly nanomicelles based on cationic mPEG-PLA-b-Polyarginine(R15) triblock copolymer for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Xia; Gao, Shan-Yun; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, En-Yu; Hou, Wen-Jie; Feng, Qiang; Gao, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Liang-Ren; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Due to the absence of safe and effective carriers for in vivo delivery, the applications of small interference RNA (siRNA) in clinic for therapeutic purposes have been limited. In this study, a biodegradable amphiphilic tri-block copolymer (mPEG(2000)-PLA(3000)-b-R(15)) composed of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol), poly(d,l-lactide) and polyarginine was synthesized and further self-assembled to cationic polymeric nanomicelles for in vivo siRNA delivery, with an average diameter of 54.30 ± 3.48 nm and a zeta potential of approximately 34.8 ± 1.77 mV. The chemical structures of the copolymers were well characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and FT-IR spectra. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis assays demonstrated that the polymeric nanomicelles showed greater cell viability and haemocompatibility than those of polyethyleneimine (PEI) or R(15) peptide. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EGFR targeted siRNA formulated in micelleplexes exhibited approximately 65% inhibition of EGFR expression on MCF-7 cells in a sequence-specific manner, which was comparable to Lipofectamine™ 2000. The results of intravenous administration showed Micelleplex/EGFR-siRNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice xenografted MCF-7 tumors, with a remarkable inhibition of EGFR expression. Furthermore, no positive activation of the innate immune responses and no significant body weight loss was observed during treatment suggested that this polymeric micelle delivery system is non-toxic. In conclusion, the present nanomicelles based on cationic mPEG(2000)-PLA(3000)-b-R(15) copolymer would be a safe and efficient nanocarrier for in vivo delivery of therapeutic siRNA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly ordered mesoporous carbonaceous frameworks from a template of a mixed amphiphilic triblock-copolymer system of PEO-PPO-PEO and reverse PPO-PEO-PPO.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Cai, Huaqiang; Yu, Ting; Sun, Xiuli; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2007-10-01

    A series of highly ordered mesoporous carbonaceous frameworks with diverse symmetries have been successfully synthesized by using phenolic resols as a carbon precursor and mixed amphiphilic surfactants of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) and reverse PPO-PEO-PPO as templates by the strategy of evaporation-induced organic-organic self-assembly (EISA). The transformation of the ordered mesostructures from face-centered (Fd3m) to body-centered cubic (Im3m), then 2D hexagonal (P6mm), and eventually to cubic bicontinuous (Ia3d) symmetry has been achieved by simply adjusting the ratio of triblock copolymers to resol precursor and the relative content of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer F127, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen-sorption measurements. The blends of block copolymers can interact with resol precursors and tend to self-assemble into cross-linking micellar structures during the solvent-evaporation process, which provides a suitable template for the construction of mesostructures. The assembly force comes from the hydrogen-bonding interactions between organic mixed micelles and the resol-precursor matrix. The BET surface area for the mesoporous carbonaceous samples calcined at 600 degrees C under nitrogen atmosphere is around 600 m2 g(-1), and the pore size can be adjusted from 2.8 to 5.4 nm. An understanding of the organic-organic self-assembly behavior in the mixed amphiphilic surfactant system would pave the way for the synthesis of mesoporous materials with controllable structures.

  15. pH-responsive three-layered PEGylated polyplex micelle based on a lactosylated ABC triblock copolymer as a targetable and endosome-disruptive nonviral gene vector.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Motoi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Nonviral vectors for gene therapy have recently received an increased impetus because of the inherent safety problems of the viral vectors, while their transfection efficiency is generally low compared to the viral vectors. The lack of the ability to escape from the endosomal compartments is believed to be one of the critical barriers to the intracellular delivery of noviral gene vectors. This study was devoted to the design and preparation of a novel ABC triblock copolymer for constructing a pH-responsive and targetable nonviral gene vector. The copolymer, lactosylated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(silamine)-block-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (Lac-PEG-PSAO-PAMA), consists of lactosylated poly(ethylene glycol) (A-segment), a pH-responsive polyamine segment (B-segment), and a DNA-condensing polyamine segment (C-segment). The Lac-PEG-PSAO-PAMA spontaneously associated with plasmid DNA (pDNA) to form three-layered polyplex micelles with a PAMA/pDNA polyion complex (PIC) core, an uncomplexed PSAO inner shell, and a lactosylated PEG outer shell, as confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Under physiological conditions, the Lac-PEG-PSAO-PAMA/pDNA polyplex micelles prepared at an N/P (number of amino groups in the copolymer/number of phosphate groups in pDNA) ratio above 3 were found to be able to condense pDNA, thus adopting a relatively small size (< 150 nm) and an almost neutral surface charge (zeta approximately +5 mV). The micelle underwent a pH-induced size variation (pH = 7.4, 132.6 nm --> pH = 4.0, 181.8 nm) presumably due to the conformational changes (globule-rod transition) of the uncomplexed PSAO chain in response to pH, leading to swelling of the free PSAO inner shell at lowered pH while retaining the condensed pDNA in the PAMA/pDNA PIC core. Furthermore, the micelles exhibited a specific cellular uptake into HuH-7 cells (hepatocytes) through asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor-mediated endocytosis and achieved a far more efficient transfection

  16. Aggregation behavior of poly(ethylene glycol-bl-propylene sulfide) di- and triblock copolymers in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Cerritelli, Simona; O'Neil, Conlin P; Velluto, Diana; Fontana, Antonella; Adrian, Marc; Dubochet, Jacques; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-06

    Block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-PPS) have recently emerged as a new macromolecular amphiphile capable of forming a wide range of morphologies when dispersed in water. To understand better the relationship between stability and morphology in terms of the relative and absolute block compositions, we have synthesized a collection of PEG-PPS block copolymers and quantified their critical aggregation concentration and observed their morphology using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy after thin film hydration with extrusion and after solvent dispersion from tetrahydrofuran, a solvent for both blocks. By understanding the relationship between aggregate character and block copolymer architecture, we have observed that whereas the relative block lengths control morphology, the stability of the aggregates upon dilution is determined by the absolute block length of the hydrophobic PPS block. We have compared results obtained with PEG-PPS to those obtained with poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene oxide)-bl-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers (Pluronics). The results reveal that the PEG-PPS aggregates are substantially more stable than Pluronic aggregates, by more than an order of magnitude. PEG-PPS can form a wide variety of stable or metastable morphologies in dilute solution within normal time and temperature ranges, whereas Pluronics can generally form only spherical micelles under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, block copolymers of PEG with poly(propylene sulfide) may present distinct advantages over those with poly(propylene glycol) for a number of applications.

  17. Mean-field coarse-grained model for poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer systems.

    PubMed

    García Daza, Fabián A; Colville, Alexander J; Mackie, Allan D

    2015-03-31

    The microscopic modeling of surfactant systems is of the utmost importance in understanding the mechanisms related to the micellization process because it allows for prediction and comparison with experimental data of diverse equilibrium system properties. In this work, we present a coarse-grained model for Pluronics, a trademarked type of triblock copolymer, from simulations based on a single-chain mean-field theory (SCMF). This microscopic model is used to quantify the micellization process of these nonionic surfactants at 37 °C and has been shown to be able to quantitatively reproduce experimental data of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) along with other equilibrium properties. In particular, these results correctly capture the experimental behavior with respect to the lengths of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties of the surfactants for low and medium hydrophobicities. However, for the more highly hydrophobic systems with low CMCs, a deviation is found which has been previously attributed to nonequilibrium effects in the experimental data (Garcı́a Daza, F. A.; Mackie, A. D. Low Critical Micelle Concentration Discrepancy between Theory and Experiment. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 2027-2032).

  18. Studies on a novel multi-sensitive hydrogel: influence of the biomimetic phosphorylcholine end-groups on the PEO-PPO-PEO tri-block co-polymers.

    PubMed

    Meng, Sheng; Guo, Zhang; Wang, Qiong; Liu, ZongJun; Wang, QiHong; Zhong, Wei; Du, QiangGuo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a biomimetic phosphorylcholine group was employed in the end-capping modification of PEO-PPO-PEO tri-block co-polymers (Pluronic(®)). The structures of the resulting materials were characterized by (1)H-NMR and GPC. The effects of the additional phosphorylcholine end-groups to the thermo-sensitive sol-gel transition behaviors of the aqueous solutions of the resulting polymers were studied by rheology test in neutral (0.1 M NaCl) aqueous solutions and in acidic solutions (pH 3). It was found that the phosphorylcholine-end-capped Pluronic hydrogels still kept their thermo-sensitive mechanical properties with a slight change on the sol-gel transition behaviors. The phosphorylcholine-modified Pluronics exhibited a response to the change of the pH value, which made this kind of material a multi-sensitive hydrogel system. Also, the resulting polymers showed improved hemocompatibilities in the blood coagulation test using full human blood.

  19. Surface modification of paclitaxel-loaded tri-block copolymer PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA nanoparticles with protamine for liver cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Chen, Zhihong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Ruan, Changshun; Mei, Lin; Liu, Zhigang; Zeng, Xiaowei

    2015-08-01

    In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy on liver cancer, a biodegradable formulation of protamine-modified paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactide- co-glycolide)- b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA) nanoparticles (PTX-loaded/protamine NPs) was prepared. Tri-block copolymer PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. PTX-loaded and PTX-loaded/protamine NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin 6-loaded/protamine NPs were internalized by hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was obviously elevated after protamine modification. With commercial formulation Taxol® as the reference, HepG2 cells were also used to study the cytotoxicity of the NPs. PTX-loaded/protamine NPs exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity than PTX-loaded NPs and Taxol® did. All the results suggested that surface modification of PTX-loaded PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA NPs with protamine boosted the therapeutic efficacy on liver cancer.

  20. Hydration of cations: a key to understanding of specific cation effects on aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Jacob C; Wu, Tsung-yu; Zhang, Yanjie

    2013-09-05

    This work reports results from the interactions of a series of monovalent and divalent cations with a triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO). Phase transition temperatures of the polymer in the presence of chloride salts with six monovalent and eight divalent cations were measured using an automated melting point apparatus. The polymer undergoes a two-step phase transition, consisting of micellization of the polymer followed by aggregation of the micelles, in the presence of all the salts studied herein. The results suggest that hydration of cations plays a key role in determining the interactions between the cations and the polymer. The modulation of the phase transition temperature of the polymer by cations can be explained as a balance between three interactions: direct binding of cations to the oxygen in the polymer chains, cations sharing one water molecule with the polymer in their hydration layer, and cations interacting with the polymer via two water molecules. Monovalent cations Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) do not bind to the polymer, while Li(+) and NH4(+) and all the divalent cations investigated including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) bind to the polymer. The effects of the cations correlate well with their hydration thermodynamic properties. Mechanisms for cation-polymer interactions are discussed.

  1. Reduction-responsive core-shell-corona micelles based on triblock copolymers: novel synthetic strategy, characterization, and application as a tumor microenvironment-responsive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-14

    A facile and effective approach was established for fabricating core-shell-corona micelles by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid-co-tert-butyl acrylate)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG43-b-P(AA30-co-tBA18)-b-PCL53) triblock copolymer, synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), click chemistry, and hydrolyzation. The prenanovehicles with three different hydrolysis degrees from PEG43-b-PtBA48-b-PCL53 were developed to evaluate the drug loading capacity (DLC) and drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE). After cross-linking with a disulfide bond to regulate the drug release kinetics, the spherical core-shell-corona micelles with average diameter of 52 ± 4 nm were obtained in aqueous solution. The reduction-responsive cross-linked micelles showed a slow sustained release in normal physiological conditions and a rapid release upon exposure to simulated tumor intracellular conditions. In addition, the cytotoxic analysis and HepG2 cell growth inhibition assays demonstrated their remarkable biocompatibility and similar excellent anticancer activity as the free doxorubicin (DOX), which has also been revealed by the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) analysis. So the reduction-sensitive core-shell-corona micelles are expected to be promising tumor microenvironment-responsive nanovehicles for hydrophobic drugs by glutathione (GSH) triggering.

  2. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) in apparel textile by core-shell structured Fe3O4@silica@triblock-copolymer magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei; Liu, Minhua; Sun, Meirong; Chen, Kun; Cao, Xiujun; Hu, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, novel core-shell structured magnetic Fe3O4/silica nanocomposites with triblock-copolymer grafted on their surface (Fe3O4@SiO2@MDN) were successfully fabricated by combining a sol-gel method with a seeded aqueous-phase radical copolymerization approach. Owing to the excellent characteristics of the strong magnetic responsivity, outstanding hydrophilicity and abundant π-electron system, the obtained core-shell structured microspheres showed great potential as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent. Several kinds of phthalate esters (PAEs) were selected as model analytes to systematically evaluate the applicability of adsorbents for extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Various parameters, including adsorbents amounts, adsorption time, species of eluent, and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, Validation experiments such as recovery, reproducibility, and limit of detection were carried on and showed satisfactory results. The analysis method showed excellent linearity with a wide range of 0.2-10mg/kg (R(2)>0.9974) and low limits of detection (LOD) of 0.02-0.09 mg/kg (S/N=3). Ultimately, the novel magnetic adsorbents were successfully employed to detect the PAEs in apparel textile samples. And the results indicated that this novel approach brought forward in the present work offered an attractive alternative for rapid, efficient and sensitive MSPE for PAEs compounds.

  3. Self-assembly of ABC star triblock copolymer thin films confined with a preferential surface: a self-consistent mean field theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Hongdong; Qiu, Feng; Yang, Yuliang

    2010-12-21

    The microphase separation and morphology of a nearly symmetric A(0.3)B(0.3)C(0.4) star triblock copolymer thin film confined between two parallel, homogeneous hard walls have been investigated by self-consistent mean field theory (SCMFT) with a pseudospectral method. Our simulation experiments reveal that under surface confinement, in addition to the typically parallel, perpendicular, and tilted cylinders, other phases such as lamellae, perforated lamellae, and complex hybrid phases have been found to be stable, which is attributed to block-substrate interactions, especially for those hybrid phases in which A and B blocks disperse as spheres and alternately arrange as cubic CsCl structures, with a network preferred structure of C block. The results show that these hybrid phases are also stable within a broad hybrid region (H region) under a suitable film thickness and a broad field strength of substrates because their free energies are too similar to being distinguished. Phase diagrams have been evaluated by purposefully and systematically varying the film thickness and field strength for three different cases of Flory-Huggins interaction parameters between species in the star polymer. We also compare the phase diagrams for weak and strong preferential substrates, each with a couple of opposite quality, and discuss the influence of confinement, substrate preference, and the nature of the star polymer on the stability of relatively thinner and thick film phases in this work.

  4. Micellization of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions: Thermodynamics of copolymer association

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandridis, P.; Hatton, T.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Holzwarth, J.F. )

    1994-04-25

    The critical micellization temperature (cmt) and critical micellization concentration (cmc) values of 12 Pluronic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, covering a wide range of molecular weights (2,900--14,600) and PPO/PEO ratios (0.19--1.79), were determined employing a dye solubilization method. A closed association model was found to describe adequately the copolymer micellization process for the majority of the Pluronics and used to obtain the standard free energies ([Delta]G[degree]), enthalpies ([Delta]H[degree]), and entropies ([Delta]S[degree]) of micellization. It was determined that the micellization process is entropy-driven and has an endothermic micellization enthalpy. The hydrophobic part of the Pluronics, PPO, was responsible for the micellization, apparently due to diminishing hydrogen bonding between water and PPO with increasing temperature. The cmc dependence on temperature and size of headgroup (PEO) of Pluronics follows a similar trend with lower molecular weight C[sub i]E[sub j] nonionic surfactants, the effect of temperature being more pronounced with the Pluronics. The PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers were compared to PPO-PEO-PPO block and PEO-PPO random copolymers, in an attempt to probe the effect of molecular architecture in the formation of micelles. No micelles were observed in aqueous PPO-PEO-PPO block copolymer solutions with increasing temperature, up to the cloud point.

  5. Step-Cycle Mechanical Processing of Gels of sPP-b-EPR-b-sPP Triblock Copolymer in Mineral Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Niu, Y; Fredrickson, G; Kramer, E; Shin, Y; Shimizu, F; Zuo, F; Rong, L; Hsiao, B; Coates, G

    2010-01-01

    Gels of syndiotactic polypropylene-b-ethylene-propylene-rubber-b-syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP-EPR-sPP) were prepared by dissolving {approx}6 wt % of the triblock copolymer in mineral oil at 170 C and then cooling to room temperature in several steps to crystallize the sPP block. The gel was subjected to step-cycle processing by first extending it to a given maximum tensile strain, followed by decreasing the load to zero. The cycle was then repeated to a higher maximum strain and so on until the sample either failed or it reached an ultimate predetermined strain. The true stress and true strain {var_epsilon}{sub H} during each cycle were recorded, including the true strain at zero load {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} after each cycle that resulted from the plastic deformation of the sPP crystals in the gel. The initial Young's modulus E{sub init} and maximum tangent modulus E{sub max} in each cycle undergo dramatic changes as a function of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, with Einit decreasing for {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} {le} 0.1 and then increasing slowly as {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} increases to 1 while E{sub max} increases rapidly over the entire range of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, resulting in a ratio of E{sub max}/E{sub init} > 1000 at the highest maximum (nominal) strain of 20. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering patterns from the deformed and relaxed gels, as well as on previous results on deformation of semicrystalline random copolymers by Strobl and co-workers, we propose that the initial decrease in Einit with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is due to a breakup of the network of the original sPP crystal lamellae while the increase in E{sub max} with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is caused by the conversion of the sPP lamellae into fibrils of an aspect ratio that increases with further plastic deformation. The gel elastic properties can be understood as those of a short fiber composite with a highly deformable matrix. At zero stress the random copolymer midblock chains that connect the

  6. Transport Properties of Sulfonated Poly (Styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) Triblock Copolymers at High Ion-Exchange Capacities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-20

    strong acidic groups (e.g., sulfonic acid ) are of interest for a variety of applications, such as sensors, actuators, ion-exchange membranes, and fuel...Increasing ion or sulfonic acid content in the polymer transforms the polymer from an insulator to an ion conductor (percolation threshold), whereby...33.50 © 2006 American Chemical Society Published on Web 12/01/2005 copolymer of polystyrene and poly(styrenesulfonic acid ) (i.e., sulfonated polystyrene

  7. Filamentous, mixed micelles of triblock copolymers enhance tumor localization of indocyanine green in a murine xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Mount, Christopher W; Dulken, Benjamin W; Ramos, Jenelyn; Fu, Caroline J; Khant, Htet A; Chiu, Wah; Gombotz, Wayne R; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers can be used to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for tumor-delivery applications. Filamentous carriers with high aspect ratios offer potential advantages over spherical carriers, including prolonged circulation times. In this work, mixed micelles comprised of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-PHB-PEO) and Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) were used to encapsulate a near-infrared fluorophore. The micelle formulations were assessed for tumor accumulation after tail vein injection to xenograft tumor-bearing mice by non-invasive optical imaging. The mixed micelle formulation that facilitated the highest tumor accumulation was shown by cryo-electron microscopy to be filamentous in structure compared to spherical structures of pure PF-127 micelles. In addition, increased dye loading efficiency and dye stability was attained in this mixed micelle formulation compared to pure PEO-PHB-PEO micelles. Therefore, the optimized PEO-PHB-PEO/PF-127 mixed micelle formulation offers advantages for cancer delivery over micelles formed from the individual copolymer components. PMID:22118658

  8. Influence of triblock copolymer (pluronic F127) on enhancing the physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic response of mesoporous TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey

    2015-11-01

    The utilization of triblock copolymer, pluronic F127 as a structure directing agent for the preparation of TiO2 played an important role in enhancing the photocatalytic degradation rate of atrazine by a factor of 1.7. The mesoporous F127-TiO2 showed significant modification of morphology, particle and crystallite size, and presence of defect energy belt within the catalyst forbidden band as proven via photoluminescence spectra and x-ray photon spectroscopy. Hence the photogenerated carriers have longer lifespan to migrate to the catalyst surface for redox activities. Furtherance, surface reactive {0 0 1} facets proven by the formation of new geometrical single crystal of square and rhombus surfaces in F127-TiO2 facilitates atrazine degradation as well. The increased surface area of F127-TiO2 promotes greater atrazine absorption, thus governs improved interaction between absorbed atrazine molecules and surface generated active radicals as a pre-requisite for good photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, using the same synthesis procedure, it was observed that the addition of pluronic F127 significantly affects anatase crystal structure as opposed to the more thermodynamically stable rutile, generating 61% and 25% of total crystallite size modification for anatase and rutile, respectively. However, there were no changes on the final composition of anatase and rutile crystal structure. In overall, enhancement of the photocatalytic degradation of atrazine is ruled out to the following factors (1) modification of geometrical structures and size, (2) narrowing of band gap due to defect energy belt, (3) longer lifespan of photoexcited charges to the catalyst surface, (4) enhanced surface textural properties and (5) increased exposure of reactive {0 0 1} facets, which were all observed in F127-TiO2.

  9. Creep-resistant porous structures based on stereo-complex forming triblock copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate and lactides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W; Feijen, Jan

    2004-04-01

    Stereo-complexes (poly(ST-TMC-ST)) of enantiomeric triblock copolymers based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and L- or D-lactide (poly(LLA-TMC-LLA) and poly(DLA-TMC-DLA)) were prepared. Films of poly(ST-TMC-ST) could be prepared by solvent casting mixtures of equal amounts of poly(LLA-TMC-LLA) and poly(DLA-TMC-DLA) solutions and by compression moulding co-precipitates. Although compression moulding was performed at 191 degrees C, thermal degradation was not apparent and materials with good tensile properties could be obtained. For compression-moulded poly(ST-TMC-ST) specimens containing approximately 16 mol % lactide, the values for E-modulus, yield stress and elongation at break were respectively 17, 1.7 MPa and 90%. Also a very low long-term creep rate of 2.2 x 10(-7)s(-1) was determined when specimens were loaded to 20% of the yield stress. When compared with compression-moulded poly(TMC), poly(ST-TMC-ST) specimens deform at a rate that is one to two orders of magnitude lower. Furthermore, poly(ST-TMC-ST) specimens showed complete dimensional recovery within 24 h after loading to 20% and 40% of the yield stress for 40 and 5.5 h, respectively. Highly porous poly(TMC) and poly(ST-TMC-ST) structures with interconnected pores were prepared by a method combining co-precipitation, compression moulding and salt leaching. After prolonged compressive deformation, solid and porous poly(ST-TMC-ST) discs showed significantly better recovery behaviour than poly(TMC) discs.

  10. Use of the Flory-Huggins theory to predict the solubility of nifedipine and sulfamethoxazole in the triblock, graft copolymer Soluplus.

    PubMed

    Altamimi, Mohammad A; Neau, Steven H

    2016-03-01

    Drug dispersed in a polymer can improve bioavailability; dispersed amorphous drug undergoes recrystallization. Solid solutions eliminate amorphous regions, but require a measure of the solubility. Use the Flory-Huggins Theory to predict crystalline drugs solubility in the triblock, graft copolymer Soluplus® to provide a solid solution. Physical mixtures of the two drugs with similar melting points but different glass forming ability, sulfamethoxazole and nifedipine, were prepared with Soluplus® using a quick technique. Drug melting point depression (MPD) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The Flory-Huggins Theory allowed: (1) interaction parameter, χ, calculation using MPD data to provide a measure of drug-polymer interaction strength and (2) estimation of the free energy of mixing. A phase diagram was constructed with the MPD data and glass transition temperature (Tg) curves. The interaction parameters with Soluplus® and the free energy of mixing were estimated. Drug solubility was calculated by the intersection of solubility equations and that of MPD and Tg curves in the phase diagram. Negative interaction parameters indicated strong drug-polymer interactions. The phase diagram and solubility equations provided comparable solubility estimates for each drug in Soluplus®. Results using the onset of melting rather than the end of melting support the use of the onset of melting. The Flory-Huggins Theory indicates that Soluplus® interacts effectively with each drug, making solid solution formation feasible. The predicted solubility of the drugs in Soluplus® compared favorably across the methods and supports the use of the onset of melting.

  11. Use of the Flory-Huggins theory to predict the solubility of nifedipine and sulfamethoxazole in the triblock, graft copolymer Soluplus.

    PubMed

    Altamimi, Mohammad A; Neau, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    Drug dispersed in a polymer can improve bioavailability; dispersed amorphous drug undergoes recrystallization. Solid solutions eliminate amorphous regions, but require a measure of the solubility. Use the Flory-Huggins Theory to predict crystalline drugs solubility in the triblock, graft copolymer Soluplus® to provide a solid solution. Physical mixtures of the two drugs with similar melting points but different glass forming ability, sulfamethoxazole and nifedipine, were prepared with Soluplus® using a quick technique. Drug melting point depression (MPD) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The Flory-Huggins Theory allowed: (1) interaction parameter, χ, calculation using MPD data to provide a measure of drug-polymer interaction strength and (2) estimation of the free energy of mixing. A phase diagram was constructed with the MPD data and glass transition temperature (Tg) curves. The interaction parameters with Soluplus® and the free energy of mixing were estimated. Drug solubility was calculated by the intersection of solubility equations and that of MPD and Tg curves in the phase diagram. Negative interaction parameters indicated strong drug-polymer interactions. The phase diagram and solubility equations provided comparable solubility estimates for each drug in Soluplus®. Results using the onset of melting rather than the end of melting support the use of the onset of melting. The Flory-Huggins Theory indicates that Soluplus® interacts effectively with each drug, making solid solution formation feasible. The predicted solubility of the drugs in Soluplus® compared favorably across the methods and supports the use of the onset of melting.

  12. Increasing the Mechanical Strength of Block Polymer Ion Gels Through the Stepwise Self-Assembly of a Thermoresponsive ABC Triblock Terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cecilia; Zhou, Can; Danielsen, Scott; Lodge, Timothy

    Blends of network-forming block polymers and ionic liquids have remarkable potential for solid electrolytes, as they allow the combination of desirable mechanical and electrical properties. While ABA triblock copolymers have successfully been implemented as the network component of ion gels, these networks contain looped defects, where the endblocks of the polymer loop back into the same spherical core instead of forming a bridge between two cores. We demonstrate that the ABC triblock terpolymer poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEP-b-PEO-b-PNIPAm) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide forms a thermoreversible gel network with negligible looping defects. PEP-core micelles exist at all temperatures, while cooling causes association of the PNIPAm micelle corona to form a bridging network. Small-angle x-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the high-temperature micelles. These gels show enhanced mechanical properties and the ability to form gels at lower concentrations than the corresponding thermoresponsive ABA triblock copolymers.

  13. Interaction of premicellar states of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer with partially hydrophobic substances: NMR study.

    PubMed

    Kříž, Jaroslav

    2012-04-12

    According to (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, relaxations, and PFG NMR self-diffusion measurements, partially hydrophobic additives methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl-isopropyl ketone (MIPK), and methyl-t-butyl ketone (MTBK) facilitate the conformation change and subsequent self-association of the copolymer Pluronic L64. The correlation time (4-9 ms) and activation energy (43-52 kJ/mol) of transition between its conformation states decrease with the increasing hydrophobicity and bulkiness of the additive. The temperature of the first PPO self-association decreases in the same order (by 4 K for MTBK). The interaction of the additives was indirectly proved by the decrease of their rotational and translational mobility in the presence of L64. The rotational correlation time τ(c) is between 3 and 6 × 10(-11) s, whereas that of the same molecules in the absence of L64 is lower than 6 × 10(-12) s. The normalized self-diffusion coefficient decreases to about 0.7 of its original value in the presence of L64. The interaction of the additive with the PPO block is transient but effective enough to facilitate its conformational change and self-association. Its mediation by a water molecule bound to PPO as a possible mechanism is suggested.

  14. Thermoreversible hydrogels based on triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and carboxyl functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone): The effect of carboxyl group substitution on the transition temperature and biocompatibility in plasma.

    PubMed

    Safaei Nikouei, Nazila; Vakili, Mohammad Reza; Bahniuk, Markian S; Unsworth, Larry; Akbari, Ali; Wu, Jianping; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    In this study we report on the development, characterization and plasma protein interaction of novel thermoresponsive in situ hydrogels based on triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(α-carboxyl-co-benzyl carboxylate)-ε-caprolactone (PCBCL) having two different degrees of carboxyl group substitution on the PCBCL block. Block copolymers were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone by dihydroxy PEG, leading to the production of poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone)-PEG-poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone) (PBCL-PEG-PBCL). This was followed by partial debenzylation of PBCL blocks under controlled conditions, leading to the preparation of PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL triblock copolymers with 30 and 54mol.% carboxyl group substitution. Prepared PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL block copolymers have been shown to have a concentration-dependent sol to gel transition as a result of an increase in temperature above ∼29°C, as evidenced by the inverse flow method, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. The sol-gel transition temperature/concentration and dynamic mechanical properties of the gel were found to be dependent on the level of carboxyl group substitution. Both hydrogels (30 and 54mol.% carboxyl group substitution) showed similar amounts of protein adsorption but striking differences in the profiles of the adsorbed proteome. Additionally, the two systems showed similarities in their clot formation kinetics but substantial differences in clot endpoints. The results show great promise for the above-mentioned thermoreversible in situ hydrogels as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular arrangement of symmetric and non-symmetric triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(isobutylene) at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Christian; Hussain, Hazrat; Schwieger, Christian; Schulz, Matthias; Binder, Wolfgang H; Kressler, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of a series of amphiphilic triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(isobutylene) (PIB); including both symmetric (same degree of polymerization (DP) of the terminal PEO blocks) PEOm-b-PIBn-b-PEOm and non-symmetric (different DP of the terminal PEO blocks) PEOm-b-PIBn-b-PEOz, is investigated at the air/water interface by measuring surface pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms (π vs mmA), Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The block copolymer (PEO32-b-PIB160-b-PEO32) with longer PEO segments forms a stable monolayer and the isotherm reveals a pseudo-plateau starting at π∼5.7 mN/m, also observed in the IRRAS, which is assigned to the pancake-to-brush transition related to the PEO dissolution into the subphase and subsequent PEO brush dehydration. Another plateau is observed at π∼40 mN/m, which is attributed to the film collapse due to multilayer formation. The pancake-to-brush transition could not be observed for samples with smaller PEO chains. The isotherms for block copolymers, with short PEO chains, both symmetric (PEO3-b-PIBn-b-PEO3) and non-symmetric (PEO12-b-PIBn-b-PEO3), reveal another transition at π∼20-25 mN/m. This is interpreted to be due to the conformational transition from a folded state where the middle PIB block is anchored to the water surface at both ends by the terminal hydrophilic segments to an unfolded state with PIB anchored to the water surface at one end. It is assumed that this transition involves the removal of PEO3 chains from the water surface in case of non-symmetric PEO12-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 and in case of symmetric, probably one PEO3 of each PEO3-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 chain. Because of the weaker interaction of the short PEO3 chains with the water surface as compared with the relatively longer PEO12 chains, the film of PEO3-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 collapses at much lower surface pressure after the transition as compared with the PEO12-b-PIB85-b-PEO3. The

  16. RAFT polymerization of temperature- and salt-responsive block copolymers as reversible hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Hemp, Sean T.; Smith, Adam E.; Bunyard, W. Clayton; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Long, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization enabled the synthesis of novel, stimuli-responsive, AB and ABA block copolymers. The B block contained oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEG) and was permanently hydrophilic in the conditions examined. The A block consisted of diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (DEG) and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (TMA). The A block displayed both salt- and temperature-response with lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) dependent on the molar content of TMA and the presence of salt. Higher TMA content in the AB diblock copolymers increased the critical micelle temperatures (CMT) in HPLC-grade water due to an increased hydrophilicity of the A block. Upon addition of 0.9 wt% NaCl, the CMTs of poly(OEG-b-DEG95TMA5) decreased from 50 °C to 36 °C due to screening of electrostatic repulsion between the TMA units. ABA triblock copolymers displayed excellent hydrogel properties with salt- and temperature-dependent gel points. TMA incorporation in the A block increased the gel points for all triblock copolymers, and salt-response increased with higher TMA composition in the A block. For example, poly(DEG98TMA2-b-OEG-b-DEG98TMA2) formed a hydrogel at 40 °C in HPLC-grade water and 26 °C in 0.9 wt% NaCl aqueous solution. These salt- and temperature-responsive AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers find applications as drug delivery vehicles, adhesives, and hydrogels. PMID:27041771

  17. Biodegradable tri-block copolymer poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine)(PLA-PEG-PLL) as a non-viral vector to enhance gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunhua; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Donghua; Chen, Zhijing; Lu, Zaijun; Zhang, Na

    2011-02-23

    Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine) (PLA-PEG-PLL) copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z)-NCA onto amine-terminated NH(2)-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ɛ-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge) and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells) of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs) were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells) than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%). These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo.

  18. Thermo-responsive release of curcumin from micelles prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm)-b-PLLA-b-P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm) triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanfei; Darcos, Vincent; Monge, Sophie; Li, Suming; Zhou, Yang; Su, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Thermo-responsive micelles are prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic triblock copolymers composed of a poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) central block and two poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm)) lateral blocks, using solvent evaporation/film hydration method. The resulting micelles exhibit very low critical micelle concentration (CMC) which slightly increases from 0.0113 to 0.0144 mg mL(-1) while the DMAAm content increases from 31.8 to 39.4% in the hydrophilic P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm) blocks. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of copolymers varies from 44.7 °C to 49.4 °C in water as determined by UV spectroscopy, and decreases by ca. 3.5 °C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Curcumin was encapsulated in the core of micelles. High drug loading up to 20% is obtained with high loading efficiency (>94%). The LCST of drug loaded micelles ranges from 37.5 to 38.0 °C with drug loading increasing from 6.0 to 20%. The micelles with diameters ranging from 47.5 to 88.2 nm remain stable over one month due to the negative surface charge as determined by zeta potential (-12.4 to -18.7 mV). Drug release studies were performed under in vitro conditions at 37 °C and 40 °C, i.e. below and above the LCST, respectively. Initial burst release is observed in all cases, followed by a slower release. The release rate is higher at 40 °C than that at 37 °C due to thermo-responsive release across the LCST. On the other hand, micelles with lower drug loading exhibit higher release rate than those with higher drug loading, which is assigned to the solubility effect. Peppas' theory was applied to describe the release behaviors. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity of copolymers was evaluated using MTT assay. The results show that the copolymers present good cytocompatibility. Therefore, the nano-scale size, low CMC, high drug loading and stability, as well as good biocompatibility indicate that these thermo-responsive triblock copolymer micelles

  19. Plastic deformation of triblock elastomers by molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Amanda; Rottler, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical properties of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) can be greatly enhanced by exploiting the complex morphology of triblock copolymers. A common strategy consists of confining chain ends into hard glassy regions that effectively crosslink a soft rubbery phase. We present molecular dynamics simulations that provide insight into key microscopic behaviour of the copolymer chains during deformation. First, a coarse-grained polymer model with an ABA type configuration and soft interactions is employed to achieve equilibrated spherical morphologies. Our model TPEs contain at least 30 spheres in order to ensure configurational averaging. Elastoplastic deformation with uniaxial extension or volume conserving shear is then studied after hard excluded volume interactions have been reintroduced. We consider trends of stress-strain curves for different chain lengths, and compare to equivalent homopolymeric systems. During deformation we simultaneously track the evolution of the number and shape of the minority spheres, the proportion of chains bridging from one sphere to another, as well as local plastic deformation. The simulations reveal strong differences between deformation modes, the evolution of sphere morphology and chain anisotropy.

  20. Poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers--new biocompatible hybrid materials for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Naeini, Ashkan Tavakoli; Adeli, Mohsen; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2010-08-01

    Linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks were synthesized through polycondensation. The molecular self-assembly of synthesized PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water led to formation of nanoparticles and fibers in different sizes and shapes depending on the time and size of PCA blocks. Ten days after dissolving PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water, the size of fibers had reached several millimeters. Mixing a water solution of fluorescein as a small guest molecule and PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers led to the encapsulation of fluorescein by products of molecular self-assembly. To investigate their potential application in nanomedicine and to understand the limitations and capabilities of these materials as nanoexcipients in biological systems, different types of short-term in vitro cytotoxicity experiments on the HT1080 cell line (human fibrosarcoma) and hemocompatibility tests were performed. From the clinical editor: This manuscript investigates the potentials of linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks for future applications in nanomedicine.

  1. Solid-supported block copolymer membranes through interfacial adsorption of charged block copolymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Meier, Wolfgang

    2008-06-17

    The properties of amphiphilic block copolymer membranes can be tailored within a wide range of physical parameters. This makes them promising candidates for the development of new (bio)sensors based on solid-supported biomimetic membranes. Here we investigated the interfacial adsorption of polyelectrolyte vesicles on three different model substrates to find the optimum conditions for formation of planar membranes. The polymer vesicles were made from amphiphilic ABA triblock copolymers with short, positively charged poly(2,2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) end blocks and a hydrophobic poly( n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) middle block. We observed reorganization of the amphiphilic copolymer chains from vesicular structures into a 1.5+/-0.04 nm thick layer on the hydrophobic HOPG surface. However, this film starts disrupting and dewetting upon drying. In contrast, adsorption of the vesicles on the negatively charged SiO2 and mica substrates induced vesicle fusion and formation of planar, supported block copolymer films. This process seems to be controlled by the surface charge density of the substrate and concentration of the block copolymers in solution. The thickness of the copolymer membrane on mica was comparable to the thickness of phospholipid bilayers.

  2. Dynamic photoinduced realignment processes in photoresponsive block copolymer films: effects of the chain length and block copolymer architecture.

    PubMed

    Sano, Masami; Shan, Feng; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Shinohara, Yuya; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Seki, Takahiro

    2015-08-07

    A series of block copolymers composed of an amorphous poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) block connected with an azobenzene (Az)-containing liquid crystalline (PAz) block were synthesized by changing the chain length and polymer architecture. With these block copolymer films, the dynamic realignment process of microphase separated (MPS) cylinder arrays of PBMA in the PAz matrix induced by irradiation with linearly polarized light was studied by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and time-resolved grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) measurements using a synchrotron beam. Unexpectedly, the change in the chain length hardly affected the realignment rate. In contrast, the architecture of the AB-type diblock or the ABA-type triblock essentially altered the realignment feature. The strongly cooperative motion with an induction period before realignment was characteristic only for the diblock copolymer series, and the LPL-induced alignment change immediately started for triblock copolymers and the PAz homopolymer. Additionally, a marked acceleration in the photoinduced dynamic motions was unveiled in comparison with a thermal randomization process.

  3. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine)(PLA-PEG-PLL) as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chunhua; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Donghua; Chen, Zhijing; Lu, Zaijun; Zhang, Na

    2011-01-01

    Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine) (PLA-PEG-PLL) copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z)-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ɛ-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge) and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells) of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs) were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells) than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%). These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo. PMID:21541064

  4. Comparative Fluorescence Resonance Energy-Transfer Study in Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Micelle and Niosome Composed of Biological Component Cholesterol: An Investigation of Effect of Cholesterol and Sucrose on the FRET Parameters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arpita; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-01-14

    The formation of pluronic triblock copolymer (F127)-cholesterol-based niosome and its interaction with sugar (sucrose) molecules have been investigated. The morphology of F127-cholesterol -based niosome in the presence of sucrose has been successfully demonstrated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The DLS profiles and TEM images clearly suggest that the size of the niosome aggregates increases significantly in the presence of sucrose. In addition to structural characterization, a detailed comparative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study has been carried out in these F127-containing aggregates, involving coumarin 153 (C153) as donor (D) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) as an acceptor (A) to monitor the dynamic heterogeneity of the systems. Besides, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to monitor the rotational and lateral diffusion motion in these F127-cholesterol-based aggregates using C153 and R6G, respectively. During the course of FRET study, we have observed multiple time constants of FRET inside the F127-cholesterol-based niosomes in contrast with the F127 micelle. This corresponds to the presence of more than one preferential donor-acceptor (D-A) distance in niosomes than in F127 micelle. FRET has also been successfully used to probe the effect of sucrose on the morphology of F127-cholesterol-based niosome. In the presence of sucrose, the time constant of FRET further increases as the D-A distances increase in sucrose-decorated niosome. Finally, the excitation-wavelength-dependent FRET studies have indicated that as the excitation of donor molecules varies from 408 to 440 nm the contribution of the faster rise component of the acceptor enhances considerably, which clearly establishes the dynamics heterogeneity of both systems. Our findings also indicate that FRET is completely intravesicular in nature in these block copolymer

  5. The Membrane-Active Tri-Block Copolymer Pluronic F-68 Profoundly Rescues Rat Hippocampal Neurons from Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation-Induced Death through Early Inhibition of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shelat, Phullara B.; Plant, Leigh D.; Wang, Janice C.; Lee, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F-68, an 80% hydrophilic member of the Pluronic family of polyethylene-polypropylene-polyethylene tri-block copolymers, protects non-neuronal cells from traumatic injuries and rescues hippocampal neurons from excitotoxic and oxidative insults. F-68 interacts directly with lipid membranes and restores membrane function after direct membrane damage. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of Pluronic F-68 in rescuing rat hippocampal neurons from apoptosis after oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD progressively decreased neuronal survival over 48 h in a severity-dependent manner, the majority of cell death occurring after 12 h after OGD. Administration of F-68 for 48 h after OGD rescued neurons from death in a dose-dependent manner. At its optimal concentration (30 μm), F-68 rescued all neurons that would have died after the first hour after OGD. This level of rescue persisted when F-68 administration was delayed 12 h after OGD. F-68 did not alter electrophysiological parameters controlling excitability, NMDA receptor-activated currents, or NMDA-induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations. However, F-68 treatment prevented phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and BAX translocation to mitochondria, indicating that F-68 alters apoptotic mechanisms early in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The profound neuronal rescue provided by F-68 after OGD and the high level of efficacy with delayed administration indicate that Pluronic copolymers may provide a novel, membrane-targeted approach to rescuing neurons after brain ischemia. The ability of membrane-active agents to block apoptosis suggests that membranes or their lipid components play prominent roles in injury-induced apoptosis. PMID:23884935

  6. Mixed micelles of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (P123) and a nonionic surfactant (C12EO6) in water. a dynamic and static light scattering study.

    PubMed

    Schillén, Karin; Jansson, Jörgen; Löf, David; Costa, Telma

    2008-05-08

    The present article reports on static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS) studies of aqueous solutions of the nonionic surfactant C12EO6 and the poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer EO20PO68EO20 (P123) at temperatures between 25 and 45 degrees C. In water, P123 self-assembles into spherical micelles with a hydrodynamic radius of 10 nm, and at 40 degrees C, these micelles consist of 131 unimers. Addition of C12EO6 leads to an association of the surfactant molecules to the P123 micelles and mixed micelles are formed. The size and structure of the mixed micelles as well as interparticle interactions were studied by varying the surfactant-to-copolymer (C12EO6/P123) molar ratio. The novelty of this study consists of a composition-induced structural change of the mixed micelles at constant temperature. They gradually change from being spherical to polymer-like with increasing C12EO6 content. At low C12EO6/P123 molar ratios (below 12), the SLS measurements showed that the molar mass of the mixed micelles decreases with an increasing amount of C12EO6 in the micelles for all investigated temperatures. In this regime, the mixed micelles are spherical and the DLS measurements revealed a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of the mixed micelles. An exception was found for C12EO6/P123 molar ratios between 2 and 3, where the mixed micelles become rodlike at 40 degrees C. This was the subject of a previous study and has hence not been investigated here. At high molar ratios (48 and above), the polymer-like micelles present a concentration-induced growth, similar to that observed in the pure C12EO6/water system.

  7. Chain bridging in a model of semicrystalline multiblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Manas; Ganesan, Venkat

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental observations have suggested an intimate connection between the chain conformations and mechanical properties of semicrystalline multiblock copolymers. Motivated by these studies, we present a theoretical study evaluating the bridging/looping fractions in a model of semicrystalline multiblock copolymers. We model the noncrystalline block (A) as a flexible Gaussian chain and the crystalline block (B) as a semiflexible chain with a temperature dependent rigidity and interactions that favor the formation of parallel oriented bonds. Using self-consistent field theory, the bridging fractions of the various domains in different multiblock copolymers (ABA, BAB, ABABA, and BABAB) are evaluated and compared with their flexible counterparts. In general, we observe that for both triblock and pentablock copolymers, rendering one of the blocks crystallizable promotes bridging in that component while reducing the bridging in the other noncrystallizable component. Moreover, the bridging fractions in tri- and pentablock copolymers were seen to be quantitatively similar except insofar as being normalized by the volume fraction of bridgeable units.

  8. Influence of electrolytes on the microenvironment of F127 triblock copolymer micelles: a solvation and rotational dynamics study of coumarin dyes.

    PubMed

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Ganguly, Rajib

    2007-04-19

    Dynamic Stokes' shift and fluorescence anisotropy measurements of coumarin 153 (C153) and coumarin 151 (C151) as fluorescence probes have been carried out to understand the influence of electrolytes (NaCl and LiCl) on the hydration behavior of aqueous (ethylene oxide)100-(propylene oxide)70-(ethylene oxide)100 (EO100-PO70-EO100, F127) block copolymer micelles. A small blue shift in the fluorescence spectra of C153 has been observed in presence of electrolytes due to the dehydration of the oxyethylene chains in the PEO-PPO region, although fluorescence spectra of C151 remain unaltered. The close vicinity of bulk water for C151 probably negates the effect of dehydration in the PEO region. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicate a gradual increase in microviscosity with electrolyte concentrations. The partial collapse of copolymer blocks in the presence of electrolytes has been suggested as a reason for the increase in microviscosity along with the strong hydration of ions in the corona region. The interplay between the ion hydration and the mechanically trapped water content, and specific interaction of ions, such as complexation of Li+ ions with the copolymer block, is found to control solvation dynamics in the corona region. In addition to that, it has been established that Na+ ions reside deep into the corona region whereas Li+ ions prefer to reside closer to the surface. Owing to its higher lyotropicity, LiCl influences the corona hydration to a greater extent than NaCl and sets in micelle-micelle interaction above the 2 M LiCl concentration, as reflected in the saturation of solvation time constants. The formation of larger clusters of F127 micelles above 2 M LiCl has been confirmed by dynamic light scattering measurements; however, such cluster formation is not evident with NaCl.

  9. Effects of Bile Salt Sodium Glycodeoxycholate on the Self-Assembly of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymer P123 in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Bayati, Solmaz; Galantini, Luciano; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Schillén, Karin

    2015-12-22

    A comprehensive experimental study on the interaction between the PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer P123 (EO20PO68EO20) and the anionic bile salt sodium glycodeoxycholate (NaGDC) in water has been performed. The work was aimed at investigating the suitability of using P123 as bile salt sequestrant beside the fundamental aspects of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer-bile salt interactions. Various experimental techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed in combination with electrophoretic mobility measurements. The system was investigated at a constant P123 concentration of 1.74 mM and with varying bile salt concentrations up to approximately 250 mM NaGDC (or a molar ratio n(NaGDC)/n(P123) = 144). In the mixed P123-NaGDC solutions, the endothermic process related to the self-assembly of P123 was observed to gradually decrease in enthalpy and shift to higher temperatures upon progressive addition of NaGDC. To explain this effect, the formation of NaGDC micelles carrying partly dehydrated P123 unimers was proposed and translated into a stoichiometric model, which was able to fit the experimental DSC data. In the mixtures at low molar ratios, NaGDC monomers associated with the P123 micelle forming a charged "P123 micelle-NaGDC" complex with a dehydrated PPO core. These complexes disintegrated upon increasing NaGDC concentration to form small "NaGDC-P123" complexes visualized as bile salt micelles including one or a few P123 copolymer chains.

  10. Multifunctional triblock co-polymer mP3/4HB-b-PEG-b-lPEI for efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Chen, Zhifei; Wang, Feifei; Yang, Xiuqun; Zhang, Biliang

    2013-04-01

    A non-viral siRNA carrier composed of mono-methoxy-poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)-block-polyethylene glycol-block-linear polyethyleneimine (mP3/4HB-b-PEG-b-lPEI) was synthesized using 1800 Da linear polyethyleneimine and evaluated for siRNA delivery. Our study demonstrated that siRNA could be efficiently combined with mP3/4HB-b-PEG-b-lPEI (mAG) co-polymer and was protected from nuclease degradation. The combined siRNA were released from the complexes easily under heparin competition. The particle size of the mAG/siRNA complexes was 158 nm, with a ζ-potential of around 28 mV. Atomic force microscopy images displayed spherical and homogeneously distributed complexes. The mAG block co-polymer displayed low cytotoxicity and efficient cellular uptake of Cy3-siRNA in A549 cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In vitro transfection efficiency of the block co-polymer was assessed using siRNA against luciferase in cultured A549-Luc, HeLa-Luc, HLF-Luc, A375-Luc and MCF-7-Luc cells. A higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity was obtained by mAG block co-polymer in five cell lines. Furthermore, a remarkable improvement in luciferase gene silencing efficiency of the mAG complex (up to 90-95%) over that of Lipofectamine™ 2000 (70-82%) was observed in HLF-Luc and A375-Luc cells. Additionally, a mAG/p65-siRNA complex also showed a better capability than Lipofectamine™ 2000/p65-siRNA complex to drastically reduce the p65 mRNA level down to 10-16% in HeLa, U251 and HUVEC cells at an N/P ratio of 70. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved.

  12. Self-assembly of block copolymers grafted onto a flat substrate: Recent progress in theory and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wang; Bao-Hui, Li

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymers are a class of soft matter that self-assemble to form ordered morphologies on the scale of nanometers, making them ideal materials for various applications. These applications directly depend on the shape and size of the self-assembled morphologies, and hence, a high degree of control over the self-assembly is desired. Grafting block copolymer chains onto a substrate to form copolymer brushes is a versatile method to fabricate functional surfaces. Such surfaces demonstrate a response to their environment, i.e., they change their surface topography in response to different external conditions. Furthermore, such surfaces may possess nanoscale patterns, which are important for some applications; however, such patterns may not form with spun-cast films under the same condition. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of the self-assembly of block copolymers grafted onto a flat substrate. We mainly concentrate on the self-assembled morphologies of end-grafted AB diblock copolymers, junction point-grafted AB diblock copolymers (i.e., Y-shaped brushes), and end-grafted ABA triblock copolymers. Special emphasis is placed on theoretical and simulation progress. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20990234, 20925414, and 91227121), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1257), the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China, and by the Tianhe No. 1, China.

  13. Novel polymeric micelles for insect pest control: encapsulation of essential oil monoterpenes inside a triblock copolymer shell for head lice control.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2017-01-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) are molecules with interesting application in pest control, these have been evaluated against different insect pest from more than 100 years, but their practical use is rather limited. Thus, the enhancement of their bioavailability and manageability due to their dispersion in water can open new perspective for the preparation of formulations for the control of insect pest. In this work, we studied the encapsulation of different monoterpenes in a poloxamer shell in order to prepare aqueous formulations that can be used for the development of platforms used in pest control. Micellar systems containing a 5 wt% of poloxamer 407 and 1.25 wt% of the different monoterpenes were prepared. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) experiments were carried out to characterize the dispersion of the EOCs in water. The pediculicidal activity of these micellar systems was tested on head lice using an ex vivo immersion test. The poloxamers allowed the dispersion of EOCs in water due to their encapsulation inside the hydrophobic core of the copolymer micelles. From this study, we concluded that it is possible to make stable micellar systems containing water (>90 wt%), 1.25 wt% of different monoterpenes and a highly safe polymer (5wt% Poloxamer 407). These formulations were effective against head lice with mortality ranging from 30 to 60%, being the most effective emulsions those containing linalool, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, thymol, eugenol, geraniol and nonyl alcohol which lead to mortalities above 50%. Since these systems showed good pediculicidal activity and high physicochemical stability, they could be a new route for the green fabrication of biocompatible and biosustainable insecticide formulations.

  14. Novel polymeric micelles for insect pest control: encapsulation of essential oil monoterpenes inside a triblock copolymer shell for head lice control

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Essential oil components (EOCs) are molecules with interesting application in pest control, these have been evaluated against different insect pest from more than 100 years, but their practical use is rather limited. Thus, the enhancement of their bioavailability and manageability due to their dispersion in water can open new perspective for the preparation of formulations for the control of insect pest. In this work, we studied the encapsulation of different monoterpenes in a poloxamer shell in order to prepare aqueous formulations that can be used for the development of platforms used in pest control. Methods Micellar systems containing a 5 wt% of poloxamer 407 and 1.25 wt% of the different monoterpenes were prepared. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) experiments were carried out to characterize the dispersion of the EOCs in water. The pediculicidal activity of these micellar systems was tested on head lice using an ex vivo immersion test. Results The poloxamers allowed the dispersion of EOCs in water due to their encapsulation inside the hydrophobic core of the copolymer micelles. From this study, we concluded that it is possible to make stable micellar systems containing water (>90 wt%), 1.25 wt% of different monoterpenes and a highly safe polymer (5wt% Poloxamer 407). These formulations were effective against head lice with mortality ranging from 30 to 60%, being the most effective emulsions those containing linalool, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, thymol, eugenol, geraniol and nonyl alcohol which lead to mortalities above 50%. Discussion Since these systems showed good pediculicidal activity and high physicochemical stability, they could be a new route for the green fabrication of biocompatible and biosustainable insecticide formulations. PMID:28439460

  15. Fabrication of biomolecule copolymer hybrid nanovesicles as energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Dean; Chu, Benjamin; Lee, Hyeseung; Brooks, Evan K.; Kuo, Karen; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2005-12-01

    This work demonstrates the integration of the energy-transducing proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium halobium and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides into block copolymeric vesicles towards the demonstration of coupled protein functionality. An ABA triblock copolymer-based biomimetic membrane possessing UV-curable acrylate endgroups was synthesized to serve as a robust matrix for protein reconstitution. BR-functionalized polymers were shown to generate light-driven transmembrane pH gradients while pH gradient-induced electron release was observed from COX-functionalized polymers. Cooperative behaviour observed from composite membrane functionalized by both proteins revealed the generation of microamp-range currents with no applied voltage. As such, it has been shown that the fruition of technologies based upon bio-functionalizing abiotic materials may contribute to the realization of high power density devices inspired by nature.

  16. Asymmetric block copolymers for supramolecular templating of inorganic nanospace materials.

    PubMed

    Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Li, Yunqi; Kimura, Tatsuo; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-05-06

    This review focuses on polymeric micelles consisting of asymmetric block copolymers as designed templates for several inorganic nanospace materials with a wide variety of compositions. The presence of chemically distinct domains of asymmetric triblock and diblock copolymers provide self-assemblies with more diverse morphological and functional features than those constructed by EOn POm EOn type symmetric triblock copolymers, thereby affording well-designed nanospace materials. This strategy can produce unprecedented nanospace materials, which are very difficult to prepare through other conventional organic templating approaches. Here, the recent development on the synthesis of inorganic nanospace materials are mainly focused on, such as hollow spheres, tubes, and porous oxides, using asymmetric triblock copolymers.

  17. pH-Responsive chimaeric pepsomes based on asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-leucine)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) triblock copolymer for efficient loading and active intracellular delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peipei; Qiu, Min; Deng, Chao; Meng, Fenghua; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Ru; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-13

    pH-Responsive chimaeric polypeptide-based polymersomes (refer to as pepsomes) were designed and developed from asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-leucine)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) (PEG-PLeu-PGA, PEG is longer than PGA) triblock copolymers for efficient encapsulation and triggered intracellular delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl). PEG-PLeu-PGA was conveniently prepared by sequential ring-opening polymerization of l-leucine N-carboxyanhydride and γ-benzyl-l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride using PEG-NH2 as an initiator followed by deprotection. Pepsomes formed from PEG-PLeu-PGA had unimodal distribution and small sizes of 64-71 nm depending on PLeu block lengths. Interestingly, these chimaeric pepsomes while stable at pH 7.4 were quickly disrupted at pH 5.0, likely due to alternation of ionization state of the carboxylic groups in PGA that shifts PGA blocks from hydrophilic and random coil structure into hydrophobic and α-helical structure. DOX·HCl could be actively loaded into the watery core of pepsomes with a high loading efficiency. Remarkably, the in vitro release studies revealed that release of DOX·HCl was highly dependent on pH, in which about 24.0% and 75.7% of drug was released at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, at 37 °C in 24 h. MTT assays demonstrated that DOX·HCl-loaded pepsomes exhibited high antitumor activity, similar to free DOX·HCl in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, they were also potent toward drug-resistant MCF-7 cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Confocal microscopy studies showed that DOX·HCl-loaded pepsomes delivered and released drug into the cell nuclei of MCF-7/ADR cells in 4 h, while little DOX·HCl fluorescence was observed in MCF-7/ADR cells treated with free drug under otherwise the same conditions. These chimaeric pepsomes with facile synthesis, efficient drug loading, and pH-triggered drug release behavior are an attractive alternative to liposomes for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the controlled release lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Methods Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline + 0.02 % Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Results Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore- forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during four weeks. Conclusions These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins. PMID:23959854

  19. Directed self-assembly of high-chi block copolymer for nano fabrication of bit patterned media via solvent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shisheng; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Wan, Lei; Gao, He; Li, Xiao; Ruiz, Ricardo; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-10-01

    We report the formation of nanoimprint master templates that can be used for the fabrication of bit patterned media (BPM). The template was formed by directed self-assembly, with solvent annealing, of a symmetric ABA triblock copolymer to form perpendicularly oriented lamellae on chemical patterns. We used a high-χ block copolymer, poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) to achieve smaller feature sizes than are possible with polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). The work shows that triblock copolymers can provide a large processing window in terms of pitch commensurability. Using block-selective infiltration (atomic layer deposition with sequential long soaking/purge cycles), an alumina composite with high etch resistance was specifically incorporated into the polar and hydrophilic P2VP domains. Subsequently, the surface pattern was successfully transferred into underlying Si substrates by etching with a fluorine-containing plasma to create a nanoimprint master. The line/space pattern of the nanoimprint master met the BPM fabrication requirement of defectivity <10-3. For demonstration purposes, the nanoimprint master was used to imprint a replica pattern of photoresist on a quartz wafer.

  20. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics. PMID:28230046

  1. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E; Goldfeld, David J; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T; Prabhu, Vivek M; de Pablo, Juan J; Tirrell, Matthew V

    2017-02-23

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.

  2. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2017-02-01

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.

  3. The effect of RAFT-derived cationic block copolymer structure on gene silencing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Tracey M; Guerrero-Sanchez, Carlos; Graham, Janease E; Le, Tam; Muir, Benjamin W; Shi, Shuning; Tizard, Mark L V; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; McLean, Keith M; Thang, San H

    2012-10-01

    In this work a series of ABA tri-block copolymers was prepared from oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA(475)) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) to investigate the effect of polymer composition on cell viability, siRNA uptake, serum stability and gene silencing. Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used as the method of polymer synthesis as this technique allows the preparation of well-defined block copolymers with low polydispersity. Eight block copolymers were prepared by systematically varying the central cationic block (DMAEMA) length from 38 to 192 monomer units and the outer hydrophilic block (OEGMA(475)) from 7 to 69 units. The polymers were characterized using size exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR. Chinese Hamster Ovary-GFP and Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells were used to assay cell viability while the efficiency of block copolymers to complex with siRNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of the polymer-siRNA complexes to enter into cells and to silence the targeted reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was measured by using a CHO-GFP silencing assay. The length of the central cationic block appears to be the key structural parameter that has a significant effect on cell viability and gene silencing efficiency with block lengths of 110-120 monomer units being the optimum. The ABA block copolymer architecture is also critical with the outer hydrophilic blocks contributing to serum stability and overall efficiency of the polymer as a delivery system.

  4. Mixing a sol and a precipitate of block copolymers with different block ratios leads to an injectable hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Jiandong

    2009-06-08

    A facile method to obtain a thermoreversible physical hydrogel was found by simply mixing an aqueous sol of a block copolymer with a precipitate of a similar copolymer but with a different block ratio. Two ABA-type triblock copolymers poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-B-poly(ethylene glycol)-B-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) were synthesized. One sample in water was a sol in a broad temperature region, while the other in water was just a precipitate. The mixture of these two samples with a certain mix ratio underwent, however, a sol-to-gel-to-precipitate transition upon an increase of temperature. A dramatic tuning of the sol-gel transition temperature was conveniently achieved by merely varying mix ratio, even in the case of a similar molecular weight. Our study indicates that the balance of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity within this sort of amphiphilic copolymers is critical to the inverse thermal gelation in water resulting from aggregation of micelles. The availability of encapsulation and sustained release of lysozyme, a model protein by the thermogelling systems was confirmed. This "mix" method provides a very convenient approach to design injectable thermogelling biomaterials with a broad adjustable window, and the novel copolymer mixture platform is potentially used in drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  5. Morphologies in Sulfonated Styrenic Pentablock Copolymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hong; Bramson, Matt; Winey, Karen I.

    2010-03-01

    Membranes of pentablock and triblock copolymers consisting of poly(tert-butyl styrene) (TBS), hydrogenated polyisoprene (HI), and partially sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-styrene sulfonate) (SS) were studied using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TBS-HI-SS-HI-TBS pentablock and TBS-HI-SS triblock copolymer membranes exhibit anisotropic microphase separated morphologies. Because the pentablock and triblock copolymers can be expected to have complex morphologies, thermal annealing was conducted to promote well-defined morphologies. The annealed membranes exhibit stronger peaks and more high order reflections in SAXS patterns, as well as better defined microstructures in the TEM. Electron microcopy studies with various staining protocols are underway to establish the morphology of the pentablock copolymer membranes including the size and shape of the three microdomains (TBS, HI and SS). We gratefully acknowledge Kraton Polymers, Inc. for materials.

  6. pH-sensitive micelles self-assembled from multi-arm star triblock co-polymers poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) for controlled anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, You Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Li, Zhen Dong; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Can Yang; Guo, Xin Dong; Wang, Ju Fang; Zhang, Li Juan

    2013-08-01

    A series of amphiphilic 4- and 6-armed star triblock co-polymers poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA) were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization. The critical micelle concentration values of the star co-polymers in aqueous solution were extremely low (2.2-4.0mgl(-1)), depending on the architecture of the co-polymers. The self-assembled blank and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded three layer micelles were spherical in shape with an average size of 60-220nm determined by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The in vitro release behavior of DOX from the three layer micelles exhibited pH-dependent properties. The DOX release rate was significantly accelerated by decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, due to swelling of the micelles at lower pH values caused by the protonation of tertiary amine groups in DEAEMA in the middle layer of the micelles. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded micelles to HepG2 cells suggested that the 4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA micelles could provide equivalent or even enhanced anticancer activity and bioavailability of DOX and thus a lower dosage is sufficient for the same therapeutic efficacy. The results demonstrate that the pH-sensitive multilayer micelles could have great potential application in delivering hydrophobic anticancer drugs for improved cancer therapy.

  7. Biodegradability and biocompatibility of thermoreversible hydrogels formed from mixing a sol and a precipitate of block copolymers in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Jiandong

    2010-08-09

    This study examines in vitro and in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility of a thermogelling polymeric material, which we call a mixture hydrogel. The mixture contains two ABA-type triblock copolymers poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) with different block ratios, and one polymer is soluble in water, but the other is not. The aqueous solutions of some mixtures with appropriate mix ratios form hydrogels at the body temperature. The degradation of mixture hydrogels proceeded by hydrolysis of ester bonds followed by the erosion of gel in phosphate saline buffer solution at 37 degrees C for nearly one month. The mass loss and reduction of molecular weight were detected. The mix ratio was found to significantly influence the degradation profiles. The rapid in vivo gel formation was confirmed after subcutaneous injection of the thermogelling copolymer mixtures into Sprague-Dawley rats. The in vivo degradation was a bit accelerated than in vitro hydrolysis, and the persistence time of injected hydrogels in vivo was found to be tuned by mix ratio. MTT assay and histological observations were used to examine the copolymer mixtures. Both in vitro and in vivo results illustrate acceptable biocompatibility of our materials. As such, the thermosensitive hydrogel of copolymer mixture is confirmed to be a promising candidate of an injectable biomaterial for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  8. Calorimetric Study of Gradient Block-copolymers of Poly(butylacrylate) and Poly(methylmethacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzin, A. I.; Pyda, M.; Matyjaszewski, K.; Wunderlich, B.

    2002-03-01

    The miscibility and phase separation in the diblock (AB) and triblock (ABA) copolymers consisting of poly(butyl acrylate) (block B) and gradient copolymers of butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (block A) were investigated by means of conventional DSC as a function of the composition of the blocks A. In all copolymers studied, both blocks are presented by two separate glass transition temperatures. The low-temperature transition corresponds to devitrification of block B and is independent of composition and temperature is close to that of pure poly(butyl acrylate), while the higher transition corresponds to glass transition of the copolymeric block A, which decreases and broadens with increasing methylmethacrylate content in block A. The immiscible polymers are connected by chemical bonds, so that the mobilities of the phases influence each other. Shifts in the glass transition temperature and the broadening of the transitions as well as their asymmetry are discussed. --- Supported by NSF, Polymers Program, DMR-9703692, and the Div. of Mat. Sci., BES, DOE at ORNL, managed by UT-Batelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, under contract number DOE-AC05-00OR22725.

  9. A block copolymer approach to the pre-programmed organization of inorganic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2010-03-01

    Organized arrays of inorganic nanoparticles show electronic, optical, and magnetic properties that originate from the coupling of size- and shape-dependent properties of individual nanoparticles (NPs). Controllable and predictable organization of NPs in complex, hierarchical structures provides a route to the fabrication of new materials and functional devices. Significant progress has been achieved in the bottom-top organization of NPs arrays, which is based on their self-assembly, yet, currently, this approach remains largely empirical. We propose a block copolymer paradigm for the self-assembly of asymmetric inorganic nanorods. By using a striking analogy between amphiphilic ABA triblock copolymers and inorganic nanorods carrying distinct ligands at the edges and ling sides, we assembled the nanorods in structures with varying geometries. The self-assembly was tunable and reversible, and it was achieved solely by changing the solvent quality for the constituent ``blocks''. We mapped the self-assembly process by using phase-like diagrams and demonstrated control over the optical properties of the self-assembled structures. The proposed strategy provides a new route to the organization of nanoparticles by using the strategies that are established for the self-assembly of block copolymers.

  10. Self-assembly of the triblock copolymer 17R4 poly(propylene oxide)₁₄-poly(ethylene oxide)₂₄-poly(propylene oxide)₁₄ in D₂O.

    PubMed

    Kumi, Bryna C; Hammouda, Boualem; Greer, Sandra C

    2014-11-15

    Our recent investigation of the three regions of the phase diagram of 17R4 in D2O (Huff et al., 2011) has led us to study the copolymer structure in this system by small-angle neutron scattering, rheometry, and dynamic light scattering. In region I at low temperatures and copolymer concentrations (0-30°C, 0.1-0.2 mass fraction ω), the cloudy solution contains the copolymer in large clusters made of hydrophobic PPO-rich "knots" bridged by dissolved hydrophilic PEO chains. These clusters vanish in region I at the lower temperatures and concentrations (below 39°C and ω=0.01). In region I over long times (weeks) at 25°C, a white liquid/gel film forms at the air-D2O interface. In region II at temperatures above the micellization line (above about 35°C, at ω=0.22) the large clusters dissipate and unimers coexist with "flower micelles," where the PPO blocks are the centers of the micelles and the PEO blocks loop into the solvent. In region III at still higher temperatures (above about 40°C at ω=0.2), the solution separates into coexisting liquid phases, where the upper phase of higher copolymer concentration is in region II, and the lower phase is in region I. The concentrated upper phase may contain micelles so crowded as to form a network.

  11. Acyclic diene metathesis with a monomer from renewable resources: control of molecular weight and one-step preparation of block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anastasiya; Meier, Michael A R

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of a long-chain aliphatic alpha,omega-diene from plant oil derivatives and its subsequent polymerization through acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) is described. The ADMET bulk polymerization of the thus-obtained monomer, undecyl undecenoate, was investigated and optimized by applying ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts from Grubbs and Hoveyda-Grubbs, leading to high-molecular-weight polyesters. Moreover, by applying different amounts of methyl 10-undecenoate as a chain stopper in this ADMET step growth polymerization, the molecular weight of the resulting polyester could be tuned in a range from approximately 10 to 45 kDa. Finally, the application of a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate as the chain stopper led to the preparation of ABA triblock copolymers in a one-step, one-pot procedure.

  12. Amphiphilic block copolymer nanocontainers as bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, C.; Widmer, J.; Winterhalter, M.; Meier, W.

    2001-04-01

    Self-assembly of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer carrying polymerizable end-groups is used to prepare nanometer-sized vesicular structures in aqueous solution. The triblock copolymer shells of the vesicles can be regarded as a mimetic of biological membranes although they are 2 to 3 times thicker than a conventional lipid bilayer. Nevertheless, they can serve as a matrix for membrane-spanning proteins. Surprisingly, the proteins remain functional despite the extreme thickness of the membranes and that even after polymerization of the reactive triblock copolymers. This opens a new field to create mechanically stable protein/polymer hybrid membranes. As a representative example we functionalize (polymerized) triblock copolymer vesicles by reconstituting a channel-forming protein from the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. The protein used (OmpF) acts as a size-selective filter, which allows only for passage of molecules with a molecular weight below 400 g mol^{-1}. Therefore substrates may still have access to enzymes encapsulated in such protein/polymer hybrid nanocontainers. We demonstrate this using the enzyme β -lactamase which is able to hydrolyze the antibiotic ampicillin. In addition, a transmembrane voltage above a given threshold causes a reversible gating transition of OmpF. This can be used to reversibly activate or deactivate the resulting nanoreactors.

  13. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chainmore » aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Finally, our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.« less

  14. pH-triggered self-assembly of biocompatible histamine-functionalized triblock copolymers†

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lynd, Nathaniel A.; Zhang, Yuning; Zeng, Xianghui; Krogstad, Daniel V.; Paffen, Tim; Malkoch, Michael; Nyström, Andreas M.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Histamine functionalized poly(allyl glycidyl ether)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PAGE-PEO-PAGE) triblock copolymers represent a new class of physically cross-linked, pH-responsive hydrogels with significant potential for biomedical applications. These telechelic triblock copolymers exhibited abrupt and reversible hydrogelation above pH 7.0 due to a hudrophilic/hydrophobic transition of the histamine units to form a network of hydrophobic domains bridged by a hydrophilic PEO matrix. These hydrophobic domains displayed improved ordering upon increasing pH and self-assembled into a body centered cubic lattice at pH 8.0, while at lower concentrations formed well-defined micelles. Significantly, all materials were found to be non-toxic when evaluated on three different cell lines and suggests a range of medical and biomedical applications. PMID:25866546

  15. Investigation of DNA condensing properties of amphiphilic triblock cationic polymers by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lidgi-Guigui, Nathalie; Guis, Christine; Brissault, Blandine; Kichler, Antoine; Leborgne, Christian; Scherman, Daniel; Labdi, Sid; Curmi, Patrick A

    2010-11-16

    Introduction of nucleic acids into cells is an important biotechnology research field which also holds great promise for therapeutic applications. One of the key steps in the gene delivery process is compaction of DNA into nanometric particles. The study of DNA condensing properties of three linear cationic triblock copolymers poly(ethylenimine-b-propylene glycol-b-ethylenimine), namely, LPEI(50)-PPG(36)-LPEI(50), LPEI(19)-PPG(36)-LPEI(19), and LPEI(14)-PPG(68)-LPEI(14), indicates that proper DNA condensation is driven by both the charge and the size of the respective cationic hydrophilic linear polyethylenimine (LPEI) and neutral hydrophobic poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) parts. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the interactions of the triblock copolymers with plasmid DNA at the single molecule level and to enlighten the mechanism involved in DNA condensation.

  16. Mechanistic analysis of Zein nanoparticles/PLGA triblock in situ forming implants for glimepiride

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim Aly; Zidan, Ahmed Samir; Khayat, Maan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study aims at applying pharmaceutical nanotechnology and D-optimal fractional factorial design to screen and optimize the high-risk variables affecting the performance of a complex drug delivery system consisting of glimepiride–Zein nanoparticles and inclusion of the optimized formula with thermoresponsive triblock copolymers in in situ gel. Methods Sixteen nanoparticle formulations were prepared by liquid–liquid phase separation method according to the D-optimal fractional factorial design encompassing five variables at two levels. The responses investigated were glimepiride entrapment capacity (EC), particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release from the prepared nanoparticles. Furthermore, the feasibility of embedding the optimized Zein-based glimepiride nanoparticles within thermoresponsive triblock copolymers poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) in in situ gel was evaluated for controlling glimepiride release rate. Results Through the systematic optimization phase, improvement of glimepiride EC of 33.6%, nanoparticle size of 120.9 nm with a skewness value of 0.2, zeta potential of 11.1 mV, and sustained release features of 3.3% and 17.3% drug released after 2 and 24 hours, respectively, were obtained. These desirability functions were obtained at Zein and glimepiride loadings of 50 and 75 mg, respectively, utilizing didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as a stabilizer at 0.1% and 90% ethanol as a common solvent. Moreover, incorporating this optimized formulation in triblock copolymers-based in situ gel demonstrated pseudoplastic behavior with reduction of drug release rate as the concentration of polymer increased. Conclusion This approach to control the release of glimepiride using Zein nanoparticles/triblock copolymers-based in situ gel forming intramuscular implants could be useful for improving diabetes treatment effectiveness. PMID:26893561

  17. Mechanistic analysis of Zein nanoparticles/PLGA triblock in situ forming implants for glimepiride.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim Aly; Zidan, Ahmed Samir; Khayat, Maan

    2016-01-01

    The study aims at applying pharmaceutical nanotechnology and D-optimal fractional factorial design to screen and optimize the high-risk variables affecting the performance of a complex drug delivery system consisting of glimepiride-Zein nanoparticles and inclusion of the optimized formula with thermoresponsive triblock copolymers in in situ gel. Sixteen nanoparticle formulations were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation method according to the D-optimal fractional factorial design encompassing five variables at two levels. The responses investigated were glimepiride entrapment capacity (EC), particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release from the prepared nanoparticles. Furthermore, the feasibility of embedding the optimized Zein-based glimepiride nanoparticles within thermoresponsive triblock copolymers poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) in in situ gel was evaluated for controlling glimepiride release rate. Through the systematic optimization phase, improvement of glimepiride EC of 33.6%, nanoparticle size of 120.9 nm with a skewness value of 0.2, zeta potential of 11.1 mV, and sustained release features of 3.3% and 17.3% drug released after 2 and 24 hours, respectively, were obtained. These desirability functions were obtained at Zein and glimepiride loadings of 50 and 75 mg, respectively, utilizing didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as a stabilizer at 0.1% and 90% ethanol as a common solvent. Moreover, incorporating this optimized formulation in triblock copolymers-based in situ gel demonstrated pseudoplastic behavior with reduction of drug release rate as the concentration of polymer increased. This approach to control the release of glimepiride using Zein nanoparticles/triblock copolymers-based in situ gel forming intramuscular implants could be useful for improving diabetes treatment effectiveness.

  18. Orthogonal self-assembly in folding block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Nobuhiko; Gillissen, Martijn A J; Li, Yuanchao; Sheiko, Sergei S; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2013-01-09

    We herein report the synthesis and characterization of ABA triblock copolymers that contain two complementary association motifs and fold into single-chain polymeric nanoparticles (SCPNs) via orthogonal self-assembly. The copolymers were prepared using atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and possess different pendant functional groups in the A and B blocks (alcohols in the A block and acetylenes in the B block). After postfunctionalization, the A block contains o-nitrobenzyl-protected 2-ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) moieties and the B block benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moieties. While the protected UPy groups dimerize after photoinduced deprotection of the o-nitrobenzyl group, the BTA moieties self-assemble into helical aggregates when temperature is reduced. In a two-step thermal/photoirradiation treatment under dilute conditions, the ABA block copolymer forms both BTA-based helical aggregates and UPy dimers intramolecularly. The sequential association of the two self-assembling motifs results in single-chain folding of the polymer, affording nanometer-sized particles with a compartmentalized interior. Variable-temperature NMR studies showed that the BTA and UPy self-assembly steps take place orthogonally (i.e., without mutual interference) in dilute solution. In addition, monitoring of the intramolecular self-assembly of BTA moieties into helical aggregates by circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the stability of the aggregates is almost independent of UPy dimerization. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis provided evidence of significant reductions in the hydrodynamic volume and radius of gyration, respectively, after photoinduced deprotection of the UPy groups; a 30-60% reduction in the size of the polymer chains was observed using SEC in CHCl(3). Molecular imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) corroborated significant contraction of individual polymer chains due to intramolecular association of the

  19. Bioinspired catecholic copolymers for antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    We report here a synthetic approach to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate)-polydopamine diblock (PMMA-PDA) and triblock (PDA-PMMA-PDA) copolymers combining mussel-inspired catecholic oxidative chemistry and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These copolymers display very good solubility in a range of organic solvents and also a broad band photo absorbance that increases with increasing PDA content in the copolymer. Spin-cast thin films of the copolymer were stable in water and showed a sharp reduction (by up to 50%) in protein adsorption compared to those of neat PMMA. Also the peak decomposition temperature of the copolymers was up to 43°C higher than neat PMMA. The enhanced solvent processability, thermal stability and low protein adsorption characteristics of this copolymer makes it attractive for variety of applications including antifouling coatings on large surfaces such as ship hulls, buoys, and wave energy converters.

  20. Asymmetric Membranes from Two Chemically Distinct Triblock Terpolymers Blended during Standard Membrane Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuk Mun; Srinivasan, Divya; Vaidya, Parth; Gu, Yibei; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    Deviating from the traditional formation of block copolymer derived isoporous membranes from one block copolymer chemistry, here asymmetric membranes with isoporous surface structure are derived from two chemically distinct block copolymers blended during standard membrane fabrication. As a first proof of principle, the fabrication of asymmetric membranes is reported, which are blended from two chemically distinct triblock terpolymers, poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-(4-vinyl)pyridine) (ISV) and poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (ISA), differing in the pH-responsive hydrophilic segment. Using block copolymer self-assembly and nonsolvent induced phase separation process, pure and blended membranes are prepared by varying weight ratios of ISV to ISA. Pure and blended membranes exhibit a thin, selective layer of pores above a macroporous substructure. Observed permeabilities at varying pH values of blended membranes depend on relative triblock terpolymer composition. These results open a new direction for membrane fabrication through the use of mixtures of chemically distinct block copolymers enabling the tailoring of membrane surface chemistries and functionalities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  2. Contribution of ABA UDP-glucosyltransferases in coordination of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism for ABA homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-04-29

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in numerous aspects of plant growth and environmental stress responses. Endogenous ABA levels are regulated by a balance between its biosynthetic and catabolic activities. This balance may occur at multiple levels and includes the expression of genes involved in these processes. ABA UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT), the major player in the ABA conjugation pathway, has been shown to have a marginal effect on free ABA levels. However, recent studies provide new insight into the importance of the ABA conjugation pathway in contributing to the control of ABA homeostasis. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutant analyses have revealed that UGT71B6, an ABA UGT, and its 2 closely related homologs, UGT71B7 and UGT71B8, play a crucial role in ABA homeostasis and in adaptation to various abiotic stresses.

  3. Contribution of ABA UDP-glucosyltransferases in coordination of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism for ABA homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in numerous aspects of plant growth and environmental stress responses. Endogenous ABA levels are regulated by a balance between its biosynthetic and catabolic activities. This balance may occur at multiple levels and includes the expression of genes involved in these processes. ABA UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT), the major player in the ABA conjugation pathway, has been shown to have a marginal effect on free ABA levels. However, recent studies provide new insight into the importance of the ABA conjugation pathway in contributing to the control of ABA homeostasis. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutant analyses have revealed that UGT71B6, an ABA UGT, and its 2 closely related homologs, UGT71B7 and UGT71B8, play a crucial role in ABA homeostasis and in adaptation to various abiotic stresses.

  4. Melt Rheology of Block Copolymers in Relation to Melt Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-23

    According to their theory, (A-B-A) type block copolymer melts are expected to exhibit a network response including a yield stress at very low shear rates ...observed the following very unusual flow behavior with SBS block copolymers . 1. The viscosities of SBS block copolymers at low shear rates go...unusual flow properties. One can expect from the probable two-phase structure in the melt that block copolymer melts would exhibit strong elastic

  5. Triblock copolyampholytes from 5-(N,N-dimethyl amino)isoprene styrene, and methacrylic acid: Synthesis and solution properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieringer, R.; Abetz, V.; Müller, A. H. E.

    ABC triblock copolymers of the type poly[5-(N,N-dimethyl amino)isoprene]-block-polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (AiST) were synthesized and hydrolyzed to yield poly[5-(N,N-dimethyl amino)isoprene]-block-polystyrene-block-poly(methacrylic acid) (AiSA) triblock copolyampholytes. Due to a complex solubility behavior the solution properties of these materials had to be investigated in THF/water solvent mixtures. Potentiometric titrations of AiSA triblock copolyampholytes showed two inflection points with the A block being deprotonated prior to the Ai hydrochloride block thus forming a polyzwitterion at the isoelectric point (iep). The aggregation behavior was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and freeze-fracture/transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Large vesicular structures with almost pH-independent radii were observed.

  6. Blending of Diblocks and Triblocks with identical hydrophilic block for multicompartment and multigeometry nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zheng; Zhu, Jiahua; Chen, Yingchao; Zhang, Shiyi; Pochan, Darrin; Wooley, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Unique micellar morphologies, such as toroids, disks, and helices, have been obtained from a single triblock copolymer PAA-PMA-PS poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(methyl acrylate)-b-poly(styrene) (PAA-PMA-PS) through a self-assembly process in dilute water/THF(tetrahydrofuran) solvent mixtures in the presense of organic multiamine molecules. Aiming to better understand their formation and explore novel structures, diblock copolymers, e.g. PAA-PMA and PAA-PS, were mixed with PAA-PMA-PS to co-assemble at desired solution conditions to produce known nanostructures (e.g. toroid, disk, helix fomations). By taking advantage of the kinetic pathway of assembly and mulitamine-PAA complexation, the additional diblock copolymers can be trapped in the same micelle with the triblock PAA-PMA-PS. Interesting transitions were found in toroid/disk/helix fomations by changing the amount of the added diblock copolymers. The morphologies of the blended nanoparticles was characterized with cryogenic and conventional transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small angle neutron scattering.

  7. Mechanically Tunable, Readily Processable Ion Gels by Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Timothy P; Ueki, Takeshi

    2016-10-05

    Room temperature ionic liquids are of great interest for many advanced applications, due to the combination of attractive physical properties with essentially unlimited tunability of chemical structure. High chemical and thermal stability, favorable ionic conductivity, and complete nonvolatility are just some of the most important physical characteristics that make ionic liquids promising candidates for emerging technologies. Examples include separation membranes, actuators, polymer gel electrolytes, supercapacitors, ion batteries, fuel cell membranes, sensors, printable plastic electronics, and flexible displays. However, in these and other applications, it is essential to solidify the ionic liquid, while retaining the liquid state properties of interest. A broadly applicable solidification strategy relies on gelation by addition of suitable triblock copolymers with the ABA architecture, producing ion gels or ionogels. In this paradigm, the A end blocks are immiscible with the ionic liquid, and consequently self-assemble into micellar cores, while some fraction of the well-solvated B midblocks bridge between micelles, forming a percolating network. The chemical structures of the A and B repeat units, the molar mass of the blocks, and the concentration of the copolymer in the ionic liquid are all independently tunable to attain desired property combinations. In particular, the modulus of the resulting ion gel can be readily varied between 100 Pa and 1 MPa, with little sacrifice of the transport properties of the ionic liquid, such as ionic conductivity or gas diffusivity. Suitable A blocks can impart thermoreversible gelation (with solidification either on heating or cooling) or even photoreversible gelation. By virtue of the nonvolatility of ionic liquids, a wide range of processing strategies can be employed directly to prepare ion gels in thin or thick film forms, including solvent casting, spin coating, aerosol jet printing, photopatterning, and transfer

  8. Defect trapping in ABC block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Laurent; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Court, Francois; Cloitre, Michel; Hashimoto, Takeji; Leibler, Ludwik

    2004-03-01

    Equilibrium morphologies in molten ABC triblock terpolymers are much more difficult to attain than in AB diblocks. In practice, it is important to know whether and how synthesis conditions influence the morphology and properties of copolymer materials. It is also relevant to understand the mechanisms of defect formation and annihilation. Indeed, a potential use of copolymers in new applications such as lithography highly depends on the ability to produce regular structures with no or few defects. We show that even the simplest lamellar structures exhibit high sensitivity to preparation conditions and that strongly trapped structural defects inherent to ABC triblock architecture cannot be removed by long annealing. Annealing can induce a transition from a lamellar structure in which A and C blocks are mixed to a lamellar structure where A, B and C are segregated. We propose reorganization mechanisms that are at the origin of some characteristic defects.

  9. ABA and ABC type thermoplastic elastomer toughening of epoxy matrices and its effect on carbon fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchiaya, Gomatheeshwar

    Epoxy-matrices have high modulus, strength, excellent creep resistance, but lacks ductility. One approach to improve the mechanical toughness is the addition of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). The TPEs investigated here are triblock copolymers of styrene-butadiene-methyl methacrylate (SBM) and methylmethacrylate-butylacrylate-methylmethacrylate (MAM) of the ABC and ABA type, respectively. The effect of concentration (1-12.5 wt %) of these TPEs on a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy cured with metaphenylenediamine (mPDA), has been investigated. The TPE-DGEBA epoxies were characterized by TGA, DMA, SEM and impact. The flexural modulus, flexural strength and thermal resistance remained unaffected up to 5 wt% loading of TPEs, and exhibited less than 10% decrease at higher weight percent. T g was unaffected for all concentrations. Fracture toughness was improved 250% and up to 375% (when non- stoichiometric amount of curing agent was used) with TPE addition to epoxy/mPDA matrix. A SBM(1phr)EPON system was chosen to be the matrix of choice for a fiber reinforced composite system with a 4wt% aromatic epoxy sizing on a AS4 (UV-treated) carbon fiber. The 0° and 90° flexural modulus and strength of a SBM modified system was compared with the neat and their fracture surfaces were analyzed. A 89% increase in flexural strength was observed in a 90° flexural test for the modified system when compared with the neat. Novel sizing agents were also developed to enhance interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and the fiber-matrix adhesion and their birefringence pattern were analyzed.

  10. Nonlinear Elasticity and Cavitation of a Triblock Copolymer Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Santanu; Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Zabet, Mahla; Mishra, Satish

    2015-03-01

    Polymer gels are subjected to large-strain deformation during their applications. The gel deformation at large-strain is non-linear and can often lead to failure of the material. Here, we report the large-strain deformation behavior of a physically cross-linked, swollen polymer gel, which displays unique strain-stiffening response at large-strain. Investigations were performed using large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) and custom developed cavitation rheology techniques. Gent constitutive model, which considers finite extensibility of midblock, was fitted with the LAOS data, therefore, linking the estimated parameters from LAOS analysis to the structure of the gel. Cavitation experiments were conducted as a function of temperature. Both analytical method and finite-element based modeling have been implemented to capture the pressure response in cavitation experiments. Our results provide a critical understanding of gel failure mechanism at large-strain.

  11. Molecular Design of Sulfonated Triblock Copolymer Permselective Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-03

    electronegativity of the sulfonate anion by CF bonds (put forward by Dr. Schneider, RDECOM, Natick, personal communication) we also modeled the interaction...molecules that form hydrogen bonds to the sulfonate group [2, 10] is somewhat higher in sPS solution. The geometrical analisys for hydrogen bonding

  12. Temperature effects on the stability of gold nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic thermoresponsive copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamies, Ramón; Zhu, Kaizheng; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena; Nyström, Bo

    2016-11-01

    New hybrid complexes composed by a thermoresponsive copolymer and gold nanoparticles (Rh = 22 nm) have been characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-visible spectroscopy. A cationic thermoresponsive triblock copolymer, methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly( N-isopropylacrylamide)- block-poly((3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride), abbreviated as MPEG- b-PNIPAAM- b-PN(+), has been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). We have evaluated the thermal response at low concentrations of this triblock copolymer in bulk solution and the effect of concentration on the interaction between this thermosensitive copolymer and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form new hybrid complexes (60-1000 nm) at different temperatures. The thermosensitive nature of the copolymer causes both aggregation and contraction of the aggregates at elevated temperatures. The AuNPs were found to be separately embedded in the hybrid complexes. Interestingly, the AuNPs prevent macroscopic phase separation of the system at high temperatures.

  13. A strategy to explore stable and metastable ordered phases of block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiquan; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Pingwen; Shi, An-Chang

    2013-05-02

    Block copolymers with their rich phase behavior and ordering transitions have become a paradigm for the study of structured soft materials. A major challenge in the study of the phase behavior of block copolymers is to obtain different stable and metastable phases of the system. A strategy to discover complex ordered phases of block copolymers within the self-consistent field theory framework is developed by a combination of fast algorithms and novel initialization procedures. This strategy allows the generation of a large number of candidate structures, which can then be used to construct phase diagrams. Application of the strategy is illustrated using ABC star triblock copolymers as an example. A large number of candidate structures, including many three-dimensionally ordered phases, of the system are obtained and categorized. A phase diagram is constructed for symmetrically interacting ABC star triblock copolymers.

  14. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear A C B triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A . This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the A A B copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear A B diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the A A B copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer.

  15. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-10

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear ACB triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A. This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the AAB copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear AB diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the AAB copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer.

  16. Tricontinuous Cubic Structures in ABC/A/C Copolymer and Homopolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotera, Tomonari

    2002-10-01

    Using the Monte Carlo lattice-simulation technique, we present numerical evidence of the formation of gyroid and nongyroid tricontinuous cubic phases in high polymeric systems of ABC/A/C triblock copolymer and homopolymer blends. By increasing the volume fraction of homopolymer, a remarkable phase sequence G (gyroid) --> D (diamond) --> P (primitive) is observed, which is common to certain surfactant systems. Our results indicate that the ABC triblock copolymer system with blending homopolymers may be a zoo of cubic phases, suitable for comparative studies of these phases.

  17. Fluorine-Containing ABC Linear Triblock Terpolymers: Synthesis and Self-assembly in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lihong; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P; Pickel, Joseph M; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Mays, Jimmy; Zhang, Shanju; Bucknall, David G.; Hong, Kunlun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a fluorine-containing monomer, 2-fluroroethyl methacrylate (2FEMA) was used to synthesize the linear triblock terpolymer poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBMA-PMMA-P2FEMA). A kinetic study of the homopolymerization of 2FEMA by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization showed that it demonstrates living character and produces well defined polymers with reasonably narrow polydispersities (~1.30). Triblock terpolymers were prepared sequentially using a purified Macro-CTA at 70 oC, resulting in final terpolymers with high Dp for each block (>150) and with polydispersities between 1.6 and 2.1. The structure and molecular weights of the resultant PnBMA-PMMA-P2FEMA triblock terpolymers were characterized via 1H NMR, 19F NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Self-assembly of these polymers was carried out in a selective solvent and the micellar aggregates (MAs) thereby formed were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was confirmed from SEM that these copolymers could directly self-organize into large compound micelles in tetrahydrofuran/methanol with different diameters, depending on polymer composition.

  18. ABA signal in rice under stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ever since its discovery, abscisic acid (ABA) has been intensively studied due to its versatile functions in plant developmental and physiological processes. Many signaling details of ABA have been well elucidated and reviewed. The identification of ABA receptors is a great breakthrough in the field of ABA study, whereas the discovery of ABA transporter has changed our concept that ABA is delivered solely by passive transport. The intensity of ABA signaling pathway is well known to be controlled by multi-regulators. Nonetheless, the interaction and coordination among ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, conjugation and transportation are seldom discussed. Here, we summarize the biological functions of ABA in response to different stresses, especially the roles of ABA in plant defense to pathogen attack, and discuss the possible relationships of these determinants in controlling the specificity and intensity of ABA signaling pathway in the rice. PMID:24764501

  19. Seed dormancy and ABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María; Matilla-Vázquez, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The seed is an important organ in higher plants, it is an important organ for plant survival and species dispersion. The transition between seed dormancy and germination represents a critical stage in the plant life cycle and it is an important ecological and commercial trait. A dynamic balance of synthesis and catabolism of two antagonistic hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and giberellins (GAs), controls the equilibrium between seed dormancy and germination. Embryonic ABA plays a central role in induction and maintenance of seed dormancy and also inhibits the transition from embryonic to germination growth. Therefore, the ABA metabolism must be highly regulated at both temporal and spatial levels during phase of dessication tolerance. On the other hand, the ABA levels do not depend exclusively on the seeds because sometimes it becomes a strong sink and imports it from the roots and rhizosphere through the xylem and/or phloem. These events are discussed in depth here. Likewise, the role of some recently characterized genes belonging to seeds of woody species and related to ABA signaling are also included. Finally, although four possible ABA receptors have been reported, not much is known about how they mediate ABA signaling transduction. However, new publications seem to show that almost all these receptors lack several properties to consider them as such. PMID:19875942

  20. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  1. Bicomponent Block Copolymers Derived from One or More Random Copolymers as an Alternative Route to Controllable Phase Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Arman R; Ryan, Justin J; Satkowski, Michael M; Lee, Byeongdu; Smith, Steven D; Spontak, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Block copolymers have been extensively studied due to their ability to spontaneously self-organize into a wide variety of morphologies that are valuable in energy-, medical-, and conservation-related (nano)technologies. While the phase behavior of bicomponent diblock and triblock copolymers is conventionally governed by temperature and individual block masses, it is demonstrated here that their phase behavior can alternatively be controlled through the use of blocks with random monomer sequencing. Block random copolymers (BRCs), i.e., diblock copolymers wherein one or both blocks are a random copolymer comprised of A and B repeat units, have been synthesized, and their phase behavior, expressed in terms of the order-disorder transition (ODT), has been investigated. The results establish that, depending on the block composition contrast and molecular weight, BRCs can microphase-separate. We also report that large variation in incompatibility can be generated at relatively constant molecular weight and temperature with these new soft materials. This sequence-controlled synthetic strategy is extended to thermoplastic elastomeric triblock copolymers differing in chemistry and possessing a random-copolymer midblock. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Rational design of ABC triblock terpolymer solution nanostructures with controlled patch morphology

    PubMed Central

    Löbling, Tina I.; Borisov, Oleg; Haataja, Johannes S.; Ikkala, Olli; Gröschel, André H.; Müller, Axel H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymers self-assemble into a variety of nanostructures that are relevant for science and technology. While the assembly of diblock copolymers is largely understood, predicting the solution assembly of triblock terpolymers remains challenging due to complex interplay of block/block and block/solvent interactions. Here we provide guidelines for the self-assembly of linear ABC triblock terpolymers into a large variety of multicompartment nanostructures with C corona and A/B cores. The ratio of block lengths NC/NA thereby controls micelle geometry to spheres, cylinders, bilayer sheets and vesicles. The insoluble blocks then microphase separate to core A and surface patch B, where NB controls the patch morphology to spherical, cylindrical, bicontinuous and lamellar. The independent control over both parameters allows constructing combinatorial libraries of unprecedented solution nanostructures, including spheres-on-cylinders/sheets/vesicles, cylinders-on-sheets/vesicles, and sheets/vesicles with bicontinuous or lamellar membrane morphology (patchy polymersomes). The derived parameters provide a logical toolbox towards complex self-assemblies for soft matter nanotechnologies. PMID:27352897

  3. Rational design of ABC triblock terpolymer solution nanostructures with controlled patch morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löbling, Tina I.; Borisov, Oleg; Haataja, Johannes S.; Ikkala, Olli; Gröschel, André H.; Müller, Axel H. E.

    2016-06-01

    Block copolymers self-assemble into a variety of nanostructures that are relevant for science and technology. While the assembly of diblock copolymers is largely understood, predicting the solution assembly of triblock terpolymers remains challenging due to complex interplay of block/block and block/solvent interactions. Here we provide guidelines for the self-assembly of linear ABC triblock terpolymers into a large variety of multicompartment nanostructures with C corona and A/B cores. The ratio of block lengths NC/NA thereby controls micelle geometry to spheres, cylinders, bilayer sheets and vesicles. The insoluble blocks then microphase separate to core A and surface patch B, where NB controls the patch morphology to spherical, cylindrical, bicontinuous and lamellar. The independent control over both parameters allows constructing combinatorial libraries of unprecedented solution nanostructures, including spheres-on-cylinders/sheets/vesicles, cylinders-on-sheets/vesicles, and sheets/vesicles with bicontinuous or lamellar membrane morphology (patchy polymersomes). The derived parameters provide a logical toolbox towards complex self-assemblies for soft matter nanotechnologies.

  4. Light-emitting block copolymers composition, process and use

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2006-11-14

    Generally, and in one form, the present invention is a composition of light-emitting block copolymer. In another form, the present invention is a process producing a light-emitting block copolymers that intends polymerizing a first di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound in the presence of an anionic initiator and a base to form a polymer and contacting a second di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound with the polymer to form a homopolymer or block copolymer wherein the block copolymer is a diblock, triblock, or star polymer. In yet another form, the present invention is an electroluminescent device comprising a light-emitting block copolymer, wherein the electroluminescent device is to be used in the manufacturing of optical and electrical devices.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization (Molecular-Morphological) and Theoretical Morphology Predictions of Poly(cyclohexadiene) Containing Linear Triblock Terpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Dadmun, Mark D; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Zafeiropoulos, N.E.; Misichoronis, K.; Rangou, S.; Ashcraft, E.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis via anionic polymerization of six linear triblock terpolymers with various sequences of blocks such as PS (polystyrene), PB (polybutadiene), PI (polyisoprene) and PCHD (poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene)) is reported. The synthesis of the terpolymers was accomplished by the use of anionic polymerization with high vacuum techniques and sequential monomer addition. Molecular characterization of the samples was performed via size exclusion chromatography and membrane osmometry to measure polydispersity indices and the number-average molecular weights, respectively. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was adopted to verify the type of microstructure for the polydienes as well as to calculate the molar composition. Structural characterization was performed via transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering and several morphologies were observed including one which has not been reported previously. Real-space self-consistent field theory (SCFT) without a priori knowledge about the symmetry of the periodic structures was used to elucidate the thermodynamics of the synthesized triblock copolymers.

  6. Mixing thermodynamics of block-random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, Bryan Scott

    regular mixing prediction, XA-ArB = fB2 XA-B, thereby confirming the utility of this simple relationship in designing block copolymers with targeted interaction strengths using only these two common monomers. Thus, this fB 2 scaling is a useful "design rule" for tuning the interblock segregation strength in A-ArB (and B-ArB) block-random copolymers using styrene and isoprene as constituents. The reduction in XA-ArB over X A-B permits the synthesis of polymers having much larger M and domain spacing d while maintaining a thermally-accessible ODT; measured domain spacings are found to closely follow the expected scaling, d ~ X1/6M2/3. The decoupling of the order-disorder transition temperature from polymer molecular weight---and thereby interdomain spacing---provides an additional means to alter the polymer structure-property dynamic through synthesis, in addition to more common molecular variations, such as changes in block sequence, length of the blocks, and number of blocks. A similar examination of the interaction energy densities between E (hydrogenated Bd) and both hydrogenated derivatives of random copolymers of styrene and isoprene (SrhI and VCHrhI) found large positive deviations from regular mixing in the E-SrhI system and smaller but significant negative deviations in the E-VCHrhI system. Nevertheless, a ternary mixing model ("copolymer equation"), using independently-determined values of the three component interaction energy densities, is found to provide a good representation of the experimental interaction energies. Random copolymer blocks are also incorporated into linear A-B-C triblock copolymers, and the extent of block microphase separation in nonfrustrated E-hI-ArhI, where A is either S or VCH, triblock copolymers forming a "three-domain, four-layer" lamellar morphology is examined. Specifically, the extent of separation between the B and C blocks is probed, for the case where the B and C blocks are sufficiently compatible that they would not be

  7. The ABA receptors -- we report you decide.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Peter; Creelman, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated in a variety of physiological responses ranging from seed dormancy to stomatal conductance. Recently, three groups have reported the molecular identification of three disparate ABA receptors. Unlike the identification of other hormone receptors, in these three cases high affinity binding to ABA rather than the isolation of ABA insensitive mutants led to these receptor genes. Interestingly, two of the receptors encode genes involved in floral timing and chlorophyll biosynthesis, which are not considered traditional ABA responses. And the third receptor has been clouded in issues of its molecular identity. To clearly determine the roles of these genes in ABA perception it will require placing of these ABA-binding proteins into the rich ABA physiological context that has built up over the years.

  8. Junction-Controlled Elasticity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Acrylic Copolymer Gels and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Schoch, Andrew B.; Shull, Kenneth R.; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2008-08-26

    Oscillatory shear rheometry is used to study the mechanical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in solutions of acrylic diblock or triblock copolymers in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Thermal transitions in the copolymer solutions provide a route for the easy processing of these composite materials, with excellent dispersion of the nanotubes as verified by near-infrared photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanotube dispersions form elastic networks with properties that are controlled by the junction points between nanotubes, featuring a temperature-dependent elastic response that is controlled by the dynamic properties of the matrix copolymer solution. The data are consistent with the formation of micelle-like aggregates around the nanotubes. At low temperatures the core-forming poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks are glassy, and the overall mechanical response of the composite does not evolve with time. At higher temperatures the enhanced mobility of the core-forming blocks enables the junctions to achieve more intimate nanotube-nanotube contact, and the composite modulus increases with time. These aging effects are observed in both diblock and triblock copolymer solutions but are partially reversed in the triblock solutions by cooling through the gel transition of the triblock copolymer. This result is attributed to the generation of internal stresses during gelation and the ability of these stresses to break or weaken the nanotube junctions.

  9. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Coatings for Biofouling Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    we hoped. Inhibition, but not highly tunable by change of MW ratio The inhibition of diatoms by the diblocks was not significant (See figure 13). M...OH O a. £ o EC o a. in £ 0 Cu Figure 13 - The initial attachment density of the diatom Navicula on PS-b-PMMA coatings after gentle...washing on glass-nylon supports. Diatom Settlement: no effect of diblock copolymer We did have some success with triblocks, and that work is on-going. We

  10. High Strength/High Modulus Aromatic Heterocyclic ABA Block Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    block for reinforcement and a flexible coil (A) block as the matrix. Poly [(benzo [1, 2d: 4 , 5d’] bisthiazole- 2 , 6-diyl)-l, 4 -phenylene] (PBT) was...the rigid-rod reinforcement. This has restricted the processing of molecular composites from solutions with rather low concentration ( 2 - 4 wt. percent...dimensional stability. 2 AFWAL-TR-87-4072 SECTION II RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Poly[(benzo[1,2d:4,5d’] bisthiazole- 2 , 6-diyl)-1, 4 -phenylene (PBT)6 was the rigid

  11. Tailoring Membrane Surface Properties and Ultrafiltration Performances via the Self-Assembly of Polyethylene Glycol-block-Polysulfone-block-Polyethylene Glycol Block Copolymer upon Thermal and Solvent Annealing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Tao; Hu, Yunxia

    2017-09-13

    Recently, ultrafiltration (UF) membranes have faced great challenges including the fine control of membrane surfaces for high filtration performances and antifouling properties in treating complex solution systems. Here, a particular type of amphiphilic block copolymer polyethylene glycol-block-polysulfone-block-polyethylene glycol (PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG) was synthesized through one-pot step-growth polymerization with mPEG [monomethylpoly(ethylene glycol)] as two ends to achieve the mobility of hydrophilic polymer chains. Without any other polymers or additives involved, the PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymer UF membrane was fabricated through the non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method. The surface properties and filtration performances of UF membranes were tailored through the self-assembly of PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymers combining the thermal and solvent annealing treatments in water at 90 °C for 16 h. The annealed PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymer membrane significantly enhanced its water flux resulting from the increased mean pore size with the improved porosity, as well as the decreased skin layer thickness, upon annealing. More importantly, the PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymer membrane surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic upon annealing with the PEG enrichment on the surface, and exhibited improved protein antifouling performances. Our research opens a new avenue to tailor the membrane structure and surface properties by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers upon thermal and solvent annealing treatments.

  12. Abscisic (ABA)-Aldehyde Is a Precursor to, and 1′,4′-trans-ABA-Diol a Catabolite of, ABA in Apple 1

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Christopher D.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous 18O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of [18O]ABA with the label incorporated in the 1′-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of 18O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1′-4′-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from 18O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of 18O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. 18O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of 18O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of 18O from the side chain of [18O]ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde → ABAABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to β-d-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed. PMID:16667601

  13. On the Use of Self-Assembling Block Copolymers to Toughen A Model Epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yilin

    Block copolymers have been receiving considerable attention in toughening epoxy due to their ability to form a wide variety of nanostructures. This study focuses on using both triblock and diblock copolymers to improve the fracture toughness of an aromatic-amine cured epoxy system. The curing system consisted of 1,3- phenylenediamine (mPDA) as curing agent and aniline as a chain extender. Three triblock copolymers and three diblock copolymers were incorporated in the same lightly crosslinked model epoxy system, which was chosen to mimic an underfill material in flip-chip packaging for the microelectronics industry. In this research, rubber particles were formed in situ using self-assembling block copolymers. Mechanical, thermal and microscopic studies were conducted with the main goal to study the relationship between the block parameters and the final morphologies and their effects on static and dynamic mechanical properties of the toughened resin, especially fracture toughness. In these block-copolymer-modified epoxies, spherical micelles and wormlike micelles were obtained by varying block lengths, molecular weight, polarities and compositions. It was found that miscibility of the epoxy-miscible block played a crucial role in the formation of different types of morphologies. At a low loading level, diblock copolymers were able to toughen the model epoxy as effectively as triblock copolymers. The fracture toughness was improved to almost three times with respect to that of the neat resin with addition of 10 phr AM*-27. At the same time, other mechanical properties, such as yield strength and modulus, were well retained. Incorporation of block copolymers did not have a significant effect on glass transition temperature but caused an increase in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the modified epoxy. Particle cavitation and matrix void growth were proved to be the toughening mechanisms for SBM-Modified epoxies. However, these typical toughening mechanisms for

  14. ABA Receptors: Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaohan; Weston, David; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key plant stress hormone. Consistent with the earlier studies in support of the presence of both membrane- and cytoplasm-localized ABA receptors, recent studies have identified multiple ABA receptors located in various subcellular locations. These include a chloroplast envelope-localized receptor (the H subunit of Chloroplast Mg2+-chelatase/ABA Receptor), two plasma membrane-localized receptors (G-protein Coupled Receptor 2 and GPCR-type G proteins), and one cytosol/nucleus-localized Pyrabactin Resistant (PYR)/PYR-Like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR). Although the downstream molecular events for most of the identified ABA receptors are currently unknown, one of them, PYR/PYL/RACR was found to directly bind and regulate the activity of a long-known central regulator of ABA signaling, the A-group protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Together with the Sucrose Non-fermentation Kinase Subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) protein kinases, a central signaling complex (ABA-PYR-PP2Cs-SnRK2s) that is responsible for ABA signal perception and transduction is supported by abundant genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural evidence. The identification of multiple ABA receptors has advanced our understanding of ABA signal perception and transduction while adding an extra layer of complexity.

  15. ABA-alcohol is an intermediate in abscisic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been established that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to ABA. The ABA-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are blocked in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol. {sup 18}O-Labeling studies of ABA in flacca and sitiens show that these mutants synthesize a large percentage of ({sup 18}O)ABA which contains two {sup 18}O atoms in the carboxyl group. Furthermore, the mutants synthesize much greater amounts of trans-ABA-glucose ester (t-ABA-GE) compared with the wild type, and this ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE is also double labeled in the carboxyl group. Our interpretation of these data is that the {sup 18}O in ABA-aldehyde is trapped in the side chain by reduction to ({sup 18}O)ABA-alcohol, followed by isomerization to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-alcohol and oxidation with {sup 18}O{sub 2} to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA. The ({sup 18}O)t-ABA is then rapidly converted to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE. Because ({sup 18}O)ABA doubly labeled in the carboxyl group has been observed in small amounts in labeling experiments with several species, and various species have been shown to convert ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol and t-ABA-alcohol, we propose that ABA-alcohol is an ABA intermediate in a shunt pathway.

  16. Micellar Packing in Aqueous Solutions of As-Received and Pure Pluronic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Park, Han Jin

    2013-03-01

    Pluronic block copolymers (Pluronics) are produced on a commercial scale to enable wide range of novel applications from emulsification and colloidal stabilization as nonionic surfactants. While the Pluronic block copolymers offer the advantages of being readily available for such applications, it contains non-micellizable low molecular weight (MW) impurities that would interfere with the self-assembly and micellar packing of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions. The impacts of the low MW impurities will be discussed on the micellar packing of Pluronics F108 and F127 solutions, which form BCC and FCC. While as-received Pluronic samples typically contain about 20 wt.% low MW impurities, we were able to reduce the impurity level to less than 2 wt.% using our large scale purification technique. Comparative studies on small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on as-received and purified Pluronics solutions revealed that the contents of triblock copolymers in solutions essentially governs the inter-micellar distance of Pluronic cubic structures. A universal relationship between triblock copolymer concentration and SAXS-based domain spacing has been finally discussed. Funding from Agency for Defense Development, Korea.

  17. Achieving Continuous Anion Transport Domains Using Block Copolymers Containing Phosphonium Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenxu; Liu, Ye; Jackson, Aaron C.; Savage, Alice M.; Ertem, S. Piril; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Seifert, Soenke; Beyer, Frederick L.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Herring, Andrew M.; Coughlin, E. Bryan

    2016-06-22

    Triblock and diblock copolymers based on isoprene (Ip) and chloromethylstyrene (CMS) were synthesized in this paper by sequential polymerization using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer radical polymerization (RAFT). The block copolymers were quaternized with tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphine (Ar3P) to prepare soluble ionomers. The ionomers were cast from chloroform to form anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with highly ordered morphologies. At low volume fractions of ionic blocks, the ionomers formed lamellar morphologies, while at moderate volume fractions (≥30% for triblock and ≥22% for diblock copolymers) hexagonal phases with an ionic matrix were observed. Ion conductivities were higher through the hexagonal phase matrix than in the lamellar phases. Finally, promising chloride conductivities (20 mS/cm) were achieved at elevated temperatures and humidified conditions.

  18. Achieving Continuous Anion Transport Domains Using Block Copolymers Containing Phosphonium Cations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wenxu; Liu, Ye; Jackson, Aaron C.; ...

    2016-06-22

    Triblock and diblock copolymers based on isoprene (Ip) and chloromethylstyrene (CMS) were synthesized in this paper by sequential polymerization using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer radical polymerization (RAFT). The block copolymers were quaternized with tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphine (Ar3P) to prepare soluble ionomers. The ionomers were cast from chloroform to form anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with highly ordered morphologies. At low volume fractions of ionic blocks, the ionomers formed lamellar morphologies, while at moderate volume fractions (≥30% for triblock and ≥22% for diblock copolymers) hexagonal phases with an ionic matrix were observed. Ion conductivities were higher through the hexagonal phase matrix than in themore » lamellar phases. Finally, promising chloride conductivities (20 mS/cm) were achieved at elevated temperatures and humidified conditions.« less

  19. Toward Anisotropic Hybrid Materials: Directional Crystallization of Amphiphilic Polyoxazoline-Based Triblock Terpolymers.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Tobias; von der Lühe, Moritz; Hartlieb, Matthias; Norsic, Sebastien; Schubert, Ulrich S; Boisson, Christophe; D'Agosto, Franck; Schacher, Felix H

    2015-10-27

    We present the design and synthesis of a linear ABC triblock terpolymer for the bottom-up synthesis of anisotropic organic/inorganic hybrid materials: polyethylene-block-poly(2-(4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)butyl-2-oxazoline)-block-poly(2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline) (PE-b-PBocAmOx-b-PiPrOx). The synthesis was realized via the covalent linkage of azide-functionalized polyethylene and alkyne functionalized poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)-based diblock copolymers exploiting copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry. After purification of the resulting triblock terpolymer, the middle block was deprotected, resulting in a primary amine in the side chain. In the next step, solution self-assembly into core-shell-corona micelles in aqueous solution was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Subsequent directional crystallization of the corona-forming block, poly(2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline), led to the formation of anisotropic superstructures as demonstrated by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). We present hypotheses concerning the aggregation mechanism as well as first promising results regarding the selective loading of individual domains within such anisotropic nanostructures with metal nanoparticles (Au, Fe3O4).

  20. ABC triblock terpolymer self-assembled core-shell-corona nanotubes with high aspect ratios.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes have attracted considerable attention due to their unique 1D hollow structure; however, the fabrication of pure nanotubes via block copolymer self-assembly remains a challenge. In this work, the successful preparation of core-shell-corona (CSC) nanotubular micelles with uniform diameter and high aspect ratio is reported, which is achieved via self-assembly of a poly (styrene-b-4-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) triblock terpolymer in binary organic solvents with assistance of solution thermal annealing. Via direct visualization of trapped intermediates, the nanotube is believed to be formed via large sphere-large solid cylinderical aggregates-nanotube transformations, wherein the unique solid to hollow transition accompanied with the unidirectional growth is distinct from conventional pathway. In addition, by virtue of the CSC structure, gold nanoparticles are able to be selectively incorporated into different micellar domains of the nanotubes, which may have potential applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  1. In vitro drug release behavior, mechanism and antimicrobial activity of rifampicin loaded low molecular weight PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymeric nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Gajendiran, M; Divakar, S; Raaman, N; Balasubramanian, S

    2013-12-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA (92:8)) and a series of PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri block copolymers were synthesized by direct melt polycondensation. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR, and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques, viscosity, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The rifampicin (RIF) loaded polymeric nanospheres (NPs) were prepared by ultrasonication-W/O emulsification technique. The NPs have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVvisible spectroscopy and DLS measurements. The drug loaded triblock copolymeric NPs have five folds higher drug content and drug loading efficiency than that of PLGA microspheres (MPs). The in vitro drug release study shows that the drug loaded NPs showed an initial burst release after that sustained release up to 72 h. All the triblock copolymeric NPs follow anomalous drug diffusion mechanism while the PLGA MPs follow non-Fickian super case-II mechanism up to 12 h. The overall in-vitro release follows second order polynomial kinetics up to 72 h. The antimicrobial activity of the RIF loaded polymer NPs was compared with that of pure RIF and tetracycline (TA). The RIF loaded triblock copolymeric NPs inhibited the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure RIF and TA.

  2. Hierarchical Sol-Gel Transition Induced by Thermosensitive Self-Assembly of an ABC Triblock Polymer in an Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yuzo; Ueki, Takeshi; McIntosh, Lucas D.; Tamura, Saki; Niitsuma, Kazuyuki; Imaizumi, Satoru; Lodge, Timothy P.; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-04-29

    Here we investigate a hierarchical morphology change and accompanying sol–gel transition using a doubly thermosensitive ABC-triblock copolymer in an ionic liquid (IL). The triblock copolymer contains two different lower critical solution temperature (LCST) thermosensitive polymers, poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBnMA) and poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate) (PPhEtMA), as the end blocks and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the middle block (PBnMA-b-PMMA-b-PPhEtMA: BMP). BMP undergoes a hierarchical phase transition corresponding to the self-assembly of each of the thermosensitive blocks in the IL, and a sol–gel transition was observed in concentrated, above 10 wt %, polymer solutions. The gelation behavior was affected by polymer concentration, and at 20 wt %, the BMP/IL composite showed a phase transition, with increasing temperature, from solution through a jammed micelle suspension to a physically cross-linked gel. For each phase was formed reversibly and rapidly over the corresponding temperature range. Finally, the jammed micelle and cross-linked gel states were characterized using viscoelastic measurements and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).

  3. Experimental diffusion measurements of entangled rod-coil block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Muzhou; Timachova, Ksenia; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Olsen, Bradley

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental theory for the dynamics of rod-coil block copolymers is important for understanding diffusion, mechanics, and self-assembly kinetics in functional nanostructured materials for organic electronics and biomaterials. Recently our group has proposed a reptation theory for the diffusion of entangled rod-coil block copolymers, showing the slower dynamics of rod-coils is due to the mismatch between the curvature of the rod and coil blocks. Here we present experimental tracer diffusion measurements of model rod-coil diblock and coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers that support this theory. The model systems are composed of poly(ethylene oxide) coils and polyalanine α-helical rods synthesized by bacterial expression and bioconjugation, and tracer diffusion in entangled solutions is measured by forced Rayleigh scattering. The experiments support both the activated reptation and arm retraction mechanism for the small and large rod regimes that were previously presented in our theory. Comparison of both simulation and experiments between diblock and triblock copolymers suggests that the diffusion mechanisms are independent of the different symmetry and molecular architecture of the molecules.

  4. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutant aba4 demonstrates that the major route for stress-induced ABA accumulation is via neoxanthin isomers.

    PubMed

    North, Helen M; De Almeida, Aurélie; Boutin, Jean-Pierre; Frey, Anne; To, Alexandra; Botran, Lucy; Sotta, Bruno; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2007-06-01

    A novel abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant, aba4, was identified in a screen for paclobutrazol-resistant germination. Compared with wild-type, the mutant showed reduced endogenous ABA levels in both dehydrated rosettes and seeds. Carotenoid composition analysis demonstrated that the defective locus affects neoxanthin synthesis. The ABA4 gene was identified by map-based cloning, and found to be a unique gene in the Arabidopsis genome. The predicted protein has four putative helical transmembrane domains and shows significant similarity to predicted proteins from tomato, rice and cyanobacteria. Constitutive expression of the ABA4 gene in Arabidopsis transgenic plants led to increased accumulation of trans-neoxanthin, indicating that the ABA4 protein has a direct role in neoxanthin synthesis. aba4 mutant phenotypes were mild compared with previously identified ABA-deficient mutants that exhibit vegetative tissue phenotypes. Indeed, ABA levels in seeds of aba4 mutants were higher than those of aba1 mutants. As aba1 mutants are also affected in a unique gene, this suggests that ABA can be produced in the aba4 mutant by an alternative pathway using violaxanthin as a substrate. It appears, therefore, that in Arabidopsis both violaxanthin and neoxanthin are in vivo substrates for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. Furthermore, significantly reduced levels of ABA were synthesized in the aba4 mutant on dehydration, demonstrating that ABA biosynthesis in response to stress must occur mainly via neoxanthin isomer precursors.

  5. BLOCK COPOLYMER THIN FILMS: Physics and Applications1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasolka, Michael J.; Mayes, Anne M.

    2001-08-01

    A two-part review of research concerning block copolymer thin films is presented. The first section summarizes experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental physics of these systems, concentrating upon the forces that govern film morphology. The role of film thickness and surface energetics on the morphology of compositionally symmetric, amorphous diblock copolymer films is emphasized, including considerations of boundary condition symmetry, so-called hybrid structures, and surface chemical expression. Discussions of compositionally asymmetric systems and emerging research areas, e.g., liquid-crystalline and A-B-C triblock systems, are also included. In the second section, technological applications of block copolymer films, e.g., as lithographic masks and photonic materials, are considered. Particular attention is paid to means by which microphase domain order and orientation can be controlled, including exploitation of thickness and surface effects, the application of external fields, and the use of patterned substrates.

  6. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  7. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant ABA analogs on in vitro ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expr...

  8. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-11-11

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands.

  9. High-temperature solvent stability of sol-gel germania triblock polymer coatings in capillary microextraction on-line coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Segro, Scott S; Malik, Abdul

    2010-09-10

    Germania-based sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared for on-line coupling of capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography. For this, a germania-based sol-gel precursor, tetra-n-butoxygermane and a hydroxy-terminated triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) were used. These sol-gel germania triblock polymer coatings were chemically anchored to the inner walls of a fused silica capillary (0.25 mm I.D.) in course of its evolution from the sol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the sol-gel germania triblock polymer coating were obtained to estimate the coating thickness. For the first time, the analyte distribution constants between a sol-gel germania organic-inorganic hybrid coating and the samples (K(cs)) were determined. For a variety of analytes from different chemical classes, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ketones, alcohols, phenols and amines, the K(cs) values ranged from 8.1 x 10(1) to 5.6 x 10(4). Also, for the first time, the stability of the sol-gel germania-based coating in high-temperature reversed-phase solvent environment was evaluated. The sol-gel germania triblock polymer coatings were capable of surviving exposure to high-temperature solvent conditions (200 degrees C) with little change in extraction capabilities. This demonstrates that sol-gel germania triblock polymer hybrid materials might be suitable for further applications in high-temperature HPLC. The reproducibility of the method for preparation of the sol-gel germania triblock polymer coatings was also evaluated, and the capillary-to-capillary RSD values ranged from 5.3 to 6.5%. The use of higher flow rates in extraction was found to significantly reduce the time required (from 30-40 to 10-15 min) to reach equilibrium between the sol-gel germania triblock polymer coating and the analytes in the sample solution.

  10. Synthetic Strategy for Preparing Chiral Double-semicrystalline Polyether Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Alaina J.; Shi, Weichao; Rodriguez, Christina G.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We report an effective strategy for the synthesis of semi-crystalline block copolyethers with well-defined architecture and stereochemistry. As an exemplary system, triblock copolymers containing either atactic (racemic) or isotactic (R or S) poly(propylene oxide) end blocks with a central poly(ethylene oxide) mid-block were prepared by anionic ring-opening procedures. Stereochemical control was achieved by an initial hydrolytic kinetic resolution of racemic terminal epoxides followed by anionic ring-opening polymerization of the enantiopure monomer feedstock. The resultant triblock copolymers were highly isotactic (meso triads [mm]% ~ 90%) with optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering being used to probe the impact of the isotacticity on the resultant polymer and hydrogel properties. PMID:25914726

  11. Synthetic strategy for preparing chiral double-semicrystalline polyether block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Alaina J.; Shi, Weichao; Rodriguez, Christina G.; Kramer, Edward J.; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2014-12-11

    Here, we report an effective strategy for the synthesis of semi-crystalline block copolyethers with well-defined architecture and stereochemistry. As an exemplary system, triblock copolymers containing either atactic (racemic) or isotactic (R or S) poly(propylene oxide) end blocks with a central poly(ethylene oxide) mid-block were prepared by anionic ring-opening procedures. Stereochemical control was achieved by an initial hydrolytic kinetic resolution of racemic terminal epoxides followed by anionic ring-opening polymerization of the enantiopure monomer feedstock. The resultant triblock copolymers were highly isotactic (meso triads [mm]% ~ 90%) with optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering being used to probe the impact of the isotacticity on the resultant polymer and hydrogel properties.

  12. Synthetic strategy for preparing chiral double-semicrystalline polyether block copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    McGrath, Alaina J.; Shi, Weichao; Rodriguez, Christina G.; ...

    2014-12-11

    Here, we report an effective strategy for the synthesis of semi-crystalline block copolyethers with well-defined architecture and stereochemistry. As an exemplary system, triblock copolymers containing either atactic (racemic) or isotactic (R or S) poly(propylene oxide) end blocks with a central poly(ethylene oxide) mid-block were prepared by anionic ring-opening procedures. Stereochemical control was achieved by an initial hydrolytic kinetic resolution of racemic terminal epoxides followed by anionic ring-opening polymerization of the enantiopure monomer feedstock. The resultant triblock copolymers were highly isotactic (meso triads [mm]% ~ 90%) with optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scatteringmore » being used to probe the impact of the isotacticity on the resultant polymer and hydrogel properties.« less

  13. Synthetic Strategy for Preparing Chiral Double-semicrystalline Polyether Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Alaina J; Shi, Weichao; Rodriguez, Christina G; Kramer, Edward J; Hawker, Craig J; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2015-03-07

    We report an effective strategy for the synthesis of semi-crystalline block copolyethers with well-defined architecture and stereochemistry. As an exemplary system, triblock copolymers containing either atactic (racemic) or isotactic (R or S) poly(propylene oxide) end blocks with a central poly(ethylene oxide) mid-block were prepared by anionic ring-opening procedures. Stereochemical control was achieved by an initial hydrolytic kinetic resolution of racemic terminal epoxides followed by anionic ring-opening polymerization of the enantiopure monomer feedstock. The resultant triblock copolymers were highly isotactic (meso triads [mm]% ~ 90%) with optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering being used to probe the impact of the isotacticity on the resultant polymer and hydrogel properties.

  14. Nitric oxide modulates sensitivity to ABA

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas with crucial signaling functions in plant defense and development. As demonstrated by generating a triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant with extremely low levels of NO (February 2010 issue of Plant Physiology), NO is synthesized in plants through mainly two different pathways involving nitrate reductase (NR/NIA) and NO Associated 1 (AtNOA1) proteins. Depletion of basal NO levels leads to a priming of ABA-triggered responses that causes hypersensitivity to this hormone and results in enhanced seed dormancy and decreased seed germination and seedling establishment in the triple mutant. NO produced under non-stressed conditions represses inhibition of seed developmental transitions by ABA. Moreover, NO plays a positive role in post-germinative vegetative development and also exerts a critical control of ABA-related functions on stomata closure. The triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA in stomatal closure thus resulting in a extreme phenotype of resistance to drought. In the light of the recent discovery of PYR/PYL/RCAR as a family of potential ABA receptors, regulation of ABA sensitivity by NO may be exerted either directly on ABA receptors or on downstream signalling components; both two aspects that deserve our present and future attention. PMID:20168082

  15. Nanopatterning of Viruses and Proteins Using Microphase Separated Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresce, Arthur; Lewandowski, Angela; Bentley, William; Kofinas, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Diblock copolymers containing nickel ions have been prepared that are capable of selectively adsorbing histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (hisGFP), and also binding tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). A block copolymer of norbornene and norbornene dicarboxylic acid was synthesized using ring-opening metathesis polymerization. A 400/50 block ratio achieved a spherical microphase-separated morphology with roughly 20 nm diameter dicarboxylic acid spheres. The spherical phase was exposed to nickel ions in solution, templating the formation of nickel nanoparticles. This process gave a nickel-loaded diblock copolymer film whose surface was used to chelate hisGFP. Fluorescence spectroscopy and TEM confirmed the presence of the protein on the polymer surface. A sulfonated triblock copolymer was loaded with nickel ions using a similar solution-doping procedure. The morphology of this copolymer was lamellar, and its sulfonated block was loaded with nickel ions. TEM studies revealed the presence of the virus on the surface of the copolymer and showed that the bond between the TMV and the polymer surface can withstand severe detergent washes.

  16. Dynamic analysis of ABA accumulation in relation to the rate of ABA catabolism in maize tissues under water deficit.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huibo; Gao, Zhihui; Chen, Lin; Wei, Kaifa; Liu, Jing; Fan, Yijuan; Davies, William J; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in plant tissues which experience water deficit (stress ABA). This study analysed its accumulation as a function of both synthesis and catabolism in maize tissues. By following the disappearance of the stress ABA when ABA synthesis was blocked by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the rate of the catabolism of stress ABA was determined. When compared with the catabolic rate of baseline (non-stress) ABA, stress ABA showed a catabolic rate >11 times higher. With such an elevated catabolic rate, it is proposed that the xanthophyll precursor pool may not be able to sustain the ABA accumulation, and such a proposition has been substantiated by further experiments where fluridone is used to limit the availability of upstream ABA precursors. When fluridone was used, stress ABA accumulation could only be sustained for a few hours, i.e. approximately 5 h for leaf and 1 h for root tissues. In detached roots, stress ABA accumulation could not be sustained even if fluridone was not used, suggesting that stress ABA accumulation in root systems requires the continuous import of ABA precursors from the shoots. Such an assumption was substantiated by the observation that defoliation or shading significantly reduced ABA accumulation in intact roots. The present study suggests that ABA catabolism is rapid enough to play an important role in the regulation of ABA accumulation.

  17. Wounding of potato tubers induces increases in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and alters expression of ABA metabolic genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of physical wounding on ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and expression of genes encoding key ABA metabolic enzymes were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. An increase in ABA and ABA metabolite content was observed 48 h after wounding and remained elevated through 96 h. ...

  18. Amphiphilic poly[(propylene glycol)-block-(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)] copolymers for gene transfer in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Brissault, Blandine; Kichler, Antoine; Leborgne, Christian; Jarroux, Nathalie; Cheradame, Hervé; Guis, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers such as poly(ethylene glycol-b-propylene glycol-b-ethylene glycol) PE6400 (PEG(13)-PPG(30)-PEG(13)) have been recently shown to promote gene transfer in muscle. Herein we investigated the effect of a chemical change of the PEG moiety on the transfection activity of these compounds. We synthesized new amphiphilic copolymers in which the PEG end blocks are replaced by more hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOxz) chains of various lengths. The resulting triblock PMeOxz-PPG-PMeOxz compounds were characterized by NMR, SEC, TGA, and DSC techniques and assayed for in vivo muscle gene transfer. The results confirm both the block structure and the monomer unit composition (DP(PG)/DP(MeOxz)) of the new PPG(34)-PMeOxz(41) and PPG(34)-PMeOxz(21) triblock copolymers. Furthermore, in vivo experiments show that these copolymers are able to significantly increase DNA transfection efficiency, despite the fact that their chemical nature and hydrophilic character are different from the poloxamers. Overall, these results show that the capacity to enhance DNA transfection in skeletal muscle is not restricted to PEG-PPG-PEG arrangements.

  19. Controlling sub-microdomain structure in microphase-ordered block copolymers and their nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Michelle Kathleen

    Block copolymers exhibit a wealth of morphologies that continue to find ubiquitous use in a diverse variety of mature and emergent (nano)technologies, such as photonic crystals, integrated circuits, pharmaceutical encapsulents, fuel cells and separation membranes. While numerous studies have explored the effects of molecular confinement on such copolymers, relatively few have examined the sub-microdomain structure that develops upon modification of copolymer molecular architecture or physical incorporation of nanoscale objects. This work will address two relevant topics in this vein: (i) bidisperse brushes formed by single block copolymer molecules and (ii) copolymer nanocomposites formed by addition of molecular or nanoscale additives. In the first case, an isomorphic series of asymmetric poly(styrene-b -isoprene-b-styrene) (S1IS2) triblock copolymers of systematically varied chain length has been synthesized from a parent SI diblock copolymer. Small-angle x-ray scattering, coupled with dynamic rheology and self-consistent field theory (SCFT), reveals that the progressively grown S2 block initially resides in the I-rich matrix and effectively reduces the copolymer incompatibility until a critical length is reached. At this length, the S2 block co-locates with the S1 block so that the two blocks generate a bidisperse brush (insofar as the S1 and S2 lengths differ). This single-molecule analog to binary block copolymer blends affords unique opportunities for materials design at sub-microdomain length scales and provides insight into the transition from diblock to triblock copolymer (and thermoplastic elastomeric nature). In the second case, I explore the distribution of molecular and nanoscale additives in microphase-ordered block copolymers and demonstrate via SCFT that an interfacial excess, which depends strongly on additive concentration, selectivity and relative size, develops. These predictions are in agreement with experimental findings. Moreover, using a

  20. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting.

  1. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  2. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO26PO39EO26)] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle-surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  3. Synthesis and Structure - Property Relationships for Regular Multigraft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Jimmy; Uhrig, David; Gido, Samuel; Zhu, Yuqing; Weidisch, Roland; Iatrou, Hermis; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Hong, Kunlun; Beyer, Frederick; Lach, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Multigraft copolymers with polyisoprene backbones and polystyrene branches, having multiple regularly spaced branch points, were synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and controlled chlorosilane linking chemistry. The functionality of the branch points (1, 2 and 4) can be controlled, through the choice of chlorosilane linking agent. The morphologies of the various graft copolymers were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering. It was concluded that the morphology of these complex architectures is governed by the behavior of the corresponding miktoarm star copolymer associated with each branch point (constituting block copolymer), which follows Milner's theoretical treatment for miktoarm stars. By comparing samples having the same molecular weight backbone and branches but different number of branches it was found that the extent of long range order decreases with increasing number of branch points. The stress-strain properties in tension were investigated for some of these multigraft copolymers. For certain compositions thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) behavior was observed, and in many instances the elongation at break was much higher (2-3X) than that of conventional triblock TPEs.

  4. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect.

  5. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect. PMID:23626400

  6. Chemical inhibition of ABA-8'-hydroxylase alters in vivo ABA metabolism, increases endogenous ABA content but does not affect microtuber dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors on in vitro ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A gene...

  7. Identification and Mechanism of ABA Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1, but unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2–pyrabactin and PYL1–pyrabactin–ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor, and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms, and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. PMID:20729862

  8. Thermosensitive block copolymer hydrogels based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polyethylene glycol for biomedical applications: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boffito, Monica; Sirianni, Paolo; Di Rienzo, Anna Maria; Chiono, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    This review focuses on the challenges associated with the design and development of injectable hydrogels of synthetic origin based on FDA approved blocks, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). An overview of recent studies on inverse thermosensitive PEG/PCL hydrogels is provided. These systems have been proposed to overcome the limitations of previously introduced degradable thermosensitive hydrogels [e.g., PEG/poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) hydrogels]. PEG/PCL hydrogels are advantageous due to their higher gel strength, slower degradation rate and availability in powder form. Particularly, triblock PEG/PCL copolymers have been widely investigated, with PCL-PEG-PCL (PCEC) hydrogels showing superior gel strength and slower degradation kinetics than PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE) hydrogels. Compared to triblock PEG/PCL copolymers, concentrated solutions of multiblock PEG/PCL copolymers were stable due to their slower crystallization rate. However, the resulting hydrogel gel strength was low. Inverse thermosensitive triblock PEG/PCL hydrogels have been mainly applied in tissue engineering, to decrease tissue adherence or, in combination with bioactive molecules, to promote tissue regeneration. They have also found application as in situ drug delivery carriers. On the other hand, the wide potentialities of multiblock PEG/PCL hydrogels, associated with the stability of their water-based solutions under storage, their higher degradation time compared to triblock copolymer hydrogels and the possibility to insert bioactive building blocks along the copolymer chains, have not been fully exploited yet. A critical discussion is provided to highlight advantages and limitations of currently developed themosensitive PEG/PCL hydrogels, suggesting future strategies for the realization of PEG/PCL-based copolymers with improved performance in the different application fields.

  9. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-06-30

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways.

  10. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide) amphiphilic block copolymer-mediated growth of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial behavior.

    PubMed

    Perdikaki, Anna V; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Kanellopoulos, Nick K; Karanikolos, Georgios N

    2013-09-10

    Silver nanoparticles were grown in self-assembled amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) (PEO/PPO) triblock copolymers in selective solvents. Ternary systems of block copolymer, water, and p-xylene were used, forming a dispersion of water droplets in oil (reverse micellar) as well as binary water/block copolymer solutions. Besides its stabilizing affect, the role of the copolymer as a reducing agent for the metal salt precursors was examined. It was found that block copolymer-enabled reduction, carried out mainly by the PEO blocks, could take place only under particular conditions mostly related to the metal precursor, the block copolymer concentration, and the self-assembled micellar configuration. The effect of the triblock copolymers on growth and stabilization of gold nanoparticles was also examined. The antibacterial effect of the silver nanoparticles was investigated against Escherichia coli cells, and their performance was evaluated through a series of parametrization experiments, including the effect of the metal concentration, stability, activity over time, and dosage, while particular emphasis was given on the role of ions versus nanoparticles on the antibacterial performance.

  11. Morphology and phase diagram of comb block copolymer Am+1(BC)m.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibin; Wang, Rong; Xue, Gi

    2009-05-28

    The morphologies and the phase diagram of comb copolymer Am+1(BC)m are investigated by the self-consistent field theory. By changing the volume fractions of the blocks, the interaction parameters between the different blocks, and the side chain number, nine phases are found, including the two-colored lamellar phase, three-colored lamellar phase, hexagonal lattice phase, core shell hexagonal lattice phase, two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice, core shell tetragonal lattice, lamellar phase with beads inside, lamellar phase with alternating beads, and disordered phase. The phase diagrams are constructed for Am+1(BC)m with different side chain numbers of m=1, 2, 3, and 5. Due to the asymmetric topology of comb copolymer Am+1(BC)m, the phases and the diagrams are very different from linear ABC triblock copolymer or star ABC triblock copolymer. When the volume fraction of one of the blocks is the domination, the (core shell) hexagonal phase or two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice can form, depending on which block dominates and the interaction between the blocks. The (core shell) hexagonal phase easily forms at the corner of the block A (fA>or=0.5). The side chain number m affects the phase diagram largely due to the fact that the architecture of a comb copolymer is not invariant under the interchange between the three different monomers. Due to the connectivity of the blocks B and the inner blocks A, Am+1(BC)m comb copolymers with the longer main chain A or longer side chain with short block C, i.e., longer block B, are difficult to phase separate. The results are helpful to design nano- or biomaterials with complex architecture or tailor the phase behavior of comb copolymers.

  12. Acid-Labile Amphiphilic PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO Copolymers: Degradable Poloxamer Analogs.

    PubMed

    Worm, Matthias; Kang, Biao; Dingels, Carsten; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Poly ((ethylene oxide)-b-(propylene oxide)-b-(ethylene oxide)) triblock copolymers commonly known as poloxamers or Pluronics constitute an important class of nonionic, biocompatible surfactants. Here, a method is reported to incorporate two acid-labile acetal moieties in the backbone of poloxamers to generate acid-cleavable nonionic surfactants. Poly(propylene oxide) is functionalized by means of an acetate-protected vinyl ether to introduce acetal units. Three cleavable PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Mn,total = 6600, 8000, 9150 g·mol(-1) ; Mn,PEO = 2200, 3600, 4750 g·mol(-1) ) have been synthesized using anionic ring-opening polymerization. The amphiphilic copolymers exhibit narrow molecular weight distributions (Ð = 1.06-1.08). Surface tension measurements reveal surface-active behavior in aqueous solution comparable to established noncleavable poloxamers. Complete hydrolysis of the labile junctions after acidic treatment is verified by size exclusion chromatography. The block copolymers have been employed as surfactants in a miniemulsion polymerization to generate polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean diameters of ≈200 nm and narrow size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Acid-triggered precipitation facilitates removal of surfactant fragments from the nanoparticles, which simplifies purification and enables nanoparticle precipitation "on demand."

  13. Uniaxial Extensional Behavior of A--B--A Thermoplastic Elastomers: Structure-Properties Relationship and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, Luca

    At service temperatures, A--B--A thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) behave similarly to filled (and often entangled) B-rich rubbers since B block ends are anchored on rigid A domains. Therefore, their viscoelastic behavior is largely dictated by chain mobility of the B block rather than by microstructural order. Relating the small- and large-strain response of undiluted A--B--A triblocks to molecular parameters is a prerequisite for designing associated TPE-based systems that can meet the desired linear and nonlinear rheological criteria. This dissertation was aimed at connecting the chemical and topological structure of A--B--A TPEs with their viscoelastic properties, both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. Since extensional deformations are relevant for the processing and often the end-use applications of thermoplastic elastomers, the behavior was investigated predominantly in uniaxial extension. The unperturbed size of polymer coils is one of the most fundamental properties in polymer physics, affecting both the thermodynamics of macromolecules and their viscoelastic properties. Literature results on poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) unperturbed chain dimensions, plateau modulus, and critical molar mass for entanglement effect in viscosity were reviewed and discussed in the framework of the coil packing model. Self-consistency between experimental estimates of melt chain dimensions and viscoelastic properties was discussed, and the scaling behaviors predicted by the coil packing model were identified. Contrary to the widespread belief that amorphous polylactide must be intrinsically stiff, the coil packing model and accurate experimental measurements undoubtedly support the flexible nature of PLA. The apparent brittleness of PLA in mechanical testing was attributed to a potentially severe physical aging occurring at room temperature and to the limited extensibility of the PLA tube statistical segment. The linear viscoelastic response of A--B--A TPEs was first

  14. Peptide surface modification of P(HEMA-co-MMA)-b-PIB-b-P(HEMA-co-MMA) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Umaprasana; Feng, Dingsong; Chandekar, Amol; Whitten, James E; Faust, Rudolf

    2009-06-02

    Peptide surface modification of poly[(methyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-isobutylene-b-(methyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] P(MMA-co-HEMA)-b-PIB-b-P(MMA-co-HEMA) triblock copolymers with different HEMA/MMA ratios has been accomplished using an efficient synthetic procedure. The triblock copolymers were reacted with 4-fluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (fosyl chloride) in pyridine to obtain the activated polymers [poly{(methyl methacrylate-co-fosyloxyethyl methacrylate)-b-isobutylene-b-(methyl methacrylate-co-fosyloxyethyl methacrylate)}] P(MMA-co-FEMA)-b-PIB-b-P(MMA-co-FEMA), with an activating efficiency of 80-90%. The resulting polymers were soluble in chloroform, and their solutions were used to coat thin uniform films with a predetermined thickness on smooth steel surfaces. The presence of reactive activating groups on the film surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dye labeling, and confocal laser scanning microscopic studies. Activation of the triblock copolymer films was also achieved under heterogeneous conditions in polar (acetonitrile) and nonpolar (hexanes) media. The extent of activation was controlled by varying the dipping time and polarity of the medium. Peptide attachment was accomplished by immersing the coated steel strips into aqueous buffer solution of Gly-Gly or GYIGSR. XPS and solubility studies revealed successful attachment of peptides to the polymer surface. Virtually all remaining activating groups were successfully replaced in the subsequent step by a treatment with Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane in a buffered methanol/water mixture.

  15. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  16. Multicompartment nanoparticles from the self-assembly of mixtures of ABC and AC block copolymers in C-selective solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yuping; Yan, Nan; An, Jian; Zhu, Yutian

    2014-09-01

    The self-assembly of the mixtures of linear ABC triblock and AC diblock copolymers in C-selective solvents is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of various control parameters, including the block length, proportions of ABC and AC copolymers, solvent quality, and the incompatibility between different block components, on the micellar structures are examined. Some interesting multicompartment nanoparticles, such as the hamburger-like, ring-coiled-rod and reversed hamburger-like nanoparticles are predicted in our simulations. Moreover, the configurations of polymer chains in different multicompartment nanoparticles are revealed by the contact numbers between different components.

  17. Brassinosteroids modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yunmi; Shang, Yun; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal movement in response to water availability is an important physiological process in the survival of land plants. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate stomatal closure. The physiological functions of ABA and BRs, including germination, cell elongation and stomatal movement, are generally known to be antagonistic. Here, we investigated how BRs affect stomatal movement alone and in combination with ABA. We demonstrate that brassinoslide (BL), the most active BR, promotes stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner. Interestingly, BL also inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure when a high concentration of BL was added to ABA. Furthermore, we found that the induction of some genes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by ABA (AtrbohD, NIA1 and NIA2) and subsequent ROS production were repressed by BL treatment. The BR signaling mutant bri1-301 failed to inhibit ABA-induced stomatal closure upon BL treatment. However, BRI1-overexpressing transgenic plants were hypersensitive to ABA during stomatal closure, and BL reversed ABA-induced stomatal closure more completely than in wild type plants. Taken together, these results suggest that BRs can positively and negatively modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure. Therefore, interactions between ABA and BR signaling are important for the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:27856707

  18. pH-Responsive Triblock Copolymeric Micelles Decorated with a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Provide Efficient Doxorubicin Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Khen Eng; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Katas, Haliza; Amjad, Muhammad Wahab; Butt, Adeel Masood; Kesharwani, Prashant; Iyer, Arun K.

    2016-12-01

    This study developed novel triblock pH-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) using cholic acid-polyethyleneimine-poly- l-arginine (CA-PEI-pArg) copolymers. PEI provided pH sensitivity, while the hydrophilic cell-penetrating pArg peptide promoted cellular PM internalization. The copolymers self-assembled into PMs in aqueous solution at above the critical micelle concentration (2.98 × 10-7 M) and encapsulated doxorubicin in the core region, with a 34.2% ( w/ w) entrapment efficiency. PMs showed pH-dependent swelling, increasing in size by almost sevenfold from pH 7.4 to 5.0. Doxorubicin release was pH-dependent, with about 65% released at pH 5.0, and 32% at pH 7.4. Cellular uptake, assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, was enhanced by using doxorubicin-loaded CA-PEI-pArg PMs, as compared to free doxorubicin and DOX-loaded CA-PEI PMs. Moreover, 24-h incubation of these PMs with a human breast cancer cell line produced greater cytotoxicity than free doxorubicin. These results indicate that pH-responsive CA-PEI-pArg micelles could provide a versatile delivery system for targeted cancer therapy using hydrophobic drugs.

  19. Morphological Consequences of Frustration in ABC Triblock Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Radlauer, Madalyn R.; Sinturel, Christophe; Asai, Yusuke; Arora, Akash; Bates, Frank S.; Dorfman, Kevin D.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2016-12-19

    Three poly(styrene)-block-poly(isoprene)-block-poly(lactide) (PS-b-PI-b-PLA, SIL) triblock terpolymers were synthesized and characterized in the bulk and as thin films. The pronounced incompatibility of the covalently connected PI and PLA led to significant frustration and the tendency to minimize their intermaterial dividing surface area. This resulted in the formation of a core–shell cylinder morphology with exaggerated nonconstant mean curvature from triblock polymers with equal block volume fractions rather than the more typical lamellar morphology. The effect of frustration was magnified in thin films by both confinement and interfacial interactions such that the PI domains became discontinuous. Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) calculations emphasize that the marked difference in the PS/PI and PI/PLA interaction parameters promotes the formation of nonlamellar morphologies. However, SCFT predicts that lamellar morphology is more stable than the observed cylindrical morphology, demonstrating a limitation that arises from the underlying assumptions.

  20. Triblock Terpolymers by Simultaneous Tandem Block Polymerization (STBP).

    PubMed

    Freudensprung, Ines; Klapper, Markus; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    A route of synthesizing triblock terpolymers in a one-pot, "one-step" polymerization approach is presented. The combination of two distinct polymerization techniques through orthogonal catalyst/initiator functionalities attached to a polymeric linker furnishes novel pathways to ABC-terpolymers. Both polymerizations have to be compatible regarding mechanisms, chosen monomers, and solvents. Here, an α,ω-heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) serves as poly-meric catalyst/initiator to obtain triblock terpolymers of poly(norbornene)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactic acid) PNB-PEG-PLLA via simultaneous ring opening metathesis poly-merization and ring opening polymerization in a fast one-pot polymerization. Structural characterization of the polymers is provided via (1)H-, DOSY-, and (1)H,(1)H-COSY-NMR, while solution and thin film self-assembly are investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy.

  1. Synthesis of amphipathic block copolymers based on polyisobutylene and polyoxyethylene and their application in emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Sar, B.

    1992-12-31

    Polymer colloids stabilized by polymeric surfactants are of great interest both commercially and academically. It has been found that these materials enhance latex stabilization in a number of applications. The polymeric surfactants are amphipathic block and graft copolymers containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. The current study involved the synthesis of a series of amphipathic triblock copolymers, polyisobutylene-block-polyoxyethylene-block-polyisobutylene (PIB-b-POE-b-PIB), for use in the emulsion polymerization of styrene (STY), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and vinyl acetate (VAc). The stabilizing effectiveness of these triblock copolymers was studied as a function of their blocklength. When the molecular weight of the POE center block was changed from M{sub n} = 2,000 to 20,000 g/mole, stable lattices were obtained in emulsion polymerization with MMA, STY, and VAc as the monomers. In all cases, the polymerization rates remained constant, while the number of particles/volume decreased with increasing POE chain length. When the molecular weight of the PIB end blocks was changed from M{sub n} = 400 to 2,600 g/mole keeping the molecular weight of the POE center block constant at M{sub n} = 20,000 g/mole, the poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) lattices exhibited similar behavior, i.e., the number of particles and particle sizes remained the same, but the rate of polymerization reached a maximum at 87 wt% POE content. In the case of poly(styrene) both the rate of polymerization and the number of particles remained constant. The emulsion polymerization of other monomers such as butadiene, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate was carried out by using one triblock copolymer, i.e., PIB(400)-b-POE (8,000)-b-PIB-(400). Stable lattices were also formed in all cases.

  2. Network of nano-droplets by a tri-block polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Soheil; Doodman, Esmaeil

    2014-11-01

    Mixtures of oil in water nano-droplets with two molecular weights of a tri-block polymer was studied by quasi elastic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering. The results showed that the size and interaction of droplets didn't change with increase of the tri-block polymer length but the order parameters increased. The increase of length of the tri-block biopolymer changed the dynamics of the droplets. A network formation is resulted with increase of the amount of tri-block polymer in the microemulsions.

  3. A mutational analysis of the ABA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana highlights the involvement of ABA in vegetative development.

    PubMed

    Barrero, José María; Piqueras, Pedro; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Serrano, Ramón; Rodríguez, Pedro L; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2005-08-01

    Much of the literature on the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) describes it as a mediator in triggering plant responses to environmental stimuli, as well as a growth inhibitor. ABA-deficient mutants, however, display a stunted phenotype even under well-watered conditions and high relative humidity, which suggests that growth promotion may also be one of the roles of endogenous ABA. Zeaxanthin epoxidase, the product of the ABA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, catalyses the epoxidation of zeaxanthin to antheraxanthin and violaxanthin, generating the epoxycarotenoid precursor of the ABA biosynthetic pathway. This paper gives a description of the molecular and phenotypic characterization of a large series of mutant alleles of the ABA1 gene, which cause different degrees of ABA deficiency, four of them previously isolated (aba1-1, aba1-3, aba1-4, and aba1-6) and the remaining five novel (sañ1-1, sañ1-2, sañ1-3, sañ1-4, and sre3). Molecular analysis of these alleles provides insights into the domains in which they compromise zeaxanthin epoxidase function. The size of the leaves, inflorescences, and flowers of these mutants is reduced, and their rosettes have lower fresh and dry weights than their wild types, as a result of a diminished cell size. Low concentrations of exogenous ABA increase the fresh weight of mutant and wild-type plants, as well as the dry weight of the mutants. The leaves of aba1 mutants are abnormally shaped and fail to develop clearly distinct spongy and palisade mesophyll layers. Taken together, these phenotypic traits indicate, as suggested by previous authors, that ABA acts as a growth promoter during vegetative development. The abnormal shape and internal structure of the leaves of aba1 mutants suggests, in addition, a role for ABA in organogenesis.

  4. Wounding of potato tubers induces increases in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and alters expression of ABA metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Lulai, Edward C; Huckle, Linda L; Neubauer, Jonathan D

    2013-04-15

    The effects of physical wounding on ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and expression of genes encoding key ABA metabolic enzymes were determined in potato tubers. An increase in ABA and ABA metabolite content was observed 48h after wounding and remained elevated through 96h. Wounding induced dramatic increases in the expression of the ABA metabolic genes encoding zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and ABA-8'-hydroxylase. Although the patterns of wound-induced expression of individual genes varied, increased gene expression was observed within 3h of wounding and remained elevated through 96h. An apparent correlation between expression of the gene encoding ZEP and the increase in ABA content suggested that the wound-induced increase in ABA biosynthesis was regulated by both substrate availability and increased NCED activity. Suppression of wound-induced jasmonic acid accumulation by rinsing the wounded tissue with water did not inhibit the subsequent increase in ABA content. Exogenous ethylene completely suppressed the wound-induced increase in ABA content and dramatically reduced wound-induced up-regulation of ABA metabolic genes. This study is the first to identify the molecular bases for increased ABA accumulation following physical trauma in potato tubers and highlights the complex physiological interactions between various wound-induced hormones.

  5. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 mediates ABA sensitivity during germination and implicates ABA in light-mediated Chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Whippo, Craig W; Davis, Phillip A; Hangarter, Roger P; Springer, Patricia S

    2014-10-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls many aspects of plant growth and development, including seed development, germination and responses to water-deficit stress. A complex ABA signaling network integrates environmental signals including water availability and light intensity and quality to fine-tune the response to a changing environment. To further define the regulatory pathways that control water-deficit and ABA responses, we carried out a gene-trap tagging screen for water-deficit-regulated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This screen identified PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1), a gene involved in blue-light-induced chloroplast movement, as functioning in ABA-response pathways. We provide evidence that PMI1 is involved in the regulation of seed germination by ABA, acting upstream of the intersection between ABA and low-glucose signaling pathways. Furthermore, PMI1 participates in the regulation of ABA accumulation during periods of water deficit at the seedling stage. The combined phenotypes of pmi1 mutants in chloroplast movement and ABA responses indicate that ABA signaling may modulate chloroplast motility. This result was further supported by the detection of altered chloroplast movements in the ABA mutants aba1-6, aba2-1 and abi1-1.

  6. Hemocompatibility of styrenic block copolymers for use in prosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Brubert, Jacob; Krajewski, Stefanie; Wendel, Hans Peter; Nair, Sukumaran; Stasiak, Joanna; Moggridge, Geoff D

    2016-02-01

    Certain styrenic thermoplastic block copolymer elastomers can be processed to exhibit anisotropic mechanical properties which may be desirable for imitating biological tissues. The ex-vivo hemocompatibility of four triblock (hard-soft-hard) copolymers with polystyrene hard blocks and polyethylene, polypropylene, polyisoprene, polybutadiene or polyisobutylene soft blocks are tested using the modified Chandler loop method using fresh human blood and direct contact cell proliferation of fibroblasts upon the materials. The hemocompatibility and durability performance of a heparin coating is also evaluated. Measures of platelet and coagulation cascade activation indicate that the test materials are superior to polyester but inferior to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and bovine pericardium reference materials. Against inflammatory measures the test materials are superior to polyester and bovine pericardium. The addition of a heparin coating results in reduced protein adsorption and ex-vivo hemocompatibility performance superior to all reference materials, in all measures. The tested styrenic thermoplastic block copolymers demonstrate adequate performance for blood contacting applications.

  7. Biocompatible fluorinated polyglycerols for droplet microfluidics as an alternative to PEG-based copolymer surfactants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Olaf; Thiele, Julian; Weinhart, Marie; Mazutis, Linas; Weitz, David A; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Haag, Rainer

    2016-01-07

    In droplet-based microfluidics, non-ionic, high-molecular weight surfactants are required to stabilize droplet interfaces. One of the most common structures that imparts stability as well as biocompatibility to water-in-oil droplets is a triblock copolymer surfactant composed of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) blocks. However, the fast growing applications of microdroplets in biology would benefit from a larger choice of specialized surfactants. PEG as a hydrophilic moiety, however, is a very limited tool in surfactant modification as one can only vary the molecular weight and chain-end functionalization. In contrast, linear polyglycerol offers further side-chain functionalization to create custom-tailored, biocompatible droplet interfaces. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of polyglycerol-based triblock surfactants with tailored side-chain composition, and exemplify their application in cell encapsulation and in vitro gene expression studies in droplet-based microfluidics.

  8. Macroscopic Modeling of A3B15A3 Triblock Copolymers in B Solvent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    7  Figure 4. The l2 norm of the (top) Young’s and (middle) shear moduli as well as our (bottom...Lastly, using a finite-element based mechanical homogenization method for linear elasticity, we have also calculated the Young’s and shear moduli ...model can be found in references 44 and 45. This method was used to calculate the relative values of the Young’s (E) and shear (G) moduli by Andzelm

  9. Crystallization of bifonazole and acetaminophen within the matrix of semicrystalline, PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhengsheng; Qian, Feng

    2015-02-02

    The morphology and microstructure of crystalline drug/polymer solid dispersions could influence their physical stability and dissolution performance. In this study, the drug crystallization mechanism within PEG, PPG, and poloxamer matrix was investigated, and the resultant microstructure of various solid dispersions of acetaminophen (ACM) and bifonazole (BFZ) in the aforementioned polymers was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and wide/small-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD/SAXS). With a stronger molecular interaction with the PEG segments, ACM decreased the crystallization onset temperature and crystallinity of PEG and poloxamers much more than BFZ. The stronger molecular interaction and better miscibility between ACM and PEG also induced a more defective lamellar structure in the ACM solid dispersions compared with that in the BFZ systems, as revealed by DSC and SAXS investigation. Observed under polarized optical microscopy, PEG, PPG, and poloxamer could all significantly improve the crystallization rate of ACM and BFZ, because of the largely reduced Tg of the solid dispersions by these low Tg polymers. Moreover, when the drug loading was below 60%, crystallization of BFZ in PEG or poloxamer occurred preferably along the radial direction of PEG spherulite, rather than the perpendicular direction, which was attributed to the geometric restriction of well-ordered polymer lamellar structure in the BFZ solid dispersions. Similar phenomena were not observed in the ACM solid dispersions regardless of the drug loading, presumably because ACM could diffuse freely across the perpendicular direction of the PEG spherulite, through the well-connected interlamellar or interfibrillar spaces produced by the defective PEG lamellar structure. The different drug-polymer interaction also caused a difference in the microstructure of polymer crystal, as well as a difference in drug distribution within the polymer matrix, which then synergistically facilitated a "confined crystallization" process to reduce the drug crystallite size below 100 nm.

  10. Morphological Behavior of Sulfonated Styrene-Ethylene/Propylene-Styrene Triblock Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    as the rubber block molecular weights increased, but decreased upon neutralization of the sulfonic acid groups with sodium hydroxide. The intensity...6 Figure 3. Two-dimensional SAXS image (left) and 1-D SAXS profile (right) for the sulfonated SEPS (sample 65A) in sulfonic acid ...The catalyst was removed by washing with citric acid solution (10 weight-percent) for 24–48 hr. 2.4 Sulfonation of Styrene-Ethylene/Propylene

  11. Investigation of mixed fluorinated and triblock copolymer liquid crystals: imprint for mesostructured bimodal silica.

    PubMed

    Assaker, Karine; Naboulsi, Issam; Stébé, Marie-José; Emo, Mélanie; Blin, Jean-Luc

    2015-05-15

    Due to the difference in «mutual phobicity» between fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon chains, mixtures of fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactants are excellent candidates to design bimodal systems having two types of mesopores. In literature, only a few papers deal with these bimodal systems. Here hexagonal liquid crystal mixtures of the polyoxyethylene fluoroalkyl ether [R(F)8(EO)9] and the Pluronic [P123] have been used to template this kind of mesostructure through the liquid crystal mechanism, which is barely considered. After the detailed investigation of the R(F)8(EO)9/P123/water liquid crystal domain, materials have been synthesized and characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. Our results show that this system provides two separate pore sizes in the materials over the mesoporous range. The ratio between the small mesopores and the large ones depends on the proportion between the porogens in the mixture. Nonetheless, we also outline that a minimum quantity of silica is required to recover the two hexagonal networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure in Ferns.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Guang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuqing; Marchant, Blaine; Wang, Yizhou; Yang, Qian; Dai, Fei; Hills, Adrian; Franks, Peter J; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Doug; Soltis, Pamela; Sessa, Emily; Wolf, Paul G; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J; Blatt, Mike R; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-23

    ABA-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 Mya. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis thaliana and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum. These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis thaliana and Hordeum vulgare. The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P. proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata. In summary, we report new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns.

  13. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Franks, Peter J.; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum. These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P. proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata. In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. PMID:28232585

  14. Phase separations in a copolymer copolymer mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Jin, Guojun; Ma, Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a three-order-parameter model to study the phase separations in a diblock copolymer-diblock copolymer mixture. The cell dynamical simulations provide rich information about the phase evolution and structural formation, especially the appearance of onion-rings. The parametric dependence and physical reason for the domain growth of onion-rings are discussed.

  15. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.

  16. ABA Inducible Rice Protein Phosphatase 2C Confers ABA Insensitivity and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K.; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  17. Injectable biodegradable temperature-responsive PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers: synthesis and effect of copolymer composition on the drug release from the copolymer-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Ma, Xichen; Liu, Yanjun

    2005-04-27

    Injectable biodegradable temperature-responsive poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide-b-ethylene glycol-b-DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers with DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio ranging from 6/1 to 15/l were synthesized from monomers of DL-lactide, glycolide and polyethylene glycol and characterized by 1H NMR. The resulting copolymers are soluble in water to form free flowing fluid at room temperature but become hydrogels at body temperature. The hydrophobicity of the copolymer increased with the increasing of DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio. In vitro dissolution studies with two different hydrophobic drugs (5-fluorouracil and indomethacin) were performed to study the effect of DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio on drug release and to elucidate drug release mechanism. The release mechanism for hydrophilic 5-fluorouracil was diffusion-controlled, while hydrophobic indomethacin showed an biphasic profile comprising of an initial diffusion-controlled stage followed by the hydrogel erosion-dominated stage. The effect of DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio on drug release seemed to be dependent on the drug release mechanism. It has less effect on the drug release during the diffusion-controlled stage, but significantly affected drug release during the hydrogel erosion-controlled stage. Compared with ReGel system, the synthesized copolymers showed a higher gelation temperature and longer period of drug release. The copolymers can solubilize the hydrophobic indomethacin and the solubility (13.7 mg/ml) was increased 3425-fold compared to that in water (4 microg/ml, 25 degrees C). Two methods of physical mixing method and solvent evaporation method were used for drug solubilization and the latter method showed higher solubilization efficiency.

  18. Activation of dimeric ABA receptors elicits guard cell closure, ABA-regulated gene expression, and drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masanori; Peterson, Francis C; Defries, Andrew; Park, Sang-Youl; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2013-07-16

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential molecule in plant abiotic stress responses. It binds to soluble pyrabactin resistance1/PYR1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor receptors and stabilizes them in a conformation that inhibits clade A type II C protein phosphatases; this leads to downstream SnRK2 kinase activation and numerous cellular outputs. We previously described the synthetic naphthalene sulfonamide ABA agonist pyrabactin, which activates seed ABA responses but fails to trigger substantial responses in vegetative tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we describe quinabactin, a sulfonamide ABA agonist that preferentially activates dimeric ABA receptors and possesses ABA-like potency in vivo. In Arabidopsis, the transcriptional responses induced by quinabactin are highly correlated with those induced by ABA treatments. Quinabactin treatments elicit guard cell closure, suppress water loss, and promote drought tolerance in adult Arabidopsis and soybean plants. The effects of quinabactin are sufficiently similar to those of ABA that it is able to rescue multiple phenotypes observed in the ABA-deficient mutant aba2. Genetic analyses show that quinabactin's effects in vegetative tissues are primarily mediated by dimeric ABA receptors. A PYL2-quinabactin-HAB1 X-ray crystal structure solved at 1.98-Å resolution shows that quinabactin forms a hydrogen bond with the receptor/PP2C "lock" hydrogen bond network, a structural feature absent in pyrabactin-receptor/PP2C complexes. Our results demonstrate that ABA receptors can be chemically controlled to enable plant protection against water stress and define the dimeric receptors as key targets for chemical modulation of vegetative ABA responses.

  19. Activation of dimeric ABA receptors elicits guard cell closure, ABA-regulated gene expression, and drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Masanori; Peterson, Francis C.; Defries, Andrew; Park, Sang-Youl; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Volkman, Brian F.; Cutler, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential molecule in plant abiotic stress responses. It binds to soluble pyrabactin resistance1/PYR1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor receptors and stabilizes them in a conformation that inhibits clade A type II C protein phosphatases; this leads to downstream SnRK2 kinase activation and numerous cellular outputs. We previously described the synthetic naphthalene sulfonamide ABA agonist pyrabactin, which activates seed ABA responses but fails to trigger substantial responses in vegetative tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we describe quinabactin, a sulfonamide ABA agonist that preferentially activates dimeric ABA receptors and possesses ABA-like potency in vivo. In Arabidopsis, the transcriptional responses induced by quinabactin are highly correlated with those induced by ABA treatments. Quinabactin treatments elicit guard cell closure, suppress water loss, and promote drought tolerance in adult Arabidopsis and soybean plants. The effects of quinabactin are sufficiently similar to those of ABA that it is able to rescue multiple phenotypes observed in the ABA-deficient mutant aba2. Genetic analyses show that quinabactin’s effects in vegetative tissues are primarily mediated by dimeric ABA receptors. A PYL2-quinabactin-HAB1 X-ray crystal structure solved at 1.98-Å resolution shows that quinabactin forms a hydrogen bond with the receptor/PP2C “lock” hydrogen bond network, a structural feature absent in pyrabactin-receptor/PP2C complexes. Our results demonstrate that ABA receptors can be chemically controlled to enable plant protection against water stress and define the dimeric receptors as key targets for chemical modulation of vegetative ABA responses. PMID:23818638

  20. Characterization of potential ABA receptors in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Zheng, Chuanlin; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-02-01

    Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress-related genes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key endogenous messenger in a plant's response to such stresses. A novel ABA binding mechanism which plays a key role in plant cell signaling cascades has recently been uncovered. In the absence of ABA, a type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) interacts and inhibits the kinase SnRK2. Binding of ABA to the PYR/PYLs receptors enables interaction between the ABA receptor and the PP2C protein, and abrogates the SnRK2 inactivation. The active SnRK2 is then free to activate the ABA-responsive element Binding Factors which target ABA-dependent gene expression. We used the grape as a model to study the ABA perception mechanism in fruit trees. The grape ABA signaling cascade consists of at least seven ABA receptors and six PP2Cs. We used a yeast two-hybrid system to examine physical interaction in vitro between the grape ABA receptors and their interacting partners, and found that twenty-two receptor-PP2C interactions can occur. Moreover, quantifying these affinities by the use of the LacZ reporter enables us to show that VvPP2C4 and VvPP2C9 are the major binding partners of the ABA receptor. We also tested in vivo the root and leaf gene expression of the various ABA receptors and PP2Cs in the presence of exogenic ABA and under different abiotic stresses such as high salt concentration, cold and drought, and found that many of these genes are regulated by such abiotic environmental factors. Our results indicate organ specificity in the ABA receptor genes and stress specificity in the VvPP2Cs. We suggest that VvPP2C4 is the major PP2C involved in ABA perception in leaves and roots, and VvRCAR6 and VvRCAR5 respectively, are the major receptors involved in ABA perception in these organs. Identification, characterization and manipulation of the central players in the ABA signaling cascades in fruit trees is

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, Michael Duane

    2005-12-17

    The central theme of this thesis work is to develop new block copolymer materials for biomedical applications. While there are many reports of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic [19-21] and crosslinked hydrogel materials [22], the development of an in situ gel forming, pH responsive pentablock copolymer is a novel contribution to the field, Figure 1.1 is a sketch of an ABCBA pentablock copolymer. The A blocks are cationic tertiary amine methacrylates blocked to a central Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. In addition to the prerequisite synthetic and macromolecular characterization of these new materials, the self-assembled supramolecular structures formed by the pentablock were experimentally evaluated. This synthesis and characterization process serves to elucidate the important structure property relationships of these novel materials, The pH and temperature responsive behavior of the pentablock copolymer were explored especially with consideration towards injectable drug delivery applications. Future synthesis work will focus on enhancing and tuning the cell specific targeting of DNA/pentablock copolymer polyplexes. The specific goals of this research are: (1) Develop a synthetic route for gel forming pentablock block copolymers with pH and temperature sensitive properties. Synthesis of these novel copolymers is accomplished with ATRP, yielding low polydispersity and control of the block copolymer architecture. Well defined macromolecular characteristics are required to tailor the phase behavior of these materials. (2) Characterize relationship between the size and shape of pentablock copolymer micelles and gel structure and the pH and temperature of the copolymer solutions with SAXS, SANS and CryoTEM. (3) Evaluate the temperature and pH induced phase separation and macroscopic self-assembly phenomenon of the pentablock copolymer. (4) Utilize the knowledge gained from first three goals to design and formulate drug delivery formulations based on the multi

  2. Interaction Between ABA Signaling and Copper Homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Àngela; Romero, Paco; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2016-07-01

    ABA is involved in plant responses to non-optimal environmental conditions, including nutrient availability. Since copper (Cu) is a very important micronutrient, unraveling how ABA affects Cu uptake and distribution is relevant to ensure adequate Cu nutrition in plants subjected to stress conditions. Inversely, knowledge about how the plant nutritional status can interfere with ABA biosynthesis and signaling mechanisms is necessary to optimize stress tolerance in horticultural crops. Here the reciprocal influence between ABA and Cu content was addressed by using knockout mutants and overexpressing transgenic plants of high affinity plasma membrane Cu transporters (pmCOPT) with altered Cu uptake. Exogenous ABA inhibited pmCOPT expression and drastically modified COPT2-driven localization in roots. ABA regulated SPL7, the main transcription factor responsive for Cu deficiency responses, and subsequently affected expression of its targets. ABA biosynthesis (aba2) and signaling (hab1-1 abi1-2) mutants differentially responded to ABA according to Cu levels. Alteration of Cu homeostasis in the pmCOPT mutants affected ABA biosynthesis, transport and signaling as genes such as NCED3, WRKY40, HY5 and ABI5 were differentially modulated by Cu status, and also in the pmCOPT and ABA mutants. Altered Cu uptake resulted in modified plant sensitivity to salt-mediated increases in endogenous ABA. The overall results provide evidence for reciprocal cross-talk between Cu status and ABA metabolism and signaling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Impact of copolymer ratio on drug distribution in styrene-isobutylene-styrene block copolymers.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Martin K; Kim, Chang-Soo; Saylor, David M; Patwardhan, Dinesh V

    2013-10-01

    Drug-polymer composite coatings, composed of styrene-isobutylene-styrene (SIBS) tri-block copolymers, are frequently used in controlled drug release biomedical device applications. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy to characterize the effects of different drug loadings and polymer chemistries (i.e., block copolymer ratio) on the variation of surface structures and compositions of SIBS-tetracycline (SIBS-TC) cast composites including tetracycline (TC) drug amount, drug phase size distribution, and drug and polymer phase morphologies. We tested the structural variations by fabricating and characterizing two types of composite specimens, that is, SIBS15 and SIBS30, composed of 15 and 30 Wt % of polystyrene (PS), respectively. The differences in the distribution of TC drug, PS, and polyisobutylene (PIB) polymer phase structures observed in SIBS15 and SIBS30 resulted in more drug at the surface of SIBS30 compared to SIBS15. To support the experimental findings, we have determined the Hildebrand solubility parameter of TC using molecular dynamics (MD) computation and compared it to the polymer components, PS and PIB. The MD results show that the solubility parameter of TC is much closer to that of PS than PIB, which demonstrates a higher thermodynamic stability of TC-PS mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  4. Poly(lactide)-block-poly([epsilon]-caprolactone-co-[epsilon]-decalactone)-block-poly(lactide) copolymer elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Hill, Erin M.; Martello, Mark T.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-08-28

    Batch ring opening transesterification copolymerization of ε-caprolactone and ε-decalactone was used to generate statistical copolymers over a wide range of compositions and molar masses. Reactivity ratios determined for this monomer pair, rCL = 5.9 and rDL = 0.03, reveal ε-caprolactone is added preferentially regardless of the propagating chain end. Relative to poly(ε-caprolactone) the crystallinity and melting point of these statistical copolymers were depressed by the addition of ε-decalactone; copolymers containing greater than 31 mol% (46 wt%) ε-decalactone were amorphous. Poly(lactide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-ε-decalactone)-block-poly(lactide) triblock polymers were also prepared and used to explore the influence of midblock composition on the temperature dependent Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). In addition, uniaxial extension tests were used to determine the effects of midblock composition, poly(lactide) content, and molar mass on the mechanical properties of these new elastomeric triblocks.

  5. Phase Behavior and Micellar Packing of Impurity-Free Pluronic Block Copolymers in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang Yeol; Park, Hanjin

    We have investigated the impacts of the non-micellizable polymeric impurities on the micellar packing and solution phase behavior of Pluronic block copolymers in water. In particular, small angle x-ray scattering, rheology and dynamic light scattering techniques have been employed to elucidate how the low MW impurities affect the micellar packing and solution phase diagram in water, when ordered cubic structures of spherical micelles are formed. A silica slurry method has been developed using the competitive adsorption of the PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers over the low MW polymeric impurities for a large scale purification of Pluronics and it purity of Pluronics has been assessed by interaction chromatography. Based on the comparative studies on micellar packing between As-Received (AR) and Purified (Pure) Pluronic F108 solutions, we found experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that the inter-micellar distance of Pluronic cubic structures in aqueous solution is governed by the effective polymer concentration in terms of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers. Removal of the impurities in AR F108 offers an important clue on window into the onset of BCC ordering via hydrodynamic contact between micelles in solution. NSF DMR Polymers.

  6. A key ABA catabolic gene, OsABA8ox3, is involved in drought stress resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shanlan; Jiang, Guobin; Ye, Nenghui; Chu, Zhizhan; Xu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Guohui

    2015-01-01

    Expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and catabolism genes are generally co-regulated in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Up-regulation of OsNCED3 gene, a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, has been suggested as a way to enhance plant drought resistance but little is known for the role of ABA catabolic genes during drought stress. In this study, we found that OsABA8ox3 was the most highly expressed gene of the OsABA8ox family in rice leaves. Expression of OsABA8ox3 was promptly induced by rehydration after PEG-mimic dehydration, a tendency opposite to the changes of ABA level. We therefore constructed rice OsABA8ox3 silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) and overexpression plants. There were no obvious phenotype differences between the transgenic seedlings and wild type under normal condition. However, OsABA8ox3 RNAi lines showed significant improvement in drought stress tolerance while the overexpression seedlings were hypersensitive to drought stress when compared with wild type in terms of plant survival rates after 10 days of unwatering. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that OsABA8ox3 RNAi plants had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and less malondialdehyde (MDA) content than those of wild type when the plants were exposed to dehydration treatment, indicating a better anti-oxidative stress capability and less membrane damage. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analysis under dehydration treatment revealed that expressions of a group of stress/drought-related genes, i.e. LEA genes, were enhanced with higher transcript levels in OsABA8ox3 RNAi transgenic seedlings. We therefore conclude that that OsABA8ox3 gene plays an important role in controlling ABA level and drought stress resistance in rice.

  7. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates grape bud dormancy, and dormancy release stimuli may act through modification of ABA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    In warm-winter regions, induction of dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is mandatory for commercial table grape production. Induction of respiratory stress by HC leads to dormancy release via an uncharacterized biochemical cascade that could reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Previous studies proposed a central role for abscisic acid (ABA) in the repression of bud meristem activity, and suggested its removal as a critical step in the HC-induced cascade. In the current study, support for these assumptions was sought. The data show that ABA indeed inhibits dormancy release in grape (Vitis vinifera) buds and attenuates the advancing effect of HC. However, HC-dependent recovery was detected, and was affected by dormancy status. HC reduced VvXERICO and VvNCED transcript levels and induced levels of VvABA8’OH homologues. Regulation of these central players in ABA metabolism correlated with decreased ABA and increased ABA catabolite levels in HC-treated buds. Interestingly, an inhibitor of ethylene signalling attenuated these effects of HC on ABA metabolism. HC also modulated the expression of ABA signalling regulators, in a manner that supports a decreased ABA level and response. Taken together, the data support HC-induced removal of ABA-mediated repression via regulation of ABA metabolism and signalling. Expression profiling during the natural dormancy cycle revealed that at maximal dormancy, the HC-regulated VvNCED1 transcript level starts to drop. In parallel, levels of VvA8H-CYP707A4 transcript and ABA catabolites increase sharply. This may provide initial support for the involvement of ABA metabolism also in the execution of natural dormancy. PMID:25560179

  8. The Heat Stress Factor HSFA6b Connects ABA Signaling and ABA-Mediated Heat Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress response (HSR) is a conserved mechanism developed to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) via a heat shock factor (HSF)-dependent mechanism. Signaling by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in acquired thermotolerance as well. Analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray databases revealed that the expression of HSFA6b, a class A HSF, extensively increased with salinity, osmotic, and cold stresses, but not heat. Here, we show that HSFA6b plays a pivotal role in the response to ABA and in thermotolerance. Salt-inducible HSFA6b expression was down-regulated in ABA-insensitive and -deficient mutants; however, exogenous ABA application restored expression in ABA-deficient, but not -insensitive plants. Thus, ABA signaling is required for proper HSFA6b expression. A transcriptional activation assay of protoplasts revealed that ABA treatment and coexpression of an ABA signaling master effector, ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN1, could activate the HSFA6b promoter. In addition, HSFA6b directly bound to the promoter of DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2A and enhanced its expression. Analysis of ABA responses in seed germination, cotyledon greening, and root growth as well as salt and drought tolerance in HSFA6b-null, overexpression, and dominant negative mutants revealed that HSFA6b is a positive regulator participating in ABA-mediated salt and drought resistance. Thermoprotection tests showed that HSFA6b was required for thermotolerance acquisition. Our study reveals a network in which HSFA6b operates as a downstream regulator of the ABA-mediated stress response and is required for heat stress resistance. This new ABA-signaling pathway is integrated into the complex HSR network in planta. PMID:27493213

  9. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates grape bud dormancy, and dormancy release stimuli may act through modification of ABA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Or, Etti

    2015-03-01

    In warm-winter regions, induction of dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is mandatory for commercial table grape production. Induction of respiratory stress by HC leads to dormancy release via an uncharacterized biochemical cascade that could reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Previous studies proposed a central role for abscisic acid (ABA) in the repression of bud meristem activity, and suggested its removal as a critical step in the HC-induced cascade. In the current study, support for these assumptions was sought. The data show that ABA indeed inhibits dormancy release in grape (Vitis vinifera) buds and attenuates the advancing effect of HC. However, HC-dependent recovery was detected, and was affected by dormancy status. HC reduced VvXERICO and VvNCED transcript levels and induced levels of VvABA8'OH homologues. Regulation of these central players in ABA metabolism correlated with decreased ABA and increased ABA catabolite levels in HC-treated buds. Interestingly, an inhibitor of ethylene signalling attenuated these effects of HC on ABA metabolism. HC also modulated the expression of ABA signalling regulators, in a manner that supports a decreased ABA level and response. Taken together, the data support HC-induced removal of ABA-mediated repression via regulation of ABA metabolism and signalling. Expression profiling during the natural dormancy cycle revealed that at maximal dormancy, the HC-regulated VvNCED1 transcript level starts to drop. In parallel, levels of VvA8H-CYP707A4 transcript and ABA catabolites increase sharply. This may provide initial support for the involvement of ABA metabolism also in the execution of natural dormancy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Fast Field Cycling Method for the Selective Study of Molecular Dynamics in Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gizatullin, Bulat; Neudert, Oliver; Stapf, Siegfried; Mattea, Carlos

    2017-09-06

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is one of the most useful methods to increase sensitivity in NMR spectroscopy. It is based on the transfer of magnetization from an electron to the nuclear spin system. Based on previous work that demonstrated the feasibility of integrating DNP with fast field cycling (FFC) relaxometry and the possibility to distinguish between different mechanisms, such as the Overhauser effect (OE) and the solid effect (SE), the first FFC study of the differential relaxation properties of a copolymer is presented. For this purpose, concentrated solutions of the polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) triblock copolymer and the corresponding homopolymers were investigated. T1 -T2 relaxation data are discussed in terms of molecular mobility and the presence of radicals. The DNP selective data indicate a dominant SE contribution to the enhancement of the NMR signal for both blocks of the triblock copolymer and for the homopolymer solutions. The enhancement factors are different for both polymer types and in the copolymer, which is explained by the individual (1) H T1 relaxation times and different electron-nucleus coupling strength. The T1 relaxation dispersion measurements of the SE enhanced signal were performed, which led to improved signal-to-noise ratios that allowed the site-specific separation of relaxation times and their dependence on the Larmor frequency with a higher accuracy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought.

  12. Nanoporous polysulfone membranes via a degradable block copolymer precursor for redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gindt, Brandon P.; Abebe, Daniel G.; Tang, Zhijiang J.; Lindsey, Melanie B.; Chen, Jihua; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2016-02-16

    In this study, nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA–PSU–PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The PSU scaffold was thermally crosslinked before sacrificing PLA blocks. The resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. The membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. Nanoporous PSU membranes prepared by this new method and further chemically modified to a slight degree exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ionic conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration.

  13. Nanoporous polysulfone membranes via a degradable block copolymer precursor for redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Gindt, Brandon P.; Abebe, Daniel G.; Tang, Zhijiang J.; ...

    2016-02-16

    In this study, nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA–PSU–PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The PSU scaffold was thermally crosslinked before sacrificing PLA blocks. The resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. The membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. Nanoporous PSU membranes prepared by this new method and further chemically modified to a slight degree exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ionic conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration.

  14. (Electro)Mechanical Properties of Olefinic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spontak, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Conventional styrenic triblock copolymers (SBCs) swollen with a midblock-selective oil have been previously shown to exhibit excellent electromechanical properties as dielectric elastomers. In this class of electroactive polymers, compliant electrodes applied as active areas to opposing surfaces of an elastomer attract each other, and thus compress the elastomer due to the onset of a Maxwell stress, upon application of an external electric field. This isochoric process is accompanied by an increase in lateral area, which yields the electroactuation strain (measuring beyond 300% in SBC systems). Performance parameters such as the Maxwell stress, transverse strain, dielectric breakdown, energy density and electromechanical efficiency are determined directly from the applied electric field and resulting electroactuation strain. In this study, the same principle used to evaluate SBC systems is extended to olefinic block copolymers (OBCs), which can be described as randomly-coupled multiblock copolymers that consist of crystallizable polyethylene hard segments and rubbery poly(ethylene-co-octene) soft segments. Considerations governing the development of a methodology to fabricate electroresponsive OBC systems are first discussed for several OBCs differing in composition and bulk properties. Evidence of electroactuation in selectively-solvated OBC systems is presented and performance metrics measured therefrom are quantitatively compared with dielectric elastomers derived from SBC and related materials.

  15. Transparent nanostructured cellulose acetate films based on the self assembly of PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Junkal; Carrasco-Hernandez, Sheyla; Barud, Hernane S; Oliveira, Rafael L; Carvalho, Renata A; Amaral, André C; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    In this study fabrication and characterization of transparent nanostructured composite films based on cellulose triacetate (CTA) and poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (EPE) triblock copolymer were presented. The effect of the addition of EPE triblock copolymer on the thermal stability, morphology, and mechanical properties of cellulose triacetate films was investigated. The triblock EPE was chosen since PEO blocks interact favorably with CTA, whereas, PPO blocks remain immiscible which provokes a microphase separation. This allows to obtain EPE/CTA composite films with ordered microphase-separated structures where PPO spherical microdomains are well-dispersed in PEO/CTA matrix by simple solvent-evaporation process. During this process, PEO block chains selectively interact with CTA by strong interpolymer hydrogen-bonding while PPO block microseparated. The addition even 40wt% of EPE leads to nanostructured EPE/CTA composite. The cytotoxicity assay of CTA and EPE/CTA composite films confirm non-toxic character of designed transparent nanostructured composites based on sustainable matrices.

  16. Adsorption of novel block copolymers for steric stabilization and flocculation of colloidal particles in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krsmanovic, Jody Lynn

    The adsorption of several homopolymer polypeptides on alpha-Al 2O3 and SiO2 particles and surfaces was investigated to identify possible anchor and tail blocks for brush-forming block copolypeptides. Poly-L-(glutamic acid) (GLU) and poly-L-(aspartic acid) (ASP) were found to adsorb on positively charged and nearly neutral Al2O3, while the GLU did not adsorb on negatively charged SiO2. Poly-L-proline (PRO) adsorbed only slightly on the alumina, but showed high affinity adsorption on silica. These results are useful in designing a brush forming block copolymer with the GLU acting as the anchor block and the PRO as the tail block. An important finding in this work is that these unstructured polypeptides, or proteins that only have primary and secondary structure, have adsorption behavior that is similar to that of synthetic polymers. The complexation between a random copolymer of two amino acids, glutamic acid and tyrosine, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied using an in-situ adsorption experiment. It was shown that the adsorption of the random copolymer greatly increased the adsorption of PEO. The results strongly suggest that the conformation of the copolymer on the surface was controlled by the ionic strength, and the conformation of the adsorbed PEO was controlled by the PEO molecular weight. Both of these factors affected the molar complexation ratio between the PEO and the tyrosine repeat units. The adsorption of two novel triblock copolymers, with PEO tails and anionic hydrophobic center blocks, was studied on alumina and silica surfaces. On silica the adsorption was due to the PEO tails, resulting in low adsorbed amounts. The adsorption was much greater on alumina, indicating either brush formation on the surface or the adsorption of micelles, which are present in solution. The effect of adsorbed polymer on the steric stabilization of alumina particles was studied using sedimentation and electrophoretic mobility experiments. These results do not show

  17. Development of new generation of copolymers via reactive extrusion in a twin screw extruder and application in various PVC blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In

    Polymerization in twin screw extruders has largely involved homopolymers. Here we generalize this and polymerize a range of copolymers and terpolymers including epsilon-caprolactam(CA), o-lauryl lactam(LA), epsilon-caprolactone(CL), and gamma-butyrolactone(GBL) in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. We considered different types of copolymer structures (di-block, tri-block, and random-block) and different backbones of copolymer(lactams-lactones) as well as the variables of temperature profile, screw speed, monomer feed rate, the ratio of monomer to initiator, and feeding order of co-monomers on reactive extrusion of polyamides-polylactones based (co)polymers. Specially designed block copolymers have played a role as compatibilizing agents in the system of immiscible polymer blends. We apply the di-block copolymer(P(LA-b-CL)) and random block copolymer (P(LA/CA-b-CL)) produced by reactive extrusion as a compatibilizing agent in immiscible polymer blend systems: (i) poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/polyamide 12 (PA12), (ii) PVC/polypropylene(PP), and (iii) PVC/Ethylene-propylene-non-conjugated diene elastomer(EPDM).

  18. Resilient bioresorbable copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate, L-lactide, and 1,5-dioxepan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Andronova, Natalia; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2006-05-01

    The new combinations of monomers presented in this work were evaluated in order to create an elastic material for potential application in soft tissue engineering. Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) with L-lactide (LLA) and 1,5-dioxepan-2-one (DXO) have been synthesized using a cyclic five-membered tin alkoxide initiator. The block copolymers were designed in such a way that poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-1,5-dioxepan-2-one) formed an amorphous middle block and the poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) formed semicrystalline terminal blocks. The amorphous middle block consisted of relatively randomly distributed TMC and DXO monomer units, and the defined block structure of the PLLA terminal segments was confirmed by 13C NMR. The properties of the TMC-DXO-LLA copolymers were compared with those of triblock copolymers based either on LLA-TMC or on LLA-DXO. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis data confirmed the micro-phase separation in the copolymers. The mechanical properties of the copolymers were evaluated using tensile testing and cycling loading. All of the copolymers synthesized showed a highly elastic behavior. The properties of copolymers could be tailored by altering the proportions of the different monomers.

  19. PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer-based polymersomes as nanocarriers for delivery of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs: preparation and evaluation with atorvastatin and lisinopril.

    PubMed

    Danafar, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Davaran, S; Hamidi, M

    2014-10-01

    Tri-block poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare polymersomes loaded separately by the hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs, atorvastatin and lisinopril, respectively. The resulting nanostructures were characterized by various techniques such as FTIR, DSC, PCS and AFM. The polymersomes exhibited high encapsulation efficiencies of almost 78% and 70.8% for atorvastatin and lisinopril, respectively. Investigation on FTIR and DSC results revealed that such a high encapsulation efficiency is due to strong interaction between atorvastatin and the copolymer. The impact of drug/copolymer ratio and copolymer composition on drug-loading efficiency and drug release behavior were also studied. The results showed that in case of lisinopril, polymersomes exhibited a triphasic drug release, while for atorvastatin a biphasic release profile was obtained. Overall, the results indicated that PLA-PEG-PLA polymersomes can be considered as a promising carrier for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.

  20. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  1. Nanoscale buckling deformation in layered copolymer materials

    PubMed Central

    Makke, Ali; Perez, Michel; Lame, Olivier; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    In layered materials, a common mode of deformation involves buckling of the layers under tensile deformation in the direction perpendicular to the layers. The instability mechanism, which operates in elastic materials from geological to nanometer scales, involves the elastic contrast between different layers. In a regular stacking of “hard” and “soft” layers, the tensile stress is first accommodated by a large deformation of the soft layers. The inhibited Poisson contraction results in a compressive stress in the direction transverse to the tensile deformation axis. The hard layers sustain this transverse compression until buckling takes place and results in an undulated structure. Using molecular simulations, we demonstrate this scenario for a material made of triblock copolymers. The buckling deformation is observed to take place at the nanoscale, at a wavelength that depends on strain rate. In contrast to what is commonly assumed, the wavelength of the undulation is not determined by defects in the microstructure. Rather, it results from kinetic effects, with a competition between the rate of strain and the growth rate of the instability. PMID:22203970

  2. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity t...

  3. The impact of microfluidic mixing of triblock micelleplexes on in vitro/in vivo gene silencing and intracellular trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Daniel P; Xie, Yuran; Jones, Steven K; Yu, Dongyue; Moszczynska, Anna; Merkel, Olivia M

    2017-01-01

    The triblock copolymer polyethylenimine-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PCL-PEG) has been shown to spontaneously assemble into nano-sized particulate carriers capable of complexing with nucleic acids for gene delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate micelleplex characteristics, their in vitro and in vivo fate following microfluidic preparation of siRNA nanoparticles compared to the routinely used batch reactor mixing technique. Herein, PEI-PCL-PEG nanoparticles were prepared with batch reactor or microfluidic mixing techniques and characterized by various biochemical assays and in cell culture. Microfluidic nanoparticles showed a reduction of overall particle size as well as a more uniform size distribution when compared to batch reactor pipette mixing. Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR displayed the subcellular delivery of the microfluidic formulation and confirmed the ability to achieve mRNA knockdown. Intratracheal instillation of microfluidic formulation resulted in a significantly more efficient (p < 0.05) knockdown of GAPDH compared to treatment with the batch reactor formulation. The use of microfluidic mixing techniques yields an overall smaller and more uniform PEG-PCL-PEI nanoparticle that is able to more efficiently deliver siRNA in vivo. This preparation method may prove to be useful when a scaled up production of well-defined polyplexes is required. PMID:28488596

  4. The impact of microfluidic mixing of triblock micelleplexes on in vitro / in vivo gene silencing and intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Daniel P; Xie, Yuran; Jones, Steven K; Yu, Dongyue; Moszczynska, Anna; Merkel, Olivia M

    2017-06-02

    The triblock copolymer polyethylenimine-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PCL-PEG) has been shown to spontaneously assemble into nano-sized particulate carriers capable of complexing with nucleic acids for gene delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate micelleplex characteristics, their in vitro and in vivo fate following microfluidic preparation of siRNA nanoparticles compared to the routinely used batch reactor mixing technique. Herein, PEI-PCL-PEG nanoparticles were prepared with batch reactor or microfluidic mixing techniques and characterized by various biochemical assays and in cell culture. Microfluidic nanoparticles showed a reduction of overall particle size as well as a more uniform size distribution when compared to batch reactor pipette mixing. Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR displayed the subcellular delivery of the microfluidic formulation and confirmed the ability to achieve mRNA knockdown. Intratracheal instillation of microfluidic formulation resulted in a significantly more efficient (p < 0.05) knockdown of GAPDH compared to treatment with the batch reactor formulation. The use of microfluidic mixing techniques yields an overall smaller and more uniform PEG-PCL-PEI nanoparticle that is able to more efficiently deliver siRNA in vivo. This preparation method may prove to be useful when a scaled up production of well-defined polyplexes is required.

  5. The impact of microfluidic mixing of triblock micelleplexes on in vitro / in vivo gene silencing and intracellular trafficking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Daniel P.; Xie, Yuran; Jones, Steven K.; Yu, Dongyue; Moszczynska, Anna; Merkel, Olivia M.

    2017-06-01

    The triblock copolymer polyethylenimine-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PCL-PEG) has been shown to spontaneously assemble into nano-sized particulate carriers capable of complexing with nucleic acids for gene delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate micelleplex characteristics, their in vitro and in vivo fate following microfluidic preparation of siRNA nanoparticles compared to the routinely used batch reactor mixing technique. Herein, PEI-PCL-PEG nanoparticles were prepared with batch reactor or microfluidic mixing techniques and characterized by various biochemical assays and in cell culture. Microfluidic nanoparticles showed a reduction of overall particle size as well as a more uniform size distribution when compared to batch reactor pipette mixing. Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR displayed the subcellular delivery of the microfluidic formulation and confirmed the ability to achieve mRNA knockdown. Intratracheal instillation of microfluidic formulation resulted in a significantly more efficient (p < 0.05) knockdown of GAPDH compared to treatment with the batch reactor formulation. The use of microfluidic mixing techniques yields an overall smaller and more uniform PEG-PCL-PEI nanoparticle that is able to more efficiently deliver siRNA in vivo. This preparation method may prove to be useful when a scaled up production of well-defined polyplexes is required.

  6. Oligo(trimethylene carbonate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-oligo(trimethylene carbonate) triblock-based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Sangaj, Nivedita; Hwang, Yongsung; Phadke, Ameya; Chang, Chien-Wen; Varghese, Shyni

    2011-09-01

    A triblock co-polymer of oligo(trimethylene carbonate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) 20000-block-oligo(trimethylene carbonate) diacrylate (TMC20) was used as a photo-polymerizable precursor for the encapsulation of primary articular chondrocytes. The efficacy of TMC20 as a biodegradable scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering was compared with non-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) 20000 diacrylate (PEG20) hydrogel. Chondrocytes encapsulated in PEG hydrogels containing oligo(trimethylene carbonate) (OTMC) moieties underwent spontaneous aggregation during in vitro culture, which was not observed in the PEG hydrogel counterparts. The aggregation of cells was found to be dependent on the initial cell density, as well as the mesh size of the hydrogels. Similarly, cell aggregation was also found in biodegradable PEG hydrogels containing caprolactone moieties. The aggregation of cells in TMC20 hydrogels resulted in enhanced cartilage matrix production compared with their PEG20 counterparts over 3 weeks of culture. Taken together, these results indicate that PEG hydrogels containing degradable OTMC moieties promote the aggregation and biosynthetic activity of encapsulated chondrocytes, indicating their potential as scaffolds for the repair of cartilage tissue. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amphiphilic copolymers reduce aggregation of unfolded lysozyme more effectively than polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Jaemin; Mustafi, Devkumar; Poellmann, Michael J.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2017-02-01

    Certain amphiphilic block copolymers are known to prevent aggregation of unfolded proteins. To better understand the mechanism of this effect, the optical properties of heat-denatured and dithiothreitol reduced lysozyme were evaluated with respect to controls using UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. Then, the effects of adding Polyethylene Glycol (8000 Da), the triblock surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188), and the tetrablock copolymer Tetronic 1107 (T1107) to the lysozyme solution were compared. Overall, T1107 was found to be more effective than P188 in inhibiting aggregation, while PEG exhibited no efficacy. TEM imaging of heat-denatured and reduced lysozymes revealed spherical aggregates with on average 250–450 nm diameter. Using CD, more soluble lysozyme was recovered with T1107 than P188 with β-sheet secondary structure. The greater effectiveness of the larger T1107 in preventing aggregation of unfolded lysozyme than the smaller P188 and PEG points to steric hindrance at play; signifying the importance of size match between the hydrophobic region of denatured protein and that of amphiphilic copolymers. Thus, our results corroborate that certain multi-block copolymers are effective in preventing heat-induced aggregation of reduced lysozymes and future studies warrant more detailed focus on specific applications of these copolymers.

  8. New Polytetrahydrofuran Graft Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-15

    chioroprene) , chiorobutyl - ~~~~~ rubber , bromobutyl rubber , chlorinated EPDM , chlorinated poly(buta— diene) and chlorinated butadiene styrene copolymer...bromobutyl rubber , which after dehalogenation is unstable with respect to conjugated dienes, the yields of graft copolymer are low. With poly(chloroprerte

  9. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  10. Thin films from hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide) copolymers as optical indicators for humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarova, K.; Todorova, L.; Christova, D.; Vasileva, M.; Georgiev, R.; Madjarova, V.; Babeva, T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we study thin films from poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PDMAA/PEO) copolymers of different composition and structure in order to implement them as sensitive media for optical indicators for humidity. PDMAA/PEO di- and triblock copolymers were synthesized via redox polymerization in aqueous media. Thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by spin coating method using polymers solutions with appropriate concentrations. Refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness of the films are calculated from reflectance spectra of the films deposited on silicon substrates using non-linear curve fitting method. Sensing properties of the films were tested by films exposure to different humidity levels followed by in-situ monitoring of the changes in the optical properties. The influence of the polymer structure and postdeposition annealing on the optical and sensing properties of the films was investigated. The potential application of selected polymers for optical sensing of humidity were demonstrated and discussed.

  11. Utilization of Network-Forming Block Copolymers and Ionomers in the Development of Novel Nanostructures and Responsive Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineart, Kenneth

    Network forming block copolymers, i.e. thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), are one of the highest commodity forms of block copolymers due to their competitive elasticity and extendability as well as their ability to be melt and solution processed. TPEs owe many of their advantages to a combination of hard and soft blocks. The soft blocks, which must be covalently bound at both ends to hard blocks, connect adjacent hard domains resulting in physically cross-linked systems. Herein, simulations and theory are used to provide a molecular-level depiction of the evolution from diblock copolymers, which do not contain the ability to form physical cross-links, to network forming triblock copolymers. In addition, systems with high interblock incompatibility that are within the diblock-to-triblock transition (i.e. having high molecular asymmetry) are identified to form three component (ABC triblock copolymer) phases from copolymer containing only two chemically distinct blocks. Following this work, which emphasizes the fundamental principle of TPEs, the dissertation shifts focus to physically- and chemically-modified triblock and pentablock copolymer TPEs. Recent progress has sought to broaden TPEs to include properties that are above and beyond their inherent mechanical benefits, including responsiveness to external stimuli. The first examples presented here consist of TPEs prepared in combination with amorphous hydrocarbon additives to yield TPE gels (TPEGs). The resulting TPEGs, which maintain the beneficial processing properties of TPEs, are subsequently molded into 1- and 2-D arrays of microchannels that are filled with liquid metal. The final devices exhibit strain-sensitive electrical conductivity to at least 600% strain, have tunable compliance (ease of stretching), and are fully recyclable. The substitution of the amorphous hydrocarbon component for crystalline analogues with melting points <100 °C yield TPE composites (TPECs). The TPECs gain the added capability of

  12. The De-Etiolated 1 Homolog of Arabidopsis Modulates the ABA Signaling Pathway and ABA Biosynthesis in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Guangchao; Zou, Hanyan; Zhang, Yuchan; Xiang, Zheng; Huang, Junli; Luo, Li; Wang, Chunping; Lei, Kairong; Li, Xianyong; Song, Deming; Din, Ahmad Ud; Wang, Guixue

    2016-06-01

    DEETIOLATED1 (DET1) plays a critical role in developmental and environmental responses in many plants. To date, the functions of OsDET1 in rice (Oryza sativa) have been largely unknown. OsDET1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DET1 Here, we found that OsDET1 is essential for maintaining normal rice development. The repression of OsDET1 had detrimental effects on plant development, and leaded to contradictory phenotypes related to abscisic acid (ABA) in OsDET1 interference (RNAi) plants. We found that OsDET1 is involved in modulating ABA signaling in rice. OsDET1 RNAi plants exhibited an ABA hypersensitivity phenotype. Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we determined that OsDET1 interacts physically with DAMAGED-SPECIFIC DNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsDDB1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC10 (COP10); DET1- and DDB1-ASSOCIATED1 binds to the ABA receptors OsPYL5 and OsDDB1. We found that the degradation of OsPYL5 was delayed in OsDET1 RNAi plants. These findings suggest that OsDET1 deficiency disturbs the COP10-DET1-DDB1 complex, which is responsible for ABA receptor (OsPYL) degradation, eventually leading to ABA sensitivity in rice. Additionally, OsDET1 also modulated ABA biosynthesis, as ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in OsDET1 RNAi plants and promoted in OsDET1-overexpressing transgenic plants. In conclusion, our data suggest that OsDET1 plays an important role in maintaining normal development in rice and mediates the cross talk between ABA biosynthesis and ABA signaling pathways in rice. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Monte Carlo Simulations of Nano-Confined Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang

    Block copolymers consist of chemically distinct polymer chains (blocks) covalently bonded together. Unlike polymer blends exhibiting phase separation on a macroscopic scale, block copolymers spontaneously self-assemble into ordered microdomains on the length scale of tens of nanometers, a phenomenon known as microphase separation [1, 2]. Due to the uniformity and periodicity of these microdomains, block copolymers have great potential applications in nanotechnology (e.g., templates for nanolithography, nanowires, high-density storage devices, quantum dots, photonic crystals, nanostructured membranes, etc.) [3-5], where the size, shape and spatial arrangement of the microdomains (morphology) are utilized. Understanding, predicting and controlling the selfassembled morphology of block copolymers are therefore of paramount interest. For the simplest architecture of linear diblock copolymers AB, four morphologies have been determined to be thermodynamically stable in the bulk, depending on the temperature and the volume fractions of the two blocks: lamellae of alternating A-rich and B-rich layers, hexagonally packed cylinders of the minority component (A) in the matrix of the other component (B), A-spheres packed on a body-centered cubic lattice in the B-matrix, and bicontinuous gyroid phase [6,7]. For more complex molecular architectures such as linear triblock copolymers ABC, many other morphologies have been observed in experiments and their bulk phase behavior is not fully understood yet [2, 8]. In many applications, a solution of block copolymers is spin-coated on a supporting substrate (e.g., silicon wafer) to form a thin film of tens to hundreds of nanometers thick, and the copolymers microphase separate in the film upon solvent evaporation and/or annealing. Under such nano-confinement, the tendency to resemble the bulk morphology with its characteristic period L0, the surface-block interactions (surface preference) and the surface con- finement all have

  14. Nitric oxide and ABA in the control of plant function.

    PubMed

    Hancock, J T; Neill, S J; Wilson, I D

    2011-11-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. ABA has been extensively studied in the mechanisms which control stomatal movement as well as in seed dormancy and germination and plant development. The addition of either ABA or NO to plant cells is known to instigate the actions of many signal transduction components. Both may have an influence on the phosphorylation of proteins in cells mediated by effects on protein kinases and phosphatases, as well as recruiting a wide range of other signal transduction molecules to mediate the final effects. Both ABA and NO may also lead to the regulation of gene expression. However, it is becoming more apparent that NO may be acting downstream of ABA, with such action being mediated by reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide in some cases. However not all ABA responses require the action of NO. Here, examples of where ABA and NO have been put together into the same signal transduction pathways are discussed.

  15. Arabidopsis DREB2C modulates ABA biosynthesis during germination.

    PubMed

    Je, Jihyun; Chen, Huan; Song, Chieun; Lim, Chae Oh

    2014-09-12

    Plant dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) are transcriptional regulators of the APETELA2/Ethylene Responsive element-binding Factor (AP2/ERF) family that control expression of abiotic stress-related genes. We show here that under conditions of mild heat stress, constitutive overexpression seeds of transgenic DREB2C overexpression Arabidopsis exhibit delayed germination and increased abscisic acid (ABA) content compared to untransformed wild-type (WT). Treatment with fluridone, an inhibitor of the ABA biosynthesis abrogated these effects. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis-related gene, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 9 (NCED9) was up-regulated in the DREB2C overexpression lines compared to WT. DREB2C was able to trans-activate expression of NCED9 in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts in vitro. Direct and specific binding of DREB2C to a complete DRE on the NCED9 promoter was observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Exogenous ABA treatment induced DREB2C expression in germinating seeds of WT. Vegetative growth of transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines was more strongly inhibited by exogenous ABA compared to WT. These results suggest that DREB2C is a stress- and ABA-inducible gene that acts as a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis in germinating seeds through activating NCED9 expression.

  16. Highly protein-resistant coatings and suspension cell culture thereon from amphiphilic block copolymers prepared by RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Kubota, Kazuomi; Takada, Tetsuo; Mahara, Saori

    2014-06-09

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers composed of hydrophobic (poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate): M) and hydrophilic (poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide): D) segments were synthesized by living radical polymerization: a reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Two types of amphiphilic block copolymers, triblock (MDM) and 4-arm block ((MD)4) copolymers with specific compositions (D/M = (750-1500)/250), were prepared by a versatile one-pot synthesis. These copolymers show good adhesion to various types of substrates (e.g., polystyrene, polycarbonate, polypropylene, Ti, and glass), and the surface coating showed high protein repellency and a low contact angle for water, regardless of the substrate. The two opposing characteristics of high protein repellency and good substrate adhesion were achieved by the combined effects of the molecular architecture of the block copolymers, the high molecular weight, and the characteristics of each segment, that is, low protein adsorption capability of both segments and low glass transition temperature of the hydrophobic segment. Further, a polystyrene dish coated with the MDM block copolymer could be sterilized by γ-ray irradiation and used as a good substrate for a suspension cell culture that exhibits low cell adhesion and good cell growth.

  17. Drug-conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers: a novel approach for controlled delivery of hydrophilic drugs by micelle formation.

    PubMed

    Danafar, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Davaran, S; Hamidi, M

    2016-01-06

    A conjugate of the antihypertensive drug, lisinopril, with triblock poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymer was synthesized by the reaction of PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer with lisinopril in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The conjugated copolymer was characterized in vitro by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques. Then, the lisinopril conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the micelles formed by the lisinopril-conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA have spherical structure with the average size of 162 nm. The release behavior of conjugated copolymer, micelles and micelles physically loaded by lisinopril were compared in different media. In vitro release study showed that in contrast to physically loaded micelles, the release rate of micelles consisted of the conjugated copolymer was dependent on pH of media where it was higher at lower pH compared to the neutral medium. Another feature of the conjugated micelles was their more sustained release profile compared to the lisinopril-conjugated copolymer and physically loaded micelles.

  18. Improvement of Piezoelectricity of Poly(L-lactide) Film by Using Acrylic Symmetric Block Copolymer as Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Yuki; Onishi, Katsuki; Nakiri, Takuo; Imoto, Kenji; Ariura, Fumi; Miyabo, Atsushi; Date, Munehiro; Fukada, Eichi; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2013-09-01

    By using additives to change the higher-order structure of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) film, an improvement in its piezoelectricity was realized. The additive used was a triblock copolymer, which is a pure acrylic symmetric block copolymer consisting of a center block of poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA), corresponding to its soft part, and two side blocks of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), corresponding to its hard part. The triblock copolymer is hereafter denoted as PMMA-b-PBA-b-PMMA. The piezoelectric e-constant of the PLLA film with added PMMA-b-PBA-b-PMMA (PLLA/PMMA-PBA-PMMA film) was over two times higher than that of the PLLA film without adding PMMA-b-PBA-b-PMMA (reference PLLA film). Also, we found that the glass transition temperature increases with increasing PMMA-b-PBA-b-PMMA content. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, it was found that a new higher-order structure was formed in the PLLA/PMMA-PBA-PMMA film with high piezoelectricity. The method of using PMMA-b-PBA-b-PMMA has high productivity and its promising for industrial use.

  19. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  20. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  1. Preparation and characterization of tri-block poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) nanogels for controlled release of naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Asadi, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Salari, D; Hamidi, M

    2011-09-15

    Tri-block poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymers and related acrylated derivative were synthesized and used to prepare micelles and nanogels for controlled release of naltrexone. The resulting copolymers, micelles and nanogels were characterized by various techniques such as proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, photon correlation spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanogels exhibited high encapsulation efficiency around 60% and excellent stability for long periods of time. The drug release profiles of micelles and nanogels were compared and it was found that the naltrexone loaded nanogels offered a steady and long-term release pattern for different periods of time up to 35 days, depending on the crosslinker concentration, compared to the micelles. The size of nanogels could be manipulated easily in the range of 128-200nm by variations in polymer concentration used in the nanogels preparation step. From the results obtained it can be concluded that PLA-PEG-PLA nanogels can be considered as a promising carrier for drug delivery purpose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucose-induced delay of seed germination in rice is mediated by the suppression of ABA catabolism rather than an enhancement of ABA biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guohui; Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2009-03-01

    Both glucose and ABA play crucial roles in the regulation of seed germination and post-germination development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis is suggested as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the glucose-induced delay in seed germination. Since the endogenous ABA level is controlled by the equilibrium between ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, we investigated how this equilibrium is related to the regulation of seed germination by glucose in rice. When ABA biosynthesis was inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), an inhibitor of the ABA anabolic enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), rice seed germination showed no response. In contrast, inhibition of ABA catabolism by diniconazole significantly arrested seed germination, suggesting that the regulation of ABA catabolism plays a major role. Further experiments indicated that the expression of OsABA8ox3, a key gene in ABA catabolism and encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase in rice, was significantly increased during the first 6 h of imbibition, which was consistent with the decline of ABA content in the imbibed seeds. Expression of OsABA8ox genes, especially OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3, was sensitively suppressed in the presence of exogenously supplied glucose. In contrast, the expression profiles of OsNCED genes that control the limiting step of ABA biosynthesis showed no significant changes in response to low levels of glucose. Our results demonstrated that the glucose-induced delay of seed germination is a result of the suppression of ABA catabolism rather than any enhancement of ABA biosynthesis during rice seed germination.

  3. PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymer-based microspheres mediate cardiovascular differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liqing

    Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) based copolymers have received much attention as drug or growth factor delivery carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and tunable biophysical properties. Copolymers of PCL and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) also have shape memory behaviors and can be made into thermoresponsive shape memory polymers for various biomedical applications such as smart sutures and vascular stents. However, the influence of biophysical properties of PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers on stem cell lineage commitment is not well understood. In this study, PDMS was used as soft segments of varying length to tailor the biophysical properties of PCL-based co-polymers. While low elastic modulus (<10 kPa) of the tri-block copolymer PCL-PDMS-PCL affected cardiovascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the range of 60-100 MPa PCL-PDMS-PCL showed little influence on the differentiation. Then different size (30-140 mum) of microspheres were fabricated from PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers and incorporated within embryoid bodies (EBs). Mesoderm differentiation was induced using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 for cardiovascular differentiation. Differential expressions of mesoderm progenitor marker KDR and vascular markers CD31 and VE-cadherin were observed for the cells differentiated from EBs incorporated with microspheres of different size, while little difference was observed for cardiac marker alpha-actinin expression. Small size of microspheres (30 mum) resulted in higher expression of KDR while medium size of microspheres (94 mum) resulted in higher CD31 and VE-cadherin expression. This study indicated that the biophysical properties of PCL-based copolymers impacted stem cell lineage commitment, which should be considered for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  4. Nanostructure in block copolymer solutions: Rheology and small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Jean-Pierre; Pavie, Emmanuel; Perreur, Christelle; Lapp, Alain; Peyrelasse, Jean

    2004-12-01

    Triblock copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) present an amphiphilic character in aqueous solutions. Since PPO is less hydrophilic than PEO and since their solubilities decrease when the temperature increases, the copolymers self-assemble spontaneously, forming micelles at moderate temperatures. For higher temperatures or concentrations, the copolymers or the micelles are ordered because of repulsive interactions and form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases. These are phases of very great viscosity with the aspect of gels, and transitions between different crystalline phases can occur at fixed concentration during an increase of temperature. We studied solutions of three different copolymers. The first two have a star structure. They are both composed of four branches (EO){sub x}(PO){sub y} fixed on an ethylene diamine, but differ by the values of x and y. Their commercial name is Tetronic 908 (x=114, y=21) and Tetronic 704 (x=16, y=18). The third copolymer (EO){sub 37}(PO){sub 56}(EO){sub 37} is linear and is known under the name of Pluronic P105. The measurements of the shear complex elastic modulus according to the temperature is used to determine the temperatures of the different transitions. Then, small-angle neutron scattering on samples under flow and true crystallographic arguments make it possible to identify the nature of the crystalline phases. For the systems studied, we show that the branched copolymers form only one type of liquid crystalline phase, which is bcc for the T908 and lamellar for the T704. For the linear copolymer, it is possible to identify three transitions: micellar solution to hexagonal phase, hexagonal phase to body-centered cubic phase, and finally body-centered cubic phase to lamellar phase.

  5. Physiologically relevant, pH-responsive PEG-based block and statistical copolymers with N,N-diisopropylamine units†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annabelle; Lundberg, Pontus; Klinger, Daniel; Lee, Bongjae F.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to impart pH-responsiveness within a physiologically-relevant context to PEG-based biomaterials, a new tertiary amine containing repeat unit, N,N-diisopropyl ethanolamine glycidyl ether (DEGE), was developed and incorporated into statistical and block copolymers with ethylene oxide (EO), and allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) via anionic ring-opening polymerization. The reactivity of this novel monomeric building block in copolymerizations with EO was investigated by spectroscopy with observed reactivity ratios of rDEGE = 1.28 ± 0.14 and rEO = 0.82 ± 0.10. It was further demonstrated that DEGE containing copolymers could serve as building blocks for the formation of new pH-responsive materials with a pKa of ca. 9, which allowed macroscopic hydrogels to be prepared from symmetric triblock copolymers PDEGE5.3k-b-PEO20k-b-PDEGE5.3k. The triblock copolymers exhibited clear sol-to-gel transitions in a physiologically-relevant critical gelation range of pH 5.8–6.6 and pH-dependent viscoelastic properties. On the nanometer scale, the preparation of pH-responsive micro- or nanogels was demonstrated by crosslinking P(DEGE-co-AGE) copolymers in miniemulsion droplets stabilized by PEO-b-P(DEGE-co-AGE) diblock terpolymers. These nanoparticles exhibited a reversible pH-dependent swelling profile with a volume phase transition at physiological pH 6.5–7.5. PMID:25484931

  6. Synthesis of Block Copolymers of Varying Architecture Through Suppression of Transesterification during Coordinated Anionic Ring Opening Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lipik, Vitali T.; Abadie, Marc J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Well-defined di- and triblock copolymers consisting of ε-caprolactone (CL), L-lactide (LA), and trimethylene carbonate (TMC) were synthesized via “PLA first route” in coordinated anionic ring opening polymerization/copolymerization (CAROP) with tin (II) octoate as catalyst. The desired block structure was preserved by use of protective additive α-methylstyrene by preventing the transesterification side-reactions. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the protection mechanism is associated with α-methylstyrene and tin (II) octoate complexation. Additionally, it was shown that use of α-methylstyrene in ring opening polymerization allowed the formation of polyesters with high molar mass. PMID:22844286

  7. Segmented helical structures formed by ABC star copolymers in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meijiao; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Self-assembly of ABC star triblock copolymers confined in cylindrical nanopores is studied using self-consistent mean-field theory. With an ABC terpolymer forming hexagonally-arranged cylinders, segmented into alternative B and C domains, in the bulk, we observe the formation in the nanopore of a segmented single circular and non-circular cylinder, a segmented single-helix, and a segmented double-helix as stable phases, and a metastable stacked-disk phase with fourfold symmetry. The phase sequence from single-cylinder, to single-helix, and then to double-helix, is similar as that in the cylindrically-confined diblock copolymers except for the absence of an equilibrium stacked-disk phase. It is revealed that the arrangement of the three-arm junctions plays a critical role for the structure formation. One of the most interesting features in the helical structures is that there are two periods: the period of the B/C domains in the helix and the helical period. We demonstrate that the period numbers of the B/C domains contained in each helical period can be tuned by varying the pore diameter. In addition, it is predicted that the period number of B/C domains can be any rational in real helical structures whose helical period can be tuned freely.

  8. Characterization of the ABA signal transduction pathway in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-05-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants including the response to abiotic stress. ABA signal transduction consists of a double-negative regulatory mechanism, whereby ABA-bound PYR/RCARs inhibit PP2C activity, and PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s. We studied and analyzed the various genes participating in the ABA signaling cascade of the grape (Vitis vinifera). The grape ABA signal transduction consists of at least six SnRK2s. Yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between core components of grape ABA signal transduction. We found that a total of forty eight interactions can occur between the various components. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses such as drought, high salt concentration and cold, were applied to vines growing in a hydroponic system. These stresses regulated the expression of various grape SnRK2s as well as ABFs in leaves and roots. Based on the interactions between SnRK2s and its targets and the expression pattern, we suggest that VvSnRK2.1 and VvSnRK2.6, can be considered the major VvSnRK2 candidates involved in the stomata response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, we found that the expression pattern of the two grape ABF genes indicates organ specificity of these genes. The key role of ABA signaling in response to abiotic stresses makes the genes involve in this signaling potential candidates for manipulation in programs designed to improve fruit tree performance in extreme environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. abaA controls phialide differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, T C; Mims, C W; Timberlake, W E

    1990-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is an ascomycetous fungus that reproduces asexually by forming multicellular conidiophores and uninucleate spores called conidia. Loss of function mutations in the abacus A (abaA) regulatory locus result in formation of aberrant conidiophores that fail to produce conidia. Wild-type conidiophores form two tiers of sterigmata. The first tier, metulae, divide to produce the second tier, phialides. Phialides are sporogenous cells that produce conidia through a specialized apical budding process. We have examined conidiophore development in an abaA- strain at the ultrastructural level. The results showed that in the mutant metulae produce supernumerary tiers of cells with metula-like, rather than phialide-like, properties. Temperature shift experiments with an abaA14ts strain demonstrated that abaA+ function induced phialide formation by the aberrant abacus cells and was continuously required for maintenance of phialide function. In the absence of abaA+ activity, metulae simply proliferated and later developmental steps never occurred. We conclude that abaA+ directs the differentiation of phialides and is continuously required for maintenance of their function. PMID:2152124

  10. Before and beyond ABA: upstream sensing and internal signals that determine ABA accumulation and response under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Verslues, P E; Zhu, J-K

    2005-04-01

    Sensing and signalling events that detect abiotic stress-induced changes in plant water status and initiate downstream stress responses such as ABA (abscisic acid) accumulation and osmoregulation remain uncharacterized in plants. Although conclusive results are lacking, recent results from plants, and analogies to signalling in other organisms, suggest possible mechanisms for sensing altered water status and initial transduction of that signal. Internal signals that act downstream of ABA and modulate stress responses to reflect the type and severity of the stress and the metabolic status of the plant are also not well understood. Two specific types of signalling, sugar sensing and reactive oxygen signalling, are likely to be modulators of ABA response under stress. For both upstream sensing and signalling of plant water status as well as downstream modulation of ABA response, present results suggest several genetic strategies with high potential to increase our understanding of the molecular basis by which plants sense and respond to altered water status.

  11. PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymeric micelles as oral drug delivery system: In vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiufen; Chen, Jianzhong; Li, Bowen; Yang, Xiang; Zeng, Rongjie; Liu, Yajun; Li, Tao; Ho, Rodney J Y; Shao, Jingwei

    2017-03-15

    Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) triblock copolymers (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) has been proven to be desirable for anti-cancer drug delivery by intravenous administration. But till now there is no report of developing this micelle as a sustained oral formulation for cancer therapy. 3β-acetoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid hexamethylenediamine (US597), a derivative of natural product ursolic acid has been developed as a novel cancer metastasis chemopreventive agent by us. Herein, we developed a new oral dosage formulation of PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri-block micelles loaded with US597 (US597@micelles). US597@micelles was prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation method, and characterized in regards to mean diameter (<100nm), drug loading (25.9-28.5%), zeta potential (5.76-10.65mV) and encapsulation efficiency (55.7-74.3%), respectively. In vitro, US597@micelles could ameliorate sustained drug release, inhibit cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis (46.6% of late apoptosis), and influence the integrity of nuclei and mitochondrial on HepG2. Moreover, in vivo pharmacokinetic study by UPLC/MS/MS method demonstrated better absorption, metabolism and elimination characters of US597@micelles as an oral dosage form (Cmax=53±49ng/mL, t1/2=8.716±7.033h) over free US597 (Cmax=14±11ng/mL, t1/2=16.433±8.821h). In conclusion, PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles as a promising oral drug delivery system are able to improve the bioavailability and efficacy of US597 in cancer therapy.

  12. Multicompartment Core Micelles of Triblock Terpolymers in Organic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Schacher, Felix; Walther, Andreas; Ruppel, Markus A; Drechsler, Markus; Muller, Axel

    2009-01-01

    The formation of multicompartment micelles featuring a spheres on sphere core morphology in acetone as a selective solvent is presented. The polymers investigated are ABC triblock terpolymers, polybutadieneb-poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-b-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (BVT), which were synthesized via living sequential anionic polymerization in THF. Two polymers with different block lengths of the methacrylate moiety were studied with respect to the formation of multicompartmental aggregates. The micelles were analyzed by static and dynamic light scattering as well as by transmission electron microscopy. Cross-linking of the polybutadiene compartment could be accomplished via two different methods, cold vulcanization and with photopolymerization after the addition of a multifunctional acrylate. In both cases, the multicompartmental character of the micellar core is fully preserved, and the micelles could be transformed into core-stabilized nanoparticles. The successful cross-linking of the polybutadiene core is indicated by 1H NMR and by the transfer of the aggregates into nonselective solvents such as THF or dioxane.

  13. ESCRT-I Component VPS23A Affects ABA Signaling by Recognizing ABA Receptors for Endosomal Degradation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feifei; Lou, Lijuan; Tian, Miaomiao; Li, Qingliang; Ding, Yanglin; Cao, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Yaorong; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Yang, Shuhua; Xie, Qi

    2016-12-05

    Recent discovery of PYR/PYL/RCAR-type abscisic acid (ABA) receptors has become one of most significant advances in plant science in the past decade. In mammals, endosomal sorting acts as an important pathway to downregulate different types of receptors, but its role in plant hormone signaling is poorly understood. Here, we report that an ubiquitin E2-like protein, VPS23A, which is a key component of ESCRT-I, negatively regulates ABA signaling. VPS23A has epistatic relationship with PYR/PYL/RCAR-type ABA receptors and disruption of VPS23A enhanced the activity of key kinase OST1 in the ABA signaling pathway under ABA treatment. Moreover, VPS23A interacts with PYR1/PYLs and K63-linked diubiquitin, and PYL4 possesses K63-linked ubiquitinated modification in vivo. Further analysis revealed that VPS23A affects the subcellular localization of PYR1 and the stability of PYL4. Taken together, our results suggest that VPS23A affects PYR1/PYL4 via vacuole-mediated degradation, providing an advanced understanding of both the turnover of ABA receptors and ESCRTs in plant hormone signaling.

  14. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  15. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism.

  16. A multiscale modeling study of loss processes in block-copolymer-based solar cell nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Donets, Sergii; Pershin, Anton; Christlmaier, Martin J A; Baeurle, Stephan A

    2013-03-07

    Flexible photovoltaic devices possess promising perspectives in opto-electronic technologies, where high mobility and/or large-scale applicability are important. However, their usefulness in such applications is currently still limited due to the low level of optimization of their performance and durability. For the improvement of these properties, a better understanding and control of small-scale annihilation phenomena involved in the photovoltaic process, such as exciton loss and charge carrier loss, is necessary, which typically implicates multiple length- and time-scales. Here, we study the causes for their occurrence on the example of nanostructured diblock- and triblock-copolymer systems by making use of a novel solar-cell simulation algorithm and explore new routes to optimize their photovoltaic properties. A particular focus is set on the investigation of exciton and charge carrier loss phenomena and their dependence on the inter-monomeric interaction strength, chain architecture, and external mechanical loading. Our simulation results reveal that in the regime from low up to intermediate χ-parameters an increasing number of continuous percolation paths is created. In this parameter range, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) increases up to a maximum, characterized by a minimum in the number of charge losses due to charge recombination. In the regime of high χ-parameters both block-copolymer systems form nanostructures with a large number of bottlenecks and dead ends. These lead to a large number of charge losses due to charge recombination, charge trapping, and a deteriorated exciton dissociation, resulting in a significant drop in the IQE. Moreover, we find that the photovoltaic performance of the triblock-copolymer material decreases with increasing mechanical loading, caused by a growing number of charge losses due to charge recombination and charge accumulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the process of charge trapping in defects can be reversed

  17. Fabrication of Ordered Mesoporous Silica with Encapsulated Iron Oxide Particles using Ferritin-Doped Block Copolymer Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, D.; Watkins, J.; Naik, R.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, two-dimensional arrays of iron oxide clusters were fabricated by dip-coating a silica substrate into an aqueous solution. Here we report the encapsulation of ferritin in 3D mesoporous silica structures by the replication of block copolymer templates in supercritical CO2. In our approach, preparation of the highly ordered, doped template via spincasting and microphase separation and silica network formation occur in discreet steps. A solution of an amphiphilic PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (Pluronic) template, horse spleen ferritin and a low concentration of PTSA acid was prepared and spin-coated onto a Si wafer. Upon drying the block copolymer microphase separates resulting in partitioning of the acid catalyst and ferritin to the hydrophilic domain. The polymer template was then exposed to a solution of supercritical carbon dioxide and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at 125 bar and 40^oC. Equilibrium limited CO2 sorption in the block copolymer template resulted in modest dialation of the microphase segregated structure. Under these conditions, the precursor was readily infused into the copolymer and reacted within the hydrophilic domain containing the acid catalyst. The resultant film was calcined in air at 400^oC for 6 hours producing a well-ordered iron oxide-doped mesoporous silica film. TEM and XRD revealed crystalline iron oxide structures within the mesoporous silica supports. Magnetic properties were analyzed using a superconducting quantum intereference device (SQUID).

  18. Thermoresponsive gelling behavior of concentrated alumina suspensions containing poly(acrylic acid) and PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Akira; Xu, Hui; Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio

    2012-05-01

    Thermoresponsive gelling behavior of concentrated alumina suspensions with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and triblock copolymer (PEO(101)-PPO(56)-PEO(101), Pluronic F127) was investigated as a function of PAA concentration (0.4-1.2 mass%) for ceramic solid free forming. The copolymer species assemble into micelles at temperatures above 15°C, yielding aqueous physical gel. In this study, the concentrated alumina aqueous suspensions (φ=35 vol%) were first prepared using the anionic dispersant of PAA, and then the copolymer species (10 mass%) were dissolved at a cooled temperature at 10°C. The addition of the copolymer species had a negligible influence on the adsorption state of PAA onto the alumina surfaces. The PAA concentration needed for the saturation adsorption on the alumina surfaces was ~0.6 mass%. When the PAA concentration was this value or slightly less, the suspension became gel state at 30°C from low viscous state at 10°C. The thermally induced alumina gel had excellent viscoelastic properties, and thereby the three dimensional periodic ceramic structures were successfully fabricated by a direct colloidal printing method that using the gels as "solid" inks at the room temperature. On the other hand, when it exceeded the saturation adsorption limit, the gelling behavior was not observed, indicating that the non-adsorbing PAA species may partly suppress the micellization of the copolymer on the heating.

  19. Separation of parent homopolymers from polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) based block copolymers by liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption-3. Study of barrier efficiency according to block copolymers' chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Rollet, Marion; Pelletier, Bérengère; Berek, Dušan; Maria, Sébastien; Phan, Trang N T; Gigmes, Didier

    2016-09-02

    Liquid Chromatography under Limiting Conditions of Desorption (LC LCD) is a powerful separation tool for multicomponent polymer systems. This technique is based on a barrier effect of an appropriate solvent, which is injected in front of the sample, and which decelerates the elution of selected macromolecules. In this study, the barrier effects have been evaluated for triblock copolymers polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PS-b-PEO-b-PS) according to the content of polystyrene (wt% PS) and PEO-block molar mass. PS-b-PEO-b-PS samples were prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The presence of respective parent homopolymers was investigated by applying optimized LC LCD conditions. It was found that the barrier composition largely affects the efficiency of separation and it ought to be adjusted for particular composition range of block copolymers.

  20. The effect of the triblock properties on the morphologies and photophysical properties of nanoparticle loaded with carboxylic dendrimer phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Huafei; Chen, Zhe; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Sujuan; Zhang, Tiantian; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging alternative treatment for various cancers and age-related macular degeneration. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) and their substituted derivatives are under intensive investigation as the second generation photosensitizers. A big challenge for the application of Pcs is poor solubility and limited accumulation in the tumor tissues, which severely reduced its PDT efficacy. Nano-delivery systems such as polymeric micelles are promising tools for increasing the solubility and improving delivery efficiency of Pcs for PDT application. In this paper, nanoparticles of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(L-lysine)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) were developed to encapsulate 1-2 generation carboxylic poly (benzyl aryl ether) dendrimer. The morphologies and photophysical properties of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with 1-2 generation dendritic phthalocyanines (G1-ZnPc(COOH)8/m and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m) were studied by AFM, UV/Vis and fluorescent spectroscopic method. The morphologies of self-assembled PLL-PEG-PLL aggregates exhibited concentration dependence. Its morphologies changed from cocoon-like to spheral. The diameters of G1-ZnPc(COOH)8/m and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m were in the range of 33-147 nm, increasing with the increase of the concentration of PLL-PEG-PLL. The morphologies of G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m also changed from cocoon-like to sphere with the increase of the concentration of PLL-PEG-PLL. It was found that, the no obviously Q change was observed between the free phthalocyanines and nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity of polymer nanoparticles were higher enhanced compared with free dendritic phthalocyanines. The dendrimer phthalocyanine loaded with poly(L-lysine)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) presented suitable physical stability, improved photophysical properties suggesting it may be considered as a promising formulation for PDT.

  1. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Minjie; Liu, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xiaoqian; Zhou, X Edward; Melcher, Karsten; Gao, Pan; Wang, Fuxing; Zeng, Liang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses. ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling. It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought, cold and soil salinity. However, chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application of ABA itself. Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors. In Arabidopsis, AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA. Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination, prevent leaf water loss, and promote drought resistance. We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C, which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latch-lock interacting network, a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex. Together, these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress. Moreover, the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules. PMID:23835477

  2. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Peuke, Andreas D.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. PMID:27440939

  3. Morphological study of the organization behavior of rod-coil copolymers and their blends in thin solid films.

    PubMed

    Tzanetos, Nikos P; Dracopoulos, Vassilis; Kallitsis, Joannis K; Deimede, Valadoula A

    2005-09-27

    A detailed study of the self-assembly ability of triblock coil-rod-coil copolymers containing a rigid di(styryl)-anthracene segment covalently linked to oxadiazole-based blocks and their binary blends with oxadiazole-based homopolymers is presented here. The self-organized microdomains seem to pack into a fascinating ordered hexagonal structure obtained at a critical concentration without any significant influence of the sample preparation method, based on evidence obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy studies. The compatibilization efficiency of these coil-rod-coil copolymers in polymer blends composed of an electron-accepting polyoxadiazole and a luminescent polyanthracene-based pair was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The common feature of all observed morphologies is the compatibilizing function of the rod-coil molecule, which intercalates between the incompatible domains to prevent the formation of well-defined phase separated nanostructured surfaces.

  4. Inhibition of FUSCA3 degradation at high temperature is dependent on ABA signaling and is regulated by the ABA/GA ratio.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Rex Shun; Saleh, Yazan; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    During seed imbibition at supra-optimal temperature, an increase in the abscisic acid (ABA)/gibberellin (GA) ratio imposes secondary dormancy to prevent germination (thermoinhibition). FUSCA3 (FUS3), a positive regulator of seed dormancy, accumulates in seeds imbibed at high temperature and increases ABA levels to inhibit germination. Recently, we showed that ABA inhibits FUS3 degradation at high temperature, and that ABA and high temperature also inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system, by dampening both proteasome activity and protein polyubiquitination. Here, we investigated the role of ABA signaling components and the ABA antagonizing hormone, GA, in the regulation of FUS3 levels. We show that the ABA receptor mutant, pyl1-1, is less sensitive to ABA and thermoinhibition. In this mutant background, FUS3 degradation in vitro is faster. Similarly, GA alleviates thermoinhibition and also increases FUS3 degradation. These results indicate that inhibition of FUS3 degradation at high temperature is dependent on a high ABA/GA ratio and a functional ABA signaling pathway. Thus, FUS3 constitutes an important node in ABA-GA crosstalk during germination at supra-optimal temperature.

  5. Structural basis for selective activation of ABA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Francis C.; Burgie, E. Sethe; Park, Sang-Youl; Jensen, Davin R.; Weiner, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Chang, Chia-En A.; Cutler, Sean R.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-11-01

    Changing environmental conditions and lessening fresh water supplies have sparked intense interest in understanding and manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which controls adaptive responses to drought and other abiotic stressors. We recently discovered a selective ABA agonist, pyrabactin, and used it to discover its primary target PYR1, the founding member of the PYR/PYL family of soluble ABA receptors. To understand pyrabactin's selectivity, we have taken a combined structural, chemical and genetic approach. We show that subtle differences between receptor binding pockets control ligand orientation between productive and nonproductive modes. Nonproductive binding occurs without gate closure and prevents receptor activation. Observations in solution show that these orientations are in rapid equilibrium that can be shifted by mutations to control maximal agonist activity. Our results provide a robust framework for the design of new agonists and reveal a new mechanism for agonist selectivity.

  6. Assessment battery for communication (ABaCo): normative data.

    PubMed

    Angeleri, Romina; Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-09-01

    The Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo) was introduced to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with cerebral lesions. The battery is organized into five evaluation scales focusing on separate components of pragmatic competence. In the present study, we present normative data for individuals 15-75 years of age (N = 300). The sample was stratified by age, sex, and years of education, according to Italian National Institute of Statistics indications in order to be representative of the general national population. Since performance on the ABaCo decreases with age and lower years of education, the norms were stratified for both age and education. The ABaCo is a valuable tool in clinical practice; the normative data provided here will enable clinicians to determine different kinds and specific levels of communicative impairments more precisely.

  7. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0-10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm(3) cm(-3) for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction.

  8. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R.; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0–10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm3 cm–3 for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. PMID:25547916

  9. The Top 10 Reasons Children With Autism Deserve ABA

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a “Top Ten List,” and illustrating most points with stories of an engaging child with autism (my son, Ben). PMID:22532906

  10. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G.; Matzger, Adam J.; Benin, Annabelle I.; Willis, Richard R.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  11. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  12. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  13. Ultraviolet absorbing copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Amitava; Yavrouian, Andre H.

    1982-01-01

    Photostable and weather stable absorping copolymers have been prepared from acrylic esters such as methyl methacrylate containing 0.1 to 5% of an 2-hydroxy-allyl benzophenone, preferably the 4,4' dimethoxy derivative thereof. The pendant benzophenone chromophores protect the acrylic backbone and when photoexcited do not degrade the ester side chain, nor abstract hydrogen from the backbone.

  14. Triblock polymers of the bab type having hydrophobic association capabilities for rheological control in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, G. D.; Dennis, K. S.; Evani, S.

    1985-03-19

    The rheology of aqueous liquids is effectively controlled by the addition to the liquid of a water-dispersible BAB triblock polymer wherein the B blocks are hydrophobic blocks such as alkyl or sulfonated poly (t-butylstyrene) and the A block is a hydrophilic block such as sulfonated poly (vinyltoluene).

  15. A stable nanoplatform for antitumor activity using PEG-PLL-PLA triblock co-polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chaemin; Sim, Taehoon; Hoang, Ngoc Ha; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2017-05-01

    Polyelectrolyte has been proposed as an efficient approach for various types of drug formulations. However, one drawback of using the conventional polyelectrolyte for drug delivery is its dissociation in in vivo conditions by counter ions due to the lack of self-assembling aggregation force. In this study, we reported a stable nanoplatform based on triblock co-polyelectrolyte composed of a poly(ethylene glycol), poly(l-lysine), and poly(lactic acid). These co-polyelectrolytes formed stable aggregates through the hydrophobic interaction of PLA and showed consistent particle sizes under a high salt concentration. In addition, the doxorubicin (Dox) loaded triblock co-polyelectrolyte demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake and drug cytotoxicity with a positive charge from the poly(l-lysine) layer. In vivo, the triblock aggregates exhibited intensive accumulation at the targeted tumor site for 24h with good antitumor therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the prepared stable triblock co-polyelectrolyte may have considerable potential as a nanomedicinal platform for anticancer and multi-drug combination therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of sialylated or sulfated derivatives and acrylamide copolymers of Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- and GalNAc alpha- to determine the specificities of blood group T- and Tn-specific lectins and the copolymers to measure anti-T and anti-Tn antibody levels in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Jain, R K; Chandrasekaran, E V; Matta, K L

    1995-02-01

    Sialylated or sulfated derivatives and acrylamide copolymers of blood group T-(Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-) and Tn-(GalNAc alpha) haptens were studied for their interaction with the lectins of peanut (PNA), Agaricus bisporus-(ABA), Helix pomatia-(HPA) and Vicia villosa B4-(VVA), using asialo Cowper's gland mucin (ACGM), which contains both T and Tn epitopes, as the coating substrate in enzyme linked lectin assay. Both T and Tn copolymers (-40 haptens) showed high affinity and strict specificity; although the T-copolymer at 0.05-0.07 microM concentration caused 50% inhibition of interaction of either PNA or ABA with ACGM, there was little inhibition of the HPA and VVA interactions even at over 100 times that concentration. The Tn-copolymer at 0.02-0.05 microM inhibited HPA or VVA interaction with ACGM by 50% but gave virtually no inhibition of PNA and ABA binding. Sialyl, sulfate or methyl group substitution on C-6 of GalNAc of the T-haptene did not prevent interaction with PNA but almost abolished interaction with ABA. In contrast, sialyl or sulfate group on C-6 and sulfate on C-3 of Gal in Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- inhibited almost completely the interaction of PNA with ACGM but had only a slight effect on the interaction of ABA; C-6 substitution with either sialic acid or sulfate on GalNAc alpha- almost abolished the interaction of both HPA and VVA with ACGM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. ABI1 regulates carbon/nitrogen-nutrient signal transduction independent of ABA biosynthesis and canonical ABA signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Sasaki, Yuki; Li, Xingwen; Mori, Izumi C; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hirayama, Takashi; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Plants are able to sense and mediate the balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient availability to optimize metabolism and growth, described as the C/N response. To clarify the C/N signalling mechanism, C/N-insensitive plants were obtained from an Arabidopsis FOX hunting population, which over-expresses full-length cDNAs for individuals. The resulting cni2-D (carbon/nitrogen insensitive 2-dominant) plant was found to overcome the post-germination growth checkpoint and to expand green cotyledons in disrupted high C/low N stress conditions. The CNI2 gene encodes ABI1, a phosphatase type 2C protein, which negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Over-expressors of ABI1 were found to be insensitive to disrupted C/N stress, whereas the loss-of function mutant abi1-2 was hypersensitive, suggesting that ABI1 plays an essential role in the plant C/N response. By contrast, the C/N-dependent growth phenotype observed in wild-type plants was not associated with endogenous ABA content. Accordingly, the ABA-insensitive mutant abi1-1, which could not bind to the ABA-ABA receptor complex, was not insensitive and restored normal sensitivity to high C/low N stress. The canonical ABA signalling mutants abi4 and abi5 were also sensitive to disrupted C/N stress. Further gene expression analysis demonstrated that several genes in the SnRK2s and SnRK1s pathways are transcriptionally affected by high C/low N stress in wild-type plants regardless of the lack of increased endogenous ABA contents, whereas the expression of these genes were significantly suppressed in ABI1 over-expressors. Taken together, these results suggest direct cross-talk between C/N and non-canonical ABA signalling pathways, regulated by ABI1, in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Improved cold tolerance in Elymus nutans by exogenous application of melatonin may involve ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Wu, Ye; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yamei; Zhao, Enhua; Wang, Jin; Sun, Huaien; Liu, Qian; Xue, Yongwei; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is an important secondary messenger that plays a central role in plant growth, as well as abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin-mediated cold tolerance, especially interactions between melatonin and other key molecules in the plant stress response, remain unknown. Here, the interrelation between melatonin and abscisic acid (ABA) was investigated in two genotypes of Elymus nutans Griseb., the cold-tolerant Damxung (DX) and the cold-sensitive Gannan (GN) under cold stress. Pre-treatment with exogenous melatonin or ABA alleviated oxidative injury via scavenging ROS, while enhancing both antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant contents. Treatment of fluridone, an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor caused membrane lipid peroxidation and lowered melatonin-induced antioxidant defense responses. It is worth noting that cold stress significantly induced both endogenous melatonin and ABA levels in both genotypes. Application of melatonin increased ABA production, while fluridone significantly suppressed melatonin-induced ABA accumulation. ABA and fluridone pre-treatments failed to affect the endogenous melatonin concentration. Moreover, exogenous melatonin up-regulated the expression of cold-responsive genes in an ABA-independent manner. These results indicate that both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways may contribute to melatonin-induced cold tolerance in E. nutans. PMID:28045095

  19. Mussel-inspired antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Ling; Tian, Yu; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-11-11

    This work reports the preparation of antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops using a mussel-inspired ABA triblock copolymer using a simple drop coating method. With similar end graft density, the loop-bearing surfaces show a more enhanced protein-reduction performance than the brush-bearing surfaces.

  20. Sans Studies Insight Into Improving of Yield of Block Copolymer-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Debes; Aswal, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) are well known as dispersion stabilizers. It has also been recently found that they can act as reducing agents along with stabilizers and these two properties of block copolymers together have provided a single-step synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles at ambient temperature. We have studied the synthesis of stable gold nanoparticle solutions using block copolymer P85. Gold nanoparticles are prepared from 1 wt% aqueous solution of P85 mixed with varying concentration of HAuCl4.3H2O salt in the range 0.001 to 0.1 wt%. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in UV-visible absorption spectra confirm the formation of the gold nanoparticles and the maximum yield of the nanoparticles is found to be quite low at 0.005 wt% of the salt solution. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements in these systems suggest that a very small fraction of the block copolymers (<1%) is only associated with the gold nanoparticles and remaining form their own micelles, which probably results in the low yield. This can be explained as on an average a high block copolymer-to-gold ion ratio r0 (22) is required for 1 wt% P85 in the reduction reaction to produce gold nanoparticles. Based on this understanding, a step-addition method is used to enhance the yield of gold nanoparticles by manifold where the gold salt is added in small steps to maintain higher value of r(>r0) and therefore continuous formation of nanoparticles.

  1. Morphological structure and properties relationship for rubber modified polypropylene-g-polystyrene copolymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Adewole, A.; Mascia, L.; Gogos, C.

    1996-12-31

    As produced reactor copolymer, obtained by in-reactor grafting polymerization technology is a two-phase rigid copolymer which combines the best attributes of semi-crystalline polypropylene and those of amorphous polystyrene. In the process, the compatibilizer, PP-g-PS and the non-olefinic polymer component, PS are simultaneously generated from the monomer styrene. The reactor product, which has higher modulus but lower impact-resistance is further toughened by incorporation of EPR (ethylene propylene rubber) and SEBS (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer, via intensive melt-mixing downstream extruder operation. A similarly produced graft copolymer, PP-g-LLDPE has been shown to be an effective compatibilizer for recycled polyolefinic streams. Hence, the motivation to assess the efficacy of the PP-g-PS copolymer as a compatibilizer for commingled polyolefinic and polystyrene recycled streams. Therefore, we have formulated both {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} analogues and {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} blends of the reactor product, aiming to determine the influence on blend properties, of the critical components, such as the free polystyrene (PS), the grafted polystyrene (g-PS) or chemical compatibilizer, SEBS or physical compatibilizer and the EPR rubber modifier. In mixing experiments off-line, hot stage microscopy on polymer carcass samples was used to monitor morphology evolution and dispersion rate. Using fracture mechanics approach, material properties such as critical stress intensity factor, Kc and critical strain energy release rate, Gc were determined to elucidate the rubber toughening process for the polyblend. Characterization techniques such as DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) were used to examine samples before and after annealing.

  2. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  3. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253,…

  4. Personality Traits Associated with Occupational "Burnout" in ABA Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Amy A.; Grist, Cathy Lann; Malesky, Lann A., Jr.; McCord, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists typically work one-to-one with children with autism for extended periods of time, which often leads to high levels of job-related stress, lower levels of job satisfaction, increased frequency of occupational "burnout" and higher than average job turnover (Journal of Autism…

  5. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253,…

  6. Personality Traits Associated with Occupational "Burnout" in ABA Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Amy A.; Grist, Cathy Lann; Malesky, Lann A., Jr.; McCord, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists typically work one-to-one with children with autism for extended periods of time, which often leads to high levels of job-related stress, lower levels of job satisfaction, increased frequency of occupational "burnout" and higher than average job turnover (Journal of Autism…

  7. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  8. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  9. Investigating the role of ABA signaling in wheat drought tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the three major cereal crops supporting human nutrition. Because wheat is often grown under dryland conditions, it is subject to losses as a result of drought stress. This study examines the role of the plant hormone ABA is wheat responses to wate...

  10. New amphiphilic glycopolymers by click functionalization of random copolymers – application to the colloidal stabilisation of polymer nanoparticles and their interaction with concanavalin A lectin

    PubMed Central

    Otman, Otman; Boullanger, Paul; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Summary Glycopolymers