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  1. Satisfaction of patients with directly observed treatment strategy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, Belete; Nkosi, Zethu Zerish

    2017-01-01

    Background Directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy has been a cornerstone for Tuberculosis (TB) control programs in developing countries. However, in Ethiopia satisfaction level of patients’ with TB with the this strategy is not well understood. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the satisfaction level of patients with TB with the DOTS. Method Explanatory sequential mixed method design was carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered questionnaire with 601 patients with TB who were on follow-up was employed in the quantitative approach. In the qualitative approach telephonic-interview with 25 persons lost to follow-up and focus group discussions with 23 TB experts were conducted. Result Sixty seven percent of respondent was satisfied with the DOTS. Rural residency (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6, 7.6), having TB symptoms (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.94) and treatment supporter (AOR = 4.3, 95%CI 2.7, 6.8) were associated with satisfaction with DOTS. In qualitative finding, all persons lost to follow-up were dissatisfied while TB experts enlightened lack of evidence to affirm the satisfaction level of patients with DOTS. Explored factors contributing to satisfaction include: on time availability of health care providers, DOTS service delivery process, general condition of health care facilities, nutritional support and transportation. Conclusion DOTS is limited to satisfy patients with TB and lacks a consistent system that determines the satisfaction level of patients with TB. Therefore, DOTS strategy needs to have a system to captures patients’ satisfaction level to respond on areas that need progress to improve DOTS service quality. PMID:28182754

  2. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  3. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  4. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58–2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  5. Perceived sufficiency and usefulness of IEC materials and methods related to HIV/AIDS among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cherie, Amsale; Mitkie, Getenet; Ismail, Shabbir; Berhane, Yemane

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the perceived sufficiency and usefulness of HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) messages and materials as well as to identify preferences for IEC sources and methods. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. A total of 901 students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, participated in the study. Over three quarters of the respondents believed in the usefulness of IEC. IEC materials were perceived to be useful in increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS by 456 (51%), to influence attitude by 357 (40%) and to acquire safer sexual practices by 382 (42%) of the respondents. None of the information sources and messages available for high school students highly satisfied the sufficiency indicators. Even though no single information source was highly preferred, radio and television ranked top. Life skills training was the most desired intervention by the students. IEC on HIV/AIDS was able to acquaint students with the disease rather than equipping them with knowledge and skill needed in their daily life. Therefore, appropriate and mutually reinforcing IEC messages with emphasis on life skill training are recommended.

  6. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  7. Perception and management of tuberculosis symptoms in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sagbakken, Mette; Frich, Jan C; Bjune, Gunnar A

    2008-10-01

    Management of early tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and adherence to medical treatment are main challenges in controlling TB. The aim of this study is to explore how symptoms of TB are perceived and managed, from the onset of symptoms and during the course of treatment, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. We conducted a qualitative interview study, including 50 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups, with TB patients, their relatives, and health personnel. We found that a patient's perceptions and self-treatment of early symptoms could cause diagnostic delay. Stigma associated with TB and public health services made many patients approach private clinics, causing further delay. Both private and public clinics often labeled and managed symptoms according to lay explanatory models. Lack of adequate knowledge about TB's etiology and cure caused patients to continue relating to symptoms by reference to their own understanding. This affected patients' ability to manage TB and its treatment.

  8. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  9. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, H.; Tefera, M.; Tesfaye, A.; Klinkenberg, E.; Yimer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Ethiopia is one of the high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. Efforts by the National TB Programme to control MDR-TB include expanding ambulatory care. Objective: To investigate the opportunities and challenges faced by treatment follow-up health centres (TFCs) when managing MDR-TB patients, with greater focus on recording, TB infection control (IC) and supervision practices. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records of all MDR-TB cases in all 25 TFCs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The TB focal point, pharmacy and laboratory heads were also interviewed. Result: A total of 221 MDR-TB patients were registered; 157 (71%) patients had been referred from one of the two treatment initiating centres. While some TFCs oversaw up to 41 patients, others had just one patient. The majority of the TFCs (n = 21, 84%) followed standardised TB IC procedures. Poor documentation of patient information was observed at all sites; for example, human immunodeficiency virus and current treatment status was not indicated for respectively 86 (38%) and 41 (18%) patients. Conclusion: The study revealed that infection prevention practices were largely adhered to. Documentation of patient-related information was a major challenge, and regular supervision of the TFCs should be emphasised. Record keeping is critical. PMID:26478512

  10. Quantifying Entrepreneurial Networks: Data Collection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-10

    to have an enjoyable break when Ayib, Alem, and I ate a traditional lunch at a local cafe and then we had coffee at a student coffee hangout located...lunch in the Piazza area of Addis Ababa with my guides. We ate at a traditional cafe that was really a butcher with the fresh sides of beef displayed

  11. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Primiparous Mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Anteneh Girma; Ganga-Limando, Makombo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. Objectives The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers during their prenatal period in terms of intentions/goals, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and socio-structural factors and assess their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices as well as identify the social-cognitive predictors of EBF practices among these mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A prospective follow up health facility-based study with quantitative methods was used with a sample of 233 primiparous women. Both structured and semi-structured questions were used for collection of data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for data analysis. Findings at the 95% confidence interval and P-value of 5% were reported as statistically significant. Results 39.1% (n = 59) of the respondents were found to have high breastfeeding self-efficacy, 51.4% (n = 71) have good breastfeeding outcome expectancies, and 6.5% (n = 9) respondents had supportive breastfeeding socio-structural factors. Bivariate correlation analysis showed positive and statistically significant correlation between each of breastfeeding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and socio-structural factors, with EBF practice. However, only breastfeeding self-efficacy and outcome expectancies were statistically significant predictors of EBF among the primiparous women when controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions and Recommendations Health programmes aimed at improving EBF among primiparous mothers should look beyond providing health information alone. Rather improving

  12. Infection Control Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Healthcare Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614

  13. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  14. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of affective disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. The lifetime prevalence for specific affective disorders was as follows: bipolar disorders 0.3%, depressive episodes 2.7%, recurrent depressive episodes 0.2%, and persistent mood disorders 1.6%. The weighted lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was 5.0% (women 7.7% and men 3.2%). One-month prevalence was 3.8% (women 5.9% and men 2.3%). After adjusting for several potential confounders, the risk of affective disorders was only 29% higher in women compared to men. This difference in risk was not statistically significant. Age was also not associated with risk of affective disorders. On the other hand, education was associated with the risk of disorder, the risk decreasing with increasing educational attainment. This inverse trend was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.02). The risk was also 37% lower in the employed than the unemployed: Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.39, 1.01). There were no statistically significant associations between affective disorders and marital status or ethnicity.

  15. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006–2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Methodology Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36–12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001–0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48–40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01–11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53–20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38–50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37–22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from

  16. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  17. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Gebru; Fentaw, Surafael; Mihret, Amete; Hassen, Mulu; Abebe, Engida

    2016-01-01

    Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1%) were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1%)) was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%)). More than 58 (75%) of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs). Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8%) Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5%) E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials. PMID:27446213

  18. The consequence of delayed neurosurgical care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, David W; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Cadotte, Adam; Bernstein, Mark; Munie, Tadios; Freidberg, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH) is the major teaching hospital for Addis Ababa University and the only tertiary referral hospital for neurosurgery in Ethiopia. We explore the consequence of delayed treatment by examining the current system in place for treating patients and the wait times experienced by patients. A retrospective chart review was carried out on patients who received a neurosurgical operation at TAH between January 1 and June 30, 2007. We divided patients into those requiring an elective procedure and those requiring emergency surgical care. Based on data entered in the chart, we determined the length of time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation and the time from consultation to receiving an operation. Selective cases were chosen to illustrate the effects of delayed care. A total of 172 neurosurgical operations were performed between January 1 and June 30, 2007, at TAH. Of these, 107 (62.2%) charts were available for retrospective review. Fifty-six elective cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation was 185 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 44 days. Fifty-one trauma/emergency surgical cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset or traumatic event to neurosurgical consultation was 3 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 1 day. Delayed neurosurgical care comes with a high personal and social cost. By measuring the time from diagnosis to treatment and taking note of institutional practices, changes can be initiated to improve patient waiting times.

  19. Poverty, sexual experience and HIV vulnerability risks: evidence from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sori, Assefa Tolera

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and vulnerability to HIV infection in Ethiopia using primary (quantitative and qualitative) and secondary data from two sub-cities of Addis Ababa. The data show that sexual experience is influenced by diverse factors such as age, gender, economic status and education level. Household economic status and migration explain the nature of sexual experience and level of vulnerability to HIV infection. Poor uneducated women in poor neighbourhoods are more likely to engage in risky sexual encounters despite awareness about the risk of HIV infection as they operate in an environment that provides the 'path of least resistance' (Lindegger & Wood, 1995, p. 7). This article argues that poverty provides a situation where early sexual initiation, 'transactional sex' and an inability to negotiate for safer sex are associated with low income, lack of education and increased vulnerability to HIV infection. This vulnerability is simultaneously contested and accepted as a commitment to even sacrifice one's life for the sake of one's loved ones. As a modest contribution to the 'structural violence' approach, which emphasizes social inequalities based on gender, class, ethnicity and race and inequalities in terms of exposure to risk and access to health care (Massé, 2007), this article challenges the 'African promiscuity' discourse, which 'does not permit policymakers to think beyond sex' (Stillwaggon, 2006, p. 156), and encourages researchers and policymakers to ask the right questions to understand the complexity of HIV/AIDS and seek solutions to the pandemic.

  20. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Conclusion Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by

  1. "Sexual Violence Is Not Good for Our Country's Development". Students' Interpretations of Sexual Violence in a Secondary School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mat, Marielle L. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…

  2. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  3. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Adenager, Getinet Shewaseged; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Asefa, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%), 233 (54.8%), and 262 (61.6%) of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5)] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4)] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70)] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94)], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care. PMID:28348887

  4. The conceptions of care among family caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aga, Fekadu; Kylmä, Jari; Nikkonen, Merja

    2009-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study explores and describes the conceptions of care among family caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality is the conceptual anchor of this ethnographic study. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 6 key informants and 12 general informants were interviewed in their home in Amharic language. Data were analyzed in Amharic using Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis for qualitative data and then translated to English. Four major themes representing family caregivers' conceptions of care were identified: nourishing the PLWA while struggling with poverty, maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene of the person and surroundings, comforting the PLWA, and sacrificing self to sustain the PLWA. Valuable data were gathered about the family caregivers' conceptions of care. Nurses can use this knowledge to design and provide culturally congruent care to family caregivers and PLWAs in the community.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Malaria Microscopists at Defense Health Facilities in Addis Ababa and Its Surrounding Areas, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nega, Desalegn; Tasew, Geremew; Taye, Bineyam; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood film microscopy is the gold standard approach for malaria diagnosis, and preferred method for routine patient diagnosis in health facilities. However, the inability of laboratory professionals to correctly detect and identify malaria parasites microscopically leads to an inappropriate administration of anti-malarial drugs to the patients and incorrect findings in research areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of laboratory professionals in malaria diagnosis in health facilities under the Defense Health Main Department in Addis Ababa and its surroundings, Ethiopia. Method A cross sectional study was conducted from June to July 2015. Totally, 60 laboratory professionals out of the selected 16 health facilities were included in the study. Data were collected by distributing standardized pre-validated malaria slide-panels and self-administered questionnaires among professionals, onsite in each study facility. Sensitivity, specificity, and strength of agreement (with kappa score) in performance among the study participants against WHO-certified expert malaria microscopists were calculated. Result Of the 60 study participants, 8.3% (5/60) correctly read all the distributed slides in terms of parasite detection, species identification and parasite counting; whereas, each of the remaining 55(91.7%) interpreted at least two slides incorrectly. The overall sensitivity and specificity of participants’ performance in detection of malaria parasites were 65.7% and 100%, respectively. Overall, fair agreement (71.4%; Kappa: 0.4) in detection of malaria parasite was observed between the study subjects and expert readers. The overall sensitivity and specificity of participants in species identification of malaria parasites were respectively 41.3% and 100%. Overall, slight agreement (51.1%; kappa: 0.04) in identification of malaria species was observed. Generally, agreement was lower in parasite detection and species identification at low

  6. Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

    2006-01-01

    Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

  7. The Practice of Student Assessment: The Case of College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soromessa, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…

  8. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Waja, Tsegereda; Ebrahim, Jemal; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60%) were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69]), not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39]), availability of house (AOR =2.04, [1.10, 3.78]), taking carbamazepine (AOR =2.38, [1.13, 5.01]), and drinking alcohol to find relief from stress (AOR =4.28, [1.89, 9.67]) were significantly associated with alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy. Conclusion and recommendation The findings of this

  9. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Smear positive TB patients living with children attending daily observed treatment at the TB clinic and health care workers providing service were approached to address the study objective. Structured questionnaires were administered to smear positive index cases living with children whether they were requested to bring children age five year and below for TB screening and to health care providers in HIV, TB and child health clinics to assess their knowledge and practice on contact screening and management. Double data entry and analysis was done using EpiData software 3.1. In 27 health centres, 688 smear-positive index tuberculosis patients were approached of whom 203 (29.5%) reported to have children five years and below in their household. A total of 48 (23.6%) index cases had been requested by the health care workers to bring their children for tuberculosis screening and 45 (93.8%) had complied with this request. Of 230 children living with index smear positive tuberculosis patient, 152 (66.1%) were not screened for tuberculosis, 78 (33.9%) children screened, 2 had tuberculosis, 76 screened negative of which 3 (3.8%) received preventive treatment. None of the health care workers indicated to routinely record and report on child contact management. Household child contact screening and preventive intervention was sub-optimal in Addis Ababa. An important opportunity lost to prevent tuberculosis in young children. Training of health care workers, availing simple symptom based screening tool, and proper documentation could improve implementation.

  10. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Methods Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Results Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Conclusion Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy. PMID:26889317

  11. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated. PMID:22958880

  12. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  13. Food insecurity and mental health: surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks.

  14. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  16. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. I. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    We report here on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994 to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and severe cognitive disorders. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. Weighted lifetime and one-month prevalence were 0.4% and 0.3%, for schizophrenia, and 0.5% and 0.4% for schizoaffective disorders, respectively. The prevalence of severe cognitive disorders was found to be 2.6%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the risk of lifetime psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar disorders, and depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms) was significantly higher in the age group 25-44 years compared to the reference age group of 15-24 years: adjusted Odds Ratio and 95% confidence interval, OR (95% CI) = 2.41 (1.01, 5.74); it was also significantly higher in the never married group compared to those married: OR (95% CI) = 3.01 (1.08, 8.42). The risk was significantly lower in the employed compared to the unemployed: OR (95% CI) = 0.42 (0.18, 1.00). There was a statistically significant trend of increasing risk of severe cognitive disorders with increasing age. The trend was in the reverse direction for educational status, the risk decreasing significantly with increasing educational attainment.

  17. The contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2%) efficacy, 109 (35.6%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0%) cost and 6 (2.0%) dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%), young age (20-40 years, 65.0%), never married (56.9%), orthodox (73.9%), Amhara (52.3%), educational status above grade 12 (34.6%) and government employees (29.4%) were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based apprenticeship was the

  18. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. III. Neurotic and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime and point (one-month) prevalence of phobic anxiety, dissociative, other anxiety and somatoform disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. Phobic anxiety disorders were found to be the most common of all anxiety disorders, with lifetime prevalence of 4.8%. The lifetime prevalence for dissociative disorders was 0.8% and for other anxiety disorders it was 2.7%. The prevalence of somatoform disorders was 3.1%. The lifetime prevalence for all the above neurotic and somatoform disorders was 10.8%. Point prevalence estimates (percent) for the disorders were as follows: phobic anxiety disorders, 4.4; other anxiety disorders, 1.2; dissociative disorders, 0.4; and somatoform disorders, 2.5. After adjusting for several potential confounders, women had over a two-fold risk of having neurotic and somatoform disorders compared to men, odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.38 (1.78, 3.12). Age was also inversely associated with the disorders. Those aged 60 and above had a 60% lower risk compared to those aged 15-24 years, OR (95% CI): 0.41 (0.20, 0.81). The 25% decreased risk for the employed, compared to the unemployed, was also not statistically significant. Education, marital status, and ethnicity were not significantly associated with neurotic and somatoform disorders.

  19. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting. PMID:24967300

  20. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  1. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tibebu, Abel; Mengistu, Daniel; Negesa, Lemma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN). The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence. Objective This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were ana-lyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016. Results The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52%) were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents. Conclusion The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle modifications and ongoing support for patients should be designed and studies which assess all the components of self-management should be conducted for comparison among different subgroups. PMID:28280305

  2. Review paper on research ethics in Ethiopia: experiences and lessons learnt from Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Addissie, Adamu; Wamisho, Biruk L; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Health research in Ethiopia is increasing both in volume and type, accompanied with expansion of higher education and research since the past few years. This calls for a proportional competence in the governance of medical research ethics in Ethiopia in the respective research and higher learning institutes. The paper highlights the evolution and progress ofthe ethics review at Addis Ababa University - College of Health Sciences (AAU-CHS) in the given context of health research review system in Ethiopia. Reflections are made on the key lessons to be drawnfrom the formative experiences of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and their implications to the Ethiopian health research review system. This article is a review paper based on review of published and un published documents on research ethics in Ethiopia and the AAU-CHS (2007-2012). Thematic summaries of review findings are presented in thematic areas - formation of ethics review and key factors in the evolution of ethics review and implications. The IRB at AAU-CHS has been pivotal in providing review and follow-up for important clinical studies in Ethiopia. It has been one of the first IRBs to get WHO/SIDCER recognition from Africa and Ethiopia. Important factors in the successes of the IRB among others included leadership commitment, its placement in institutional structure, and continued capacity building. Financial challenges and sustainability issues need to be addressed for the sustained gains registered so far. Similar factors are considered important for the new and younger IRBs within the emergent Universities and research centers in the country.

  3. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fiseha, D; Kumssa, H; Tefera, M; Tesfaye, A; Klinkenberg, E; Yimer, G

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : L'Ethiopie est l'un des pays durement frappés par la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). Les efforts du programme national de lutte contre la TB pour contrôler la TB-MDR incluent l'expansion des soins ambulatoires.Objectif : Etudier les opportunités et les défis affrontés par les centres de santé qui suivent le traitement des patients (TFC) dans la prise en charge de patients atteints de TB-MDR avec un accent sur la tenue des dossiers, la lutte contre l'infection tuberculeuse et les pratiques de supervision.Méthodes : Une étude transversale a été réalisée dans des centres de santé grâce à une revue des dossiers de tous les cas de TB-MDR dans les 25 TFC à Addis Ababa, Ethiopie. Le point focal TB, le chef de service de la pharmacie et du laboratoire ont également été interviewés.Résultats: Un total de 221 patients TB-MDR ont été inscrits ; 157 (71%) patients ont été transférés de l'un des deux centres de mise en route du traitement. Si certains TFC ont suivi jusqu'à 41 patients, d'autres n'ont vu qu'un patient. La majorité des TFC (n = 21, 84%) ont suivi les procédures standardisées de lutte contre l'infection TB. Dans tous les sites, on a observé une documentation insuffisante des informations relatives aux patients. Le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le traitement en cours n'étaient, par exemple, pas indiqués pour 86 (38%) et 41 (18%) patients, respectivement.Conclusion : L'étude a révélé que les pratiques de prévention de l'infection étaient largement observées. Le principal défi résidait en la documentation des informations relatives aux patients ; la supervision régulière des TFC devrait également être renforcée. La bonne tenue des dossiers est cruciale.

  4. Diabetes mellitus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: admissions, complications and outcomes in a large referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, M; Harries, A D; Ade, S; Tayler-Smith, K; Ali, E; Firdu, N; Yifter, H

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Hôpital de référence du Black Lion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter les indications d’admission, les complications et le devenir des patients atteints de diabète (DM) admis à l’hôpital entre 2010 et 2013.Schéma : Etude descriptive rétrospective sur dossiers médicaux.Résultats : Sur 8048 admissions, 523 (6,5%) avaient un DM et parmi eux, 418 dossiers médicaux ont été retrouvés : 301 (72%) patients avaient un DM de type 2 et 104 (28%) avaient un DM de type 1 ; les hommes (62%) et les personnes âgées (âge médian 60 ans) étaient caractéristiques du type 2. Les diagnostics d’admission les plus fréquents du type 2 étaient l’ulcère diabétique du pied (39%) et les problèmes cardiovasculaires (21%), et celui du type 1, l’acidocétose diabétique (62%). L’hypertension, les neuropathies, les néphropathies, la rétinopathie et le pied diabétique représentaient 85% des 756 complications existantes. La mortalité totale des patients admis a été de 21%. Sur ces 89 décès, 77 patients étaient de type 2 avec comme indications principales d’admission l’ulcère diabétique du pied/la gangrène et les problèmes cardiovasculaires.Conclusion : Le DM, surtout de type 2, est une cause importante d’admission dans le plus grand hôpital de référence du pays. De nombreux patients avaient déjà développé des complications liées au DM lors de l’admission, et la mortalité a été élevée. Il est nécessaire d’améliorer la connaissance et les soins relatifs au DM en Ethiopie.

  5. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  6. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  7. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  8. Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Woreta, Seblewangel Ayalew; Mati, Komi Agbemavi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15-49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities.

  9. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ(2) tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Turago, Muluken Gizaw; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most serious acute complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with T1D. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D in Addis Ababa. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Children below the age of 12 years with DKA who were admitted to the pediatric ward in the selected hospitals between January 2009 and December 2014 and the residence of Addis Ababa were included. DKA was defined as children below the age of 12 years who have blood glucose level ≥250mg/dl, ketonuria, and ketonemia and diagnosed being T1D patient for the first time. Descriptive statistics was performed using frequency distribution, mean, median, tables, and graphs. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with the prevalence of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Results Of 395 DKA patients who were hospitalized during the five-year period, 142(35.8%) presented with DKA at first diagnosis of diabetes. On the other hand 253 (64.2%) children with DKA had longstanding T1D. Independent factors associated with DKA include: Age category 2–4.49years, 7–9.49 years and ≥9.5years (Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 3.14[1.21,8.06]), 3.44(1.39,8.49) and 4.02(1.68,9.60), respectively); parents’ knowledge on the sign and symptoms of DKA (AOR = 0.51[0.27, 0.95]); sign and symptoms of DKA before the onset of DKA (AOR = 0.35[0.21, 0.59]) and infection prior to DKA onset (AOR = 3.45[1.97, 6.04]). Conclusions The overall proportion of children diagnosed with DKA and new onset of T1D in Addis Ababa was high. In particular, children between 9–12 years of age and children whose parents did not know the sign and symptoms of DKA had a high risk of DKA at primary diagnosis of T1D. PMID:28135278

  11. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  12. Standardization Techniques for Grade-Inflation Problems at Higher Educational Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassahun, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…

  13. Towards New Ventures in Education. Workshop on Nonformal Education (Yared Music School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 18, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neqniq, Ato Million

    The major responsibility of this workshop on nonformal education is to establish some prototypes of community training activities which will coordinate with the agricultural and health components of Ethiopia's Fourth Five Year Plan for rural development and which can later be reproduced in the countryside. Linking education to overall development…

  14. Co-Creating a Psychiatric Resident Program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent…

  15. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  16. Use of treated wastewater for managed aquifer recharge in highly populated urban centers: a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu; Sulieman, Hameed; Ayalew, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Fast population growth and rapid industrialization, on one hand, and lack of sewerage network and poor living condition, on the other, have led to the deterioration of surface and ground water quality in the city of Addis Ababa. The urban wastewater is discharged largely into streams that drain the city. Only less than 3% join the wastewater treatment facilities. Due to sporadic rainfall that causes shortage in groundwater recharge, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) experiment was tested on soil column collected from Akaki Well Field which is located in the southern part of the city using water from the Big Akaki River that crosses the same well field and effluent from Kaliti Wastewater Treatment Plant. Water quality analysis for 17 different parameters was done for both the inflow and outflow water samples and soils were tested for electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. The results indicate improved water quality as a result of higher attenuation/filtration capacity of the vadose zone in the well field due to the presence of vertisols. The main geochemical processes that have acted in the soil column could be cation exchange, dissolution, precipitation, oxidation, nitrification, die off etc. that are responsible for the effectiveness of vadose zone for MAR.

  17. Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Workagegn, Fikremariam; Kiros, Getachew; Abebe, Lakew

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) voluntary counseling test (VCT) use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001), but interviewees with high perceived self-efficacy were 1.9 times more likely to use HIV-test (AOR =1.90, CI [1.09–3.33], P<0.05). Conclusion and recommendation This study identifies perceived

  18. Determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries in Ethiopia: a case of Addis Ababa and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Habtamu Regassa; Singh, Rajwinder; Kaur, Navjot

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of different business activities among units becomes vital as organizations pay much attention to their core activities. Thus, their fruitfulness constantly relies on their capacity to coordinate their internal and external activities in the supply chain outside their own boundaries. Giving consideration to these obvious reasons, this paper aims to investigate the determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries. The data were collected from 330 milk suppliers, processors, and retailers in the central part of Ethiopia. The structural equation modeling has been employed to develop the structural relationship between key constructs and measured variables. In total, 15 measured variables for coordination in the supply chain have been identified. These are further grouped into four factors namely, non-price coordination, price coordination, relationships and product development decision. It has been observed that the implementation of these factors could maximize the coordination linkage among supply chain members. Thus, dairy sectors should take the identified coordination factors into account in each of their business dealings.

  19. Relation between Tenth Grade Students' Attitude and Components of Attitude in Algebra with Algebra Achievement of Addis Ababa Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atnafu, Mulugeta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the attitudes and components of attitude of the students towards algebra with their algebra achievements. The population for this study consists of all government tenth grade students and their mathematics teachers in Addis Ababa city administration. Sixteen tenth grade sections were…

  20. Assessment of laboratory logistics management information system practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in selected public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. Results There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Conclusion Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping

  1. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Siranesh; Debencho, Nigussie; Kisi, Teresa; Tareke, Minale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71), repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50), history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88), longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87), and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98) were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. PMID:26904586

  2. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763

  3. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Blood Culture Isolates among Septicemia Suspected Children in Selected Hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Negussie, Adugna; Mulugeta, Gebru; Bedru, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Shimeles, Damte; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood stream infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The emerging of causative agents and resistance to various antimicrobial agents are increased from time to time. The main aim of this study was to determine the bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among children suspected of having septicemia. Methods A cross sectional study involved about 201 pediatric patients (≤ 12 years) was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 at pediatric units of TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital and Yekatit 12 Hospital. Standard procedure was followed for blood sample collection, isolate identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Among 201 study subjects 110 (54.7%) were males. Majority 147 (73.1%) of them were neonates (≤ 28 days). The mean length of hospital stay before sampling was 4.29 days. Out of the 201 tested blood samples, blood cultures were positive in 56 (27.9%).Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria constituted 29(51.8%) and 26(46.4%), respectively. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus 13 (23.2%), followed by Serratia marcescens 12(21.4%), CoNS 11(19.6%), klebsiella spp 9(16%) and Salmonella spp 3(5.4%). Majority of bacterial isolates showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Gentamicin and Tetracycline which commonly used in the study area. Conclusion Majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant. These higher percentages of multi-drug resistant emerged isolates urge us to take infection prevention measures and to conduct other large studies for appropriate empiric antibiotic choice. PMID:26997847

  4. Is Climate Chang Responsible to Recent Urban Flooding in Devloping Cities in Africa? A Case study of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Semu; Raschid-Sally, Liqa; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2013-04-01

    Cities in Africa show extraordinary expansion of the built environment and imperviousness of the surface condition. Addis Ababa is a case in point, where over the priod of 1984 to 2002, the city asphalted area has increased from 4.72 sq.km (1984) to 27.7 sq.km (2002). Similarly the paved area has expanded five fold from the original 11.1 sq.km, whilst the built environment expanded from 60.1 to 212.7 sq.km. Using hydrological modeling, we demonstrated due to the surface condition change, runoff generation potential has shown significant increase from 28% (in 1984) to 45% (in 2002), showing over 60% change in the runoff volume. The changing condition of the surface is increasing anabtedly, worsening the flooding condition. Similarly, climate change study shows likely increase of precipitation in and around Addis Ababa by about 13 to 17% and comparative increase in flooding. Unlike many cities in Europe, cities in developing countries are confronted with impact emanating from climate change as well as surface condition change. The impact of flooding caused due to the expansion of built environment is found to be more significant in the short term that the climate change, however, the climate change may dominate the long term future of flooding pattern as cities mature towards 2050. Therefore, It is important to view the impacts expansion of built environment and climate change in tandem in future time horizon since the dominance of the impact is different in different temporal scale. In the case of Addis Ababa, we strongly present the following four suggesions: i) the city adminstration re-estabilish the abandoned flood and drainage department of the city as the main flood regulatory and management body working in tandem with Addis Ababa Roads Authority, Water Supply and Sanitation Authority and Urban Planning Authority; ii) The old design guidlines for palnning and design of urban drainage system is not working any more (assumed stationarity condition), we suggest

  5. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  6. Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

    2014-08-01

    Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses.

  7. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Abe; Kemal, Jelalu; Alemayehu, Haile; Habte Mariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  8. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Abe; Alemayehu, Haile

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:27660816

  9. Selected micronutrient levels and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, Amare; Tsegaye, Aster; Petros, Beyene

    2014-12-01

    Poor micronutrient levels are associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS and are also suggested to influence outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), though existing data are inconclusive to support the latter. Few published data are available on micronutrient levels in Ethiopian HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART. The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P = 0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retinol levels in quartile 4 had a significantly lower mean CD4(+) T cell count compared to quartile 3 (P = 0.02). The significantly higher CD4(+) T cell counts in patients who were non-deficient in retinol imply the role of retinol in improving the production of CD4(+) T cells. However, both lower and higher retinol levels were associated with suppressed immunity (CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3)), suggesting an adverse effect of higher retinol levels. Thus, retinol may be potentially harmful depending on the dose, emphasizing the need for optimized level of retinol in nutrient supplements in patients taking HAART.

  10. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation.

  11. Road Traffic Deaths and Injuries Are Under-Reported in Ethiopia: A Capture-Recapture Method

    PubMed Central

    Abegaz, Teferi; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Assrat, Abebe; Assefa, Abebayehu

    2014-01-01

    In low and middle income countries road traffic injuries are commonly under-reported. This problem is significantly higher among those less severely injured road users. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the level of ascertainment of road traffic injuries and deaths by traffic police and hospital registry. In this study two-sample capture-recapture method was applied using data from traffic police and hospital injury surveillance, through June 2012 to May 2013. The study was conducted on one of the busiest highways in Ethiopia, the Addis Ababa – Hawassa highway. Primary data were collected by accident investigators and hospital emergency nurses using a structured checklist. Four matching variables; name of the victim, sex, place and time of the accidents was used to get the matched cases. During the study period the police independently reported 224 deaths and 446 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer while hospitals reported 123 deaths and 1,046 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Both sources in common captured 73 deaths and 248 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Taking the two data sources into consideration, the capture-recapture model estimated the incidence of deaths and injuries ranged 368–390 and 1,869–1,895 per billion vehicle kilometer, respectively. The police source captured 57.4%–60.9% of deaths and 23.5%–23.9% of injuries while the hospital sources captured 31.5%–33.4% of deaths and 55.2%–56% of injuries. Deaths and injuries among females, younger age victims, cyclists/motorcyclists and pedestrians were under-reported by traffic police. In conclusion neither of the two sources independently provided accurate coverage of road traffic incident related deaths and injuries. Strengthening both systems is necessary to obtain accurate information on road accidents and human causalities. PMID:25054440

  12. Road traffic deaths and injuries are under-reported in Ethiopia: a capture-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Abegaz, Teferi; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Assrat, Abebe; Assefa, Abebayehu

    2014-01-01

    In low and middle income countries road traffic injuries are commonly under-reported. This problem is significantly higher among those less severely injured road users. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the level of ascertainment of road traffic injuries and deaths by traffic police and hospital registry. In this study two-sample capture-recapture method was applied using data from traffic police and hospital injury surveillance, through June 2012 to May 2013. The study was conducted on one of the busiest highways in Ethiopia, the Addis Ababa - Hawassa highway. Primary data were collected by accident investigators and hospital emergency nurses using a structured checklist. Four matching variables; name of the victim, sex, place and time of the accidents was used to get the matched cases. During the study period the police independently reported 224 deaths and 446 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer while hospitals reported 123 deaths and 1,046 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Both sources in common captured 73 deaths and 248 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Taking the two data sources into consideration, the capture-recapture model estimated the incidence of deaths and injuries ranged 368-390 and 1,869-1,895 per billion vehicle kilometer, respectively. The police source captured 57.4%-60.9% of deaths and 23.5%-23.9% of injuries while the hospital sources captured 31.5%-33.4% of deaths and 55.2%-56% of injuries. Deaths and injuries among females, younger age victims, cyclists/motorcyclists and pedestrians were under-reported by traffic police. In conclusion neither of the two sources independently provided accurate coverage of road traffic incident related deaths and injuries. Strengthening both systems is necessary to obtain accurate information on road accidents and human causalities.

  13. Self-Care Practices among Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tewahido, Dagmawit; Berhane, Yemane

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-care practices that include self-monitoring of blood sugar level, diet management, physical exercise, adherence to medications, and foot care are the cornerstones of diabetes management. However, very little is known about self-care in developing countries where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Objective The objective of this study was to describe self-care practices among individuals with type II diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative method was used to gather data from type II diabetes patients. Patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a semi structured interview guide. A thematic analysis approach was used to process the data. Results Overall self-care practices were not adequate. Most patients reported irregular self-monitoring of blood sugar. Dietary and physical exercise recommendations were inadequately practiced by most of the participants. Most patients better adhered to medication prescriptions. Patients generally lack proper information/knowledge regarding the importance of self-care and how it should be implemented. Based on reported behavior we identified three main categories of patients; which are those ‘endeavor to be compliant’, ‘confused’ and ‘negligent’. Conclusion Diabetes patients largely depend on prescribed medications to control their blood sugar level. The importance of proper self-care practices for effective management of diabetes is not adequately emphasized in diabetes care centers and patients lack sufficient knowledge for proper self-care. PMID:28045992

  14. A Description of Mortality Associated with IPT plus ART Compared to ART Alone among HIV-Infected Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Edessa, Dumessa; Likisa, Jimma

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated opportunistic infection. It is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are the two useful TB preventative strategies available to reduce TB among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare mortality associated with IPT taken together with ART, as well as ART alone, among PLHIV. Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) and Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH) on 185 patients receiving IPT (6 months) plus ART and 557 patients receiving ART alone. Mortality rates (MR) per 100 person-years (PYs) were used to compare mortality rates amongst the groups. Time-to-death and survival probabilities of the patients were determined using the Kaplan Meier Method. The Cox Proportional Hazard Model was employed to estimate the effect of IPT plus ART on survival of PLHIV. Results The mortality cases noted in patients treated by IPT plus ART versus ART alone were 18 (4.5 cases/100 PYs) and 116 (10 cases/100 PYs), respectively. In reference to the ART alone, the IPT plus ART reduced the likelihood of death significantly (aHR 0.48; 95% CI 0.38–0.69) and median time to death was about 26 months (IQR 19–34). Moreover, WHO stage IV (aHR 2.42: 95% CI 1.42–4.11), CD4 values ≥350cells/mm3 (aHR 0.52; 95% CI 0.28–0.94), adherence to ART (aHR 0.12; 95% CI 0.08–0.20), primary levels of education (aHR 2.20; 95% CI 1.07–4.52); and alcohol consumption (aHR 1.71; 95% CI 1.04–2.81) were factors strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion We found that PLHIV treated by the IPT plus ART had a lower likelihood of mortality and delayed time-to-death when compared to patients treated by ART alone. PMID:26348618

  15. Connecting Children with Modern Urban Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Jane

    1998-01-01

    An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)

  16. Report of the Utah Project in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City.

    Since June of 1962, the University of Utah, in cooperation with the United States Agency for International Development and the Ethiopian Government, has helped to build a faculty of education at the Haile Sellassie I University in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The assignment has included two projects. The first was for preparation of junior-secondary and…

  17. Sub-optimal adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy and its associated factors according to self-report, clinician-recorded and pharmacy-refill assessment methods among HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is generally high in most resource-limited settings. However, sub-optimal adherence occurs in a sizable proportion of patients, and is independently predictive of detectable viremia. We investigated sub-optimal adherence according to self-report, clinician-recorded, and pharmacy-refill assessment methods, and their associated factors among HIV-infected adults receiving cART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Eight-hundred seventy patients who initiated cART between May 2009 and April 2012 were randomly selected, and 664 patients who were alive, had remained in clinical care and were receiving cART for at least six-months were included. Sub-optimal adherence was defined as patients' response of less than "all-of the time" to the self-report adherence question, or any clinician-recorded poor adherence during the six most recent clinic visits, or a pharmacy-refill of <95% medication possession ratio (MPR). Logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with sub-optimal adherence. The average adherence level to cART, expressed as MPR, was nearly 97%. However, sub-optimal adherence occurred in 12%, 4%, and 27% of patients according to self-report, clinician-recorded, and pharmacy-refill measures, respectively. More satisfaction with social support was significantly associated with less sub-optimal adherence according to self-report and clinician-record. Younger age, lower educational level, and lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation were significantly associated with sub-optimal refill-based adherence. Findings from our large multi-center study suggest that sub-optimal adherence was present in up to a quarter of the patients, despite a high degree of average adherence to cART. Interventions aimed at preventing sub-optimal adherence should focus on improving social support, on younger patients, on patients with lower educational level, and on those who started cART at a lower CD4 cell count.

  18. Development of Libraries, Documentation and Information Centres in Ethiopia in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1995-01-01

    Describes the historical development of libraries in Ethiopia. Examines the National Library of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University Libraries, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies Library, and the Ethiopian Science and Technology Documentation and Information Center. Discusses the development of special libraries, libraries and documentation centers of…

  19. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks.

  20. Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in Ethiopia, 2005– 2011: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky; Wilson, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU—missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring). We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6–11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory. Results Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64%) and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study’s end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts <100 and >200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03–2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15–3.70, respectively), compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100–200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11–3.80]) and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00–2.24]) were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention. Conclusion Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient

  1. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  2. Glasnost about Building Socialism in Ethiopia: Analysis of a Critical Soviet Article

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    contained in many research studies and documents of the 1970s, when any 𔄁Regulation on Peasant Producer Cooperatives, Addis Ababa, 1979 (in Amharic ...problems was underestimated. Emphases in programmatic 19Declaration of the iI Congress of COPWE (January 6, 1983), Addis Ababa, 1983 (in Amharic ). - 27...and the United Democratic Front of Ethiopia (UDFE) are active in several provinces with a predominantly Amharic population under the slogan of

  3. Characterization of GNSS amplitude scintillations over Addis Ababa during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Ejalonibu, A. H.; Doherty, P. H.; Radicella, S. M.; Groves, K. M.; Carrano, C. S.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Stoneback, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    This study characterizes GNSS amplitude scintillations over an African equatorial station: Addis Ababa (Lat 9.03°N, Lon 38.77°E, Mag. lat 0.18°N), Ethiopia during a five-year period (2009-2013). Scintillations were majorly localized within the hours of 2200-2400 LT. On a monthly basis, the highest occurrences of scintillation at Addis Ababa were recorded in April, and the lowest in June. Seasonally, the highest occurrences were recorded in equinoxes, and the lowest in June solstices. On a yearly scale, scintillations recorded the highest occurrences in 2012 and the lowest in 2009. Large proportions of the scintillations were localized within the northern sky of Addis Ababa. Supporting the characterization of the GNSS data with C/NOFS data, we noted that small-spatial scale density depletions are more detrimental to GNSS signals than their large-scale counterparts. Finally, EGNOS geostationary satellites' signals also scintillated steadily at Addis Ababa, with noticeable occurrences on the low elevation EGNOS satellite's (PRN 120) data. These events commenced around local sunset terminator, forming plateaus that vanished around local midnight.

  4. Spirituality, social capital and service: Factors promoting resilience among Expert Patients living with HIV in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Sophia Ahmed; Tsegaye, Mulugeta; Argaw, Meron Gurji; Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; del Rio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ethiopia and other developing nations face numerous challenges to their health and well-being, including poverty, limited healthcare infrastructure, and high levels of societal stigma. Despite these challenges, resilient trajectories have been observed even within such resource-limited settings. In Ethiopia, such resilience is exemplified by the ‘Expert Patients’, HIV-positive lay health workers who function as adherence counsellors, health educators, outreach workers and community advocates. We conducted a multi-method qualitative study with 20 Expert Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to understand pathways to resilience in this select population. Participants described 3 key mechanisms of resilient coping: (1) The use of spirituality and faith-based practices to manage psychological difficulties associated with living with HIV; (2) Utilisation of social capital from family and community networks as a buffer against the psychological and economic consequences of societal stigma; and (3) Serving others as a mechanism for finding optimism and purpose in life. Interventions designed to facilitate and/or augment these social processes in the wider community may be promising strategies for improving health among PLHIV in Ethiopia and other resource-limited settings. PMID:24520996

  5. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  6. Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi

    2007-01-01

    Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…

  7. On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education in Ethiopia (August 2-30, 1993). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…

  8. High Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Time among Antenatal and Postnatal Care Attendant Mothers in Governmental Health Centers in Akaki Kality Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression

    PubMed Central

    Gebreamlak, Bisratemariam; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Atnafu, Azeb

    2017-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Iron/Folic Acid supplementation with optimal adherence can effectively prevent anemia in pregnancy. However, studies that address this area of adherence are very limited. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the adherence and to identify factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake during pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care follow up in Akaki kality sub city. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 557 pregnant women attending antenatal and postnatal care service. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The mothers were interviewed and the collected data was cleaned and entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 and analyzed by R version 3.2.0. Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression Model was fitted to identify the factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake. Adjusted Incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to assess the strength and significance of the association. Result More than 90% of the mothers were supplemented with at least one Iron/Folic Acid supplement from pill per week during their pregnancy time. Sixty percent of the mothers adhered (took four or more tablets per week) (95%CI, 56%—64.1%). Higher IRR of Iron/Folic Acid supplementation was observed among women: who received health education; which were privately employed; who achieved secondary education; and who believed that Iron/Folic Acid supplements increase blood, whereas mothers who reported a side effect, who were from families with relatively better monthly income, and who took the supplement when sick were more likely to adhere. Conclusion Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid supplement during their pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care was found to be high. Activities that would address the

  9. Network Science Center Research Teams Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    overseeing the program that includes approximately 20 kids ranging from age 4 to 12. We were able to visit the project site with him and this will be...companies or people to create video and multimedia productions. During filming, Samson has a crew of seven employees. Samson took his firm to the next...these two days driving to, and visiting a “One Laptop per Child” study site located near Lake Wenchi. This visit is discussed in a blog post authored by

  10. Contribution of Awraja Pedagogical Centres in the Improvement of Education in Ethiopia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habtegaber, Haile

    Teachers and teacher center personnel were used to gather evaluative information on Awraja Pedagogical Centers (APCs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Teachers discussed their access to center facilities and services, and ratings of center materials and personnel. APC staff discussed their work, hours of center operation, procedures followed in the…

  11. Canadian Residents Teaching and Learning Psychiatry in Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Analysis Focusing on Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Shelley; Robertson, David; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP) is an international collaboration between University of Toronto and Addis Ababa University. University of Toronto psychiatric residents may participate in TAAPP as an elective. The authors explored the Canadian resident experience in a qualitative study of the project. Methods: Eleven…

  12. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  13. Health providers' perception towards safe abortion service at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jemilla; Gebremariam, Mulugeta B

    2011-03-01

    In Ethiopia, unsafe abortion accounts up to 32% of maternal deaths. The perception of health providers towards safe abortion provision at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was assessed. A stratified random sampling was used to select 431 health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 25-April 15, 2008 using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The results were interpreted using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. A majority of the health providers (96.4%) recognized that unsafe abortion was a serious health problem. Providers who had safe abortion practice were 2.57 (95% CI 1.49-4.44) times more likely to have favorable attitude towards safe abortion than those without practice. Similarly, providers who knew the law governing abortion were 1.77 (95% CI 1.12-2.78) times more likely to have this favorable attitude than those who lack this knowledge. In conclusion, training of health providers on safe abortion and reproductive rights are essential to reduce maternal mortality.

  14. Knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in adigrat town, tigray, northern ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Alem; Addissie, Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six in-depth interviews with family planning providers were conducted. Content analysis was used to synthesize the data. Result. Participants' knowledge on long acting and permanent contraceptives is limited to recognizing the name of the methods. Most of the participants are not able to identify permanent methods as a method of contraception. They lack basic information on how these methods work and how they can use it. Women had fears and rumors about each of these methods. They prefer methods which do not require any procedure. Family planning providers stated as they have weakness on counseling of all contraceptive choices. Conclusion. There are personal barriers and knowledge gaps on these contraceptive methods. Improving the counseling service program can help women to increase knowledge and avoid misconceptions of each contraceptive choice.

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha; Dejene, Tewedros Ayalew; Telila, Lidet Befkadu; Bekele, Daniel Fekadu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%), followed by whole roots (20.4%). Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68). Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective preparations and

  16. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  17. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  18. Seven key actions to eradicate rheumatic heart disease in Africa: the Addis Ababa communiqué.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David; Zuhlke, Liesl; Engel, Mark; Daniels, Rezeen; Francis, Veronica; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kango, Mabvuto; Abul-Fadl, Azza; Adeoye, Abiodun; Ali, Sulafa; Al-Kebsi, Mohammed; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Bukhman, Gene; Damasceno, Albertino; Goshu, Dejuma Yadeta; Elghamrawy, Alaa; Gitura, Bernard; Haileamlak, Abraham; Hailu, Abraha; Hugo-Hamman, Christopher; Justus, Steve; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kennedy, Neil; Lwabi, Peter; Mamo, Yoseph; Mntla, Pindile; Sutton, Chris; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Mondo, Charles; Mtaja, Agnes; Musuku, John; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Murango, Louis; Nel, George; Ogendo, Stephen; Ogola, Elijah; Ojji, Dike; Olunuga, Taiwo Olabisi; Redi, Mekia Mohammed; Rusingiza, Kamanzi Emmanuel; Sani, Mahmoud; Sheta, Sahar; Shongwe, Steven; van Dam, Joris; Gamra, Habib; Carapetis, Jonathan; Lennon, Diana; Mayosi, Bongani M

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remain major causes of heart failure, stroke and death among African women and children, despite being preventable and imminently treatable. From 21 to 22 February 2015, the Social Cluster of the Africa Union Commission (AUC) hosted a consultation with RHD experts convened by the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to develop a 'roadmap' of key actions that need to be taken by governments to eliminate ARF and eradicate RHD in Africa. Seven priority areas for action were adopted: (1) create prospective disease registers at sentinel sites in affected countries to measure disease burden and track progress towards the reduction of mortality by 25% by the year 2025, (2) ensure an adequate supply of high-quality benzathine penicillin for the primary and secondary prevention of ARF/RHD, (3) improve access to reproductive health services for women with RHD and other non-communicable diseases (NCD), (4) decentralise technical expertise and technology for diagnosing and managing ARF and RHD (including ultrasound of the heart), (5) establish national and regional centres of excellence for essential cardiac surgery for the treatment of affected patients and training of cardiovascular practitioners of the future, (6) initiate national multi-sectoral RHD programmes within NCD control programmes of affected countries, and (7) foster international partnerships with multinational organisations for resource mobilisation, monitoring and evaluation of the programme to end RHD in Africa. This Addis Ababa communiqué has since been endorsed by African Union heads of state, and plans are underway to implement the roadmap in order to end ARF and RHD in Africa in our lifetime.

  19. Physician distribution and attrition in the public health sector of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard; Enbiale, Wendimagegn

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortages and imbalances in physician workforce distribution between urban and rural and among the different regions in Ethiopia are enormous. However, with the recent rapid expansion in medical education training, it is expected that the country can make progress in physician workforce supply. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physician workforce in Ethiopia and assess the role of retention mechanisms in the reduction of physician migration from the public health sector of Ethiopia. Methods This organizational survey examined physician workforce data from 119 hospitals from 5 regions (Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region [SNNPR], Tigray, and Harari) and 2 city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa City). Training opportunity, distribution, and turnover between September 2009 and July 2015 were analyzed descriptively. Poisson regression model was used to find the association of different covariates with physician turnover. Results There were 2,300 medical doctors in 5 regions and 2 city administrations in ~6 years of observations. Of these, 553 (24.04%) medical doctors moved out of their duty stations and the remaining 1,747 (75.96%) were working actively. Of the actively working, the majority of the medical doctors, 1,407 (80.5%), were males, in which 889 (50.9%) were born after the year 1985, 997 (57%) had work experience of <3 years, and most, 1,471 (84.2%), were general practitioners. Within the observation period, physician turnover among specialists ranged from 21.4% in Dire Dawa to 43.3% in Amhara region. The capital, Addis Ababa, was the place of destination for 32 (82%) of the physicians who moved out to other regions from elsewhere in the country. The Poisson regression model revealed a decreased incidence of turnover among physicians born between the years 1975 and 1985 (incident rate ratio [IRR]: 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.79) and among those who were born

  20. The development of a model of training in child psychiatry for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of trained mental health professionals has been an important barrier to establishing mental health services in low income countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of child psychiatry training within a graduate program in mental health for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia. Methods The existing needs for competent practitioners in child psychiatry were identified through discussions with psychiatrists working in Ethiopia as well as with relevant departments within the Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMOHE). As part of a curriculum for a two year Master of Science (MSC) in Mental Health program for non-physician clinicians, child psychiatry training was designed and implemented by Jimma University with the involvement of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximillian’s University, (LMU), Germany. Graduates gave feedback after completing the course. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG) adapted for Ethiopian context was used as the main training material. Results A two-week child psychiatry course and a four week child psychiatry clinical internship were successfully implemented during the first and the second years of the MSC program respectively. During the two week psychiatry course, trainees learned to observe the behavior and to assess the mental status of children at different ages who had a variety of mental health conditions. Assessment of the trainees’ clinical skills was done by the instructors at the end of the child psychiatry course as well as during the subsequent four week clinical internship. The trainees generally rated the course to be ‘very good’ to ‘excellent’. Many of the graduates have become faculty at the various universities in Ethiopia. Conclusion Child psychiatry training for non-physician mental health specialist trainees was developed and successfully

  1. CYCLES OF POVERTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS AMONG AIDS CARE VOLUNTEERS IN URBAN ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2013-01-01

    With the rollout of AIDS therapies, volunteer AIDS care has been promoted across Africa under the assumption that volunteerism is economically imperative in settings of health professional and resource scarcity. As low-income volunteers have become a major part of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment workforces, it is imperative to question how poverty impacts their well-being. This chapter presents epidemiologic data collected during the 2008 food crisis from a sample of 110 AIDS care volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as well as narratives offered by HIV-positive volunteers, highlighting a widely overlooked way in which food insecurity and mental distress impact efforts to treat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Food insecurity and elevated common mental disorder (CMD) symptom loads were common and tightly linked among the volunteers in the sample. Volunteers who were HIV-positive (17 percent) fared slightly worse in terms of food insecurity and psychosocial well-being. However, positive HIV serostatus was not associated with CMD in multivariate analyses accounting for food insecurity. Narratives illustrate how being HIV-positive shaped experiences of psychosocial stress, which involved unemployment and lack of prospects for marital relationships or strife within them. Our focus demonstrates the potential for mixing ethnographic and epidemiological methods to inform policy questions regarding poverty-reduction through compensation for volunteers’ valuable labor, as well as AIDS care program sustainability. [volunteerism, AIDS care, food insecurity, livelihoods, HIV, psychosocial health] PMID:24077603

  2. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-12-19

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

  3. Twelve Years Later: The Revision of the Addis Ababa Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospects, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Processes and plans for redefinition of the goals of African educational systems are noted in this historical summary of educational development. Rationale for revision of the Addis Ababa plan by committees representing Unesco and the Organization of African Unity is presented. (SM)

  4. Assessment of Soil Losses from Rills and Interills of Cultivated Fields Using Field Methods in Gelda Watershed, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayele, Belayneh

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion is one of the greatest challenges for the agricultural economic sector in particular and the general economic development for a country like Ethiopia in general. Despite this challenge, there have been limited studies on the amount of soil eroded at watershed level even though soil erosion prediction for the whole country has been done based on data collected from few erosion study sites. This led to ineffective soil conservation planning and the land degradation problem is still a threat to the country economy. This calls for an estimation of erosion rate at watershed level with easily manageable, cost effective method that enables the local farmers to participate in data collection so that they have an understanding of the ongoing erosion. The objective of this research was to estimate the rill and interrill erosion rate in Gelda Watershed, South Gondar, Ethiopia using field method (volumetric measurement of rills and interills). The dominant soil types were nitisols and regosols. The findings indicate that soil loss due to rills and interills in the cultivated fields was 50.25 ton/ha/yr. The contribution of rills in the upslope, middle slope and down slope was 7%, 15% and 78%, respectively to the overall rill erosion. In general, the contribution of rills to the overall erosion rate was 54%. The rill density for the nitisols and regosols was 349 and 294 m/ha respectively indicating higher rate of erosion in the former soil type. Average area of actual damage due to rills in the watershed was 113 m2/ha. The most intense erosion rate was recorded in teff field with an erosion rate of 73 tons/ha/yr followed by millet 35 tons/ha/yr. Maize fields showed the least erosion rate of 31 tons/ha/yr. The most important factors contributing to erosion rate variation among crops were time of sowing, hoeing practice, crop morphology and deliberate compaction practice that was common on teff field. The contribution of agroforestry practices (woodlots, scattered

  5. Restoring local spiritual and cultural values in science education: The case of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Solomon Belay

    It has been repeatedly observed that home and local context matter in the education of children. A smooth transition between home and classroom prepares children for enjoyable and meaningful life-long learning. Knowledge building in children is influenced by previous experience, values, beliefs and sociocultural factors associated with community. Against this theoretical background, the thesis examined the integration of local spiritual and cultural values to improve science education in Ethiopia. This autoethnographic research used in-depth interviews, supplementary observations and focus group discussion and my biography to identify the perception and practice of common and unique spiritual and cultural values. The study examined whether these values were included and/or excluded in the school curriculum and explored the possibilities for incorporating values in science education and the anticipated tensions resulting from their inclusion. Students, science teachers, parents, employers, curriculum experts, policymakers, elders, and religious leaders participated in the research, conducted in a randomly selected secondary school in Addis Ababa. The sampling followed a kind of snowball method, with a total of twenty key informants participating in interviews, fifteen classroom observations, and one focus group discussion. The data collection aimed at generating stories, which underlie the auto-ethnography methodology. Findings indicated that belief in and fear of God animated and sustained the Ethiopian way of life. Although spiritual teachings derived from sacred writings were the initial foundation for Ethiopian cultural norms, the two merged together later, creating a mosaic pervading every aspect of life in Ethiopia. Education was sustained on this merger of spiritual and cultural norms and values. It was also shown that the now century-old system of formal education did not incorporate those local spiritual and cultural values. Current science education also

  6. Reliability and Validity of Amharic Version of EORTC QLQ-C 30 Questionnaire among Gynecological Cancer Patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayana, Birhanu Abera; Negash, Shiferaw; Yusuf, Lukman; Tigeneh, Wendemagegnhu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is a growing public health problem worldwide. The focus of cancer treatment, in addition to curation, is improving the quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of Amharic version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) among gynecological cancer patients in Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted using the Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 on 153 gynecological cancer patients in Tikur Anbassa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multivariable linear regression were employed in statistical analysis. Results The Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 had a Cronbach’s α value of 0.81. The internal consistency for each domain of EORTC QLQ-C30 was also acceptable (Cronbach’s α >0.7) except for cognitive function domain (Cronbach’s α = 0.29). Stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis showed that emotional functioning (p<0.001), fatigue (p<0.001) and social functioning (p = 0.004) were the determinative scales of EORTC QLQ-C30 on global health status (GHS). The clinical validity test (Known group validity) showed that there were significant differences in score for twelve out of 15 domains, between surgery and radiation scheduled patients. All items of emotional function, role function, fatigue, and GHS meet the discriminate validity criterion. Conclusion The Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 found to be reliable and had an acceptable validity to assess the QOL for gynecological cancer patients. We recommend further work on the validity and responsiveness of the EORTC QLQ-C30 with stronger design. PMID:27304066

  7. Prevalence and factors affecting use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. Conclusion The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided. PMID:25404960

  8. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)—both IUDs and implants—to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services

  9. Demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among married women of reproductive age group in Debre Markos Town, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in sub Saharan Africa with high total fertility rate, and high maternal and child mortality rates. In sub Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia, even though studies show that demand for contraception is high, the practice is low. Particularly, in Ethiopia, despite the fact that practices on long acting and permanent methods are believed to be low, there are limited evidences on the real magnitude of demand for the methods. Methods To assess demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among married women of reproductive age group in Debre Markos town, Amhara Regional State, North West Ethiopia, A community based cross sectional study was conducted, from April 08–19, 2012. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 523 study participants. Pre tested structured Amharic version questionnaire was used to collect the data through interview. Both bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. Results Among 519 respondents, 323 (62.2%) were using modern family planning (FP) methods in which 101 (19.5%) were using long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs). Among all respondents, 171 (32.9%) had unmet need for LAPMs. The total demand for LAPMs was 272 (52.4%) of which 37.1% were satisfied and 62.9% unsatisfied demand. Being in the older age group (40-44 years) [AOR = 2.8; 95% CI:1.12, 9.55], having no desire for more child [AOR = 20.37; 95% CI:9.28, 44.72], desire to have a child after 2 years [AOR = 6.4; 95%CI:3.04,13.47], not ever heard of modern FP [AOR = 5.73; 95% CI:1.26, 25.91], not ever using of modern FP [AOR = 1.89; 95% CI:1.01, 3.55] and having no spousal discussion in the last six month [AOR = 1.642, 95% CI: 1.049, 2.57) were some of the factors significantly associated with demand for LAPMs. Conclusions Demand and unmet need for LAPMs were high in the study area. Therefore

  10. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  11. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    vulnerable to human encroachment. The educational interest of most sites is high but interpretation facilities are absent. With some minor adjustments, the application of the inventory method (Reynard et al., 2015) to the SMNP has proven successful and can be recommended for application to other areas in developing countries of similar well-documented geomorphology. However, the method could prove too complex for areas where basic knowledge on geomorphology is poor, as is often the case in developing countries. Based on previous studies (in particular Asrat et al. 2012) and results of the current inventory, a road map for SMNP geomorphosite management was proposed. Eight strategic objectives and working tasks were considered, which include the development of geotourism products such as geotourist maps, geo-trails and guidebooks, geo-trekking, geo-sightseeing tours, and interpretive panels as well as the training of geo-guides and capacity building of the park staff and specific management of the Lemalemo site, one of the most accessible geosites in the park. The overall goal is to raise awareness on the rich geomorphological heritage through geotourism development and empowerment of locals and thus to contribute to long-term protection of the geomorphosites. In conclusion the study revealed important potential for sustainable rural development in the Simen. Applied research will be necessary on how exactly the promotion products should be developed. References Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2008). Geotourism in Ethiopia: archaelogical and ancient cities, religious and cultural centres: Yeha, Axum, Wukro, and Lalibela. Addis Ababa: Shama Books. Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2012). Geoheritage conservation in Ethiopia: the case of the Simien Mountains. Quaestiones Geographicae, 31(1), 7-23. doi:10.2478/v10117-012-0001-0. Reynard E., Perret A., Bussard J., Grangier L., Martin S. (2015). Integrated approach for the inventory and management of geomorphological

  12. A qualitative study of the experience of obstetric fistula survivors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors' perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants' understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric fistula successfully, there should be family-based interventions that improve access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. These initiatives should also ensure men's participation, women's empowerment, and the utilization of community-based institutions.

  13. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, S; Ali, E; Tayler-Smith, K; Hedt-Gauthier, B; Silkondez, W; Abebe, D; Deressa, W; Enquessilase, F; Edwards, J K

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Le service des urgences de l'hôpital Zewditu Memorial, Addis-Abeba, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter la proportion, la tendance, les caractéristiques et le devenir des patients (âgés ⩾15 ans) admis pour des blessures de la route (RTI) entre 2014 et 2015.Schéma : Une étude rétrospective transversale basée sur des données recueillies en routine par le service des urgences.Résultats : Sur 10 007 admissions aux urgences, 779 (8%) étaient des cas de RTI; cette proportion culminait au mois de janvier (11%). Les dossiers médicaux ont été disponibles pour 522 (67%) de ces cas de RTI. Leur âge médian était de 28 ans et 69% étaient des hommes. La majorité était des piétons (69%) blessés par une automobile (78%). Lors du triage, 32% ont été classés comme ayant besoin d'une intervention urgente/immédiate. Les traumatismes crâniens (20%) étaient au deuxième rang, suivant les blessures des membres inférieurs (36%). Le devenir des patients a été le suivant : sortie (68%), hospitalisation (17%), référence (17%) et décès (1%). Parmi les 78 cas hospitalisés, respectivement 62% et 16% ont été admis dans les services de chirurgie et d'orthopédie. Sur les 146 cas de RTI ayant eu un traumatisme crânien, 25% ont été hospitalisés, dont 82% ont été admis en service de chirurgie.Conclusion : Nos résultats peuvent guider les décideurs des hôpitaux de référence dans l'amélioration de la répartition des ressources et le choix de priorités en matière de besoins de santé publique liés au développement urbain ultérieur. Il y a un besoin urgent d'un plan complet de prévention des RTI, particulièrement parmi les piétons à Addis-Abeba.

  14. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    initial testing stages, but Michael is the man on the ground overseeing the program that includes approximately 20 kids ranging from age 4 to 12. We...film and production company. Samson is hired by other companies or people to create video and multimedia productions. During filming, Samson has a... Lake Wenchi. This visit is discussed in a blog post authored by Evan Szablowski: http://blog.netsciwestpoint.org/2012/08/13/one-laptop-per-child/. The

  15. Social Scientists' Understanding of Academic Freedom in Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degefa, Demoze

    2015-01-01

    The perennial debate about academic freedom engages with assessing the extent to which academic freedom has been exercised by academics by using some normative and quantitative approaches. Often studies on academic freedom deal with the extent to which institutions comply with norms in terms of the rights of the academics on some international…

  16. The Economic Significance of Ethnicity: Unionized Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutt, Russell K.; Sisaye, Seleshi

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether, as both class and assimilationist theories predict, changes in economic structure of a modernizing society and associated phenomena, such as unionization, would modify the social significance of ethnicity. Key elements of both theories received some support in the analysis of industrial and organizational development in Addis…

  17. Students Talk about Their HIV/AIDS Education Courses: A Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambe, Mariam M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how Ethiopian high school students experienced the HIV/AIDS education programs offered in their schools. The project also examined gender differences in the way HIV/AIDS education was perceived and the implications for the instructional design of the programs. A total of 15 high school students (eight…

  18. A qualitative study of the experience of obstetric fistula survivors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors’ perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants’ understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric fistula successfully, there should be family-based interventions that improve access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. These initiatives should also ensure men’s participation, women’s empowerment, and the utilization of community-based institutions. PMID:25525395

  19. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Molla; Afework, Mekbeb; Fantaye, Wondwossen; Diro, Ermias; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40–60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia. Objective The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia. Subject and Methods A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0–17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region) were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books. Results In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0–17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%–1.95%) children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5%) of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1%) of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%), neural tube (30.8%), upper and lower limb (12.8%), cardiovascular system (10.3%), digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%), unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%), Down syndrome (2%), genitourinary system (2%), head, face, and neck defects (0.4%), and others (0.3%). The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0

  20. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  1. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district) of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH) of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8%) and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia, is valued as a remedy

  2. Teaching Children with Disabilities: ICTs in Bangkok and Addis Ababa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiemer, Margarita; Proyer, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper intends to explore the levels of availability and restrictions in relation to the use of ICTs (information and communication technologies) for educating children with disabilities in Thailand's and Ethiopia's capitals. Design/methodology/approach: In the course of an international research project, parents and teachers of…

  3. Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: U.S. Capabilities and Chinese Operations in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Perry.1 That same month, U.S. troops on patrol nearby discovered two cheetah cubs tied up with ropes around their necks at a restaurant, where the...Embassy in Ethiopia, and a U.S.-based cheetah rescue organization, eventually flying the two cubs to the National Palace in Addis Ababa. “This is the...first kind of rescue of animals, let alone cheetahs , that we have done,” said Army Sgt. Leah Cobble.2 The follow- ing month, a U.S. Army Civil

  4. Key informants’ perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia’s health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  5. Empowering the Physiotherapy Profession in Ethiopia through Leadership Development within the Doctoring Process.

    PubMed

    Footer, Cheryl Burditt; Tsegaye, Hailu Seifu; Yitnagashaw, Tesfaye Asnake; Mekonnen, Wintana; Shiferaw, Tizita Destaw; Abera, Endashaw; Davis, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia recently introduced the Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT) degree at Addis Ababa University as a mechanism to increase the work force capacity of primary care providers in the health sector. The DPT program was supported by an international academic partnership and was designed to empower physiotherapists as leaders to move the profession forward. The curriculum was framed by core pedagogical principles and strategies and was phased into two programs. First, the 4-year Advanced Standing DPT program focused on developing registered Ethiopian physiotherapists with Bachelor of Science degrees as academic faculty. Second, these new faculty would then sustain a 6-year Generic DPT program that would matriculate students upon graduation from high school. The curriculum represented depth and breadth of foundation and clinical sciences, evidence-based practice, clinical reasoning skills, and interprofessional education opportunities. A leadership thread provided opportunities to develop skills necessary to effectively navigate and manage the challenges faced by the profession. The main outcomes included (1) an 8-year international partnership, (2) the academic performance of students, and (3) and leadership capabilities as demonstrated through activities and assignments. While the program has been criticized as an unnecessary extravagance for Ethiopia, the advantages of the DPT degree were revealed in a direct comparison to other academic physiotherapy programs in Ethiopia. In the end, because the DPT is new to the country, it will take time to fully understand the true impact within the Ethiopian health system.

  6. Empowering the Physiotherapy Profession in Ethiopia through Leadership Development within the Doctoring Process

    PubMed Central

    Footer, Cheryl Burditt; Tsegaye, Hailu Seifu; Yitnagashaw, Tesfaye Asnake; Mekonnen, Wintana; Shiferaw, Tizita Destaw; Abera, Endashaw; Davis, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia recently introduced the Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT) degree at Addis Ababa University as a mechanism to increase the work force capacity of primary care providers in the health sector. The DPT program was supported by an international academic partnership and was designed to empower physiotherapists as leaders to move the profession forward. The curriculum was framed by core pedagogical principles and strategies and was phased into two programs. First, the 4-year Advanced Standing DPT program focused on developing registered Ethiopian physiotherapists with Bachelor of Science degrees as academic faculty. Second, these new faculty would then sustain a 6-year Generic DPT program that would matriculate students upon graduation from high school. The curriculum represented depth and breadth of foundation and clinical sciences, evidence-based practice, clinical reasoning skills, and interprofessional education opportunities. A leadership thread provided opportunities to develop skills necessary to effectively navigate and manage the challenges faced by the profession. The main outcomes included (1) an 8-year international partnership, (2) the academic performance of students, and (3) and leadership capabilities as demonstrated through activities and assignments. While the program has been criticized as an unnecessary extravagance for Ethiopia, the advantages of the DPT degree were revealed in a direct comparison to other academic physiotherapy programs in Ethiopia. In the end, because the DPT is new to the country, it will take time to fully understand the true impact within the Ethiopian health system. PMID:28377916

  7. Utilization of Clean and Safe Delivery Service Package of Health Services Extension Program and Associated Factors in Rural Kebeles of Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayou, Negalign Berhanu; Gacho, Yohannes Haile Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21st to February 25th, 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Utilization of clean and safe delivery service was 43(19%). Women with formal schooling and those who knew at least two danger signs of pregnancy and labor were more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=5.8, 95% CI=2.1, 16) and (AOR=3.0, 95% CI=2.2, 10.6), respectively. Of 108(47.8%) mothers who had at least one antenatal care visit, 36(33.3%), were not advised about danger signs. Women who had at least one ANC visit and those who were advised about the danger signs of pregnancy and labor appeared to be more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=6.1, 95% CI=1.9, 21.3), and (AOR=5.4, 95%CI= 1.4, 21.7), respectively. Conclusion Utilization of the service is low and was determined by women's educational status, history of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose. PMID:23950624

  8. Health-related quality of life of HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but has not been studied extensively in resource-limited settings. Insight in the predictors or correlates of poor HRQoL may be helpful to identify patients most in need of additional support and to design appropriate interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2012 and April 2013 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients who were at least 6 months on cART were randomly selected and individual patient data were retrieved from medical records. HRQoL was measured by the WHOQoL-HIVBREF, depressive-symptoms by the Kessler-6 scale, and stigma by the Kalichman internalized AIDS-related stigma scale. Multivariate linear regression analysis was carried-out to examine associations between HRQoL and the other variables. A total of 664 patients (response-rate 95%) participated in the study. A higher level of depressive-symptoms was most strongly and consistently associated with a lower HRQoL, both in terms of the magnitude of the relationship and in the number of HRQoL domains associated with it. Also, a higher level of HIV-stigma was associated with a lower HRQoL except for the physical domain, while obtaining sufficient nutritious food and job opportunity were associated with a better HRQoL except for the spiritual and social domains, respectively. Demographics, clinical, and treatment characteristics yielded few significant associations with HRQoL. Our study findings suggest that interventions to improve HRQoL should focus on reducing depressive-symptoms and HIV-stigma, and on enhancing food security and job opportunity.

  9. Assessment of Preference and Its Determinant Factors to Ward Modern Contraceptive Methods among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Shire Indaselassie Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Tsehaye, Weyzer T; Mengistu, Daniel; Birhanu, Emebet; Berhe, Kalayou K

    2013-01-01

    Background. Women's preferences for various contraceptive methods attribute vary according to the type of relations and other aspects of their life. The discrepancy between fertility preferences and contraceptive practice is regarded as an indicator of unmet demand for family planning. Objective. To assess modern contraceptive methods preference and its determinant factors among women of reproductive age group in Shire Indaselassie town, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed on 367 sampled women. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. Then, data was collected using structured questionnaire. Result. In this study, the most commonly preferred modern contraceptive method was injectable contraceptive 202 (55%), the second 61 (16.6%) was oral contraceptives, and the third 47 (12.8%) was Norplant. Condom 31 (8.4%), IUD 14 (3.8%), female sterilization 7 (1.9%), and others were less commonly preferred methods. Some of the reasons for preference were effectiveness of the method, reversibility, fewer side effects, convenience, long duration of use, and no need to remember daily. Conclusion. This study clearly described that women preferences of modern contraceptive methods increased after they had higher number of children and less desire to limit family size.

  10. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  11. Control of Biomphalaria pfeifferi population and schistosomiasis transmission in Ethiopia using the soap berry endod (Phytolacca dodecandra), with special emphasis on application methods.

    PubMed

    Abebe, F; Erko, B; Gemetchu, T; Gundersen, S G

    2005-10-01

    The endod (Phytolacca dodecandra)-based schistosomiasis mansoni control project was implemented in Ethiopia between 1994 and 1999. The aim was to develop an effective, cheap and sustainable method of controlling schistosomiasis. First, different formulations of the Ethiopian endod strain 44 (E-44) were compared for potency in the laboratory. Secondly, spray and drip-feeding methods were compared for simplicity and effectiveness in the field. Lastly, the efficacy of endod powder soap was compared with the endod spray method. In Bati stream, endod powder soap was distributed to the residents every weekend at laundry sites. In Worke stream, endod was sprayed along a 1-km stretch of the stream at 3-month intervals. No endod was applied in Harbu stream. The immediate and long-term effects of endod application on the snail population and schistosomal infection were determined. Using the spray method, 100% snail mortality could be obtained, and it was simpler and more effective than the drip-feeding method. Snail mortality ranged from 20 to 100% using endod soap. There was a progressive decline in the snail population and infection in Bati stream compared with Worke stream, mainly due to sustained use of endod soap. The advantages and disadvantages of the different endod delivery systems are discussed.

  12. School-based surveys of malaria in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: a rapid survey method for malaria in low transmission settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, malaria transmission is seasonal and unstable, with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax endemic. Such spatial and temporal clustering of malaria only serves to underscore the importance of regularly collecting up-to-date malaria surveillance data to inform decision-making in malaria control. Cross-sectional school-based malaria surveys were conducted across Oromia Regional State to generate up-to-date data for planning malaria control interventions, as well as monitoring and evaluation of operational programme implementation. Methods Two hundred primary schools were randomly selected using a stratified and weighted sampling frame; 100 children aged five to 18 years were then randomly chosen within each school. Surveys were carried out in May 2009 and from October to December 2009, to coincide with the peak of malaria transmission in different parts of Oromia. Each child was tested for malaria by expert microscopy, their haemoglobin measured and a simple questionnaire completed. Satellite-derived environmental data were used to assess ecological correlates of Plasmodium infection; Bayesian geostatistical methods and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic were employed to investigate spatial heterogeneity. Results A total 20,899 children from 197 schools provided blood samples, two selected schools were inaccessible and one school refused to participate. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection was found to be 0.56% (95% CI: 0.46-0.67%), with 53% of infections due to P. falciparum and 47% due to P. vivax. Of children surveyed, 17.6% (95% CI: 17.0-18.1%) were anaemic, while 46% reported sleeping under a mosquito net the previous night. Malaria was found at 30 (15%) schools to a maximum elevation of 2,187 metres, with school-level Plasmodium prevalence ranging between 0% and 14.5%. Although environmental variables were only weakly associated with P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, clusters of infection were identified within

  13. Evaluating methods used for fission track dating of tephras: examples from the Afar Depression, Ethiopia, and the Denali fault zone, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, A. E.; Warfel, T. S.; Phillips, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although fission track geochronology has been successfully used to date volcanic glasses and tephras in several studies, a variety of approaches have been used (see Westgate et al., 2013), and no consensus for a standardized methodology has emerged. As a result, this technique is rarely employed, despite having the potential to date tephras and glasses that cannot be dated by other methods, such as K-Ar dating. We have been evaluating the various approaches used to address the technical issues in fission track dating of tephras, by applying them to standards of known ages, including Moldavite tektite, and Huckleberry and Bishop Tuffs. Some of these issues include track etching and counting protocol, and corrections for the effects of track fading at low temperatures. Track etching is generally done in 24% HF for 75 or more seconds, but the time necessary for optimal etching appears to vary according to sample composition and grain size. To correct for track fading, we are using the diameter correction technique of Sandhu and Westgate (1995). We have obtained tephra samples from two regions, the Afar Depression in Ethiopia, an area with significant early hominid fossils, and the Denali fault zone in Alaska, an area with a complicated tectonic evolution. For both of these regions, we have samples that have been dated by other methods for calibration purposes, and we will explore the application of a Zeta correction to the technique. This underutilized technique can provide powerful constraints on studies of timing in diverse geologic environments.

  14. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  15. English Teaching Profile: Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England).

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and goes on to outline the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  16. Educational Research Culture and Capacity Building: The Case of Addis Ababa University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on several projects over sixteen years which attempted to develop capacity in educational research at Addis Ababa University. It identifies what might be considered indicators of a thriving research environment as defined from a UK perspective, not simply the necessary skills and infrastructure requirements but also what might be…

  17. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were explored.…

  18. ‘If an Eye Is Washed Properly, It Means It Would See Clearly’: A Mixed Methods Study of Face Washing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Stoller, Nicole E.; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Sewnet, Tegene; Ayele, Bezuayehu; Chanyalew, Melsew; Callahan, Kelly; Stewart, Aisha; Emerson, Paul M.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Face cleanliness is a core component of the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvements) strategy for trachoma control. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to face washing may be helpful for designing effective interventions for improving facial cleanliness. Methods In April 2014, a mixed methods study including focus groups and a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Participants were asked about face washing practices, motivations for face washing, use of soap (which may reduce bacterial load), and fly control strategies. Results Overall, both knowledge and reported practice of face washing was high. Participants reported they knew that washing their own face and their children’s faces daily was important for hygiene and infection control. Although participants reported high knowledge of the importance of soap for face washing, quantitative data revealed strong variations by community in the use of soap for face washing, ranging from 4.4% to 82.2% of households reporting using soap for face washing. Cost and forgetfulness were cited as barriers to the use of soap for face washing. Keeping flies from landing on children was a commonly cited motivator for regular face washing, as was trachoma prevention. Conclusions Interventions aiming to improve facial cleanliness for trachoma prevention should focus on habit formation (to address forgetfulness) and address barriers to the use of soap, such as reducing cost. Interventions that focus solely on improving knowledge may not be effective for changing face-washing behaviors. PMID:27788186

  19. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  20. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation < 20). The limit of detection and limit of quantification varied between 0.001 µg/g and 0.092 µg/g and between 0.002 µg/g and 0.307 µg/g, respectively. The main pesticides detected were DDT, endosulfan, cypermethrin, and permethrin. All of the pesticides analyzed were detected in red pepper and green coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people.

  1. The Effects of a Locally Developed mHealth Intervention on Delivery and Postnatal Care Utilization; A Prospective Controlled Evaluation among Health Centres in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Spigt, Mark; Tekie, Michael; Abdullah, Muna; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there are studies showing that mobile phone solutions can improve health service delivery outcomes in the developed world, there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates the impact of mHealth interventions on key maternal health outcomes in low income settings. Methods A non-randomized controlled study was conducted in the Amhara region, Ethiopia in 10 health facilities (5 intervention, 5 control) together serving around 250,000 people. Health workers in the intervention group received an android phone (3 phones per facility) loaded with an application that sends reminders for scheduled visits during antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC), and educational messages on dangers signs and common complaints during pregnancy. The intervention was developed at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Primary outcomes were the percentage of women who had at least 4 ANC visits, institutional delivery and PNC visits at the health center after 12 months of implementation of the intervention. Findings Overall 933 and 1037 women were included in the cross-sectional surveys at baseline and at follow-up respectively. In addition, the medical records of 1224 women who had at least one antenatal care visit were followed in the longitudinal study. Women who had their ANC visit in the intervention health centers were significantly more likely to deliver their baby in the same health center compared to the control group (43.1% versus 28.4%; Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.98 (95%CI 1.53–2.55)). A significantly higher percentage of women who had ANC in the intervention group had PNC in the same health center compared to the control health centers (41.2% versus 21.1%: AOR: 2.77 (95%CI 2.12–3.61)). Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that a locally customized mHealth application during ANC can significantly improve delivery and postnatal care service utilization possibly through positively influencing the behavior of health workers and their

  2. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  3. The ecohydrological biotechnology (SBFS) for reduction of dioxin-induced toxicity in Asella lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaniak, M.; Zerihun Negussie, Y.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The transfer of dioxins along river continuum is a well know process which indicated permanent increase of their content in the river sediments. Despite this, there is still lack of empirical data highlighting the role of lakes and reservoirs in dioxins transfer along river continuum. Using the ecohydrology as a framework for water problem solving, the reduction of dioxins bioaccumulation in aquatic food chain should be based on two steps: 1) a reduction of dioxins emission to the water ecosystems and 2) an understanding of the role that the factors determining dioxins accumulation, transportation and transformation in the river and lake/reservoir system play for implementation of ecohydrological biotechnologies and system solutions. From limnological perspective lakes and reservoirs are considered as traps for organic and mineral sediments and bounded with them nutrients and other polluting substances. As effect of long term ecological succession the amount of sedimented matter, nutrients and loads and concentrations of pollutants usually increases. Such situation was observed in Asella lake, located in the Arsi zone of the Oromia region about 175 kilometers from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As the results of above processes the high concentration of dioxin concentrations in the sediments was observed, inducing decline in the water resources use. During this study the spatial pattern of dioxins concentration and toxicity (measured as WHO TEQ concentration) in the sediments of Asella river and lake taken before (in 2009) and after (in 2010) construction of Sequentional BioFiltering System (SBFS) were compared. The determination of dioxin concentrations were followed according to US EPA 1613 and 1668 Methods. Among the samples collected in the 2009 year, the contamination of lake sediments amounted for 127.65 ng kg-1 dry weight (d.w.), whereas concentration of dioxins in samples taken at the lake outflow decreased to the value of 26.65 ng kg-1 d.w. The WHO

  4. Who Do You Know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: An Analysis of the Entrepreneurial Environment of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    845.938.0804 References Greve, A., Salaff, J., 2003. Social networks and entrepreneurship . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 28 (1), 1–22. Lin, Nan...adapted a technique used in sociology to measure social capital called the Position Generator (Lin & Dumin, 1986; Lin et Al, 2001). This technique...circumvents the massive effort of mapping an individual’s social network before locating the social resources in it. By approaching the entrepreneur’s

  5. Distance Education for Development. Proceedings of an International Seminar (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 13-15, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakemulder, Jan R., Ed.

    An extensive final report of the proceedings of an international seminar on distance education in developing nations of Africa includes presented papers, discussion proceedings, and views of several participants. Contents include the following: notes on the origin of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa's initiative in distance…

  6. Reading Habits of Secondary School Teachers: A Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa and Dessie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2016-01-01

    This study is a small-scale study of an exploration of reading habit of high school teachers. Fifty-four teachers from five schools who teach in different schools in Addis Ababa and Dessie participated in this study. Data were collected through questionnaire and in-depth interview. The result of the study shows that reading is poorly developed…

  7. Khat Chewing Practice and Associated Factors among Adults in Ethiopia: Further Analysis Using the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Demewoz; Lakew, Yihunie

    2015-01-01

    Background Khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in Ethiopia. Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among Ethiopian adults. Methods The study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross-sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to quantify the predictors. Results The overall khat chewing prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 14.90–15.71). Regional variation was observed with the highest in Harari [(53.2% (95% CI: 43.04–63.28)] and lowest in Tigray regional state [(1.1% (95% CI: 0.72–1.66)]. Multivariable analysis showed that Islam followers were 23.8 times more likely to chew khat as compared to Orthodox followers. Being a resident in Oromiya, South Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Gambella, Harari and Dire Dawa regions had 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, 5.2 and 3.5 times higher odds of chewing khat as compared to Addis Ababa residents, respectively. Adults in the age group 45–49 years were 3.6 times more likely to chew khat as compared to 15–19 years. The middle and richest wealth quintiles were 1.3 and 1.5 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to the poorest category. Rural residents had 1.3 odds of chewing khat than urban residents. Those individuals who had occupation in sales, agriculture, service sector, skilled and unskilled manual workers were 1.6, 1.3, 2.4, 1.7 and 2.3 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to those who have no occupation. Females were 77% less likely to chew khat as compared to males. Formerly married and those experienced in child death had 1.4 and 1.2 times higher odds to chew khat as compared

  8. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, G; Gelaye, E; Negussie, H; Asmare, K

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Ethiopia, through analysis of FMD outbreak reports and the detection of antibodies, to address the possibility of establishing a disease-free zone. Serum samples collected from cattle between 2003 and 2006 for the serosurveillance of rinderpest were used for this study. The records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2002 to 2006 indicate that FMD outbreaks occurred each year in Ethiopia during this period, with the highest number in 2004, when 134 outbreaks took place. The highest rates were from the North Shoa zones of both the Oromia and Amhara regions. The serum samples were tested using the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, to identify antibodies against FMD. From a total of 4,465 sera, 10.5% (n = 467) tested positive. The highest seroprevalence was detected in samples from the Eastern zone of Rgray with 41.5%; followed by the Guji zone of Oromia and Yeka district of the city of Addis Ababa, with 32.7% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies specific to FMD virus were not detected in Gambella or Benishangul. The effects of cattle, sheep and goat density, both separately and together, were analysed with a spatial regression model, but did not have a significant effect on seroprevalence. This indicates that other factors, such as farming systems and livestock movement, play a significant role in the occurrence of FMD. Based on these study findings, it might be appropriate to establish disease-free zones in Gambella and Benishangul.

  9. Becoming and remaining community health workers: Perspectives from Ethiopia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2013-01-01

    Many global health practitioners are currently reaffirming the importance of recruiting and retaining effective community health workers (CHWs) in order to achieve major public health goals. This raises policy-relevant questions about why people become and remain CHWs. This paper addresses these questions, drawing on ethnographic work in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2009, and in Chimoio, a provincial town in central Mozambique, between 2003 and 2010. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to understand the life histories that lead people to become CHWs, their relationships with intended beneficiaries after becoming CHWs, and their social and economic aspirations. People in Ethiopia and Mozambique have faced similar political and economic challenges in the last few decades, involving war, structural adjustment, and food price inflation. Results suggest that these challenges, as well as the socio-moral values that people come to uphold through the example of parents and religious communities, influence why and how men and women become CHWs. Relationships with intended beneficiaries strongly influence why people remain CHWs, and why some may come to experience frustration and distress. There are complex reasons why CHWs come to seek greater compensation, including desires to escape poverty and to materially support families and other community members, a sense of deservingness given the emotional and social work involved in maintaining relationships with beneficiaries, and inequity vis-à-vis higher-salaried elites. Ethnographic work is needed to engage CHWs in the policy process, help shape new standards for CHW programs based on rooting out social and economic inequities, and develop appropriate solutions to complex CHW policy problems. PMID:23631778

  10. Essential and toxic metals in tea (Camellia sinensis) imported and produced in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ashenef, Ayenew

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen samples of packed tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) were purchased from supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for metal analysis. Elements were measured by FAAS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) employing external calibration curves. The levels in mg/kg dried weight basis varied from Cu: 4.7-12.9; Cd: 0.02-2.83; Pb: <0.01-2.29; Zn: 8.6-198.3; Mn: 81.7-962.2; Al: 3376.4-10,369.3; K: 7667.7-10,775; Li: 0.2-0.62; Ba: 9.4-1407.1; Mg: 1145.6-1834.1; Fe: 286.4-880.9; Ca: 1414.2-2646.0; Na: 147.1-557.7. Levels of exposure to the investigated metals by drinking tea were checked with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of the WHO/FAO. Considering the average daily consumption rate of tea alone, the possible daily intakes of Al, Ba and Mn surpass the amenability to the side effects associated with these elements like Alzheimer's disease, kidney damage and Parkinson's disease, respectively, for which drinking tea should cause awareness. The other investigated elements are in the acceptable range.

  11. Comparative assessment of lowland and highland Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayal, D. Y., Sr.; Abshare, M. W. M.; Desta, S. D.; Filho, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Desalegn Yayeh Ayal P.O.BOX 150129 Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Mobil +251910824784 Abstract Smallholder farmers' near term scenario (2010-2039) vulnerability nature and magnitude was examined using twenty-two exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vulnerability indicators. Assessment of smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability revealed the importance of comprehending exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity induces. Due to differences in level of change in rainfall, temperature, drought frequency, their environmental interaction and variations on adaptive capacity the nature and magnitude of smallholder farmers vulnerability to physical, biological and epidemiological challenges of crop and livestock production varied within and across agro-ecologies. Highlanders' sensitive relates with high population density, erosion and crop disease and pest damage occurrence. Whereas lowlanders will be more sensitive to high crop disease and pest damage, provenance of livestock disease, absence of alternative water sources, less diversified agricultural practices. However, with little variations in the magnitude and nature of vulnerability, both highlanders and lowlanders are victims of climate variability and change. Given the ever increasing population, temperature and unpredictable nature of rainfall variability, the study concluded that future adaptation strategies should capitalize on preparing smallholder farmers for both extremes- excess rainfall and flooding on the one hand and severe drought on the other.

  12. Volunteerism or Labor Exploitation? Harnessing the Volunteer Spirit to Sustain AIDS Treatment Programs in Urban Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper describes NGO efforts to encourage AIDS care volunteers to eschew material returns for their labor and instead reflect on the goodness of sacrificing to promote the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consensus analysis of motivational survey data collected from a sample of AIDS care volunteers (n=110) suggests that they strongly share a sacrificial and prosocial motivational model. These results may be explained by several factors, including the efforts of the organizations to shape volunteers’ motivations, the self-selection of volunteers, positive reinforcement in seeing one’s patients become healthy, and social desirability bias. In-depth interviews examining the motivations and behaviors of volunteers reveal a more complicated picture: even ostensibly devoted and altruistic volunteers strongly question their service commitments. The complexity and ambivalence of volunteers’ motivations reflect the profound uncertainty that they face in achieving improved socioeconomic status for themselves and their families amid widespread unemployment and sharply rising food prices. Their desires for economic opportunities explain why local NGOs exert so much effort to shape and sustain—and yet fail to completely control—their motivations. This recasts economically-insecure volunteers’ consent to donate their labor as a process of negotiation with their organizers. Future research should explore how models of health care volunteerism and volunteer motivations are shaped by individual and collective experiences in political-economic context. PMID:24077802

  13. Gasterophilosis: a major cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Adako Mulugeta; Innocent, Giles; Trawford, Andrew Francis; Reid, Stuart William James; Love, Sandy

    2012-04-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Analysis of data on rectal prolapse cases obtained from the Donkey Health and Welfare Project clinic at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, from 1995 to 2004 revealed that 83.6% (n = 177) of the cases were associated with Gasterophilus nasalis. The rest 10.7% and 5.7% were associated with work-related (overloading) cause and diarrhoea, respectively. The mean and median numbers of G. nasalis recovered from the rectum of infected donkeys were 66 and 64, respectively, with a range of 2-195. Over 100 G. nasalis larvae were recovered from the rectum of 22% of the donkeys. Circular demarcated ulcer-like and deep circumferential pits or ring-like mucosal lesions were found at the larval attachment sites. G. nasalis infection and the associated rectal prolapse were observed year round. However, the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse were significantly higher during the rainy season (P < 0.01). Age and sex of the donkeys had no significant effect on the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse (P > 0.05).

  14. Volunteerism or Labor Exploitation? Harnessing the Volunteer Spirit to Sustain AIDS Treatment Programs in Urban Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper describes NGO efforts to encourage AIDS care volunteers to eschew material returns for their labor and instead reflect on the goodness of sacrificing to promote the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consensus analysis of motivational survey data collected from a sample of AIDS care volunteers (n=110) suggests that they strongly share a sacrificial and prosocial motivational model. These results may be explained by several factors, including the efforts of the organizations to shape volunteers' motivations, the self-selection of volunteers, positive reinforcement in seeing one's patients become healthy, and social desirability bias. In-depth interviews examining the motivations and behaviors of volunteers reveal a more complicated picture: even ostensibly devoted and altruistic volunteers strongly question their service commitments. The complexity and ambivalence of volunteers' motivations reflect the profound uncertainty that they face in achieving improved socioeconomic status for themselves and their families amid widespread unemployment and sharply rising food prices. Their desires for economic opportunities explain why local NGOs exert so much effort to shape and sustain-and yet fail to completely control-their motivations. This recasts economically-insecure volunteers' consent to donate their labor as a process of negotiation with their organizers. Future research should explore how models of health care volunteerism and volunteer motivations are shaped by individual and collective experiences in political-economic context.

  15. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  16. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  17. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740

  18. Ethiopia: The Search for Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    University, op. cit., p.70. 13 ••"> The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic which is spoken by about half of the population. However, in the...language, Amharic , and English. About 907c of the Ethiopian people are engaged in agriculture. The remaining are principally functionaries of the...alphabet, and the unfamiliarity by about half of the population with the official state language, Amharic . Although considerable progress has been

  19. Rights of the Child in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonveld, Ben; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Ethiopia. The report's introduction asserts that despite the considerable lip service being paid by Ethiopia's…

  20. Appraisal of Adult Literacy Programs in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaw, Teshome G.

    This paper critically examines the goals, processes, resources, and effectiveness of Ethiopia's efforts to teach its people to read. Of the estimated 27 million people living in Ethiopia, only ten percent are literate. In recognition of this, and with the hypothesis that literacy skills are prerequisites for building a just and egalitarian…

  1. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  2. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusák, Michal

    2016-04-01

    visualization in GIS identifies a larger number of shorter lineaments than lineaments by visual interpretation. Key words: valley network, lineaments, faults, azimuth, Jemma River basin, Ethiopian Highlands GANI, N., D., ABDELSALAM, M., G., GERA, S., GANI, M., R. (2009): Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northweastern Ethiopian Plateau. Geologic Journal, 44, s. 30-56. KAZMIN, V. (1975): Geological Map of Ethiopia. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Adrie Ababa, Ethiopia. MANGESHA, T., CHERNET, T., HARO, W. (1996): Geological Map Of Ethiopia (1: 250,000). Geological Survey of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PIK, R., MARTY, B., CARIGNAN, J., LAVÉ, J. (2003): Stability of the Upper Nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduces from (U/Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the Afar plume dome. and Planetary Science Letters, 215, s. 73 - 88.

  3. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining

  4. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  5. Spatial prediction of wheat Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici) disease severity in central Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakie, Tewodros; Kumar, Sunil; Senay, Gabriel; Takele, Abera; Lencho, Alemu

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have reported the presence of wheat septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici; SLB) disease in Ethiopia. However, the environmental factors associated with SLB disease, and areas under risk of SLB disease, have not been studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that environmental variables can adequately explain observed SLB disease severity levels in West Shewa, Central Ethiopia. Specifically, we identified 50 environmental variables and assessed their relationships with SLB disease severity. Geographically referenced disease severity data were obtained from the field, and linear regression and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modeling approaches were used for developing spatial models. Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived vegetation indices and land surface temperature (LST) variables highly influenced SLB model predictions. Soil and topographic variables did not sufficiently explain observed SLB disease severity variation in this study. Our results show that wheat growing areas in Central Ethiopia, including highly productive districts, are at risk of SLB disease. The study demonstrates the integration of field data with modeling approaches such as BRT for predicting the spatial patterns of severity of a pathogenic wheat disease in Central Ethiopia. Our results can aid Ethiopia's wheat disease monitoring efforts, while our methods can be replicated for testing related hypotheses elsewhere.

  6. Health and disease in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Finseth, K A; Finseth, F

    1975-05-01

    Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley.

  7. Rural health development in Ethiopia. Problems of utilization of traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Slikkerveer, L J

    1982-01-01

    In Ethiopia, a pluralistic complex of multiple and simultaneous medical care utilization has constituted the Ethiopian variant of medical pluralism in East Africa, where through a process of acculturation, Cushitic, Arabic and Amharic medical traditions co-exist with cosmopolitan medicine. On request of the central government, joint medical-sociological and anthropological research between in Universities of Addis Ababa and Leiden was conducted in the Eastern Highlands with the main objective to formulate recommendations for the improvement and extension of the health care facilities in the rural areas. The situational analysis revealed relatively low utilization rates of the "official' health services by the local population. Consequently a desire was expressed to undertake health services development research, particularly centered upon the functioning of the various medical systems and sub-systems in Hararghe. In order to assess the overall pattern of illness behaviour special consideration was given to the question "when, and to what extent do people use the available medical systems?". After the completion of the subsequent subjective and objective health surveys the concept of "distance reduction' between provider and consumer of health care was introduced in order to increase the utilization of the formal health services, taking into account the problems related to geographical, economic and socio-cultural distance. In this paper, a description will be given of the existing alternative health care resources. In addition, the positive contribution which the concept of medical pluralism could provide to rural health planning will be examined within the context of the research project. This will include a discussion of the problems encountered in connection with the utilization of traditional healers and the possibilities for their incorporation into a future syncretic type of national health care delivery system.

  8. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  9. Insights into rifting from SKS splitting and receiver functions: examples from Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayele, A.; Kendall, M.; Stuart, G.

    2001-12-01

    Rifting in northern Ethiopia represents a transition from continental- to incipient oceanic- rifting. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of the role of asthenospheric dynamics in this transition, we re-analyse and enhance SKS splitting at stations distributed along the E.African Rift. New observations of shear-wave splitting and receiver functions are investigated at two Ethiopian stations near Addis Ababa, one broad-band (FURI) and the other short-period (AAE) close to the rift. Stations on or near the E. African Rift show the polarisation of the fast shear-wave (φ ) aligned parallel to the rift axis. However, the magnitude of the splitting increases northward and may be explained by the higher melt production observed in the Ethiopian part of the rift. Stations in Kenya show smallest splitting values ( ~ 1s.), whilst the Djibouti station, ATD, shows the largest splitting (1.6s.). The Ethiopian results show a constancy in δ t and φ with respect to backazimuth, thus suggesting a single anisotropic layer beneath the stations. There is no observed correlation in φ with APM direction. Shear-wave splitting in local events recorded at FURI also reveal anisotropy in the crust with a similar orientation to the SKS results. Receiver function analysis at FURI and AAE supports evidence from refraction experiments of thick crust ( ~38km) in the region of continental rifting. There is also evidence for a deeper interface, ~60km below Moho, in the broadband FURI data, but not in the short-period AAE data, thus suggesting this may not be a sharp interface. This interface may mark the base of the lithosphere in this region. Azimuthal asymmetry in the receiver functions suggests the layer is dipping away from the rift and anisotropy may be affecting the results. One interpretation is that the anisotropy is due to aligned melt in upper c.90km of lithosphere. A <1% volume fraction of melt aligned in vertical ellipsoidal pockets generates sufficient splitting to

  10. Health Care Seeking Behavior in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Begashaw, Bayu; Tessema, Fasil; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural and urban populations have disparate socio-demographic and economic characteristics, which have an influence on equity and their health seeking behavior. We examined and compared the health care seeking behavior for perceived morbidity between urban and rural households in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural households living in Esera district of Southwest Ethiopia. A random sample of 388 head of households (126 urban and 262 rural) were selected. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection with face-to-face interview. In addition to descriptive methods, binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with health seeking behavior at p value of less than 0.05. Results Of the sample household heads, 377 (97.2%) (119 urban and 258 rural) were successfully interviewed. Among these, 58.4% (95% CI, 53.3–63.3%) of the households sought care from modern health care that was lower among rural (48.1%) than urban (80.7%) households. The prevalence of self-treatment was 35.3% in urban and 46.1% in rural households. Among the factors considered for modern health care utilization, higher monthly income (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.04–15.4), perceived severity of disease (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8), acute duration of disease (AOR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.4–33.3) and short distance from health facilities (AOR, 3; 95% CI, 1.2–8.4) among rural and being married (AOR, 11.3; 95% CI, 1.2–110.2) and perceived severity of disease (AOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1–10.9) among urban households showed statistically significant association. Conclusions The general health seeking behavior of households on perceived morbidity was satisfactory but lower in rural compared to urban households. Self-medication was also widely practiced in the study area. The findings signal the need to work more on accessibility and promotion of healthcare seeking behavior especially among rural households

  11. The Role of Elementary School Teachers in Curriculum Development and Implementation in Selected Government Elementary Schools of Addis Ababa. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferede, Yigzaw

    The role of Ethiopian elementary school teachers in curriculum development and implementation was studied in twelve government schools in Addis Ababa through a questionnaire. The responses of 110 teachers were given to questions concerning the involvement of teachers in curriculum development, their relationship with the curriculum development…

  12. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  13. Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-François; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2011-12-01

    To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

  14. Literacy and Development: A Study of Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjostrom, Margareta; Sjostrom, Rolf

    The Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia, begun in 1962 and concentrated in rural areas for the benefit of adults, was evaluated in a study of 466 program participants and 66 additional adult villagers. The study focused on student achievement, teaching methods, benefits experienced by participants, and the literacy campaign's role…

  15. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  16. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  17. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept

  18. Morbidity pattern among refugees in Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bisrat, F; Berhane, Y; Mamo, A; Asefa, E

    1995-11-01

    The population of refugees in eastern Africa and the health problems affecting them are enormous. This study was conducted to document the morbidity pattern among refugees in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted to document the morbidity pattern among refugees in eastern Ethiopia. The study utilized a descriptive cross sectional design. Data were collected using a uniform format from all refugee camps in the eastern Ethiopia. Respiratory tract infection and diarrhoeal diseases were identified to be the major causes of morbidity, accounting for 31.8% and 27.3% respectively in children under five years, and for 34.9% and 8.5% respectively in the other age groups. The findings were consistent with other studies done in refugee populations elsewhere. Universality of the problems was noted and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach is recommended to alleviate the health problems of refugees.

  19. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis treatment outcome and its determinants in northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Welay, Getachew Mebrahtu; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for the high mortality rate of this condition in resource-limited settings such as Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify the proportion of poor VL treatment outcomes in northwest Ethiopia and to evaluate the determinants associated with poor outcomes. METHODS A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital in northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the determinants of VL treatment outcomes. Adjusted odds ratio (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and p-values <0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS The proportion of poor treatment outcomes was 23.7%. Late diagnosis (≥29 days) (aOR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.22 to 8.46), severe illness at admission (inability to walk) (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.40) and coinfection with VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (aOR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.40 to 5.20) were found to be determinants of poor VL treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Poor treatment outcomes, such as death, treatment failure, and non-adherence, were found to be common. Special attention must be paid to severely ill and VL/HIV-coinfected patients. To improve VL treatment outcomes, the early diagnosis and treatment of VL patients is recommended. PMID:28092934

  1. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Hiwot; Petros, Beyene; Yamuah, Lawrence; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Elhassan, Ibrahim; Muchohi, Simon; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. Methods An in vivo drug efficacy study was conducted in Debre Zeit from June to August 2006. Eighty-seven patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax malaria, aged between 8 months and 52 years, were recruited and treated under supervision with CQ (25 mg/kg over three days). Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed during the 28 day follow-up period. CQ and desethylchloroquine (DCQ) blood and serum concentrations were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in patients who showed recurrent parasitaemia. Results Of the 87 patients recruited in the study, one was lost to follow-up and three were excluded due to P. falciparum infection during follow-up. A total of 83 (95%) of the study participants completed the follow-up. On enrolment, 39.8% had documented fever and 60.2% had a history of fever. The geometric mean parasite density of the patients was 7045 parasites/μl. Among these, four patients had recurrent parasitaemia on Day 28. The blood CQ plus DCQ concentrations of these four patients were all above the minimal effective concentration (> 100 ng/ml). Conclusion Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax parasites are emerging in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. A multi-centre national survey is needed to better understand the extent of P. vivax resistance to CQ in Ethiopia. PMID:18959774

  2. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  3. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, My Huong; Habib, Ndema; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Harries, Jane; Iyengar, Kirti; Moodley, Jennifer; Constant, Deborah; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Ethiopia, India and South Africa. Methods Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam. Results Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio <0.1 at all three sites when used by clinician assessors. Positive likelihood ratios were 4.3 in Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa. Conclusion The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability. PMID:26731176

  4. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  5. Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-medication patterns vary among different populations, and are influenced by many factors. No review has been done that comprehensively expresses self-medication practice in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on self-medication practice in Ethiopia. Materials and methods Databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and Hinari) were searched for published studies on the practice of self-medication in Ethiopia without restriction in the year of publication or methodology. Some studies were also identified through manual Google search. Primary search terms were “self medication”, “Ethiopia”, “self care”, “non-prescription”, “OTC drug use”, “drug utilization”, and “drug hoarding”. Studies that measured knowledge only or attitude only or beliefs only and did not determine the practice of self-medication were excluded. Results The database search produced a total of 450 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 articles were found suitable for the review. All studies were cross-sectional in nature. The prevalence of self-medication varied from 12.8% to 77.1%, with an average of 36.8%. Fever/headache, gastrointestinal tract diseases, and respiratory diseases were the commonest illnesses/symptoms for which self-medication was taken. The major reasons for practicing self-medication were previous experience of treating a similar illness and feeling that the illness was mild. Analgesics/antipyretics, antimicrobials, gastrointestinal drugs, and respiratory drugs were the common drug classes used in self-medication. Mainly, these drugs were obtained from drug-retail outlets. The use of self-medication was commonly suggested by pharmacy professionals and friends/relatives. Conclusion Self-medication practice is prevalent in Ethiopia and varies in different populations and regions of the country. Some of the self-medication practices are harmful and need

  6. Determinants of southeast Ethiopia seasonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    The bi-modal climate of SE Ethiopia shares attributes with East Africa, notably that El Niño enhances rainfall, particularly in Sep-Nov season. In this study SE Ethiopia's continuous and seasonal rainfall relationships to global climate are studied to extend our knowledge of its determinants and predictability. A statistical forecast algorithm for the Sep-Nov short rains accounts for 54% of variance in 1980-2010. The Apr-Jun predictors include South Atlantic sea surface temperature, east Indian Ocean sea level air pressure and China upper zonal wind. Cooling in the South Atlantic coincides with a strengthened sub-tropical anticyclone, and later to changes in low level winds that bring orographic convection to SE Ethiopia. The slower El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interacts with the faster Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), but both signals mature too late for direct use in statistical prediction of Sep-Nov rainfall. Composite differences of the upper divergent circulation exhibit a global wave-2 pattern consistent with satellite-observed convection. One key feature is a zonal gradient in upper velocity potential over the Indian Ocean corresponding with a zonal atmospheric circulation. One outcome of this research is useful forecasts of SE Ethiopia Sep-Nov rainfall that will assist in agricultural planning.

  7. Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2013-05-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

  8. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

  9. Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2007-01-01

    This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

  10. Health and Disease in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Finseth, Katherine Alden; Finseth, Frederick

    1975-01-01

    Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:1173955

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from inpatients with urinary tract infections in hospitals in Addis Ababa and Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Ringertz, S.; Bellete, B.; Karlsson, I.; Ohman, G.; Gedebou, M.; Kronvall, G.

    1990-01-01

    A high level of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria has been detected at the Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa, for many years. In contrast, at the Karolinska Hospital (KH), Stockholm, the level of resistance is low. Reported are the results of an investigation of the correlation between antibiotic usage and the antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in these hospitals. At TAH the strains of E. coli isolated were considerably more resistant to all seven antibiotics tested. The level of multiresistance was 63% at TAH and 7% at KH. There were no significant differences in the total amount of antibiotics used in the two hospitals, except for antituberculosis agents. The strain biotypes and antibiograms, together with the length of patients' hospitalization before a positive urine culture was obtained, suggest that the majority of the strains from TAH were of nosocomial origin. PMID:2189587

  12. Dry Blood Spots a Reliable Method for Measurement of Hepatitis B Viral Load in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stene-Johansen, Kathrine; Yaqoob, Nadeem; Overbo, Joakim; Aberra, Hanna; Desalegn, Hailemichael; Berhe, Nega; Johannessen, Asgeir

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis B virus (HBV) quantification is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis B, both to determine treatment eligibility and in the monitoring of treatment effect. This test, however, is rarely available in resource-limited settings due to high costs and stringent requirements for shipment and storage of plasma. Dried Blood Spots (DBS) can be a convenient alternative to plasma, but its use for HBV monitoring has not been investigated under real-life conditions in Africa. Methods The performance of DBS in HBV quantification was investigated using a modified commercial test (Abbott RealTime HBV assay). Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from an HBV positive cohort in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. DBS were stored at ambient temperature for 4–39 days before shipment to the laboratory. Results Twenty-six paired samples were selected covering the total range of quantification, from 2.14 log IU/ml to >7 log IU/ml. HBV was detected in 21 of 21 (100%) DBS from patients with a corresponding plasma viral load above 2.70 log IU/ml. The mean difference between plasma and DBS was 0.59 log IU/ml, and the correlation was strong (R2 = 0.92). In stability studies there was no significant change in DBS viral load after storage at room temperature for up to 12 weeks. Conclusions This study suggests that DBS can be a feasible and reliable alternative to plasma for quantification of HBV in resource-limited settings. DBS can expand access to antiviral treatment for patients in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27820845

  13. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  14. Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    institutions who generously shared their time, exper- tise, and knowledge about Ethiopia. These people include Paul B . Henze, The Rand Corporation...editorial review and managed production. Joan C. Cook compiled the index. Malinda B . Neale of the Library of Congress Printing and Processing Section...30 xi 5 Ihc ~tri Atti A~i No~h~x .lIa .\\i I 0 1 poviapfiv and tDrainiati . 7 7 Population b , .Xi and • m , POW. .......... . ...... ,• 8

  15. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  16. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  17. Observations of precipitable water vapour over complex topography of Ethiopia from ground-based GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The main cause of the

  18. Development of a scalable mental healthcare plan for a rural district in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Alem, Atalay; Selamu, Medhin; Giorgis, Tedla W.; Shibre, Teshome; Teferra, Solomon; Tegegn, Teketel; Breuer, Erica; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing evidence for the implementation and scaling up of mental healthcare in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Ethiopia is an urgent priority. Aims To outline a mental healthcare plan (MHCP), as a scalable template for the implementation of mental healthcare in rural Ethiopia. Method A mixed methods approach was used to develop the MHCP for the three levels of the district health system (community, health facility and healthcare organisation). Results The community packages were community case detection, community reintegration and community inclusion. The facility packages included capacity building, decision support and staff well-being. Organisational packages were programme management, supervision and sustainability. Conclusions The MHCP focused on improving demand and access at the community level, inclusive care at the facility level and sustainability at the organisation level. The MHCP represented an essential framework for the provision of integrated care and may be a useful template for similar LMIC. PMID:26447174

  19. Opportunities for Enhancing Seasonal Prediction in Ethiopia and Challenges in Addressing Sectoral Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, M. T.; Block, P.

    2015-12-01

    Ethiopia's National Meteorological Association (NMA) regularly issues season-ahead precipitation predictions nationally in support of sectoral applications including agriculture, reservoir management, and disaster risk management. Current NMA prediction techniques rely strongly on an analogue approach conditioned on the current El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) state. We explore simple to complex techniques for improving these ENSO-based predictions, building on current methods. We will also briefly discuss stated disconnects between NMA's predictions and adoption into sectoral decision-making.

  20. What Time is it? Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Wilson, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and explored the sociocultural context in which they relate to their regimen requirements. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 105 patients on ART and observations held at the study clinic. We analyzed data using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings indicate that study participants are highly adherent to dose but less adherent to dose schedule. Strict dose time instructions were reported as stressful and unrealistic. The discrepancy between adherence to dose and dose schedule could be explained by time perception, difficulty with the strictness of medication regimens, or beliefs about dose timing adherence. Care providers should acknowledge the complexities of medication practices and engage in shared decision-making to incorporate patients’ perspectives and identify effective interventions. PMID:26873491

  1. Molecular surveillance of mutations in the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Gabon and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebru, Tamirat; Hailu, Asrat; Kremsner, Peter G; Kun, Jürgen FJ; Grobusch, Martin P

    2006-01-01

    Background Atovaquone is part of the antimalarial drug combination atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®) and inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of the electron transport chain in Plasmodium spp. Molecular modelling showed that amino acid mutations are clustered around a putative atovaquone-binding site resulting in a reduced binding affinity of atovaquone for plasmodial cytochrome b, thus resulting in drug resistance. Methods The prevalence of cytochrome b point mutations possibly conferring atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in atovaquone treatment-naïve patient cohorts from Lambaréné, Gabon and from South Western Ethiopia was assessed. Results Four/40 (10%) mutant types (four different single polymorphisms, one leading to an amino acid change from M to I in a single case) in Gabonese isolates, but all 141/141 isolates were wild type in Ethiopia were found. Conclusion In the absence of drug pressure, spontaneous and possibly resistance-conferring mutations are rare. PMID:17118179

  2. Development of a Community-Based Rehabilitation Intervention for People with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mideksa, Gemechu; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; De Silva, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral strategy to improve the functioning and quality of life of people with disabilities. The RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of CBR for people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the components of CBR that are both feasible and likely to prove effective in low and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia are unclear. Methods In this study intervention development work was undertaken to design a CBR intervention that is acceptable and feasible in the local context. The development work consisted of five phases. 1: Identify potential components of CBR for schizophrenia, 2: Situational analysis, 3: Determine feasibility of CBR (Theory of Change workshops with experts and local stakeholders), 4: Determine acceptability of CBR (16 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with people with schizophrenia, caregivers, health workers and community leaders) and 5: Synthesise results to finalise intervention. A Theory of Change map was constructed showing the causal pathway for how we expect CBR to achieve its impact. Results People with schizophrenia in rural Ethiopia experience family conflict, difficulty participating in work and community life, and stigma. Stakeholders perceived CBR to be acceptable and useful to address these problems. The focus of CBR will be on the individual developing the skills and confidence to perform their previous or desired roles and activities. To ensure feasibility, non-health professionals will be trained to deliver CBR and provide supervision, rather than mental health specialists. Novel components of CBR for schizophrenia included family intervention and dealing with distressing symptoms. Microfinance was excluded due to concerns about stress and exploitation. Community mobilisation was viewed as essential to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of CBR. Conclusion

  3. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276

  4. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m3) and median (72 μg/m3) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels. PMID:20886061

  5. Experiences with smallpox eradication in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2011-12-30

    The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva.

  6. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Eilerts, Gary; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  7. Reduction in child mortality in Ethiopia: analysis of data from demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Tanya; Rohde, Sarah; Besada, Donela; Kerber, Kate; Manda, Samuel; Loveday, Marian; Nsibande, Duduzile; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Kinney, Mary; Zembe, Wanga; Leon, Natalie; Rudan, Igor; Degefie, Tedbabe; Sanders, David

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine changes in under–5 mortality, coverage of child survival interventions and nutritional status of children in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011. Using the Lives Saved Tool, the impact of changes in coverage of child survival interventions on under–5 lives saved was estimated. Methods Estimates of child mortality were generated using three Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2011. Coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions were calculated and the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2011. Results The mortality rate in children younger than 5 years decreased rapidly from 218 child deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval 183 to 252) in the period 1987–1991 to 88 child deaths per 1000 live births in the period 2007–2011 (78 to 98). The prevalence of moderate or severe stunting in children aged 6–35 months also declined significantly. Improvements in the coverage of interventions relevant to child survival in rural areas of Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011 were found for tetanus toxoid, DPT3 and measles vaccination, oral rehydration solution (ORS) and care–seeking for suspected pneumonia. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 60 700 child deaths averted in 2011, primarily attributable to decreases in wasting rates (18%), stunting rates (13%) and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions (13%). Conclusions Improvements in the nutritional status of children and increases in coverage of high impact interventions most notably WASH and ORS have contributed to the decline in under–5 mortality in Ethiopia. These proximal determinants however do not fully explain the mortality reduction which is plausibly also due to the synergistic effect of major child health and nutrition policies and delivery strategies. PMID:27175280

  8. Drought, conflict and children’s undernutrition in Ethiopia 2000–2013: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Speybroeck, Niko; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the prevalence of childhood wasting and to investigate the effects of drought and conflict on wasting in crisis-affected areas within Ethiopia. Methods We searched the Complex Emergency Database for nutrition surveys carried out in Ethiopia over the period 2000–2013. We extracted data on the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z-scores below –2) among children aged 6–59 months for areas of Ethiopia that had sufficient data available. Data on any conflict events (irrespective of magnitude or impact) and episodes of seasonal drought affecting the survey areas were extracted from publicly available data sources. Random-effects Bayesian meta-analysis was used to synthesize the evidence from 231 small-scale surveys. Findings From the total sample of 175 607 children analysed, the pooled number of children wasted was 21 709. The posterior median prevalence of wasting was 11.0% (95% credible interval, CrI: 10.3–11.7) over the 14-year period. Compared with areas unaffected by drought, the estimated prevalence of wasting was higher in areas affected by moderate levels of drought (posterior odds ratio, OR: 1.34; 95% CrI: 1.05–1.72) but similar in severe drought-affected areas (OR: 0.96; 95% CrI: 0.68–1.35). Although the pooled prevalence of wasting was higher in conflict-affected than unaffected areas, the difference was not plausible (OR: 1.02; 95% CrI: 0.82–1.26). Conclusion Despite an overall declining trend, a wasting problem persists among children in Ethiopia. Conflict events did not have a major impact on childhood wasting. Nutrition interventions should go beyond severe drought-prone areas to incorporate areas where moderate droughts occur. PMID:28250509

  9. The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, P; Haile, D; Kohls, E

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total population = 10,183) were interviewed. Questions focused on what to do to put out the fire, what to do for first aid for a burn, the major cause of adult and childhood burns, and a history of burn in any household member. SETTING--The study was conducted at Attat Hospital and in the surrounding Gurage-Chaha Region of West Shoa Province of Ethiopia. STUDY SUBJECTS--There were 271 burn inpatients during the 7 year period from 1983-1989; 163 households were selected for interview; there were no refusals. MAIN RESULTS--During the 7 year period the cost of tertiary inpatient burn treatment at Attat Hospital has been estimated to be US$86,366.72, of which the hospital absorbed 66%. From community based information the cumulative incidence of burns in this population was found to be 5-11%. The absence of a cumulative increase in burns over time in men suggests that female respondents may not fully recall burn histories in adult male household members. The study population possess inadequate knowledge regarding burn prevention and burn first aid. Deleterious traditional compounds were used on 32% of burn patients in the villages. CONCLUSIONS--Since most burns are related to household fires, generally in the domain of women in rural Ethiopia, women's groups may be the most appropriate setting for education on burn prevention and first aid. Burn prevention and first aid education should also be recognised as a priority in schools and in the training of community health workers. PMID:8436886

  10. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Sifrash Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05-46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34-34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers.

  11. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gelaw, Sifrash Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05–46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34–34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers. PMID:26949546

  12. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland.

  13. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Ethiopia Predominantly Caused by Strains Belonging to the Delhi/CAS Lineage and Newly Identified Ethiopian Clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Merker, Matthias; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.; Niemann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, newly defined clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, namely Ethiopia 1–3 and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strains, and other clades associated with pulmonary TB (PTB) were identified in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated whether these new strain types exhibit an increased ability to cause TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) and raised the question, if particular MTBC strains derived from TBLN patients in northern Ethiopia are genetically adapted to their local hosts and/or to the TBLN. Methods Genotyping of 196 MTBC strains isolated from TBLN patients was performed by spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. A statistical analysis was carried out to see possible associations between patient characteristics and phylogenetic MTBC strain classification. Results Among 196 isolates, the majority of strains belonged to the Delhi/CAS (38.8%) lineage, followed by Ethiopia 1 (9.7%), Ethiopia 3 (8.7%), Ethiopia H37RV-like (8.2%), Ethiopia 2 and Haarlem (7.7% each), URAL (3.6%), Uganda l and LAM (2% each), S-type (1.5%), X-type (1%), and 0.5% isolates of TUR, EAI, and Beijing genotype, respectively. Overall, 15 strains (7.7%) could not be allocated to a previously described phylogenetic lineage. The distribution of MTBC lineages is similar to that found in studies of PTB samples. The cluster rate (35%) in this study is significantly lower (P = 0.035) compared to 45% in the study of PTB in northwestern Ethiopia. Conclusion In the studied area, lymph node samples are dominated by Dehli/CAS genotype strains and strains of largely not yet defined clades based on MIRU-VNTR 24-loci nomenclature. We found no indication that strains of particular genotypes are specifically associated with TBLN. However, a detailed analysis of specific genetic variants of the locally contained Ethiopian clades by whole genome sequencing may reveal new insights into the host-pathogen co

  14. On a mission: training traditional birth attendants in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ciolino, Alice

    2011-06-01

    Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.

  15. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  16. Assessment of client satisfaction in labor and delivery services at a maternity referral hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Tadele; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Bisetegne, Daniel; Habte, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients perception about service quality shapes their confidence with regard to use of the available health care facility. This study is aimed to assess the client`s satisfaction in a maternal health care setting. Methods This is an institution based cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 423 postpartum women were interviewed. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Results The proportion of mothers who are completely satisfied with health care ranges between 2.4 to 21%. Pain control was the poorest source of satisfaction with 82% reporting dissatisfaction. Provider's communication with clients yielded complete satisfaction rates ranging between 0.7 to 26%. Inadequate information about the drug prescribed and explanation of procedures to be done to the client were found to be major causes of dissatisfaction. The complete satisfaction rate with environmental factor of the hospital was between 3.3 to 40.2%. Age of the client, educational status, income of the client and client's address away from Addis Ababa were found to be the predictors of client satisfaction. Provider's attitude and communication, as well as longer duration of stay in the ward were independent predictors of client satisfaction. Conclusion Pain management, client privacy and client provider communication need to be addressed to ensure the satisfaction of maternity clients. The clients need to be involved in the management of their own health problems. PMID:25018826

  17. Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time

  18. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of

  19. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle at slaughter and beef carcasses at retail shops in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. Methods: Various samples we...

  20. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Tol, Azar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kebede, Abebaw; Karimi, Mehrdad; Kassa, Desta

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1-2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1-2 months after treatment initiation) and end point (6 months after treatment initiation) using the 10-item Kessler (K-10) scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1-2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67-8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83-15.65), being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45-7.53), having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25-6.99), and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44-7.97) were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient (AOR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.17-7.75) and

  1. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  2. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribew, Ketema; Tekeste, Zinaye; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P<0.05). The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S. haematobium infected children showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community. PMID:23620856

  3. Assessment of Medication Use among University Students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The extent, nature, and determinants of medication use of individuals can be known from drug utilization studies. Objectives. This study intended to determine medication consumption, sharing, storage, and disposal practices of university students in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 university students selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Pearson's Chi-square test of independence was conducted with P < 0.05 taken as statistically significant. Results. At 95.3% response rate, the prevalences of medication consumption and sharing were 35.3% (N = 136) and 38.2% (N = 147), respectively. One hundred (26%) respondents admitted that they often keep leftover medications for future use while the rest (N = 285, 74%) discard them primarily into toilets (N = 126, 44.2%). Evidence of association existed between medication taking and year of study (P = 0.048), medication sharing and sex (P = 0.003), and medication sharing and year of study (P = 0.015). Conclusion. There is a high prevalence of medication consumption, medication sharing, and inappropriate disposal practices which are influenced by sex and educational status of the university students. Thus medication use related educational interventions need to be given to students in general. PMID:28393101

  4. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2009 in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. A total of 30,040 individuals 15 years or older in 10,882 households were screened for TB lymphadenitis. Any individual 15 years or older with lumps in the neck, armpits or groin up on interview were considered TB lymphadenitis suspect. The diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis was established when acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy of fine needle aspiration (FNA) sample, culture or cytology suggested TB. HIV counseling and testing was offered to all TB lymphadenitis suspects. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 15. Results Complete data were available for 27,597 individuals. A total of 87 TB lymphadenitis suspects were identified. Most of the TB lymphadenitis suspects were females (72.4%). Sixteen cases of TB lymphadenitis were confirmed. The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis was thus 58.0 per 100,000 people (16/27,597) (95% CI 35.7-94.2). Individuals who had a contact history with chronic coughers (OR 5.58, 95% CI 1.23-25.43) were more likely to have TB lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes with caseous FNA were more likely to be positive for TB lymphadenitis (OR 5.46, 95% CI 1.69-17.61). Conclusion The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Gilgel Gibe is similar with the WHO estimates for Ethiopia. Screening of TB lymphadenitis particularly for family members who have contact with chronic coughers is recommended. Health extension workers could be trained to screen and refer TB lymphadenitis suspects using simple methods. PMID:22770435

  5. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue.

  6. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Viney, Kerri; McBryde, Emma S.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. Methods An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran’s I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS. Results A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population) and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population) districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04) and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99) in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering. Conclusion Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male), was detected in the border

  7. Timing of volcanism and initiation of rifting in Omo-Turkana Depression, Southwestern Ethiopia: Evidence from Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbello, A.; Kidane, T.; Brown, F.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract This Paleomagnetic study was carried out on thin widely spread lava flows of Gombe Group basalts from the lower Omo Valley in southwestern Ethiopia. The objective of the study is to integrate paleomagnetic results with previous geochronological data to know timing of volcanism and to infer the time for which the present architecture of the basin was attained. 80 oriented core samples were taken from nine sites in two field trips. Rock magnetic, petrology and paleomagnetic studies were done in the laboratory of Earth Sciences at Addis Ababa University. Pilot specimens were subjected to alternating field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetization and acquisition experiments. The Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) direction comprises two vector components in most samples. The first component of magnetization was easily erased at 5 to 25mT AF demagnetization and 120°C to 250°C TH demagnetization. A step wise increasing application of magnetic field to selected specimens revealed a saturation magnetization at about 300°C. The magnetization curve results from the acquisition experiment together with TH demagnetization of the same specimens and AF demagnetization results indicates that titanomagnetite is the dominant magnetic carrier. About 50% of magnetization is removed between Temperature ranges of 2500C and 4300C suggesting pseudo single domains as a primary carrier of magnetic remanence. From a total of nine sites, six sites show reversed polarity and two sites show normal polarity. One site has been removed because of samples from that site may have been affected by lightning. The normal and reversed polarities are 1800 apart thus they are antipodal to one another. The overall mean direction for 6 sites of reversed polarity is (DS=186.1, IS=-1.9,KS=38.8, α95=10.9) where as the two sites with normal polarity yield (DS=348.4, IS=4.6, K=378.9, α95=12.9).By using the available upper age control of Moiti tuff (3.98Ma) and Naibar tuff (4.02 Ma) which have never

  8. Child Schooling in Ethiopia: The Role of Maternal Autonomy

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Itismita

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population. PMID:27942039

  9. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in dog and cat fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia.

  10. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204

  11. The effect of dams and seasons on malaria incidence and anopheles abundance in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance. Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p = 0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p < 0.01). The malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, was however more abundant in villages nearer to the dam reservoir. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia. PMID:23566411

  12. Barbers' knowledge and practice about occupational biological hazards was low in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers’ profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. Results Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18%) had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3%) were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. Conclusion Barbers’ practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is required toward prevention of

  13. Childhood Diarrhea Exhibits Spatiotemporal Variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan Spatial Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Detecting clusters and trends of childhood diarrhea is important to designing effective interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate spatiotemporal clustering and seasonal variability of childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective record review of childhood diarrhea was conducted using quarterly reported data to the district health office for the seven years period beginning July 1, 2007. Thirty three districts were included and geo-coded in this study. Spatial, temporal and space-time scan spatial statistics were employed to identify clusters of childhood diarrhea. Smoothing using a moving average was applied to visualize the trends and seasonal pattern of childhood diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel® and SaTScan programs. The maps were plotted using ArcGIS 10.0. Results Childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia exhibits statistical evidence of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clustering, with seasonal patterns and decreasing temporal trends observed in the study area. A most likely purely spatial cluster was found in the East Gojjam administrative zone of Gozamin district (LLR = 7123.89, p <0.001). The most likely spatiotemporal cluster was detected in all districts of East Gojjam zone and a few districts of the West Gojjam zone (LLR = 24929.90, p<0.001), appearing from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011. One high risk period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 (LLR = 9655.86, p = 0.001) was observed in all districts. Peak childhood diarrhea cases showed a seasonal trend, occurring more frequently from January to March and April to June. Conclusion Childhood diarrhea did not occur at random. It has spatiotemporal variation and seasonal patterns with a decreasing temporal trend. Accounting for the spatiotemporal variation identified in the study areas is advised for the prevention and control of

  14. Teleconnections between Ethiopian rainfall variability and global SSTs: observations and methods for model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degefu, Mekonnen Adnew; Rowell, David P.; Bewket, Woldeamlak

    2016-06-01

    Rainfall variability in Ethiopia has significant effects on rainfed agriculture and hydropower, so understanding its association with slowly varying global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is potentially important for prediction purposes. We provide an overview of the seasonality and spatial variability of these teleconnections across Ethiopia. A quasi-objective method is employed to define coherent seasons and regions of SST-rainfall teleconnections for Ethiopia. We identify three seasons (March-May, MAM; July-September, JAS; and October-November, ON), which are similar to those defined by climatological rainfall totals. We also identify three new regions (Central and western Ethiopia, CW-Ethiopia; Southern Ethiopia, S-Ethiopia; and Northeast Ethiopia, NE-Ethiopia) that are complementary to those previously defined here based on distinct SST-rainfall teleconnections that are useful when predicting interannual anomalies. JAS rainfall over CW-Ethiopia is negatively associated with SSTs over the equatorial east Pacific and Indian Ocean. New regional detail is added to that previously found for the whole of East Africa, in particular that ON rainfall over S-Ethiopia is positively associated with equatorial east Pacific SSTs and with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Also, SST-to-rainfall correlations for other season-regions, and specifically for MAM in all regions, are found to be negligible. The representation of these teleconnections in the HadGEM2 and HadGEM3-GA3.0 coupled climate models shows mixed skill. Both models poorly represent the statistically significant teleconnections, except that HadGEM2 and the low resolution (N96) version of HadGEM3-GA3.0 better represent the association between the IOD and S-Ethiopian ON rainfall. Additionally, both models are able to represent the lack of SST-rainfall correlation in other seasons and other parts of Ethiopia.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

  16. Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Vivax malaria in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Ebstie, Yehenew Asmamaw; Desalegn, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major challenge for effective malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. This triggered a need for routine monitoring of the efficacy of the antimalarial drugs every two years in all malaria endemic countries. Chloroquine remained the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Though, a strong scientific evidence of chloroquine resistance to P.vivax that could have brought change of treatment regimen is yet to be established in Ethiopia, continuous and regular monitoring of drug’s efficacy is critical for establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies. This study therefore, assessed the therapeutic efficacy of Chloroquine (CQ) for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections in Northwestern Ethiopia. Methods An observational, 28- day therapeutic clinical efficacy study was conducted from August to December, 2014, in Northwest Ethiopia. Patients confirmed to have monoinfection of vivax malaria, aged above 6 months were included. All subjects were treated with standard chloroquine dose of 25 mg/kg for three (3) days. Parasitological and clinical outcomes of treated patients were then evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 during the entire 28-day follow-up period. A portable spectrophotometer (HemoCue Hb 301 System, Sweden) was used to estimate hemoglobin concentration. Results A total of 69 subjects had completed follow up. Some 57/69 (82.6%) had fever at enrolment and the rest 12 patients 48 hours before enrollment. Out of total, 65/69 (94.2%) and 66/69 (95.6%) of the study subjects were free of fever by day 1 and day 2 respectively but fever was cleared in all subjects by day 3. At base line the mean asexual parasitemia was 3540 parasites/μL of blood. Parasite carriage on day 3 was 3%. The overall cure rate (an adequate and clinical parasitological response) was very high (97%) [(95% CI = 93.1–99.4)]. The time to parasite, fever and gametocyte clearance as expressed in mean (SD) was 35 (3

  17. Prophylactic Procurement of University Students in Southern Ethiopia: Stigma and the Value of Condom Machines on Campus

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Christopher J.; Alano, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. Methods Students at a large urban university in Southern Ethiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N  = 2,155 surveys) and again in 2011 (N =  2,000), six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. Results After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. Conclusions The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy. PMID:23565272

  18. Diabetes mellitus in North West Ethiopia: a community based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is recognized as one of the emerging public health problems in developing countries. However, its magnitude has not been studied at community levels, making the provision of appropriate services difficult in such countries. Hence, this study aimed to compare the magnitude and associated risks of diabetes mellitus among urban and rural adults in northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional population based survey was performed using the WHO STEPwise method on adults aged 35 years and above. A multistage cluster random sampling strategy was used to select study participants from urban and rural locations. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined using peripheral blood samples by finger puncture. Prevalence was computed with a 95% confidence interval for each residential area. Selected risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. Results The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults aged 35 years and above was 5.1% [95% CI: 3.8, 6.4] for urban and 2.1% [95% CI: 1.2, 2.9] for rural dwellers. The majority (69%) of the identified diabetic cases were not diagnosed prior to the survey. The highest proportion (82.6%) of the undiagnosed cases was noted among the rural population and 63% among the urban population. Family history of diabetes (AOR = 5.05; 2.43, 10.51), older age (AOR = 4.86; 1.99, 11.9) and physical inactivity (AOR = 1.92; 1.06, 3.45) were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus among the urban population. Alcohol consumption (AOR = 0 .24, 0 .06, 0.99) was inversely associated with diabetes mellitus in rural areas. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is considerably high among the urban compared to the rural population. Diabetes is largely undiagnosed and untreated, especially in rural settings. Appropriate actions need to be taken to provide access to early diagnosis and treatment in order to reduce associated complications. PMID:24479725

  19. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  20. Soil carbon and nitrogen losses following deforestation in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia have faced vast exploitation and almost all these forests have been converted to agricultural lands. The disappearance of the forests has been most drastic during the past 100 years and has affected the functionality and stability of agroecosystem. The dynamics in...

  1. Use of the Mass Media for Education in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1995-01-01

    Explains how mass media, radio, and television have been playing an important role in the formal education of Ethiopian children for a quarter of a century. Describes the chronological development and future plans for the use of mass media in education. States that Ethiopia may serve as an example for other Third World countries. (PA)

  2. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  3. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  4. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  5. Researching Diverse Learners from Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso

    This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…

  6. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  7. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  8. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Jones, J L

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide zoonosis. In this paper published information on toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia is reviewed. Limited data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in humans in Ethiopia is very high, up to 41% of children aged 1-5 years were reported to be seropositive. There is little information on seroprevalence data in pregnant women and no data on congenital toxoplasmosis in children. About 1 million adults in Ethiopia are considered to be infected with HIV with less than one-third likely receive highly active antiviral therapy. Based on a conservative T. gondii seroprevalence of 50%, thousands might die of concurrent opportunistic infections, including toxoplasmosis. However, exact figures are not available, and most serological surveys are not current. Serological surveys indicate up to 79% of goats and sheep have T. gondii antibodies. However, there is no information on losses due to toxoplasmosis in livestock or the presence of viable T. gondii in any host in Ethiopia.

  9. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  10. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  11. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  12. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  13. Ecological Relationships between Arboviruses, Ectoparasites and Vertebrates in Ethiopia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-31

    Antibodies to the following viruses were involved: West Nile, Ntaya, Banzi (or Uganda S), Zika , Spondweni and Wesselsbron. Virus isolation, which had... viruses . Three strains remain unidentified and three others were abandoned in Ethiopia. Germiston virus was isolated from sentinel mice and Congo, Thogoto, dugbe and Jos viruses from ticks. (Author)

  14. Education for International Understanding: The Case of Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).

    This study reviews Ethiopia's efforts, experiences, and achievements with respect to developing education for international understanding over the past two decades in response to the United Nations recognition of the role education plays in promoting peace. It is an overture aimed at sharing ideas and experiences with all concerned for the…

  15. Drug-related problems in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Megersa, Teshome Nedi; Mengistu, Yewondwossen Taddese

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of drug-related problems (DRPs), identify the most common drugs, and drug classes involved in DRPs as well as associated factors with the occurrence of DRPs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 225 patients admitted to medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa from March to June 2014. Data regarding patient characteristics, medications, diagnosis, length of hospitalization, investigation, and laboratory results were collected using data abstraction forms through review of patients’ medical card and medication charts. Identified DRPs were recorded and classified using DRP registration forms. The possible intervention measures for the identified DRPs were proposed and communicated to either the physician or the patient. Data were entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp. Released 2012, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Findings: DRPs were found in 52% of study subjects. A drug-drug interaction (48% of all DRPs) was the most common DRP followed by adverse drug reaction (23%). Anti-infectives and gastrointestinal medicines were commonly involved in DRPs. Drugs with the highest drug risk ratio were gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine. The number of drugs taken by the patient per day is an important risk factor for DRPs. Conclusion: DRPs are common among medical ward patients. Polypharmacy has a significant association with the occurrence of DRP. Drugs such as gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine have the highest probability of causing DRP. So, patients who are taking either of these drugs or polypharmacy should be closely assessed for identification and timely correction of DRPs. PMID:26645029

  16. Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Solomon; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Deschamps, Yves

    2003-05-01

    This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

  17. Radargrammetry helps fight hunger in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanshie, Tadesse K.; Romeijn, Paul P.; Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the operational implementation of radargrammetry for the production of Digital Elevation Models, or DEMs, to areas of rugged topography. The Southern Ethiopian Highlands east of lake Abaya, with elevations between ca. 900 and 4,400 meters, were mapped. Currently available topographical maps are of insufficient quality to assist a study of the area's unique land use system, which is arguably the oldest and most durably sustained land use system of the planet. Without external inputs or terracing, the land use system maintains soil fertility and staves-off hunger. It has been doing so during the past 30 years of unrest and civil war, in one of the most crowded regions of Ethiopia. However, the central role of the staple crop enset within the land use system and its production cycles has hardly been the subject of scientific study. Understanding of this system is most likely to be relevant to enhancement of health and productivity in many regions of the world. Upon the request of the Agricultural Bureau for Gedeo Zone, geocoded and georeferenced topographical maps with accuracy of 20 meters (x, y and z) were made by PRIVATEERS N.V. on the basis of RADARSAT multi-incidence (S2/S7) images. These maps are now incorporated as the basic layer within the Bureau's GIS system. Map production techniques proved to be cost effective and relevant; especially for mountainous areas with poor accessability where correct geographic information is not available. The ease of orientation proved of invaluable help to rationalize execution and planning of cost-effective environmental field work and reporting.

  18. Major mental disorders in Butajira, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Awas, M; Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Ethiopia lack information on the prevalence of specific mental disorders in rural communities. The lifetime and one-month prevalence of specific ICD-10 mental disorders and their associated socio-demographic factors were determined using the translated Amharic version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a rural population. A total of 501 community subjects selected from a predominantly rural district by stratified random sampling were interviewed by non-clinician interviewers. The weighted aggregate lifetime prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 31.8% (26.7% when substance dependence was not included). The most frequent specific diagnoses were: dissociative disorders (6.3%), mood disorders (6.2%), somatoform disorders (5.9%), and anxiety disorders (5.7%). After adjustment in a multivariate logistic model, female sex was shown to have a statistically significant association with mood disorders (Odds Ratio, OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.90, 7.73) and somatoform disorders (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.60). Severe cognitive and mood disorders were significantly associated with being elderly, i.e. 60 or more years of age (OR = 7.71, 95% CI: 1.58, 7.53; and OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.36, 9.95, respectively). Khat dependence was associated with being Muslim and with earning a low income. (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.02, 11.98; and OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.96, respectively). It is concluded that psychiatric morbidity is a major public health problem in the rural community.

  19. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  20. Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma) require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services. PMID:23095311

  1. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis, anaemia, and malnutrition among school children in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6-15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato-Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66-76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8-13%), 35% (95% CI: 31-38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30-38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation.

  2. Occurrence and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Ixodid Ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 to address the occurrence and genotypes of Coxiella burnetii using molecular methods in ticks collected from domestic animals in Ethiopia. Ticks were tested for C. burnetii by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting two different genes followed by multispacer sequence typing (MST). An overall prevalence of 6.4% (54/842) of C. burnetii was recorded. C. burnetii was detected in 28.6% (14/49) of Amblyomma gemma, 25% (31/124) of Rhipicephalus pulchellus, 7.1% (1/14) of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 3.2% (2/62) of Am. variegatum, 3.1% (4/128) of Am. cohaerens, 1.6% (1/63) of Rh. praetextatus, and 0.6% (1/153) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Significantly higher overall frequencies of C. burnetii DNA were observed in Am. gemma and Rh. pulchellus than in other tick species (Mantel–Haenszel [MH], P < 0.0001). The overall frequency of C. burnetii was significantly higher (MH, P < 0.0001) in ticks from southeastern districts (Arero, Moyale, and Yabelo) than that from other districts. This study demonstrated the presence of C. burnetii genotype MST 18 in ticks in southeastern districts and genotype MST 20 in ticks in central districts. This study highlights the importance of ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Ethiopia. PMID:26392155

  3. Determinants of fertility intention among women living with hiv in western Ethiopia: implications for service delivery.

    PubMed

    Sufa, Alemu; Wordofa, Muluemebet Abera; Wossen, Bitiya Admassu

    2014-12-01

    Despite increased emphasis on antiretroviral therapy for HIV infected individuals, issues of fertility and childbearing have received relatively little attention in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess socio-demographic, reproductive and HIV related characteristics of fertility intention among women living with HIV in Western Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was conducted from May I to May 26, 2012 using structured questionnaire on a sample of 456 women living with HIV who are on follow up care in anti-retroviral therapy clinics. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify significant predictors of fertility desire at 95 CL. Out of 456 respondents 42.1% expressed intention to have children in the future. Educational attainment [AOR (95% CI) = 0.041(0.008-0.220)], partner fertility desire [AOR (95% CI) = 0.012 (0.004-0.034)], number of live children [AOR (95% CI) = 0.344 (0.125-0.950)] and partner sero-status [AOR (95% CI) = 6.578 (4.072-10.881)] were significantly associated with fertility intention. A large proportion of HIV-positive women in the study desired more children in future. Interventions to address this problem include integrated access to contraception methods, and counselling on reproductive health decision-making.

  4. Trend Analysis of Malaria Occurrence in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Legesse, Deresse; Haji, Yusuf; Abreha, Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years' trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years' laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 105,755 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported, with total slide positivity rate of 33.27% and mean annual occurrence of 21,151 cases. Malaria occurred with a fluctuating trend in the study area, with its peak occurring at the year 2011/12. Overall, no remarkable decline in the total laboratory confirmed malaria was observed in the last five years. P. falciparum was the predominantly reported species, accounting for 75,929 (71.80%) of cases. The highest slide positivity rate was observed in the age group of 5–14 years (40.5%) followed by 1–4 years (35.5%). Two malaria peak seasons occurred: one from September to December and the other from April to June. Conclusion. No remarkable decline in laboratory confirmed malaria in the last five years was observed. PMID:26770866

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Hypertensive Patients in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Basazn Mekuria, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are being widely used by hypertensive patients worldwide. However, evidences regarding CAM use by hypertensive patients in Ethiopia are limited. This study aimed at assessing prevalence and correlates of CAM use among hypertensive patients attending ambulatory clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH), Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed on 423 patients visiting GURH. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression tools were used to analyze/come up with the prevalence and correlates of CAM use. Results. The prevalence of CAM use in our study was found to be 67.8% and herbal based medicine was the most commonly utilized CAM therapies. Majority of CAM users (70.2%) did not disclose CAM use for their physician. However, nearly half of CAM users (48.4%) were satisfied with the result of CAM use. Conclusions. The higher prevalence of CAM use among hypertensive patients coupled with a very low disclosure rate to their health care providers can have a marked potential to cause ineffective hypertensive management and adverse effects due to CAM use. Health care providers should be open to discussing the use of CAM with their patients as it will lead to better health outcome. PMID:27843480

  6. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Alemi; Hassen, Kalkidan; Nigussie Teklehaymanot, Aderajew

    2016-01-01

    Background Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home. Objective The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. Methods The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test. Results People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68), with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively), who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39), and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57) showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusion and recommendation Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available communication networks such as health development army and promotion of antenatal care visits and completion of four standard visits by pregnant women were recommended. PMID:27672342

  7. Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission. PMID:25810798

  8. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  9. Can Community Health Workers Report Accurately on Births and Deaths? Results of Field Assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh; Amouzou, Agbessi; Munos, Melinda; Marsh, Andrew; Hazel, Elizabeth; Victora, Cesar; Black, Robert; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most low-income countries lack complete and accurate vital registration systems. As a result, measures of under-five mortality rates rely mostly on household surveys. In collaboration with partners in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, and Mali, we assessed the completeness and accuracy of reporting of births and deaths by community-based health workers, and the accuracy of annualized under-five mortality rate estimates derived from these data. Here we report on results from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali. Method In all three countries, community health workers (CHWs) were trained, equipped and supported to report pregnancies, births and deaths within defined geographic areas over a period of at least fifteen months. In-country institutions collected these data every month. At each study site, we administered a full birth history (FBH) or full pregnancy history (FPH), to women of reproductive age via a census of households in Mali and via household surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi. Using these FBHs/FPHs as a validation data source, we assessed the completeness of the counts of births and deaths and the accuracy of under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates from the community-based method against the retrospective FBH/FPH for rolling twelve-month periods. For each method we calculated total cost, average annual cost per 1,000 population, and average cost per vital event reported. Results On average, CHWs submitted monthly vital event reports for over 95 percent of catchment areas in Ethiopia and Malawi, and for 100 percent of catchment areas in Mali. The completeness of vital events reporting by CHWs varied: we estimated that 30%-90% of annualized expected births (i.e. the number of births estimated using a FPH) were documented by CHWs and 22%-91% of annualized expected under-five deaths were documented by CHWs. Resulting annualized under-five mortality rates based on the CHW vital events reporting were, on average, under-estimated by 28% in Ethiopia, 32% in

  10. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  11. Quality of Medicines Commonly Used in the Treatment of Soil Transmitted Helminths and Giardia in Ethiopia: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Sultan; Zeleke, Gemechu; Deti, Habtewold; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Duchateau, Luc; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of poor quality medicines in the market is a global threat on public health, especially in developing countries. Therefore, we assessed the quality of two commonly used anthelminthic drugs [mebendazole (MEB) and albendazole (ALB)] and one antiprotozoal drug [tinidazole (TNZ)] in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings A multilevel stratified random sampling, with as strata the different levels of supply chain system in Ethiopia, geographic areas and government/privately owned medicines outlets, was used to collect the drug samples using mystery shoppers. The three drugs (106 samples) were collected from 38 drug outlets (government/privately owned) in 7 major cities in Ethiopia between January and March 2012. All samples underwent visual and physical inspection for labeling and packaging before physico-chemical quality testing and evaluated based on individual monographs in Pharmacopoeias for identification, assay/content, dosage uniformity, dissolution, disintegration and friability. In addition, quality risk was analyzed using failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and a risk priority number (RPN) was assigned to each quality attribute. A clinically rationalized desirability function was applied in quantification of the overall quality of each medicine. Overall, 45.3% (48/106) of the tested samples were substandard, i.e. not meeting the pharmacopoeial quality specifications claimed by their manufacturers. Assay was the quality attribute most often out-of-specification, with 29.2% (31/106) failure of the total samples. The highest failure was observed for MEB (19/42, 45.2%), followed by TNZ (10/39, 25.6%) and ALB (2/25, 8.0%). The risk analysis showed that assay (RPN = 512) is the most critical quality attribute, followed by dissolution (RPN = 336). Based on Derringer's desirability function, samples were classified into excellent (14/106,13%), good (24/106, 23%), acceptable (38/106, 36%%), low (29/106, 27%) and bad (1/106,1%) quality

  12. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Following the global raise in demand for food and biofuel production, transnational companies are acquiring large scale agricultural land in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Considering land as one of the factors to be outsourced for development, the government of Ethiopia is supplying millions of hectares of land to transnational companies in the form of longterm lease. Many of the companies which engage in large scale land acquisition are of Indian, Chinese, Ethiopian diaspora, German, Malaysian, Italian, British, Dutch, Turkish, and Saudi-Arabian origin. The boom in the acquisition of farm land in the country has sparked an all-rounded debate among civil society groups, international institutions, nongovernmental organizations and independent development experts. The common reflections concerning the land deals in Ethiopia and elsewhere contain much rhetoric and hype which lack analysis of the real situation "on the ground" giving different connotations such as 'land grabbing', 'agricultural outsourcing', 'neo-colonialism', 'agrarian colonialism', and 'land underdevelopment'. However, deforestation, soil degradation, marginalization of local indigenous communities, and minimally unfair gains from investment by the host country are among the real points of concern arising out of the long term land lease contracts. Scientific evidence is lacking concerning the pragmatic impacts of large scale agricultural land acquisitions by transnational companies upon the natural environment (forest and land), local peoples' livelihood, and the contacting parties (the host country and the companies). The major objective of this study is to investigate the impacts in the context of Ethiopia, orienting to reinvent win-win land use models which constitute sustainable land use, local peoples' livelihood and the company-host country interests. To achieve this overall objective, the study employs a number of methods and methodologies constituting both qualitative and

  13. Tephrochronology of the Western Margin, Gona, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinsasser, L. L.; Quade, J.; Levin, N.; McIntosh, W.; Simpson, S. W.; Semaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project (GPRP) area includes many rich fossil localities that are of great consequence to the study of human evolution. Genetic estimates of the divergence between human and chimpanzee lineages indicate that this split happened between 5 and 7 Mya. The sedimentary deposits at Gona range in age from .15 Ma to 4.5 Ma at the base of the Sagantole Formation, with additional minor sedimentary deposits in the underlying Adu-Asa Formation. These older sedimentary deposits occur as small, disconnected packages interlayered with lava flows and are repeated due to NS-trending, west-dipping normal faults that accommodated extension in the Afar rift. New 40Ar-39Ar dates on tuffs from the Adu-Asa Formation indicate that the oldest hominid fossils thus found at Gona are around 5.5 Ma, and that all of the fossil sites in the Adu-Asa Formation identified thus far are approximately the same age. One tuff, named the Belewa, is dated at 5.51+/- .03 Ma, while the Kobo'o tuff, which outcrops to the west and thus is lower in the section, is dated at 5.42 +/-.07 Ma. Both dates are from sanidine and errors are at the 2 sigma level. In addition to these 40Ar-39Ar dates for the Adu-Asa Formation, the relative ages of many deposits have been clarified through studies of the major element geochemistry of glass shards from ashfall tuffs, which occur as beds within the sedimentary deposits. These geochemical comparisons, along with detailed stratigraphic sections through many sedimentary packages, have allowed the identification and correlation of four major tuffs, including the Belewa and Kobo'o tuffs, throughout the pre-4.5 Ma deposits of the Gona project area. Such studies may also lead to larger-scale correlations between the Gona project and other paleoanthropological projects in Ethiopia. Additional work on the tephrochronology and stratigraphy in the younger Sagantole, Hadar, and Busidima Formations has furthered our understanding of those deposits

  14. Reducing Maternal Deaths in Ethiopia: Results of an Intervention Programme in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mitiku, Demissew; Zidda, Zillo; Yaya, Yaliso

    2017-01-01

    Background In a large population in Southwest Ethiopia (population 700,000), we carried out a complex set of interventions with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. This study evaluated the effects of several coordinated interventions to help improve effective coverage and reduce maternal deaths. Together with the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia, we designed a project to strengthen the health-care system. A particular emphasis was given to upgrade existing institutions so that they could carry out Basic (BEmOC) and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC). Health institutions were upgraded by training non-clinical physicians and midwives by providing the institutions with essential and basic equipment, and by regular monitoring and supervision by staff competent in emergency obstetric work. Results In this implementation study, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was the primary outcome. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 in three districts, and we registered 38,312 births. The MMR declined by 64% during the intervention period from 477 to 219 deaths per 100,000 live births (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.88). The decline in MMR was higher for the districts with CEmOC, while the mean number of antenatal visits for each woman was 2.6 (Inter Quartile Range 2–4). The percentage of pregnant women who attended four or more antenatal controls increased by 20%, with the number of women who delivered at home declining by 10.5% (P<0.001). Similarly, the number of deliveries at health posts, health centres and hospitals increased, and we observed a decline in the use of traditional birth attendants. Households living near to all-weather roads had lower maternal mortality rates (MMR 220) compared with households without roads (MMR 598; OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.61–4.61)). Conclusions Our results show that it is possible to achieve substantial reductions in maternal mortality rates over a short period of time if the effective coverage of well-known interventions is

  15. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  16. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult

  17. Special Report: Political Violence and Democratic Uncertainty in Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Washington, D.C. • María otero (Vice Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links...well- planned intervention by Ethiopian forces in December 2006. Aside from its regional implications, the conflict suggests a smolder- ing tension among...from a national census of vital bureaucratic and administrative importance in a decentralized state such as Ethiopia, it is an invalu- able planning

  18. The burden of non-filarial elephantiasis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Animut, Abebe

    2007-12-01

    Although known for many years, non-filarial elephantiasis remains a public health problem in tropical Africa, including the farming community of Ethiopia. The problem may be exacerbated in women who shoulder most of the burden of agricultural labour in the countryside. The intention of this brief review is to emphasise the burden of the disease and to alert researchers and organisations concerned with health care and prevention.

  19. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  20. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Formal Vocational Education Programs in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, individuals with disabilities have limited access to educational and vocational training opportunities. This study investigates prevailing challenges and opportunities for the participation of students with disabilities in vocational education programs in Ethiopia. Data for the study were gathered from the five biggest regions out of…

  1. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  2. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  3. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  4. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  5. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  6. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  7. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  8. Women's autonomy and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their health seeking behavior in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that women with higher autonomy are more likely to seek health care during pregnancy and delivery than those with lower autonomy. The paper also examines whether the autonomy-health utilization relationship is influenced by individual (education, work status, religion) and, household (wealth and rural-urban residence) level factors, all of which are important for both autonomy and health-care utilization. Results indicate that women's autonomy remains significant even after adjusting for other individual and household variables. Besides autonomy, our results highlight other individual and household level influences on the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. Results also demonstrate the need to look beyond individual level factors when examining the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. The statistical significance of some individual-level measures, such as education means it cannot be used as proxy for women's autonomy. This calls for policy makers not only to empower women, but also provide them with better formal education.

  9. Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.

    PubMed

    Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

    1998-07-01

    In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information.

  10. Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-04-01

    Southern Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

  11. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  12. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria.

  13. Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.

  14. Secular spring rainfall variability at local scale over Ethiopia: trend and associated dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu

    2016-07-01

    Spring rainfall secular variability is studied using observations, reanalysis, and model simulations. The joint coherent spatio-temporal secular variability of gridded monthly gauge rainfall over Ethiopia, ERA-Interim atmospheric variables and sea surface temperature (SST) from Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) data set is extracted using multi-taper method singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD). The contemporaneous associations are further examined using partial Granger causality to determine presence of causal linkage between any of the climate variables. This analysis reveals that only the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly has direct causal links with spring rainfall over Ethiopia and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) over Africa inspite of the strong secular covariance of spring rainfall, SST in parts of subtropical Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean and MSLP. High secular rainfall variance and statistically significant linear trend show consistently that there is a massive decline in spring rain over southern Ethiopia. This happened concurrently with significant buildup of MSLP over East Africa, northeastern Africa including parts of the Arabian Peninsula, some parts of central Africa and SST warming over all ocean basins with the exception of the ENSO regions. The east-west pressure gradient in response to the Indian Ocean warming led to secular southeasterly winds over the Arabian Sea, easterly over central Africa and equatorial Atlantic. These flows weakened climatological northeasterly flow over the Arabian Sea and southwesterly flow over equatorial Atlantic and Congo basins which supply moisture into the eastern Africa regions in spring. The secular divergent flow at low level is concurrent with upper level convergence due to the easterly secular anomalous flow. The mechanisms through which the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly modulates rainfall are further explored in the context of East Africa using a simplified atmospheric

  15. Agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated. Methods In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters. Results Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season. Conclusion This study demonstrates the negative impact of

  16. Barriers to tuberculosis care: a qualitative study among Somali pastoralists in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background At the dawn of the third millennium, while the control of the second biggest infectious killer in the world (tuberculosis [TB]) is an international priority, millions of pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa are struggling to access TB care. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of pastoralist TB patients remain to be a challenge in TB control programs in many countries in this region, where pastoralism is a common means of livelihood. Better understanding of community perceptions of TB and its management could help identify reasons for the delay in diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities. The aim of this study is to explore barriers delaying diagnosis among pastoralist TB patients in the Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study, including 19 respondents was conducted in the SRS of Ethiopia. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and informal interview techniques were employed to explore pastoralists' migration patterns, their perceptions of TB and their access to TB services. The influence of these factors on the delay of TB patients in receiving biomedical diagnosis was then assessed. Results We found that lack of access to formal health services as well as traditional beliefs leading to self treatment were barriers to prompt bio-medical diagnosis of TB among pastoralist TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. This study highlights that limited access to TB control programs is the most important barrier in early seeking of biomedical diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities with nomadic pastoralist being the most affected. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment facilities should be established in strategic villages that pastoralist can reach in both dry and wet seasons. Such facilities may alleviate the observed long distance to health facilities and thus long delay in diagnosis of TB. This strategy should be compounded with a community based TB control approach, whereby basic medical training on TB management such as provision

  17. Newborn care practices at home and in health facilities in 4 regions of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal deaths globally, and only 1 in 10 women deliver with a skilled attendant. Promotion of essential newborn care practices is one strategy for improving newborn health outcomes that can be delivered in communities as well as facilities. This article describes newborn care practices reported by recently-delivered women (RDWs) in four regions of Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a household survey with two-stage cluster sampling to assess newborn care practices among women who delivered a live baby in the period 1 to 7 months prior to data collection. Results The majority of women made one antenatal care (ANC) visit to a health facility, although less than half made four or more visits and women were most likely to deliver their babies at home. About one-fifth of RDWs in this survey had contact with Health Extension Workers (HEWS) during ANC, but nurse/midwives were the most common providers, and few women had postnatal contact with any health provider. Common beneficial newborn care practices included exclusive breastfeeding (87.6%), wrapping the baby before delivery of the placenta (82.3%), and dry cord care (65.2%). Practices contrary to WHO recommendations that were reported in this population of recent mothers include bathing during the first 24 hours of life (74.7%), application of butter and other substances to the cord (19.9%), and discarding of colostrum milk (44.5%). The results suggest that there are not large differences for most essential newborn care indicators between facility and home deliveries, with the exception of delayed bathing and skin-to-skin care. Conclusions Improving newborn care and newborn health outcomes in Ethiopia will likely require a multifaceted approach. Given low facility delivery rates, community-based promotion of preventive newborn care practices, which has been effective in other settings, is an important strategy. For this strategy to be

  18. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Methods: Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Results: Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Conclusions: Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster

  19. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Hermela; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Woldie, Haile; Tadesse, Abilo; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9%) were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6). Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14), having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67), taking zidovudine (ZDV)-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57), and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of <200 cells/μL (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.36) were associated with occurrence of anemia among adult HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART, with a history of TB treatment, have a low CD4+T-lymphocytes count and are ART-naïve should be carefully screened and treated for anemia. PMID:28243151

  20. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.

    PubMed

    Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤ 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  1. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  2. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  3. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Manalebh, Almaw; Demissie, Meaza; Mekonnen, Daniel; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking) were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6) m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9) slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97). Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92). Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93%) compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  4. Effectiveness of Scaling up the ‘Three Pillars’ Approach to Accelerating MDG 4 Progress in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Leanne; Pomeroy, Amanda M.; Karim, Ali M.; Mekonnen, Yared M.; Mulligan, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the integrated approach taken by the Government of Ethiopia with support from the Essential Services for Health in Ethiopia (ESHE) Project and assesses its effect on the coverage of six child health practices associated with reducing child mortality. The ESHE Project was designed to contribute to reducing high child mortality rates at scale among 14.5 million people through the ‘three pillars’ approach. This approach aimed to (i) strengthen health systems, (ii) improve health workers’ performance, and (iii) engage the community. The intervention was designed with national and subnational stakeholders’ input. To measure the Project's effect on the coverage of child health practices, we used a quasi-experimental design, with representative household survey data from the three most populous regions of Ethiopia, collected at the 2003-2004 baseline and 2008 endline surveys of the Project. A difference-in-differences analysis model detected an absolute effect of the ESHE intervention of 8.4% points for DTP3 coverage (p=0.007), 12.9% points for measles vaccination coverage (p<0.001), 12.6% points for latrines (p=0.002), and 9.8% points for vitamin A supplementation (p<0.001) across the ESHE-intervention districts (woredas) compared to all non-ESHE districts of the same three regions. Improvements in the use of modern family planning methods and exclusive breastfeeding were not significant. Important regional variations are discussed. ESHE was one of several partners of the Ministry of Health whose combined efforts led to accelerated progress in the coverage of child health practices. PMID:25895187

  5. In Rural Eastern Ethiopia Hearing Loss Is the Most Frequent Disability during Childhood: A Community Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Yemane; Assefa, Nega; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background The type and extent of childhood disability in Ethiopia is unknown due to lack of accurate and reliable data. This study tried to assess the magnitude and types of disabilities among children 0–14 years of age in eastern Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study among households that are under demographic and health surveillance in eastern Ethiopia. The study population consisted of all children aged 0–14 year. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the type and severity of the disability. Results A total of 21,572 children in the age group 0–14 were screened for disability. Of which 586 (2.7%; 95% CI = 2.5%, 2.9%) had at least one kind of disability at the time of the survey. The proportion of disability increased as children were older; measured by the extended Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) chi square for linear trend (M-H = 48.74; P<0.001). Hearing impairment was the most common reported disability; 417 (71.2%; 95% CI = 67.5%, 74.9%). Among children with a disability, 179 (31.0%; 95% CI = 27.3%, 34.7%) had a combination of multiple disabilities and about a third, 200 (34.1%; 95% CI = 30.3%, 37.9%) had developed the disability during infancy. Magnitude of disability was higher among boys 335 (2.98%; 95% CIs = 2.66%, 3.30%) compared to girls 251 (2.44%; 95% CIs = 2.14%, 2.74%). Conclusion Childhood disability is a health challenge in the study area and is already common at an early age. Permanent disability among children may be prevented by an early screening program in the routine child health services and adequate care, especially for hearing impairment. PMID:27149094

  6. Increasing Trends of Diabetes Mellitus and Body Weight: A Ten Year Observation at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitay

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming one of the major causes of premature adult mortality in developing countries. However, there is a very little documentation of the morbidity trend in such countries. Objective To assess the ten-year trend of diabetes mellitus at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based retrospective record review was done at the main referral hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from medical records of all registered diabetic patients in the Diabetic Follow up Clinic between 2000 and 2009. An Extended Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test for the linear trend was used to examine the trend over time. Result Out of the total 354,524 patients who visited the Outpatient Department of the hospital during the study period, 1553 (4.4/1000) were diabetes patients, of which 50.1% was type 1 and 49.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average increase in the proportion of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases between 2000 and 2009 was 125%. The mean (±SD) age for Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 29.1 (±12), and 53.5 (±12) for Type 2 diabetes. Overall 42.5% of the diabetes mellitus patients were female and 31.7% were rural residents. The mean body mass index for both type of diabetes mellitus increased from 15.9 to 18.3 kg for type 1 and from 23.8 to 24.6 for type 2 between 2000 and 2009, respectively. Conclusion The number of diabetes mellitus cases seen at Gondar Referral Hospital is rising steadily. A comprehensive diabetes prevention, treatment, and care program is needed to improve the quality of life of the increasing diabetes mellitus cases in Ethiopia. PMID:23536904

  7. In vivo efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deressa, Tekalign; Seid, Mengistu Endris; Birhan, Wubet; Aleka, Yetemwork; Tebeje, Biniam Mathewos

    2017-01-01

    Background Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ethiopia since 2004. Antimalarial drug resistance is one of the major obstacles for malaria control and curtails the lifespan of several drugs. Thus, continued monitoring of the efficacy of AL is of great public health importance in malaria endemic areas. Objective This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of AL for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the Dembia district, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A prospective study was conducted from April 2015 to February 2016 at Kola Diba Health Center (KHC) in the Dembia district to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of AL for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection. Patients were treated with the six-dose regimen of AL over 3 days and followed up for 28 days as per the World Health Organization protocol. Results Of the total 80 patients enrolled in the AL efficacy study, 75 patients completed the 28 days follow-up. None of the participants reported major adverse events. No early treatment failure or late clinical failure were observed during the study, but there were 6 (8.0%) late parasitological failures. The uncorrected per protocol cure rate of AL was 92.0 (95% CI: 85.7–98.3). Treatment with AL cleared parasitemia and fever in >95% of the patients by day 3. Conclusion This study showed that AL is well tolerated and remains efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in northwest Ethiopia. However, the observed late parasitological failures in this study are of a concern and warrant continued monitoring of drug efficacy as per the World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:28243110

  8. Health Gains and Financial Protection from Pneumococcal Vaccination and Pneumonia Treatment in Ethiopia: Results from an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kjell Arne; Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Pecenka, Clint; Jamison, Dean T.; Verguet, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia and pneumococcal disease cause a large disease burden in resource-constrained settings. We pursue an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) of two fully publicly financed interventions in Ethiopia: pneumococcal vaccination for newborns and pneumonia treatment for under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods We apply ECEA methods and estimate the program impact on: (1) government program costs; (2) pneumonia and pneumococcal deaths averted; (3) household expenses related to pneumonia/pneumococcal disease treatment averted; (4) prevention of household medical impoverishment measured by an imputed money-metric value of financial risk protection; and (5) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country population. Available epidemiological and cost data from Ethiopia are applied and the two interventions are assessed separately at various incremental coverage levels. Results Scaling-up pneumococcal vaccines at around 40% coverage would cost about $11.5 million and avert about 2090 child deaths annually, while a 10% increase of pneumonia treatment to all children under 5 years of age would cost about $13.9 million and avert 2610 deaths annually. Health benefits of the two interventions publicly financed would be concentrated among the bottom income quintile, where 30–40% of all deaths averted would be expected to occur in the poorest quintile. In sum, the two interventions would eliminate a total of $2.4 million of private household expenditures annually, where the richest quintile benefits from around 30% of the total private expenditures averted. The financial risk protection benefits would be largely concentrated among the bottom income quintile. The results are most sensitive to variations in vaccine price, population size, number of deaths due to pneumonia, efficacy of interventions and out-of-pocket copayment share. Conclusions Vaccine and treatment interventions for children, as shown with the illustrative examples of

  9. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from agroforestry legume species in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Terefework, Zewdu; Frostegård, Asa; Lindström, Kristina

    2005-07-01

    The genetic diversity within 195 rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of 18 agroforestry species (15 woody and three herbaceous legumes) growing in diverse ecoclimatic zones in southern Ethiopia was investigated by using PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal operon [16S rRNA gene, 23S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes] and 16S rRNA gene partial sequence (800 and 1350 bp) analyses. All of the isolates and the 28 reference strains could be differentiated by using these methods. The size of the ITS varied among test strains (500-1300 bp), and 58 strains contained double copies. UPGMA dendrograms generated from cluster analyses of the 16S and 23S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP data were in good agreement, and the combined distance matrices delineated 87 genotypes, indicating considerable genetic diversity among the isolates. Furthermore, partial sequence analysis of 67 representative strains revealed 46 16S rRNA gene sequence types, among which 12 were 100% similar to those of previously described species and 34 were novel sequences with 94-99% similarity to those of recognized species. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that strains indigenous to Ethiopia belonged to the genera Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Methylobacterium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium. Many of the rhizobia isolated from previously uninvestigated indigenous woody legumes had novel 16S rRNA gene sequences and were phylogenetically diverse. This study clearly shows that the characterization of symbionts of unexplored legumes growing in previously unexplored biogeographical areas will reveal additional diversity.

  10. Overview of micro-dam reservoirs (MDR) in Tigray (northern Ethiopia): Challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhane, Gebremedhin; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; Martens, Kristine; Walraevens, Kristine

    2016-11-01

    Water scarcity is a key factor in food security and sustainable livelihood in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in East Africa. The problem is severe in many parts of Ethiopia where water plays a central role in the country's economy. To alleviate and curb water scarcity different water harvesting technologies were introduced in Ethiopia during the last two decades; nevertheless their sustainability and livelihood impacts are not well addressed. For the first time a complete and comprehensive inventory of micro-dam reservoirs (MDRs) in Tigray has been established including the geological background and currently observed problems. The inventory of 92 MDRs in Tigray was conducted using the direct field observational method, selected interviews and secondary data, to understand the overall situation of the schemes from engineering geological and geo-hydrological perspectives and its implication to sustainability and water availability. Analysis of the inventory shows that sustainability and livelihood impact of the water harvesting schemes are threatened by siltation, leakage, insufficient run-off, poor water management and structural damages on the dam body as well as on irrigation infrastructure and spillway. Basic statistical analysis showed that 61% of them are found to have siltation problems, 53% suffer from leakage, 22% from insufficient inflow, 25% have structural damages and 21% have spillway erosion problems. Furthermore, nearly 70% of the MDRs are founded on carbonate dominant sedimentary terrain at places with intrusion of dolerite sills/dykes and the problems of siltation and leakage are found to be extremely high in the MDRs located in such geological setting, as compared to those on crystalline metamorphic rocks. Lack of proper water management was observed in most of the reservoirs with irrigation practices. Future research and analysis on the causes of the bottlenecked problems and monitoring surveillance are recommended.

  11. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03 ± 10.41 μg/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81 ± 10.21 μg/dL), p = 0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04 ± 4.11 μg/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99 ± 3.28 μg/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 μg/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention. PMID:24645964

  12. Pastoralist Community's Perception of Tuberculosis: A Quantitative Study from Shinille Area of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melaku, Samuel; Alemie, Getahun Asres

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8%) of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3%) of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community. PMID:24381757

  13. Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Abdurahman, Samir; Barqasho, Babilonia; Nowak, Piotr; Cuong, Do Duy; Amogne, Wondwossen; Larsson, Mattias; Lindquist, Lars; Marrone, Gaetano; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection. Conclusions Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:24461466

  14. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community’s health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community’s health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Result Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members’ exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Conclusion Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed. PMID:26959816

  15. Antimicrobial use in paediatric patients in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Hafte Kahsay; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldehaimanot, Tewodros Eyob; Goro, Kabaye Kumela

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study collated data from 614 pediatrics patients admitted in pediatrics ward at Jimma University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the type and pattern of antibiotics. The number of prescriptions per a patient was also compared with the WHO standard. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20 for mackintosh. Results Antimicrobials were prescribed for 407(86.4%) patients of which 85.9% were in the form of injectables. A total of 1241 (90%) medicines were administered parenterally followed by oral 110 (8%). The maximum number of medicines per prescription was eight for all types of drugs in general, and five for antimicrobials in particular. All antimicrobials were prescribed empirically without any microbiological evidence. Pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis were the main reasons for antimicrobial use in the ward. Out of the total of 812 antibiotics prescribed; Penicillin G crystalline was the most (20%) frequently prescribed, followed by gentamicin (19%) and ampicillin (16). Conclusions Majority of the prescribed antibiotics were antimicrobials, and was in the form of injectables. Antimicrobials were over prescribed and the number of drugs per prescription was also far from WHO recommendation. Strict prescribing standard guidelines and treatment habits should be developed in the country, to prevent antimicrobial resistance. PMID:28264021

  16. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%). After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01]), and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74]) were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use khat. A multipronged prevention approach involving students, the university officials, the surrounding community, and regulatory bodies is required. PMID:25750551

  17. Attitude toward female genital mutilation among Somali and Harari people, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abathun, Asresash Demissie; Sundby, Johanne; Gele, Abdi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a worldwide problem, and it is practiced by many communities in Africa and Asia as well as immigrants from those areas. This practice results in short- and long-term health consequences on women’s health. Like many other developing countries, FGM is widely practiced in Ethiopia, especially among Somali and Harari ethnic groups. Despite intensive campaigns against FGM in Ethiopia, since 2011, it has been practiced in the aforementioned communities. There is no recent information as to whether these campaigns have an impact on the attitude and practice of the community regarding FGM. This qualitative research was aimed at exploring the attitudes of Somali and Harari people between 18 and 65 years toward FGM. Methods A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 64 (32 in each region) participants. Data were collected from October to December 2015 in Somali and Harari Regions. Results The findings showed that there was a strong support for the continuation of the practice among female discussants in Somali region, whereas male discussants from the same region and the majority of the participants from Harari region had a positive attitude toward the discontinuation of the practice. Marriageability was the major reason for practicing FGM in Somali region, whereas making girls calm, sexually inactive, and faithful for their husbands were mentioned in Harari region. Although young men in both the regions prefer to marry uncircumcised girls, the study showed that there are some differences in the attitude toward the FGM practice between the people in the two regions. Conclusion The findings show that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions, which calls for behavioral change communication using women-centered approach and culturally appropriate strategies. As young people in both the regions had the intention to marry uncircumcised girls, there has to be a strong advocacy and multisectoral

  18. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in livestock from nomadic herds in the Somali Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tomassone, Laura; Grego, E; Callà, G; Rodighiero, P; Pressi, G; Gebre, S; Zeleke, B; De Meneghi, D

    2012-04-01

    Between May 2006 and January 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from Filtu and Dollo Odo districts, Libaan zone, in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by ixodid ticks. Collected ticks (n = 1,036) were identified as Rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), R. pravus (25.8%), Amblyomma gemma (9.4%), Hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), H. truncatum (2.8%), H. impeltatum (1.2%) and H. dromedarii (0.5%); immature stages (6.1%) belonged to the genera Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma. Tick infestation burden was evaluated by the Tick Abundance Score method on 57 animals from Dollo Odo in August 2006, and it was significantly higher in cattle and camels than in small ruminants (p < 0.001). Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation was applied to detect Theileria, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. Five out of 50 blood samples from Filtu, four from cattle and, surprisingly, one from a camel, were positive for Theileria mutans and two from cattle for T. velifera. Adult ticks (n = 104) from both districts were tested and A. gemma from cattle were positive to T. velifera (1) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (5 samples). Positive E. ruminantium samples were also tested by PCR targeting pCS20 and 16S rRNA genes and submitted to DNA sequencing. The phylogenetic reconstruction of pCS20 fragment showed the presence of the Somali region sequences in the East-South African group. Our results are the first available on ticks and selected tick-borne diseases from the Somali region of Ethiopia and could be used as preliminary information for planning sustainable control strategies for tick and tick-borne pathogens in the study area and in neighbouring areas with similar socio-ecological features.

  19. The impact of podoconiosis on quality of life in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, which untreated, causes considerable physical disability and stigma for affected individuals. Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) of patients with podoconiosis. This study aimed to assess the QoL of patients with podoconiosis in comparison with healthy controls in Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2012, among 346 clinically confirmed adult patients with podoconiosis, and 349 healthy adult neighbourhood controls in Dembecha woreda (district) in northern Ethiopia. QoL was assessed using the validated Amharic version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) scale; in addition, mental health and stigma were assessed by the Kessler-10 scale and podoconiosis stigma scale respectively. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with QoL. Results Patients with podoconiosis had significantly lower mean overall QoL than the controls (52.05 versus 64.39), and this was also true in all four sub domains (physical, psychological, social and environmental). Controls were 7 times more likely to have high (above median) QoL (Odds Ratio = 6.74, 95% Confidence Interval 4.62 to 9.84) than cases. Factors associated with lower QoL were: experiencing high levels of stigma, living in an urban area, being illiterate, having additional co-morbidities, and being unmarried. Mental illness was associated with lower scores in psychological and physical domains. Conclusions Programs targeting podoconiosis interventions should include QoL as an indicator for monitoring progress. Interventions targeting improvement of QoL among patients with podoconiosis should address depression, stigma and other co-morbidities. PMID:23866905

  20. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated

  1. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  2. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  3. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  4. Schistosomiasis in Omo National Park of southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, G K; Lemma, A; Haile, T

    1979-05-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni infection was found in more than 50 tourists who had visited Omo National Park, Ethiopia, and bathed and swum in the Mui River. A survey revealed Schistosoma mansoni infection in 41% of Park residents and in 33% of the neighboring Suri people. Eggs were found in stools and adult worms at autopsy of wild Papio anubis and Cercopithecus aethiops. Trematode larvae were found in 27% of Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails found in the Mui River. The source of the disease and the implications of its spread with the future development of the Omo Valley are discussed.

  5. Erosion-driven environmental degradation in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, N.; Willenbring, J.; Terwilliger, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Tigray Plateau of Northern Ethiopia is a key region for the study of relationships between climate, land use and the rise and fall of complex societies. Tigray has been the home to a succession of highly developed and powerful kingdoms and has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ~ 6,000 yrs BP. Unfortunately its mountainous topography makes the region particularly susceptible to accelerated erosion and mass wasting from intense land use practices and its location along the ITCZ and the East African rift system make the area prone to climatic changes. Today, after 6,000 years of agriculture, of which the last ~3,000 years have involved intense land use, the once fertile Tigray region is now highly degraded with frequent famine and some of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world. We find, based on a comparison of background (long-term) and anthropogenic short-term time-averaged erosion rates that deforestation and a transition to cropland farming likely increased rates of localized upstream erosion and downstream deposition by up to an order of magnitude greater than the natural background rates. We define three distinct periods of note in terms of rates and patterns of Holocene erosion and deposition in the east Tigray Plateau of Ethiopia. First, we take note of the depositional record and paleo-flaural reconstructions of a time of regional climate change yet little landuse change in Ethiopia, 7,500 - 6,000 cal yr BP (Late Prehistory and the beginning of the migration of peoples out of the Sahara and into Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia). Second, we look at the stratigraphic record of the beginning of intense landuse and cultivation in the gently sloping lowland areas, 3200 -2300 Cal yrs BP (Pre-Aksumite period and the establishment of the first large centralized government in the upper Highlands). Third, we identify from the geological record a period of deforestation and farming of higher elevation, steep sloped hillsides and terraces 2300

  6. Identification of environmental parameters and risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia by using geographical information systems and a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Tsegaw, Teshome; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Seid, Ahmed; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a vector-borne disease strongly influenced by environmental factors, has (re)-emerged in Ethiopia during the last two decades and is currently of increasing public health concern. Based on VL incidence in each locality (kebele) documented from federal or regional health bureaus and/or hospital records in the country, geographical information systems (GIS), coupled with binary and multivariate logistic regression methods, were employed to develop a risk map for Ethiopia with respect to VL based on soil type, altitude, rainfall, slope and temperature. The risk model was subsequently validated in selected sites. This environmental VL risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 86% with mean land surface temperature and soil type found to be the best predictors of VL. The total population at risk was estimated at 3.2 million according to the national population census in 2007. The approach presented here should facilitate the identification of priority areas for intervention and the monitoring of trends as well as providing input for further epidemiological and applied research with regard to this disease in Ethiopia.

  7. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia: learning from pilot projects.

    PubMed

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  8. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z

    2015-05-28

    Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought.

  9. Epidemiology in Ethiopia 200 years after John Snow's birth.

    PubMed

    Enquselassie, Fikre

    2013-10-01

    The year 2013 marks exactly 200 years since John Snow, known as the father of modern epidemiology, was born. In 19th century, epidemiologists like John Snow, concentrated almost entirely upon infectious diseases of humans measuring the burden of disease, describing pattern and attempting to understand the transmission dynamics. During the second half of the 20th century; big changes occurred so that epidemiologists in the developed world started to use systematized approaches to investigate the etiologies, conditions and to evaluate interventions through different study designs. However, the situation in the developing world is not the same as the rest of the world. Even 200 years after Snow's birth, epidemiological capacity is lowest in Africa. This article attempts to describe that Ethiopia is not exceptional. In the past few decades, there have been some attempts to build capacity in the country by launching training programs in clinical epidemiology, general epidemiology and field epidemiology. However, not only few epidemiologists are trained, but, limited funding, high-teaching burdens, poor working conditions and low salaries are among important contributors for epidemiological brain drain in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthening learning opportunities and rewarding career paths are required to increase human resource capacity and retain skilled personnel in the field of epidemiology.

  10. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance.

  11. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  12. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  13. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  14. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission.

  15. Interpretations of education about gene-environment influences on health in rural Ethiopia: the context of a neglected tropical disease

    PubMed Central

    Tora, Abebayehu; Ayode, Desta; Tadele, Getnet; Farrell, David; Davey, Gail; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Misunderstandings of the role of genetics in disease development are associated with stigmatizing behaviors and fatalistic attitudes about prevention. This report describes an evaluation of community understanding of an educational module about genetic and environmental influences on the development of podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease endemic in highland Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative process assessment was conducted as part of a large prospective intervention trial in August 2013, in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Sixty five participants were purposively selected from 600 households randomized to receive the inherited susceptibility module. The educational module used pictorial representations and oral explanations of the interaction of inherited sensitivity and soil exposure and was delivered by lay health educators in participants' homes. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). Results Qualitative analyses showed that most participants improved their understanding of inherited soil sensitivity and susceptibility to podoconiosis. Participants linked their new understanding to decreased stigma-related attitudes. The module also corrected misconceptions that the condition was contagious, again diminishing stigmatizing attitudes. Lastly, these improvements in understanding increased the perceived value of foot protection. Conclusions Taken together, these improvements support the acceptability, feasibility and potential benefits of implementing gene-environment education in low and middle income countries. PMID:27114426

  16. Innovative technologies to understand hydrogeomorphic impacts of climate change scenarios on gully development in drylands: case study from Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Stal, Cornelis; Abraha, Amanuel; De Wulf, Alain; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Taking climate change scenarios into account, rainfall patterns are likely to change over the coming decades in eastern Africa. In brief, large parts of eastern Africa are expected to experience a wetting, including seasonality changes. Gullies are threshold phenomena that accomplish most of their geomorphic change during short periods of strong rainfall. Understanding the links between geomorphic change and rainfall characteristics in detail, is thus crucial to ensure the sustainability of future land management. In this study, we present image-based 3D modelling as a low-cost, flexible and rapid method to quantify gully morphology from terrestrial photographs. The methodology was tested on two gully heads in Northern Ethiopia. Ground photographs (n = 88-235) were taken during days with cloud cover. The photographs were processed in PhotoScan software using a semi-automated Structure from Motion-Multi View Stereo (SfM-MVS) workflow. As a result, full 3D models were created, accurate at cm level. These models allow to quantify gully morphology in detail, including information on undercut walls and soil pipe inlets. Such information is crucial for understanding the hydrogeomorphic processes involved. Producing accurate 3D models after each rainfall event, allows to model interrelations between rainfall, land management, runoff and erosion. Expected outcomes are the production of detailed vulnerability maps that allow to design soil and water conservation measures in a cost-effective way. Keywords: 3D model, Ethiopia, Image-based 3D modelling, Gully, PhotoScan, Rainfall.

  17. Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Young People in Ethiopia: An Analysis of the Current Situation.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Nigina; Kereta, Worknesh; Mitchell, Kirstin R

    2015-09-01

    Young people in Ethiopia face a number of risks to their sexual and reproductive health, including adolescent pregnancy, sexual violence, and unmet need for family planning. This study explores the extent to which current service provision addresses the SRH needs of young Ethiopians . Methods included a comprehensive review of the academic and policy literature on young people's SRH and service provision in Ethiopia; and 14 semi-structured Key Informant Interviews. Factors affecting utilization of sexual and reproductive services by young people include: limited SRH knowledge, lack of open discussion of sexual matters, low status of women, cultural and logistical barriers, competing priorities among community health professionals, limited resources for health facilities, and negative attitudes of providers towards unmarried youth. While the antenatal needs of young married women are somewhat addressed, gaps exist in terms of services for unmarried youth, young men, rural youth and vulnerable groups. The national policy platform has created an enabling environment for addressing youth SRH needs but challenges to implementing these policies still persist. The way forward requires a focus on reducing barriers to utilization of services, and attention to underserved groups. It also requires resource mobilization, strong leadership and effective coordination between stakeholders and donors.

  18. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged <5 years), the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  19. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species-occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  20. Attitude towards the Practice of Female Genital Cutting among School Boys and Girls in Somali and Harari Regions, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abathun, Asresash D; Gele, Abdi A; Sundby, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting (FGC) is a harmful traditional practice that violates women's rights and threatens their health. Although much work has been done to tackle this practice in Ethiopia, the prevalence remains very high in Somali and Harari regions. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards FGC of young people (boys and girls) in Somali and Harari regions of Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out in Somali and Harari regions from October to December 2015. Two districts were purposely selected from the two regions, and a stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 480 subjects from the randomly selected schools. Results. Out of 480 questionnaires distributed, 478 (99.6%) respondents filled the questionnaires and returned them. The finding of the study reveals that 86% of study participants condemn the practice of FGC. Almost 59% of male participants from both study areas preferred to marry uncircumcised girls. Being a female and being a Muslim are significantly associated with the support toward the continuation of the FGC (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the study demonstrates a positive attitude towards the abandonment of FGC, there is a need to increase the knowledge about the position of Islam in FGC and to educate women about the harmful effect of FGC.

  1. Attitude towards the Practice of Female Genital Cutting among School Boys and Girls in Somali and Harari Regions, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting (FGC) is a harmful traditional practice that violates women's rights and threatens their health. Although much work has been done to tackle this practice in Ethiopia, the prevalence remains very high in Somali and Harari regions. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards FGC of young people (boys and girls) in Somali and Harari regions of Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out in Somali and Harari regions from October to December 2015. Two districts were purposely selected from the two regions, and a stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 480 subjects from the randomly selected schools. Results. Out of 480 questionnaires distributed, 478 (99.6%) respondents filled the questionnaires and returned them. The finding of the study reveals that 86% of study participants condemn the practice of FGC. Almost 59% of male participants from both study areas preferred to marry uncircumcised girls. Being a female and being a Muslim are significantly associated with the support toward the continuation of the FGC (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the study demonstrates a positive attitude towards the abandonment of FGC, there is a need to increase the knowledge about the position of Islam in FGC and to educate women about the harmful effect of FGC. PMID:28386281

  2. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  3. Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

    2011-03-01

    Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of β-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods.

  4. Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major

  5. Field investigation on the repellent activity of some aromatic plants by traditional means against Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) around Koka, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dugassa, Sisay; Medhin, Girmay; Balkew, Meshesha; Seyoum, Aklilu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2009-10-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of traditional application methods of mosquito repellent plants in the reduction of the human-vector contact of malaria vectors in central Ethiopia. The plants (Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ocimum suave and Ocimum basilicum) were tested by thermal expulsion and direct burning on traditional stoves in the field against two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis). A Latin-square design was applied for randomly assigning the treatment plants and control to experimental houses over different nights. The percentage repellency of each candidate plant by both application methods was estimated from the catches of mosquitoes in the treatment and control houses. On direct burning of the plants, O. basilicum showed the highest percentage repellency (73.11%, P<0.001) and E. camaldulensis the least repellency (65.29%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. By the same method of application, C. citriodora on the other hand gave the highest repellency (72.87%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was still the least repellent plant (66.60%, P<0.001) against An. pharoensis. On thermal expulsion, C. citriodora exhibited the highest repellency (78.69%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was the lowest repellent plant (71.91%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. Against An. pharoensis, C. citriodora gave the highest repellency (72.9%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis still gave the least repellency (72.2%, P<0.001) on the same method of application. All the tested plants by both methods of application gave partial but significant protection (>65%) against the house-entry and biting of two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia, and thus have a potential to be used at least as supplements to other control methods. However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants.

  6. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n = 74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (≤ 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and

  7. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-24

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  8. Blood meal origins and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis from Chano in South-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis, the main malaria vector in Ethiopia, shows both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviours. Insecticide resistance is increasing, and alternative methods of vector control are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the blood meal origins and the susceptibility to insecticides of An. arabiensis from Chano village near Arba Minch in South-West Ethiopia. Methods Blood meal sources of anopheline mosquitoes collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) from human dwellings, and hand-held mouth aspirators from outdoor pit shelters were analysed using a direct enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The susceptibility of An. arabiensis to pyrethroid insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and cyfluthrin) and DDT was assessed using females reared from larval and pupal collections from natural breeding sites. Results The blood meal origins of 2967 freshly fed Anopheles mosquitoes were determined. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (75%), and it fed mainly on cattle. The densities of both freshly fed An. arabiensis and those fed on human blood followed similar seasonal patterns. The overall human blood index (HBI) of An. arabiensis, including mixed blood meals, was 44% and the bovine blood index (BBI) was 69%. The HBI of An. arabiensis from CDC light trap collections was 75% and this was higher than those for PSC (38%) and outdoor pit shelter collections (13%), while the BBI was 65% for PSC, 68% for outdoor pit shelters and 72% for CDC light traps. More freshly fed and human blood-fed An. arabiensis were sampled from houses close to the shore of Lake Abaya (the major breeding site). A high proportion of An. arabiensis was resistant to the pyrethroid insecticides, with a mortality rate of 56% for lambdacyhalothrin, 50% for cyfluthrin and alphacypermethrin, 47% for deltamethrin, and 10% for DDT. Conclusion Anopheles arabiensis is

  9. Population pressure and land degradation: the case of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grepperud, S

    1996-01-01

    Literature published during the 1970s generated a number of important hypotheses on the possible harmful consequences of rapid population growth. The population pressure hypothesis (PPH) relates land degradation directly to population pressure, arguing that under comparable physical conditions, heavily eroded areas occur in highly populated regions. This hypothesis is tested using a multivariate analysis to identify factors responsible for the observed spatial distribution of soil erosion in Ethiopia. A severity of soil erosion index, a proxy for some types of water erosion, was chosen as the dependent variable. Because the dependent variable is categorical and ordinal, an ordinal cumulative logit model was chosen for the analysis. The key finding is that the probability of an area being classified above any given level of soil erosion rapidly increases as population exceeds the population-supporting capacity of its region. In other words, as pressure from people and livestock exceeds some threshold, a rapid degradation of land takes place.

  10. Acute schistosomiasis among Americans rafting the Omo River, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Istre, G R; Fontaine, R E; Tarr, J; Hopkins, R S

    1984-01-27

    An outbreak of acute schistosomiasis occurred among a group of adventurers who took part in a rafting expedition on the Omo River in Ethiopia in November 1981. Six (55%) of the 11 members of the expedition experienced Schistosoma mansoni infection confirmed by stool examination. Five of these six had symptoms compatible with acute schistosomiasis. Eosinophilia was the most frequent sign of infection (five of six), and fever, the most common symptom (four of six). Despite medical evaluations, illnesses had remained undiagnosed until January 1982. This outbreak should alert physicians to the risk of schistosomiasis among travelers to this part of Africa and the difficulty of correct diagnosis early in the course of the disease.

  11. Further new hominin fossils from the Kibish Formation, southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Osbjorn M; Fleagle, John G; Grine, Frederick E; Royer, Danielle F

    2008-09-01

    In addition to the new fragments of the Omo I skeleton, renewed fieldwork in the Kibish Formation along the lower reaches of the Omo River in southwestern Ethiopia has yielded new hominin finds from the Kibish Formation. The new finds include four heavily mineralized specimens: a partial left tibia and a fragment of a distal fibular diaphysis from Awoke's Hominid Site (AHS), a parietal fragment, and a portion of a juvenile occipital bone. The AHS tibia and fibula derive from Member I and are contemporaneous with Omo I and II. The other specimens derive from Chad's Hominid Site (CHS), and derive from either Member III or IV, which constrains their age between approximately 8.6 and approximately 104 ka.

  12. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men’s labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change. PMID:22523447

  13. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  14. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections. PMID:27340653

  15. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  16. Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol resistance of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria in rural community of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine profiles of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility from adults who underwent trachomatous trichiasis surgery in rural areas of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural districts in West Gojjam administrative zone. Conjunctival swabs were collected during surgery and transported using Stuart transport broth (Oxoid, UK). Antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Non-chlamydia pathogenic bacteria were recovered from conjunctiva of 438 (31%) participants before treatment. The isolated conjunctival bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus group (A, C, F and G), Enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. Overall, resistance rates of 57.8% to azithromycin and 68.5% to chloramphenicol were found. However, 86-94.4% sensitivity was demonstrated to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Moderate sensitivity rates (61.8-78.4%) were observed to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. PMID:23571246

  17. Operationalization of National Objectives of Ethiopia into Educational Objectives. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation. No. 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adaye, Abebe Alaro

    This paper reports on past educational objectives of the old political regime in Ethiopia and new educational objectives of revolutionary Ethiopia. It is reported that these new objectives focus on education for production, scientific research, and socialist consciousness, and that all subjects are based on Marxism-Leninism. Curricular objectives…

  18. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebresilassie, Lidya

    2015-01-01

    Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Result. The overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus was 40.9% (n = 157). The prevalence in medium body condition 27.3% (n = 105) varies significantly from that of good body condition 13.5% (n = 52) (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was significant variation (P < 0.05) in the prevalence in young and adult sheep with rates of 21.9% (n = 84) and 19% (n = 73), respectively. At the same time, there is significant variation (P < 0.05) in male and female sheep with prevalence of 29.7% (n = 114) and 11.2% (n = 43), respectively. The prevalence of 25.3% (n = 97) in sheep that originated from Negash compared to Wukro and Agulae showed no significant variation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented. PMID:25688297

  19. Cataract surgery in Southern Ethiopia: distribution, rates and determinants of service provision

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Methods Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Results Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p = 0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p = 0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p < 0.05): working for >2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6–312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community

  20. Can innovative ambulance transport avert pregnancy–related deaths? One–year operational assessment in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Kinsman, John; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background To maximise the potential benefits of maternity care services, pregnant women need to be able to physically get to health facilities in a timely manner. In most of sub–Saharan Africa, transport represents a major practical barrier. Here we evaluate the extent to which an innovative national ambulance service in Ethiopia, together with mobile phones, may have been successful in averting pregnancy–related deaths. Methods An operational assessment of pregnancy–related deaths in relation to utilisation of the new national ambulance service was undertaken in six randomly selected Districts in northern Ethiopia. All 183 286 households in the six randomly selected Districts were visited to identify live–births and deaths among women of reproductive age that occurred over a one–year period. The uptake of the new ambulance transport service for women’s deliveries in the same six randomly selected Districts over the same period was determined retrospectively from ambulance log books. Pregnancy–related deaths as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO 2012) verbal autopsy tool [13] and the InterVA–4 model [14] were analysed against ambulance utilisation by District, month, local area, distance from health facility and mobile network coverage. Findings A total of 51 pregnancy–related deaths and 19 179 live–births were documented. Pregnancy–related mortality for Districts with above average ambulance utilisation was 149 per 100 000 live–births (95% confidence interval CI 77–260), compared with 350 per 100 000 (95% CI 249–479) for below average utilisation (P = 0.01). Distance to a health facility, mobile network availability and ambulance utilisation were all significantly associated with pregnancy–related mortality on a bivariable basis. On a multivariable basis, ambulance non–utilisation uniquely persisted as a significant determinant of mortality (mortality rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05–3.69; P = 0

  1. Using task analysis to generate evidence for strengthening midwifery education, practice, and regulation in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yigzaw, Tegbar; Carr, Catherine; Stekelenburg, Jelle; van Roosmalen, Jos; Gibson, Hannah; Gelagay, Mintwab; Admassu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Realizing aspirations for meeting the global reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health goals depends not only on increasing the numbers but also on improving the capability of midwifery workforce. We conducted a task analysis study to identify the needs for strengthening the midwifery workforce in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of recently qualified midwives in Ethiopia. Purposively selected participants from representative geographic and practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire, making judgments about the frequency of performance, criticality, competence, and location of training for a list of validated midwifery tasks. Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 20, we computed the percentages and averages to describe participant and practice characteristics. We identified priority preservice education gaps by considering the tasks least frequently learned in preservice, most frequently mentioned for not being trained, and had the highest not capable response. Identification of top priorities for in-service training considered tasks with highest “not capable” and “never” done responses. We determined the licensing exam blueprint by weighing the composite mean scores for frequency and criticality variables and expert rating across practice categories. Results One hundred and thirty-eight midwives participated in the study. The majority of respondents recognized the importance of midwifery tasks (89%), felt they were capable (91.8%), reported doing them frequently (63.9%), and learned them during preservice education (56.3%). We identified competence gaps in tasks related to obstetric complications, gynecology, public health, professional duties, and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Moreover, our study helped to determine composition of the licensing exam for university graduates. Conclusion The task analysis indicates that midwives provide critical reproductive

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of pterygium among adults living in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of pterygium among adults living in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional design study was carried out in 390 participants in Gondar city from April 15 to May 7, 2016. Basic ophthalmic examination was performed using portable slit lamb, 3.5x magnifying loop with torch light and a pretested and structured questionnaire was completed. The raw data has been entered into EPI INFO 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was summarized descriptive data. Logistic regression was used to summarize the predictors of pterygium. The variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant risks of pterygium. Result The prevalence of pterygium among study participants was 151(38.7% (95%CI; 33.8–43.8)). Among those who have pterygium, 149(98.7%) were developed pterygium on the nasal side and 15(9.9%) on temporal side of the either eye and 13(8.6%) have both. Age between 41-60(AOR = 2.20(95%CI: 1.22, 3.39)), age between 61-86(AOR = 7.97(95%CI: 2.74, 23.17)), male sex (AOR = 2.20(95%CI: 1.28, 3.82)), outdoor working area(AOR = 3.75(95%CI: 2.18, 6.46)), the use of traditional eye medication (AOR = 2.55 (95%CI: 1.04, 5.90)) and family history of pterygium (AOR = 6.68(95% CI: 2.53, 17.60)) were positively associated with pterygium whereas use of sunglass/hat (AOR = 0.40(95%CI:0.20, 0.78)) was negatively associated. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of pterygium in Gondar city northwest Ethiopia. Old age, male sex, outdoor working area, utilization of traditional eye medication and family history of pterygium were statistically significant predictors of pterygium. The use of sunglass/hat was protective against pterygium. PMID:28358813

  3. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942

  4. Validation of the condom use self-efficacy scale in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of condom use self-efficacy requires contextually suitable, valid and reliable instruments due to variability of the scale across nations with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to construct a condom use self-efficacy scale suitable to Ethiopia (CUSES-E), based on the original scale developed by Brafford and Beck. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 492 students at Hawassa University. A self-administered questionnaire containing 28 items from the original scale was used to collect the data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was used to extract factor structures. Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations were used to determine the internal consistency of the scale. The convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was verified using a correlation matrix. Results The PCA extracted three factors containing a total of 9-items. The extracted factors were labeled Assertiveness, Fear for partner rejection and Intoxicant Control, with internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.92, respectively. Altogether, the factors explained 77.8% of variance in the items. An evaluation of CUSES-E showed a significantly higher self-efficacy score among students who ever used condoms; P < 0.001. The correlation matrix revealed that all of the convergent correlations were higher than the discriminant ones, providing evidence in support of both types of validity. In the split sample validation, the communalities, factor loadings and factor structure were the same on the analysis on each half and the full data set, suggesting that the new scale is generalizable and replicable. Conclusion This study of CUSES using an Ethiopian population found a different dimension to emerge, suggesting that the scale should be validated to local contexts before application. The CUSES-E is valid, reliable and replicable. Therefore, health cadres and

  5. Patients’ perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, χ2 = 157.1, p < 0.0001) while more female as compared to male patients were divorced (22.5% vs. 3.6%, χ2 = 102.3, p < 0.0001). Less than half of the study subjects believed podoconiosis could be prevented (37.5%) or controlled (40.4%) and many (41.3%) did not know the cause of podoconiosis. Two-fifths of the study subjects had a relative affected with podoconiosis. Approximately 13% of the respondents had experienced one or more forms of social stigmatization. The coping strategies adopted by patients to mitigate the physical impairments caused by podoconiosis were: working only occasionally (44.9%), avoiding physically demanding tasks (32.4%), working fewer hours (21.9%) or completely stopping work (8%). Most study subjects (96.4%) had noticed a decline in their income following the development of podoconiosis, and 78% said they were poorer than their healthy

  6. Anemia and iron deficiency among school adolescents: burden, severity, and determinant factors in southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Melkam; Yemane, Tilahun; Adisu, Wondimagegn; Asres, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence is the period of most rapid growth second to childhood. The physical and physiological changes that occur in adolescents place a great demand on their nutritional requirements and make them more vulnerable to anemia. Anemia in the adolescence causes reduced physical and mental capacity and diminished concentration in work and educational performance, and also poses a major threat to future safe motherhood in girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among school adolescents in Bonga Town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 school adolescents in Bonga Town, southwest Ethiopia, from March 15, 2014 to May 25, 2014. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and other data. A total of 7 mL of venous blood and 4 g of stool samples were collected from each study participant. Blood and stool samples were analyzed for hematological and parasitological analyses, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20 software for Windows. Results The overall prevalence of anemia was 15.2% (62/408), of which 83.9% comprised mild anemia. The proportion of microcytic, hypochromic anemia was 53% (33/62). Being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.41–6.57), household size ≥5 (AOR =2.58, 95% CI =1.11–5.96), father’s illiteracy (AOR =9.03, 95% CI =4.29–18.87), intestinal parasitic infection (AOR =5.37, 95% CI =2.65–10.87), and low body mass index (AOR =2.54, 95% CI =1.17–5.51) were identified as determinants of anemia among school adolescents. Conclusion This study showed that anemia was a mild public health problem in this population. School-based interventions on identified associated factors are important to reduce the burden of anemia among school adolescents. PMID:26719736

  7. Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis and cataract in northern Ethiopia: A comparative cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Habtamu, Esmael; Deribe, Kebede; Rajak, Saul; Bremner, Stephen; Davey, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in East Gojam region, Amhara, Ethiopia in May 2016. Data were collected from patients previously identified as having podoconiosis and from matched healthy neighbourhood controls. Information on socio-demographic factors, clinical factors and past medical history were collected by an interview-administered questionnaire. Clinical examination involved grading of podoconiosis by examination of both legs, measurement of visual acuity, direct ophthalmoscopy of dilated pupils to grade cataract, and eyelid and corneal examination to grade trachoma. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to estimate independent association and correlates of podoconiosis, TT and cataract. Findings A total of 700 participants were included in this study; 350 podoconiosis patients and 350 healthy neighbourhood controls. The prevalence of TT was higher among podoconiosis patients than controls (65 (18.6%) vs 43 (12.3%)) with an adjusted odds ratio OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.02–2.40), p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in prevalence of cataract between the two populations with an adjusted OR 0.83 (95% CI 0.55–1.25), p = 0.36. Mean best visual acuity was 0.59 (SD 0.06) in podoconiosis cases compared to 0.44 (SD 0.04) in controls, p<0.001. The proportion of patients classified as blind was higher in podoconiosis cases compared with healthy controls; 5.6% vs 2.0%; adjusted OR 2.63 (1.08–6.39), P = 0.03. Conclusions Individuals with podoconiosis have a higher burden of TT and worse visual acuity than their matched healthy

  8. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and management of traditional medicine among people of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Akawak; Yarlagadda, Raghavendra; Wolde-Mariam, Messay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine (TM) has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world. Even though, the wide acceptance of TM is a well-established fact, its status in a population with access to modern health is not well clear in the whole country. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practice and management of TM among the community of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 282 sampled individuals’ selected using systematic random sampling from January 28, 2013 to February 8, 2013 in Burka Jato Kebele, Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone, West of Ethiopia. Results: The majority (94.22%) of people in the study area relied on TM. Most of them were aware of medicinal herbs (55.7%). About half (40.79%) of the respondents were aware of the major side-effects of TM such as diarrhea (36.64%). About 31.85% of them prefer traditional medical practices (TMP) because they are cheap. Most (50%) of the species were harvested for their leaves to prepare remedies, followed by seed (21.15%) and root (13.46%) and the methods of preparation were pounding (27.54%), crushing (18.84%), a concoction (15.95%) and squeezing (13.04%). About 53.84% of them were used as fresh preparations. Remedies were reported to be administered through oral (53.85%), dermal or topical (36.54%), buccal (3.85%) and anal (5.77%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of TMs were quite popular among the population and a large proportion of the respondents not only preferred, but also used TMs notwithstanding that they lived in the urban communities with better access to modern medical care and medical practitioners. To use TM as a valuable alternative to conventional western medicine, further investigation must be undertaken to determine the validity, efficacy of the plants to make it available as an alternative medicine to human beings. PMID:25883518

  9. Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. Methods This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. Results While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we recorded 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to

  10. Meeting Rural Demand: A Case for Combining Community-Based Distribution and Social Marketing of Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can

  11. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  12. Innovations in health care financing: new evidence on the prospect of community health insurance schemes in the rural areas of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Abay; von Braun, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    It has become clear that due to market failure, state failure, and other reasons, the conventional sources of finance alone could not solve the health problem of the rural population, particularly that of the socially excluded and disadvantaged groups. Community Based Health Insurance Schemes (CBHIS) are one of the most recently mentioned options to narrow the existing inequalities in access to basic health services. This study assesses the prospect of CBHIS in the rural areas of Ethiopia using a double bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method. The results show that even in one of the poorest countries of the world, there is a promising prospect to introduce CBHIS.

  13. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Associated Factors among 15-49 Year Old Women in Dessie Town, Northeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst female cancer worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The level of women’s knowledge about cervical cancer is not well documented in Ethiopia. The current study sought to assess women’s knowledge about cervical cancer and associated factors. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of 620 women aged 15–49 years residing in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. The women were interviewed at home by trained data collectors using a structured questionnaire on cervical cancer knowledge. Knowledge about cervical cancer was measured using an eight item instrument. The maximum possible score was 8; those scoring 5 or more were categorized as having “sufficient” knowledge. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were employed to determine factors associated with knowledge about cervical cancer. Results A total of 51% of the participants had sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer. After adjusting for covariates, having sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer was positively associated with better educational level and income. Women with primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 3.4; 95% CI: 2.2–5.1) and those who had secondary and above education (AOR: 8.7; 95% CI: 5.5–13.7) were more likely to have sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer compared to those who had no formal education. Furthermore, women earning an average household monthly income above 1500 Ethiopian birr (ETB) (~75 U.S. dollars) were more likely to have sufficient knowledge (AOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–3.9) than women with an average household monthly income less than 500 ETB (~25 U.S. dollars). Conclusion This study shows a suboptimal knowledge about cervical cancer regarding its risk factors, signs and symptoms, prevention and treatment among women in the study site. The

  14. Evaluation of 1982 Summer In-Service Secondary School Teacher Education Programmes in Ethiopia. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation. No. 131.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraga, Gebre Yohannes

    An evaluation is presented of summer inservice secondary school teacher education programs given at five colleges of Addis Ababa University in 1982. A survey was conducted focusing on how academic and administrative affairs were operated. The first chapter of this report provides a statement of the problem, identifying the background history of…

  15. Low Prevalence of Leishmania Infection in Post-Epidemic Areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cruz, Israel; Simón, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4–15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Leishmania infection (direct agglutination test- and/or rK39 immunochromatographic test- and/or leishmanin skin test-positive subjects) in this population was 1.02% (95% confidence interval = 0–4.54), and prevalence was higher in boys and children older than 12 years. Only one case of active disease was encountered. The results suggest that the conditions responsible for the outbreak no longer reign. However, active surveillance remains necessary. PMID:22665599

  16. Low prevalence of Leishmania infection in post-epidemic areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cruz, Israel; Simón, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4-15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Leishmania infection (direct agglutination test- and/or rK39 immunochromatographic test- and/or leishmanin skin test-positive subjects) in this population was 1.02% (95% confidence interval = 0-4.54), and prevalence was higher in boys and children older than 12 years. Only one case of active disease was encountered. The results suggest that the conditions responsible for the outbreak no longer reign. However, active surveillance remains necessary.

  17. Self-Medication Pattern among Social Science University Students in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate self-medication causes wastage of resources among others. Method. This survey study was conducted to determine self-medication pattern of 404 social science university students in Northwest Ethiopia, who were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Binary Logistic Regression analysis was employed with P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Result. At 95.3% response rate, mean age of 21.26 ± 1.76 years, and male/female ratio of 1.26, the prevalence of self-medication during the six month recall period was 32.7%. Headache (N = 87, 69.1%) was the primary complaint that prompted the practice and hence analgesics (N = 67, 53.2%) were the mostly used drugs followed by antimicrobials (N = 50, 39.7%). The top two reasons driving the practice were nonseverity of the illness (N = 41, 32.5%) and suggestions from friends (N = 33, 26.2%). Female sex (P = 0.042) and higher income (P = 0.044) were associated with the practice. Conclusion. Self-medication practice, involving the use of both nonprescription and prescription drugs such as antimicrobials, among the social science university students is high. Therefore health education interventions regarding the risks of inappropriate self-medication are essential. PMID:28191360

  18. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05); reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001); and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered. PMID:26496073

  19. Trachoma and its determinants in Mojo and Lume districts of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yalew, Kassahun Negash; Mekonnen, Medhanit Getachew; Jemaneh, Atsbha Asrat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Trachoma is a public health problem in Ethiopia accounting for 35–50% of cases of blindness. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trachoma and its determinant factors in Mojo and Lume districts. Methods A cross sectional community-based survey was conducted. From the two districts, a total of 23 clusters were selected by a multistage cluster random sampling technique. A total of 731 households were visited using structured questionnaires and clinical manifestation of trachoma was examined by ophthalmic nurses to assess stages of trachoma in children between ages 1 and 9 years and adults aged above 15 years. Results Among 431 examined children, 54(12.53%) had trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and 43(9.98%) had trachomatous inflammation-intense. Among the adults we found 12 (1.68%) prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis. The presence of latrine (p=0.02), garbage disposal system (p=0.05), main source of water consumption (p=0.01) and keeping animals in the living room were found to be significant risk factors (p<0.001). Conclusion Prevalence of trachoma was found to be 12% which is higher than the WHO standard. The study also identified that there was significant association between the different stages of trachoma with risk factors such as source of water and keeping animals in the living room. PMID:23467579

  20. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  1. Comparative prevalences of some common intestinal helminth infections in different altitudinal regions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemaneh, L

    1998-01-01

    Infection prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms in school children in several communities of three altitudinal regions in Ethiopia have been analyzed. The prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 29% in the highlands, 35% in the temperate areas and 38% in the lowlands. The prevalence of hookworm infection was highest in the lowlands (24%) followed by the temperate (15%) and highland (7%) areas and the difference was significant (p < 0.0001). T. trichiura infection exhibited similar prevalences in all altitudinal regions (13% on the average). The prevalence of infection due to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was significantly correlated (rs = 0.55, p < 0.001) in the lowlands hinting the closely related distribution and co-occurrence of these parasites. The prevalence of infection due to the hookworms and T. trichiura in the temperate areas showed some pattern of association (rs = 0.29). A similar pattern has also been noted between the prevalence of infection due to A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura in the highland areas (rs = 0.48). The co-occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in the lowlands and in the highlands suggest that a concurrent intervention against infection due to these two parasites using the same control methods would be advantageous.

  2. Community Perception towards Mental Illness among Residents of Gimbi Town, Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Benti, Misael; Ebrahim, Jemal; Awoke, Tadesse; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the increased burden of mental health problem, little is known about knowledge and perception of the public towards mental health problems in Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among selected 845 Gimbi town residents from May 28 to June 28, 2014. Results. Out of the total study participants, 304 (37.3%) were found to have poor perception (a score below mean five semantic differential scales for positive questions and above mean for negative questions) of mental illness. Being above 28 years of age (AOR = 0.48 CI (0.23, 0.78)), private workers (AOR = 0.41 CI (0.19, 0.87)), and lack of mental health information were found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.133 CI (0.09, 0.20)). Absence of family history of mental illness was also found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.37 CI (0.21, 0.66)). Conclusions. Significant proportions of the community in Gimbi town were found to have poor perception of mental illness. Poor perception is common among old aged, less educated, private workers, those unable to access mental health information, and those with no family history of mental illness. Mental health education on possible causes, treatment options, and possible outcome of treatment to the community is required.

  3. Community Perception towards Mental Illness among Residents of Gimbi Town, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Benti, Misael; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the increased burden of mental health problem, little is known about knowledge and perception of the public towards mental health problems in Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among selected 845 Gimbi town residents from May 28 to June 28, 2014. Results. Out of the total study participants, 304 (37.3%) were found to have poor perception (a score below mean five semantic differential scales for positive questions and above mean for negative questions) of mental illness. Being above 28 years of age (AOR = 0.48 CI (0.23, 0.78)), private workers (AOR = 0.41 CI (0.19, 0.87)), and lack of mental health information were found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.133 CI (0.09, 0.20)). Absence of family history of mental illness was also found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.37 CI (0.21, 0.66)). Conclusions. Significant proportions of the community in Gimbi town were found to have poor perception of mental illness. Poor perception is common among old aged, less educated, private workers, those unable to access mental health information, and those with no family history of mental illness. Mental health education on possible causes, treatment options, and possible outcome of treatment to the community is required. PMID:27840817

  4. Application of the Health Belief Model to Teach Complementary Feeding Messages in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tariku, Befikadu; Whiting, Susan J; Mulualem, Demmelash; Singh, Pragya

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia many women do not practice appropriate complementary feeding (CF). The Health Belief Model (HBM) asserts that change in behavior is determined after consideration of severity, benefit, and barriers to change. This study examined the effectiveness of 3 months of HBM-based education compared to the traditional (didactic) method on CF practices of mothers, with no education as control, using three randomized groups. One hundred sixty-six mother-infant (6-18 months) pairs were recruited. At baseline and after intervention, knowledge, perceptions, and practices about CF and related areas were determined. It was only diet diversity that increased significantly in the HBM group (from 3.05±0.94 food groups to 3.79±0.82, p<.05) while the other two groups had no change. Improvements in food groups were most noticeable as legumes & nuts (from 35.6% use to 83.9% in HBM group). Thus, nutrition education about diet diversity improvement needs to be conducted promotes behavior change.

  5. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  6. The community-based Health Extension Program significantly improved contraceptive utilization in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yitayal, Mezgebu; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Kebede, Yigzaw

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has implemented a nationwide primary health program at grassroots level (known as the Health Extension Program) since 2003 to increase public access to basic health services. This study was conducted to assess whether households that fully implemented the Health Extension Program have improved current contraceptive use. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,320 mothers using a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of current contraceptive utilization. A propensity score analysis was used to determine the contribution of the Health Extension Program “model households” on current contraceptive utilization. Result Mothers from households which fully benefited from the Health Extension Program (“model households”) were 3.97 (adjusted odds ratio, 3.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.01–5.23) times more likely to use contraceptives compared with mothers from non-model households. Model household status contributed to 29.3% (t=7.08) of the increase in current contraceptive utilization. Conclusion The Health Extension Program when implemented fully could help to increase the utilization of contraceptives in the rural community and improve family planning. PMID:24868165

  7. Distribution of brucellosis among small ruminants in the pastoral region of Afar, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ashenafi, F; Teshale, S; Ejeta, G; Fikru, R; Laikemariam, Y

    2007-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pastoral region of Afar, in eastern and central Ethiopia, to determine the distribution of brucellosis in small ruminants. Between December 2005 and June 2006, 1,568 serum samples were taken: 563 samples from sheep and 1,005 from goats. One hundred and forty-seven of these (9.4%) tested positive using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and 76 (4.8%) also tested positive by the complement fixation test (CFT). Brucellosis was detected in all five administrative zones of the region. The difference in prevalence (P) among the zones was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of Brucella infection was found to be 5.8% (n = 58) in goats and 3.2% (n = 18) in sheep. A prevalence rate of 5.3% was observed in adult animals and 1.6% in younger sheep and goats. Caprine species (chi2 = 5.56) and adult goats and sheep (chi2 = 4.84) were found to be at higher risk of Brucella infection (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between males and females (chi2 = 2.57, P > 0.05). The study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is a widely distributed disease in Afar. The authors recommend the implementation of well-organised disease control and prevention methods to mitigate the economic losses and public health hazard caused by the disease.

  8. Small ruminant brucellosis and community perception in Jijiga District, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Mihreteab; Mohammed, Hassen; Tefera, Mulugeta; Tolosa, Tadele

    2011-04-01

    A cross-sectional study of brucellosis in small ruminants was carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Jijiga District, Somali Regional State of Ethiopia. Seven hundred thirty sera samples (421 of sheep and 309 of goats) were randomly collected from purposively selected villages of the study area. Structured questionnaire format was developed, pre-tested and administered to assess the perception of the community pertaining to brucellosis in sheep and goats. Sera samples were screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), and all samples tested positive by the RBPT were subjected to Complement Fixation Test (CFT) for confirmation. Of 12 serum samples that were positive by RBPT, 11 were positive by CFT. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the species as well as the sex groups (P > 0.05); however, the variation between the age groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Analysis of the questionnaire survey suggests that improper handling of aborted materials, consumption of raw milk, and lack of awareness about the disease, among others, might greatly contribute to further spread of brucellosis in their livestock and exposes the community to a public health hazard. In general, the sero-prevalence in the study area was not so high; nevertheless, appropriate brucellosis control and prevention methods should be implemented to circumvent future potential for economic losses and the public health hazard of the disease.

  9. Willingness to pay for footwear, and associated factors related to podoconiosis in northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tsegay, Girmay; Tamiru, Abreham; Amberbir, Tsige; Davey, Gail; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background In Northern Ethiopia, use of footwear by the rural community is limited, and non-governmental organizations provide footwear for school children as a means of preventing podoconiosis. However, this is not a sustainable strategy. This study assessed willingness to pay for footwear among people with and without podoconiosis. Methods A comparative cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in Mecha and Gozamen woredas among randomly selected people with and without podoconiosis. Trained health extension workers collected data using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data were entered into EPI-Data and exported to SPSS version 16.0 statistical software package for analysis. Results The willingness to pay for footwear among people with and without podoconiosis was 72.3% and 76.7% respectively (p=0.30). People with podoconiosis in the lower quintiles of economic status were less likely to be willing to pay for footwear than those in the higher quintiles. Conclusions There is substantial willingness to pay for footwear. The expressed willingness to pay indicates demand for footwear in the community, suggesting an opportunity for shoe companies. There are still a substantial proportion of individuals not willing to pay for footwear. This requires intensified public education and social transformation to bring about change in behavior towards footwear use if elimination of podoconiosis within our generation is to be achieved. PMID:27620919

  10. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Mohamad I.; Salvador-Davila, Graciela; Lonsako, Shumet; Kassahun, Konjit; Ansel, Jodi; Osakwe, Chidude; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Ahmed, Ismael; Asnake, Mengistu; Blumenthal, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS. Results. A total of 432 HIV-infected women participated in this study. About 71% of participants had ever heard of cervical cancer. Among women who had ever heard of cervical cancer, 49% did not know the cause while 74% were able to identify at least one risk factor for cervical cancer. Only 33% of women were able to correctly address when women should seek care and 33% identified at least one treatment option for cervical cancer. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge about cervical cancer was generally low, in particular for health care seeking behavior and treatment of cervical cancer. Health awareness programs should be strengthened at both community and health facility levels with emphasis highlighting the causes, risk factors, care seeking behaviors, and treatment options for cervical cancer. PMID:27867397

  11. Neonatal tetanus mortality survey, north and south Omo administrative regions, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, W

    1993-04-01

    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second most frequent cause of infant mortality among the six vaccine preventable infections in developing countries. However, lack of reliable data has largely obscured the importance of the problem in these countries. A community based NNT mortality survey was conducted, using cluster sample method developed by WHO/EPI, in August 1989 in North and South Omo, Ethiopia. The study found 14 neonatal tetanus deaths among 2100 live births which occurred from 15 July 1988 to 15 July 1989, giving NNT mortality rate of 6.7/1000 LB (live births) and an estimated incidence rate of 8.4/1000 LB, accounting for 40% of all neonatal deaths. Male newborns were 2.5 times more commonly affected than females. Cutting of umbilical cord with unsterile instrument, home delivery attended by untrained TBAs, and lack of adequate tetanus TT immunization were found to be associated with increased incidence of NNT. Acceleration and promotion of TT immunization of all women of child bearing age and training of TBAs in proper obstetric care, coupled with continuous supportive supervision, is recommended in order to successfully execute the NNT elimination initiative undertaken by the Ministry of Health.

  12. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Undernutrition among Adults with Major Depressive Disorder in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gezahegn, Edmialem; Edris, Melkie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Undernutrition and major depressive disorder are frequently co-occurring. Patients with impaired mental health are strongly vulnerable to the risks of having involuntary weight loss or deficiency of essential nutrients. However, there is no study which assesses undernutrition among major depressive patients in Ethiopia. Method. A total of 422 clients were included in the study. Structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used for collecting the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with undernutrition. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The prevalence of undernutrition was 31.4% [95% CI: 27.2–36.0]. Being in a rural residence [AOR = 1.84, 95% CI (1.18–2.85)], taking multiple medication [AOR = 1.77, 95% CI (1.03–3.05)], taking prescribed diet [AOR = 1.90, 95% CI (1.06–3.41)], and current use of alcohol [AOR = 2.96, 95% CI (1.34–6.55)] were factors significantly associated with undernutrition among depressive patients. Conclusion. The prevalence of undernutrition among adults with major depressive disorder was found to be higher than the general population. Appropriate nutritional education and nutritional assessment are recommended during the course of major depressive disorder. PMID:27990420

  13. First hominoid from the Miocene of Ethiopia and the evolution of the catarrhine elbow.

    PubMed

    Richmond, B G; Fleagle, J G; Kappelman, J; Swisher, C C

    1998-03-01

    The first known fossil ape from the early-middle Miocene of Fejej, Ethiopia, is described here. The specimen, FJ-18SB-68, is a partial ulna from a locality dated by 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic methods to a minimum age of 16.18 MYA. Compared to a variety of extant and fossil ulnae, FJ-18SB-68 is most similar to Turkanapithecus, Proconsul, and Pliopithecus, and appears to have been an arboreal quadruped with substantial forearm rotational mobility. Among the extant ulnae, canonical variates analysis successfully discriminates platyrrhines from catarrhines and within the latter, cercopithecoids from hominoids. Basal catarrhines (e.g., Aegyptopithecus) are platyrrhine-like in their morphology. Two basic trends appear to evolve from this generalized template: one with less mobile and more habitually pronated forearms, as seen in living and fossil cercopithecoids (including Victoriapithecus and Paracolobus), and another with greater forearm rotational mobility in fossil and modern hominoids. Primitive Miocene apes, including Proconsul, Turkanapithecus, and FJ-18SB-68, share with extant hominoids a more laterally positioned and laterally facing radial notch and an incipient trochlear keel. This morphology, along with a large insertion area for m. brachialis, suggests a departure from the more habitually pronated hand posture of monkeys and may indicate greater climbing abilities in these arboreally quadrupedal apes. Later Miocene apes, such as Oreopithecus and Dryopithecus share additional morphological features with hominoids, indicating considerable suspensory and climbing capabilities.

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%–19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia. PMID:28074185

  15. Abortion and unwanted pregnancy in Adigrat Zonal Hospital, Tigray, north Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gessessew, Amanuel

    2010-09-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the causes of unwanted pregnancy and its impact on maternal health. A cross sectional study (February 1, 2002-January 31, 2004) was conducted on 907 patients with diagnosis of abortion and admitted to the gynecological ward of Adigrat zonal hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. This accounts to 12.6% of all hospital and 60.6% of gynecological admissions. The majority of these women (69.8%) had unwanted pregnancy. Modern contraception methods were not in use in 76.2% of unwanted and 57.7% of wanted pregnancies (P = 0.008). Interference was reported in 81.4% of unwanted pregnancy. High incidence of complication was reported in patients with unwanted pregnancy. In this study it is found that unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. The development and prompt implementation of a strategy that enables women to safely manage unwanted pregnancy is recommended.

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ejo, Mebrat; Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%-19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia.

  17. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces.

  18. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, S; Renne, P; Harris, J W; Feibel, C S; Bernor, R L; Fesseha, N; Mowbray, K

    1997-01-23

    The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage. We conducted field work in the Gona study area of Ethiopia between 1992 and 1994 which resulted in additional archaeological discoveries as well as radioisotopic age control and a magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Gona sequence. These occurrences are now securely dated between 2.6-2.5 Myr. The stone tools are thus the oldest known artefacts from anywhere in the world. The artefacts show surprisingly sophisticated control of stone fracture mechanics, equivalent to much younger Oldowan assemblages of Early Pleistocene age. This indicates an unexpectedly long period of technological stasis in the Oldowan.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency and its predictors in a country with thirteen months of sunshine: the case of school children in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Belachew, Tefera; Vatanparast, Hassan; Whiting, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining vitamin D status among children living in sunny climates indicated that children did not receive adequate vitamin D, however, this has not been looked at among children living in Ethiopia. In this study, we determined vitamin D deficiency and its predictors among school children aged 11-18 years, examining circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. The school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in schools in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama (n = 85) for a total sample of 174. Students were randomly selected using multi-stage stratified sampling method from both settings. Socioeconomic status of parents and demographic, anthropometric, sun exposure status and blood 25(OH)D levels were obtained. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as circulating levels of 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, was found in 42% of the entire study participants. Prevalence of deficiency was significantly higher among students in urban setting compared to rural (61.8% vs 21.2%, respectively, p<0.001). After controlling for potential confounders using multivariable logistic regression model, duration of exposure to sunlight, amount of body part exposed to sunlight, place of residence, maternal education, body fatness, having TV/computer at home and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency. The findings suggest that Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in healthy school children living both in urban and rural areas of a country with abundant year round sunshine providing UVB, with the prevalence of deficiency being significantly higher among urban school children who were less exposed to sunlight. Behaviour change communication to enhance exposure to ultraviolet light is critical to prevent vitamin D deficiency in tropical country like Ethiopia. Further study is required to assess the deleterious effect of its deficiency on bone mineral homeostasis of growing children in Ethiopia during their most critical period of bone development.

  20. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia’s livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  1. Eruption parameters elicitation for volcanoes in Ethiopia and Kenya Informing a World Bank GFDRR project on volcanic threat in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Susanna; Lark, Murray; Loughlin, Sue; Fontijn, Karen; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Sparks, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Despite large numbers of very visible active volcanoes in sub-Saharan Africa, data about eruptions are limited compared to elsewhere in the world. We present the method and findings from elicitations carried out to characterise likely future eruptions in the region as part of a World Bank GFDRR risk profiling project for sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of the elicitations was to better understand the characteristics and frequencies of explosive eruptions at volcanoes in Ethiopia and Kenya. The elicitations will provide source parameters for tephra fall modelling at select volcanoes in Ethiopia (Aluto, Corbetti, Fentale) and Kenya (Menegai, Longonot, Suswa). There were two stages of elicitation: 1) a 'sanity check' of initial assumptions around likely eruption style, magnitude and frequency for the six selected volcanoes; 2) a formal SHELF (SHeffield ELicitation Framework) elicitation that centred round establishing frequency-magnitude relationships for the volcanoes. The elicitation suggested that explosive eruptions at Aluto and Corbetti were less likely than at the other volcanoes, although the uncertainty was significant. Menengai and Rungwe volcano in Tanzania (elicited as an analogue for Fentale, Longonot and Suswa volcanoes) were characterised by approximately similar probabilities of eruption. However, Rungwe was considered more likely to produce larger explosive (VEI ≥ 4) eruptions than Menengai. Elicitation discussions highlighted the knowledge and data gaps for African volcanoes and raised important questions around whether gaps in the eruption record were real and related to changing regimes at the volcanoes over time or if they were a function of under-recording or lack of preservation. Further investigation is therefore needed to validate the findings of the elicitation. It is hoped that continued collaboration with local partners and studies within the ongoing NERC-funded RiftVolc project will address these issues and help to improve our knowledge

  2. Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Predictors in a Country with Thirteen Months of Sunshine: The Case of School Children in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Belachew, Tefera; Vatanparast, Hassan; Whiting, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining vitamin D status among children living in sunny climates indicated that children did not receive adequate vitamin D, however, this has not been looked at among children living in Ethiopia. In this study, we determined vitamin D deficiency and its predictors among school children aged 11–18 years, examining circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. The school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in schools in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama (n = 85) for a total sample of 174. Students were randomly selected using multi-stage stratified sampling method from both settings. Socioeconomic status of parents and demographic, anthropometric, sun exposure status and blood 25(OH)D levels were obtained. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as circulating levels of 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, was found in 42% of the entire study participants. Prevalence of deficiency was significantly higher among students in urban setting compared to rural (61.8% vs 21.2%, respectively, p<0.001). After controlling for potential confounders using multivariable logistic regression model, duration of exposure to sunlight, amount of body part exposed to sunlight, place of residence, maternal education, body fatness, having TV/computer at home and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency. The findings suggest that Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in healthy school children living both in urban and rural areas of a country with abundant year round sunshine providing UVB, with the prevalence of deficiency being significantly higher among urban school children who were less exposed to sunlight. Behaviour change communication to enhance exposure to ultraviolet light is critical to prevent vitamin D deficiency in tropical country like Ethiopia. Further study is required to assess the deleterious effect of its deficiency on bone mineral homeostasis of growing children in Ethiopia during their most critical period of bone development. PMID:25822900

  3. How Can the Health System Retain Women in HIV Treatment for a Lifetime? A Discrete Choice Experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Riley, Patricia L.; Palma, Anton M.; Adhikari, Sweta; Ahoua, Laurence; Arnaldo, Carlos; Belo, Dercio F.; Brusamento, Serena; Cumba, Luisa I. G.; Dziuban, Eric J.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Gutema, Yoseph; Habtamu, Zelalem; Heller, Thomas; Kidanu, Aklilu; Langa, Judite; Mahagaja, Epifanio; McCarthy, Carey F.; Melaku, Zenebe; Shodell, Daniel; Tsiouris, Fatima; Young, Paul R.; Rabkin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Option B+, an approach that involves provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected pregnant women for life, is the preferred strategy for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Lifelong retention in care is essential to its success. We conducted a discrete choice experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique to identify health system characteristics preferred by HIV-infected women to promote continuity of care. Methods Women living with HIV and receiving care at hospitals in Oromia Region, Ethiopia and Zambézia Province, Mozambique were shown nine choice cards and asked to select one of two hypothetical health facilities, each with six varying characteristics related to the delivery of HIV services for long term treatment. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the influence of six health service attributes on choice of clinics. Results 2,033 women participated in the study (response rate 97.8% in Ethiopia and 94.7% in Mozambique). Among the various attributes of structure and content of lifelong ART services, the most important attributes identified in both countries were respectful provider attitude and ability to obtain non-HIV health services during HIV-related visits. Availability of counseling support services was also a driver of choice. Facility type, i.e., hospital versus health center, was substantially less important. Conclusions Efforts to enhance retention in HIV care and treatment for pregnant women should focus on promoting respectful care by providers and integrating access to non-HIV health services in the same visit, as well as continuing to strengthen counseling. PMID:27551785

  4. Mapping Current and Potential Distribution of Non-Native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakie, Tewodros T.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries. PMID:25393396

  5. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  6. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    TULU, Begna; TAYE, Solomon; ZENEBE, Yohannes; AMSALU, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001) and (P=0.001), respectively. Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important. PMID:28127367

  7. Ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control in Harari National Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Awoke, Aymere; Dessie, Yadeta; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) stood at center in the current efforts to prevent and control malaria at community and individual levels. Though ITNs are the most prominent measure for large-scale deployment in highly endemic areas their compliance in terms of ownership and usage needs attention. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the ownership and utilization pattern of ITNs in Harari Peoples National Regional state, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Harari National Regional State from September to October, 2012. A total of 784 households were included from malarious areas. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires and observational checklist. Results About 57.9% of participants had at least one ITNs. The utilization of ITNs based on history of sleeping under net in the previous night was 73.3%. Regarding proper use of ITNs, 57.9% of respondents demonstrated proper hanging and tucking. Those households with secondary school education (AOR: 1.775(1.047, 3.009)), knowledge about ITNs use (AOR: 2.400(1.593, 3.615)) and knowledge of malaria transmission by bite of mosquito (AOR: 1.653(1.156, 2.365)) have more likely hood to own ITNs. Conclusion ITNs Ownership was low as compared to the target by Federal ministry of Health of Ethiopia. Though utilization of ITNs was promising, there are still significant number of participants who demonstrate hanging and tucking improperly. Therefore, health bureau need to work towards increasing the distribution of ITNs per household and also provide health information through health extension workers to enhance regular and proper usage of the ITNs. PMID:26405488

  8. Risky Sexual Behaviors among Female Youth in Tiss Abay, a Semi-Urban Area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508

  9. Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case–control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. Results The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers’ educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. Conclusions Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made. PMID:23688144

  10. Nutritional care and support among adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Zelalem; Birhan, Yifru; Abebe, Hiwot

    2013-11-01

    Background Improving nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is an integral part of comprehensive HIV treatment according to the National Nutritional Strategy of Ethiopia. However, there is no adequate published study that assesses the nutritional care and support services for adult people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLHIV) in this setting. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the existing nutritional care and support services and determine the challenges facing adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was carried out using focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and participant observation. Four FDGs were held and five in-depth interviews were conducted. A two-week participant observation was also conducted by trained nurses. All interviews and FDGs were tape-recorded and transcribed; those conducted in Amharic were translated back to English. Finally thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results Most of the FDG participants were unsatisfied with their nutritional care and support services and expressed difficulty with disclosing their HIV status for fear of stigma and discrimination. The in-depth interviews and participant observation showed results similar to those of the FDG. Some key informants expressed a fear that such poor nutritional care and support may threaten the quality of life of people living with HIV and suggested that all stakeholders work on improving the services. Conclusion Current nutritional care and support services for people living with HIV are not well coordinated. They focus mainly on monthly supplementation of antiretroviral drugs and occasional handouts of food. The need to provide health education on antiretroviral drugs and nutrition, and to emphasise strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of peoples living with HIV is critical. Furthermore, the study recommended strengthening the initiatives of some

  11. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers working in food and drinking establishments of Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was conducted among 406 food handlers working in 105 food and drink establishments from July to August 2013 in Dangila town. Data were collected using face to face interview with pretested structured questionnaire and physical observation. Result The mean age of the respondents was 22.7 ± 4.2 years of which 62.8% of the food handlers were females. Two hundred thirteen (52.5%) of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status (AOR = 7.52, 95% CI, 1.45-38.97), monthly income (AOR = 0.395, 95% CI, 0.25-0.62), knowledge about food handling (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), existence of shower facility (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.12-3.21) and separate dressing room (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.11-3.49) were found to be significantly associated with good food handling Practices. Conclusion Above half of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status, monthly income, knowledge status, existence of shower facility, existence of separate dressing room and presence of insect and rodent were factors associated with food handling Practices. PMID:24908104

  12. Magnitude and Reasons for Harmful Traditional Practices among Children Less Than 5 Years of Age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Fantahun, Atsede; Buruh, Gerezgiher

    2014-01-01

    Background. In addition to beneficial traditional practices, there are around 140 harmful traditional practices affecting mothers and children in almost all ethnic groups of Ethiopia. Therefore this study might give a clue about their practice and associated factors. The objective of this study was to assess magnitude of harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 752 participants who were selected using multistage sampling. Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum Town. After proportional allocation of sample size to eachketena, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire; it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive statistics was calculated. Results. Majority of the respondents (81.2%) were Orthodox, 78.2% of the mothers had no work, and majority of mothers had no formal education. Among the harmful traditional practices performed on children, uvula cutting alone was performed on 72.8% of children followed by milk teeth extraction and uvula cutting with eyebrow incision. Conclusion. The leading harmful traditional practice performed on children in this study was uvula cutting. PMID:25045359

  13. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Y

    2001-07-12

    Molecular studies suggest that the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged approximately 6.5-5.5 million years (Myr) ago, in the Late Miocene. Hominid fossils from this interval, however, are fragmentary and of uncertain phylogenetic status, age, or both. Here I report new hominid specimens from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia that date to 5.2-5.8 Myr and are associated with a wooded palaeoenvironment. These Late Miocene fossils are assigned to the hominid genus Ardipithecus and represent the earliest definitive evidence of the hominid clade. Derived dental characters are shared exclusively with all younger hominids. This indicates that the fossils probably represent a hominid taxon that postdated the divergence of lineages leading to modern chimpanzees and humans. However, the persistence of primitive dental and postcranial characters in these new fossils indicates that Ardipithecus was phylogenetically close to the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. These new findings raise additional questions about the claimed hominid status of Orrorin tugenensis, recently described from Kenya and dated to approximately 6 Myr.

  14. Dropping out of Ethiopia's community-based health insurance scheme.

    PubMed

    Mebratie, Anagaw D; Sparrow, Robert; Yilma, Zelalem; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S

    2015-12-01

    Low contract renewal rates have been identified as one of the challenges facing the development of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. This article uses longitudinal household survey data gathered in 2012 and 2013 to examine dropout in the case of Ethiopia's pilot CBHI scheme. We treat dropout as a function of scheme affordability, health status, scheme understanding and quality of care. The scheme saw enrolment increase from 41% 1 year after inception to 48% a year later. An impressive 82% of those who enrolled in the first year renewed their subscriptions, while 25% who had not enrolled joined the scheme. The analysis shows that socioeconomic status, a greater understanding of health insurance and experience with and knowledge of the CBHI scheme are associated with lower dropout rates. While there are concerns about the quality of care and the treatment meted out to the insured by providers, the overall picture is that returns from the scheme are overwhelmingly positive. For the bulk of households, premiums do not seem to be onerous, basic understanding of health insurance is high and almost all those who are currently enrolled signalled their desire to renew contracts.

  15. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

    2013-06-25

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  16. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  17. Environmental and habitat management: the case of Ethiopia and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kidane-Mariam, Tadesse

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the environment and habitat management experiences of Ethiopia and Ghana in the postindependence period (1960-2000). Based on extensive archival research, semistructured focused interviews of environment and habitat officers of the World Bank, the United Nations System and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and personal professional field experiences, the paper argues that the uncritical adoption of externally generated discourses, narratives, policy guidelines, and strategies of environmental and habitat management has structured thought and action in both countries. The experience of both countries in defining and responding to environmental and human settlement management is explored from a political ecology perspective. The analysis indicates that both countries have essentially adopted a technocratic, state-centered, and unsustainable management strategy framework based on population control, poverty reduction, sustainable development, and capacity-building. It also suggests that international organizations such as the World Bank, INCN, and the United Nations system have been important sources of thought and action in both countries. Conversely, regional international organizations such as the Economic Commission for Africa, the Organization of African Unity and the African Development Bank have largely served as conduits for the diffusion of global discourses, narratives, policies and strategies. The need for adopting management policies and strategies that are based on principles of multiple engagement, decentralization, incentives, public education, and participation is underscored.

  18. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  19. Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H; Fleagle, John G

    2005-02-17

    In 1967 the Kibish Formation in southern Ethiopia yielded hominid cranial remains identified as early anatomically modern humans, assigned to Homo sapiens. However, the provenance and age of the fossils have been much debated. Here we confirm that the Omo I and Omo II hominid fossils are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation, despite the view that Omo I is more modern in appearance than Omo II. 40Ar/39Ar ages on feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff in Member I below the hominid levels place an older limit of 198 +/- 14 kyr (weighted mean age 196 +/- 2 kyr) on the hominids. A younger age limit of 104 +/- 7 kyr is provided by feldspars from pumice clasts in a Member III tuff. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation. Isotopic ages on the Kibish Formation correspond to ages of Mediterranean sapropels, which reflect increased flow of the Nile River, and necessarily increased flow of the Omo River. Thus the 40Ar/39Ar age measurements, together with the sapropel correlations, indicate that the hominid fossils have an age close to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 +/- 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described.

  20. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  1. Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.

  2. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa.

  3. Regional groundwater flow modeling of the Geba basin, northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; De Smedt, Florimond; Walraevens, Kristine; Gebresilassie, Solomon; Hussien, Abdelwassie; Hagos, Miruts; Amare, Kassa; Deckers, Jozef; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya

    2017-01-01

    The Geba basin is one of the most food-insecure areas of the Tigray regional state in northern Ethiopia due to recurrent drought resulting from erratic distribution of rainfall. Since the beginning of the 1990s, rain-fed agriculture has been supported through small-scale irrigation schemes mainly by surface-water harvesting, but success has been limited. Hence, use of groundwater for irrigation purposes has gained considerable attention. The main purpose of this study is to assess groundwater resources in the Geba basin by means of a MODFLOW modeling approach. The model is calibrated using observed groundwater levels, yielding a clear insight into the groundwater flow systems and reserves. Results show that none of the hydrogeological formations can be considered as aquifers that can be exploited for large-scale groundwater exploitation. However, aquitards can be identified that can support small-scale groundwater abstraction for irrigation needs in regions that are either designated as groundwater discharge areas or where groundwater levels are shallow and can be tapped by hand-dug wells or shallow boreholes.

  4. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Reid, S W J; Love, S

    2010-05-11

    A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified.

  5. Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

  6. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face.

  7. The Single-Visit Approach as a Cervical Cancer Prevention Strategy Among Women With HIV in Ethiopia: Successes and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Netsanet; Salvador-Davila, Graciela; Kassahun, Konjit; Brooks, Mohamad I; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Zerihun, Habtamu; Nigatu, Tariku; Lulu, Kidest; Ahmed, Ismael; Blumenthal, Paul D; Asnake, Mengistu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common form of cancer for women in Ethiopia. Using a single-visit approach to prevent cervical cancer, the Addis Tesfa (New Hope) project in Ethiopia tested women with HIV through visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and, if tests results were positive, offered immediate cryotherapy of the precancerous lesion or referral for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). The objective of this article is to review screening and treatment outcomes over nearly 4 years of project implementation and to identify lessons learned to improve cervical cancer prevention programs in Ethiopia and other resource-constrained settings. Methods: We analyzed aggregate client data from August 2010 to March 2014 to obtain the number of women with HIV who were counseled, screened, and treated, as well as the number of annual follow-up visits made, from the 14 tertiary- and secondary-level health facilities implementing the single-visit approach. A health facility assessment (HFA) was also implemented from August to December 2013 to examine the effects of the single-visit approach on client flow, staff workload, and facility infrastructure 3 years after initiating the approach. Results: Almost all (99%) of the 16,632 women with HIV counseled about the single-visit approach were screened with VIA during the study period; 1,656 (10%) of them tested VIA positive (VIA+) for precancerous lesions. Among those who tested VIA+ and were thus eligible for cryotherapy, 1,481 (97%) received cryotherapy treatment, but only 80 (63%) women eligible for LEEP actually received the treatment. The HFA results showed frequent staff turnover, some shortage of essential supplies, and rooms that were judged by providers to be too small for delivery of cervical cancer prevention services. Conclusion: The high proportions of VIA screening and cryotherapy treatment in the Addis Tesfa project suggest high acceptance of such services

  8. Determinants of infant nutritional status in Dabat district, North Gondar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Wubante, Amarech Asratie

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. Methods A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied. Relevant data was extracted from the community based survey data set. Anthroplus software was used to identify cases and controls. Determinants of infant nutritional status were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Among the total of 80 cases and 320 controls, more than half (52.5%) of the cases and the controls (53.8%) were males and females, respectively. Breast Feeding (BF) was started immediately after birth in only 43.8% of the cases. Nearly 94% of the mothers of the cases had no breast feeding information as part of Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up. Maternal age (AOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11–0.76), having radio (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22–0.82), lack of toilet facility (AOR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.16–4.33), deprivation of colostrum (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.01–1.06) and method of complementary feeding (AOR: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.33–5.99) were associated with wasting. Conclusions This study has found that inappropriate infant feeding; nutritional information gap and lack of toilet facility as significant predictors of malnutrition. Hence, joint interventions, including counseling of mothers about benefits of colostrum feeding and use of appropriate feeding method, toilet utilization and mass media such as radio possession, are needed to address the problem in Dabat district. PMID:28346497

  9. Women's health in a rural setting in societal transition in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Y; Gossaye, Y; Emmelin, M; Hogberg, U

    2001-12-01

    There are reports indicating a worsening of women's health in transitional rural societies in sub-Saharan Africa in relation to autonomy, workload, illiteracy, nutrition and disease prevalence. Although these problems are rampant, proper documentation is lacking. The objective of this study was to reflect the health situation of women in rural Ethiopia. Furthermore, the study attempts to address the socio-demographic and cultural factors that have potential influence on the health of women in the context of a low-income setting. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods was utilised. In-depth interviews and a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected women were the main methods employed. The Butajira Rural Health Program demographic surveillance database provided the sampling frame. Heavy workload, lack of access to health services, poverty, traditional practices, poor social status and decision-making power, and lack of access to education were among the highly prevalent socio-cultural factors that potentially affect the health of women in Butajira. Though the majority of the women use traditional healers younger women show more tendency to use health services. No improvement of women's status was perceived by the younger generation compared to the older generation. Female genital mutilation is universal with a strong motivation to its maintenance. Nail polish has replaced the rite of nail-extraction before marriage in the younger generation. As the factors influencing the health of women are multiple and complex a holistic approach should be adopted with emphasis on improving access to health care and education, enhancing social status, and mechanisms to alleviate poverty.

  10. Magma storage conditions beneath Dabbahu Volcano (Ethiopia) constrained by petrology, seismicity and satellite geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Blundy, J.; Brooker, R. A.; Wright, T.; Yirgu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A variety of methods exist to constrain sub-volcanic storage conditions of magmas. Petrological, seismological and satellite geodetic methods are integrated to determine storage conditions of peralkaline magmas beneath Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of volatile contents in melt inclusions trapped within phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine from pantellerite obsidians representing the youngest eruptive phase (<8 ka) show H2O contents ≤5.8 wt.% and CO2 contents generally below 500 ppm, although rarely as high as 1,500 ppm. Volatile saturation pressures (at 679-835°C) are in the range 43-207 MPa, consistent with published experimental data for similar pantellerites, which show that the phenocryst assemblage of alkali feldspar + cpx + aenigmatite ± ilmenite is stable at 100 to 150 MPa. Inferred magma storage depths for these historic eruptions are ~1-5 km below sea-level, consistent with the depths of earthquakes, associated with magma chamber deflation following a dyke intrusion in the period Oct 2005-Apr 2006. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the same period reveal a broad ~20 km diameter area of uplift. Modelling of different geometries reveals that a series of stacked sills over a 1-5 km depth range best matches the InSAR data. The consistency of depth estimates based on petrological study of ancient eruptions and the seismicity, inflation and deflation of Dabbahu observed in relation to the dyking event of 2005, suggest a small but vertically extensive and potentially long-lived magma storage region.

  11. Medication reconciliation as a medication safety initiative in Ethiopia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B; McLachlan, Andrew J; Brien, Jo-anne E; Mekonnen, Desalew; Abay, Zenahebezu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medication related adverse events are common, particularly during transitions of care, and have a significant impact on patient outcomes and healthcare costs. Medication reconciliation (MedRec) is an important initiative to achieve the Quality Use of Medicines, and has been adopted as a standard practice in many developed countries. However, the impact of this strategy is rarely described in Ethiopia. The aims of this study are to explore patient safety culture, and to develop, implement and evaluate a theory informed MedRec intervention, with the aim of minimising the incidence of medication errors during hospital admission. Methods and analyses The study will be conducted in a resource limited setting. There are three phases to this project. The first phase is a mixed methods study of healthcare professionals' perspectives of patient safety culture and patients' experiences of medication related adverse events. In this phase, the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture will be used along with semi-structured indepth interviews to investigate patient safety culture and experiences of medication related adverse events. The second phase will use a semi-structured interview guide, designed according to the 12 domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, to explore the barriers and facilitators to medication safety activities delivered by hospital pharmacists. The third phase will be a single centre, before and after study, that will evaluate the impact of pharmacist conducted admission MedRec in an emergency department (ED). The main outcome measure is the incidence and potential clinical severity of medication errors. We will then analyse the differences in the incidence and severity of medication errors before and after initiation of an ED pharmacy service. PMID:27884844

  12. Beyond the Biomedical: Community Resources for Mental Health Care in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Selamu, Medhin; Asher, Laura; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Hailemariam, Maji; Patel, Vikram; Thornicroft, Graham; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2015-01-01

    Background The focus of discussion in addressing the treatment gap is often on biomedical services. However, community resources can benefit health service scale-up in resource-constrained settings. These assets can be captured systematically through resource mapping, a method used in social action research. Resource mapping can be informative in developing complex mental health interventions, particularly in settings with limited formal mental health resources. Method We employed resource mapping within the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME), to systematically gather information on community assets that can support integration of mental healthcare into primary care in rural Ethiopia. A semi-structured instrument was administered to key informants. Community resources were identified for all 58 sub-districts of the study district. The potential utility of these resources for the provision of mental healthcare in the district was considered. Results The district is rich in community resources: There are over 150 traditional healers, 164 churches and mosques, and 401 religious groups. There were on average 5 eddir groups (traditional funeral associations) per sub-district. Social associations and 51 micro-finance institutions were also identified. On average, two traditional bars were found in each sub-district. The eight health centres and 58 satellite clinics staffed by Health Extension Workers (HEWs) represented all the biomedical health services in the district. In addition the Health Development Army (HDA) are community volunteers who support health promotion and prevention activities. Discussion The plan for mental healthcare integration in this district was informed by the resource mapping. Community and religious leaders, HEWs, and HDA may have roles in awareness-raising, detection and referral of people with mental illness, improving access to medical care, supporting treatment adherence, and protecting human rights. The diversity of

  13. Awareness and utilization of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from “cluster” sites such as main road sides, isolated slum areas, around Churches and/or Mosques (in the mornings of Sundays and other religious feast days) and streets where street women usually reside and/or sleep. Data were collected using a pre-tested and structured interview questionnaire in local language (Amharic) after informed verbal consent. Data were then entered into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary logistic regression models were fit to assess associations and control confounding. Associations were measured by the Odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results The mean (±SD) age of participants was 30.9 (± 8.7) years. Majority (90.7%) had ever heard about modern contraceptives. Nearly half (47.1%) had ever used and a third (34.3%) were current users. Three quarter of the current users (74.3%) were using injectables while 10% were on long acting or permanent methods. Marital status (AOR=2.81), family size (AOR=2.67) and age of 25–34 years (AOR=3.45) were associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions Current contraceptive use among street women is satisfactory considering their life styles and living conditions. However, further research is required to explain perceptions and hidden barriers. PMID:23031722

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Pregnant Women in Debretabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bisetegn, Telake Azale; Mihretie, Getnet; Muche, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy is a major health problem because it is prevalent and chronic, and its impact on birth outcome and child health is serious. Several psychosocial and obstetric factors have been identified as predictors. Evidence on the prevalence and predictors of antenatal depression is very limited in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine prevalence and associated factors with antenatal depression. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 527 pregnant women recruited in a cluster sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews on socio-demographic, obstetric, and psychosocial characteristics. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The List of Threatening Experiences questionnaire (LTE-Q) and the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3) were used to assess stressful events and social support, respectively. Data were entered into Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS-20. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results The prevalence of antenatal depression was found to be 11.8%. Having debt (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.85), unplanned pregnancy (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = (1.20, 4.76), history of stillbirth (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = (1.67,9.41), history of abortion (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.005, 6.61), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07,2.72), presence of a complication in the current pregnancy (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.66,6.53), and previous history of depression (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.71,7.06) were factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. Conclusion The prevalence of antenatal depression was high, especially in the third trimester. Poverty, unmet reproductive health needs, and obstetric complications are the main determinants of antenatal depression. For early detection and appropriate intervention, screening for depression during the routine antenatal care should be promoted. PMID:27618181

  15. Health, Nutrition and Informal Education of Pre-School Children in South-West Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This report discusses the roles of health, nutrition and informal education in the preschool education of children in southwest Ethiopia. Information for the report is drawn from data from a study of traditional maternity and child care in the Southern Shewa region of the country. Mother and child health is a priority in Ethiopian health planning.…

  16. Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia.

  17. Socio-Emotional Problems Experienced by Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Mulat; Hannu, Savolainen; Elina, Lehtomäki; Matti, Kuorelahti

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the socio-emotional problems experienced by deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students with those of hearing students in Ethiopia. The research involved a sample of 103 grade 4 students attending a special school for the deaf, a special class for the deaf and a regular school. Socio-emotional problems were measured using Goodman's…

  18. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  19. Pastoral mobility and policy recommendations for livestock herding in the Borana pastoral system in southern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livelihoods of pastoralists in the Borana Zone of southern Ethiopia have become increasingly vulnerable as a result of stressors like accelerating population growth, shrinking resource availability, sedentarization, and increased frequency and severity of drought. A research team from the USDA Agric...

  20. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  1. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  2. Empowering Preschool Teachers to Identify Mental Health Problems: A Task-Sharing Intervention in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G.; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F.

    2017-01-01

    In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is…

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal...

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal...

  8. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  9. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  10. The Practice of Continuous Assessment in Primary Schools: The Case of Chagni, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abejehu, Sintayehu Belay

    2016-01-01

    Continuous assessment is part and parcel of instructional process that has to be taken as a key tool in educational quality assurance endeavor. Thus, this article examined the actual practice of continuous assessment in primary schools of Chagni City Administration, Ethiopia. To address this purpose the study employed descriptive survey design.…

  11. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi causing rust on soybean in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungal pathogen P. pachyrhizi, has been reported in 10 African countries since the first report in Uganda in 1996. In 2016, a severe epidemic caused “clouds” of urediniospores to be observed when walking through fields in mid-October 2016 in Jimma Ethiopia. In the first ...

  12. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  13. The Emergence of the National Language in Ethiopia: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyoum, Mulugeta

    Modern Ethiopia has made progress that has altered the status and functions of its various languages. With modernization, the reasons for and means of interethnic contact have multiplied, creating the need for a common language. Amharic, once confined to a rather small area, has spread geographically and grown in status in the last thousand years,…

  14. Detection of a new Borrelia species in ticks taken from cattle in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Abdissa, Alemseged; Socolovschi, Cristina; Diatta, Georges; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2013-04-01

    We collected 284 ticks in Ethiopia (109 Amblyomma cohaerens, 173 Rhipicephalus decoloratus, and 2 Rhipicephalus praetextatus). We found no rickettsiae and bartonellae. In 7.3% of the A. cohaerens, we found a Borrelia sp. that may represent a new species distant from both relapsing fever group and Lyme borreliae.

  15. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  16. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  17. Reflections on the Teacher Education System Overhaul (TESO) Program in Ethiopia: Promises, Pitfalls, and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Dawit M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Ethiopian education system experienced wide-ranging reform that touches every aspect of the system. This reform is called TESO (Teacher Education System Overhaul). Designed to address educational problems in Ethiopia, TESO introduced significant structural changes and promised to bring a "paradigm shift" in the Ethiopian…

  18. Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education "Reform" Tasks in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the pre-service secondary teacher education "paradigm shift" or "system overhaul" that has been implemented during the 2003-2005 time period in Ethiopia reflects the pursuit of pathways which the author refers to as a managerial approach. Grounded mainly on personal narratives of a key…

  19. The Teacher Education Reform Process in Ethiopia: Some Consequences on Educators and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2007-01-01

    With the emergence of the discourse of TESO, teacher education in Ethiopia has been struggling to change rhetoric and practice by reaffirming a managerially driven reform performance. The terrain is now characterized by fresh, but globally dominant rhetoric. Salient in the emerging discourse is reform mottos and agendas such as "active…

  20. The Unfolding Trends and Consequences of Expanding Higher Education in Ethiopia: Massive Universities, Massive Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2009-01-01

    There have been significant increases in the number of universities and student enrollments in the last fifteen years in Ethiopia. The numerical gains have brought about improved access to higher education for students. The expansion has also diversified fields of study and opened opportunities to pursue higher degrees to a significant number of…

  1. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with…

  2. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  3. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  4. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  5. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  6. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  7. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  8. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  9. Interrogating the Continuing Professional Development Policy Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…

  10. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  11. Developing a Lifelong Learning System in Ethiopia: Contextual Considerations and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…

  12. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  13. Effectiveness of Higher Diploma Program for Early Career Academics in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Demewoz Admasu

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented expansion of the public higher education sector in Ethiopia has brought about masses of early career academics (ECAs) to take up teaching and research in the sector. In recognition of a multitude of responsibilities and challenges these ECAs would face, a higher diploma program (HDP) was introduced in 2004 both for ECAs and senior…

  14. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  15. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  16. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  17. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  18. Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Does the Tail Wag the Dog?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Benson

    Ethiopia, a country with 82 distinctly different languages and ethnic groups, has recently emerged from decades of civil war. In the process of restoring civilian rule, alliances have formed between a wide spectrum of local interest groups. Education generally, and language policy more specifically, continues to be one of the most contentious…

  19. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  20. Human papillomavirus related cervical cancer and anticipated vaccination challenges in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, TeweldeTesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Ethiopia. This may be due to the high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes in the population. So far, few studies have been done that showed the presence of HR-HPV genotypes. The HR-HPV-16, -18, -52, -56, -31 and -58 were the most common genotypes reported in Ethiopia. The introduction of HPV vaccines in Ethiopia is likely to go a long way in reducing cervical cancer deaths. However, there are few challenges to the introduction of the vaccines. The target population for HPV vaccination is at the moment not well-defined. Besides, the current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific (HPV-16 and -18) immunity, leaving a small proportion of Ethiopian women unprotected against other HR-HPV genotypes such as 52, 56, 31 and 58. Thus, future HPV vaccines such as the nanovalent vaccine may be more useful to Ethiopia as they will protect women against more genotypes.

  1. Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic glasses associated with early Homo sapiens in Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.

  2. Human papillomavirus related cervical cancer and anticipated vaccination challenges in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, TeweldeTesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Ethiopia. This may be due to the high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes in the population. So far, few studies have been done that showed the presence of HR-HPV genotypes. The HR-HPV-16, -18, -52, -56, -31 and -58 were the most common genotypes reported in Ethiopia. The introduction of HPV vaccines in Ethiopia is likely to go a long way in reducing cervical cancer deaths. However, there are few challenges to the introduction of the vaccines. The target population for HPV vaccination is at the moment not well-defined. Besides, the current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific (HPV-16 and -18) immunity, leaving a small proportion of Ethiopian women unprotected against other HR-HPV genotypes such as 52, 56, 31 and 58. Thus, future HPV vaccines such as the nanovalent vaccine may be more useful to Ethiopia as they will protect women against more genotypes. PMID:27004064

  3. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  4. Globalization of psychology: Implications for the development of psychology in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Swancott, Rachel; Uppal, Gobinderjit; Crossley, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The present article reports on the variation of mental health resources across the globe and considers the merits or otherwise of the process of globalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific emphasis on Ethiopia. Although globalization has gained momentum in recent years, there is a concern that the globalization of Western mental health frameworks is problematic, as these concepts have been developed in a different context and do not accommodate the current diversity in understanding in LMIC countries. The importance of understanding the mental health frameworks of LMIC like Ethiopia, prior to considering if and how aspects of high-income countries (HIC) conceptualizations may be appropriately imported, is therefore reflected upon. Traditional approaches in managing mental health difficulties and possible reasons for the limited engagement with clinical psychology in Ethiopia are considered. Current developments within the fields of mental health and clinical psychology in Ethiopia are discussed, and the need to develop more local research in order to increase understanding and evaluate treatment interventions is recognized. Further consideration and debate by Ethiopian mental health professionals as well as those from HIC are recommended, to promote both reciprocal learning and new local discourses about mental health.