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Sample records for aba-deficient flacca tomato

  1. Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalizing shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Ian C; Theobald, Julian C; Richer, Sarah K; Davies, William J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the role of root-synthesized ABA in regulating growth and stomatal behaviour under well-watered conditions, isogenic wild-type (WT) and ABA-deficient flacca (flc) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reciprocally and self-grafted just below the cotyledonary node. Since flc scions had lower leaf water potentials due to higher transpiration rates, a subset of all graft combinations was grown under a shoot misting treatment to minimize differences in shoot water status. Misting did not alter the relative effects of the different graft combinations on leaf area. WT scions had the greatest leaf area and lowest whole plant transpiration rate irrespective of the rootstock, implying that shoot ABA biosynthesis was sufficient to account for a WT shoot phenotype. In WT scions, the rootstock had no effect on detached leaf ethylene evolution or xylem concentrations of ABA or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In flc scions, although the WT rootstock suppressed stomatal conductance of individual leaves, there was no detectable effect on whole plant transpiration rate. However, leaf area of flc/WT (scion/rootstock) plants increased 1.6-fold compared to flc self-grafts. WT rootstocks increased xylem ABA concentration in flc scions (relative to flc self-grafts) up to 3-fold, and resulted in xylem ACC concentrations and detached leaf ethylene evolution similar to WT scions. Since the WT rootstock normalized shoot ethylene relations but only partially restored the leaf area of flc scions (relative to that of WT scions), shoot ABA biosynthesis can directly promote leaf area via an unknown, ethylene-independent, mechanism.

  2. The dynamics of embolism refilling in abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Francesca; Perrone, Irene; Chitarra, Walter; Zwieniecka, Anna K; Lovisolo, Claudio; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-12-24

    Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant's refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants) were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA) or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant's capacity for refilling.

  3. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Deficient Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Perrone, Irene; Chitarra, Walter; Zwieniecka, Anna K.; Lovisolo, Claudio; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants) were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA) or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling. PMID:23263667

  4. Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-11-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth.

  5. Variations in the mycorrhization characteristics in roots of wild-type and ABA-deficient tomato are accompanied by specific transcriptomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Garrido, José Manuel García; Morcillo, Rafael Jorge León; Rodríguez, José Angel Martín; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo

    2010-05-01

    Abscissic acid (ABA) determines mycorrhiza functionality and arbuscule development. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis in response to different mycorrhization status according to the ABA content in the root to identify genes that may play a role in arbuscule functionality. Affymetrix Tomato GeneChip (approximately 10,000 probes) allowed us to detect and compare the transcriptional root profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) wild-type and ABA-deficient sitiens plants colonized by Glomus intraradices. A number of identified genes in tomato belong to a category of genes already described as "mycorrhizal core-set" in other host plants. The impairment in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation in ABA-deficient mutants was associated with upregulation of genes related to defense and cell wall modification, whereas functional mycorrhization in wild-type plants was associated with activation of genes related to isoprenoid metabolism. The oxylipin pathway was activated in tomato mycorrhizal roots at late stages of interaction, and was related to the control of fungal spread in roots, not with the establishment of the symbiosis. Induction of selected genes, representing a range of biological functions and representative of the three sets of genes specifically upregulated in the different plant phenotype, was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and their response to phythohormone treatment was tested, showing that ethylene and jasmonic acid are key regulators of gene expression during AM development. Comparative analysis of mycorrhiza upregulated functional categories revealed significant changes in gene expression associated with the different mycorrhization status according to the ABA content in the roots.

  6. Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tal, M.; Imber, D.

    1970-01-01

    The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the control variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared with regard to the endogenous activity and concentration of auxin- and abscisic acid-like substances during ontogeny. The mutant wilts fast under water deficit because of inability to close its stomata. Symptoms characteristic of excessive auxin are evident in the developing mutant. Among these symptoms are branch and leaf epinasty, excessive rooting along the stem, and increased apical dominance. By using a leucine-incorporation assay, spray of whole plants with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and wheat coleoptile bioassay, indications were found of an excess of activity and concentration of auxin-like substances in shoots of young and mature mutant plants. The wheat coleoptile bioassay also revealed a much lower amount of substances with abscisic acid-like activity in the mutant compared with the normal plant. In contrast to the appearance during ontogeny of morphological symptoms characteristic of auxin excess in the mutant, the absolute amount of auxin-like substances and their activity in incorporation of leucine decreased with age. A parallel decrease of the concentration and activity of auxin-like compounds was also found in the normal plant. The concentration of abscisic acid-like substances increased with age in both genotypes. The disagreement between the increasing morphological symptoms and the decrease of auxin-like activity and concentration is discussed, together with the possibility of a causal relationship between auxin-and abscisic acid-like activity and stomatal behavior. PMID:16657470

  7. Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tal, M.; Imber, D.; Itai, C.

    1970-01-01

    The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the normal variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared for kinetin-like activity in ontogeny. The mutant wilts easily because its stomata resist closure. This stomatal resistance decreases with age. The occurrence of a root factor which induces stomatal opening was inferred from grafting experiments. It was hypothesized that the excessive stomatal openings in the mutant may result from excess of kinetin-like activity in the leaf of that plant. In addition, it was suggested that the closure of stomata in the aging mutant is due to a decrease of kinetin-like activity with age. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf was determined by incorporation of labeled leucine. The concentration of cytokinins in root exudate and leaf extract was determined by the soybean callus assay. Evidence was presented of higher kinetin-like activity in the leaves of the mutant and higher cytokinin concentration in its root exudate. Cytokinin concentration in the shoot was found to be only slightly higher in the mutant than in the normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf and cytokinin concentration of root exudate decreased with age in both mutant and normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaves of mutant plants, which phenocopy the normal variety as a result of continuous application of abscisic acid, was lower than in control mutant plants. The significance of these findings per se and in connection with stomatal behavior is discussed. PMID:16657469

  8. Plant responses to drought stress and exogenous ABA application are modulated differently by mycorrhization in tomato and an ABA-deficient mutant (sitiens).

    PubMed

    Aroca, Ricardo; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Vernieri, Paolo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study are to find out whether the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis on plant resistance to water deficit are mediated by the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content of the host plant and whether the exogenous ABA application modifies such effects. The ABA-deficient tomato mutant sitiens and its near-isogenic wild-type parental line were used. Plant development, physiology, and expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by AM symbiosis, drought, and ABA were studied. Results showed that only wild-type tomato plants responded positively to mycorrhizal inoculation, while AM symbiosis was not observed to have any effect on plant development in sitiens plants grown under well-watered conditions. The application of ABA to sitiens plants enhanced plant growth both under well-watered and drought stress conditions. In respect to sitiens plants subjected to drought stress, the addition of ABA had a cumulative effect in relation to that of inoculation with G. intraradices. Most of the genes analyzed in this study showed different regulation patterns in wild-type and sitiens plants, suggesting that their gene expression is modulated by the plant ABA phenotype. In the same way, the colonization of roots with the AM fungus G. intraradices differently regulated the expression of these genes in wild-type and in sitiens plants, which could explain the distinctive effect of the symbiosis on each plant ABA phenotype. This also suggests that the effects of the AM symbiosis on plant responses and resistance to water deficit are mediated by the plant ABA phenotype.

  9. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found.

  10. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND 03 ON RICE AND FLACCA TOMATO

    EPA Science Inventory

    All atmospheric concentrations of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (03) are increasing, with potentially dramatic effects on plants. This study was conducted to determine interactive effects of CO2 and 03 on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 74) and a 'wilty' mutant of tomato (Lyco...

  11. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND 03 ON RICE AND FLACCA TOMATO

    EPA Science Inventory

    All atmospheric concentrations of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (03) are increasing, with potentially dramatic effects on plants. This study was conducted to determine interactive effects of CO2 and 03 on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 74) and a 'wilty' mutant of tomato (Lyco...

  12. Concurrent overactivation of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase and the GABA shunt in the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato leads to resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Hamed Soren; Curvers, Katrien; De Vleesschauwer, David; Delaere, Ilse; Aziz, Aziz; Höfte, Monica

    2013-07-01

    Deficiency of abscisic acid (ABA) in the sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) culminates in increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea through a rapid epidermal hypersensitive response (HR) and associated phenylpropanoid pathway-derived cell wall fortifications. This study focused on understanding the role of primary carbon : nitrogen (C : N) metabolism in the resistance response of sitiens to B. cinerea. How alterations in C : N metabolism are linked with the HR-mediated epidermal arrest of the pathogen has been also investigated. Temporal alterations in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle and phenylpropanoid pathway were transcriptionally, enzymatically and metabolically monitored in both wild-type and sitiens plants. Virus-induced gene silencing, microscopic analyses and pharmacological assays were used to further confirm the data. Our results on the sitiens-B. cinerea interaction favor a model in which cell viability in the cells surrounding the invaded tissue is maintained by a constant replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through overactivation of the GS/GOGAT cycle and the GABA shunt, resulting in resistance through both tightly controlling the defense-associated HR and slowing down the pathogen-induced senescence. Collectively, this study shows that maintaining cell viability via alterations in host C : N metabolism plays a vital role in the resistance response against necrotrophic pathogens. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Zamarreño, Ángel María; García-Mina, José María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-01-25

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca and sitiens and their near-isogenic wild-type parental lines were used. Growth, stomatal conductance, shoot hormone concentration, competition assay for colonization of tomato root tips, and root expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by ABA and PGPR were examined. Contrary to the wild-type plants in which PGPR stimulated growth rates, PGPR caused growth inhibition in ABA-deficient mutant plants. PGPR also triggered an over accumulation of ethylene in ABA-deficient plants which correlated with a higher expression of the pathogenesis-related gene Sl-PR1b. Positive correlation between over-accumulation of ethylene and a higher expression of Sl-PR1b in ABA-deficient mutant plants could indicate that maintenance of normal plant endogenous ABA content may be essential for the growth promoting action of B. megaterium by keeping low levels of ethylene production.

  14. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca and sitiens and their near-isogenic wild-type parental lines were used. Growth, stomatal conductance, shoot hormone concentration, competition assay for colonization of tomato root tips, and root expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by ABA and PGPR were examined. Results Contrary to the wild-type plants in which PGPR stimulated growth rates, PGPR caused growth inhibition in ABA-deficient mutant plants. PGPR also triggered an over accumulation of ethylene in ABA-deficient plants which correlated with a higher expression of the pathogenesis-related gene Sl-PR1b. Conclusions Positive correlation between over-accumulation of ethylene and a higher expression of Sl-PR1b in ABA-deficient mutant plants could indicate that maintenance of normal plant endogenous ABA content may be essential for the growth promoting action of B. megaterium by keeping low levels of ethylene production. PMID:24460926

  15. The effect of competition from neighbours on stomatal conductance in lettuce and tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, Lidiya; Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J; Arkhipova, Tatyana; Kudoyarova, Guzel

    2011-05-01

    Competition decreased transpiration from young lettuce plants after 2 days, before any reductions in leaf area became apparent, and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) of lettuce and tomato plants was also reduced. Stomatal closure was not due to hydraulic signals or competition for nutrients, as soil water content, leaf water status and leaf nitrate concentrations were unaffected by neighbours. Competition-induced stomatal closure was absent in an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato mutant, flacca, indicating a fundamental involvement of ABA. Although tomato xylem sap ABA concentrations were unaffected by the presence of neighbours, ABA/pH-based stomatal modulation is still likely to underlie the response to competition, as soil and xylem sap alkalization was observed in competing plants. Competition also modulated leaf ethylene production, and treatment of lettuce plants with an ethylene perception inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene) diminished the difference in g(s) between single and competing plants grown in a controlled environment room, but increased it in plants grown in the greenhouse: ethylene altered the extent of the stomatal response to competition. Effects of competition on g(s) are discussed in terms of the detection of the absence of neighbours: increases in g(s) and carbon fixation may allow faster initial space occupancy within an emerging community/crop.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  18. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutant aba4 demonstrates that the major route for stress-induced ABA accumulation is via neoxanthin isomers.

    PubMed

    North, Helen M; De Almeida, Aurélie; Boutin, Jean-Pierre; Frey, Anne; To, Alexandra; Botran, Lucy; Sotta, Bruno; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2007-06-01

    A novel abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant, aba4, was identified in a screen for paclobutrazol-resistant germination. Compared with wild-type, the mutant showed reduced endogenous ABA levels in both dehydrated rosettes and seeds. Carotenoid composition analysis demonstrated that the defective locus affects neoxanthin synthesis. The ABA4 gene was identified by map-based cloning, and found to be a unique gene in the Arabidopsis genome. The predicted protein has four putative helical transmembrane domains and shows significant similarity to predicted proteins from tomato, rice and cyanobacteria. Constitutive expression of the ABA4 gene in Arabidopsis transgenic plants led to increased accumulation of trans-neoxanthin, indicating that the ABA4 protein has a direct role in neoxanthin synthesis. aba4 mutant phenotypes were mild compared with previously identified ABA-deficient mutants that exhibit vegetative tissue phenotypes. Indeed, ABA levels in seeds of aba4 mutants were higher than those of aba1 mutants. As aba1 mutants are also affected in a unique gene, this suggests that ABA can be produced in the aba4 mutant by an alternative pathway using violaxanthin as a substrate. It appears, therefore, that in Arabidopsis both violaxanthin and neoxanthin are in vivo substrates for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. Furthermore, significantly reduced levels of ABA were synthesized in the aba4 mutant on dehydration, demonstrating that ABA biosynthesis in response to stress must occur mainly via neoxanthin isomer precursors.

  19. NH4+ protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection.

  20. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    NH4 + nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 + nutrition (N-NH4 +)-induced resistance (NH4 +-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 + toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 +-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 +-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 + plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 + nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  1. Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome mapping and marker assisted selection are increasingly being adopted for tomato improvement. Vast amounts of technical and basic genomic information such as DNA and EST sequences, DNA markers, comparative linkage maps, introgression lines, mutant stocks, bioinformatics resources are availabl...

  2. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  3. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T

    2012-04-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage.

  4. Endogenous abscisic acid promotes hypocotyl growth and affects endoreduplication during dark-induced growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Humplík, Jan F; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jandová, Michaela; Šimura, Jan; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tomanec, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings.

  5. Endogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Hypocotyl Growth and Affects Endoreduplication during Dark-Induced Growth in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Humplík, Jan F.; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jandová, Michaela; Šimura, Jan; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tomanec, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings. PMID:25695830

  6. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  7. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    PubMed

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA. For that, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ethylene overproducer epinastic (epi) mutant and the ABA-deficient notabilis (not) and sitiens (sit) mutants, in the same Micro-Tom (MT) genetic background, were inoculated with Rhizophagus clarus, and treated with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The development of AM, as well as the steady-state levels of transcripts involved in ethylene (LeACS2, LeACO1 and LeACO4) and ABA (LeNCED) biosynthesis, was determined. The intraradical colonization in epi, not and sit mutants was significantly reduced compared to MT. The epi mutant completely restored the mycorrhizal colonization to the levels of MT with the application of 10 µM of AVG, probably due to the inhibition of the ACC synthase gene expression. The steady-state levels of LeACS2 and LeACO4 transcripts were induced in mycorrhizal roots of MT, whereas the steady-state levels of LeACO1 and LeACO4 transcripts were significantly induced in sit, and the steady-state levels of LeNCED transcripts were significantly induced in all genotypes and in mycorrhizal roots of epi mutants treated with AVG. The reduced mycorrhizal colonization in sit mutants seems not to be limited by ethylene production via ACC oxidase regulation. Both ethylene overproduction and ABA deficiency impaired AM fungal

  8. Ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent ABA regulation of tomato plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; León-Morcillo, Rafael; Vierheilig, Horst; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between ABA and ethylene regulating the formation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and tried to define the specific roles played by each of these phytohormones in the mycorrhization process. We analysed the impact of ABA biosynthesis inhibition on mycorrhization by Glomus intraradices in transgenic tomato plants with an altered ethylene pathway. We also studied the effects on mycorrhization in sitiens plants treated with the aminoethoxyvinyl glycine hydrochloride (AVG) ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor and supplemented with ABA. In addition, the expression of plant and fungal genes involved in the mycorrhization process was studied. ABA biosynthesis inhibition qualitatively altered the parameters of mycorrhization in accordance with the plant's ethylene perception and ethylene biosynthesis abilities. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in wild-type plants negatively affected all the mycorrhization parameters studied, while tomato mutants impaired in ethylene synthesis only showed a reduced arbuscular abundance in mycorrhizal roots. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis in ABA-deficient sitiens plants increased the intensity of mycorrhiza development, while ABA application rescued arbuscule abundance in the root's mycorrhizal zones. The results of our study show an antagonistic interaction between ABA and ethylene, and different roles of each of the two hormones during AM formation. This suggests that a dual ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent mechanism is involved in ABA regulation of AM formation.

  9. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Pye, Matthew F; Hakuno, Fumiaki; Macdonald, James D; Bostock, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-S-methyl-ester, BTH) and Tiadinil [N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL]. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in wild-type and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by Phytophthora capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  10. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Matthew F.; Hakuno, Fumiaki; MacDonald, James D.; Bostock, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-S-methyl-ester, BTH) and Tiadinil [N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL]. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in wild-type and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by Phytophthora capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA. PMID:23653630

  11. Abscisic acid deficiency causes changes in cuticle permeability and pectin composition that influence tomato resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Curvers, Katrien; Seifi, Hamed; Mouille, Grégory; de Rycke, Riet; Asselbergh, Bob; Van Hecke, Annelies; Vanderschaeghe, Dieter; Höfte, Herman; Callewaert, Nico; Van Breusegem, Frank; Höfte, Monica

    2010-10-01

    A mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with reduced abscisic acid (ABA) production (sitiens) exhibits increased resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. This resistance is correlated with a rapid and strong hydrogen peroxide-driven cell wall fortification response in epidermis cells that is absent in tomato with normal ABA production. Moreover, basal expression of defense genes is higher in the mutant compared with the wild-type tomato. Given the importance of this fast response in sitiens resistance, we investigated cell wall and cuticle properties of the mutant at the chemical, histological, and ultrastructural levels. We demonstrate that ABA deficiency in the mutant leads to increased cuticle permeability, which is positively correlated with disease resistance. Furthermore, perturbation of ABA levels affects pectin composition. sitiens plants have a relatively higher degree of pectin methylesterification and release different oligosaccharides upon inoculation with B. cinerea. These results show that endogenous plant ABA levels affect the composition of the tomato cuticle and cell wall and demonstrate the importance of cuticle and cell wall chemistry in shaping the outcome of this plant-fungus interaction.

  12. Tomato Preserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  13. Tomato Preserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  14. Abscisic Alcohol Is an Intermediate in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in a Shunt Pathway from Abscisic Aldehyde 1

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Christopher D.; Heath, Timothy G.; Gage, Douglas A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are impaired in ABA-aldehyde oxidation and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol as a result of the biosynthetic block (IB Taylor, RST Linforth, RJ Al-Naieb, WR Bowman, BA Marples [1988] Plant Cell Environ 11: 739-745). Here we report that the flacca and sitiens mutants accumulate trans-ABA and trans-ABA glucose ester and that this accumulation is due to trans-ABA biosynthesis. 18O labeling of water-stressed wild-type and mutant tomato leaves and analysis of [18O]ABA by tandem mass spectrometry show that the tomato mutants synthesize a significant percentage of their ABA and trans-ABA as [18O]ABA with two 18O atoms in the carboxyl group. We further show, by feeding experiments with [2H6]ABA-alcohol and 18O2, that this doubly-carboxyl-labeled ABA is synthesized from [18O]ABA-alcohol with incorporation of molecular oxygen. In vivo inhibition of [2H6]ABA-alcohol oxidation by carbon monoxide establishes the involvement of a P-450 monooxygenase. Likewise, carbon monoxide inhibits the synthesis of doubly-carboxyl-labeled ABA in 18O-labeling experiments. This minor shunt pathway from ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol to ABA operates in all plants examined. For the ABA-deficient mutants impaired in ABA-aldehyde oxidation, this shunt pathway is an important source of ABA and is physiologically significant. PMID:16668451

  15. Abscisic acid levels in tomato ovaries are regulated by LeNCED1 and SlCYP707A1.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Lisette Maria Catharina; Oplaat, Carla; Feron, Richard; Ma, Qian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Hedden, Peter; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim Hendrik

    2009-05-01

    Although the hormones, gibberellin and auxin, are known to play a role in the initiation of fruits, no such function has yet been demonstrated for abscisic acid (ABA). However, ABA signaling and ABA responses are high in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) ovaries before pollination and decrease thereafter (Vriezen et al. in New Phytol 177:60-76, 2008). As a first step to understanding the role of ABA in ovary development and fruit set in tomato, we analyzed ABA content and the expression of genes involved in its metabolism in relation to pollination. We show that ABA levels are relatively high in mature ovaries and decrease directly after pollination, while an increase in the ABA metabolite dihydrophaseic acid was measured. An important regulator of ABA biosynthesis in tomato is 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1), whose mRNA level in ovaries is reduced after pollination. The increased catabolism is likely caused by strong induction of one of four newly identified putative (+)ABA 8'-hydroxylase genes. This gene was named SlCYP707A1 and is expressed specifically in ovules and placenta. Transgenic plants, overexpressing SlCYP707A1, have reduced ABA levels and exhibit ABA-deficient phenotypes suggesting that this gene encodes a functional ABA 8'-hydroxylase. Gibberellin and auxin application have different effects on the LeNCED1 and SlCYP707A1 gene expression. The crosstalk between auxins, gibberellins and ABA during fruit set is discussed.

  16. Gibberellin-Abscisic Acid Balances during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, José A; Huertas, Raúl; Ho-Plágaro, Tania; Ocampo, Juan A; Turečková, Veronika; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; García-Garrido, José M

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones have become appropriate candidates for driving functional plant mycorrhization programs, including the processes that regulate the formation of arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Here, we examine the role played by ABA/GA interactions regulating the formation of AM in tomato. We report differences in ABA and GA metabolism between control and mycorrhizal roots. Active synthesis and catabolism of ABA occur in AM roots. GAs level increases as a consequence of a symbiosis-induced mechanism that requires functional arbuscules which in turn is dependent on a functional ABA pathway. A negative interaction in their metabolism has been demonstrated. ABA attenuates GA-biosynthetic and increases GA-catabolic gene expression leading to a reduction in bioactive GAs. Vice versa, GA activated ABA catabolism mainly in mycorrhizal roots. The negative impact of GA3 on arbuscule abundance in wild-type plants is partially offset by treatment with ABA and the application of a GA biosynthesis inhibitor rescued the arbuscule abundance in the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant. These findings, coupled with the evidence that ABA application leads to reduce bioactive GA1, support the hypothesis that ABA could act modifying bioactive GA level to regulate AM. Taken together, our results suggest that these hormones perform essential functions and antagonize each other by oppositely regulating AM formation in tomato roots.

  17. Gibberellin–Abscisic Acid Balances during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, José A.; Huertas, Raúl; Ho-Plágaro, Tania; Ocampo, Juan A.; Turečková, Veronika; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; García-Garrido, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones have become appropriate candidates for driving functional plant mycorrhization programs, including the processes that regulate the formation of arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Here, we examine the role played by ABA/GA interactions regulating the formation of AM in tomato. We report differences in ABA and GA metabolism between control and mycorrhizal roots. Active synthesis and catabolism of ABA occur in AM roots. GAs level increases as a consequence of a symbiosis-induced mechanism that requires functional arbuscules which in turn is dependent on a functional ABA pathway. A negative interaction in their metabolism has been demonstrated. ABA attenuates GA-biosynthetic and increases GA-catabolic gene expression leading to a reduction in bioactive GAs. Vice versa, GA activated ABA catabolism mainly in mycorrhizal roots. The negative impact of GA3 on arbuscule abundance in wild-type plants is partially offset by treatment with ABA and the application of a GA biosynthesis inhibitor rescued the arbuscule abundance in the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant. These findings, coupled with the evidence that ABA application leads to reduce bioactive GA1, support the hypothesis that ABA could act modifying bioactive GA level to regulate AM. Taken together, our results suggest that these hormones perform essential functions and antagonize each other by oppositely regulating AM formation in tomato roots. PMID:27602046

  18. Abscisic Acid Deficiency Causes Changes in Cuticle Permeability and Pectin Composition That Influence Tomato Resistance to Botrytis cinerea1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Curvers, Katrien; Seifi, Hamed; Mouille, Grégory; de Rycke, Riet; Asselbergh, Bob; Van Hecke, Annelies; Vanderschaeghe, Dieter; Höfte, Herman; Callewaert, Nico; Van Breusegem, Frank; Höfte, Monica

    2010-01-01

    A mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with reduced abscisic acid (ABA) production (sitiens) exhibits increased resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. This resistance is correlated with a rapid and strong hydrogen peroxide-driven cell wall fortification response in epidermis cells that is absent in tomato with normal ABA production. Moreover, basal expression of defense genes is higher in the mutant compared with the wild-type tomato. Given the importance of this fast response in sitiens resistance, we investigated cell wall and cuticle properties of the mutant at the chemical, histological, and ultrastructural levels. We demonstrate that ABA deficiency in the mutant leads to increased cuticle permeability, which is positively correlated with disease resistance. Furthermore, perturbation of ABA levels affects pectin composition. sitiens plants have a relatively higher degree of pectin methylesterification and release different oligosaccharides upon inoculation with B. cinerea. These results show that endogenous plant ABA levels affect the composition of the tomato cuticle and cell wall and demonstrate the importance of cuticle and cell wall chemistry in shaping the outcome of this plant-fungus interaction. PMID:20709830

  19. Abscisic acid in salt stress predisposition to phytophthora root and crown rot in tomato and chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Dileo, Matthew V; Pye, Matthew F; Roubtsova, Tatiana V; Duniway, John M; Macdonald, James D; Rizzo, David M; Bostock, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment with complex signaling networks, often under control of phytohormones that generate positive and negative crosstalk among downstream effectors of the response. Accordingly, brief dehydration stresses such as salinity and water deficit, which induce a rapid and transient systemic increase in levels of abscisic acid (ABA), can influence disease response pathways. ABA has been associated with susceptibility of plants to bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes but relatively little attention has been directed at its role in abiotic stress predisposition to root pathogens. This study examines the impact of brief salinity stress on infection of tomato and chrysanthemum roots by Phytophthora spp. Roots of plants in hydroponic culture exposed to a brief episode of salt (sodium chloride) stress prior to or after inoculation were severely diseased relative to nonstressed plants. Tomato roots remained in a predisposed state up to 24 h following removal from the stress. An increase in root ABA levels in tomato preceded or temporally paralleled the onset of stress-induced susceptibility, with levels declining in roots prior to recovery from the predisposed state. Exogenous ABA could substitute for salt stress and significantly enhanced pathogen colonization and disease development. ABA-deficient tomato mutants lacked the predisposition response, which could be restored by complementation of the mutant with exogenous ABA. In contrast, ethylene, which exacerbates disease symptoms in some host-parasite interactions, did not appear to contribute to the predisposition response. Thus, several lines of evidence support ABA as a critical and dominant factor in the salinity-induced predisposition to Phytophthora spp. infection.

  20. A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Flors, Víctor; Paradís, Mercedes; García-Andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accumulation. Salinity-induced oxidative stress was also ameliorated by DAAME treatments. Oxidative membrane damage and ethylene emission were both reduced in DAAME-treated plants. This effect is probably a consequence of an increase of both non-enzymatic antioxidant activity as well as peroxidase activity. DAAME-mediated tolerance resulted in an unaltered photosynthetic rate and a stimulation of the decrease in transpiration under stress conditions without a cost in growth due to salt stress. The reduction in transpiration rate was concomitant with a reduction in phytotoxic Na+ and Cl− accumulation under saline stress. Interestingly, the ABA deficient tomato mutant sitiens was insensitive to DAAME-induced tolerance following NaCl stress exposure. Additionally, DAAME treatments increased the ABA content of leaves, therefore, an intact ABA signalling pathway seems to be important to express DAAME-induced salt tolerance. Here, we show a possibility of enhance tomato stress tolerance by chemical induction of the major plant defences against salt stress. DAAME-induced tolerance against salt stress could be complementary to or share elements with induced resistance against biotic stress. This might be the reason for the observed wide spectrum of effectiveness of this compound. PMID:19516968

  1. Dormancy and Germination of Abscisic Acid-Deficient Tomato Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Steven P. C.; Karssen, Cees M.

    1992-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the dormancy induction of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seeds was studied by comparison of the germination behavior of the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant with that of the isogenic wild-type genotype. Freshly harvested mutant seeds, in contrast to wild-type seeds, always readily germinate and even exhibit viviparous germination in overripe fruits. Crosses between mutant and wild-type and self-pollination of heterozygous plants show that in particular the ABA fraction of embryo and endosperm is decisive for the induction of dormancy. After-ripened wild-type seeds fully germinate in water but are more sensitive toward osmotic inhibition than mutant seeds. Germination of both wild-type and mutant seeds is equally sensitive toward inhibition by exogenous ABA. ABA content of mature wild-type seeds is about 10-fold the level found in mutant seeds. Nevertheless, it is argued that the differences in dormancy between the seeds of both genotypes are not a result of actual ABA levels in the mature seeds or fruits but a result of differences in ABA levels during seed development. It is hypothesized that the high levels of ABA that occur during seed development in wild-type seeds induce an inhibition of cell elongation of the radicle that can still be observed after long periods of dry storage. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16669024

  2. ABA-alcohol is an intermediate in abscisic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been established that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to ABA. The ABA-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are blocked in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol. {sup 18}O-Labeling studies of ABA in flacca and sitiens show that these mutants synthesize a large percentage of ({sup 18}O)ABA which contains two {sup 18}O atoms in the carboxyl group. Furthermore, the mutants synthesize much greater amounts of trans-ABA-glucose ester (t-ABA-GE) compared with the wild type, and this ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE is also double labeled in the carboxyl group. Our interpretation of these data is that the {sup 18}O in ABA-aldehyde is trapped in the side chain by reduction to ({sup 18}O)ABA-alcohol, followed by isomerization to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-alcohol and oxidation with {sup 18}O{sub 2} to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA. The ({sup 18}O)t-ABA is then rapidly converted to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE. Because ({sup 18}O)ABA doubly labeled in the carboxyl group has been observed in small amounts in labeling experiments with several species, and various species have been shown to convert ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol and t-ABA-alcohol, we propose that ABA-alcohol is an ABA intermediate in a shunt pathway.

  3. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  4. Cross-talk modulation between ABA and ethylene by transcription factor SlZFP2 during fruit development and ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xiao, Han

    2015-01-01

    The stress hormone ABA not only regulates stress response, but is also required for plant development and growth. Some evidences indicate that ABA plays a pivotal role in the ripening process of non climacteric as well as climacteric fruits. In a recent study, we showed that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transcription factor SlZFP2 fine tunes ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of ABA biosynthetic genes and it also regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator CNR. This indicates that SlZFP2 likely modulates the cross-talk between ABA and ethylene in regulation of fruit development and ripening in tomato. Gene expression analysis using ABA deficient mutants sit and flc as well as the SlZFP2 RNAi lines of high fruit ABA production showed that ethylene biosynthetic genes LeACS1A, LeACS1 and LeACO1 were positively regulated by ABA during early fruit growth. We reason that ABA promotes basal ethylene biosynthesis in system 1 during fruit growth and likely plays a minor role in ripening regulation after the onset of ripening process.

  5. Abscisic acid deficiency leads to rapid activation of tomato defence responses upon infection with Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed

    Asselbergh, Bob; Achuo, Andrew Enow; Höfte, Monica; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the important role of abscisic acid (ABA) in abiotic stress signalling, basal and high ABA levels appear to have a negative effect on disease resistance. Using the ABA-deficient sitiens tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant and different application methods of exogenous ABA, we demonstrated the influence of this plant hormone on disease progression of Erwinia chrysanthemi. This necrotrophic plant pathogenic bacterium is responsible for soft rot disease on many plant species, causing maceration symptoms mainly due to the production and secretion of pectinolytic enzymes. On wild-type (WT) tomato cv. Moneymaker E. chrysanthemi leaf inoculation resulted in maceration both within and beyond the infiltrated zone of the leaf, but sitiens showed a very low occurrence of tissue maceration, which never extended the infiltrated zone. A single ABA treatment prior to infection eliminated the effect of pathogen restriction in sitiens, while repeated ABA spraying during plant development rendered both WT and sitiens very susceptible. Quantification of E. chrysanthemi populations inside the leaf did not reveal differences in bacterial growth between sitiens and WT. Sitiens was not more resistant to pectinolytic cell-wall degradation, but upon infection it showed a faster and stronger activation of defence responses than WT, such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation, peroxidase activation and cell-wall fortifications. Moreover, the rapid activation of sitiens peroxidases was also observed after application of bacteria-free culture filtrate containing E. chrysanthemi cell-wall-degrading enzymes and was absent during infection with an out E. chrysanthemi mutant impaired in secretion of these extracellular enzymes.

  6. Carbon dioxide enrichment alleviates heat stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis through an ABA-independent process in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Ahammed, G J; Zhang, Y Q; Zhang, G Q; Sun, Z H; Zhou, J; Zhou, Y H; Xia, X J; Yu, J Q; Shi, K

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO₂ and high temperature are critically regulated through a complex network of phytohormones and redox homeostasis. However, the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in plant adaptation to heat stress under elevated CO₂ conditions has not been thoroughly studied. This study investigated the interactive effects of elevated CO₂ (800 μmol·mol(-1) ) and heat stress (42 °C for 24 h) on the endogenous level of ABA and the cellular redox state of two genotypes of tomato with different ABA biosynthesis capacities. Heat stress significantly decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and leaf water potential, but also increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both genotypes. Heat-induced damage was more severe in the ABA-deficient mutant notabilis (not) than in its parental cultivar Ailsa Craig (Ailsa), suggesting that a certain level of endogenous ABA is required to minimise the heat-induced oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Irrespective of genotype, the enrichment of CO₂ remarkably stimulated Fv/Fm, MDA and EL in heat-stressed plants towards enhanced tolerance. In addition, elevated CO₂ significantly strengthened the antioxidant capacity of heat-stressed tomato seedlings towards a reduced cellular redox state for a prolonged period, thereby mitigating oxidative stress. However, elevated CO₂ and heat stress did not alter the endogenous level of ABA or the expression of its biosynthetic gene NCED2 in either genotype, indicating that ABA is not involved in elevated CO₂ -induced heat stress alleviation. The results of this study suggest that elevated CO₂ alleviated heat stress through efficient regulation of the cellular redox poise in an ABA-independent manner in tomato plants.

  7. Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Differentially Influence Tomato Resistance to Combined Powdery Mildew and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kissoudis, Christos; Seifi, Alireza; Yan, Zhe; Islam, A. T. M. Tanjimul; van der Schoot, Hanneke; van de Wiel, Clemens C. M.; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. G.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge on the role of hormones in plants responses to combinations of abiotic and pathogen stress factors. This study focused on the response of tomato near-isogenic lines (NILs) that carry the Ol-1, ol-2, and Ol-4 loci, conferring resistance to tomato powdery mildew (PM) caused by Oidium neolycopersici, to combined PM and salt stress. These NILs were crossed with the notabilis (ABA-deficient), defenceless1 (JA-deficient), and epinastic (ET overproducer) tomato mutants to investigate possible roles of hormone signaling in response to combined stresses. In the NILs, marker genes for hormonal pathways showed differential expression patterns upon PM infection. The epinastic mutation resulted in breakdown of resistance in NIL-Ol-1 and NIL-ol-2. This was accompanied by reduced callose deposition, and was more pronounced under combined salt stress. The notabilis mutation resulted in H2O2 overproduction and reduced susceptibility to PM in NIL-Ol-1 under combined stress, but lead to higher plant growth reduction under salinity and combined stress. Resistance in NIL-ol-2 was compromised by the notabilis mutation, which was potentially caused by reduction of callose deposition. Under combined stress the compromised resistance in NIL-ol-2 was restored. PM resistance in NIL-Ol-4 remained robust across all mutant and treatment combinations. Hormone signaling is critical to the response to combined stress and PM, in terms of resistance and plant fitness. ABA appears to be at the crossroads of disease susceptibility/senescence and plant performance under combined stress These gained insights can aid in narrowing down targets for improving crop performance under stress combinations. PMID:28119708

  8. Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Differentially Influence Tomato Resistance to Combined Powdery Mildew and Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Kissoudis, Christos; Seifi, Alireza; Yan, Zhe; Islam, A T M Tanjimul; van der Schoot, Hanneke; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C G; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge on the role of hormones in plants responses to combinations of abiotic and pathogen stress factors. This study focused on the response of tomato near-isogenic lines (NILs) that carry the Ol-1, ol-2, and Ol-4 loci, conferring resistance to tomato powdery mildew (PM) caused by Oidium neolycopersici, to combined PM and salt stress. These NILs were crossed with the notabilis (ABA-deficient), defenceless1 (JA-deficient), and epinastic (ET overproducer) tomato mutants to investigate possible roles of hormone signaling in response to combined stresses. In the NILs, marker genes for hormonal pathways showed differential expression patterns upon PM infection. The epinastic mutation resulted in breakdown of resistance in NIL-Ol-1 and NIL-ol-2. This was accompanied by reduced callose deposition, and was more pronounced under combined salt stress. The notabilis mutation resulted in H2O2 overproduction and reduced susceptibility to PM in NIL-Ol-1 under combined stress, but lead to higher plant growth reduction under salinity and combined stress. Resistance in NIL-ol-2 was compromised by the notabilis mutation, which was potentially caused by reduction of callose deposition. Under combined stress the compromised resistance in NIL-ol-2 was restored. PM resistance in NIL-Ol-4 remained robust across all mutant and treatment combinations. Hormone signaling is critical to the response to combined stress and PM, in terms of resistance and plant fitness. ABA appears to be at the crossroads of disease susceptibility/senescence and plant performance under combined stress These gained insights can aid in narrowing down targets for improving crop performance under stress combinations.

  9. Expression of a GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene in Tomato Seeds Is Up-Regulated before Maturation Desiccation and Again after Imbibition whenever Radicle Protrusion Is Prevented1

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Bruce; Gurusinghe, Sunitha; Dahal, Petambar; Thacker, Richard R.; Snyder, John C.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki; Yim, Kyuock; Fukanaga, Keith; Alvarado, Veria; Bradford, Kent J.

    2003-01-01

    Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) have been implicated in mitigating the effects of environmental stresses on plants. In seeds, proposed roles for RFOs include protecting cellular integrity during desiccation and/or imbibition, extending longevity in the dehydrated state, and providing substrates for energy generation during germination. A gene encoding galactinol synthase (GOLS), the first committed enzyme in the biosynthesis of RFOs, was cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) seeds, and its expression was characterized in tomato seeds and seedlings. GOLS (LeGOLS-1) mRNA accumulated in developing tomato seeds concomitant with maximum dry weight deposition and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. LeGOLS-1 mRNA was present in mature, desiccated seeds but declined within 8 h of imbibition in wild-type seeds. However, LeGOLS-1 mRNA accumulated again in imbibed seeds prevented from completing germination by dormancy or water deficit. Gibberellin-deficient (gib-1) seeds maintained LeGOLS-1 mRNA amounts after imbibition unless supplied with gibberellin, whereas abscisic acid (ABA) did not prevent the loss of LeGOLS-1 mRNA from wild-type seeds. The presence of LeGOLS-1 mRNA in ABA-deficient (sitiens) tomato seeds indicated that wild-type amounts of ABA are not necessary for its accumulation during seed development. In all cases, LeGOLS-1 mRNA was most prevalent in the radicle tip. LeGOLS-1 mRNA accumulation was induced by dehydration but not by cold in germinating seeds, whereas both stresses induced LeGOLS-1 mRNA accumulation in seedling leaves. The physiological implications of LeGOLS-1 expression patterns in seeds and leaves are discussed in light of the hypothesized role of RFOs in plant stress tolerance. PMID:12644684

  10. Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), β-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-β-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

  11. Suppression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, which encodes a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis, alters fruit texture in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), β-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-β-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp).

  12. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  13. Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Elms, Nancy P; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2002-01-01

    Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to report two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato and characterize the responsible allergen. We reviewed the history and documentation of tomato-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) of two patients with adverse symptoms after ingesting tomato. Fresh tomato extracts prepared from the skin, seeds, and flesh of red, ripe tomatoes were evaluated for total protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize the tomato protein. IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the patients' serum against the various tomato extracts was accomplished and IgE immunoblot was performed. Percutaneous skin tests or radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) were positive to tomato in both patients. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. Similar total protein contents were found in each of the tomato extracts and gel electrophoresis revealed similar protein profile for skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. The two cases show that severe allergic reactions to tomato occur in adults and one is associated with IgE binding to a 43-kDa protein.

  14. Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

  15. The Tomato Expression Atlas.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Zheng, Yi; Snyder, Stephen I; Nicolas, Philippe; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Fei, Zhangjun; Catala, Carmen; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Mueller, Lukas A

    2017-08-01

    With the development of new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and decreasing costs, large gene expression datasets are being generated at an accelerating rate, but can be complex to visualize. New, more interactive and intuitive tools are needed to visualize the spatiotemporal context of expression data and help elucidate gene function. Using tomato fruit as a model, we have developed the Tomato Expression Atlas to facilitate effective data analysis, allowing the simultaneous visualization of groups of genes at a cell/tissue level of resolution within an organ, enhancing hypothesis development and testing in addition to candidate gene identification. This atlas can be adapted to different types of expression data from diverse multicellular species. The Tomato Expression Atlas is available at http://tea.solgenomics.net/ . Source code is available at https://github.com/solgenomics/Tea . jr286@cornell.edu or lam87@cornell.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  17. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The tomato genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tomato genome sequence was undertaken at a time when state-of-the-art sequencing methodologies were undergoing a transition to co-called next generation methodologies. The result was an international consortium undertaking a strategy merging both old and new approaches. Because biologists were...

  19. Tomatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  20. Tomatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  1. A new quality parameter in tomato and tomato products: ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Kadakal, Cetin; Artik, Nevzat

    2004-01-01

    The poor precision of the "percentage of discarded fruits" and "Howard mold count" methods has increased the importance of ergosterol for the microbiological quality evaluation of tomato and tomato products. Ergosterol, a constituent of the cell wall of some important vegetable parasites, such as molds, has been recently recognized as a potential objective parameter useful for the characterization of the quality of processing tomatoes. Thus, 15 mg of ergosterol/kg total solids has been stated as an acceptability maximum limit of tomato products.

  2. Electricity generation from defective tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Fogg, Alex; Wilder, Joseph; Franco, Daniel; Komisar, Simeon; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2016-12-01

    The United States faces a significant burden in treating 0.61billionkg of defective tomatoes (culls) every year. We present a proof-of-concept for generating electricity from culled tomatoes in microbial-electrochemical systems (MESs). This study delineates impedance behavior of the culled tomatoes in MESs and compares its impedance spectra with that of soluble substrates (dextrose, acetate, and wastewater). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests have revealed the superior performance of the culled tomatoes compared to the pure substrates. Cyclic voltammetry results have indicated the active role of indigenous, diffusible redox-active pigments in the culled tomatoes on overall electricity production. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have elucidated the role of peel and seed on the oxidation behavior of the culled tomatoes.

  3. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well.

  4. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  5. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  6. Achieving sustainable cultivation of tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preface Tomato is the second largest horticultural crop after potato, a worldwide industry valued at over $50 billion. In addition to being a cash crop for farmers, tomato fruit is a significant dietary source of micronutrients, vitamins and antioxidants in maintaining and enhancing human health. It...

  7. New ilarvirus species in south Florida tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a novel ilarvirus discovered infecting tomatoes in south Florida starting in fall 2013. It was found during surveys of vegetable fields for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus because all four viruses induce sim...

  8. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.5 Tomatoes. Tomatoes means all varieties of the edible fruit (Lycopersicon...

  9. Leucine Aminopeptidase RNAs, Proteins, and Activities Increase in Response to Water Deficit, Salinity, and the Wound Signals Systemin, Methyl Jasmonate, and Abscisic Acid1

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wun S.; Gu, Yong-Qiang; Pautot, Véronique; Bray, Elizabeth A.; Walling, Linda L.

    1999-01-01

    LapA RNAs, proteins, and activities increased in response to systemin, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, water deficit, and salinity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Salicylic acid inhibited wound-induced increases of LapA RNAs. Experiments using the ABA-deficient flacca mutant indicated that ABA was essential for wound and systemin induction of LapA, and ABA and systemin acted synergistically to induce LapA gene expression. In contrast, pin2 (proteinase inhibitor 2) was not dependent on exogenous ABA. Whereas both LapA and le4 (L. esculentum dehydrin) were up-regulated by increases in ABA, salinity, and water deficit, only LapA was regulated by octadecanoid pathway signals. Comparison of LapA expression with that of the PR-1 (pathogenesis-related 1) and GluB (basic β-1,3-glucanase) genes indicated that these PR protein genes were modulated by a systemin-independent jasmonic acid-signaling pathway. These studies showed that at least four signaling pathways were utilized during tomato wound and defense responses. Analysis of the expression of a LapA1:GUS gene in transgenic plants indicated that the LapA1 promoter was active during floral and fruit development and was used during vegetative growth only in response to wounding, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato infection, or wound signals. This comprehensive understanding of the regulation of LapA genes indicated that this regulatory program is distinct from the wound-induced pin2, ABA-responsive le4, and PR protein genes. PMID:10444081

  10. Manipulation of the apoplastic pH of intact plants mimics stomatal and growth responses to water availability and microclimatic variation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    The apoplastic pH of intact Forsythiaxintermedia (cv. Lynwood) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants has been manipulated using buffered foliar sprays, and thereby stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf growth rate, and plant water loss have been controlled. The more alkaline the pH of the foliar spray, the lower the g(s) and/or leaf growth rate subsequently measured. The most alkaline pH that was applied corresponds to that measured in sap extracted from shoots of tomato and Forsythia plants experiencing, respectively, soil drying or a relatively high photon flux density (PFD), vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and temperature in the leaf microclimate. The negative correlation between PFD/VPD/temperature and g(s) determined in well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate was eliminated by spraying the plants with relatively alkaline but not acidic buffers, providing evidence for a novel pH-based signalling mechanism linking the aerial microclimate with stomatal aperture. Increasing the pH of the foliar spray only reduced g(s) in plants of the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca mutant of tomato when ABA was simultaneously sprayed onto leaves or injected into stems. In well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate (variable PFD, VPD, and temperature), xylem pH and leaf ABA concentration fluctuated but were positively correlated. Manipulation of foliar apoplastic pH also affected the response of g(s) and leaf growth to ABA injected into stems of intact Forsythia plants. The techniques used here to control physiology and water use in intact growing plants could easily be applied in a horticultural context.

  11. First Report of Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid in Greenhouse Tomatoes in Arizona

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) was first identified on greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Canada in 1999. Since then, it has also been reported on tomato in Colorado, US and Japan and on ornamental plants in or from Europe and North America. In 2006, tomato plants in a large greenh...

  12. Importance of Rootstock and Scion Tomato Mosaic Virus Resistance for Grafting Heirloom Tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 2011-2012 tomato production season at a Florida organic farm, heirloom tomato scions grafted onto Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato rootstocks were observed to undergo a rapid and severe wilt, and ultimately die. The soilborne fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated...

  13. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato concentrates. 155.191 Section 155.191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each...

  14. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the unfermented liquid extracted from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties of Lycopersicum... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato...

  15. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This fact sheet reports current management recommendations for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus and the thrips that transmits each of these viruses. All three viruses are important pathogens for Florida tomato crops. This information is useful for...

  16. Tailoring of plants via genetic engineering: Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato has become a popular vegetable as it is an important source of vitamins, minerals and fibre in diets. One medium-sized tomato provides 57% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C, 25% RDA of vitamin A, and 8% RDA of iron, yet with only 35 calories. Tomato extract has been used t...

  17. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  19. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  20. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  1. Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Frusciante, Luigi; Carli, Paola; Ercolano, Maria R; Pernice, Rita; Di Matteo, Antonio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2007-05-01

    Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, beta-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of beta-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (I(QUAN)), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities.

  2. Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel plant virus has been identified infecting fresh market tomato plants in south and southeast Florida. The virus causes necrosis of tomato leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on tomato fruits. Symptomatic tomato plant tissue was used to mechanically inoculate tomato plant...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade tomatoes...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade tomatoes...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade tomatoes...

  6. Emerging tomato viruses in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes crop losses worldwide. This tospovirus is well-known for disease epidemics in vegetable, ornamental and peanut crops in the southeastern U.S. Two other tospoviruses have recently emerged in south Florida. Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was first detected in ...

  7. Curly Top Disease of Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus, Curtovirus, has impacted western US agriculture for over a century; and is a significant threat to tomato production. The two most abundant curtovirus species today are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV) but ot...

  8. Germination and Dormancy of Abscisic Acid- and Gibberellin-Deficient Mutant Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Seeds (Sensitivity of Germination to Abscisic Acid, Gibberellin, and Water Potential).

    PubMed Central

    Ni, B. R.; Bradford, K. J.

    1993-01-01

    Germination responses of wild-type (MM), abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (sitw), and gibberellin (GA)-deficient (gib-1) mutant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) seeds to ABA, GA4+7, reduced water potential ([psi]), and their combinations were analyzed using a population-based threshold model (B.R. Ni and K.J. Bradford [1992] Plant Physiol 98: 1057-1068). Among the three genotypes, sitw seeds germinated rapidly and completely in water, MM seeds germinated more slowly and were partially dormant, and gib-1 seeds did not germinate without exogenous GA4+7. Times to germination were inversely proportional to the differences between the external osmoticum, ABA, or GA4+7 concentrations and the corresponding threshold levels that would either prevent ([psi]b, log[ABAb]) or promote (log[GAb]) germination. The sensitivity of germination to ABA, GA4+7, and [psi] varied widely among individual seeds in the population, resulting in a distribution of germination times. The rapid germination rate of sitw seeds was attributable to their low mean [psi]b (-1.17 MPa). Postharvest dormancy in MM seeds was due to a high mean [psi]b (-0.35 MPa) and a distribution of [psi]b among seeds such that some seeds were unable to germinate even on water. GA4+7 (100 [mu]M) stimulated germination of MM and gib-1 seeds by lowering the mean [psi]b to -0.75 MPa, whereas ABA inhibited germination of MM and sitw seeds by increasing the mean [psi]b. The changes in [psi]b were not due to changes in embryo osmotic potential. Rather, hormonal effects on endosperm weakening opposite the radicle tip apparently determine the threshold [psi] for germination. The analysis demonstrates that ABA- and GA-dependent changes in seed dormancy and germination rates, whether due to endogenous or exogenous growth regulators, are based primarily upon corresponding shifts in the [psi] thresholds for radicle emergence. The [psi] thresholds, in turn, determine both the rate and final extent of germination

  9. Phytotoxicity of tolylfluanid in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Gielen, S; Vogels, L; Seels, B; Aerts, R

    2006-01-01

    The use of Euparen Multi (tolylfluanid) for controlling Botrytis cinerea in tomatoes has been decreased the last decade for several reasons. Because of the lack of different fungicides with a good efficacy it is important that growers can use different fungicides to prevent development of resistance of Botrytis cinerea against many fungicides. Tolylfluanid has negative side effects on some insect populations that are used for biological control. It is known that Euparen Multi and Euparen can have a negative effect on some predatory mites (Schmidt and Zeller, 1998) such as Phytoseiulus persimilis and some parasitic wasps like Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus, Diglyphus isaea and Dacnusa sibirica. Recently investigation indicates that this fungicide is harmless for the predatory bug Macrolophus caliginosus (Biobest, 2006) frequently used in the cultivation of tomatoes as a predator for whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). To investigate if tolylfluanid has a phytotoxic effect on tomato plants an experiment was performed. Young tomato plants were used, who are more sensitive. These plants were subdivided in different groups, from which each one was sprayed with a different concentration of tolylfluanid. The highest concentrations of tolylfluanid were used to stimulate the visibility of the possible phytotoxic effects. Results of this experiment demonstrate that there wasn't a difference between the different groups that were sprayed with tolylfluanid or the control group. This indicates that tolylfluanid doesn't seem to be phytotoxic. It is also important to mention that this experiment was done in the fall when the intensity of the sunlight was decreasing. There still exists the possibility that extreme irradiation in combination with tolylfluanid can provoke a phototoxic effect on young tomato plants.

  10. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Kim, Sunhoo; Lee, Ye-Ji; Byun, Hee-Seong; Park, Jungho; Seo, Haneul; Kim, Chang-Seok; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2016-01-08

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most well-known tomato-infecting begomoviruses and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. Seed transmission has previously been reported for some RNA viruses, but TYLCV has not previously been described as a seed-borne virus. In 2013 and 2014, without whitefly-mediated transmission, TYLCV was detected in young tomato plants germinated from fallen fruits produced from TYLCV-infected tomato plants in the previous cultivation season. In addition, TYLCV-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was also detected in seeds and their seedlings of TYLCV-infected tomato plants that were infected by both viruliferous whitefly-mediated transmission and agro-inoculation. The seed infectivity was 20-100%, respectively, and the average transmission rate to seedlings was also 84.62% and 80.77%, respectively. TYLCV-tolerant tomatoes also produced TYLCV-infected seeds, but the amount of viral genome was less than seen in TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. When tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds, non-viruliferous whiteflies and healthy tomato plants were placed in an insect cage together, TYLCV was detected from whiteflies as well as receiver tomato plants six weeks later. Taken together, TYLCV-IL can be transmitted via seeds, and tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds can be an inoculum source of TYLCV. This is the first report about TYLCV seed transmission in tomato.

  11. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  12. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. 73.585 Section 73.585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato-Infecting Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus in New York

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Zheng, Yi; Li, Rugang; Martin, Gregory B.; Fei, Zhangjun

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting tomatoes in New York was obtained using small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity with isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader distribution of this emerging virus is a cause for concern to the tomato industry. PMID:26701086

  14. Tomato functional genomics database (TFGD): a comprehensive collection and analysis package for tomato functional genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD; http://ted.bti.cornell.edu) provides a comprehensive systems biology resource to store, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics datasets. The database is expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database...

  15. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. 73.585 Section 73.585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene...

  16. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. 73.585 Section 73.585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene...

  17. Neural networks predict tomato maturity stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    Almost 40% of the total horticultural produce exported from Mexico the USA is tomato, and quality is fundamental for maintaining the market. Many fruits packed at the green-mature stage do not mature towards a red color as they were harvested before achieving its physiological maturity. Tomato gassed for advancing maturation does not respond on those fruits, and repacking is necessary at terminal markets, causing losses to the producer. Tomato spectral signatures are different on each maturity stage and tomato size was poorly correlated against peak wavelengths. A back-propagation neural network was used to predict tomato maturity using reflectance ratios as inputs. Higher success rates were achieved on tomato maturity stage recognition with neural networks than with discriminant analysis.

  18. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  19. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism.

  20. The role of cis-carotenoids in abscisic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Parry, A D; Babiano, M J; Horgan, R

    1990-08-01

    Evidence has been obtained which is consistent with 9'-cis-neoxanthin being a major precursor of abscisic acid (ABA) in higher plants. A mild, rapid procedure was developed for the extraction and analysis of carotenoids from a range of tissues. Once purified the carotenoids were identified from their light-absorbance properties, reactions with dilute acid, high-performance liquid chromatography Rts, mass spectra and the quasiequilibria resulting from iodine-catalysed or chlorophyllsensitised photoisomerisation. Two possible ABA precursors, 9'-cis-neoxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin, were identified in extracts of light-grown and etiolated leaves (of Lycopersicon esculentum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Zea mays, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Plantago lanceolata and Digitalis purpurea), and roots of light-grown and etiolated plants (Lycopersicon, Phaseolus and Zea). The 9,9'-di-cisisomer of violaxanthin was synthesised but its presence was not detected in any extracts. Levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin were between 20- to 100-fold greater than those of ABA in light-grown leaves. The levels of 9-cis-violaxanthin were similar to those of ABA but unaffected by water stress. Etiolated Phaseolus leaves contained reduced amounts of carotenoids (15-20% compared with light-grown leaves) but retained the ability to synthesise large amounts of ABA. The amounts of ABA synthesised, measured as increases in ABA and its metabolites phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, were closely matched by decreases in the levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin. In etiolated seedlings grown on 50% D2O, deuterium incorporation into ABA was similar to that into the xanthophylls. Relative levels of carotenoids in roots and light-grown and etiolated leaves of the ABA-deficient mutants, notabilis, flacca and sitiens were the same as those found in wild-type tomato tissues.

  1. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

  2. PTIR: Predicted Tomato Interactome Resource

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Xu, Wei; Ban, Rongjun; Huang, Shengxiong; Miao, Min; Tang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in almost all biological processes and form the basis of the entire interactomics systems of living organisms. Identification and characterization of these interactions are fundamental to elucidating the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction and metabolic pathways at both the cellular and systemic levels. Although a number of experimental and computational studies have been performed on model organisms, the studies exploring and investigating PPIs in tomatoes remain lacking. Here, we developed a Predicted Tomato Interactome Resource (PTIR), based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions in six model organisms. The reliability of individual PPIs was also evaluated by shared gene ontology (GO) terms, co-evolution, co-expression, co-localization and available domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Currently, the PTIR covers 357,946 non-redundant PPIs among 10,626 proteins, including 12,291 high-confidence, 226,553 medium-confidence, and 119,102 low-confidence interactions. These interactions are expected to cover 30.6% of the entire tomato proteome and possess a reasonable distribution. In addition, ten randomly selected PPIs were verified using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening or a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. The PTIR was constructed and implemented as a dedicated database and is available at http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/ptir/index.html without registration. PMID:27121261

  3. Phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.

    1987-04-01

    Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd/sup 2 +/. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that /sup 35/(S)-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd/sup 2 +/ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd/sup 2 +/ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd/sup 2 +/, they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd/sup 2 +/ tolerant phenotype.

  4. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients may be used: (i) Calcium salts in a quantity reasonably necessary to firm the tomatoes, but the amount of calcium in the finished canned tomatoes is not more than 0.045 percent of the weight, except... this section the amount of calcium is not more than 0.08 percent of the weight of the food. (ii...

  5. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  6. Hyperspectral imaging for nondestructive evaluation of tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Machine vision methods for quality and defect evaluation of tomatoes have been studied for online sorting and robotic harvesting applications. We investigated the use of a hyperspectral imaging system for quality evaluation and defect detection for tomatoes. Hyperspectral reflectance images were a...

  7. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tomato ingredients: (i) The liquid obtained from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties... material is restored to a pH of 4.2±0.2. Water may be added to adjust the final composition. The food... bicarbonate. (iv) Water, as provided for in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (v) Spices. (vi) Flavoring....

  8. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tomato ingredients: (i) The liquid obtained from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties... material is restored to a pH of 4.2±0.2. Water may be added to adjust the final composition. The food... bicarbonate. (iv) Water, as provided for in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (v) Spices. (vi) Flavoring....

  9. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  10. Aluminum induced proteome changes in tomato cotyledons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotyledons of tomato seedlings that germinated in a 20 µM AlK(SO4)2 solution remained chlorotic while those germinated in an aluminum free medium were normal (green) in color. Previously, we have reported the effect of aluminum toxicity on root proteome in tomato seedlings (Zhou et al. J Exp Bot, 20...

  11. 77 FR 43709 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which... fiscal periods from $0.0275 to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes. The Florida tomato marketing order... assessment rate of $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes. In comparison, last year's budgeted expenditures...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades...

  14. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  15. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  16. Energy accounting in canning tomato products

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.P.; Carroad, P.A.; Chhinnan, M.S.; Rose, W.W.; Jacob, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    An energy accounting method was used to determine energy consumption in various unit operations in canning tomato juice, wholepeeled tomatoes, and tomato paste. Data on steam and electric consumption were obtained from a canning plant with the use of steam flow meters and electric transducers. Unit operations associated with the following equipment were investigated: crushers, hot-break heaters, pulpers, finishers, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts. The average thermal and electrical energy intensities of canning tomato products were 538 Btu and 0.0126 kWh per pound of tomatoes received, respectively. Energy intensive operations were identified as those associated with hot-break heaters, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts.

  17. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed.

  18. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  19. Mixture approach for optimizing lycopene extraction from tomato and tomato products.

    PubMed

    Periago, María Jesús; Rincón, Francisco; Agüera, Maria Dolores; Ros, Gaspar

    2004-09-22

    A simple mixture process design based on the comparison of both quadratic and special cubic models and involving three mixture components (hexane/acetone/ethanol) as a solution for extracting lycopene from raw tomato, tomato sauce, and tomato paste was used to confirm the hypothesis that lycopene extraction rates are a function of the solvent used during the extraction process. Conventional criteria (p tomato paste samples); this suggests that a mixture including all three components is essential for optimizing the extraction process. The partial special cubic model yielded three stationary points, indicating the concentrations of hexane, acetone, and ethanol required to optimize lycopene extraction in raw tomato, tomato sauce, and paste.

  20. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperatures. Fresh market tomatoes. Field grown mature green or ripe fresh market tomatoes that meet the... market tomatoes from the plants, excluding tomatoes salvaged by penhookers. Mature green tomato. A tomato... harvests are completed. Plant stand. The number of live plants per acre prior to the occurrence of...

  1. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperatures. Fresh market tomatoes. Field grown mature green or ripe fresh market tomatoes that meet the... market tomatoes from the plants, excluding tomatoes salvaged by penhookers. Mature green tomato. A tomato... harvests are completed. Plant stand. The number of live plants per acre prior to the occurrence of...

  2. Identification of defense-related genes associated with tomato Sw-7 line against Tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato through transcriptome analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a highly infectious tospovirus, and one of the most damaging plant viruses infecting tomatoes worldwide. Developing a tomato cultivar with TSWV-resistance would be the most effective approach for disease management. Comparative analysis of differential expression ...

  3. Transcriptome analysis to identify differentially expressed genes associated with ty-5 against tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Sw-7 against tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are two of the most economically important viruses on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. Developing a cultivar with resistance would be the most effective and economical means for viral disease management. However, id...

  4. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (vi) Flavoring and seasoning. (vii) Vegetable ingredients such as onion, peppers, and celery, that may... declaration of the presence of onion, peppers, and celery is required for stewed tomatoes. (c) The...

  5. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  6. Analysis of energy use in tomato evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, T.; Conant, T.

    1980-01-01

    Field performance data for four tomato product evaporators are presented and analyzed. Steam and feed flow rates along with steam economies were measured and are compared to steady state theoretical evaporator models.

  7. Genetic analysis of reproductive development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rafael; Giménez, Estela; Cara, Beatriz; Capel, Juan; Angosto, Trinidad

    2009-01-01

    Besides being an important commercial crop, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) constitutes a model species for the study of plant developmental processes. Current research tends to combine classic disciplines such as physiology and genetics with modern approaches coming from molecular biology and genomics with a view to elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying plant architecture, floral transition and development of flowers and fruits. Comparative and functional analyses of tomato regulatory genes such as LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS), SELF PRUNING (SP), SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) and FALSIFLORA (FA) have revealed mechanisms involved in shoot development and flowering time which are conserved among Arabidopsis, tomato and other plant species. Furthermore, several regulatory genes encoding transcription factors have been characterized as responsible for singular features of vegetative and reproductive development of tomato. Thus, the sympodial growth habit seems to require a specific control of the developmental fate followed by shoot meristems. In this process, novel genetic and molecular interactions involving SP, SFT and FA genes would be essential. Also this latter, but mainly ANANTHA (AN) and COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE (S) have recently been found to regulate the inflorescence architecture of the tomato. Concerning fruit development, genetic and molecular analyses of new genes such as fw2.2, FASCIATED, OVATE and SUN have proved their contribution to the domestication process and most importantly, their function as key regulators of fruit size and shape variation. Tomato ripening is also being elucidated thanks to the characterization of regulatory genes such as RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), NON-RIPENING (NOR), TDR4 and COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR), which have been found to control early stages of fruit development and maturation. At the same time, much research is dedicated to isolating the targets of the ripening regulators, as well as the key genes promoting the

  8. Genome analysis and genetic enhancement of tomato.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikrant; Mathur, Saloni; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Manoj K; Kumar, Rahul; Vyas, Shailendra; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Sharma, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    The Solanaceae is an important family of vegetable crops, ornamentals and medicinal plants. Tomato has served as a model member of this family largely because of its enriched cytogenetic, genetic, as well as physical, maps. Mapping has helped in cloning several genes of importance such as Pto, responsible for resistance against bacterial speck disease, Mi-1.2 for resistance against nematodes, and fw2.2 QTL for fruit weight. A high-throughput genome-sequencing program has been initiated by an international consortium of 10 countries. Since heterochromatin has been found to be concentrated near centromeres, the consortium is focusing on sequencing only the gene-rich euchromatic region. Genomes of the members of Solanaceae show a significant degree of synteny, suggesting that the tomato genome sequence would help in the cloning of genes for important traits from other Solanaceae members as well. ESTs from a large number of cDNA libraries have been sequenced, and microarray chips, in conjunction with wide array of ripening mutants, have contributed immensely to the understanding of the fruit-ripening phenomenon. Work on the analysis of the tomato proteome has also been initiated. Transgenic tomato plants with improved abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance and insect resistance, have been developed. Attempts have also been made to develop tomato as a bioreactor for various pharmaceutical proteins. However, control of fruit quality and ripening remains an active and challenging area of research. Such efforts should pave the way to improve not only tomato, but also other solanaceous crops.

  9. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  10. Detoxification and function of immature tomato.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Onoda, Eri

    2016-10-15

    α-Tomatine and chlorophyll (a and b) decreased, and β-carotene and lycopene increased with ripening of tomatoes. α-Tomatine was localised in peel of immature green tomatoes. The dose-response curve of α-tomatine determined by WST-1 (water soluble tetrazolium) assay was the same as that by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assay, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of α-tomatine depends on the destruction of plasma membrane. Immature green tomatoes had little cytotoxic effect after one month-incubation with 25% ethanol or 4.5% acetate at 7°C, and α-tomatine was decomposed by crude enzymes extracted from immature green tomatoes. Immature green tomatoes incubated with 4.5% acetic acid inhibited the accumulation of lipid in adipocytes. From the above facts the detoxification and the anti-obesity effect of immature green tomatoes are expected to be controlled by the removal of peel, the enzymatic decomposition or the incubation with 4.5% acetate or 25% ethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomics of fungal disease resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Panthee, Dilip R; Chen, Feng

    2010-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed.

  12. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in Puerto Rico. TCSV was detected in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  13. A stimulo-deterrent method of thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus management in tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus remains a serious economic limitation to the production of tomatoes in the southeastern U.S. more than 20 years after its appearance. The thrips vectors of TSWV also remain difficult to manage. The current study tested various combinations of ultraviolet-reflective and blac...

  14. Characterization and detection of Tomato necrotic stunt virus, a novel potyvirus infecting greenhouse tomatoes in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse tomato production has increased significantly in recent years in North America. Nearly 40% of fresh tomato supplies in the U.S. are produced in greenhouses. The highly intensive and hydroponic production system has created some unique ecological conditions for disease epidemic, especial...

  15. Genetic diversity, host range and disease resistance to the emerging Tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since its first discovery in 2013 in Mexico, Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a new tomato-infecting tobamovirus is now present in a number of countries (i.e., Brazil, China, and Israel) and several states in the U.S. There is little information available on the molecular and biological properti...

  16. Integrated management of tomato diseases in open field-grown tomatoes in Southern Italy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of a growing list of Tospoviruses adversely affecting field tomato crops worldwide. The only known means of virus transmission is via vectors belonging to a few species of thrips. The most important vectors in Italian conditions are Frankliniella occidentalis ...

  17. First report of tomato mottle mosaic virus infecting tomato in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus was identified in tomato in Florida, the first report of this virus in the U.S. Host range and genetic diversity were characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scien...

  18. Understanding the mechanism of resistance breaking on tomato by Tomato mottle mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) has broadened it’s distribution around the world. In our previous work, we observed a partial resistance breaking by ToMMV on tomato. To understand the mechanism of this resistance breaking, we carried out comparative analysis through Sanger sequencing, genotyping ...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Southern tomato virus Naturally Infecting Tomatoes in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Zheng, Yi; Li, Rugang; Fei, Zhangjun

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a Southern tomato virus (STV) isolate on tomato plants in a seed production field in Bangladesh was obtained for the first time using next-generation sequencing. The identified isolate, STV_BD-13, shares a high degree of sequence identity (99%) with several known STV isolates worldwide. PMID:26722014

  20. Genotypic variability for antioxidant and quality parameters among tomato cultivars, hybrids, cherry tomatoes and wild species.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Pillakenchappa; Shivashankara, Kodthalu S; Rao, Vala K; Sadashiva, Avverahally T; Ravishankar, Kundapur V; Sathish, Gonchigar J

    2014-03-30

    Wide germplasm diversity and transferability of antioxidant parameters is the primary requirement for the development of high-antioxidant tomato cultivars. The present study was conducted to screen tomato genotypes including hybrids, varieties, cherry tomatoes, wild species, elite germplasm lines, interspecific hybrids and backcross populations for antioxidant activity and other quality parameters to select high-antioxidant lines with good total soluble solids (TSS) for further usage in crop improvement programmes. Wild species and interspecific hybrids between LA-1777 (Solanum habrochaites) and an elite genotype 15SBSB recorded very high antioxidant capacity (FRAP), DPPH radical-scavenging ability, and high phenols and flavonoids. Interspecific hybrids also recorded very high total soluble solids (TSS). Significantly higher total carotenoids, lycopene and vitamin C were observed in IIHR-249-1 with moderately higher TSS. Cherry tomato lines IIHR-2866, 2865 and 2864 recorded four to five times more β-carotene than commercial hybrids/varieties. Tomato line IIHR-249-1 can be used for improving antioxidant capacity, total carotenoids and lycopene in tomato breeding programmes. Cherry tomato lines IIHR-2866, 2865 and 2864 can be used for improving β-carotene content. LA-1777 and interspecific hybrids could be used for developing tomato lines rich in antioxidants as well as TSS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Molecular, serological and biological characterization of the emerging tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many years, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are the two major tobamoviruses that have a serious impact on tomato productions worldwide. These seed-borne and mechanically transmitted viruses are difficult to control. The most effective disease management has been the u...

  2. Evaluation of disinfectants to control mechanical transmission of tomato viruses and viroids in greenhouse tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse tomato production has increased significantly in recent years. The cultural practices and intensive hands-on activities implemented in protected tomato culture have created ideal conditions for a number of plant pathogens to be mechanically transmitted. In some situations, disease outbr...

  3. Further characterization of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Leonardo C; Varsani, Arvind; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Pinheiro, Bruna; Martin, Darren P; de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira, Paulo; Lemos, Thaís Oliveira; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

    2012-04-01

    Tomato cultivation in Brazil is threatened by a number of tomato-infecting viruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Here, we report the full DNA-A sequences of three Brazilian begomoviruses: a potentially new tomato-infecting viruses, tomato interveinal chlorosis virus (ToICV), and two previously proposed begomoviruses for which only partial DNA-A sequences are available in the databases: tomato mottle leaf curl virus (TMoLCV) and tomato golden vein virus (TGVV). The complete sequences of the DNA-B components of TMoLCV and TGVV and the DNA-A components of a number of tomato severe rugose virus variants are also presented. Collectively, all of the analyzed sequences were phylogenetically clustered within the two major groups of Brazilian tomato-infecting begomoviruses.

  4. Preference Mapping of Fresh Tomatoes Across 3 Stages of Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oltman, A E; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    Tomatoes (Solanum lycoperiscum) are a popular produce choice and provide many bioactive compounds. Consumer choice of tomatoes is influenced by flavor and visual appearance and external texture cues including hand firmness and sliceability. The objective of this study was to determine drivers of liking for fresh tomatoes across 3 stages of consumption. Seven tomato cultivars were ripened to a 6 on the USDA color chart. Trained panelists documented appearance, flavor, and texture attributes of tomatoes in triplicate. Tomato consumers (n = 177) were provided with knives and cutting boards and evaluated tomatoes across 3 stages: appearance (stage 1), slicing (stage 2), and consumption (stage 3). Consumers evaluated overall liking at each stage. Analysis of variance and external preference mapping were conducted. Overall liking was highest during the appearance portion of the test and lowest during the consumption portion (P < 0.05). Drivers of liking at stage 1 were color intensity, even outside color, and overall aroma. Drivers of liking at stage 2 were wetness/juiciness and overall aroma. Wetness/juiciness, seed presence, ripe flavor, and sweet and umami tastes were drivers of liking for tomatoes at consumption (stage 3). Four separate clusters of tomato consumers were identified. Cluster 1 preferred tomatoes with even color, higher color intensity, and flavor intensity. Cluster 2 preferred firm tomatoes. Cluster 3 preferred tomatoes that were soft and at peak ripeness; this cluster also had the highest liking scores for all tomatoes. Cluster 4 consumers generally consumed tomatoes in sandwiches rather than as-is and preferred tomatoes with even and intense color. Tomato growers can utilize these results to target cultivars that are well liked by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period

  6. Magnitude of genotype x environment interactions affecting tomato fruit quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a growing interest by consumers to purchase fresh tomato with improved quality traits including lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content. Therefore, there are considerable efforts by tomato breeders to improve tomato for these traits. However, suitabl...

  7. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P < 0.05). B. infantis did not cause any significant change in the chemical properties of tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  8. First report of Pepper mottle virus infecting tomato in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In August 2011, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit from a University of Hawaii field trial evaluating varietal resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) displayed mottling symptoms similar to that caused by TSWV or other tospoviruses. The foliage f...

  9. Screening tomato germplasm for resistance to potato spindle tuber viroid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, several outbreaks of a potentially devastating viroid disease on tomato in North America have caused serious concerns to tomato growers and vegetable seed industry. Several closely related viroids in the genus Pospiviroid have been identified on tomato. Among them, Potato spindle t...

  10. In vivo measurement of phytochrome in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Jen, J J

    1977-04-01

    Presence of phytochrome in two kinds of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the yellow lutescent strain and cherry tomatoes (L. esculentum Mill. var. cerasiformecv. Red Cherry), was established by measuring the absorption difference spectra of the whole fruit after irradiation with red and with far red light. Phytochrome content was determined in yellow lutescent tomatoes and decreased gradually during the ripening period.

  11. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for... tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon Florida tomato handlers are used by the Committee to fund...

  12. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and... order, Florida tomato handlers are subject to assessments, which provide funds to administer the order...

  13. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dullemans, Annette; van den Heuvel, Hans; Maris, Paul; van der Vlugt, René

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus. PMID:20229114

  14. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato.

  15. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Integrating Plant Essential Oils and Kaolin for the Sustainable Management of Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt on Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is one of the most devastating pest complexes affecting tomato in the southern USA and elsewhere. Field trials were conducted over two years to determine the effects of volatile plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of Tomato...

  17. Genomic and biological characterization of Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus infecting tomato in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a recently described ilarvirus that was detected in tomato in Florida. The full TomNSV genome sequence revealed it to be a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus with little nucleotide identity to other previously reported tomato-infecting ilarviruses. Experimental hos...

  18. Tomato classification based on laser metrology and computer algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igno Rosario, Otoniel; Muñoz Rodríguez, J. Apolinar; Martínez Hernández, Haydeé P.

    2011-08-01

    An automatic technique for tomato classification is presented based on size and color. The size is determined based on surface contouring by laser line scanning. Here, a Bezier network computes the tomato height based on the line position. The tomato color is determined by CIELCH color space and the components red and green. Thus, the tomato size is classified in large, medium and small. Also, the tomato is classified into six colors associated with its maturity. The performance and accuracy of the classification system is evaluated based on methods reported in the recent years. The technique is tested and experimental results are presented.

  19. The advance of tomato disease-related microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weichen; Luan, Yushi

    2015-07-01

    Tomato is a model plant for studying plant-pathogen interactions. As regulatory factors, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely identified and play crucial roles in tomato-pathogen interactions, including host defense and pathogen counter-defense. Here, the review summarizes the discoveries and highlights of miRNAs in tomato diseases. Roles of artificial miRNAs in disease resistance are further discussed. Hence, a better understanding of the contribution of miRNAs in tomato disease will shed light on strategies in enhancing tomato-pathogen resistance.

  20. Fruit growth-related genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Lamia; Deluche, Cynthia; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Frangne, Nathalie; Delmas, Frédéric; Hernould, Michel; Chevalier, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) represents a model species for all fleshy fruits due to its biological cycle and the availability of numerous genetic and molecular resources. Its importance in human nutrition has made it one of the most valuable worldwide commodities. Tomato fruit size results from the combination of cell number and cell size, which are determined by both cell division and expansion. As fruit growth is mainly driven by cell expansion, cells from the (fleshy) pericarp tissue become highly polyploid according to the endoreduplication process, reaching a DNA content rarely encountered in other plant species (between 2C and 512C). Both cell division and cell expansion are under the control of complex interactions between hormone signalling and carbon partitioning, which establish crucial determinants of the quality of ripe fruit, such as the final size, weight, and shape, and organoleptic and nutritional traits. This review describes the genes known to contribute to fruit growth in tomato.

  1. The Climacteric in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.

    1971-01-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771

  2. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  3. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  4. Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

    2002-01-01

    Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future.

  5. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  6. Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate for killing Salmonella montevideo on tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, R Y; Beuchat, L R

    1996-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) in wash water in the inactivation of Salmonella montevideo on the surface and in core tissue of unwashed, mature-green tomatoes. Complete inactivation on the tomato surface was achieved by dipping tomatoes in a 15% TSP solution for 15 s. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions were obtained by dipping tomatoes in a 1% solution for 15 s. Populations were significantly reduced in core tissue of tomatoes dipped in 4-15% TSP. However, even at 15%, only about 2 log10 reduction was achieved. Upon ripening, the hue and chroma of tomatoes, indices of colour and brightness, respectively, were unaffected by treatment of TSP. The use of TSP as sanitizing agent in wash water for mature-green tomatoes appears to have good potential.

  7. Use of Tomato leaf curl virus (TYLCV) truncated Rep gene sequence to engineer TYLCV resistance in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Gharsallah Chouchane, S; Lengliz, R; Maxwell, D P; Marrakchi, M; Fakhfakh, H; Gorsane, F

    2009-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease causes severe losses in tomato production throughout Mediterranean countries including Tunisia. In order to generate engineered resistance to this disease, an intron-hairpin RNA construct harboring a Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) truncated replication-associated protein (Rep) gene was used to transform genotype of tomato plants. Prepared transgenic plants were agro-inoculated with Tunisian infectious strain of TYLCSV and screened for the resistance to infection. The infected transgenic plants were divided into 3 different groups according to their specific symptoms. Only one of them contained transgenic plants fully resistant to the tomato yellow leaf curl disease.

  8. Tomato strigolactones: a more detailed look.

    PubMed

    Kohlen, Wouter; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bours, Ralph; López-Ráez, Juan A; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones are plant signaling molecules that induce germination of parasitic plant seeds, initiate host plant - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis and act as plant hormones controlling shoot branching and root architecture. To date four unique strigolactones (e.g., orobanchol, didehydroorobanchol isomers 1 and 2 and the aromatic strigolactone solanacol) have been reported in the root exudates and extracts of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here we report on the presence of several additional strigolactones in tomato root exudates and extracts, orobanchyl acetate, two 7-hydroxyorobanchol isomers, 7-oxoorobanchol and two additional didehydroorobanchol isomers and discuss their possible biological relevance.

  9. [Story of the tomato through its genome].

    PubMed

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2012-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model for fruit development. The tomato history has origins traced back to the early Aztecs. It was not until around the 16(th) century that Europeans were introduced to this fruit, but only as ornamental plant since it was related to nightshade belladona. Then it was accepted into the kitchen all around the world. The genome sequence of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 is sequenced and provides interesting insights into the fleshy evolution. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  10. Highly sensitive serological methods for detecting tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plants and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Xueping; Liu, Huan; Ni, Yuequn; Wu, Jianxiang

    2013-05-06

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus in the family Geminiviridae, which causes severe losses in tomato production in tropic and subtropic regions. The purified TYLCV virions were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using the hybridoma technology. MAb-based dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) were developed for sensitive, simple, and rapid detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. Using the hybridoma technology, six murine MAbs (1C4, 8D10, 6E3, 2F2, 3F4 and 4G3) against TYLCV were prepared. Using the MAb 1C4, dot-ELISA and DTBIA were then established for detecting TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. The dot-ELISA could detect TYLCV in infected tissue crude extract diluted at 1:5,120 (w/v, g mL-1), and in viruliferous whitefly homogenate diluted at 1:128 (individual whitefly/μL), respectively. Field tomato samples (n=487) and whitefly samples (n=110) from TYLCV prevalent districts in China were screened for the presence of TYLCV using the two developed methods, and the results were further confirmed by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The survey revealed that TYLCV is widespread on tomato plants in Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan provinces in China. The developed dot-ELISA is very suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples, and the DTBIA is more suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in large-scale tomato plant samples collected from TYLCV prevalent areas.

  11. Yeast profilin complements profilin deficiency in transgenic tomato fruits and allows development of hypoallergenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Le, Lien Q; Mahler, Vera; Scheurer, Stephan; Foetisch, Kay; Braun, Yvonne; Weigand, Daniela; Enrique, Ernesto; Lidholm, Jonas; Paulus, Kathrin E; Sonnewald, Sophia; Vieths, Stefan; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Gene silencing of Lyc e 1 leads to reduced allergenicity of tomato fruits but impaired growth of transgenic tomato plants. The aim of the study was to restore growth of Lyc e 1-deficient tomato plants while retaining reduced allergenicity by simultaneous complementation of profilin deficiency by expression of nonallergenic yeast profilin. Transgenic plants were generated and tested by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; allergenicity of yeast profilin and transgenic fruits was investigated by IgE binding, basophil activation, and skin-prick tests. Lyc e 1 content of transgenic tomato fruits was <5% of that of wild-type plants, causing significantly reduced IgE antibody binding. Simultaneous coexpression of yeast profilin restored growth and biomass production almost to wild-type levels. Yeast profilin, sharing 32.6% amino acid sequence identity with Lyc e 1, displayed low IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency. Among 16 tomato-allergic patients preselected for sensitization to Lyc e 1, none showed significant reactivity to yeast profilin. Yeast profilin did not induce mediator release, and coexpression of yeast profilin did not enhance the allergenicity of Lyc e 1-reduced fruits. Simultanous coexpression of yeast profilin allows silencing of tomato profilin and generation of viable plants with Lyc e 1-deficient tomato fruits. Therefore, a novel approach to allergen avoidance, genetically modified foods with reduced allergen accumulation, can be generated even if the allergen fulfills an essential cellular function in the plant. In summary, our findings of efficiently complementing profilin-deficient tomato plants by coexpression of low allergenic yeast profilin demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food even if the allergen fulfills essential cellular functions.

  12. Highly sensitive serological methods for detecting tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plants and whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus in the family Geminiviridae, which causes severe losses in tomato production in tropic and subtropic regions. Methods The purified TYLCV virions were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using the hybridoma technology. MAb-based dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) were developed for sensitive, simple, and rapid detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. Results Using the hybridoma technology, six murine MAbs (1C4, 8D10, 6E3, 2F2, 3F4 and 4G3) against TYLCV were prepared. Using the MAb 1C4, dot-ELISA and DTBIA were then established for detecting TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. The dot-ELISA could detect TYLCV in infected tissue crude extract diluted at 1:5,120 (w/v, g mL-1), and in viruliferous whitefly homogenate diluted at 1:128 (individual whitefly/μL), respectively. Field tomato samples (n=487) and whitefly samples (n=110) from TYLCV prevalent districts in China were screened for the presence of TYLCV using the two developed methods, and the results were further confirmed by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The survey revealed that TYLCV is widespread on tomato plants in Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan provinces in China. Conclusions The developed dot-ELISA is very suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples, and the DTBIA is more suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in large-scale tomato plant samples collected from TYLCV prevalent areas. PMID:23647724

  13. Compact tomato seedlings and plants upon overexpression of a tomato chromatin remodelling ATPase gene.

    PubMed

    Folta, Adam; Bargsten, Joachim W; Bisseling, Ton; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2016-02-01

    Control of plant growth is an important aspect of crop productivity and yield in agriculture. Overexpression of the AtCHR12/23 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced growth habit without other morphological changes. These two genes encode Snf2 chromatin remodelling ATPases. Here, we translate this approach to the horticultural crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We identified and cloned the single tomato ortholog of the two Arabidopsis Snf2 genes, designated SlCHR1. Transgenic tomato plants (cv. Micro-Tom) that constitutively overexpress the coding sequence of SlCHR1 show reduced growth in all developmental stages of tomato. This confirms that SlCHR1 combines the functions of both Arabidopsis genes in tomato. Compared to the wild type, the transgenic seedlings of tomato have significantly shorter roots, hypocotyls and reduced cotyledon size. Transgenic plants have a much more compact growth habit with markedly reduced plant height, severely compacted reproductive structures with smaller flowers and smaller fruits. The results indicate that either GMO-based or non-GMO-based approaches to modulate the expression of chromatin remodelling ATPase genes could develop into methods to control plant growth, for example to replace the use of chemical growth retardants. This approach is likely to be applicable and attractive for any crop for which growth habit reduction has added value.

  14. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  15. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  16. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  17. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... capacity, except when the food is frozen. (2) Determine compliance as specified in § 156.3(d). (3) If the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with the requirements of such foods; except that the label shall bear the statement “for... concentrated tomato juice shall bear adequate directions for dilution to result in a diluted article containing... greater in length. (c) Blemishes, such as dark brown or black particles (specks)—not more than four exceed...

  19. Proteomic analysis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pollen.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Inder S; Ross, Andrew R S; Olson, Douglas J H; Sawhney, Vipen K

    2007-01-01

    In flowering plants, pollen grains are produced in the anther and released to the external environment with the primary function of delivering sperm cells to the female gametophyte. This study was conducted to identify proteins in tomato pollen and to analyse their roles in relation to pollen function. Tomato is an important crop which is grown worldwide and is an excellent experimental system. Proteins were extracted from pollen, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and peptide mass fingerprinting. Of the 960 spots observed on Colloidal Coomassie Blue (CCB)-stained 2-DE gels, 190 were selected for analysis. Of these, 158 spots, representing 133 distinct proteins, were identified by searching the NCBInr and Expressed Sequence Tag databases. The identified proteins were classified based on designated functions and the majority included those involved in defence mechanisms, energy conversions, protein synthesis and processing, cytoskeleton formation, Ca(2+) signalling, and as allergens. A number of proteins in tomato pollen were similar to those reported in the pollen of other species; however, several additional proteins with roles in defence mechanisms, metabolic processes, and hormone signalling were identified. The potential roles of the identified proteins in the survival strategy of the small, independent, two-celled pollen grain of tomato, and subsequently in pollen germination and tube growth are discussed.

  20. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of calcium in the finished canned tomatoes is not more than 0.045 percent of the weight, except... this section the amount of calcium is not more than 0.08 percent of the weight of the food. (ii... be fresh or preserved by physical means, in a quantity not more than 10 percent by weight of the...

  1. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount of calcium in the finished canned tomatoes is not more than 0.045 percent of the weight, except... this section the amount of calcium is not more than 0.08 percent of the weight of the food. (ii... be fresh or preserved by physical means, in a quantity not more than 10 percent by weight of the...

  2. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount of calcium in the finished canned tomatoes is not more than 0.045 percent of the weight, except... this section the amount of calcium is not more than 0.08 percent of the weight of the food. (ii... be fresh or preserved by physical means, in a quantity not more than 10 percent by weight of the...

  3. Industrial tomato lines: morphological properties and productivity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, J V M; Neto, C de M S; Campos, L F C; Dourado, W de S; Nogueira, A P O; Nascimento, A Dos R

    2017-04-13

    The tomato is the second most produced vegetable in the world, with significant participation in the human diet. In addition, the production of tomatoes generates jobs and family income. The availability of improved cultivars that provide greater profitability to the producer and satisfactorily meets the needs of the fresh fruit market and the processing industry becomes imperative due to its importance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and select industrial tomato lines in regard to fruit yield, number of leaf branches, and number of flower racemes (NFR). The experiment was conducted in 2014 in the experimental area of the Federal University of Goiás (Universidade Federal de Goiás). The design was a randomized block design with four replicates and 25 genotypes. The number of leaf branches (NB), NFR, and fruit productivity were evaluated. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test. A difference was observed (P ≤ 0.01) for all traits analyzed. The NB and NFR were related, where more branches promoted an increase in NFR and thus the productivity increases. In addition, a greater number of fruits implied in smaller fruit size, and consequently lower fruit mass. The lowest number of fruit per plant caused increased fruit size and mass. The lines CVR 1, CVR 3, CVR 4, CVR 5, CVR 21, and CVR 22 were suitable for genetic enhancement of tomato and provided the greatest productivity.

  4. A brief genomic history of tomato breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report a brief genomic history of tomato breeding by analyzing the genomes of 360 diverse accessions collected all over the world. These included 333 accessions from the red fruited clade (S. pimpinellifolium, S. l. var. cerasiforme, and S. lycopersicum) that represent various geographical o...

  5. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  6. Skvortsov with Tomatoes in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041832 (16 May 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov, Expedition 23 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh tomatoes floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  7. Kornienko with Tomatoes in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041829 (16 May 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, Expedition 23 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh tomatoes floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  8. Noguchi with Tomatoes in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041838 (16 May 2010) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh tomatoes floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  9. Auxin-Induced Ethylene Triggers Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Growth Inhibition1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Hauke; Grossmann, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The growth-inhibiting effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at high concentration and the synthetic auxins 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinmerac), 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba), 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and naphthalene acetic acid, were investigated in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root treated with 0.5 mm IAA, shoot epinasty and inhibition of root and shoot growth developed during 24 h. Concomitantly, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, and ACC and ethylene production were transiently stimulated in the shoot tissue within 2 h, followed by increases in immunoreactive (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its precursor xanthoxal (xanthoxin) after 5 h. After 24 h of treatment, levels of xanthoxal and ABA were elevated up to 2- and 24-fold, relative to control, respectively. In plants treated with IAA, 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid, levels of ethylene, ACC, and ABA increased in close correlation with inhibition of shoot growth. Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and cobalt ions, which inhibit ethylene synthesis, decreased ABA accumulation and growth inhibition, whereas the ethylene-releasing ethephon promoted ABA levels and growth inhibition. In accordance, tomato mutants defective in ethylene perception (never ripe) did not produce the xanthoxal and ABA increases and growth inhibition induced by auxins in wild-type plants. This suggests that auxin-stimulated ethylene triggers ABA accumulation and the consequent growth inhibition. Reduced catabolism most probably did not contribute to ABA increase, as indicated by immunoanalyses of ABA degradation and conjugation products in shoot tissue and by pulse experiments with [3H]-ABA in cell suspensions of G. aparine. In contrast, studies using inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis (fluridone, naproxen, and tungstate), ABA-deficient

  10. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    PubMed

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    D’Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  12. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting tomatoes with the Sw-5 tospovirus-resistance gene in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Management of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) with the Sw-5 resistance gene in tomato is highly effective. However, in certain regions of the world where resistant tomatoes have been continually planted, resistance-breaking strains of TSWV have emerged. In spring 2016 resistant tomatoes were obse...

  13. Detection of key factors in the extraction and quantification of lycopene from tomato and tomato products.

    PubMed

    Periago, María Jesús; Rincón, Francisco; Jacob, Karin; García-Alonso, Javier; Ros, Gaspar

    2007-10-31

    The analytical process of lycopene extraction and photometrical determination was critically examined for raw tomato and processed tomato products by means of a 2 IV (15-10) Plackett-Burman experimental design in order to identify the key factors (KFs) involved. Fifteen apparent key factors (AKFs) reported in the literature were selected: sample weight (X1); volume of extraction solution (X2); antioxidant concentration (BHT, X3); neutralizing agent concentration (MgCO 3, X4); light presence during lycopene extraction (X5), homogenization velocity (X6) and time (X7), agitation time (X8), and temperature (X9) during the extraction process; water volume for separation of polar/nonpolar phases (X11); presence of inert atmosphere throughout the process (X12); time (X13), temperature (X14), and light presence (X10) during separation of phases and time delay for reading (X15). In general, higher lycopene concentrations in samples led to a higher number of key factors (KF). Thus, for raw tomato (lycopene range 1.22-2.29 mg/100 g) no KF were found, whereas for tomato sauce (lycopene range from 5.80 to 8.60 mg/100 g) one KF (X4) and for tomato paste (lycopene range from 35.80 to 51.27 mg/100 g) five KFs (X1, X2, X4, X11, and X12) were detected. For lycopene paste, X1 and X2 were identified as the KFs with the greatest impact on results, although in fact the X1/X2 ratio was the real cause. The results suggest that, with increased processing, the physical and chemical structure of lycopene becomes less important since the identified KFs explain almost 90% of variability in tomato paste but only 32% in raw tomato.

  14. Sucrose Synthase in Wild Tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Loboda, T; Sung, S J; Black, C C

    1992-03-01

    Here it is reported that sucrose synthase can be readily measured in growing wild tomato fruits (Lycopersicon chmielewskii) when suitable methods are adopted during fruit extraction. The enzyme also was present in fruit pericarp tissues, in seeds, and in flowers. To check for novel characteristics, the wild tomato fruit sucrose synthase was purified, by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fraction and chromatography with DE-32, Sephadex G-200, and PBA-60, to one major band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The following characteristics were obtained: native protein relative molecular weight 380,000; subunit relative molecular weight 89,000; K(m) values with: sucrose 53 millimolar, UDP 18.9 micromolar, UDP-glucose 88 micromolar, fructose 8.4 millimolar; pH optima between 6.2 to 7.3 for sucrose breakdown and 7 to 9 for synthesis; and temperature optima near 50 degrees C. The enzyme exhibited a high affinity and a preference for uridylates. The enzyme showed more sensitivity to divalent cations in the synthesis of sucrose than in its breakdown. Sink strength in tomato fruits also was investigated in regard to sucrose breakdown enzyme activities versus fruit weight gain. Sucrose synthase activity was consistently related to increases in fruit weight (sink strength) in both wild and commercial tomatoes. Acid and neutral invertases were not, because the published invertase activity values were too variable for quantitative analyses regarding the roles of invertases in tomato fruit development. In rapidly growing fruits of both wild and commercially developed tomato plants, the activity of sucrose synthase per growing fruit, i.e. sucrose synthase peak activity X fruit size, was linearly related to final fruit size; and the activity exceeded fruit growth and carbon import rates by at least 10-fold. In mature, nongrowing fruits, sucrose synthase activities approached nil values. Therefore, sucrose synthase can serve as an indicator of sink strength in growing tomato

  15. Recent advances in tomato functional genomics: utilization of VIGS.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Puranik, Swati; Khan, Moinuddin; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-10-01

    Tomato unquestionably occupies a significant position in world vegetable production owing to its world-wide consumption. The tomato genome sequencing efforts being recently concluded, it becomes more imperative to recognize important functional genes from this treasure of generated information for improving tomato yield. While much progress has been made in conventional tomato breeding, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) offers an alternative approach for advancement of tomato functional genomics. In particular, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is increasingly being used as rapid, reliable, and lucrative screening strategy to elucidate gene function. In this review, we focus on the recent advancement made through exploiting the potential of this technique for manipulating different agronomically important traits in tomato by discussing several case studies.

  16. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.

  17. A New Age Approach to the Management of Tomato Spotted Wilt? Effects of Plant Essential Oils and Particle Films on Tomato Spotted Wilt in Tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because the thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is a limiting factor in tomato production in the southern USA, we are investigating novel control methods that would be effective and environmentally non-disruptive. In laboratory choice tests, we found that three plant essential oils, geraniol, ...

  18. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Mouekouba, Liana Dalcantara Ongouya; Zhang, Lili; Guan, Xin; Chen, Xiuling; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Junfeng; Li, Jingfu; Yang, Yijun; Wang, Aoxue

    2014-01-01

    Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST), second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(-)) and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4). Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis) to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase) and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  19. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-Induced Resistance to Tomato Gray Mold Disease in Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xin; Chen, Xiuling; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Junfeng; Li, Jingfu; Yang, Yijun; Wang, Aoxue

    2014-01-01

    Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST), second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2−) and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4). Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis) to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase) and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent. PMID:25061981

  20. Tomato derived polysaccharides for biotechnological applications: chemical and biological approaches.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Poli, Annarita; De Rosa, Salvatore; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-06-19

    Recent studies concerning the isolation and purification of exopolysaccharides from suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. San Marzano) cells and the description of a simple, rapid and low environmental impact method with for obtaining polysaccharides from solid tomato-processing industry wastes are reported. Their chemical composition, rheological properties and partial primary structure were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, GC-MS, (1)H-, (13)C-NMR). Moreover, the anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides obtained from cultured tomato cells were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay and the preparation of biodegradable film by chemical processing of polysaccharides from solid tomato industry waste was also reported.

  1. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Xu, Lihong; Tan, Chengxiang; Goodman, Erik D.; Fu, Daichang; Xin, Longjiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment) for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms. PMID:25675284

  2. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole in tomato fruits and soil.

    PubMed

    Malhat, Farag; Abdallah, Hend; Hegazy, Islam

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the residue and persistence behaviour of new insecticide chlorantraniliprole in tomato fruit and soil samples. Its residue was analyzed by HPLC and it dissipated in tomato fruit and soil following first order kinetics. The results showed half life (t(1/2)) value of 3.30 and 3.66 days for chlorantraniliprole in tomato fruit and soil, respectively. According to maximum residue limit (MRL) the pre-harvest interval (PHI) of chlorantraniliprole on tomato was 8-days after the treatment.

  3. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (<20×10 6/mL) and/or motility (<50%). Following a fourweek observation period, subjects were randomly assigned among three groups: a tomato juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  4. Construction and Use of a Nonradioactive DNA Hybridization Probe for Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato on Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cuppels, D. A.; Moore, R. A.; Morris, V. L.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent for bacterial speck of tomato, produces the phytotoxin coronatine. A 5.3-kilobase XhoI fragment from the chromosomal region controlling toxin production was cloned into the plasmid pGB2, and the resulting recombinant plasmid, pTPR1, was tested for its ability to serve as a diagnostic probe for P. syringae pv. tomato. In a survey of 75 plant-associated bacteria, pTPR1 hybridized exclusively to those strains that produced coronatine. The detection limit for this probe, which was labeled with the Chemiprobe nonradioactive reporter system, was approximately 4 × 103 CFU of lesion bacteria. During the 1989 growing season, a total of 258 leaf and fruit lesions from nine tomato fields were screened for P. syringae pv. tomato by using pTPR1 and the culture method of detection. The best agreement between the two methods, 90%, occurred early in the season with samples taken from relatively young (5-week-old) plants. Young plants also had a higher percentage of P. syringae pv. tomato-positive lesions. P. syringae pv. tomato was the only coronatine producer recovered from the nine tomato fields. All 244 P. syringae pv. tomato strains isolated during this study reacted strongly with the probe. The P. syringae pv. tomato population of healthy field tomato leaves was determined by a pTPR1 colony hybridization procedure. Every probe-positive colony that was isolated and characterized was identified as P. syringae pv. tomato. The pTPR1 probe should expedite disease diagnosis and facilitate epidemiological studies of this pathogen. It also should aid in screening transplant seedlings for bacterial speck infestation. Images PMID:16348215

  5. The role of corchorus in spreading of tomato yellow leaf curl virus on tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2016-03-01

    Corchorus (Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L.) is one of the most important fiber crops grown in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Field survey was conducted and naturally infected leaf samples were collected from corchorus and tomato plants in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The causal virus was transmitted by whiteflies to tomato plants and begomovirus infection was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction. The complete viral genome and associated betasatellites were amplified, cloned and sequenced from both corchorus and tomato samples. The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships were determined for both isolates (corchorus and tomato). The complete genome sequences showed highest (99.5 % nt) similarity with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and formed closest cluster with TYLCV-Tomato reported from Jizan and Al-Qasim, Saudi Arabia and betasatellites sequences showed highest similarity (99.8 % nt) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites-Jeddah followed by Tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites and formed closed cluster with TYLCV-Tomato. On the basis of results obtained from whiteflies transmission, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships; it is concluded that the identified virus could be a variant of TYLCV circulating in the Kingdom. The significance of this study demonstrated that the corchorus is serving as reservoir and alternative host and playing an important role in spreading the begomovirus associated disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  6. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  7. Selection of tomato plants resistant to a local Polish isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).

    PubMed

    Czech, Andrzej S; Szklarczyk, Marek; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Zukowska, Ewa; Michalik, Barbara; Kobyłko, Tadeusz; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We found that the Sw-5 gene confers resistance to one of the Polish isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). A series of tomato breeding accessions was analysed along with standards of resistance and susceptibility to TSWV. The presence of the Sw-5 gene was determined using the available PCR marker. Subsequently plants from these accessions were grown in the presence of the TSWV isolate from Poland. Some of them developed severe symptoms of the TSWV disease. Expression of the virus proteins was also assayed in tissues of the investigated plants. We found general agreement between either lack or presence of the disease symptoms, virus proteins and resistance gene. Some observed discrepancies of these data are also discussed. Our results indicate that marker-assisted selection can be used for breeding of the TSWV-resistant tomato in Poland.

  8. Biological control of corky root in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fiume, G; Fiume, F

    2008-01-01

    Corky root caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici (Schneider et Gerlach) is one of the most important soil borne fungal pathogens which develops in the soils, causing diseases in different crops. The research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of corky root on tomato. Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma viride Pers. 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and Bacillus subtilis M51 PI. According to present and future regulations on the use of chemical fungicides and considering that treatments must avoids environmental pollution, the main object of this research was to find alternative strategies by using biocontrol agents against P. lycopersici that affect tomato plants. In laboratory, the effectiveness of T. viride 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and B. subtilis M51 PI to control P. lycopersici were studied. In greenhouse, the research was carried out comparing the following treatments: 1) untreated control; 2) T. viride 18/17 SS; 3) Streptomyces spp. AtB42; 4) B. subtilis M51 PI. Roots of plants of tomato H3028 Hazera were treated with the antagonist suspensions just prior of transplant. Treatments were repeated about 2 months after, with the same suspensions sprayed on the soil to the plant collar. In dual culture, the inhibition of P. lycopersici ranged up to 81.2% (caused from T. viride 18/17 SS), 75.6% (from Streptomyces spp. AtB42) and 66.8% (from B. subtilis M51 PI). In greenhouse trials, with regard to corky root symptoms, all treated plots showed signifycative differences compared to untreated. T. viride gave the better results followed by Streptomyces spp. and then by B. subtilis. The fungus antagonist showed good root surface competence such as demonstrated its persistence on the roots surface of the tomato plants whose roots were treated with T. viride 18/17 SS up to 2 months before.

  9. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    PubMed

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  10. Proteomic analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secretome.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Rogniaux, Hélène; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-03-01

    In fleshy fruits, fruit texture features are mainly related to chemical and mechanical properties of the cell wall. The description of tomato fruit cell wall proteome is a first step in the process of linking tomato genetic variability to fruit texture phenotypes. In this study, the proteome of 3 ripe tomato fruit lines with contrasted texture traits were studied. Weakly bound and soluble proteins were extracted from cell wall of the three cultivars using both destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively. Wall proteins were separated on 1D-PAGE, bands were excised and identified by LC-MS/MS. The software SignalP which searches for the leader peptide was used to discriminate between protein with or without signal peptide. In combine, seventy-five different cell wall proteins were recorded for both weakly bound and soluble cell wall fractions. The major identified functions included several proteins acting on polysaccharides, proteins involved in "lipid metabolism", proteins having interacting domain, "oxido-reductases" and "proteases" whose putative roles in ripe fruit cell wall is discussed. Several proteins with no obvious signal peptide, however, with accumulating supportive evidences to be bona fide wall proteins, were also identified. Some variations in protein repertories were observed among the lines, demonstrating the possibility to characterize cell wall protein genetic variability by such in muro proteome analyses.

  11. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  12. Increasing salt tolerance in the tomato.

    PubMed

    Cuartero, J; Bolarín, M C; Asíns, M J; Moreno, V

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a number of strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of salinity on plants will be reviewed; these strategies include using molecular markers and genetic transformation as tools to develop salinity-tolerant genotypes, and some cultural techniques. For more than 12 years, QTL analysis has been attempted in order to understand the genetics of salt tolerance and to deal with component traits in breeding programmes. Despite innovations like better marker systems and improved genetic mapping strategies, the success of marker-assisted selection has been very limited because, in part, of inadequate experimental design. Since salinity is variable in time and space, experimental design must allow the study of genotype x environment interaction. Genetic transformation could become a powerful tool in plant breeding, but the growing knowledge from plant physiology must be integrated with molecular breeding techniques. It has been shown that the expression of several transgenes promotes a higher level of salt tolerance in some species. Despite this promising result, the development of a salt-tolerant cultivar by way of transgenesis has still not been achieved. Future directions in order to overcome the present limitations are proposed. Three cultural techniques have proved useful in tomato to overcome, in part, the effects of salinity: treatment of seedlings with drought or NaCl ameliorates the adaptation of adult plants to salinity; mist applied to tomato plants grown in Mediterranean conditions improves vegetative growth and yield in saline conditions; and grafting tomato cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks could reduce the effects of salinity.

  13. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. The nucleotide sequence of tomato mottle virus, a new geminivirus isolated from tomatoes in Florida.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, A M; Polston, J E; Hiebert, E

    1992-12-01

    A new geminivirus, tomato mottle virus (TMoV), affecting tomato production in Florida has been cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned replicative forms of TMoV revealed four potential coding regions for the A component [2601 nucleotides (nt)] and two for the B component (2541 nt). Comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of the TMoV genome with those of other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses indicate that TMoV is a typical bipartite geminivirus of the New World and is closely related to but distinct from abutilon mosaic virus.

  15. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  16. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil. PMID:26999197

  17. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-03-16

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  18. Evaluation of tomato germplasm for flavor and flavor contributing components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavor is one of the most highly demanded consumer traits of tomato at present; poor flavor is one of the most commonly heard complaints associated with modern varieties of tomato. Research in the past has identified reducing sugars, organic acids and approximately 30 plant volatiles as either direc...

  19. [Responses of tomato leaf photosynthesis to rapid water stress].

    PubMed

    Han, Guo-Jun; Chen, Nian-lai; Huang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yan-hong

    2013-04-01

    By using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution to regulate the water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) rhizosphere to simulate water stress, this paper studied the dynamic changes of net photosynthetic rate, dark respiratory rate and CO2 compensatory concentration of detached tomato leaves in the process of photosynthetic induction. Under 1000 micromol m-2 s-1 of light induction, the time required to reach the maximum net photosynthetic rate of water-stressed tomato leaves was shortened by 1/3, while the stomatal conductance was increased by 1.5 times, as compared to the non-stress control. Also, the light saturation point (LSP) of water-stressed tomato leaves was lowered by 65% to 85%, and the light compensation point (LCP) was increased by 75% to 100%, suggesting that the effective range of light utilized by tomato leaves was reduced. Furthermore, water stress decreased the maximum photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves by 40%, but increased the dark respiration rate by about 45% . It was suggested that rapid water stress made the stomata of tomato leaves quickly opened, without initial photosynthetic induction stage. In conclusion, water stress could induce the decrease of plant light-energy use efficiency and potential, being the main reason for the decrease of plant productivity, and stomatal regulation could be the main physiological mechanism of tomato plants to adapt to rapid water stress.

  20. Three dimensional geometric modeling of processing-tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterizing tomato geometries with different shapes and sizes would facilitate the design of tomato processing equipments and promote computer-based engineering simulations. This research sought to develop a three-dimensional geometric model that can describe the morphological attributes of proce...

  1. SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

  2. First Report of Pepino Mosaic Virus Infecting Tomato in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pepino mosaic has become endemic greenhouse tomato disease in many countries around the world. Its occurrence in Mexico has yet to be determined. In early spring of 2010, symptoms of yellow mosaic, chlorotic patches and fruit marbling were observed in approximately 50% of tomato plants in a commerc...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-28 - Tomatoes from certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... percent pink and/or red. Green tomatoes from Spain, France, Morocco, and Western Sahara may be imported in...) Tomatoes (fruit) (Solanum lycopersicum) from the provinces of El Jadida or Safi in Morocco and the province... of El Jadida or Safi in Morocco and the province of Dahkla in Western Sahara only in accordance...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Tomato Viroids in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North American greenhouse tomato industry has expanded dramatically in the last couple of decades. Nearly 40% of fresh tomatoes in the U.S. supermarkets are now produced in greenhouses. The intense production practices and the protective plant growing environment resulted in a number of unique...

  5. Microbiological profile of greenhouses in a farm producing hydroponic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Leopoldo; Rico-Romero, Leticia; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2008-01-01

    Produce, including tomatoes, has been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness. A number of the sources of contamination for produce grown in open fields are known. However, as an alternative agricultural system, hydroponic greenhouses are reasonably expected to reduce some of these sources. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbiological profile of tomatoes grown in greenhouses at a Mexican hydroponic farm with a high technological level and sanitary agricultural practices (SAPs) in place. Tomatoes and other materials associated with the farm were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica and populations of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae. Tomatoes showed median levels of 0.8 log CFU per tomato for Enterobacteriaceae, < 0.5 log CFU per tomato for coliforms, and 0.5 most probable number per tomato for E. coli. Despite the physical barriers that the facilities provide and the implemented SAPs, we found that 2.8% of tomatoes were contaminated with Salmonella and 0.7% with E. coli. Other Salmonella-positive materials were puddles, soil, cleaning cloths, and sponges. Samples from the nursery and greenhouses were positive for E. coli, whereas Salmonella was found only in the latter. Although hydroponic greenhouses provide physical barriers against some sources of enteric bacterial contamination, these results show that sporadic evidence of fecal contamination and the presence of Salmonella can occur at the studied greenhouse farm.

  6. The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research. PMID:22943138

  7. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  8. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  9. Euchromatin and Pericentromeric Heterochromatin: Comparative Composition in the Tomato Genome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Tang, Xiaomin; Cheng, Zhukuan; Mueller, Lukas; Giovannoni, Jim; Tanksley, Steve D.

    2006-01-01

    Eleven sequenced BACs were annotated and localized via FISH to tomato pachytene chromosomes providing the first global insights into the compositional differences of euchromatin and pericentromeric heterochromatin in this model dicot species. The results indicate that tomato euchromatin has a gene density (6.7 kb/gene) similar to that of Arabidopsis and rice. Thus, while the euchromatin comprises only 25% of the tomato nuclear DNA, it is sufficient to account for ∼90% of the estimated 38,000 nontransposon genes that compose the tomato genome. Moreover, euchromatic BACs were largely devoid of transposons or other repetitive elements. In contrast, BACs assigned to the pericentromeric heterochromatin had a gene density 10–100 times lower than that of the euchromatin and are heavily populated by retrotransposons preferential to the heterochromatin—the most abundant transposons belonging to the Jinling Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon family. Jinling elements are highly methylated and rarely transcribed. Nonetheless, they have spread throughout the pericentromeric heterochromatin in tomato and wild tomato species fairly recently—well after tomato diverged from potato and other related solanaceous species. The implications of these findings on evolution and on sequencing the genomes of tomato and other solanaceous species are discussed. PMID:16489216

  10. Wild tomato introgressions that confer resistance to begomoviruses in Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Begomoviruses, whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, are one of the major diseases of tomatoes in subtropical and tropical regions. In Guatemala, several bipartite begomoviruses and the monopartite geminivirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, are present. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate th...

  11. Understanding and improving the shelf life of tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shelf life of ripe tomato fruit is economically very important, from production to the marketing chain, since it determines the cash returns to the grower and the grocer/processor. Shelf life of horticultural edible produce, including tomato, is regulated through myriad physiological, biochemical an...

  12. Prospects: the tomato genome as a cornerstone for gene discovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Those involved in the international tomato genome sequencing effort contributed to not only the development of an important genome sequence relevant to a major economic and nutritional crop, but also to the tomato experimental system as a model for plant biology. Without question, prior seminal work...

  13. Thermal and storage characteristics of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal oxidative stability and effect of different storage conditions on quality characteristics of tomato seed oil have not been studied. The objectives of this research were to determine the changes in quality and oxidative stability of tomato seed oil, including color, antioxidant activity, per...

  14. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  15. The tomato genome sequence provides insight into fleshy fruit evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome of the inbred tomato cultivar ‘Heinz 1706’ was sequenced and assembled using a combination of Sanger and “next generation” technologies. The predicted genome size is ~900 Mb, consistent with prior estimates, of which 760 Mb were assembled in 91 scaffolds aligned to the 12 tomato chromosom...

  16. Phytochrome-mediated Carotenoids Biosynthesis in Ripening Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R L; Jen, J J

    1975-09-01

    Red light induced and far red light inhibited carotenoid biosynthesis in ripening tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) when compared to controls kept in the dark. Red illumination following far red illumination reversed the inhibitory action of far red light on carotenoid biosynthesis, suggesting a phytochrome-mediated process. Quantitation of individual carotenoids favored the hypothesis of two separate carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in tomatoes.

  17. A Novel Vision Sensing System for Tomato Quality Detection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Satyam; Boyat, Sachin; Sadistap, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Producing tomato is a daunting task as the crop of tomato is exposed to attacks from various microorganisms. The symptoms of the attacks are usually changed in color, bacterial spots, special kind of specks, and sunken areas with concentric rings having different colors on the tomato outer surface. This paper addresses a vision sensing based system for tomato quality inspection. A novel approach has been developed for tomato fruit detection and disease detection. Developed system consists of USB based camera module having 12.0 megapixel interfaced with ARM-9 processor. Zigbee module has been interfaced with developed system for wireless transmission from host system to PC based server for further processing. Algorithm development consists of three major steps, preprocessing steps like noise rejection, segmentation and scaling, classification and recognition, and automatic disease detection and classification. Tomato samples have been collected from local market and data acquisition has been performed for data base preparation and various processing steps. Developed system can detect as well as classify the various diseases in tomato samples. Various pattern recognition and soft computing techniques have been implemented for data analysis as well as different parameters prediction like shelf life of the tomato, quality index based on disease detection and classification, freshness detection, maturity index detection, and different suggestions for detected diseases. Results are validated with aroma sensing technique using commercial Alpha Mos 3000 system. Accuracy has been calculated from extracted results, which is around 92%.

  18. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and.... Assessments upon tomato handlers are used by the Committee to fund reasonable and necessary expenses of the...

  19. 78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the assessment... the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon...

  20. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. on tomatoes by plant molecules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of carvacrol (CAR), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), eugenol (EUG) and ß-resorcylic acid (BR) as a wash treatment for reducing Salmonella spp. on tomatoes was investigated. Plum tomatoes inoculated with a six-serotype mixture of Salmonella (108 CFU) were subjected to washing in sterile deion...

  1. Characteristics of extraction and functionality of protein from tomato pomace produced with different industrial processing methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seeds from tomato pomace, a by-product of tomato processing, contains valuable but underutilized protein with unique functional properties. The objectives of this research were to study the impact of industrial hot and cold break tomato processing on protein extraction from defatted tomato seeds...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. ...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  5. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  6. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from the...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from the...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from the...

  10. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  11. [The reformation of tomato ecology using photo-ecology film].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ji-wu; Zheng, Rong-er; Zhang, Yun-dong; Cao, Bai-qing; Li, Wei

    2004-03-01

    The action spectrum of photosynthesis of tomato was studied with excitation and fluorescence spectra of its leaf. To simulate action spectrum of tomato the fluorescent auxiliary was specially prepared and used to make the photo-ecology film. The film was used to cover the roof of greenhouses for planting tomatoes in Jianguo village of Xinfa town, Daoli district, Harbin. The survey of ecology conditions, tomato growth and yield has been made in comparison with those in the greenhouse using normal film. It is shown that the yield of tomato in the photo-ecology film greenhouse has increased by 53.7%, which leads to a production value rise of 61.4%.

  12. Residues and dissipation dynamics of fosthiazate in tomato and soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junxue; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-09-01

    Residue dynamics of fosthiazate in tomato and soil was studied in this paper utilizing liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The field trial was conducted in three sites: Beijing, Liaoning, Hubei in China. Fosthiazate dissipated with the half-life 0.75-2.6 days in tomato or tomato plants and 2.5-11.6 days in soil. In the terminal residue experiment, no higher residue than 0.023 mg kg(-1) in tomato and 0.27 mg kg(-1) in soil was detected. Residues of fosthiazte in tomato were far below Japan maximum residue levels (0.2 mg kg(-1)).

  13. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential.

  14. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens C

    2004-12-15

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degrees C for a week, extracted, and analyzed for fungal metabolites. Extracts from pure cultures were compared with extracts from the moldy tomatoes and fungal metabolite standards in two HPLC systems with DAD and FLD detection. The results showed that Penicillium tularense, Stemphylium eturmiunum, and S. cf. lycopersici were postharvest spoilers of fresh tomatoes. The results also showed that P. tularense could produce janthitrems, paspalinine, paxilline, and 3-O-acetoxypaxilline, that S. cf. lycopersici could produce stemphols, and that S. eturmiunum could produce infectopyrone and macrosporin when grown in pure culture. This study is the first to report on the detection of tentoxin, paxillines, janthitrems, verrucolone, infectopyrone, macrosporin, and stemphols in naturally contaminated tomatoes.

  15. Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera.

  16. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Jatinder S; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Bahia, Navratan Singh; Singh, Rudra P; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-05-08

    The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L-1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  17. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 protein is a determinant of disease phenotype in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a monopartite begomovirus. Its genome contains six open reading frames, with V1 and V2 in sense, and C1 to C4 in complementary orientation. The functions of V1 and V2 are for coat protein and pre-coat, respectively. C1 is for virus replication, C2 for trans-a...

  18. Tomato chilling injury threshold defined by the volatile profiles of pink harvested tomato fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh tomato fruit show visible symptoms of chilling injury (CI) when stored at temperatures lower than the reported chilling threshold of 12.5°C. However, their sensitivity has been reported to decrease as they ripen. Volatile profiles change during ripening and are affected by physiological change...

  19. First Report of Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Tomato in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In early 2007, severe yellowing and chlorosis symptoms were observed in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica. The symptoms resembled those of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae) and large populations of whiteflies were observed in the fields and...

  20. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from infected tomato fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has long been known to spread via plant propagation materials including transplants. Global dissemination of TSWV has also been linked to transport of thrips-infested and virus-infected horticultural and floricultural products through trade and commerce. However, th...

  1. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder S.; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Bahia, Navratan Singh; Singh, Rudra P.; Critchley, Alan T.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid(JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. PMID:26006710

  2. Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

  3. Tomato Transcription Factor SlWUS Plays an Important Role in Tomato Flower and Locule Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Qi, Mingfang; Sun, Meihua; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yudong; Xu, Tao; Li, Yanbing; Li, Tianlai

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is a model species for fleshy fruit development. The shapes and sizes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are mainly controlled by several loci, including locule number (lc). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were found downstream of WUSCHEL (SlWUS) in a putative tomato CArG cis-regulatory element. The lc mutation may affect the binding of AGAMOUS(AG), cause the up-regulation of SlWUS and result in increased locule numbers. In this study, tissue expression levels showed that SlWUS is expressed in young floral buds and shoot apexes. Silencing SlWUS on an lc mutant genetic background with an RNA interference (RNAi) strategy resulted in smaller flowers and fruit than those of the wild-type plants, with decreased locule number. Further study revealed that the SlWUS RNAi lines exhibited altered expression levels of the TAG1 and SlCLV3 genes that participate in the regulation of tomato flower and fruit locule development. In conclusion, this study provides the first genetic evidence that SlWUS may be the candidate gene of the lc locus and reveals the function of SlWUS in flower development. PMID:28408915

  4. The role of specific tomato volatiles in tomato-whitefly interaction.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, Petra M; Diergaarde, Paul J; Ament, Kai; Guerra, José; Weidner, Monique; Schütz, Stefan; de Both, Michiel T J; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Bemisia tabaci (whitefly) infestations and the subsequent transfer of viruses are the cause of severe losses in crop production and horticultural practice. To improve biological control of B. tabaci, we investigated repellent properties of plant-produced semiochemicals. The mix of headspace volatiles, collected from naturally repellent wild tomato accessions, influenced B. tabaci initial choice behavior, indicating a role for plant semiochemicals in locating host plants. A collection of wild tomato accessions and introgression lines (Solanum pennellii LA716 x Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg') were extensively screened for attractiveness to B. tabaci, and their headspace profiles were determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis revealed that several terpenoids were putatively involved in tomato-whitefly interactions. Several of these candidate compounds conferred repellence to otherwise attractive tomato plants when applied to the plant's branches on paper cards. The sesquiterpenes zingiberene and curcumene and the monoterpenes p-cymene, alpha-terpinene, and alpha-phellandrene had the strongest effects in free-choice bioassays. These terpenes also elicited a response of receptors on the insect's antennae as determined by electroantennography. Conversely, the monoterpene beta-myrcene showed no activity in both assays. B. tabaci apparently uses, besides visual cues, specific plant volatile cues for the initial selection of a host. Altering whitefly choice behavior by manipulation of the terpenoid composition of the host headspace may therefore be feasible.

  5. The Role of Specific Tomato Volatiles in Tomato-Whitefly Interaction1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Petra M.; Diergaarde, Paul J.; Ament, Kai; Guerra, José; Weidner, Monique; Schütz, Stefan; de Both, Michiel T.J.; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (whitefly) infestations and the subsequent transfer of viruses are the cause of severe losses in crop production and horticultural practice. To improve biological control of B. tabaci, we investigated repellent properties of plant-produced semiochemicals. The mix of headspace volatiles, collected from naturally repellent wild tomato accessions, influenced B. tabaci initial choice behavior, indicating a role for plant semiochemicals in locating host plants. A collection of wild tomato accessions and introgression lines (Solanum pennellii LA716 × Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneyberg’) were extensively screened for attractiveness to B. tabaci, and their headspace profiles were determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis revealed that several terpenoids were putatively involved in tomato-whitefly interactions. Several of these candidate compounds conferred repellence to otherwise attractive tomato plants when applied to the plant's branches on paper cards. The sesquiterpenes zingiberene and curcumene and the monoterpenes p-cymene, α-terpinene, and α-phellandrene had the strongest effects in free-choice bioassays. These terpenes also elicited a response of receptors on the insect's antennae as determined by electroantennography. Conversely, the monoterpene β-myrcene showed no activity in both assays. B. tabaci apparently uses, besides visual cues, specific plant volatile cues for the initial selection of a host. Altering whitefly choice behavior by manipulation of the terpenoid composition of the host headspace may therefore be feasible. PMID:19692533

  6. Transmission efficiency of tomato apex necrosis virus by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B in tomato.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Ortiz, M; León-Sicairos, C R; López-Valenzuela, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C; Valdez-Ortiz, A; Velarde-Félix, S; Peraza-Garay, F; Garzón-Tiznado, J A

    2013-08-01

    Tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) is a new virus that causes important damage in tomato crops from the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. To understand the relationship between ToANV and its vector Bermisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) (Gennadius) biotype B, laboratory and greenhouse trials were completed to: 1) determine the acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToANV by B. tabaci from tomato to tomato, 2) understand the transmission efficiency at different B. tabaci population densities, 3) estimate the time from inoculation of the virus at different B. tabaci densities to manifestation of symptoms in the plants, and 4) determine the retention time of the virus by the insect vector. The presence of the virus in plants was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification ofa 795-bp fragment (GenBank JN704068), which is phylogenetically related to ToANV (GenBank EF063242). The results showed that B. tabaci is an effective vector for ToANV with relatively long acquisition (12 h) and inoculation (9 h) access periods; a single adult is capable of transmitting and retaining the virus for up to 7d, suggesting a persistent mode of transmission. These results will help in the development of management strategies for controlling the vector and the disease.

  7. Sucrose synthase in wild tomato Lycopersicon chmielewskii and tomato fruit sink strength

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; T. Loboda; S.S. Sung; C.C. Black

    1992-01-01

    Here it is reported that sucrose synthase can be readily measured in growing wild tomato fruits (Lycopersicon chmielewskii) when suitable methods are adopted during fruit extraction. The enzyme also was present in fruit pericarp tissues, in seeds, and in flowers.In mature, nongrowing fruits, sucrose synthase activities approached nil values.Therefore, sucrose synthase...

  8. Complete genome sequence of a tomato infecting tomato mottle mosaic virus in New York

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete genome sequence of an emerging isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting experimental nicotianan benthamiana plants in up-state New York was obtained using small RNA deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity to ToMMV isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader d...

  9. Genome Sequence of Southern tomato virus in Asymptomatic Tomato ‘Sweet Hearts’

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Coşkan, Sevgi; Londoño, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Southern tomato virus in asymptomatic Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet Hearts’ (STV-Florida) in Florida was assembled from small RNAs sequenced by Illumina RNA-seq. The STV-Florida genome shared 99.0 to 99.9% similarity with full genome sequences from Bangladesh, China, Mexico, and the United States (Mississippi and North Carolina). PMID:28209810

  10. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting tomatoes in Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An emerging disease, with virus-like symptoms of deformation, discoloration and necrotic ringspots on green and red fruits of tomato, were observed in a commercial high tunnel in Wayne Co., Ohio, in the summer of 2013. Incidence of affected fruit was estimated to be 15%. Four symptomatic fruits we...

  11. Tomato Whole Genome Transcriptional Response to Tetranychus urticae Identifies Divergence of Spider Mite-Induced Responses Between Tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Martel, Catherine; Zhurov, Vladimir; Navarro, Marie; Martinez, Manuel; Cazaux, Marc; Auger, Philippe; Migeon, Alain; Santamaria, M Estrella; Wybouw, Nicky; Diaz, Isabel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Navajas, Maria; Grbic, Miodrag; Grbic, Vojislava

    2015-03-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite feeding and compare them with Arabidopsis in order to determine conserved and divergent defense responses to this pest. To refine the involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in mite-induced responses and to improve tomato Gene Ontology annotations, we analyzed transcriptional changes in the tomato JA-signaling mutant defenseless1 (def-1) upon JA treatment and spider mite herbivory. Overlay of differentially expressed genes (DEG) identified in def-1 onto those from the timecourse experiment established that JA controls expression of the majority of genes differentially regulated by herbivory. Comparison of defense responses between tomato and Arabidopsis highlighted 96 orthologous genes (of 2,133 DEG) that were recruited for defense against spider mites in both species. These genes, involved in biosynthesis of JA, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, represent the conserved core of induced defenses. The remaining tomato DEG support the establishment of tomato-specific defenses, indicating profound divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis.

  12. The effects of plant essential oils and particle films on tomato spotted wilt and thrips in tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because the thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is a limiting factor in tomato production in the southern USA, we are investigating novel control methods that would be effective and environmentally non-disruptive. In laboratory choice tests, we found that three plant essential oils, geraniol, ...

  13. Complete genome sequence of Southern tomato virus naturally infecting tomatoes in Bangladesh using small RNA deep sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete genome sequence of a Southern tomato virus (STV) isolate on tomato plants in a seed production field in Bangladesh was obtained for the first time using next generation sequencing. The identified isolate STV_BD-13 shares high degree of sequence identity (99%) with several known STV isol...

  14. Interaction of tomato lycopene and ketosamine against rat prostate tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mossine, Valeri V; Chopra, Pankaj; Mawhinney, Thomas P

    2008-06-01

    Prior investigations on the beneficial effect of dietary processed tomato products and lycopene on prostate cancer risk suggested that lycopene may require the presence of other constituents to exert its chemopreventive potential. We investigated whether ketosamines, a group of carbohydrate derivatives present in dehydrated tomato products, may interact with lycopene against prostate tumorigenesis. One ketosamine, FruHis, strongly synergized with lycopene against proliferation of the highly metastatic rat prostate adenocarcinoma MAT-LyLu cell line in vitro. The FruHis/lycopene combination significantly inhibited in vivo tumor formation by MAT-LyLu cells in syngeneic Copenhagen rats. Energy-balanced diets, supplemented with tomato paste, tomato powder, or tomato paste plus FruHis, were fed to Wistar-Unilever rats (n = 20 per group) treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea and testosterone to induce prostate carcinogenesis. Survival from carcinogenesis was lowest in the control group (median survival time, 40 weeks) and highest in the group fed the tomato paste/FruHis diet (51 weeks; P = 0.004, versus control). The proportions of dying rats with macroscopic prostate tumors in the control, tomato paste, tomato powder, and tomato paste/FruHis groups were 63% (12 of 19), 39% (5 of 13), 43% (6 of 14), and 18% (2 of 11), respectively. FruHis completely blocked DNA oxidative degradation at >250 micromol/L in vitro, whereas neither ascorbate nor phenolic antioxidants from tomato were effective protectors in this assay. FruHis, therefore, may exert tumor-preventive effect through its antioxidant activity and interaction with lycopene.

  15. On the tomato trail: in search of ancestral roots.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    A profile of Roger Chetelat, the director of the C.M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at the University of California, Davis. Chetelat maintains one of the largest collections of tomato seeds in the world. Many of those seeds come from wild tomato species that Chetelat and his associates collect on field research trips to the dry coastal areas of Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Wild tomatoes are tough, versatile organisms that have evolved resistance to virtually all common tomato diseases and pests and stubbornly tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Some boast extraordinarily high levels of sugars, beta carotene, vitamin C, lycopene, and antioxidants. Chetelat has dedicated his career to finding and preserving these genetic riches. Modern cultivated tomatoes are a frail, inbred lot. They all trace their origins to a single, wild tomato plant that underwent a random mutation sometime in prehistory. Because of this genetic fluke, that plant's fruits were plump, juicy, and many, many times larger than the output of its progenitors. Offspring from that tomato were taken away from the Andes and domesticated in what is present-day Mexico, becoming severed from their wild ancestors and the vast pool of genetic diversity that tomatoes had evolved over the millennia. Botanists call this a “bottleneck.” It leaves subsequent generations susceptible to disease and unable to adjust to rapid climate changes. The stored wild seeds at the Rick Center enable plant breeders to re-incorporate desirable wild traits into new tomato varieties, literally reconnecting them to their ancestral roots, ensuring that this vast reservoir of genetic diversity will be available when it is needed.

  16. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis.

  17. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices.

  18. Silencing polygalacturonase expression inhibits tomato petiole abscission.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Lu, Feng; Imsabai, Wachiraya; Meir, Shimon; Reid, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was used as a tool for functional analysis of cell wall-associated genes that have been suggested to be involved in leaf abscission. Tobacco rattle virus is an effective vector for VIGS in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Silencing was more efficient when the plants were grown at 22 degrees C than when they were grown at 20 degrees C or 25 degrees C. The photobleaching phenotype resulting from silencing phytoene desaturase varied, depending on cultivar, from barely visible to photobleaching of entire leaves. To study the function of abscission-related genes, a purple transgenic tomato line constitutively expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene, Leaf colour (Lc) was used. Silencing Lc expression in this line resulted in reduced anthocyanin production (reversing the colour from purple to green), thus providing a convenient silencing 'reporter'. Silencing tomato abscission-related polygalacturonases (TAPGs), using a TAPG1 fragment, delayed abscission and increased break strength of the abscission zone in explants treated with 1 mul l(-1) ethylene. The abundance of TAPG1 transcripts in the green (silenced) abscission zone tissues was <1% of that in the purple (non-silenced) controls. As a highly homologous region was used for all five polygalacturonases it is assumed that the effect of delayed abscission is the result of silencing all the genes in this family. By contrast, silencing abscission-related expansins (LeEXP11 and LeEXP12) and endoglucanases (LeCEL1 and LeCEL2) had no discernible effect on break strength, even when the two endoglucanase genes were silenced concurrently. Simultaneous silencing of TAPG and LeCEL1 was no more effective than silencing TAPG alone. The data demonstrate the importance of TAPGs in the abscission of leaf petioles.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes in tomato associated with R-lines Ty-5 against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Sw-7 against tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are two most economically important viruses affecting tomato productions worldwide. Developing a cultivar with resistance to these viruses would be the most effective and economical means of disease management. Comparative ...

  20. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  1. Naringenin from cooked tomato paste is bioavailable in men.

    PubMed

    Bugianesi, Rossana; Catasta, Giovina; Spigno, Patrizia; D'Uva, Antonio; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2002-11-01

    Naringenin has been shown to exert antiestrogenic, cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant activities, as well as an indirect modulation on the metabolism of many xenobiotics. It is one of the most abundant polyphenols in tomato. Given the widespread consumption of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and tomato-based products, this study was designed to determine whether plasma levels of naringenin were detectable in five men after consumption of a test meal containing 150 mg of cooked tomato paste. Naringenin intake with the test meal was 3.8 mg. Blood was drawn from fasting subjects and 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h after the meal. To compare the results with a control, the same meal without tomato paste (control meal) was administered to the same subjects 2 wk later. Analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a CoulArray electrochemical detector. The peak plasma concentration was 0.12 +/- 0.03 micro mol/L 2 h after the meal. Unconjugated naringenin was not detected. Naringenin was not detected in plasma at any time after consumption of the control meal. In addition to naringenin, we detected rutin and chlorogenic acid in tomato paste, but these polyphenols and their derivatives (quercetin and caffeic acid) were not detected in plasma at any time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating naringenin bioavailability in humans after consumption of a meal containing cooked tomato paste.

  2. The history of tomato: from domestication to biopharming.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Imported from the Andean region to Europe in the 16th century, today tomato is widespread throughout the world and represents the most economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Tomato is not only traded in the fresh market but is also used in the processing industry in soups, as paste, concentrate, juice, and ketchup. It is an incredible source of important nutrients such as lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin C, which all have positive impacts on human health. Its production and consumption is increasing with population growth. In this review, we report how tomato was already domesticated by the ancient Incan and Aztec civilizations, and how it came to Europe, where its breeding history started. The development of genetic, molecular biology and plant biotechnology have opened the doors towards the modern genetic engineering of tomato. The different goals of tomato genetic engineering are presented, as well as examples of successfully engineered tomatoes in terms of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and fruit quality. The development of GM tomato for biopharming is also described.

  3. Ethylene signalling affects susceptibility of tomatoes to Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Noel, Jason T; George, Andrée S; Farias, Marcelo A; Jenkins, Keith T; Hochmuth, George; Xu, Yimin; Giovanonni, Jim J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly recognized as important reservoirs of human pathogens, and therefore, significant attention has been directed recently to understanding mechanisms of the interactions between plants and enterics, like Salmonella. A screen of tomato cultivars for their susceptibility to Salmonella revealed significant differences in the ability of this human pathogen to multiply within fruits; expression of the Salmonella genes (cysB, agfB, fadH) involved in the interactions with tomatoes depended on the tomato genotype and maturity stage. Proliferation of Salmonella was strongly reduced in the tomato mutants with defects in ethylene synthesis, perception and signal transduction. While mutation in the ripening-related ethylene receptor Nr resulted only in a modest reduction in Salmonella numbers within tomatoes, strong inhibition of the Salmonella proliferation was observed in rin and nor tomato mutants. RIN and NOR are regulators of ethylene synthesis and ripening. A commercial tomato variety heterozygous for rin was less susceptible to Salmonella under the greenhouse conditions but not when tested in the field over three production seasons. PMID:24888884

  4. SNP Discovery and Linkage Map Construction in Cultivated Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Asamizu, Erika; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Few intraspecific genetic linkage maps have been reported for cultivated tomato, mainly because genetic diversity within Solanum lycopersicum is much less than that between tomato species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant source of genomic variation, are the most promising source of polymorphisms for the construction of linkage maps for closely related intraspecific lines. In this study, we developed SNP markers based on expressed sequence tags for the construction of intraspecific linkage maps in tomato. Out of the 5607 SNP positions detected through in silico analysis, 1536 were selected for high-throughput genotyping of two mapping populations derived from crosses between ‘Micro-Tom’ and either ‘Ailsa Craig’ or ‘M82’. A total of 1137 markers, including 793 out of the 1338 successfully genotyped SNPs, along with 344 simple sequence repeat and intronic polymorphism markers, were mapped onto two linkage maps, which covered 1467.8 and 1422.7 cM, respectively. The SNP markers developed were then screened against cultivated tomato lines in order to estimate the transferability of these SNPs to other breeding materials. The molecular markers and linkage maps represent a milestone in the genomics and genetics, and are the first step toward molecular breeding of cultivated tomato. Information on the DNA markers, linkage maps, and SNP genotypes for these tomato lines is available at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tomato/. PMID:21044984

  5. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2009-09-01

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical "cellulose-like" triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 °C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR "cellulose-like" spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  6. Persistence, metabolism and safety evaluation of thiamethoxam in tomato crop.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Rajib; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2009-08-01

    Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been widely accepted for use in various crops, including vegetables, owing to its high efficacy against various chewing and sucking insect pests. In this particular study, the authors examined the residue dynamics of this insecticide in tomato and soil and calculated a safety index for this insecticide in an Indian context. In tomato fruits, the insecticide dissipated from 82 to 87% in 10 days with a half-life of 4 days, whereas dissipation in soil, under tomato crop, varied between 72 and 75% in 15 days with a half-life of 9 days. Total residues reached below detectable level in 15 days in tomato fruits and 20 days in soil. Maximum damage (30%) was found in control plots, as opposed to 8-10% of fruit damage in treated plots. One degradation product was detected on the tomato fruit surface, and three metabolites were identified in tomato fruits by the LC-MS technique. The metabolites have been reported for the first time in tomato fruits. Thiamethoxam at normal and double the recommended use rate effectively controlled aphids, whiteflies and Helicoverpa, as the insect population decreased to a minimum within 10 days of spraying in comparison with the control. There was no significant difference between the two rates of application, and both thiamethoxam treatments significantly increased tomato fruit yield compared with the untreated control. A maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) for tomato has been proposed, with a corresponding preharvest interval (PHI) of 8 days. These parallel advances in toxicology and analytical chemistry have strengthened the observations that thiamethoxam can be used safely and efficiently in crop protection programmes.

  7. Thermography and machine learning techniques for tomato freshness prediction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Wang, Hong-Jin; Tan, Zuojun

    2016-12-01

    The United States and China are the world's leading tomato producers. Tomatoes account for over $2 billion annually in farm sales in the U.S. Tomatoes also rank as the world's 8th most valuable agricultural product, valued at $58 billion dollars annually, and quality is highly prized. Nondestructive technologies, such as optical inspection and near-infrared spectrum analysis, have been developed to estimate tomato freshness (also known as grades in USDA parlance). However, determining the freshness of tomatoes is still an open problem. This research (1) illustrates the principle of theory on why thermography might be able to reveal the internal state of the tomatoes and (2) investigates the application of machine learning techniques-artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs)-in combination with transient step heating, and thermography for freshness prediction, which refers to how soon the tomatoes will decay. Infrared images were captured at a sampling frequency of 1 Hz during 40 s of heating followed by 160 s of cooling. The temperatures of the acquired images were plotted. Regions with higher temperature differences between fresh and less fresh (rotten within three days) tomatoes of approximately uniform size and shape were used as the input nodes for ANN and SVM models. The ANN model built using heating and cooling data was relatively optimal. The overall regression coefficient was 0.99. These results suggest that a combination of infrared thermal imaging and ANN modeling methods can be used to predict tomato freshness with higher accuracy than SVM models.

  8. Changes in free amino acid, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content in tomatoes during 11 stages of growth, and inhibition of cervical, lung, and lymphoma human cancer cells by green tomato extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and secondary metabolites that benefit nutrition and human health. The concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by the maturity of the tomato fruit on the vine. Widely consumed Korean tomato variety Doturakwor...

  9. Ripening Behavior of Wild Tomato Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Rebecca; Fobes, Jon F.; Herner, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    Nine wild tomato species were surveyed for variability in ripening characteristics. External signs of ripening, age of fruit at ripening, and ethylene production patterns were compared. Ethylene production was monitored using an ethylene-free air stream system and gas chromatography. Based on these ripening characteristics, the fruits fell into three general categories: those that change color when they ripen, green-fruited species that abscise prior to ripening, and green-fruited species that ripen on the vine. The fruits that change color, Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium and Lycopersicon cheesmanii, exhibited a peak of ethylene production similar to the cultivated tomato; there were differences, however, in the timing and magnitude of the ethylene production. Peak levels of ethylene production are correlated with age at maturity. For the two species that abscise prior to ripening, Lycopersicon chilense and Lycopersicon peruvianum, ability to produce ethylene varied with stage of maturity. The two species differed from each other in time of endogenous ethylene production relative to abscission, suggesting differences in the control mechanisms regulating their ripening. For two of the green-fruited species that ripen on the vine, Lycopersicon chmielewskii and Lycopersicon parviflorum, ethylene production was correlated to fruit softening. For Lycopersicon hirsutum and Solanum pennellii, however, ethylene production was not correlated with external ripening changes, making questionable the role of ethylene as the ripening hormone in these fruits. PMID:16662121

  10. Transcriptome profiling to discover defense-related genes associated with resistance line ty-5 against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a whitefly-transmitted begomovirus, has caused serious economic losses to tomato crops in the U.S. and around the world. The most effective management would be the use of a TYLCV-resistant tomato cultivar. Several sources of TYLCV resistance genes have been ide...

  11. A single base pair in the right terminal domain of Tomato planta macho viroid is a virulence determinant factor on tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd), including isolates previously designated as Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), causes serious disease on tomatoes in North America. Two predominant variants, sharing 93.8% sequence identity, incited distinct severe (MPVd-S) or mild (MPVd-M) symptoms on tomato. To ide...

  12. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing powe...

  13. Positive association of tomato consumption with serum urate: support for tomato consumption as an anecdotal trigger of gout flares.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Tanya J; Cadzow, Murray; Dalbeth, Nicola; Jones, Peter B; Stamp, Lisa K; Hindmarsh, Jennie Harré; Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; Topless, Ruth; Merriman, Tony R

    2015-08-19

    Gout is a consequence of an innate immune reaction to monosodium urate crystals deposited in joints. Acute gout attacks can be triggered by dietary factors that are themselves associated with serum urate levels. Tomato consumption is an anecdotal trigger of gout flares. This study aimed to measure the frequency of tomato consumption as a self-reported trigger of gout attacks in a large New Zealand sample set, and to test the hypothesis that tomato consumption is associated with serum urate levels. Two thousand fifty one New Zealanders (of Māori, Pacific Island, European or other ancestry) with clinically-ascertained gout were asked about gout trigger foods. European individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC; n = 7517) Study, Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS; n = 2151) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 3052) were used to test, in multivariate-adjusted analyses, for association between serum urate and tomato intake. Seventy one percent of people with gout reported having ≥1 gout trigger food. Of these 20% specifically mentioned tomatoes, the 4(th) most commonly reported trigger food. There was association between tomato intake and serum urate levels in the ARIC, CHS and FHS combined cohort (β = 0.66 μmolL(-1) increase in serum urate per additional serve per week; P = 0.006) - evident in both sexes (men: β = 0.84 μmolL(-1), P = 0.035; women: β = 0.59 μmolL (-1), P = 0.041). While our descriptive and observational data are unable to support the claim that tomato consumption is a trigger of gout attacks, the positive association between tomato consumption and serum urate levels suggests that the self-reporting of tomatoes as a dietary trigger by people with gout has a biological basis.

  14. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P < 0.05) decrease during contact with the roller conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers.

  15. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    PubMed

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  16. Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Hoon; Oh, Sung; Oh, Tae-Kyun; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sei Chang; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Sim, Sang-Yun; Park, Kwon Seo; Lee, Hwan Gu; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Chang Won

    2011-02-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons) in Korea during 2008-2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at each area and determined their nucleotides (nt) sequences and deduced the amino acids of six open reading frames in the genomes. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos genomes shared higher nt identities with four Japanese isolates -Ng, -Omu, -Mis, and -Miy. On the other hand, TYLCV-Hwas, -Jeju, and -Nons genomes shared higher nt identities with five Chinese isolates TYLCV-AH1, -ZJ3, -ZJHZ12, -SH2, -Sh10, and two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa. On the basis of a neighbor-joining tree, five Korean TYLCV isolates were separated into three clades. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos formed the first clade, clustering with four Japanese isolates TYLCV-Mis, -Omu, -Ng, and -Miy. TYLCV-Jeju and -Nons formed the second clade, clustering with two Chinese isolates -ZJHZ212 and -Sh10. TYLCV-Hwas was clustered with two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa and three Chinese isolates -AH1, -ZJ3, and -SH2. Two fragments that had a potentially recombinant origin were identified using the RDP, GENECONV, BootScan, MaxChi, Chimaera, SiScan, and 3Seq methods implemented in RDP3.41. On the basis of RDP analysis, all TYLCV isolates could originated from the interspecies recombination between TYLCV-Mld[PT] isolated from Portugal as a major parent and TYLCTHV-MM isolated from Myanmar as a minor parent.

  17. Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  18. Tomato psyllid behavioral responses to tomato plant lines and interactions of plant lines with insecticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Deguang; Trumble, John T

    2004-06-01

    Adult tomato psyllid, Bactericerca (Paratrioza) cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), behavioral responses were evaluated for five tomato plant lines and for the interactions of insecticides with four commercial cultivars. Plant lines tested included the commercial 'Shady Lady', 'Yellow Pear', '7718 VFN', 'QualiT 21', and the plant introduction line PI 134417. Insecticides included a kaolin particle film, pymetrozine, pyriproxyfen, spinosad, and imidacloprid. Psyllids spent significantly more time feeding on 'Yellow Pear' than all other plant lines except '7718 VFN'. In comparisons among plant lines, psyllids exposed to the wild accession PI 1.34417 showed a 98% reduction in feeding, a significant increase in jumping behavior, and a significant tendency to abandon the leaves, thereby demonstrating repellency, not just an antixenosis response. Interactions between plant lines and insecticides influenced behavioral responses. All insecticides tested significantly reduced feeding durations on all cultivars except the preferred 'Yellow Pear'. However, nonfeeding activities such as walking, probing, resting, and jumping varied substantially with chemical and cultivar combination. The behavior assay results offered insight into host resistance mechanisms, provided a useful technique for measuring effects of interaction of plant lines with insecticides, and generated information for selecting insecticides for specific cultivars used in integrated pest management program for the tomato psyllid.

  19. The tomato genome sequence provides insights into fleshy fruit evolution.

    PubMed

    2012-05-30

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a major crop plant and a model system for fruit development. Solanum is one of the largest angiosperm genera and includes annual and perennial plants from diverse habitats. Here we present a high-quality genome sequence of domesticated tomato, a draft sequence of its closest wild relative, Solanum pimpinellifolium, and compare them to each other and to the potato genome (Solanum tuberosum). The two tomato genomes show only 0.6% nucleotide divergence and signs of recent admixture, but show more than 8% divergence from potato, with nine large and several smaller inversions. In contrast to Arabidopsis, but similar to soybean, tomato and potato small RNAs map predominantly to gene-rich chromosomal regions, including gene promoters. The Solanum lineage has experienced two consecutive genome triplications: one that is ancient and shared with rosids, and a more recent one. These triplications set the stage for the neofunctionalization of genes controlling fruit characteristics, such as colour and fleshiness.

  20. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guangtao; Zhang, Junhong; Xu, Xiangyang; Yu, Qinghui; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lun, Yaoyao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zejun; Li, Junming; Zhang, Chunzhi; Wang, Taotao; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Yancong; Lin, Kui; Li, Chuanyou; Xiong, Guosheng; Xue, Yongbiao; Mazzucato, Andrea; Causse, Mathilde; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J; Chetelat, Roger T; Zamir, Dani; Städler, Thomas; Li, Jingfu; Ye, Zhibiao; Du, Yongchen; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-01

    The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that domestication and improvement focused on two independent sets of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), resulting in modern tomato fruit ∼100 times larger than its ancestor. Furthermore, we discovered a major genomic signature for modern processing tomatoes, identified the causative variants that confer pink fruit color and precisely visualized the linkage drag associated with wild introgressions. This study outlines the accomplishments as well as the costs of historical selection and provides molecular insights toward further improvement.

  1. Oral rush desensitization with tomato: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nucera, E; Schiavino, D; Buonomo, A; Roncallo, C; Pollastrini, E; Lombardo, C; Alonzi, C; Pecora, V; De Pasquale, T; Patriarca, G

    2006-01-01

    Adverse food reaction in which no immunological mechanism is demonstrated should be termed nonallergic food hypersensitivity or food intolerance. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with a clinical history of abdominal pain, nausea, and general malaise after tomato intake which completely remitted with antihistamines. The patient underwent a complete allergy evaluation: skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and IgG4 tests to tomato, and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Skin prick tests and specific IgE to tomato were negative while the food challenge was positive. At the end of the workup, the patient underwent an oral rush desensitizing treatment. At the end of the treatment the patient could eat a maintenance dose of 100 g of tomato daily with no side effects at all. This successful result suggests that the oral desensitizing treatment can be used in patients with nonallergic food hypersensitivity.

  2. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    PubMed

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new tobamovirus infecting tomato crops in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Salem, N; Mansour, A; Ciuffo, M; Falk, B W; Turina, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we completed the whole genome sequence of a new tobamovirus isolated from tomato plants grown in greenhouses in Jordan during the spring of 2015. The 6393-nt single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome encodes four proteins, as do other tobamoviruses: two replication-related proteins of 126 kDa and 183 kDa, a 30-kDa movement protein (MP) and a 17.5-kDa coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus does not group with either the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) or the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) clades. Instead, it stems from a branch leading to the TMV clade. Analysis of possible recombination events between this virus and representative isolates of closely related tomato-infecting tobamoviruses showed that at least one region originated by recombination. We provide evidence that we have identified a new tobamovirus, for which we propose the name "tomato brown rugose fruit virus".

  4. [Molecular detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)].

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Bao; Cui, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Ying; Li, Chuan-You

    2012-03-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is currently considered as one of the most devastating viruses in cultivated tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. We reported here the development of a PCR-based method to quickly detect TYLCV using the primer pairs (TYLCV-F: 5'-ACG CAT GCC TCT AAT CCA GTG TA-3' and TYLCV-R: 5'-CCA ATA AGG CGT AAG CGT GTA GAC-3'), which was designed based on the genome sequence of TYLCV. A TYLCV-specific band of 543 bp was amplified from infected tomato plants. This protocol provides a rapid, reliable, and sensitive tool for molecular detection and identification of TYLCV in the industrial seedling and virus resistance breeding to facilitate safe and sustainable production of tomato.

  5. Free hydroxycinnamic acids, lycopene, and color parameters in tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marcos; Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz, Carlos

    2007-10-17

    Concentrations of antioxidant compounds (total phenolic compounds, free hydroxycinnamic acids, and lycopene) and color parameters ( a*, b*, and L*) were determined in 167 tomato samples belonging to five cultivars (Dorothy, Boludo, Dunkan, Dominique, and Thomas) produced on the island of Tenerife. Chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were identified and quantified in the tomato samples. Chlorogenic acid had the highest mean concentration, whereas the p-coumaric was not detected in almost half of the tomato samples. The cultivar, cultivation method, and production region had little influence on the concentration of analyzed parameters. Considerable seasonal variations in the levels of these parameters were observed. Many correlations were observed between the antioxidant compounds and color parameters. The tomato samples tended to be differentiated according to the sampling period when discriminant analysis was applied.

  6. [Etiology of mass tomato disease in the farms of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Hvozdiak, R I; Moroz, S M; Iakovleva, L M; Chernenko, Ie P

    2009-01-01

    It was established, that the main cause of bacterial tomato wilting in the fields and greenhouses is Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the agent of tomato bacterial canker. It is especially dangerous in the greenhouse soil, where it causes the mass plant diseases in the fruiting period. In greenhouses, the TBC appears as the vein disease, while in fields--as leaf and fruit disease. In conditions of artificial infection in fields, the ability of Cmm to cause the fruit rotting was found out. The isolates do not differ from those described in the literature by their phenotypical characteristics, by fatty acid content in particular. The sensitivity of isolates to pesticides, recommended for control of other tomato pathogens, was established. Antagonists, isolated from tomato seeds, are promising for the control.

  7. Effects of tomato extract on human platelet aggregation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Roy, A K; Crosbie, L; Gordon, M J

    2001-06-01

    Among all fruits tested in vitro for their anti-platelet property, tomato had the highest activity followed by grapefruit, melon, and strawberry, whereas pear and apple had little or no activity. Tomato extract (20-50 microl of 100% juice) inhibited both ADP- and collagen-induced aggregation by up to 70% but could not inhibit arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and concomitant thromboxane synthesis under similar experimental conditions. The anti-platelet components (MW <1000 Da) in tomatoes are water soluble, heat stable and are concentrated in the yellow fluid around the seeds. The active fractions were separated using gel filtration and HPLC. The aqueous fraction (110 000 xg supernatant) of tomatoes containing anti-platelet activity was subjected to gel filtration column chromatography (Biogel P2 column). The activity was fractionated into two peaks, peak-3 and peak-4 (major peak). Subsequently, peak-4 was further purified by HPLC using a reversed-phase column. NMR and mass spectroscopy studies indicated that peak F2 (obtained from peak 4) contained adenosine and cytidine. Deamination of peak F2 with adenosine deaminase almost completely abolished its anti-platelet activity, confirming the presence of adenosine in this fraction. In comparison, deamination of peak-4 resulted in only partial loss of inhibitory activity while the activity of peak-3 remained unaffected. These results indicate that tomatoes contain anti-platelet compounds in addition to adenosine. Unlike aspirin, the tomato-derived compounds inhibit thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. All these data indicate that tomato contains very potent anti-platelet components, and consuming tomatoes might be beneficial both as a preventive and therapeutic regime for cardiovascular disease.

  8. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  9. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M D; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-09-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase.

  10. The tomato cis-prenyltransferase gene family.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tariq A; Matsuba, Yuki; Schauvinhold, Ines; Yu, Geng; Lees, Hazel A; Klein, Samuel E; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-02-01

    cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) are predicted to be involved in the synthesis of long-chain polyisoprenoids, all with five or more isoprene (C5) units. Recently, we identified a short-chain CPT, neryl diphosphate synthase (NDPS1), in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we searched the tomato genome and identified and characterized its entire CPT gene family, which comprises seven members (SlCPT1-7, with NDPS1 designated as SlCPT1). Six of the SlCPT genes encode proteins with N-terminal targeting sequences, which, when fused to GFP, mediated GFP transport to the plastids of Arabidopsis protoplasts. The SlCPT3-GFP fusion protein was localized to the cytosol. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant SlCPT proteins demonstrated that SlCPT6 produces Z,Z-FPP, and SlCPT2 catalyzes the formation of nerylneryl diphosphate while SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 synthesize longer-chain products (C25-C55). Although no in vitro activity was demonstrated for SlCPT3, its expression in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dolichol biosynthesis mutant (rer2) complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect. Transcripts of SlCPT2, SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 are present at low levels in multiple tissues, SlCPT6 is exclusively expressed in red fruit and roots, and SlCPT1, SlCPT3 and SlCPT7 are highly expressed in trichomes. RNAi-mediated suppression of NDPS1 led to a large decrease in β-phellandrene (which is produced from neryl diphosphate), with greater reductions achieved with the general 35S promoter compared to the trichome-specific MKS1 promoter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed CPT gene families in both eudicots and monocots, and showed that all the short-chain CPT genes from tomato (SlCPT1, SlCPT2 and SlCPT6) are closely linked to terpene synthase gene clusters.

  11. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanshen; Gong, Liang; Huang, Yixiang; Liu, Chengliang

    2016-01-29

    Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ) color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  12. Abscisic acid enhances resistance to Alternaria solani in tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    Song, Weiwei; Ma, Xinrong; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Jinyan

    2011-07-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous ABA application on the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and Alternaria solani (early blight). Foliar spraying of 7.58 μM ABA was effective in reducing disease severity in tomato plants. Previously, increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in exogenous ABA-treated tomato leaves. Moreover, these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels in ABA-pretreated and A. solani challenged tomato plants. Tomato defense genes, such as PR1, β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU), PPO, POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were rapidly and significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, a subsequent challenge of ABA-pretreated plants with the pathogen A. solani resulted in higher expression of defense genes, compared to water-treated or A. solani inoculated plants. Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous ABA could enhance disease resistance against A. solani infection in tomato through the activation of defense genes and via the enhancement of defense-related enzymatic activities.

  13. Caterpillar labial saliva alters tomato plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Lee, Henry K; DesRochers, Brittany L; Williams, Spencer A; Vogel, Heiko

    2012-11-01

    We examined the effects of Helicoverpa zea caterpillar labial saliva on tomato plant gene expression. Caterpillars with labial salivary glands (mock-ablated) and without (ablated) were fed on tomato plants for 24 hr; then, the leaf mRNA was analyzed with tomato microarrays. Analysis of the transcript profiles revealed 384 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that were significantly altered due to herbivory compared to the non-wounded plants. The majority of the ESTs were quantitatively altered more so by mock-ablated caterpillars with labial salivary glands than ablated caterpillars. Particularly notable, ESTs encoding acid phosphatase, arginase, acidic endochitinase, dehydrin, polyphenol oxidase, protease inhibitors, and threonine deaminase were more highly stimulated by mock-ablated caterpillars than ablated caterpillars. In addition, tomato leaves were mechanically wounded with scissors and painted with labial salivary gland extract, autoclaved salivary gland extract, or water, and compared to non-wounded tomato plants. After 4 hr, these leaves were collected and a tomato microarray analysis of the mRNA revealed correlation of the gene expression of these leaves altered by mechanical wounding and painted with salivary gland extract to the gene expression of leaves fed on by mock-ablated caterpillars. We show that caterpillar labial saliva is an important component of herbivory that can alter plant gene expression.

  14. Neutralizing antibodies against rotavirus produced in transgenically labelled purple tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Paloma; Presa, Silvia; Espí, Joaquín; Pineda, Benito; Antón, María T; Moreno, Vicente; Buesa, Javier; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2012-04-01

    Edible fruits are inexpensive biofactories for human health-promoting molecules that can be ingested as crude extracts or partially purified formulations. We show here the production of a model human antibody for passive protection against the enteric pathogen rotavirus in transgenically labelled tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a recombinant human immunoglobulin A (hIgA_2A1) selected against the VP8* peptide of rotavirus SA11 strain were obtained. The amount of hIgA_2A1 protein reached 3.6 ± 0.8% of the total soluble protein in the fruit of the transformed plants. Minimally processed fruit-derived products suitable for oral intake showed anti-VP8* binding activity and strongly inhibited virus infection in an in vitro virus neutralization assay. In order to make tomatoes expressing hIgA_2A1 easily distinguishable from wild-type tomatoes, lines expressing hIgA_2A1 transgenes were sexually crossed with a transgenic tomato line expressing the genes encoding Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 and Delila transcription factors, which confer purple colour to the fruit. Consequently, transgenically labelled purple tomato fruits expressing hIgA_2A1 have been developed. The resulting purple-coloured extracts from these fruits contain high levels of recombinant anti-rotavirus neutralizing human IgA in combination with increased amounts of health-promoting anthocyanins.

  15. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits.

  16. [Salt resistance of different tomato genotypes at seed germination stage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Jun; Li, Tian-Lai; Zang, Zhong-Jing; Shu, Yue; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-07-01

    Based on the cluster analysis of relative germination potential and relative germination rate under NaCl stress, fourteen tomato genotypes were clustered into two groups. Five tomato genotypes held high resistance to NaCl stress, and nine tomato genotypes were moderately NaCl- tolerant. The highly NaCl- tolerant genotypes wild Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, Liaoyuanhongmanao and Hongbaoshi and the moderately NaCl- tolerant genotype Liaoyuanhongduoli were then under different Na(+)-salts and NaCl, Na+, and Cl- stresses. The responses of the four tomato genotypes to different Na(+)-salts stress were the same as those to NaCl stress. Among the test Na(+)-salts, NaHCO3 had the greatest impact. Under the stress of 100 mmol NaHCO3 x L(-1), the embryo's relative lengths of the four tomato genotypes were all below 8%. The inhibitory effect of test Na(+)-salts on tomato seed germination was in the order of NaNO3 < Na2SO4 < NaH2PO4 < NaCl < NaHCO3. As for NaCl, Na+ and Cl-, the Cl- had the smallest injury.

  17. Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-06

    Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  18. Tomato and tomato byproducts. Human health benefits of lycopene and its application to meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Sanchez-Zapata, E; Sayas-Barberá, E; Sendra, E; Pérez-Álvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, the food industry, consumers, and regulatory authorities have developed a significant interest in functional foods because of their potential benefits for human health over and above their basic nutritional value. Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop in the world. The amount of the related wastes is estimated at up to 50,000 tons per year, representing a serious disposal problem with a consequent negative impact on the environment. Tomato byproducts contain a great variety of biologically active substances, principally lycopene, which have been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies to possess antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional and physiological properties of the principal bioactive compound present in tomato and tomato byproducts, lycopene, its addition to meat, and meat products.

  19. Molecular and biological characterization of a new Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus strain producing severe symptoms in tomato.

    PubMed

    Romay, Gustavo; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques; Desbiez, Cécile; Bragard, Claude

    2017-06-20

    Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus (ToMYLCV) is a begomovirus first reported infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla) in Venezuela. In this study, a ToMYLCV isolate (Zulia-219) was completely sequenced and its host range was evaluated. The DNA-A and DNA-B components of isolate Zulia-219 showed 93 and 85% nucleotide sequence identity with the respective counterparts of the ToMYLCV type strain. According to current demarcation criteria for begomovirus species, Zulia-219 is a new strain of ToMYLCV. Interestingly, tomato plants inoculated with ToMYLCV Zulia-219 displayed severe symptoms, including severe chlorotic leaf curling, in contrast to mild symptoms associated with the type strain of this begomovirus. These results indicate potential risks associated with this new ToMYLCV strain for tomato production in Venezuela.

  20. Usefulness of manufactured tomato extracts in the diagnosis of tomato sensitization: Comparison with the prick-prick method

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ángel; Huertas, Ángel J; Larramendi, Carlos H; García-Abujeta, Jose L; Bartra, Joan; Lavín, Jose R; Andreu, Carmen; Pagán, Juan A; López-Matas, María A; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2008-01-01

    Background Commercial available skin prick test with fruits can be negative in sensitized or allergic patients due to a reduction in biological activity during the manufacturing process. Prick-prick tests with fresh foods are often preferred, but they are a non-standardized procedure. The usefulness of freeze-dried extracts of Canary Islands tomatoes, comparing the wheal sizes induced by prick test with the prick-prick method in the diagnosis of tomato sensitization has been analyzed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential diagnostic of freeze-dried extracts of Canary Islands tomatoes, comparing the wheal sizes induced by prick test with the prick-prick method. Methods Two groups of patients were analyzed: Group I: 26 individuals reporting clinical symptoms induced by tomato contact or ingestion. Group II: 71 control individuals with no symptoms induced by tomato: 12 of them were previously skin prick test positive to a tomato extract, 39 were atopic and 20 were non-atopic. All individuals underwent prick-prick with fresh ripe peel Canary tomatoes and skin prick tested with freeze-dried peel and pulp extracts obtained from peel and pulp of Canary tomatoes at 10 mg/ml. Wheal sizes and prick test positivity (≥ 7 mm2) were compared between groups. Results In group I, 21 (81%) out of 26 patients were prick-prick positive. Twenty patients (77%) had positive skin prick test to peel extracts and 12 (46%) to pulp extracts. Prick-prick induced a mean wheal size of 43.81 ± 40.19 mm2 compared with 44.25 ± 36.68 mm2 induced by the peel extract (Not significant), and 17.79 ± 9.39 mm2 induced by the pulp extract (p < 0.01). In group II, 13 (18%) out of 71 control patients were prick-prick positive. Twelve patients (all of them previously positive to peel extract) had positive skin prick test to peel and 3 to pulp. Prick-prick induced a mean wheal size of 28.88 ± 13.12 mm2 compared with 33.17 ± 17.55 mm2 induced by peel extract (Not significant), and 13

  1. Staining tomato fruit cuticle and exocarp tissues.

    PubMed

    Graham, E T

    1997-05-01

    Immature fruit of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Celebrity), was examined to observe the cuticle, its interface with the epidermis, and the general histology of the outer exocarp. Paraffin sections were stained first with Bismarck brown Y. Structures already stained in various hues of brown were stained again with either azure B, aluminum hematoxylin and alcian blue SGX, or the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Bismarck brown-azure B displayed the cuticle in strong contrast with subjacent tissue; however, nuclei were not easily identified at low magnification. Bismarck brown-hematoxylin-alcian blue produced a sharply contrasted combination of yellow cuticle, bright blue cell walls and purple nuclei. Nuclei stained purple with hematoxylin were easily identified at x100. Bismarck brown-PAS stained the cuticle golden brown and subjacent tissues mageta red. Surprisingly, epidermal cells stained specifically and intensely with PAS while pretreatment with an aldehyde blockade and omission of periodic acid prevented staining of all other tissues.

  2. DNA polymerase activity of tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Serra, E C; Carrillo, N

    1990-11-26

    DNA polymerase activity was measured in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruits. Plastids isolated from young leaves or mature red fruits showed similar DNA polymerase activities. The same enzyme species was present in either chloroplasts or chromoplasts as judged by pH and temperature profiles, sensitivities towards different inhibitors and relative molecular mass (Mr 88 kDa). The activities analyzed showed the typical behaviour of plastid-type polymerases. The results presented here suggest that chromoplast maintain their DNA synthesis potential in fruit tissue at chloroplast levels. Consequently, the sharp decrease of the plastid chromosome transcription observed at the onset of fruit ripening could not be due to limitations in the availability of template molecules. Other mechanisms must be involved in the inhibition of chromoplast RNA synthesis.

  3. Multivariate analysis applied to tomato hybrid production.

    PubMed

    Balasch, S; Nuez, F; Palomares, G; Cuartero, J

    1984-11-01

    Twenty characters were measured on 60 tomato varieties cultivated in the open-air and in polyethylene plastic-house. Data were analyzed by means of principal components, factorial discriminant methods, Mahalanobis D(2) distances and principal coordinate techniques. Factorial discriminant and Mahalanobis D(2) distances methods, both of which require collecting data plant by plant, lead to similar conclusions as the principal components method that only requires taking data by plots. Characters that make up the principal components in both environments studied are the same, although the relative importance of each one of them varies within the principal components. By combining information supplied by multivariate analysis with the inheritance mode of characters, crossings among cultivars can be experimented with that will produce heterotic hybrids showing characters within previously established limits.

  4. Enrichment of tomato paste with 6% tomato peel increases lycopene and beta-carotene bioavailability in men.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Borel, Patrick; Mikail, Céline; Abou, Lydia; Charbonnier, Monique; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Goupy, Pascale; Portugal, Henri; Lairon, Denis; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2005-04-01

    A high intake of tomato products is associated with a lower incidence of upper aerodigestive tract and prostate cancers. This beneficial effect might be explained by a higher intake of carotenoids such as lycopene and/or beta-carotene. Because tomato peels, usually eliminated during tomato processing, are a valuable source of these carotenoids, we designed a study to examine whether a tomato paste enriched in tomato peels (ETP, 6% peel) increases the absorption of these carotenoids compared to a classically made tomato paste (CTP). Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using an in vitro digestion model by measuring the amount of carotenoids transferred from the pastes to micelles. Carotenoid absorption by human intestinal cells (Caco-2) was evaluated after the addition of carotenoid-rich micelles (obtained from the in vitro digestion of the 2 pastes). Carotenoid bioavailability in humans was assessed by measuring chylomicron carotenoid responses in a postprandial experiment in which 8 healthy men consumed 2 meals containing either the ETP or the CTP. ETP contained 47.6 mg lycopene (58% more than CTP) and 1.75 mg beta-carotene (99% more than CTP) per 100 g of paste. In micelles, 30% more lycopene and 81% more beta-carotene were recovered after ETP than after CTP in vitro digestion. The amount of carotenoids absorbed by Caco-2 cells was 75% greater (P < or = 0.05) for lycopene and 41% greater (P < or = 0.05) for beta-carotene after the addition of micelles from ETP than from CTP. After ETP intake the chylomicron beta-carotene response was 74% greater than after CTP intake, and the lycopene response tended to be greater (34.1%, P = 0.093). Peel enrichment of tomato paste with tomato peel is an interesting option for increasing lycopene and beta-carotene intakes.

  5. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 isopentenyltransferases mediate salt stress response in tomato.

    PubMed

    Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Muhovski, Yordan; Hošek, Petr; Hoyerová, Klára; Haisel, Daniel; Procházková, Dagmar; Lutts, Stanley; Motyka, Václav; Hichri, Imène

    2015-03-12

    Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in response to various environmental cues, including salinity. It has been previously reported that enhancing CK contents improved salt stress tolerance in tomato. However, the underlying mechanisms of CK metabolism and signaling under salt stress conditions remain to be deciphered. Two tomato isopentenyltransferases, SlIPT3 and SlIPT4, were characterized in tomato and Arabidopsis. Both proteins displayed isopentenyltransferase (IPT) activity in vitro, while their encoding genes exhibited different spatio-temporal expression patterns during tomato plant development. SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 were affected by the endogenous CK status, tightly connected with CKs feedback regulation, as revealed by hormonal treatements. In response to salt stress, SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 were strongly repressed in tomato roots, and differently affected in young and old leaves. SlIPT3 overexpression in tomato resulted in high accumulation of different CK metabolites, following modifications of CK biosynthesis-, signaling- and degradation-gene expression. In addition, 35S::SlIPT3 tomato plants displayed improved tolerance to salinity consecutive to photosynthetic pigments and K(+)/Na(+) ratio retention. Involvement of SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 in salt stress response was also observed in Arabidopsis ipt3 knock-out complemented plants, through maintenance of CK homeostasis. SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 are functional IPTs encoded by differently expressed genes, distinctively taking part in the salinity response. The substantial participation of SlIPT3 in CK metabolism during salt stress has been determined in 35S::SlIPT3 tomato transformants, where enhancement of CKs accumulation significantly improved plant tolerance to salinity, underlining the importance of this phytohormone in stress response.

  6. Metabolic transition in mycorrhizal tomato roots

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Javier; Gamir, Jordi; Aroca, Ricardo; Pozo, María J.; Flors, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial plant–microorganism interactions are widespread in nature. Among them, the symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is of major importance, commonly improving host nutrition and tolerance against environmental and biotic challenges. Metabolic changes were observed in a well-established symbiosis between tomato and two common AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. Principal component analysis of metabolites, determined by non-targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, showed a strong metabolic rearrangement in mycorrhizal roots. There was generally a negative impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on amino acid content, mainly on those involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. On the other hand, many intermediaries in amino acid and sugar metabolism and the oxylipin pathway were among the compounds accumulating more in mycorrhizal roots. The metabolic reprogramming also affected other pathways in the secondary metabolism, mainly phenyl alcohols (lignins and lignans) and vitamins. The results showed that source metabolites of these pathways decreased in mycorrhizal roots, whilst the products derived from α-linolenic and amino acids presented higher concentrations in AMF-colonized roots. Mycorrhization therefore increased the flux into those pathways. Venn-diagram analysis showed that there are many induced signals shared by both mycorrhizal interactions, pointing to general mycorrhiza-associated changes in the tomato metabolome. Moreover, fungus-specific fingerprints were also found, suggesting that specific molecular alterations may underlie the reported functional diversity of the symbiosis. Since most positively regulated pathways were related to stress response mechanisms, their potential contribution to improved host stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:26157423

  7. Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

  8. Insecticidal Effects on the Spatial Progression of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Movement of Its Whitefly Vector in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, M; Riley, D G; Srinivasan, R

    2017-03-08

    Commercial management of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) typically relies on insecticide control of whitefly vectors as a first line of defense. We quantified this effect in crop tunnel studies, with validation in a tomato field setting. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-infected and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)-infested source plants were planted at the beginning of tunneled rows to serve as inoculum source, so that movement of whiteflies and TYLCV symptoms could be tracked down the length of the tunnel over time. Tunnel study results showed that proximity to the source plant was a more important factor than insecticide treatments. Insecticide-treated tomato transplants did tend to suppress whitefly incidence and slowed TYLCV movement in comparison with the untreated check; however, tomato plants planted closer to the source plant had higher incidence of whiteflies and TYLCV infection, regardless of treatment. In a large tomato plot study with a controlled inoculum source, insecticide treatments significantly reduced the spread of TYLCV. When uninhibited by insecticide treatment, 80% of the TYLCV spread was restricted to <15 m from the source plant (<11 m in the validation study), with insecticide treatment generally reducing the distance and magnitude of this spread.

  9. Rheological characterization of a novel functional food: tomato juice with soy germ.

    PubMed

    Tiziani, Stefano; Vodovotz, Yael

    2005-09-07

    The rheological properties of tomato juice containing 1.5% soy germ were compared to plain tomato juice with and without soy protein isolate. This novel product was developed to provide a delivery system of carotenoids, soy protein, and significant isoflavone content without compromising the perceived juice characteristics of tomato product. Rheological tests depicted physical gel characteristics for all three products. Dynamic tests as a function of temperature showed that the stability and the compatibility between tomato juice and soy germ were higher as compared to soy protein isolate. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between pectin and protein in the tomato soy protein isolate system were weakened as the temperature was increased. In the case of tomato juice with soy germ, the viscosity did not change during heating. The addition of soy germ increased the viscosity of tomato juice reinforcing the entire system without major qualitative effects on the rheological properties of plain tomato juice.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Tomato Mosaic Virus Isolated from Jasmine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus was reported from jasmine in Florida. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mosaic virus isolate from this woody perennial plant in the United States. PMID:26159525

  11. Effects of temperature differential and immersion time on internalization of salmonella newport in tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  12. Effects of temperature differential and immersion time on internalization of Salmonella Newport in tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  13. Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

  14. Effects of simulated packing house operating conditions on pathogen internalization in tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  15. Volatile profile and sensory evaluation of tomato juices treated with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Martin-Belloso, Olga; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-02-27

    Tomato juices produced from tomatoes subjected to moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) and from untreated tomatoes were preserved by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or by thermal treatment (TH) having, in both cases, the fresh juice as a reference. The chemical and sensory changes of tomato juices stored at 4 °C for increasing period of time were analyzed. A quantitative descriptive analysis was developed to characterize the sensory quality of samples. Tomatoes subjected to MIPEF treatments led to tomato juices with a higher content of volatile compounds and better sensory properties than those prepared with untreated tomatoes. An enhancement was observed in hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal just after processing in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight decrease in volatile compounds and a loss of sensory quality was observed over time in TH and HIPEF juices, but HIPEF-processed samples just after processing and through storage maintained higher overall quality.

  16. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Thompson, Andrew J.; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar “Heinz 1706” (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8 and 16 h. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10–35°C, relative humidity 30–90%, and, CO2 concentration 200–1500 μmol mol−1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume, and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners. PMID:25477888

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Cytokinin Response in Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiuling; Gupta, Sarika; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Cameron, Connor T.; Mudge, Joann; Rashotte, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically and agriculturally important Solanaceous species and vegetable crops, serving as a model for examination of fruit biology and compound leaf development. Cytokinin is a plant hormone linked to the control of leaf development and is known to regulate a wide range of genes including many transcription factors. Currently there is little known of the leaf transcriptome in tomato and how it might be regulated by cytokinin. We employ high throughput mRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatic methodologies to robustly analyze cytokinin regulated tomato leaf transcriptomes. Leaf samples of two ages, 13d and 35d were treated with cytokinin or the solvent vehicle control dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 2 h or 24 h, after which RNA was extracted for sequencing. To confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing results, we performed qPCR analysis of select transcripts identified as cytokinin regulated by the RNA sequencing approach. The resulting data provide the first hormone transcriptome analysis of leaves in tomato. Specifically we identified several previously untested tomato orthologs of cytokinin-related genes as well as numerous novel cytokinin-regulated transcripts in tomato leaves. Principal component analysis of the data indicates that length of cytokinin treatment and plant age are the major factors responsible for changes in transcripts observed in this study. Two hour cytokinin treatment showed a more robust transcript response indicated by both greater fold change of induced transcripts and the induction of twice as many cytokinin-related genes involved in signaling, metabolism, and transport in young vs. older leaves. This difference in transcriptome response in younger vs. older leaves was also found to a lesser extent with an extended (24 h) cytokinin treatment. Overall data presented here provides a solid foundation for future study of cytokinin and cytokinin regulated genes involved in compound leaf development or other

  18. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    PubMed Central

    Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate). Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids, and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm as an experimental

  19. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  20. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... defined. The definition specifies they are field grown mature green or ripe fresh market tomatoes that meet the Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes; and the applicable Florida Federal Marketing Order and Florida Tomato Committee Regulations, or their successors. The...

  1. Absorption and distribution kinetics of the 13C-labeled tomato carotenoid phytoene in healthy adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid which may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. While phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lyc...

  2. Optimization of tomato pomace separation using air aspirator system by response surface methodology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato pomace contains seeds and peels which are rich in protein and fat, and dietary fiber and lycopene, respectively. It is important to develop a suitable method to separate seeds and peel in tomato pomace for achieving value-added utilization of tomato pomace. The objectives of this research wer...

  3. Distribution and chemical fate of chlorine dioxide gas during sanitation of tomatoes and cantaloupe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of studies was conducted to establish the 1) distribution and chemical fate of 36-ClO2 on tomatoes and cantaloupe; and 2) the magnitude of residues in kilogram quantities of tomatoes and cantaloupe sanitized with a slow-release chlorine dioxide formulation. Tomatoes and cantaloupe were resp...

  4. Functional diversification of AGAMOUS lineage genes in regulating tomato flower and fruit development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MADS box transcription factors have been shown to play critical roles in many aspects flower and fruit development in angiosperms. Tomato possesses two representatives of the AGAMOUS MADS gene lineage, TOMATO AGAMOUS (TAG1) and TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (TAGL1), allowing for an analysis of diversificatio...

  5. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" associated with psyllid yellows of tomato in Colorado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the fall of 2002, a hydroponic tomato grower from Luptin, CO sent plant samples from tomato plants exhibiting psyllid yellows to USDA-ARS-USHRL to be analyzed. DNA was isolated from the tomato samples using the Qiagen plant DNeasy kit and recommended protocols (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and five sepa...

  6. Evaluating carotenoid changes in tomatoes during postharvest ripening using Raman chemical imaging.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the postharvest ripening of tomato fruits, the increasing presence of lycopene in the tomatoe samples spanning a range of fruit maturity. In this study, Raman chemical images were acquired of tomato samples spanning a range of fruit maturity stages, and were evaluated for the presence and di...

  7. Effect of tomato extract supplementation against high-fat diet-induced hepatic lesions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher intake of tomatoes or tomato-based products has been associated with lower risk for liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing tomato extract (TE), which contains mainly lycopene (LY) and less amounts of its precursors, phytoene (PT) and phytofluene (PTF) agains...

  8. 78 FR 6834 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Revised Schedule for the Subject Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Revised Schedule for the Subject Review AGENCY: United States... concerning the suspended antidumping duty investigation on fresh tomatoes from Mexico (77 FR 71629, December... institution in its review of fresh tomatoes from Mexico, as well as Mexican Respondents' December 5, 2012...

  9. Crinivirus and begomovirus detection in tomato plantlets and weeds associated to nurseries in Cartago province

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this work was to detect plant infections caused by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and begomoviruses in tomato plantlets, as well as in weeds growing around nursery greenhouses. During one year, starting in April 2008, 168 leaf tissue samples were collected, 90 tomato plantlets and 78 weed...

  10. Pepino Mosaic Virus on Tomato Seed: Virus Location and Mechanical Transmission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging disease of tomato which poses a great threat to greenhouse tomato productions in Europe, North America and South America. Although commercial tomato seed is suspected to spread the disease, its importance as an initial virus inoculum for PepMV has not been...

  11. Effectiveness of chemo- and thermo-therapeutic treatments on Pepino mosaic virus in tomato seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a seed-borne virus of importance in greenhouse tomatoes. The ease of mechanical transmission of PepMV from contaminated tomato seeds to seedlings makes commercial tomato seed a potential source of initial virus inoculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate th...

  12. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.

  13. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.139 Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions. The fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  15. Tomatoes versus lycopene in oxidative stress and carcinogenesis: conclusions from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Imrhan, V

    2007-03-01

    To review the effects of tomato product supplementation, containing lycopene, on biomarkers of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in human clinical trials. Supplementation of tomato products, containing lycopene, has been shown to lower biomarkers of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in healthy and type II diabetic patients, and prostate cancer patients, respectively. Processed tomato products like tomato juice, tomato paste, tomato puree, tomato ketchup and tomato oleoresin have been shown to provide bioavailable sources of lycopene, with consequent increases in plasma lycopene levels versus baseline. Dietary fats enhance this process and should be consumed together with food sources of lycopene. The mechanisms of action involve protection of plasma lipoproteins, lymphocyte DNA and serum proteins against oxidative damage, and anticarcinogenic effects, including reduction of prostate-specific antigen, upregulation of connexin expression and overall decrease in prostate tumor aggressiveness. There is limited in vivo data on the health benefits of lycopene alone. Most of the clinical trials with tomato products suggest a synergistic action of lycopene with other nutrients, in lowering biomarkers of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Consumption of processed tomato products, containing lycopene, is of significant health benefit and can be attributed to a combination of naturally occurring nutrients in tomatoes. Lycopene, the main tomato carotenoid, contributes to this effect, but its role per se remains to be investigated.

  16. Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

  17. Kitchen practices impact on volatile flavors in ripe tomatoes: effects of refrigeration and blanching

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both blanching and refrigeration of ripe tomatoes are common practices in kitchen and food service prior to being sliced. However, little is reported on the impact of such treatments on volatile profiles in tomato fruit. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at full red stage were dipped in 52 °C hot wate...

  18. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  19. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Harvest—Picking of marketable tomatoes. Mature green tomato—A tomato that: (a) Has a heightened gloss due... be insured as either spring-or fall-planted tomatoes. Plant stand—The number of live plants per acre before any damage occurs. Potential production—The number of cartons per acre of mature green or...

  20. Recent advances in research on volatile aroma compounds in tomatoes and their impacting factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aroma is an important sensory attribute of tomatoes. Tomato aroma is formed by a complex mixture of more than 400 volatile compounds, and it plays an important role in the classification and consumer acceptability of tomato products. This article provides a brief overview of the volatile aroma compo...

  1. Cold plasma reduces Salmonella on sliced roma tomatoes: efficacy of air versus nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, waterless, contact-free method of decontamination for tomatoes and tomato slices is of interest to processors and the food service industry. Cold plasma is a novel antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Slices of Roma tomatoes were spot inoculated with three ...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  5. 78 FR 16530 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Suspension of Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Suspension of Antidumping Investigation AGENCY: United States... 3, 2012, to determine whether termination of the suspended investigation on fresh tomatoes from... February 28, 2013, Mexican tomato growers/exporters accounting for a significant percentage of all fresh...

  6. 77 FR 50556 - Correction: Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration Correction: Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed... Department of Commerce (the Department) issued Tomatoes from Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed... Suspended Investigation.'' Thus, the title of the notice should have read ``Fresh Tomatoes from Mexico...

  7. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal Crop...

  8. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal Crop...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  10. Genetic diversity of four closely related wild tomato species revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild tomato species have been exploited for many decades to develop cultivated tomato varieties that can resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The most variable wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four distinct species - Solanum peruvianum sensu stricto...

  11. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  12. [Relationship of Zn content and Na/K ratio to the resistance to pathogen invasion in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit and normal tomato].

    PubMed

    Fan, Bei; Shen, Lin; Liu, Can; Tian, Shi-Ping; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2009-02-01

    In the present work, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the content of Zn, Na and K and the ratio of Na/K in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit (in which the antisense ACC synthase gene construct was inserted) and in normal tomato fruit of the same variety (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun). The difference in mineral elements content between the two tomatoes and the involvement of Zn content and Na/K ratio in the disease resistance of postharvest tomato fruit were discussed. The results showed that the ethylene biosynthesis is limited in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit. Meanwhile, the resistance to Rhizopus nigricans invasion of this transgenic tomato was higher, the disease incidence and lesion area in transgenic tomato fruit were 20.0% and 33.3% lower than those in control fruit, respectively. In addition, the content of Zn in transgenic tomato fruit was 0.322 microg x g(-1) and was 1.5 times higher than that in Lichun tomato fruit. There was no significant difference in K content between transgenic tomato fruit and Lichun fruit, but the content of Na in transgenic tomato fruit was significant higher than that in Lichun fruit and the Na/K ratio in transgenic tomato fruit was 2.0 times higher than that in Lichun fruit. It is suggested that the content of Zn and the Na/K ratio may be involved in the resistance response to pathogen invasion and the development of antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit.

  13. Lower incidence and severity of tomato virus in elevated CO(2) is accompanied by modulated plant induced defence in tomato.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Ren, Q; Sun, Y; Ye, L; Cao, H; Ge, F

    2012-11-01

    Elevation in atmospheric CO(2) concentration broadly affects plant phenology and physiology, and these effects may alter the performance of plant viruses. The effects of elevated CO(2) on the susceptibility of tomato plants to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were examined for two successive years in open top chambers (OTC) in the field. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2) would reduce the incidence and severity of TYLCV on tomato by altering plant defence strategies. Our results showed that elevated CO(2) decreased TYLCV disease incidence (by 14.6% in 2009 and 11.8% in 2010) and decreased disease severity (by 20.0% in 2009 and 10.4% in 2010). Elevated CO(2) also decreased the level of TYLCV coat protein in tomato leaves. Regardless of virus infection, elevated CO(2) increased plant height and aboveground biomass. Additionally, elevated CO(2) increased the leaf C:N ratio of tomato, but decreased soluble protein content in leaves. Notably, elevated CO(2) increased the salicylic acid (SA) level in uninfected and infected plants. In contrast, elevated CO(2) reduced jasmonic acid (JA) in uninfected plants while it increased JA and abscisic acid (ABA) in virus-infected plants. Furthermore, combined exogenous SA and JA application enhanced resistance to TYLCV more than application of either SA or JA alone. Our results suggest that the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA under elevated CO(2) makes a great contribution to increased tomato resistance to TYLCV, and the predicted increases in tomato productivity may be enhanced by reduced plant virus susceptibility under projected rising CO(2) conditions.

  14. Immunity to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato is associated with accumulation of transgene small RNA.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Diana; Prakash, Shanmugam; Wolf, Dalia; Zelcer, Aaron; Anfoka, Ghandi; Haviv, Sabrina; Brumin, Marina; Gaba, Victor; Arazi, Tzahi; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Gene silencing is a natural defense response of plants against invading RNA and DNA viruses. The RNA post-transcriptional silencing system has been commonly utilized to generate transgenic crop plants that are "immune" to plant virus infection. Here, we applied this approach against the devastating DNA virus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To generate broad resistance to a number of different TYLCV viruses, three conserved sequences (the intergenic region [NCR], V1-V2 and C1-C2 genes) from the genome of the severe virus (TYLCV) were synthesized as a single insert and cloned into a hairpin configuration in a binary vector, which was used to transform TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. Eight of 28 independent transgenic tomato lines exhibited immunity to TYLCV-Is and to TYLCV-Mld, but not to tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, which shares relatively low sequence homology with the transgene. In addition, a marker-free (nptII-deleted) transgenic tomato line was generated for the first time by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation without antibiotic selection, followed by screening of 1180 regenerated shoots by whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Resistant lines showed a high level of transgene-siRNA (t-siRNA) accumulation (22% of total small RNA) with dominant sizes of 21 nt (73%) and 22 nt (22%). The t-siRNA displayed hot-spot distribution ("peaks") along the transgene, with different distribution patterns than the viral-siRNA peaks observed in TYLCV-infected tomato. A grafting experiment demonstrated the mobility of 0.04% of the t-siRNA from transgenic rootstock to non-transformed scion, even though scion resistance against TYLCV was not achieved.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of a salt-tolerant wild tomato species and a salt-sensitive tomato cultivar.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xu, Xinna; Zhu, Huishan; Liu, Aihua; Liu, Lei; Li, Junming; Hua, Xuejun

    2010-06-01

    Wild halophytic tomato has long been considered as an ideal gene donor for improving salt tolerance in tomato cultivars. Extensive research has been focused on physiological and quantitative trait locus (QTL) characterization of wild tomato species in comparison with cultivated tomato. However, the global gene expression modification of wild tomato in response to salt stress is not well known. A wild tomato genotype, Solanum pimpinellifolium 'PI365967' is significantly more salt tolerant than the cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker', as evidenced by its higher survival rate and lower growth inhibition at the vegetative stage. The Affymetrix Tomato Genome Array containing 9,200 probe sets was used to compare the transcriptome of PI365967 and Moneymaker. After treatment with 200 mM NaCl for 5 h, PI365967 showed relatively fewer responsive genes compared with Moneymaker. The salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway was found to be more active in PI365967 than in Moneymaker, coinciding with relatively less accumulation of Na(+) in shoots of PI365967. A gene encoding salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) was induced by salinity only in PI365967, suggesting a possible role for salicylic acid signaling in the salt response of PI365967. The fact that two genes encoding lactoylglutathione lyase were salt inducible only in PI365967, together with much higher basal expression of several glutathione S-transferase genes, suggested a more effective detoxification system in PI365967. The specific down-regulation in PI365967 of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, known as a repressor of lateral root initiation, may explain the better root growth of this genotype during salt stress.

  16. Tomato response to legume cover crop and nitrogen: differing enhancement patterns of fruit yield, photosynthesis and gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomatoes responded to soil and residue from a hairy vetch cover crop differently on many levels than tomato response to inorganic nitrogen. Tomato fruit production, plant biomass parameters, and photosynthesis were higher in plants grown in vetch than bare soil. Tomato growth and photosynthesis metr...

  17. Ethylene Production by Botrytis cinerea In Vitro and in Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; De Martinis, Domenico; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Parker, David H.; Harren, Frans J. M.

    2002-01-01

    A laser-based ethylene detector was used for on-line monitoring of ethylene released by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in tomato fruit. Ethylene data were combined with the results of a cytological analysis of germination of B. cinerea conidia and hyphal growth. We found that aminoethoxyvinylglycine and aminooxyacetic acid, which are competitive inhibitors of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid pathway, did not inhibit the ethylene emission by B. cinerea and that the fungus most likely produces ethylene via the 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid pathway. B. cinerea is able to produce ethylene in vitro, and the emission of ethylene follows the pattern that is associated with hyphal growth rather than the germination of conidia. Ethylene production in vitro depended on the l-methionine concentration added to the plating medium. Higher values and higher emission rates were observed when the concentration of conidia was increased. Compared with the ethylene released by the fungus, the infection-related ethylene produced by two tomato cultivars (cultivars Money Maker and Daniela) followed a similar pattern, but the levels of emission were 100-fold higher. The time evolution of enhanced ethylene production by the infected tomatoes and the cytological observations indicate that ethylene emission by the tomato-fungus system is not triggered by the ethylene produced by B. cinerea, although it is strongly synchronized with the growth rate of the fungus inside the tomato. PMID:12406723

  18. Development and regulation of pedicel abscission in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    To shed unfertilized flowers or ripe fruits, many plant species develop a pedicel abscission zone (AZ), a specialized tissue that develops between the organ and the main body of the plant. Regulation of pedicel abscission is an important agricultural concern because pre-harvest abscission can reduce yields of fruit or grain crops, such as apples, rice, wheat, etc. Tomato has been studied as a model system for abscission, as tomato plants develop a distinct AZ at the midpoint of the pedicel and several tomato mutants, such as jointless, have pedicels that lack an AZ. This mini-review focuses on recent advances in research on the mechanisms regulating tomato pedicel abscission. Molecular genetic studies revealed that three MADS-box transcription factors interactively play a central role in pedicel AZ development. Transcriptome analyses identified activities involved in abscission and also found novel transcription factors that may regulate AZ activities. Another study identified transcription factors mediating abscission pathways from induction signals to activation of cell wall hydrolysis. These recent findings in tomato will enable significant advances in understanding the regulation of abscission in other key agronomic species. PMID:26124769

  19. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  20. Physicochemical parameters that influence carotenoids bioaccessibility from a tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Degrou, Antoine; Georgé, Stéphane; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2013-01-15

    In vitro digestion models have been developed to estimate carotenoid bioavailability but most do not consider that their diffusion from fruit matrix to the lipid phase of the bolus could be a limiting step. Therefore we designed a model in which tomato juice is mixed with oil or oil/water emulsions, and the carotenoids diffusing to oil are measured by spectrometry. Temperature, pH and tomato juice/peanut oil ratio were evaluated for their influence on carotenoid diffusion. When oil/tomato ratio was between 0.11 and 1, extraction of lycopene was limited by the saturation of the oil phase. With a large excess of oil, diffusion was also limited, as only 31 ± 1% of lycopene could be extracted from the juice. Diffusion did not vary significantly with pH but doubled when temperature rose from 10°C to 37°C. When the juice was mixed in an emulsion stabilised with bovine serum albumin or phospholipids the maximum extraction decreased to 14.5 ± 0.2% and 18.5 ± 1.5% respectively, indicating that in addition to the saturation of the oil phase at low oil/tomato ratio and in addition to intrinsic properties of the tomato juice in non-saturating conditions, lycopene diffusion was limited by the structure of the interface in emulsions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host.

  2. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  3. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  4. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches.

  5. The decline and residues of hexaconazole in tomato and soil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwu; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Wu, Yijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2012-03-01

    The decline and terminal residues of hexaconazole in tomato and soil in open field were studied. Hexaconazole residues were determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector. Recoveries were between 89% and 110% with RSD of 2.99-5.88% in tomato and 90-119% with RSD of 1.15-5.76% in soil at spiked levels of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg, respectively. The limit of detection of hexaconazole was 6.3 × 10(-12) g. The decline rates of hexaconazole were described using first-order kinetics and the mean half-lives of hexaconazole in tomato and soil were 4.3 and 18.1 days, respectively. The terminal residues in tomato at interval of 7 days at the dosage of 150 g.a.i./hm(2) for three or four times were all below 0.1 mg/kg. This work would be the guidance of establishing the maximum residue limit of hexaconazole in tomato in China.

  6. Structural differences in chromosomes distinguish species in the tomato clade.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L K; Covey, P A; Larsen, L R; Bedinger, P; Stack, S M

    2010-07-01

    The tomato clade of Solanaceae is composed of 12 species that are all diploid with the same chromosome number and morphology. Species in the tomato clade are considered to have evolved primarily by genic changes rather than large-scale chromosomal rearrangements because pachytene chromosomes in F(1) hybrids synapse normally along their lengths and linkage maps of intra- and inter-specific hybrids are co-linear. However, small inversions have been reported between tomato and some of its wild relatives. Therefore, we reevaluated 5 F(1) hybrids using high-resolution, electron microscopic examination of pachytene chromosome (= synaptonemal complex) spreads to determine whether any minor structural changes had occurred among species in the tomato clade, which were not easily visible using light microscopic analysis of conventional chromosome squashes. Our study revealed a number of unexpected synaptic configurations such as mismatched kinetochores, inversion loops and reciprocal translocations. Most of these structural differences were in or close to heterochromatin that has comparatively few genes and little recombination, so they would be expected to have little effect on the evident colinearity of linkage maps, especially in euchromatin. However, these results demonstrate that substantial changes in chromosome structure have occurred among species within the tomato clade.

  7. miSolRNA: A tomato micro RNA relational database

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economic importance of Solanaceae plant species is well documented and tomato has become a model for functional genomics studies. In plants, important processes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNA). Description We describe here a data base integrating genetic map positions of miRNA-targeted genes, their expression profiles and their relations with quantitative fruit metabolic loci and yield associated traits. miSolRNA provides a metadata source to facilitate the construction of hypothesis aimed at defining physiological modes of action of regulatory process underlying the metabolism of the tomato fruit. Conclusions The MiSolRNA database allows the simple extraction of metadata for the proposal of new hypothesis concerning possible roles of miRNAs in the regulation of tomato fruit metabolism. It permits i) to map miRNAs and their predicted target sites both on expressed (SGN-UNIGENES) and newly annotated sequences (BAC sequences released), ii) to co-locate any predicted miRNA-target interaction with metabolic QTL found in tomato fruits, iii) to retrieve expression data of target genes in tomato fruit along their developmental period and iv) to design further experiments for unresolved questions in complex trait biology based on the use of genetic materials that have been proven to be a useful tools for map-based cloning experiments in Solanaceae plant species. PMID:21059227

  8. An extensive proteome map of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxin; Pascual, Laura; Aurand, Rémy; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-10-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model species for studying fleshy fruit development. An extensive proteome map of the fruit pericarp is described in light of the high-quality genome sequence. The proteomes of fruit pericarp from 12 tomato genotypes at two developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red) were analyzed. The 2DE reference map included 506 spots identified by nano-LC/MS and the International Tomato Annotation Group Database searching. A total of 425 spots corresponded to unique proteins. Thirty-four spots resulted from the transcription of genes belonging to multigene families involving two to six genes. A total of 47 spots corresponded to a mixture of different proteins. The whole protein set was classified according to Gene Ontology annotation. The quantitative protein variation was analyzed in relation to genotype and developmental stage. This tomato fruit proteome dataset is currently the largest available and constitutes a valuable tool for comparative genetic studies of tomato genome expression at the protein level. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000105.

  9. Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome.

    PubMed

    Manaa, Arafet; Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde; Ahmed, Hela Ben

    2013-06-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two tomato genotypes (Cervil and Levovil). Tomato plants were irrigated with a control solution (3 dSm(-1)) or with saline solutions (Na or Ca+Na at 7.6 dSm(-1)). Tomato fruits were harvested at two ripening stages: green (14 days post-anthesis) and red ripe. Total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the 600 protein spots reproducibly detected, 53 spots exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. Most of the identified proteins were involved in carbon and energy metabolism, salt stress, oxidative stress, and proteins associated with ripening process. Overall, there was a large variation on proteins abundance between the two genotypes that can be correlated to salt treatment or/and fruit ripening stage. The results showed a protective effect of calcium that limited the impact of salinization on metabolism, ripening process, and induced plant salt tolerance. Collectively, this work has improved our knowledge about salt and calcium effect on tomato fruit proteome.

  10. Resistance Inducers Modulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato Strain DC3000 Response in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Scalschi, Loredana; Camañes, Gemma; Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; López, María M.; García-Agustín, Pilar; Vicedo, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) as an inducer of resistance in tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was previously demonstrated, and the plant response was characterized. Because little is known about the reaction of the pathogen to this effect, the goal of the present work was to determine whether the changes in the plant defence system affect the pathogen behaviour. This work provides the first demonstration of the response of the pathogen to the changes observed in plants after Hx application in terms of not only the population size but also the transcriptional levels of genes involved in quorum sensing establishment and pathogenesis. Therefore, it is possible that Hx treatment attenuates the virulence and survival of bacteria by preventing or diminishing the appearance of symptoms and controlling the growth of the bacteria in the mesophyll. It is interesting to note that the gene transcriptional changes in the bacteria from the treated plants occur at the same time as the changes in the plants. Hx is able to alter bacteria pathogenesis and survival only when it is applied as a resistance inducer because the changes that it promotes in plants affect the bacteria. PMID:25244125

  11. Induction of resistance in tomato plants against tomato mosaic tobamovirus using beneficial microbial isolates.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; El-Dougdoug, Kh A; Othman, B A; Lashin, S M; Ibrahim, M A; Sofy, A R

    2013-04-15

    The possibility of making use of the phenome non of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) to control viruses achieved by the soaking treatment of tomato seeds cv. Castl Rock with three growth forms to Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas fluorescens 2 and Trichoderma harzianum against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) infection. All the application forms of beneficial biotic inducers were reduced the mean number of ToMV local lesions on Datura metel. P. fluorescens 2 was found to be the best treatment in three forms on reduction of local lesion number 42.2, 32.7 and 38.1 of microbial liquid culture, microbial cells or spores and microbial culture filtrate forms, respectively, while the highest mean numbers of local lesions were 51.5, 61.7 and 73.5 of microbial liquid culture, microbial cells or spores and microbial culture filtrate, respectively for T. harzianum. The microbial culture filtrate form was more effective than other microbial forms to reduce mean number of ToMV local lesions to B. circulans, P. fluorescens 2 and T. harzianum isolates, 40.7, 32.1 and 51.5, respectively. The individual microbial isolates on all three microbial forms able to vary ToMV local lesions similarity (homologous or heterologous) and morphology (size center and surrounded with halo or without halo) compared with TMV mother strain.

  12. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.; Díaz-Pendón, Juan A.; Fonseca, Maria Esther N.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Resende, Renato O.

    2015-01-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL), a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread. PMID:26008699

  13. Suppressive Potential of Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from the Tomato Phyllosphere against Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ikuo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Iwamoto, Yutaka; Aino, Masataka; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hideki; Ando, Sugihiro; Tsushima, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    The suppressive potentials of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains isolated from the tomato phyllosphere were investigated to obtain new biocontrol candidates against Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato. The suppressive activities of 20 bacterial strains belonging to these genera were examined using seedlings and potted tomato plants, and two Paenibacillus strains (12HD2 and 42NP7) were selected as biocontrol candidates against the disease. These two strains suppressed the disease in the field experiment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the treated bacterial cells colonized the root surface, and when the roots of the seedlings were treated with strain 42NP7 cells, the cell population was maintained on the roots for at least for 4 weeks. Although the bacterial strains had no direct antifungal activity against the causal pathogen in vitro, an increase was observed in the antifungal activities of acetone extracts from tomato roots treated with the cells of both bacterial strains. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of defense-related genes was induced in both the roots and leaves of seedlings treated with the bacterial cells. Thus, the root-colonized cells of the two Paenibacillus strains were considered to induce resistance in tomato plants, which resulted in the suppression of the disease. PMID:24920171

  14. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of Tomato mosaic virus disease in tomato plants by deep ultraviolet irradiation using light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, S; Ishikura, S

    2014-11-01

    Resistance-breaking strains of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are emerging in many countries, including Japan. We examined whether deep ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on tomato plants using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could suppress the expression of ToMV symptoms. We also investigated the optimum wavelength and radiant exposure for suppressing the disease effectively in tomato plants. Among the three wavelengths tested, UV irradiation at 280-290 nm had a relatively high suppressive effect on ToMV and resulted in a low incidence of UV damage. Pre-inoculation exposure to UV was effective in suppressing viral disease, indicating that acquired resistance was induced by UV irradiation. UV-B fluence of 0·7-1·4 kJ m(-2 ) day(-1) at wavelengths of 280-290 nm suppressed ToMV effectively without significant UV damage. Disease caused in tomato plants by resistance-breaking Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) could be suppressed by ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This paves the way for the future management of plant viral diseases using deep UV LEDs. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Characterization of two tomato aquaporins and expression during the incompatible interaction of tomato with the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa.

    PubMed

    Werner, M; Uehlein, N; Proksch, P; Kaldenhoff, R

    2001-08-01

    A subtractive suppression hybridization technique was used to identify genes that were induced during early phases of the interaction between Cuscuta reflexa, a phanerogamic plant parasite and the incompatible host tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One of the identified genes encodes a new aquaporin (LeAqp2) from tomato. Its function was concluded from the swelling kinetics of LeAqp2-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes under hypo-osmotic conditions. It was shown that, 6 h after attachment of the plant parasite, the corresponding mRNA accumulated in cells at and adjacent to the attachment site of Cuscuta, while artificial wounding did not modify steady-state LeAqp2- RNA levels. Expression of a close homologue named TRAMP (tomato-ripening-associated protein) was not affected by the plant-plant interaction. Levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in tomato tissue after infection by Cuscuta have been found to increase at a similar stage of infection. In contrast to the different behavior with respect to infection, IAA induced both LeAqp2 and TRAMP expression. The observed pattern of LeAqp2 expression during the interaction at a stage where cell elongation occurs together with the water-channel activity in the heterologous expression system suggest a function for LeAqp2 during the tomato-Cuscuta interaction.

  17. Data on polyphenols and biological activity analyses of an Andean tomato collection and their relationships with tomato traits and geographical origin

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola Naranjo, Romina D.; Otaiza, Santiago; Saragusti, Alejandra C.; Baroni, Veronica; Carranza, A.V.; Peralta, Iris E.; Valle, Estela M.; Carrari, Fernando; Asis, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Data provide information about a tomato collection composed of accessions from the Andean Valley, commercial accessions and wild species. Antioxidant metabolites were measured in mature fruits of this collection, and their biological activities were assessed by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In this work, the parameters used to identify and quantify polyphenols compounds in tomato fruit by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer are described. Moreover, data supporting a procedure to characterize the properties of tomato fruits to revert death by thermal stress in Caenorhabditis elegans are explained in detail. Lastly, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of metabolites composition, antioxidant activities (in vivo and in vitro), tomato traits and geographical origin of the tomatoes collection are shown. The data presented here are related to the research article entitled “Hydrophilic antioxidants from Andean Tomato Landraces assessed by their bioactivities in vitro and in vivo” [1]. PMID:27222844

  18. The chemical interactions underlying tomato flavor preferences.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise; Bliss, Peter; McIntyre, Lauren M; Blandon-Ubeda, Adilia; Bies, Dawn; Odabasi, Asli Z; Rodríguez, Gustavo R; van der Knaap, Esther; Taylor, Mark G; Goulet, Charles; Mageroy, Melissa H; Snyder, Derek J; Colquhoun, Thomas; Moskowitz, Howard; Clark, David G; Sims, Charles; Bartoshuk, Linda; Klee, Harry J

    2012-06-05

    Although human perception of food flavors involves integration of multiple sensory inputs, the most salient sensations are taste and olfaction. Ortho- and retronasal olfaction are particularly crucial to flavor because they provide the qualitative diversity so important to identify safe versus dangerous foods. Historically, flavor research has prioritized aroma volatiles present at levels exceeding the orthonasally measured odor threshold, ignoring the variation in the rate at which odor intensities grow above threshold. Furthermore, the chemical composition of a food in itself tells us very little about whether or not that food will be liked. Clearly, alternative approaches are needed to elucidate flavor chemistry. Here we use targeted metabolomics and natural variation in flavor-associated sugars, acids, and aroma volatiles to evaluate the chemistry of tomato fruits, creating a predictive and testable model of liking. This nontraditional approach provides novel insights into flavor chemistry, the interactions between taste and retronasal olfaction, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural products. Some of the most abundant volatiles do not contribute to consumer liking, whereas other less abundant ones do. Aroma volatiles make contributions to perceived sweetness independent of sugar concentration, suggesting a novel way to increase perception of sweetness without adding sugar.

  19. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropical

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, S.G.; Rayle, D.L. ); Cleland, R.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  20. Purification of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Luisoni, E; Milne, R G; Vecchiati, M

    1995-07-01

    Attempts were made to find a good purification procedure for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a dangerous and continuously spreading whitefly-transmitted germinivirus, up to now only partially purified. Electron microscopy, serology and spectrophotometry were used to evaluate different procedures. The scheme finally adopted was the following: collect leaves and stems from Nicotiana benthamiana graft-infected 45-60 days previously (5-10 g/plant); homogenize with 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 6 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA, 10 mM Na2SO3, 0.1% 2-mercaptoethanol, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% Driselase (3-4 ml of buffer for each g of material); incubate overnight on ice with gentle agitation; filter; emulsify with 15% cold chloroform; centrifuge at low speed; ultracentrifuge supernatant; resuspend pellets in 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 7 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA; centrifuge at low speed; repeat resuspension of the pellets and low-speed centrifugation; ultracentrifuge the pooled supernatant on a Cs2SO4 gradient (e.g. for 5 h at 41,000 rpm); collect the virus band and dialyse or ultracentrifuge the virus. The virus yield was 5-10 mg per kg of tissue.

  1. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  2. Auxin asymmetry during gravitropism by tomato hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. A.; Pickard, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropic asymmetry of auxin was observed in hypocotyls of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) soon after horizontal placement: the ratio of apically supplied [3H]IAA collected from the lower sides to that from the upper sides was about 1.4 between 5 and 10 minutes. This was adequately early to account for the beginning of curvature. The auxin asymmetry ratio rose to about 2.5 between 20 and 25 minutes, and to 3.5 during the main phase of curvature. This compares reasonably well with the roughly 3.9 ratio for elongation on the lower side to elongation on the upper side that is the basis for the curvature. These data extend evidence that the Went-Cholodny theory for the mediation of tropisms is valid for dicot stems. Also consistent with the theory, an auxin asymmetry ratio of 2.5 was observed when wrong-way gravitropic curvature developed following application of a high level of auxin. In addition to reversing the asymmetry of elongation, the large supplement of auxin resulted in lower net elongation. Previous data established that ethylene is not involved in this decrease of growth as a function of increasing level of auxin.

  3. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  4. Auxin asymmetry during gravitropism by tomato hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. A.; Pickard, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropic asymmetry of auxin was observed in hypocotyls of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) soon after horizontal placement: the ratio of apically supplied [3H]IAA collected from the lower sides to that from the upper sides was about 1.4 between 5 and 10 minutes. This was adequately early to account for the beginning of curvature. The auxin asymmetry ratio rose to about 2.5 between 20 and 25 minutes, and to 3.5 during the main phase of curvature. This compares reasonably well with the roughly 3.9 ratio for elongation on the lower side to elongation on the upper side that is the basis for the curvature. These data extend evidence that the Went-Cholodny theory for the mediation of tropisms is valid for dicot stems. Also consistent with the theory, an auxin asymmetry ratio of 2.5 was observed when wrong-way gravitropic curvature developed following application of a high level of auxin. In addition to reversing the asymmetry of elongation, the large supplement of auxin resulted in lower net elongation. Previous data established that ethylene is not involved in this decrease of growth as a function of increasing level of auxin.

  5. Distribution behaviour of acaricide cyflumetofen in tomato during home canning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Chen, Zenglong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Duan, Lifang; Li, Minmin; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-01

    The distribution behaviour of cyflumetofen in tomatoes during home canning was studied. The targeted compound cyflumetofen was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each process step, which included washing, peeling, homogenisation, simmering and sterilisation. Results indicated that more cyflumetofen was removed by washing with detergent solution compared with tap water, 2% NaCl solution and 2% CH3COOH solution. Peeling resulted in 90.2% loss of cyflumetofen and was the most effective step at removing pesticide residues from tomatoes. The processing factors (PFs) of tomato samples after each step were generally less than 1; in particular, the PF of the peeling process for cyflumetofen was 0.28.

  6. Influence of Sirocco in tomato production in Gran Canaria Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, G.; Saa, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, J. M.; Díaz, M. C.

    2010-05-01

    Sirocco is a wind that comes from the Southwest of Africa. This wind produces dusty dry conditions (relative moisture lower than 40%) and its duration may last several days. These conditions can accelerate the fruit maturation with adverse effect over the fruit quality which can reduce farm incomes. The objective of this work is to study the influence of Sirocco wind in tomato production in Gran Canaria. For this purpose, the possible effect of Sirocco in tomato production variation were studied in seven agricultural cooperatives using the data supplied by State Agrarian Insurance Body (ENESA) for a period of 14 years. Results showed that a cumulative normal distribution presented the better fitness with the tomato production data.

  7. Colonization and internalization of Salmonella enterica in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Allard, Sarah; Reynolds, Sara; Millner, Patricia; Arce, Gabriela; Blodgett, Robert J; Brown, Eric W

    2013-04-01

    The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system.

  8. Improving Carotenoid Extraction from Tomato Waste by Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Luengo, Elisa; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, the influence of the application of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) of different intensities (3–7 kV/cm and 0–300 μs) on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 μs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39% as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25). Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30% without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF treatment. PMID:25988115

  9. Internal Colonization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of MAE119 from day 3 after inoculation. In the first year, nine fruits collected from one of the 42 MAE119 inoculated plants were positive for S. enterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553

  10. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  11. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  12. A cytokinin-activating enzyme promotes tuber formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Eviatar-Ribak, Tamar; Shalit-Kaneh, Akiva; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Amsellem, Ziva; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2013-06-17

    Dedicated storage organs in the form of tubers are evolutionary novelties that share a common function but originate in diverse species from different organs. Tubers in potato, Solanum tuberosum, are derived from the swollen tips of specialized basal lateral juvenile shoots, called stolons. Lateral buds of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, a potato sibling species, only form regular shoots. The evo-devo mechanisms restricting tuber formation to basal juvenile axillary meristems of potato while completely inhibiting it in tomato meristems are not currently understood. Ectopic expression of tomato LONELY GUY (LOG1), a cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene, imparts potential to the outgrowing juvenile tomato buds to generate, de novo, aerial minitubers (TMTs). TMTs are morphologically, developmentally, and metabolically homologous to aerial potato tubers and display a unique transcriptome with altered hormonal signaling networks. The new hormonal balance stimulates ectopic branching of dormant axillary meristems and loss of apical dominance without disruption of polar auxin transport and obviates the need for specific branching genes. miR156, a master regulator of juvenility, extends tuber-forming potential to distal axillary buds in both wild-type potato and tomato primed by LOG1 signaling. Ubiquitous activation of TLOG1 uncovered a developmentally suppressed tuber-forming potential within tomato axillary meristems. Other meristems in other plants may also carry hidden, suppressed organogenesis potentials. The unlocking of this potential by the activity of a single gene represents a prime example of an evolutionary novelty in the making and suggests that CKs may function as universal regulators of storage-organ formation in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Colonization and Internalization of Salmonella enterica in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Sarah; Reynolds, Sara; Millner, Patricia; Arce, Gabriela; Blodgett, Robert J.; Brown, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system. PMID:23377940

  14. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  15. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Silva-Neto, C M; Bergamini, L L; Elias, M A S; Moreira, G L; Morais, J M; Bergamini, B A R; Franceschinelli, E V

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp.) are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the study agroecosystem.

  16. Production of recombinant miraculin using transgenic tomatoes in a closed cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Fukukawa, Go; Kakuta, Hideo; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2010-05-26

    We constructed a cultivation system with a controlled light period, light intensity, temperature, and CO(2) concentration for mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin from transgenic tomatoes. The tomato plants exhibited normal growth and produced over 270 g of fresh weight (FW) fruit per plant, with the recombinant miraculin concentration reaching up to 90 microg per g FW of tomatoes. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes was compared to that of plants grown in a netted greenhouse. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes grown in a closed cultivation system was more stable than that of tomatoes grown in a netted greenhouse, suggesting that the closed cultivation system is suitable for the production of recombinant miraculin. We estimate that 45 tFW of tomatoes and 4 kg of recombinant miraculin per 1,000 m(2) of cultivation area can be harvested per year.

  17. Characterization of a novel tymovirus on tomato plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; Nagata, Tatsuya; Guimarães, Felipe C; Ferreira, Fernanda A; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Nicolini, Cícero; de Oliveira Resende, Renato; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2013-02-01

    A tymovirus was isolated in Brazil from tomato plants with severe symptoms of leaf mosaic and blistering. The virus was mechanically transmissible to solanaceous indicator host species. The infected plants contained icosahedral particles and chloroplasts with membrane deformations which are typical cytopathic effects caused by tymoviruses. Its coat protein amino acid sequence shares the maximum of 64 % identity with the tymovirus Chiltepin yellow mosaic virus, which suggested that it can be considered as a distinct member of the genus Tymovirus. In a phylogenetic tree, this tymovirus was clustered with other solanaceous-infecting tymoviruses. It was tentatively named as Tomato blistering mosaic virus (ToBMV).

  18. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on carotenoids profile of tomato juice made of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field-treated tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2013-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the carotenoid content of tomato juices was studied. First, moderate-intensity PEF (MIPEF) was applied to raw tomatoes. Afterwards, MIPEF-treated and untreated tomatoes were immediately refrigerated at 4 °C for 24 h and then, they were separately ground to produce tomato juices. Juices were treated by heat treatments or by high-intensity PEF (HIPEF) and stored under refrigeration for 56 days. MIPEF treatment of tomatoes increased the content of carotenoid compounds in tomato juices. An enhancement of 63-65% in 15-cis-lycopene was observed in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight increase in cis-lycopene isomers was observed over time, whereas other carotenoids slightly decreased. However, HIPEF treated tomato juices maintained higher carotenoid content (10-20%) through the storage time than thermally and untreated juices. The combination of MIPEF and HIPEF treatments could be used not only to produce tomato juices with high carotenoid content but also, to maintain higher the carotenoid content during storage time.

  19. Molecular dissection of Tomato leaf curl virus resistance in tomato line TY172 derived from Solanum peruvianum.

    PubMed

    Anbinder, Ilana; Reuveni, Moshe; Azari, Raviv; Paran, Ilan; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Lapidot, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2009-08-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is devastating to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops and resistant cultivars are highly effective in controlling the disease. The breeding line TY172, originating from Solanum peruvianum, is highly resistant to TYLCV. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling TYLCV resistance in TY172, appropriate segregating populations were analyzed using 69 polymorphic DNA markers spanning the entire tomato genome. Results show that TYLCV resistance in TY172 is controlled by a previously unknown major QTL, originating from the resistant line, and four additional minor QTLs. The major QTL, we term Ty-5, maps to chromosome 4 and accounts for 39.7-46.6% of the variation in symptom severity among segregating plants (LOD score 33-35). The minor QTLs, originated either from the resistant or susceptible parents, were mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, 9 and 11, and contributed 12% to the variation in symptom severity in addition to Ty-5.

  20. Tomato terpene synthases TPS5 and TPS39 account for a monoterpene linalool production in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Hu, Shanglian; Dai, Qilin; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant tomato terpene synthases, TPS5/37/39, catalyze the formation of linalool or nerolidol in vitro. However, little is known about their actual biological activities in tomato plants, especially in their fruits. Here, when all three TPSs were induced in tomato fruits by a chemical elicitor, geraniol, a significant linalool peak was detected in fruit tissues but not in control fruits. Considering the compartments of these TPS proteins and available substrates, the linalool peak induced by geraniol might be attributed to TPS5 and TPS37, both of them putatively localized in the plastids where high levels of monoterpene substrate geranyl diphosphate exist. In addition, application of geraniol also triggered jasmonic acid (JA)-related defense genes suggesting that the inducible TPSs might be correlated with JA-signaled defense responses.

  1. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    PubMed Central

    López-Gresa, M. Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants. PMID:27893781

  2. Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

    2013-02-08

    Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F₂ generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F₁ generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F₁ hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes.

  3. NTRC and chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species regulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato disease development in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Ishiga, Takako; Wangdi, Tamding; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2012-03-01

    Coronatine (COR)-producing pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, including pvs. tomato, maculicola, and glycinea, cause important diseases on tomato, crucifers, and soybean, respectively, and produce symptoms with necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorosis. The chlorosis is mainly attributed to COR. However, the significance of COR-induced chlorosis in localized lesion development and the molecular basis of disease-associated cell death is largely unknown. To identify host (chloroplast) genes that play a role in COR-mediated chlorosis, we used a forward genetics approach using Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing and identified a gene which encodes 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prxs) that, when silenced, produced a spreading hypersensitive or necrosis-like phenotype instead of chlorosis after COR application in a COI1-dependent manner. Loss-of-function analysis of Prx and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), the central players of a chloroplast redox detoxification system, resulted in spreading accelerated P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disease-associated cell death with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in a COR-dependent manner in tomato and Arabidopsis. Consistent with these results, virulent strain DC3000 suppressed the expression of Prx and NTRC in Arabidopsis and tomato during pathogenesis. However, interestingly, authentic COR suppressed the expression of Prx and NTRC in tomato but not in Arabidopsis, suggesting that COR in conjunction with other effectors may modulate ROS and cell death in different host species. Taken together, these results indicated that NTRC or Prx function as a negative regulator of pathogen-induced cell death in the healthy tissues that surround the lesions, and COR-induced chloroplast-localized ROS play a role in enhancing the disease-associated cell death.

  4. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    PubMed

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  5. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Results Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Conclusion Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive

  6. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    PubMed

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed

  7. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Reagan, Russell L.; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M.; Gasser, Charles S.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P <0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  8. Polyamine Metabolism in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajeev; Davies, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele a/c) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (A/c) at the ripe stage (ARG Dibble, PJ Davies, MA Mutschler [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 338-340). Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-a/c—a near isogenic line possessing the allele a/c, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in a/c pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and a/c fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of [1,4-14C]putrescine and [terminal labeled-3H]spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-a/c fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in a/c fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in a/c fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase. PMID:16667978

  9. The Tomato Fruit Cell Wall : II. Polyuronide Metabolism in a Nonsoftening Tomato Mutant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J L; Nevins, D J

    1990-03-01

    A nonsoftening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) variety, dg, was examined to assess the physiological basis for its inability to soften during ripening. Total uronic acid levels, 18 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall, and the extent of pectin esterification, 60 mole%, remained constant throughout fruit development in this mutant. The proportion of uronic acid susceptible to polygalacturonase in vitro also remained constant. Pretreatment of heat-inactivated dg fruit cell walls with tomato pectinmethylesterase enhances polygalacturonase susceptibility at all ripening stages. Pectinesterase activity of cell wall protein extracts from red ripe dg fruit was half that in extracts from analogous tissue of VF145B. Polygalacturonase activities of cell wall extracts, however, were similar in both varieties. Diffusion of uronic acid from tissue discs of both varieties increased beginning at the turning stage to a maximum of 2.0 milligrams uronic acid released/gram fresh weight at the ripe stage. The increased quantity of hydrolytic products released during ripening suggests the presence of in situ polygalacturonase activity. Low speed centrifugation was employed to induce efflux of uronide components from the cell wall tree space. In normal fruit, at the turning stage, 2.1 micrograms uronic acid/gram fresh weight was present in the eluant after 1 hour, and this value increased to a maximum of 8.2 micrograms uronic acid/gram fresh weight at the red ripe stage. However, centrifuge-aided extraction of hydrolytic products failed to provide evidence for in situ polygalacturonase activity in dg fruit. We conclude that pectinesterase and polygalacturonase enzymes are not active in situ during the ripening of dg fruit. This could account for the maintenance of firmness in ripe fruit tissue.

  10. Strigolactones affect tomato hormone profile and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanli; Dor, Evgenia; Hershenhorn, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation. SLs' role in these processes is unknown, in contrast to their proven involvement in auxin transport and distribution. We used tomato cv. M82 and its SL-deficient mutant SL-ORT1 to study the influence of SLs on hormone profile in tomato roots and shoots, and their involvement in somatic embryogenesis (SE) and morphogenesis (adventitious root formation). The synthetic SL GR24 had different effects on SE of M82 and SL-ORT1, indicating that SLs influence the cytokinin-to-auxin ratio in tomato SE.

  11. Photoinduced isomerization of lycopene and application to tomato cultivation.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Thomas; Raeke, Julia; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-11-20

    The present study aimed to investigate if growth conditions have an impact on the isomeric composition of lycopene in tomatoes. First a model system for photoinduced isomerization was established. Tomato extracts were irradiated with a halogen lamp, whose wavelength spectrum is close to the spectrum of daylight and thus mimics field-grown cultivation. Different optical filters were interposed between lamp and samples to simulate greenhouse conditions. 5-cis-Lycopene was formed preferentially while the concentration of 7-cis-lycopene decreased in field-grown model systems. The change of isomerization in greenhouse model systems led to a significantly different ratio. Consequently 5-cis- and 7-cis-lycopene were identified as potent markers for the differentiation of various lighting conditions during cultivation. This result was verified in biological samples. Authentic field-grown tomatoes (var. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. commune L. H. Bailey "Harzfeuer") showed a significantly higher content of 5-cis-lycopene 5.90 ± 0.45% compared to tomatoes of the same variety grown under electric lighting 4.11 ± 0.10%. Additionally, the ratio of 7-cis-lycopene was significantly lower under field-grown conditions.

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of beta-naphthoxyacetic acid in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Gökmen, V; Acar, J

    1998-03-06

    An alternative high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of beta-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) in tomatoes is described. BNOA was extracted from tomatoes with acetone-dichloromethane (2:1). The extract was cleaned up by Bio-Beads S-X3 gel-permeation chromatography and by partitioning. A reversed-phase C18 column was used for HPLC analysis. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-2% acetic acid in water (50:50, v/v) pumped at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Retention time of BNOA was ca. 7 min with a percentage coefficient of variation of 0.71. Resolution of BNOA was good on the column. Percentage recoveries of BNOA were 79.5 +/- 6.82, 94.8 +/- 2.70 and 86.4 +/- 16.43 for the corresponding spiking levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 micrograms per g tomato, respectively. Analysis of 10 greenhouse tomato samples from local markets in Ankara showed no BNOA residue.

  13. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  14. Tomato chlorotic spot virus Identified in Marsdenia floribunda in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ornamental crops including hoya, annual vinca and portulaca have recently been identified with Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infections in Florida. Observations of Marsdenia floribunda, commonly known as Madagascar jasmine, in September 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these sympt...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-28 - Tomatoes from certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes from certain countries. 319.56-28 Section 319.56-28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables §...

  16. Quantitative proteomics of tomato defense against Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zhu, Ning; Feole, Michelle; Yi, Sarah; Chen, Sixue

    2013-06-01

    Genetic and microarray analyses have provided useful information in the area of plant and pathogen interactions. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) causes bacterial speck disease in tomato. Previous studies have shown that changes in response to pathogen infection at transcript level are variable at different time points. This study provides information not only on proteomic changes between a resistant and a susceptible genotype, but also information on changes between an early and a late time point. Using the iTRAQ quantitative proteomics approach, we have identified 2369 proteins in tomato leaves, and 477 of them were determined to be responsive to Pst inoculation. Unique and differential proteins after each comparison were further analyzed to provide information about protein changes and the potential functions they play in the pathogen response. This information is applicable not only to tomato proteomics, but also adds to the repertoire of proteins now available for crop proteomic analysis and how they change in response to pathogen infection. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Identification and analysis of the metacaspase gene family in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian; Wei, Yongxuan

    2016-10-21

    Metacaspases play critical roles in developmentally regulated and environmentally induced programmed cell death in plants. In this study, we systematically identified and analyzed metacaspase gene family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The results illustrated that tomato possesses eight metacaspase genes (SlMC1-8) located on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 9, and 10. SlMC1-6 belonged to type I metacaspases and had 5 exon/4 intron structures. SlMC7 and 8 were type II metacaspases and had 2 and 3 exons, respectively. Expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of SlMCs in various tomato tissues. Cis-regulatory element prediction showed that there were many hormone- and stress-related cis-regulatory elements in SlMCs promoter regions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis further demonstrated that most of the SlMCs were regulated by drought, cold, salt, methyl viologen, and ethephon treatments. This study provides insights into the characteristics of SlMC genes and laid the foundation for further functional analysis of these genes in tomato.

  18. Elucidating the functional role of endoreduplication in tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Christian; Nafati, Mehdi; Mathieu-Rivet, Elodie; Bourdon, Matthieu; Frangne, Nathalie; Cheniclet, Catherine; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Hernould, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Endoreduplication is the major source of endopolyploidy in higher plants. The process of endoreduplication results from the ability of cells to modify their classical cell cycle into a partial cell cycle where DNA synthesis occurs independently from mitosis. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of the phenomenon in eukaryotic cells, the physiological meaning of endoreduplication remains vague,although several roles during plant development have been proposed, mostly related to cell differentiation and cell size determination. Scope Here recent advances in the knowledge of endoreduplication and fruit organogenesis are reviewed, focusing on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a model, and the functional analyses of endoreduplication-associated regulatory genes in tomato fruit are described. Conclusions The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory kinase WEE1 and the anaphase promoting complex activator CCS52A both participate in the control of cell size and the endoreduplication process driving cell expansion during early fruit development in tomato. Moreover the fruit-specific functional analysis of the tomato CDK inhibitor KRP1 reveals that cell size and fruit size determination can be uncoupled from DNA ploidy levels, indicating that endoreduplication acts rather as a limiting factor for cell growth. The overall functional data contribute to unravelling the physiological role of endoreduplication in growth induction of fleshy fruits. PMID:21199834

  19. Phenotypic and molecular variation in 44 vintage tomato varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important goal of tomato breeding is to create varieties that will provide high quality product for fresh consumption. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acidity (TA) are major components of fruit flavor and quality. Although several-thousand genotypes a...

  20. Use of labeled tomato lectin for imaging vasculature structures.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Richard T; Levine, Samantha T; Haynes, Sherry M; Gutierrez, Paula; Baratta, Janie L; Tan, Zhiqun; Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    Intravascular injections of fluorescent or biotinylated tomato lectin were tested to study labeling of vascular elements in laboratory mice. Injections of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin) (50-100 µg/100 µl) were made intravascularly, through the tail vein, through a cannula implanted in the jugular vein, or directly into the left ventricle of the heart. Tissues cut for thin 10- to 12-µm cryostat sections, or thick 50- to 100-µm vibratome sections, were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Tissue labeled by biotinylated lectin was examined by bright field microscopy or electron microscopy after tissue processing for biotin. Intravascular injections of tomato lectin led to labeling of vascular structures in a variety of tissues, including brain, kidney, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and experimental tumors. Analyses of fluorescence in serum indicated the lectin was cleared from circulating blood within 2 min. Capillary labeling was apparent in tissues collected from animals within 1 min of intravascular injections, remained robust for about 1 h, and then declined markedly until difficult to detect 12 h after injection. Light microscopic images suggest the lectin bound to the endothelial cells that form capillaries and endothelial cells that line some larger vessels. Electron microscopic studies confirmed the labeling of luminal surfaces of endothelial cells. Vascular labeling by tomato lectin is compatible with a variety of other morphological labeling techniques, including histochemistry and immunocytochemistry, and thus appears to be a sensitive and useful method to reveal vascular patterns in relationship to other aspects of parenchymal development, structure, and function.

  1. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  2. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  3. Sequence and Analysis of the Tomato JOINTLESS Locus1

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Long; Begum, Dilara; Goff, Stephen A.; Wing, Rod A.

    2001-01-01

    A 119-kb bacterial artificial chromosome from the JOINTLESS locus on the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chromosome 11 contained 15 putative genes. Repetitive sequences in this region include one copia-like LTR retrotransposon, 13 simple sequence repeats, three copies of a novel type III foldback transposon, and four putative short DNA repeats. Database searches showed that the foldback transposon and the short DNA repeats seemed to be associated preferably with genes. The predicted tomato genes were compared with the complete Arabidopsis genome. Eleven out of 15 tomato open reading frames were found to be colinear with segments on five Arabidopsis bacterial artificial chromosome/P1-derived artificial chromosome clones. The synteny patterns, however, did not reveal duplicated segments in Arabidopsis, where over half of the genome is duplicated. Our analysis indicated that the microsynteny between the tomato and Arabidopsis genomes was still conserved at a very small scale but was complicated by the large number of gene families in the Arabidopsis genome. PMID:11457984

  4. Multiphysics modeling of microwave heating of whole tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mathematical model of a food is useful for prediction of temperature profiles during microwave heating. However, due to their complex geometry and interaction with electromagnetic fields, whole tomatoes resist an analytical approach to modeling the fruit as it is subjected to microwave energy. T...

  5. Ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, S T; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    1998-01-01

    Ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. A tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-Never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced in tomato genotypes impaired in ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) and perception (14893), thereby corroborating a reducing effect for ethylene insensitivity on foliar disease development. The reduction in foliar disease symptoms in Never ripe plants was a specific effect of ethylene insensitivity and was not due to reductions in bacterial populations or decreased ethylene synthesis. PR-1B1 mRNA accumulation in response to X. c. vesicatoria infection was not affected by ethylene insensitivity, indicating that ethylene is not required for defense gene induction. Our findings suggest that broad tolerance of diverse vegetative diseases may be achieved via engineering of ethylene insensitivity in tomato. PMID:9501111

  6. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a...

  7. Graft Angle its Relationship to Tomato Plant Survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growing plants that can withstand the rigors of open field production is imperative. This study examines the relationship of tensile strength to graft angle and plant survival. Tomato seedlings of ‘FL47’ and ‘Rutgers’ were used as scions on ‘Roma’ rootstock under greenhouse and healing chamber con...

  8. Ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lund, S T; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    1998-03-01

    Ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. A tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-Never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced in tomato genotypes impaired in ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) and perception (14893), thereby corroborating a reducing effect for ethylene insensitivity on foliar disease development. The reduction in foliar disease symptoms in Never ripe plants was a specific effect of ethylene insensitivity and was not due to reductions in bacterial populations or decreased ethylene synthesis. PR-1B1 mRNA accumulation in response to X. c. vesicatoria infection was not affected by ethylene insensitivity, indicating that ethylene is not required for defense gene induction. Our findings suggest that broad tolerance of diverse vegetative diseases may be achieved via engineering of ethylene insensitivity in tomato.

  9. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  10. The Appearance of Change in "Fried Green Tomatoes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    An examination of key symbols and structures of the recent film, "Fried Green Tomatoes," reveals the nature of the process of coding representations of the real world and its effects. The movie depicts two parallel stories of female friendship. Changes and development of the characters are primarily portrayed through changes in their…

  11. Proteome changes induced by aluminum stress in tomato roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth inhibition in acid soils due to Al stress affects crop production worldwide. To understand mechanisms in sensitive crops that are affected by Al stress, a proteomic analysis of primary tomato root tissue, grown in Alamended and non-amended liquid cultures, was performed. DIGE-SDS-MALDI-TOF-TO...

  12. Evaluating internal maturity of tomatoes using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy technique was investigated for evaluating internal maturity of intact tomatoes. A Raman spectroscopy system was assembled to acquire spatially offset spectra in the wavenumber range of 200–2500 cm–1. A 785-nm laser was used as the excitation source and the measure...

  13. Evaluation of Mechanical Tomato Harvesting Using Wireless Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Arazuri, Silvia; Arana, Ignacio; Jaren, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The harvesting of processing tomatoes is fully mechanised and it is well known that during harvest, fruits are subjected to mechanical stress causing physical injuries, including skin punctures, pulp and cell rupture. Some wireless sensors have been used for research during recent years with the main purpose of reducing the quality loss of tomato fruits by diminishing the number and intensity of impacts. In this study the IRD (impact recorder device) sensor was used to evaluate several tomato harvesters. The specific objectives were to evaluate the impacts during mechanical harvest using a wireless sensor, to determine the critical points at which damage occurs, and to assess the damage levels. Samples were taken to determine the influence of mechanical harvest on texture, or on other quality characteristics including percentage of damages. From the obtained data it has been possible to identify the critical points where the damages were produced for each one of the five harvester models examined. The highest risk of damage was in zone 1 of the combine—from the cutting system to the colour selector—because the impacts were of higher intensity and hit less absorbing surfaces than in zone 2—from colour selector to discharge. The shaker and exit from the shaker are two of the harvester elements that registered the highest intensity impacts. By adjusting, in a specific way each harvester model, using the results from this research, it has been possible to reduce the tomato damage percentage from 20 to 29% to less than 10%. PMID:22163516

  14. A snapshot of the emerging tomato genome sequence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is being sequenced by an international consortium of 10 countries (Korea, China, the United Kingdom, India, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Spain, Italy and the United States) as part of a larger initiative called the ‘International Solanaceae Genome Proje...

  15. Evaluation of phytotoxicty of quinoxyfen on fresh market tomatoes, 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was conducted inTifton, Georgia to evaluate the phytotoxicity of quinoxyfen on fresh market tomatoes in 2011 for the control of bacterial spot and powdery mildew. Four directed foliar applications were applied on a 6-8 day schedule beginning on 19 May and ending on 8 Jun 2011at rate...

  16. Separation methods and chemical and nutritional characteristics of tomato pomace

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato processing generates a large amount of pomace as a low value by-product primarily used as livestock feed or disposed. The objectives of this research were to investigate the chemical and nutritional characteristics and determine effective separation methods of peel and seed of commercial toma...

  17. Modelling cell division and endoreduplication in tomato fruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Apri, Mochamad; Kromdijk, Johannes; de Visser, Pieter H B; de Gee, Maarten; Molenaar, Jaap

    2014-05-21

    In many developing plant tissues and organs, differentiating cells switch from the classical cell cycle to an alternative partial cycle. This partial cycle bypasses mitosis and allows for multiple rounds of genome duplication without cell division, giving rise to cells with high ploidy numbers. This partial cycle is referred to as endoreduplication. Cell division and endoreduplication are important processes for biomass allocation and yield in tomato. Quantitative trait loci for tomato fruit size or weight are frequently associated with variations in the pericarp cell number, and due to the tight connection between endoreduplication and cell expansion and the prevalence of polyploidy in storage tissues, a functional correlation between nuclear ploidy number and cell growth has also been implicated (karyoplasmic ratio theory). In this paper, we assess the applicability of putative mechanisms for the onset of endoreduplication in tomato pericarp cells via development of a mathematical model for the cell cycle gene regulatory network. We focus on targets for regulation of the transition to endoreduplication by the phytohormone auxin, which is known to play a vital role in the onset of cell expansion and differentiation in developing tomato fruit. We show that several putative mechanisms are capable of inducing the onset of endoreduplication. This redundancy in explanatory mechanisms is explained by analysing system behaviour as a function of their combined action. Namely, when all these routes to endoreduplication are used in a combined fashion, robustness of the regulation of the transition to endoreduplication is greatly improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elucidating the functional role of endoreduplication in tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Christian; Nafati, Mehdi; Mathieu-Rivet, Elodie; Bourdon, Matthieu; Frangne, Nathalie; Cheniclet, Catherine; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Hernould, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Endoreduplication is the major source of endopolyploidy in higher plants. The process of endoreduplication results from the ability of cells to modify their classical cell cycle into a partial cell cycle where DNA synthesis occurs independently from mitosis. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of the phenomenon in eukaryotic cells, the physiological meaning of endoreduplication remains vague, although several roles during plant development have been proposed, mostly related to cell differentiation and cell size determination. Here recent advances in the knowledge of endoreduplication and fruit organogenesis are reviewed, focusing on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a model, and the functional analyses of endoreduplication-associated regulatory genes in tomato fruit are described. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory kinase WEE1 and the anaphase promoting complex activator CCS52A both participate in the control of cell size and the endoreduplication process driving cell expansion during early fruit development in tomato. Moreover the fruit-specific functional analysis of the tomato CDK inhibitor KRP1 reveals that cell size and fruit size determination can be uncoupled from DNA ploidy levels, indicating that endoreduplication acts rather as a limiting factor for cell growth. The overall functional data contribute to unravelling the physiological role of endoreduplication in growth induction of fleshy fruits.

  19. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown in several departments of Honduras, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. The symptoms include overall chlorosis, severe stunting, leaf cupping, excessive branching of axillary shoots, and leaf pu...

  20. Reevaluation of the changes in polygalacturonases in tomatoes during ripening.

    PubMed

    Pressey, R

    1988-04-01

    A procedure was developed for the differential extraction of polygalacturonases (PG) I and II from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Extraction of pericarp tissue from ripe fruit at conventional conditions of 1.0 M NaCl and pH 6.0 yielded nearly equal amounts of the two enzymes. However, most of the PG activity could be extracted also with water at pH 1.6, and the water extract contained only PG II. Subsequent extraction of the pellet with 1.0 M NaCl at pH 6.0 and 10.0 yielded some PG I and high levels of PG converter, the protein in tomatoes that reacts with PG II to form PG I. Application of this procedure to tomatoes at different stages of ripening showed that PG II appeared as ripening began and then increased during ripening. Much lower levels of PG I than of PG II were extracted at all stages of ripeness. The PG converter was present in unripe fruit and increased during ripening. The results demonstrate that PG I is formed when PG II and PG converter are solubilized simultaneously and that PG II is the only endogenous PG in tomatoes.

  1. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

    PubMed Central

    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  2. Teaching Principles of Linkage and Gene Mapping with the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, James A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A three-point linkage system in tomatoes is used to explain concepts of gene mapping, linking and statistical analysis. The system is designed for teaching the effective use of statistics, and the power of genetic analysis from statistical analysis of phenotypic ratios. (Author/SA)

  3. Multiple forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) was purified from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit to apparent homogeneity. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme migrated as two close bands with molecular weights of 50,000 and 51,000. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme, however, revealed at least five major protein spots that could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. Whereas all of the spots were recognized by the antiserum raised against tomato fruit AGP holoenzyme, only three of them reacted strongly with antiserum raised against the potato tuber AGP large subunit, and the other two spots (with lower molecular weights) reacted specifically with antisera raised against spinach leaf AGP holoenzyme and the potato tuber AGP small subunit. The results suggest the existence of at least three isoforms of the AGP large subunit and two isoforms of the small subunit in tomato fruit in vivo. The native molecular mass of the enzyme determined by gel filtration was 220 +/- 10 kD, indicating a tetrameric structure for AGP from tomato fruit. The purified enzyme is very sensitive to 3-phosphoglycerate/inorganic phosphate regulation.

  4. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  5. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, R E; Kramer, M; Hiatt, W R

    1988-12-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive synthesis of PG antisense RNA in transgenic plants resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of PG mRNA and enzymatic activity in ripening fruit. The steady-state levels of PG antisense RNA in green fruit of transgenic plants were lower than the levels of PG mRNA normally attained during ripening. However, analysis of transcription in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the antisense RNA construct was transcribed at a higher rate than the tomato PG gene(s). Analysis of fruit from transgenic plants demonstrated a reduction in PG mRNA and enzymatic activity of 70-90%. The reduction in PG activity did not prevent the accumulation of the red pigment lycopene.

  6. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved.

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of a Diversity Panel of Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At the USDA, ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) we have phenotypically characterized more than 2,000 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for which data are publically available on the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (http://www.ar...

  8. Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Restrepo, Silvia; Krumbein, Angelika; Franken, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and fruit quality parameters and their ability to diminish the impact of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae were investigated. While shoot biomass of young plants was enhanced between 10% and 20% by the endophytes DSE48 and L. orchidicola in one of two experiments and by DSE49 in both experiments, vegetative growth parameters of 24-week-old plants were not affected except a reproducible increase of root diameter by the isolate DSE49. Concerning fruit yield and quality, L. orchidicola could double the biomass of tomatoes and increased glucose content by 17%, but this was dependent on date of harvest and on root colonisation density. Additionally, the endophytes DSE49 and L. orchidicola decreased the negative effect of V. dahliae on tomato, but only at a low dosage of the pathogen. This indicates that the three dark septate endophytes can have a significant impact on tomato characters, but that the effects are only obvious at early stages of vegetative and generative development and currently too inconsistent to recommend the application of these DSEs in horticultural practice.

  9. Polymorphism among EST-based markers in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) has a narrow genetic base. This is in part due to population genetic processes such as founder events, genetic bottlenecks, and natural and artificial selection during domestication. We characterize the nucleotide polymorphism in 26 EST-based markers...

  10. Evaluation of mechanical tomato harvesting using wireless sensors.

    PubMed

    Arazuri, Silvia; Arana, Ignacio; Jaren, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The harvesting of processing tomatoes is fully mechanised and it is well known that during harvest, fruits are subjected to mechanical stress causing physical injuries, including skin punctures, pulp and cell rupture. Some wireless sensors have been used for research during recent years with the main purpose of reducing the quality loss of tomato fruits by diminishing the number and intensity of impacts. In this study the IRD (impact recorder device) sensor was used to evaluate several tomato harvesters. The specific objectives were to evaluate the impacts during mechanical harvest using a wireless sensor, to determine the critical points at which damage occurs, and to assess the damage levels. Samples were taken to determine the influence of mechanical harvest on texture, or on other quality characteristics including percentage of damages. From the obtained data it has been possible to identify the critical points where the damages were produced for each one of the five harvester models examined. The highest risk of damage was in zone 1 of the combine--from the cutting system to the colour selector--because the impacts were of higher intensity and hit less absorbing surfaces than in zone 2--from colour selector to discharge. The shaker and exit from the shaker are two of the harvester elements that registered the highest intensity impacts. By adjusting, in a specific way each harvester model, using the results from this research, it has been possible to reduce the tomato damage percentage from 20 to 29% to less than 10%.

  11. 75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... fiscal periods from $0.0375 to $0.0275 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...-10 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0375 to $0.0275 per 25- pound carton or equivalent of... 2008-09 season was approximately $8.13 per 25-pound carton, and total fresh shipments for the 2008-09...

  12. Teaching Principles of Linkage and Gene Mapping with the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, James A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A three-point linkage system in tomatoes is used to explain concepts of gene mapping, linking and statistical analysis. The system is designed for teaching the effective use of statistics, and the power of genetic analysis from statistical analysis of phenotypic ratios. (Author/SA)

  13. Genetic dissection of vitamin E biosynthesis in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Juliana; Quadrana, Leandro; Asís, Ramón; Setta, Nathalia; de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Otaiza, Santiago N.; Corrêa da Silva, Junia V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Rossi, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Vegetables are critical for human health as they are a source of multiple vitamins including vitamin E (VTE). In plants, the synthesis of VTE compounds, tocopherol and tocotrienol, derives from precursors of the shikimate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for α-tocopherol content in ripe fruit have previously been determined in an Solanum pennellii tomato introgression line population. In this work, variations of tocopherol isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) in ripe fruits of these lines were studied. In parallel all tomato genes structurally associated with VTE biosynthesis were identified and mapped. Previously identified VTE QTL on chromosomes 6 and 9 were confirmed whilst novel ones were identified on chromosomes 7 and 8. Integrated analysis at the metabolic, genetic and genomic levels allowed us to propose 16 candidate loci putatively affecting tocopherol content in tomato. A comparative analysis revealed polymorphisms at nucleotide and amino acid levels between Solanum lycopersicum and S. pennellii candidate alleles. Moreover, evolutionary analyses showed the presence of codons evolving under both neutral and positive selection, which may explain the phenotypic differences between species. These data represent an important step in understanding the genetic determinants of VTE natural variation in tomato fruit and as such in the ability to improve the content of this important nutriceutical. PMID:21527625

  14. Multiple forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) was purified from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit to apparent homogeneity. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme migrated as two close bands with molecular weights of 50,000 and 51,000. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme, however, revealed at least five major protein spots that could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. Whereas all of the spots were recognized by the antiserum raised against tomato fruit AGP holoenzyme, only three of them reacted strongly with antiserum raised against the potato tuber AGP large subunit, and the other two spots (with lower molecular weights) reacted specifically with antisera raised against spinach leaf AGP holoenzyme and the potato tuber AGP small subunit. The results suggest the existence of at least three isoforms of the AGP large subunit and two isoforms of the small subunit in tomato fruit in vivo. The native molecular mass of the enzyme determined by gel filtration was 220 +/- 10 kD, indicating a tetrameric structure for AGP from tomato fruit. The purified enzyme is very sensitive to 3-phosphoglycerate/inorganic phosphate regulation.

  15. Resistance in tomato and wild relatives to crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Hausbeck, M K

    2010-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici causes root, crown, and fruit rot of tomato, a major vegetable crop grown worldwide. The objective of this study was to screen tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato for resistance to P. capsici. Four P. capsici isolates were individually used to inoculate 6-week-old seedlings (1 g of P. capsici-infested millet seed per 10 g of soilless medium) of 42 tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato in a greenhouse. Plants were evaluated daily for wilting and death. All P. capsici isolates tested caused disease in seedlings but some isolates were more pathogenic than others. A wild relative of cultivated tomato, Solanum habrochaites accession LA407, was resistant to all P. capsici isolates tested. Moderate resistance to all isolates was identified in the host genotypes Ha7998, Fla7600, Jolly Elf, and Talladega. P. capsici was frequently recovered from root and crown tissue of symptomatic inoculated seedlings but not from leaf tissue or asymptomatic or control plants. The phenotype of the recovered isolate matched the phenotype of the inoculum. Pathogen presence was confirmed in resistant and moderately resistant tomato genotypes by species-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA from infected crown and root tissue. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms of tomato genotypes showed a lack of correlation between genetic clusters and susceptibility to P. capsici, indicating that resistance is distributed in several tomato lineages. The results of this study create a baseline for future development of tomato cultivars resistant to P. capsici.

  16. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed in hamsters fed with high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongyan; Bartley, Glenn E; Yokoyama, Wallace; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Ang

    2013-08-15

    The cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) were determined in male Golden Syrian hamsters. Hamsters fed high-fat diets containing 10% TSO or 18% DTS were compared to a diet containing 10% corn oil and 10% microcrystalline cellulose (control 1), 42% TP were compared to 25% microcrystalline cellulose (control 2). TP, TSO and DTS reduced hepatic total cholesterol (TC) content. DTS also lowered plasma TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Fecal excretion of lipid, bile acid and cholesterol increased in the DTS group compared to control 1. DTS-fed hamsters had higher levels of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP51, ABCB11, and ABCG5 gene expression than control, suggesting both hepatic bile acid and cholesterol synthesis increased due to increased fecal excretion of bile acid and cholesterol. The results suggest that protein, dietary fibre or phenolic compounds in DTS may be responsible for plasma cholesterol decrease.

  17. Peptide Aptamers That Bind to Geminivirus Replication Proteins Confer a Resistance Phenotype to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Mottle Virus Infection in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria Ines; Nash, Tara E.; Dallas, Mary M.; Ascencio-Ibáñez, J. Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses constitute a large family of single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious losses in important crops worldwide. They often exist in disease complexes and have high recombination and mutation rates, allowing them to adapt rapidly to new hosts and environments. Thus, an effective resistance strategy must be general in character and able to target multiple viruses. The geminivirus replication protein (Rep) is a good target for broad-based disease control because it is highly conserved and required for viral replication. In an earlier study, we identified a set of peptide aptamers that bind to Rep and reduce viral replication in cultured plant cells. In this study, we selected 16 of the peptide aptamers for further analysis in yeast two-hybrid assays. The results of these experiments showed that all 16 peptide aptamers interact with all or most of the Rep proteins from nine viruses representing the three major Geminiviridae genera and identified two peptide aptamers (A22 and A64) that interact strongly with different regions in the Rep N terminus. Transgenic tomato lines expressing A22 or A64 and inoculated with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus or Tomato mottle virus exhibited delayed viral DNA accumulation and often contained lower levels of viral DNA. Strikingly, the effect on symptoms was stronger, with many of the plants showing no symptoms or strongly attenuated symptoms. Together, these results established the efficacy of using Rep-binding peptide aptamers to develop crops that are resistant to diverse geminiviruses. PMID:23824791

  18. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ana I; Viron, Nicolas; Alhagdow, Moftah; Karimi, Mansour; Jones, Matthew; Amsellem, Ziva; Sicard, Adrien; Czerednik, Anna; Angenent, Gerco; Grierson, Donald; May, Sean; Seymour, Graham; Eshed, Yuval; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Rothan, Christophe; Hilson, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed to study Solanaceae, we initiated a joint collection of publicly available gene manipulation tools. We focused on the characterization of promoters expressed at defined time windows during fruit development, for the regulated expression or silencing of genes of interest. Five promoter sequences were captured as entry clones compatible with the versatile MultiSite Gateway format: PPC2, PG, TPRP, and IMA from tomato and CRC from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Corresponding transcriptional fusions were made with the GUS gene, a nuclear-localized GUS-GFP reporter, and the chimeric LhG4 transcription factor. The activity of the promoters during fruit development and in fruit tissues was confirmed in transgenic tomato lines. Novel Gateway destination vectors were generated for the transcription of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) precursors and hairpin RNAs under the control of these promoters, with schemes only involving Gateway BP and LR Clonase reactions. Efficient silencing of the endogenous phytoene desaturase gene was demonstrated in transgenic tomato lines producing a matching amiRNA under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or PPC2 promoter. Lastly, taking advantage of the pOP/LhG4 two-component system, we found that well-characterized flower-specific Arabidopsis promoters drive the expression of reporters in patterns generally compatible with heterologous expression. Tomato lines and plasmids will be distributed through a new Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre service unit dedicated to Solanaceae resources.

  19. Aucsia gene silencing causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Dani, Valeria; Spena, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In angiosperms, auxin phytohormones play a crucial regulatory role in fruit initiation. The expression of auxin biosynthesis genes in ovules and placenta results in uncoupling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development from fertilization with production of parthenocarpic fruits. We have identified two newly described genes, named Aucsia genes, which are differentially expressed in auxin-synthesis (DefH9-iaaM) parthenocarpic tomato flower buds. The two tomato Aucsia genes encode 53-amino-acid-long peptides. We show, by RNA interference-mediated gene suppression, that Aucsia genes are involved in both reproductive and vegetative plant development. Aucsia-silenced tomato plants exhibited auxin-related phenotypes such as parthenocarpic fruit development, leaf fusions, and reflexed leaves. Auxin-induced rhizogenesis in cotyledon explants and polar auxin transport in roots were reduced in Aucsia-silenced plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, Aucsia-silenced plants showed an increased sensitivity to 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. We further prove that total indole-3-acetic acid content was increased in preanthesis Aucsia-silenced flower buds. Thus, the data presented demonstrate that Aucsia genes encode a novel family of plant peptides that control fruit initiation and affect other auxin-related biological processes in tomato. Aucsia homologous genes are present in both chlorophytes and streptophytes, and the encoded peptides are distinguished by a 16-amino-acid-long (PYSGXSTLALVARXSA) AUCSIA motif, a lysine-rich carboxyl-terminal region, and a conserved tyrosine-based endocytic sorting motif.

  20. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza

  1. Mixed infection by two West African tomato-infecting begomoviruses and ageratum leaf curl Cameroon betasatellite in tomato in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Kvarnheden, Anders

    2014-11-01

    Begomovirus isolates ToF3B2 and ToF3B17 and betasatellite isolate SatBToF3 were obtained from the same infected tomato plant showing begomovirus disease symptoms in Fontem, Cameroon. The full-length nucleotide sequences of ToF3B2, ToF3B17 and SatBToF3 were cloned and sequenced and were determined to be 2,797 nt, 2,794 and 1,373 nt long respectively. When compared with other begomovirus and betasatellite sequences, ToF3B2 was 93.5 % identical to Tomato leaf curl Togo virus, ToF3B17 was 95 % identical to Tomato leaf curl Cameroon virus and SatBToF3 was 92 % identical to Ageratum leaf curl Cameroon betasatellite (ALCCMB), respectively. The identification of ALCCMB in Ageratum and now in tomato strongly suggests Ageratum may be an alternative host to these viruses and that ALCCMB is non host specific and may cause severe diseases when transmitted to other crops.

  2. A rapid seedling resistance assay identifies wild tomato lines that are resistant to Psuedomonas syringe pv. tomato race 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae has historically been controlled by the Pto/Prf gene cluster. Emerging strains like P. syringae pv. tomato race 1 overcome resistance conferred by Pto/Prf, and can cause serious crop loss under appropriate environmental conditions. We developed a rapid ...

  3. Tomato plant cell death induced by inhibition of HSP90 is alleviated by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena; Liu, Yule; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    To ensure a successful long-term infection cycle, begomoviruses must restrain their destructive effect on host cells and prevent drastic plant responses, at least in the early stages of infection. The monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) does not induce a hypersensitive response and cell death on whitefly-mediated infection of virus-susceptible tomato plants until diseased tomatoes become senescent. The way in which begomoviruses evade plant defences and interfere with cell death pathways is still poorly understood. We show that the chaperone HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) and its co-chaperone SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1) are involved in the establishment of TYLCV infection. Inactivation of HSP90, as well as silencing of the Hsp90 and Sgt1 genes, leads to the accumulation of damaged ubiquitinated proteins and to a cell death phenotype. These effects are relieved under TYLCV infection. HSP90-dependent inactivation of 26S proteasome degradation and the transcriptional activation of the heat shock transcription factors HsfA2 and HsfB1 and of the downstream genes Hsp17 and Apx1/2 are suppressed in TYLCV-infected tomatoes. Following suppression of the plant stress response, TYLCV can replicate and accumulate in a permissive environment. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon spp.) phylogenetic study: aligned genomic sequences for 47 markers used to analyze introgression in domesticated tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) is composed of 12 wild Solanum spp. and one domesticated (S. lycopersicum) taxon. Crop improvement for development of new cultivars and their spread to all regions of the globe has greatly relied on interspecific hybrid crosses with wild species taxa beginning i...

  5. Begomovirus diversity in tomato crops and weeds in Ecuador and the detection of a recombinant isolate of rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus infecting tomato.

    PubMed

    Paz-Carrasco, Lenin C; Castillo-Urquiza, Gloria P; Lima, Alison T M; Xavier, Cesar A D; Vivas-Vivas, Leticia M; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G; Zerbini, F Murilo

    2014-08-01

    Viral diseases caused by begomoviruses are of economic importance due to their adverse effects on the production of tropical and subtropical crops. In Ecuador, despite reports of significant infestations of Bemisia tabaci in the late 1990s, only very recently has a begomovirus, tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV, also present in Peru), been reported in tomato. ToLDeV is the first monopartite begomovirus discovered that originated in the Americas, and its presence in Ecuador highlights the need for a wider survey of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in this country. Tomato and weed samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 in six provinces of Ecuador, and begomovirus genomes were cloned and sequenced using a rolling-circle-amplification-based approach. Most tomato samples from the provinces of Guayas, Loja, Manabi and Santa Elena were infected with tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). One sample from Manabi had a triple infection with ToLDeV, rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus (RhGMYuV) and an isolate that was a recombinant between the two. A new begomovirus was detected in another tomato sample from Manabi. Samples of Rhynchosia sp. from the provinces of Guayas and Manabi were infected by RhGMYuV. These results indicate not only the prevalence of ToLDeV in tomato in Ecuador but also the presence of other viruses, albeit at a much lower frequency.

  6. Implications Of Host Plant Resistance Against Whitefly-Transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus In Tomato For Virus Epidemics And Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) severely impacts tomato production in southeastern USA. Growers typically spray insecticides against whiteflies and plant TYLCV-resistant genotypes. Semi-dominant genes such as TY-1 and TY-2 confer resistance to TYLCV. Resistant genotypes ar...

  7. The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.

    PubMed

    Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective

  8. Tracking and modeling norovirus transmission during mechanical slicing of globe tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Y Carol; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Fleischman, Gregory J; Li, Di; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-06-16

    Recent epidemiological evidence indicates that preparation of fresh produce for use as ingredients in ready-to-eat food in commercial settings has been a significant source of the norovirus (NoV) infections in the U.S. This research investigated the dissemination of NoV from a single tomato to many others via the use of an 11-horizontal blade slicer commonly found in restaurants or sandwich shops. A total of eight trials were conducted. The source of contamination in each trial was a soak-inoculated, air-dried globe tomato containing ~8log10 murine norovirus (MNV). Each trial began by slicing a single un-inoculated tomato in the slicer, followed by slicing an inoculated tomato. This was then followed by slicing 9 to 27 un-inoculated tomatoes. A similar and constant hand pressure on the slicer was used in every trial. Three slices from each tomato were collected for virus elution, concentration, and extraction before RT-PCR detection of MNV. The change in MNV per sliced tomato was averaged over all eight trials, and two mathematical models were fit to the average data using a logarithmic model or a power model. Regression analysis determined that the equation that best fit the data was y=-0.903∗ln(x)+7.945, where y=log10 MNV per slicing and x=tomato slicing number. An acceptable fit (R(2)=0.913) was indicated. The MNV levels transferred (y) generally decreased as the number of tomatoes sliced (x) increased, with some exceptions. Infrequent but erratic transfers, where the MNV level of a subsequent tomato was higher than that of a preceding tomato, occurred in later transfer of some trials. In contrast, the first and second transfers of each trial were always shown to have sharply decreased levels of MNV from the inoculum. The MNV log10 reduction per slicing event changes throughout the process: with a predicted 0.63log10 reduction from tomato 1 to tomato 2 (76% reduction); a 0.07log10 reduction predicted from tomato 13 to tomato 14 (a 14% reduction); and 0.03log10

  9. Diversity, Distribution, and Evolution of Tomato Viruses in China Uncovered by Small RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2017-06-01

    Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here, we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified, including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with cold spots and hot spots. Most samples were coinfected by multiple viruses, and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data have enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato, including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance, and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases.IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrients in the human diet and is extensively consumed around the world. Virus is among the major constraints on tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast-evolving biological entities. Here, we report the landscape of the tomato virome in China, the leading country in

  10. Protection of tomato seedlings against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by using the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Yoav; De-Bashan, Luz E

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato, and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were inoculated onto tomato plants, either alone, as a mixed culture, or consecutively. The population dynamics in the rhizosphere and foliage, the development of bacterial speck disease, and their effects on plant growth were monitored. When inoculated onto separate plants, the A. brasilense population in the rhizosphere of tomato plants was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the population of P. syringae pv. tomato (10(7) versus 10(5) CFU/g [dry weight] of root). Under mist chamber conditions, the leaf population of P. syringae pv. tomato was 1 order of magnitude greater than that of A. brasilense (10(7) versus 10(6) CFU/g [dry weight] of leaf). Inoculation of seeds with a mixed culture of the two bacterial strains resulted in a reduction of the pathogen population in the rhizosphere, an increase in the A. brasilense population, the prevention of bacterial speck disease development, and improved plant growth. Inoculation of leaves with the mixed bacterial culture under mist conditions significantly reduced the P. syringae pv. tomato population and significantly decreased disease severity. Challenge with P. syringae pv. tomato after A. brasilense was established in the leaves further reduced both the population of P. syringae pv. tomato and disease severity and significantly enhanced plant development. Both bacteria maintained a large population in the rhizosphere for 45 days when each was inoculated separately onto tomato seeds (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g [dry weight] of root). However, P. syringae pv. tomato did not survive in the rhizosphere in the presence of A. brasilense. Foliar inoculation of A. brasilense after P. syringae pv. tomato was established on the leaves did not alleviate bacterial speck disease, and A. brasilense did not survive well in the phyllosphere under these conditions, even in a mist chamber. Several

  11. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    PubMed

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  12. Carotenoid stability during production and storage of tomato juice made from tomatoes with diverse pigment profiles measured by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Diaz, Daniel E; Santos, Alejandra; Francis, David M; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2010-08-11

    Chemical changes in carotenoids and lipids were studied during production and storage of canned tomato juice using ATR infrared spectroscopy and HPLC. Samples from 10 groups of tomatoes with different carotenoid profiles were analyzed fresh, after hot-break and screening, after canning, and at five different time points during 1 year of storage. An apparent increase of carotenoids was observed after hot-break due to improved extraction efficiency. This increase was accompanied by some degree of lipid oxidation and carotenoid isomerization. Canning produced the most intense changes in the lipid profile with breakdown of triglycerides ( approximately 1743 cm(-1)), formation of fatty acids ( approximately 1712 cm(-1)), and degradation and isomerization of trans-carotenoids ( approximately 960 and approximately 3006 cm(-1)). Isomerization was corroborated by the relative increase of HPLC areas corresponding to carotenoid cis isomers. Canning reduced trans-lycopene, trans-delta-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and trans-lutein by 30, 34, 43, and 67%, respectively. HPLC data indicate that canning causes a drastic reduction of tetra-cis-lycopene and promotes its isomerization to other geometric forms, including all-trans-lycopene. Infrared spectra of tomato juice lipid fractions correlated well with the number of days in storage (SECV < 11 days, r values > 0.99), demonstrating continuous degradation of lipids. Results demonstrated that individual carotenoids and their isomeric forms behave differently during production and storage of canned tomato juice. Information collected by infrared spectroscopy complemented well that of HPLC, providing marker bands to further the understanding of chemical changes taking place during processing and storage of tomato juice.

  13. Fine mapping of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance gene Ty-2 on chromosome 11 of tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Caro, Myluska; Hutton, Samuel F; Scott, John W; Guo, Yanmei; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Rashid, Md Harunur; Szinay, Dora; de Jong, Hans; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Du, Yongchen

    2014-01-01

    Resistances to begomoviruses, including bipartite tomato mottle virus and monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have been introgressed to cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from wild tomato accessions. A major gene, Ty-2 from S. habrochaites f. glabratum accession "B6013," that confers resistance to TYLCV was previously mapped to a 19-cM region on the long arm of chromosome 11. In the present study, approximately 11,000 plants were screened and nearly 157 recombination events were identified between the flanking markers C2_At1g07960 (82.5 cM, physical distance 51.387 Mb) and T0302 (89 cM, 51.878 Mb). Molecular marker analysis of recombinants and TYLCV evaluation of progeny from these recombinants localized Ty-2 to an approximately 300,000-bp interval between markers UP8 (51.344 Mb) and M1 (51.645 Mb). No recombinants were identified between TG36 and C2_At3g52090, a region of at least 115 kb, indicating severe recombination suppression in this region. Due to the small interval, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis failed to clarify whether recombination suppression is caused by chromosomal rearrangements. Candidate genes predicted based on tomato genome annotation were analyzed by RT-PCR and virus-induced gene silencing. Results indicate that the NBS gene family present in the Ty-2 region is likely not responsible for the Ty-2-conferred resistance and that two candidate genes might play a role in the Ty-2-conferred resistance. Several markers very tightly linked to the Ty-2 locus are presented and useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to introgress Ty-2 for begomovirus resistance.

  14. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  15. Leucine aminopeptidase: an inducible component of the defense response in Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato).

    PubMed

    Pautot, V; Holzer, F M; Reisch, B; Walling, L L

    1993-11-01

    A leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) cDNA clone (DR57) that was induced in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (P.s. tomato) infection was isolated using a subtractive hybridization-enriched cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blot analysis showed that the tomato genome had two leucine aminopeptidase genes. The levels of DR57 mRNAs after P.s. tomato infection and mechanical wounding were determined in two inbred tomato lines that exhibit susceptibility and resistance to P.s. tomato. DR57 mRNAs were detected 12 hours after infection and 4 hours after wounding. Furthermore, DR57 mRNAs were systemically induced in response to wounding. DR57 mRNAs were induced in leaves after Spodoptera littoralis feeding but were not detected in detached leaf controls. Possible roles for the DR57 leucine aminopeptidase in the defense reactions are discussed.

  16. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  17. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

  18. Carotenoids in fresh and processed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits protect cells from oxidative stress injury.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Rita; Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Barone, Amalia; Monti, Daria Maria; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Lipophilic antioxidants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits exert important functions in reducing the risk of human diseases. Here the effect of thermal processing on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic extracts from the commercial tomato hybrid 'Zebrino' was analysed. Carotenoid content and lipophilic antioxidant activity were determined and the ability of tomato extracts in rescuing cells from oxidative stress was assessed. Lipophilic antioxidant activity was completely retained after heat treatment and extracts were able to mitigate the detrimental effect induced by oxidative stress on different cell lines. Lycopene alone was able to rescue cells from oxidative stress, even if to a lower extent compared with tomato extracts. These results were probably due to the synergistic effect of tomato compounds in protecting cells from oxidative stress injury. The current study provides valuable insights into the health effect of the dietary carotenoids present in fresh and processed tomato fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, Petra M; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2012-12-04

    Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance.

  20. Study on the oxidation process of tomato juice during storage by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin; Ye, Hongjian; Zhou, Ying; Niu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Xuesong

    2007-09-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy combined with several chemometrical techniques was investigated to study the oxidation process during storage in tomato juices. A total of 100 tomato juice samples were used for NIR spectroscopy analysis at 800-2400 nm using FT-NIR spectrometer. The spectrum of each tomato juice was collected twice: the first time as soon as the tomatoes were squeezed, centrifuged, filtered and the tomato juice had not undergone any oxidation process and the second measurement was taken after a month. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were applied to discriminate between the two groups of spectra. The results show that differences between tomato juices before and after the storage period do exist attributed to changes in certain compounds of juice and excellent classification can be obtained after optimizing spectral pretreatment.